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Adair County News

The Adair County News covered south-central Kentucky's eastern Pennyrile region, but its appeal extended beyond the small county seat of Columbia. In 1909, subscriptions included advertisements for businesses in Columbia and nearby towns, including Lebanon, Russell Springs, Greensburg, and Jamestown. Charles S. Harris established the Adair County News in 1887 as a Democratic counter to Alvin A. Strange's Republican Columbia Spectator [LCCN: sn84027426], with hopes, according to the first issue, that it would be "a true Democratic paper, come to advocate honest convictions and defend noble principles."

Turn-of-the-century Columbia was an isolated community. In 1910, local farmers and businessmen still traveled almost 20 miles to Campbellsville, Kentucky to receive goods or ship their products on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. Unsurprisingly, the prospect of a railroad connection to Columbia was newsworthy, although it was a prospect that never materialized. The Adair County News included reports of Columbia and Louisville agricultural markets, social news, and correspondence from nearby towns. (A Gradyville, Kentucky, correspondent declared in the paper's first issue: "The election excitement has quieted and everybody has gone to business.") Adair County News also chronicled pivotal events in Columbia's history, including the founding of the Lindsey Wilson Training School in 1903, later to become Lindsey Wilson College. In 1919, Judge Rollin T. Hurt, writing under the pseudonym John Avroe Steel, began a lengthy series of columns on Adair County's early history.

While Charles Harris handled the paper's finances, John Edward Murrell (1849-1926) was its voice for many years. Murrell had worked for several weekly community newspapers, including the Columbia Spectator [sn84027426], before joining Harris to found the News. Murrell proudly presented original content, providing editorial and news notes for each issue during his tenure at the paper. Murrell also frequently commented on national events, and he was a caustic critic of President Theodore Roosevelt's appointment of African Americans to federal positions in the South or of any other challenge to the prevailing racial order in the South.

In 1917, Harris sold the Adair County News to Barksdale Hamlett, who had served as Kentucky's superintendent of public instruction from 1912 to 1916. Daisy Hamlett would become publisher after her husband's death in 1919. In 1926, her son, Edward, succeeded Murrell as the paper's editor. Mary L. Smith, known affectionately as Mamie, who had begun her career with the paper in 1909, worked alongside Edward Hamlett as compositor, bookkeeper, and office manager until her death in 1954. Mamie Smith also contributed to the paper's personal notes and local coverage. The Adair County News, the county's most durable newspaper, continued until 1987, when in the span of four successive years it was replaced by a number of other weeklies, including the Columbia-Adair County News-Statesman [LCCN: sn87060313], the Adair County News-Statesman [LCCN: sn89058422], the Columbia Newsweek [LCCN: sn89058421], and the Columbia News [LCCN: sn90004625].

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Afro-American Mission Herald

The Afro-American Mission Herald was the first paper to advance and nurture the foreign mission agenda of the National Baptist Convention of the United States of America.

The Convention was created by African American Baptists in Antebellum America with a strong desire to connect to each other on a national and global scale. Previous conventions, in free-states mostly, were tethered to white associations. As emancipation neared, so, too, did the need for religious independence. Although efforts to establish such a national organization date back as far as the 1840s, regional interests stalled such efforts. Southern blacks seemed especially resistant to a national canon, choosing the comfortable isolation of state unions instead. This regionalism resulted in divergent organizations, three of which became most prominent; the Southern Baptist Convention, American National Baptists Convention formed by Kentuckian Rev. William Simmons, and the National Baptist Convention. By 1895 these three organizations had merged to make The National Baptist Convention USA, Inc. as it exists today and remains the oldest African American religious convention in the U.S. What made this convention work where others had failed was due, in part, to its organizational structure. Divided into three primary boards - Foreign Missions, Home Missions, and Education - the consolidated conventions oversaw one board each.

It was from the Foreign Mission Board that former Mississippi slave Dr. Lewis Garnett Jordan, a minister and the Convention's first historian, left his mark. From Convention headquarters at the Colored Baptist Church of Louisville, Dr. Jordan formed the bi-monthly Afro-American Mission Herald. Its primary objective was to serve and promote The Convention's foreign mission interests that, though worldwide, were concentrated in west and southern Africa. It was a duty that Jordan vigorously upheld through his editorials and content selection, making the paper a "progressive vessel" for the masses. In his book Up the Ladder in Foreign Missions, Dr. Jordan sounds the paper's merit "because no history of missions records impartially and fully the deeds of Negroes who have gone to heathen lands and delivered, amid persecution and thrilling circumstances, the Story of the Cross."

The Afro-American Mission Herald was instrumental in the success of the foreign missions and did so, in large part, by keeping African American missionaries connected to each other and home. Eleven years after it was formed in Louisville, the paper moved to Philadelphia. Today, it is still in print as the Mission Herald. The original hard copies of the Afro-American Mission Herald from which the digital images were derived were lent to the University of Kentucky Libraries by the Congregational Library in Boston, MA. Prior to microfilming each issue was cleaned and mended by the UK Libraries Conservation Lab.

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American Baptist

History not yet available.

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Blue Grass Blade

The Blue-grass Blade was irregularly published in Lexington, Kentucky, from 1884 through 1910. One of several rare free-thought newspapers in the United States, it was Kentucky's most controversial turn-of-the-century newspaper by far. According to its irreverent editor, Charles Chilton Moore (1837-1907), the Blade was published on Sundays to give the public thoughtful reading material on a day when it was most needed.

Moore's editorial voice was outspoken to the extent that he used "I" rather than "we" and touted the paper as "edited by a heathen in the interests of good morals." The grandson of Barton W. Stone, a founder of the Disciples of Christ, Moore studied at Bethany College in West Virgina and was ordained by noted religious leader Alexander Campbell. Yet, the church's stand on slavery, an institution Moore adamantly opposed, caused his faith to waiver. Moore's travels as an itinerant preacher in the mountains of Kentucky, where he observed geological formations that did not jibe with Biblical chronology, further sowed the seeds of disbelief. The final blow struck when Moore was visited by a friend skeptical of the Bible's inspiration. The men exchanged views for weeks, the ultimate result being Moore's loss of faith and his friend's baptism into Christianity. Leaving his church in Versailles, Kentucky, Moore would henceforth devote himself to reason and the Blue-grass Blade.

So opposed was Moore to what he regarded as the mystifications of religion that the Blade's publication date eschewed the Julian calendar in favor of years dated since 1 E.M. (i.e., A.D. 1600), suggestive of "enlightened mind" or "enlightened man." A mildly progressive paper in the beginning, the Blade quickly evolved into an outright freethinking pulpit with a strong emphasis on the separation of church and state. The Blade openly supported other controversial causes of the time as well, from women's suffrage to free trade to "special National legislation to improve the condition, financial and educational, of Negroes and Indians," while always remaining devoted to atheism, rationalism, temperance, vegetarianism, and any other issue that seemed to cause unrest among the paper's antagonists.

Moore was jailed twice for his controversial views. He served two months in a Paris, Kentucky, jail in 1894 when he raised the ire of the Christian Church by declaring "If there is a devil, Bourbon County is nearer and dearer to his heart than any place of its size on earth." The Blade was published for a time in Cincinnati (1898-99), and it was during this period that Moore was incarcerated a second time. He served five months of a two-year sentence in an Ohio federal prison for blasphemy and the promotion of free love, though he was charged with delivering obscene material through the mail. Moore was pardoned by President William McKinley and returned to Kentucky with the Blade in tow.

Charles Chilton Moore died in 1907. The Blue-grass Blade was subsequently published by James Edward Hughes who retained the newspaper's devotion to rationalism and free thought, but moderated its tone, curbed its acerbic humor, and acceded to the use of the Julian calendar until the paper's end in 1910.

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Bourbon News

The Bourbon News began publication in 1881 in Millersburg, Kentucky under the ownership of Confederate veteran and former farmer Bruce Champ. No issue of the paper's Millersburg incarnation survives. Champ soon moved the paper's operations to Paris, the Bourbon County seat, resuming publication on March 7, 1882 with an issue enumerated as volume one and number one; editors invariably counted anniversaries from 1881, however. On August 3, 1883, Champ renamed the paper the Semi-Weekly Bourbon News, only to change back to the Bourbon News on July 14, 1895.

Bruce Champ's death in 1892 saw control of the paper pass to Walter Champ, his son, and to Bruce Miller, a nephew. Miller would later serve a long tenure as editor and, later, owner of the Kentuckian-Citizen. In 1900, the Bourbon News was edited and published by Walter and his brother, W. Swift Champ. Walter's death that same year left Swift as sole owner and editor. Save for a brief lease to George D. Mitchell in 1902, Swift Champ remained as owner and editor until his death in 1923.

Initially a simple, eight-page country publication - in contrast to the county's older and more widely-known Kentuckian-Citizen - by the turn of the century the Bourbon News had developed an independent, populist tone offering an eclectic mix of state, national, and international news, serials, anecdotes, and topical items. Its extensive coverage of social affairs, the Kentucky horse industry, and the tobacco business reflected both the county's economic interests and its cultural passions.

Throughout the early 1900s the Bourbon News navigated a complicated and difficult Kentucky political landscape noted for its sharp and sometimes violent conflicts between Kentucky's Democrats and Republicans, as well as for its significant divisions within the dominant Democratic Party. Bourbon County's Democrats were deeply divided by issues and the political personalities attached to them, most notably the liberal and "wet" camp of James O'Brien and the conservative and "dry" camp of John T. Hinton. Swift Champ offered qualified support to O'Brien during his tenure as mayor of Paris; he also extolled country papers like his own as bulwarks against Kentucky's Democratic machine politics.

By 1910, the paper had 3,000 subscribers, ranking it among the largest circulations in the Bluegrass region. The paper continued publishing until 1941.

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Breathitt County News

The Breathitt County News served its namesake county's seat in the midst of an economic boom that had lasting consequence for eastern Kentucky. For much of the 19th century, Breathitt and other eastern Kentucky counties remained small, predominantly agricultural communities. By the 1890s, however, the extension of railroad lines, the insatiable demands of industrial America, and a mix of indigenous entrepreneurs and outside capital lead to the extensive development of timber, coal, and other natural resources. In Breathitt County, rapid growth followed the extension of a Louisville and Nashville line in 1888, and during the first decade of the 20th century, the county's population grew dramatically.

Founded in Jackson, Kentucky in 1901, the Breathitt County News quickly became known for its reporting on the violent feuds that earned the county a widespread reputation as "Bloody Breathitt." The publisher of the Breathitt County News, J. Wise Hagins (1861-1933), however, responded vigorously to the sensational depiction of Breathitt County as a place overrun by violent troublemakers. Hagins always insisted that the conflicts were political in nature, and not the result of any supposed culture of vendetta. Indeed, the county's feuds were closely connected to local politics. The parties involved were often prominent citizens, including lawyers and elected officials who were themselves supposedly responsible for keeping the peace.

Born in Breathitt County, J. Wise Hagins was, at various times, the county's clerk, judge, and attorney. Although a Democrat, the publisher repeatedly joined with Republicans to endorse sundry "fusion" tickets opposing the county's Democratic machine. His four-page newspaper naturally reflected his eclectic political views. In addition to local politics, the News covered international, national, and state affairs, with the last often distilled into brief front-page summaries. A substantial section of correspondence from other county towns also appeared, much of it decidedly more concerned with local political affairs than social events. Subscribers also got Jackson town news along with local notices, advertising, and serialized fiction. Although the date is uncertain, the Breathitt County News had ceased publication by 1911. Hagins later moved to Virginia, where he dabbled in horticulture and beekeeping; he died in 1933.

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Breckenridge News

According to legend, John D. Babbage owned a small job press and mercantile when he started the Breckenridge News on July 22, 1876 as a means of spreading the word about his businesses. The earliest issues of the Breckenridge News have disappeared, but a near complete collection of the paper exists after July 17, 1878. Each Wednesday, its eight seven-column pages proved a mix of local community and political news, a sampling of broad general interest stories, and opinion pieces by local columnists. Early editions run under the name Breckenridge News and refer to the county as Breckenridge despite the official spelling Breckinridge (after former Kentucky legislator and U.S. attorney general, Senator John Breckinridge.)

The Breckenridge News was not afraid to take unpopular editorial stances. In the January 4, 1899 edition, Babbage boasted that his paper was one of the first to advocate a more imperialistic policy for the United States: "The brilliant victory of Dewey at Manila has advanced this country a hundred years. A policy of isolation such as pursued by our county in the past is selfish and has a tendency to produce an insular narrowness that will, if followed up, in time dwarf the national character..." On the home front, the Breckenridge News generally sided with the Democrats and took an interest in intra-party conflicts. When some members of the party refused to recognize the incumbent William Goebel as candidate for governor, the paper noted approvingly that a baker's dozen of "genuine and conscientious Democrats" had met to appoint delegates to a second convention that would nominate an alternative candidate.

The Breckenridge News regularly covered local and regional activities "News of the Vicinage" reported on developments in Meade and Breckinridge counties. "Latest Farm News and Views" and "Agricultural News and Views" focused on the agrarian side of the economy. "Curious things in Breckenridge" highlighted the odd and bizarre news of the region, while "All Around the World" touched on national and global events. The paper periodically printed short stories by famous authors of the era such as The Burning of Sarah Sands by Rudyard Kipling and The Fantasy of David Swan by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Perhaps most out of the ordinary for the period was the paper's lone female columnist, Mrs. Hattie Grinnell, who presented with great regularity her personal opinions on wide-ranging matters in the community.

John D. Babbage continued publication of the Breckenridge News until his death in 1934. His daughter, Mildred Babbage, took over the paper as editor and publisher until her death in 1949 when the paper went to W.G. Polk, grandson of John Babbage. The Babbage reign ended one year later when the paper was sold to George and Edith Wilson who owned the other Breckinridge County paper the Irvington Herald [LCCN: sn86069308]. The two papers merged in 1956 becoming the Breckinridge County Herald-News [LCCN: sn8069312] which remains in publication today.

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Central Record

From its beginning in 1895, Lancaster's Central Record chronicled developments in one of Kentucky's most prosperous agricultural counties and the heart of its burley tobacco production. Lancaster's only newspaper at its inception and for decades thereafter--an unusual distinction in turn-of-the-century Kentucky, where two or more papers were commonplace in towns of similar size--the Central Record offered a mix of international, national, and general interest stories with distinctly local and regional news, exemplifying the eclectic nature of Kentucky's local press.

The Central Record's history is said to have begun in 1883 with an earlier Lancaster title called Central Kentucky News. James R. Marrs, founder and editor of Danville's Kentucky Advocate [LCCN: sn84027428], purchased the News from M.D. Hughes, renamed it, and in early 1890 presented the Central Record's first issue. In April 1895, Louis Landram and Henry Cartwright bought the Central Record. Just more than a year later, their partnership dissolved, leaving Landram as sole editor and publisher until late 1909. A contemporary described Louis Landram as a relentless advocate for the interests of Lancaster and Garrard County and a proponent of progress as defined by good roads, street lights, and local referendums on the sale of liquor. Landram later edited newspapers in the nearby towns of Richmond and Danville before his death in 1918.

Under Marrs the Central Record was Democratic in its politics, but Landram and Cartwright proudly proclaimed their political independence and emphasized their local focus to current and prospective readers. Tobacco was never far from the newspaper's pages, making for a valuable and sometimes colorful account of Kentucky's volatile economy of smoke. One headline proclaimed local tobacco prices "Higher than a cat's back," and tobacco warehouse advertisements referred to prices paid to local farmers as an enticement to others to seek similarly generous returns. The familiar feature of notes from local correspondents, elsewhere a place for personal news and gossip, were occasion to announce crop sales in Central Record's pages.

In 1909, Joseph E. Robinson and Frank Saufley Hughes purchased the Central Record from Landram, and the latter served as editor until 1910, when he sold his interest to Green Clay Walker. During Walker's tenure, the Central Record's masthead changed to declare the paper's support for "Pure Religion, Untarnished Democracy and Good Government." In 1912, Walker sold his interest to Joe Robinson, who remained the Central Record's owner until his death in 1942. Robinson, a lawyer and local Democratic politician, remade the paper as an overtly partisan publication. The Central Record became heavily illustrated in the 1910s and 1920s, and it reflected changing times with notices of such innovations as Saturday matinees at Lancaster's Rex Theater, which enabled farm families to take in a movie and return home the same day.

More than a century after James R. Marrs offered a parting wish for the Central Record's longevity, the newspaper he founded continues to publish.

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Citizen

Conceived as a publication to entertain, inform, and uplift its readers, the Berea Citizen was inseparable from the evolving purpose of its sponsor, Berea College. From its founding in 1855 as the first interracial and co-educational institution of higher learning in the American South, Berea College was intended to serve as a counterpoint to the injustices of racial inequality and poverty. First published in 1899, the Citizen functioned as an account of college life and a source of information about the surrounding community. Most of the four-page issues carried international, national, and state news, notices of events involving students and alumni, and columns devoted to domesticity and agriculture. Stories of the pernicious influence of alcohol and the merits of temperance were also common, as was a recurrent examination of Mormonism's supposed "errors."

It was the paper's role as a recruitment tool for white students, however, that most shaped the paper's content. For almost three decades, the Citizen was the voice of William G. Frost, Berea College President from 1892 to 1920. With President Frost's tenure, the college's mission shifted significantly. As the school's newspaper made clear, the previous emphasis on African-American education had been displaced. Indeed, during Frost's tenure, the portion of African-American students at Berea declined precipitously from 52% to 16%, a proportion Frost believed more "suitable" because it more accurately reflected Kentucky's racial composition. Under Frost, what had once been a climate of extraordinary racial tolerance gave way to a policy assuring white students they would not have to room with or even socialize with blacks. The Citizen continued in this vein for two decades, before shifting in the 1920s to a greater emphasis on the local community. Although the Berea Citizen severed its connection to the college in 1984, the paper continues to publish to this day.

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Clay City Times

The Clay City Times was first published on November 28, 1901 in Powell County by J.E. Burgher, Jr. Burgher began his publishing career in 1896 with the Spout Spring Times [LCCN: sn88061168], a four- page circular based in neighboring Estill County. That paper thrived until a fire in September 1901, after which Burgher moved his family and the newspaper to Clay City. From this tragedy was born the Clay City Times. The papers ran concurrently for a very short period in 1902 with Burgher at the helm of each until the Spout Spring Times folded for good in April 1902.

Because it cost more than its predecessor, the Clay City Times aroused public displeasure from the beginning. Burgher tried to deal with the jump in price by calling out old debts in the paper's first issue: "We are astonished the way some of our delinquents ignore our appeals. Some of them we know are in much better circumstances than we, still they will not pay a cent they owe us." Like the Spout Spring Times, the Clay City Times contained a mix of local news and gossip. Testimonial advertisements were woven between small news nuggets including a section for each of the surrounding communities as one-line tidbits about travels, illness, death and other individualized information. In allegiance to his long-time Democratic position, Burgher and the Clay City Times engaged the political feelings of its readers with ample Democratic Party fodder.

The Clay City Times operated out of several buildings in Clay City before occupying a two-story brick building on the corner of Seventh Street and Seventh Avenue. Ever the prudent businessman, Burgher and his family lived in an apartment above the newspaper's office both of which were powered by an electric generator that was part of a franchise he owned. Burgher's two children earned their keep by rolling the newspapers for weekly mailing, while Burgher personally carried the papers to the post office for distribution.

Burgher served as publisher of the Clay City Times until he retired. He sold the Times to M. P. O'Mara who ran the paper from 1914 to 1915, after which it returned to Burgher. Upon retiring a second time, Burgher handed control of the newspaper to his children, Edmon and Elsie, who operated it until 1964 when they sold it to W.C. Caywood, Jr. of Winchester.

Caywood served as publisher of the Clay City Times while also acting as editor/advisor of the University of Kentucky student newspaper, the Kentucky Kernel [LCCN: sn89058402]. After several years of changing publishers, as well as cities from whence it was published, the Clay City Times went back to the hands of a former editor, Jerlene Rose. It is currently printed on Thursdays in Stanton and runs under the masthead "Serving Stanton, Clay City & Powell County, Ky. for more than 100 years."

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Courier-journal (Louisville, Ky. : 1869 : Daily)

No history is currently available for Courier-journal (Louisville, Ky. : 1869 : Daily).

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Crittenden press

No history is currently available for Crittenden press.

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Daily Kentuckian

No history is currently available for Daily Kentuckian.

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Daily evening bulletin

No history is currently available for Daily evening bulletin.

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Daily public ledger

No history is currently available for Daily public ledger.

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Danville tribune

No history is currently available for Danville tribune.

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Drummer

No history is currently available for Drummer.

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Earlington Bee

The Bee [LCCN: 87060004], a semi-weekly Republican newspaper, served the mining town of Earlington, Kentucky for nearly 50 years. Editor Thomas N. Black developed The Bee from the earlier Earlington Tyro in 1889. At the time of The Bee's creation, Earlington was only 19 years old, but the paper promoted a bustling image of Earlington's development, printing a masthead which read "By Industry We Thrive." Appropriately so, The Bee achieved renowned success; in 1903 the Journal of Newspaper Publishing and Advertising recognized The Bee's success as an advertising medium which contributed to the prosperity of Earlington.

Coal mining, the leading industry in Hopkins County that brought success to Earlington, was also the main subject of the city's news. The Bee's content centered on industry and was often dominated by reports on mining with "Mining Notes" and "Down in the Mines". Mining companies like St. Bernard Coal Company, one of the driving forces behind the founding of Earlington, often bought advertising space in the paper. Railroads, essential to the transportation of mined goods, were also newsworthy with the weekly column "Locomotive Blasts" and they regularly advertised reduced rates to towns such as Louisville, Nashville, and New Orleans.

Also advertising in The Bee was successful insurance agent Paul M. Moore of the Earlington Equitable Life Assurance Society. Moore began his career selling insurance but would go on to serve as Vice President of the Kentucky State Insurance Federation and the Kentucky Association of Local Fire Agents, and the president of the Hopkins County Public Health and Welfare League. Moore was so accomplished as a businessman that by the next time his name was regularly appearing in The Bee during late 1890s, it was as editor of the paper. His achievements as a journalist were commendable; in 1903 he was elected as the 19th President of the Kentucky Press Association.

The Bee prospered with Moore at the helm. Under his leadership the paper expanded from a weekly to a semi-weekly, covering all aspects of Earlington life including education, agriculture, and politics. Supplements to the paper were printed occasionally and often highlighted events and news deserving of extra coverage. After the assassination of Kentucky governor William Goebel in 1900, The Bee to a more political turn by supplementing its October and November issues of that year with political commentary and reports on the upcoming election. By 1910, The Bee was chronicling Earlington's history in the column "Looking Backward," which highlighted news from issues printed 17 years ago prior.

In addition to Moore, several other businessmen contributed to The Bee. Thomas N. Black, the paper's first editor in 1889, was joined by associate editor Walter Ray Platt in April of 1892 and the two worked together until Moore took control of The Bee in the late 1890s. He was assisted by associate editor and business manager James E. Fawcett from 1902 until 1907, and then again from 1910 until the paper changed hands to become the Earlington News [LCCN: 87060005]. After nearly 50 years of reporting, The Bee ceased publication and in 1938 the business of journalism in Earlington, Kentucky was passed on to the newly formed Earlington News.

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Elizabethtown Democrat

No history is currently available for Elizabethtown Democrat.

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Evening Post

No history is currently available for Evening Post.

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Frankfort Roundabout

The Frankfort Roundabout, which developed from Claude Buckley's Weekly Roundabout [LCCN: sn86069847], was one of many newspapers covering the city of Frankfort, Kentucky's state capital, and the surrounding area during the early 20th century. Frankfort Roundabout editor George A. Lewis began his career as co-editor of the Weekly Roundabout, which he purchased from Buckley in 1882. Lewis changed the publication's name in order to associate it more closely with the city of Frankfort. Like its predecessor, the Frankfort Roundabout remained a community oriented publication and continued to print the familiar masthead, "Devoted to Local and Society News."

As it claimed, the Roundabout appropriately focused on serving the citizens of Franklin County. In addition to the agricultural reports, personal news, and serial literature typically published by turn-of-the-century newspapers, the Frankfort Roundabout included information about the daily occurrences in Frankfort and surrounding locales. "Officer James Brown caught a catfish on a trotline, near the Hermitage Distillery, on Thursday, which weighed 95 pounds. It is a 'regular darling'," one June 1905 article reads. The paper also chronicled important events in Frankfort's history. Reports on Frankfort's Centennial Celebration of 1886 received front-page coverage for months preceding the October event. When the cornerstone of the new capital building was laid in June 1906, the paper's content was dominated by the event.

The Roundabout also published an array of original material. "Corner Chat," a popular monthly column, allowed the citizens of Frankfort an opportunity to voice their opinions on current events. In 1893, one individual offered advice for a politician charged with plagiarism: "[I would] make my defense to the judges and say: Gentlemen, I am not guilty of the charge." Editor George A. Lewis also presented fresh copy, commenting vehemently on issues regarding the welfare of Frankfort. In a 1903 column referencing the need for a county kindergarten school, Lewis wrote, "It is a matter of patriotism and as such should receive your earnest consideration."

The Frankfort Roundabout's devotion to its readers was no coincidence; it reflected the devotion of its editor. During the nearly 30 years of its publication, Lewis was the sole editor, a continuity of leadership uncommon among papers published in the early 1900s. Lewis remained at the helm of the paper until one month before its termination. In January 1908 Lewis sold the Roundabout to Hubert Vreeland, owner of the powerful State Journal [LCCN: sn82014660] and Frankfort Printing Company. Soon afterward, the new owner decided to end the publication; February 29, 1908 marked the last issue of the Frankfort Roundabout. During its time, the Roundabout remained "ever ready to stand for the right to ask every and all questions where the best interests of the city were involved," Vreeland wrote in this final issue, paying homage to a paper which, for 26 years, succeeded in cultivating a sense of community in the political heart of Kentucky.

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Frankfort Weekly News and Roundabout

The Frankfort Weekly News and Roundabout, a Democratic weekly newspaper published by the Frankfort Printing Company, played a short but substantial role in the history of Frankfort, Kentucky. Two months after their purchase of the popular Frankfort Roundabout [LCCN: sn86069848], Hubert Vreeland and M.D. Coyle of the Frankfort Printing Company began printing the Weekly News in March 1908 after making renovations to their printing workshop.

In many ways, the Weekly News followed in the footsteps of its predecessor. Archie Dunlap, who began as editor in April 1908, maintained many of the popular features of the Roundabout, including the Louisville Tobacco Market and other agricultural reports and the church and personal notes, but he also introduced a variety of new content. An organized events calendar kept the community aware of important matters. "Pointed Paragraphs" served a dual purpose of offering advertising advice for readers as well as advertising space for the Frankfort Printing Company in an article in which the paper advised businesses to "Let the goods have the floor."

In response to the overwhelming popularity of baseball at the turn of the century, the Weekly News included "Diamond Dust," a feature devoted to baseball news, batting averages, scores, and game highlights from teams such as the Frankfort Lawmakers and the Lexington Thoroughbreds. The column also covered the newly formed Bluegrass League, the first fully professional baseball league in Kentucky, which included teams such as the Richmond Pioneers, the Versailles Aristocrats, and the Shelbyville Millers. In addition, "Diamond Dust" followed national baseball news, keeping readers informed about the development of the Chicago Cubs, the Nebraska Indians, and other teams.

Dunlap's contribution can also be seen in the original content of the Weekly News. During his time as editor, Dunlap wrote original copy in "The Optimist." This column offered light-hearted commentary on everything from the circus to politics. Dunlap portrayed himself as a character called The Optimist and aimed to keep an optimistic viewpoint in his writing. However, The Optimist eventually exhibited a darker side and for a few months ran under the title "The Pessimist," only to return to "The Optimist" after a series of filibusters which renewed his original sentiment.

The Frankfort Weekly News and Roundabout ran for about eight [eleven??] months; after this brief but fulfilling period of reporting, retired it's publication on April 10, 1909.

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Georgetown herald

No history is currently available for Georgetown herald.

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Guardian of Freedom

No history is currently available for Guardian of Freedom.

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Hartford Herald

The Hartford Herald, a weekly newspaper published each Wednesday, served Hartford, Kentucky, for over 50 years. Located in the heart of Kentucky's Western Coal Field Region, Hartford, the seat of Ohio County, was settled around 1790. Eighty-five years later, John P. Barrett established the Hartford Herald as the city's first Democratic newspaper.

The Herald offered an eclectic array of news, including election coverage, reports on agriculture, news items from Hartford and larger Kentucky cities such as Lexington and Louisville, church news, and correspondence from surrounding towns. Particularly newsworthy was its coverage of important events in Hartford's history, including the establishment of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad's Madisonville, Hartford & Eastern line in 1909. Citizens were anxious for the track's completion; the front page of the June 2, 1909, issue reads: "The railroad's locomotive is now steaming at the verge of our city limits!"

One important contributor to the paper was Harrison D. Taylor. A self-proclaimed pioneer and a native of Hartford, Taylor wrote a series of historical sketches that was first published by an Owensboro paper in 1857, and re-published by the Hartford Herald 20 years later. Taylor explored historical topics of interest to the citizens of Ohio County. In addition to discussing the county's important leaders, physicians, and lawyers, his writings covered prehistory, early pioneer families, and life in the "olden" days. In one sketch, titled "The War of 1812," Harrison recalls the patriotism of Ohio County's residents, who "were so patriotic they had to burn an old vacant house - and there were quite a few in Hartford then - whenever they heard of a victory."

The Hartford Herald changed ownership many times during its existence. Around eighteen individuals served as editors at one point or another in the paper's history, some holding the job for only a few months and others serving for decades. John P. Barrett headed the paper for almost 12 years on and off. For a brief period James S. Glenn and Cicero T. Sutton owned the paper, and for one year after that Sutton was solely responsible. Various others, including Lycurgus Barrett, the brother of John P. Barrett, edited and wrote content for the paper. By 1886, the Hartford Herald was back in the hands of the founder, John P. Barrett, who soon sold it to Frank L. Felix and McHenry Rhoads. Ben D. Ringo bought Rhoads's share of the paper in 1891, but after about two years Felix became the sole editor and continued on his own for the next 24 years. In 1917, the Hartford Herald Publishing Company purchased the paper and operated it under various editors until 1926. On February 15, 1926, the Hartford Herald, after over half a decade of reporting, merged with the Hartford Republican [LCCN sn86069313] to become the Ohio County News [LCCN sn86069314].

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Hartford Republican

The Hartford Republican [LCCN: sn 86069313], established by Col. Cicero Barnett in 1888, was an important part of the early political development in Ohio County, Kentucky. Since 1875, the county seat of Hartford, where the paper was printed, had been dominated by the Democratic Party and its newspaper, the Hartford Herald [LCCN: sn 84037890]. The Hartford Republican was born in response to the success of the Democratic Party and their paper.

From the beginning Hartford Republican enjoyed success and, against the Hartford Herald, it celebrated many victories, one of which came in 1894 when Ohio County elected a full Republican ticket. The paper kept the political community of Hartford alive by providing a forum for engaging debate between citizens and politicians, as well as maintaining the long-standing quarrel with its rival, the Hartford Herald. Its success was evident as the paper grew in size each year and, by 1899, boasted a circulation of 2,000.

Politics played an important role in the Hartford Republican's success. Many of its editors served in public office at least once in their lifetime and others were full time politicians. Colonel Cicero M. Barnett, the paper's founder, was appointed by both Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt to the position of Collector of Customs for the Port of Louisville, in addition to serving as the chairman of Kentucky's Republican State Central Committee. Claude E. Smith, who served as editor at the turn of the century, also held positions as the County Attorney and later was elected the Commonwealth's Attorney. Wilburn S. Tinsley, the final editor of the Hartford Republican, served as a Representative of the State Legislature and Clerk of the Ohio County Court.

In addition to covering politics, the Hartford Republican also presented content relevant to the daily lives of Hartford's citizens. This included local and international events and affairs, personal notes, agricultural reports, and even advice columns. One article which offered advice for Christian homemakers appeared on the front page in 1872: "What it Takes To Make a Typical Christian House."

During the 40 years of its existence the Hartford Republican had more than 10 editors, some for only a few months and others for over a decade. The founder, Cicero M. Barnett, stayed with the paper until 1892, when he retired and J.B. Rogers, who worked alongside Barnett, took full editorial duties. In 1906, C.M. Barnett returned to the paper working first with Claude E. Smith then various other editors until his death in 1915. In 1926 after nearly 40 years, the Hartford Republican merged with its old nemesis, the Hartford Herald, to become the Ohio County News [LCCN: sn 86069314].

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Hazel Green Herald

Established by Spencer Cooper, the Hazel Green Herald was Wolfe County's first newspaper. A native of Lexington, Cooper came to the mountain town in the spring of 1885 and, within a month, he'd printed the first issue of the four-page Herald. Below its masthead the paper read; "The Oldest, Most Popular, Most Widely Circulated and Most Quoted Paper in the Kentucky Mountains". By 1900, it added "Established March 4, 1885, Made famous in the Story of 'Jonathan and His Continent', by Max O'Rell".

Pen name of French author, Leon Paul Blouet, O'Rell was an extremely popular author, journalist, and speaker in Europe and the U.S. It would have been an honor worthy of a headline to be mentioned in one of his 1899 novel. As a bonus, O'Rell's Herald excerpt is a small window on the mountain society of that era: "NO EXCUSE FOR IGNORNACE! How you may get The Herald for a year without money. Bring us – twenty pounds of pork; or twenty pounds of pork sausage; or two bushels of sound potatoes; or five bushels of sound turnips; or ten good chickens; or one bushel of good onions. For half the quantity, we'll send the paper half the time."

Wolfe County and Hazel Green is in the Eastern Coal Field Region of Appalachia Kentucky. It is one of the poorest areas of the Commonwealth today, just as it was during O'Rell's time. The county population was just under 6,000 in 1880, barely reaching 7,000 120 years later. It's remarkable that a newspaper of any size or quality could survive nearly four decades in such a sparsely populated area. But the Hazel Green Herald did survive and did so with exceptional print quality – a great incentive for businesses which took advantage in great numbers, worthy state and regional news, and all the gossip the county could handle. What's more, it was not unusual for Cooper to use old English words that locals would understand, like milch for milk, making The Herald a very comfortable news source for his subscribers.

The same year Cooper arrived in Hazel Green something else appeared that would keep the town, and its newspaper, alive for a long time: The Hazel Green Academy (HGA). The college preparatory school, also known as the "Mother Mountain School," constructed its first building in 1880. HGA was the first, and for many years the only, school in Eastern Kentucky to offer a college preparatory education. By 1908, the Herald reported an annual attendance of nearly 300; a population greater than the county seat of Campton, itself a paltry town of one square mile, and definitely larger than Hazel Green. It was a true love affair between HGA and The Herald. But after a century, the school faced severe economic hardship, graduating its final class in 1983. It is unclear exactly when The Herald ended but copies are available only through 1917.

Even though Hazel Green enjoyed progress and growth because of HGA and the Hazel Green Herald, the county itself was besieged by violence, a familiar fate throughout the state at the turn of the 20th century. Violence was so commonplace that weekly reporting of a feud or duel was nothing unusual. Eastern Kentuckians seemed especially adept at feuding. Reports were sometimes embellished but always written in a matter-of-fact style that would make today's journalists cringe. One such event happened between two farmers. As an argument over a horse escalated, one man picked up a rock, crushing the skull of the other man, who happened to be his half brother. Said half brother died a half hour later. Blood feuds between warring families were also common news. One of the most-publicized feuds - the Hargis and Cockrell feud - happened just southeast of Hazel Green in adjacent "Bloody" Breathitt County. An 1899 county election escalated to duels and assassinations. This kind of violence coupled with economic stress and mountain isolation has kept Wolfe County at bay despite the greatness inspired by the Hazel Green Herald's long tenure.

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Hickman Courier

The Hickman Courier [LCCN: sn85052141] was established in 1859 by editor, George Warren. A fire in 1861 destroyed the publication's building and later attempts to revive the Courier were interrupted by the American Civil War. Finally, by 1865, the paper was printing on a regular weekly schedule. The "Oldest Paper in Western Kentucky" that "Covers Western Kentucky Like Dew," the Courier is still printed on Thursdays nearly 150 years after it started.

The four-page Courier was popular from the start, and by 1872, boasted a circulation of over 1,100. By 1900, it had doubled in size, and by the 1920s, had expanded to 14 pages. Situated on the Mississippi River, the paper circulated in neighboring states Missouri, Tennessee, and Illinois as well.

Although the Courier embraced its multi-state coverage, its primary focus was Hickman and Fulton County residents. Columns, "The Dairy" and "Corner for Farmers", offered agricultural advice to the local farming industry, such as market prices and advances in farming technology. The women of Hickman turned to "Courier's Home Circle" and "The Kitchen Cabinet" for weekly recipes, sewing circles, and domestic life. In 1919, the year of Hickman's centennial celebration, Judge B.T. Davis presented 25 installments of "Looking Backward," a column that chronicled the city's history and early traditions.

The Hickman Courier was an open supporter of the Democratic Party but, rather than using the paper as a vessel for political discourse, many of the editors focused on endorsing political and social activism in Hickman. Such a topic often discussed was Fulton County's desire to join Tennessee; an effort that originated before the Civil War. Fulton County is geographically similar to Tennessee, Warren argued in 1871, and the commercial and political interests of the county aligned more with Tennessee than Kentucky. Although the Courier supported separation, its desire to join Tennessee was not a reflection of its attitude towards Kentucky; it remained loyal to The Commonwealth. "We do not forfeit our attachment or pride for Kentucky," George Warren explained. The cede met defeat in the Kentucky House of Representatives by only one vote.

The Courier has had over 20 editors. Founder, George Warren, served as editor for 38 years, longer than any other editor in the paper's history. After his death in 1903 his wife took control for a short time. The Courier switched hands frequently until 1906 when W.C. Speer and J.C. Sexton purchased the publication. By 1922, Will L. Busby, joined by A. Robbins in 1926, owned the paper until 1934, when he died of a heart attack and left the paper solely to Robbins. After two years Jacob T. Howard and his wife Mary purchased the paper and owned it until 1954, when another husband and wife team, Roland C. and Lee K. Gardner, took over. In the tradition of the Howards and the Gardners, Jo and Paul Wespheling purchased the paper in 1969. The paper stayed in the Wespheling family for 34 years, until 2003. Today, the Hickman Courier is headed by Charlotte Smith.

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Hopkinsville Kentuckian

The Hopkinsville Kentuckian [LCCN: sn86069395], a semi-weekly, covered Hopkinsville and Christian County for nearly 30 years. Charles M. Meacham, the paper's founding editor, established the Kentuckian in 1889 out of the earlier South Kentuckian, for which he was also editor. Meacham changed the title to more closely identify the paper with Hopkinsville. For many years the paper existed as a semi-weekly, but, for a few months during 1899, the Kentuckian was issued daily under the title The Daily Kentuckian. Although the paper returned to a semi-weekly in 1900, it continued to grow over the following years and in 1904 expanded into a tri-weekly publication.

Editor Meacham was a prominent politician in Central and Western Kentucky. In 1893 he was chosen as the 8th president of the Kentucky Press Association in Frankfort and 13 years later he was elected Mayor of Hopkinsville, a position he held for eight years. A devout Baptist, Meacham also served as president of the Board of Trustees of the Hopkinsville Bethel Women's College. The Baptist run college was opened in 1856 making it one of the oldest higher education institutions for women in America when it closed in 1964.

Influenced by Meacham's political career, the Kentuckian regularly reported political news including state and national committee reports, Congressional proceedings, and Christian County Circuit Court notes. The paper supported the Democratic Party and, not surprisingly, politics were the main topic of Meacham's editorial copy. He was never hesitant to express his opinion of public officials and policies in his columns. "Secretary Knox is developing into a jingo statesman with a chip always on one shoulder or the other," he wrote in one editorial.

The paper's earliest slogan, "Live, Newsy, and Progressive", suggests that the Kentuckian endorsed Hopkinsville as a forward-looking and educated community. Along with correspondence from Kentucky communities like Sinking Fork, Montgomery, and Beverly, the paper included national news columns. "Cream of the News" gave readers the most current event updates, including important Hopkinsville happenings and other hot topics in local and national news. "Here and About" promised local news "tersely told" for the busy citizens of Christian County. The Kentuckian also printed a variety of agricultural content such as tobacco and grain market reports as well as local and national market prices.

For the Kentuckian's life, Meacham remained the sole editor. After one final attempt at presenting the Kentuckian as a daily newspaper in 1918, Meacham decided to end the publication in order to focus on his other professional pursuits. In 1920 the Hopkinsville Kentuckian ceased publication, ending a successful career as one of Hopkinsville's longest running newspapers.

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Interior Journal

In 1872, the Interior Journal [LCCN: sn85052021], Stanford's longest running title, was born from Dan Parker's 1868 startup, The Stanford Banner [LCCN: sn86069509]. The first leg of the Interior Journal [LCCN: sn84038328] was established by newspapermen F.J. Campbell and D.W. Hilton. W.P. Walton, who would buy Campbell's share in 1875, was editor. It has been suggested that, during this early period, the paper was "sometimes published as the Daily Interior Journal" though no hard evidence to this effect has been found.

By 1881, Walton had bought Hilton's share of the Interior Journal, thus becoming sole owner. The paper had seen a steady rise in subscription rates after several years in business. The weekly reached a readership of nearly 4,000 in Stanford, Crab Orchard, Hustonville, and other Lincoln County communities. It covered local and national news and early editions of the paper served the Democratic Party very well. To accommodate his growing audience and exercise sole judgment, Walton doubled the publication rate and changed the name to Semi-weekly Interior Journal [LCCN: sn85052020]. It wasn't until 1905, when Walton's brother, E.C., bought the paper, that the original title Interior Journal [LCCN: sn85052021] came back into being.

The Interior Journal was controlled by the Waltons for over 70 years. Colonel William Pulaski "W.P." Walton, a railroad contractor from Virginia, began a tradition of outspoken and inexhaustible Walton family editorial copy. Upset with President Rutherford B. Hayes' neglect of the condition of the Southern states, Walton wrote in March of 1877, "He has neither the desire nor the firmness to carry out his promises, but drifts with unerring certainty into the cess-pool of Radical filth and corruption." E.C. Walton, becoming the paper's editor in 1900 – five years before taking control – followed in his brother's footsteps; "The inefficiency and complete failure of the republican administration...did not turn a hand to rescue the people from the depths of the Hoover depression."

E.C. Walton owned and managed the paper from 1905 until 1910, when he sold it to former editor of The Lexington Democrat (sometimes referred to as the Lexington Morning Democrat) [LCCN: sn86069860], Shelton M. Saufley. Saufley ran the Interior Journal for four years until it returned to the hands of E.C. Walton, who then edited the paper with his son, Claiborne C. Walton, until 1948. This four year Saufley era was the only disruption the Walton control saw in their seven decade tenure. After the paper left the Walton family in 1948, it was owned by a number of editors including Richard and Martha Ferguson of Louisville, William Caldwell, and Tom and Sharman Moore.

The Interior Journal is still being published in Lincoln's county seat of Stanford with George Lewis as editor. During the papers near 140 year existence it has grown from four pages to 16, though it returned to a weekly paper in 1905 and remains as such today. Not lacking history of its own, Lincoln County was one of the three original territories that comprised the Commonwealth before being pared down to its present 450 square miles in Central Kentucky. Established over 200 years ago in 1780, Stanford was first known as Logan's Station – the second oldest establishment in the state. The famed Wilderness Road is today Stanford's Main Street which runs past the first courthouse west of the Allegheny Mountains and the Interior Journal's offices; a fitting home for such a herald of history.

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It

If the country newspaper is thought a parochial and uninspired genre - resolute on inoffensive issues, cautious of subscriptions and advertising revenues, and predictably bland in content and presentation - then the six surviving issues of the Lawrenceburg It challenge such easy assumptions. Edited by O. Coleman Cox and published by Morton Green, this irreverent weekly first appeared in 1902; the paper evidently folded the following year, for no evidence of its publication thereafter has been found. While self-described as a simple country newspaper, typography, presentation, and wit distinguish the It as one of Kentucky's unique turn-of-the-century titles.

Cox and Green may have regarded their paper as a complement to the more serious and durable Anderson News, which had served its namesake county since 1877, and where Green would work for more than forty years. Cox described the isolated location of Lawrenceburg and the humble beginnings of the It by noting that when he and his partner began their new venture "as close as we could get to a bean sandwich" was by the telephone. Within a few issues of its founding, Cox gleefully noted that the Woodford Sun, published in the nearby town of Versailles, had denounced the It as "a sheet with so little dignity as to assume such a name." The Lawrenceburg It carried news of local events, sales, and social events, and occasionally included its editor as a bumbling character in recent local events. But if Cox's self-deprecating humor entertained, it was also a tool to admonish readers. "In what year," Cox wondered, "was the great epidemic that carried off the live, progressive citizens of the city and county?"

Sometime after the demise of the It, Coleman Cox moved to San Francisco, and during the 1920s and `30s he would write a dozen works of aphorism, anecdote, and exhortation. In 1928, Houghton Mifflin published Straight Talk from Coleman Cox, which assembled material from his earlier works into a single volume. The former It editor died in San Francisco on November 26, 1940, remembered by the New York Times as a widely traveled author and philosopher. Today, his writings have found a new life as inspirational aphorisms quoted widely on the World Wide Web.

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Jackson Republican

No history is currently available for Jackson Republican.

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Kentuckian

No history is currently available for Kentuckian.

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Kentucky Advocate (Danville, Ky.)

No history is currently available for Kentucky Advocate (Danville, Ky.).

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Kentucky Advocate (Shelbyville, Ky.)

No history is currently available for Kentucky Advocate (Shelbyville, Ky.).

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Kentucky Farmer and Breeder

No history is currently available for Kentucky Farmer and Breeder.

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Kentucky Gazette

No history is currently available for Kentucky Gazette.

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Kentucky Irish American

First published on July 4, 1898, a date chosen to reflect resolute patriotism and devotion to community interests, Louisville's Kentucky Irish American was one of the nation's most durable ethnic newspapers and at its close one of three Irish-American newspapers in the United States. Later renowned for its satirical examination of politics, sports, and popular culture, the weekly that Red Smith, the Pulitzer Prize-winning sportswriter, ranked just above bread, and slightly below whiskey, as a necessity in his home, attracted politicians, intellectuals, and plain folk across Kentucky and the nation.

Founded by William M. Higgins (1852-1925), a typesetter who had moved to Louisville from Syracuse, New York, the Kentucky Irish American was initially devoted to the defense and advancement of the community it served. During its earliest decades it opposed any organization or interest understood to be anti-Irish, anti-Catholic, or anti-Democratic, including Great Britain, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Republican Party. It was pointedly critical of what it perceived as the pro-British sentiment of Henry Watterson's Louisville Courier-Journal [LCCN: sn83045188] during the years preceding American intervention in World War I, and it frequently responded to anti-Catholic sentiments in Louisville's two regular Baptist publications, the Western Recorder [LCCN: sn84024482] and the Baptist World. A casual racism, exercised in descriptions of African Americans, was evident in the Kentucky Irish American's earliest years and was often tied to the paper's partisan opposition to the Republican Party. This changed in the 1950s and 1960s as the paper strenuously supported civil rights. Circulation never increased to more than several thousand, but the paper could count among its subscribers the likes of Harry Truman and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr.

Shortly after the newspaper's creation, John J. Barry (1877-1950) became a financial partner with Higgins. Barry, a native of Louisville's Irish-American neighborhood of Limerick, inherited the paper in 1925 after Higgins died at its offices. In turn, John J. Barry's son, John Michael Barry (1909-92), would become the newspaper's editor after his father's death. Mike Barry had written for the paper since the early 1930s, but under his editorial leadership the small, family paper entered its golden age, reinvented as a pointedly independent and broadly Democratic weekly. Self-described as "World's Greatest Handicapper," Mike Barry passionately addressed not only horse racing and others sports, but also politics and the perplexing nature of modern life. Barry's writing was incisive and mordantly funny. No politician or public figure was spared, but Mike Barry's most beloved target was Albert B. Chandler, Kentucky's Democratic governor, senator, and commissioner of baseball. Barry famously observed that "Any time Chandler is referred to ... as 'Kentucky's favorite son,' it should be made unmistakably clear that sentence is incomplete."

Without flourish, the Kentucky Irish American published its last issue on November 30, 1968, and with it passed a paper once described as "all the excuse any man needs for learning to read."

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Kentucky Leader

No history is currently available for Kentucky Leader.

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Kentucky Live Stock Record

No history is currently available for Kentucky Live Stock Record.

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Kentucky Statesman

No history is currently available for Kentucky Statesman.

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Kentucky Whig (Lexington, Ky.)

No history is currently available for Kentucky Whig (Lexington, Ky.).

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Kentucky Whig (Mount Sterling, Ky.)

No history is currently available for Kentucky Whig (Mount Sterling, Ky.).

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Kentucky mountaineer

No history is currently available for Kentucky mountaineer.

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Lexington Morning Democrat

No history is currently available for Lexington Morning Democrat.

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Lexington Observer and Reporter

No history is currently available for Lexington Observer and Reporter.

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Lexington Press

No history is currently available for Lexington Press.

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Lexington standard

No history is currently available for Lexington standard.

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Liberty

First published in 1909, the Liberty at once demonstrates the rapid growth of the Farmers Educational and Cooperative Union of America--better known as the National Farmers Union--as well as the organization's limited appeal in early 20th-century Kentucky. The Liberty began publication in La Center, Kentucky, as an outgrowth of the La Center Advance [LCCN: sn88061276], a four-page Democratic weekly also published by the Liberty Publishing Company. The Advance, established in 1906, had been an ardent local voice for the National Farmers Union. The Liberty was conceived as a means to extend the union's message to a statewide audience. A single issue of Liberty from February 16, 1910, survives.

Founded in Texas in 1902, the National Farmers Union was, like the National Grange and the Farm Bureau Federation, one of several organizations representing the interests of American farmers. R. L. Barnett, a Texan, arrived in Kentucky to organize for the union. He and farmers in the state's westernmost region, the so-called Jackson Purchase, established Kentucky's first union local in Carlisle County in May 1906. A state union was organized in Paducah in August 1908, and all but one of the officers elected at the state convention came from Jackson Purchase counties. Despite significant activity in western Kentucky, the Union met with limited success elsewhere in the state and soon disappeared from Kentucky altogether. In 1909, the National Farmers Union's President Charles Simon Barrett attributed the difficulty in organizing Kentucky's grain and tobacco farmers to their doubts about an organization so closely identified with cotton producers. Stories in the La Center Advance from 1908 and 1909 suggest another reason for the union's limited progress: a direct conflict between the union and Kentucky's Planters Protective Association over who would represent Kentucky's tobacco farmers. The planters' association, the organization at the center of the state's violent Black Patch War (1904-9)--which first pitted farmers against distant tobacco trusts and later against each other--was then at the height of its own short-lived power.

The only surviving issue of the Liberty includes minutes from the annual Farmers Union national meeting, President Barrett's address, and correspondence from western Kentucky towns and counties. Several stories and advertisements refer to the establishment in Louisville of a cooperative warehouse, the Farmers' Union Exchange, where members might sell their produce and livestock at fair prices. Alternatives to tobacco are touted: "The best way of beating the Tobacco Trust is to let it alone. Raise something else," including broom corn and vegetables to be canned by farm families and marketed both locally and nationally. The issue was completed by serial fiction, several general interest stories, and a poem by William Chesterfield, chair of the Kentucky Farmers Union.

In April 1910, the Liberty Publishing Company's stockholders resolved to relocate the paper to a place better situated for a statewide publication. The La Center Advance was sold to James V. Wear of Benton, Kentucky, who maintained the paper's Democratic politics but almost immediately eliminated its Farmers Union content. The Liberty apparently ceased operations between 1911 and 1913.

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Morning Democrat

No history is currently available for Morning Democrat.

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Morning Herald

No history is currently available for Morning Herald.

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Mount Vernon Signal

The publication of the Mountain Signal on November 3, 1887, brought the first newspaper to the small town of Mount Vernon in Rockcastle County at the junction of Kentucky's Bluegrass, Pennyrile, and Eastern Coal Field regions. A four-page Democratic weekly, the Signal was one of several accomplishments of its first editor and co-owner, "Colonel" James Maret (1855-1936). Born in neighboring Garrard County, Maret had lived in Texas before returning to Kentucky in 1876. The following year he worked as a telegrapher in Mount Vernon, where he later owned a furniture factory and operated a sawmill. Maret's fascination with innovation led him to press for civic, regional, and state development throughout his life, and to own the county's first telephone and typewriter. He gained statewide fame as the irrepressible force behind creation of the Boone Way Highway, a 96-mile route joining Crab Orchard in Lincoln County and Cumberland Gap in Bell County, later to become U.S. 25.

Maret edited the Mountain Signal for three years before selling his stake to Edward Smith. Smith, who apparently kept a caged eagle in his office, renamed the newspaper the Mountain Eagle. In October 1896, however, Maret repurchased Smith's share, and became the paper's sole owner. The paper again became known as the Mount Vernon Signal. Maret's second tenure as owner ended two years later when Edward S. Albright assumed ownership; however, Maret continued his "Notes & Clips" column until his death in 1936, providing an invaluable source for town, county, and regional history. The weekly newspaper that Maret founded continues in publication today.

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Mountain Advocate

The Mountain Advocate [LCCN: sn87060032], Barbourville's oldest weekly newspaper, has covered southeastern Kentucky for more than a century. The Advocate began in 1904 after an attempt by founding editor, Daniel W. Clark, to establish another paper in central Kentucky failed. Clark then moved to Barbourville where his outspoken Republican editorials found a more welcoming home. Although previous newspapers had failed in the city, Clark declared in the first issue that, under his guidance as a seasoned journalist, the paper was "here to stay." The Advocate was not only successful but remains the only lasting newspaper in Barbourville today. By the paper's 40th anniversary, the four-page weekly had tripled in size, offering 12 full pages of news, features, and advertisements.

According to the paper's earliest slogan, "For Barbourville and Knox County First", local interests dominated the content. Columns like "Grapevine" scored an entire page of community happenings, marriages, club meetings and the like. Agriculture columns such as "Poultry Cackles" and "Farming in Knox County," featured Knox County's leading industry, agriculture. Periodically during the 1930s the paper printed "The State Farmer Section," a 12 page supplement devoted to farming issues. When oil became an important industry in early 20th century Knox County, the front page featured "Oil News," detailing operations of Ken-Flo, Bingham, Wymond, and other oil companies in Kentucky. Not surprising, The Advocate proudly claimed the title of "The Official Organ of the Republican Party in Knox County," and wholeheartedly promoted the party's interests. In fact, the paper was notably influential to the political career of Flem D. Sampson, Kentucky's 42nd governor.

Barbourville is home to Union College. Established in 1879, the school was built when the impoverished town had less than 500 residents. Barbourville was proud of its institution of higher learning and the Advocate devoted an entire page to school news covering commencement ceremonies, athletic scores and rankings, and honor rolls. The college and other schools also wrote original content for The Advocate. For a year, in 1928, Grays Graded High School and Artemus High School both published school newspapers that were included in the Advocate's regular issues.

A common theme in many Advocate editorials was the importance of civic duty in Barbourville. Editor Clark vigorously promoted the development of the city's industries, and in one issue challenged citizens, declaring, "Are Our Citizens Dead or Alive? - If not why is it that we have no more enterprise here than what we see?" After seven years of such posturing, Clark's opinion had influenced the construction of a water plant, a fire department, and an addition to the courthouse. This trend continued with subsequent editor Henry R. Chandler. On the front page of one 1935 issue Chandler issued "This Community's Opportunity"; a call to action for citizens to unite for the improvement of the community.

One Advocate editor, Cecil Wilson, produced an impressive array of original copy for the paper. He began working for the paper in the early 1940s as sports editor and author of the columns "Sport Spots," "Grid-Iron Rust," and "The Final Quarter." By 1948 he was assistant editor of the paper and produced "junK by gosh," a front-page column that included local news and editorial musings. In 1954, Wilson began "For What It Is Worth," a column still published in the Advocate.

The Mountain Advocate has had many devoted editors during its life. Clark stayed with the publication for seven years before selling it to Charles D. Cole and Fred W. Hemphill in 1911. The pair sold the paper to W.H. McDonald after two years. In 1919, McDonald sold it to Fred Burman. Burman operated the Advocate with his wife Jeannie until 1923 when the paper was sold twice that year, first to Ben H. Gregory and later to Milo D. Enderson and P.M. Ricketts. The latter operated the paper until 1928 when Henry R. Chandler purchased Enderson's share. Chandler was editor for 21 years, until 1951 when Cecil Wilson assumed editorial duties and Chandler became president of the paper. Except for a brief period during 1963 when John Harris was editor, Wilson stayed with the publication as editor until 1976. Richard Trimble then served as editor from 1976 until 1997, except for in 1994 when his associate editor, David Cole, was in control of the publication. For a few years the paper changed hands frequently until 2001, when Marilynn Brittain, the current editor, began serving as editor. After a century in business, The Advocate is still published by the The Advocate Publishing Company in Barbourville.

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Mountain Eagle (Whitesburg, KY)

No history is currently available for Mountain Eagle (Whitesburg, KY).

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Mountain Signal

No history is currently available for Mountain Signal.

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Mt. Sterling Advocate

Montgomery County's oldest newspaper, The Mount Sterling Advocate [LCCN: sn86069675], has served its county seat, Mt. Sterling, and the surrounding area since 1890. Founded by businessmen John H. Mason and Dr. C. W. Harris, the weekly was an immediate success despite many other well-established county papers. By its second year the Advocate was printing an impressive eight pages of copy. By 1920, and for 22 years after, it was published as a 12 page semi-weekly. The paper continued to grow throughout the 20th century and eventually expanded to its current 24 plus pages.

Montgomery County was a "gateway" county; an intersection where travelers and businessmen from the Eastern Mountain region traded with their Bluegrass Region counterparts. A single road, later designated as U.S. 460, led out of the mountains into downtown Mt. Sterling. The first city of substantial size in the flatlands along the thoroughfare, Mt. Sterling was a natural hub for commerce and social gathering. Not surprisingly then, much of the Advocate's content focused on the area's heavy agricultural trade. One of the largest cash crops in both regions was Burley tobacco. The Burley Tobacco Society, an organization for tobacco farmers in Kentucky, along with other aspects of the tobacco market were common articles of interest in the paper. The horse industry, an equally important stock of particular import to the Bluegrass Region, garnered "Horse and Track"; a column containing racing news, sales, and speculation.

In keeping with the regional confluence, and the Commonwealth's overall affinity for political revelry, news of political dealings was a key aspect of the Advocate. A backer of the Democratic Party, the paper kept Montgomery County's Democratic voters - who, by 1911, outnumbered Republican voters in the county nearly 2 to 1 – ever abreast of Party matters. There were regular endorsements from the paper's editors for local and national Democratic candidates, including Kentucky Governor, John C. W. Beckham. Beckham was a prohibitionist believing temperance was the solution to the violence which plagued many Kentuckians at the turn of the century. By the end of Beckham's gubernatorial tenure in 1907, nearly 100 of Kentucky's then 119 counties were dry. Montgomery County followed suit in 1914 and Beckham was elected to the Senate that same year.

A controversial political event took place during the 1893 County election that was partly instigated by the Advocate. African Americans constituted nearly 30% of Mt. Sterling's population; a significant point when African Americans made up little more than 10% of the overall U.S. population during the same period. They were given a voice in the County when, in November, Walter Banks, an African American, was elected to city council. The Advocate and many other Montgomery county newspapers attacked Walter's ethnicity. Such prejudice was typical of the post Civil War racism that was rampant in late 19th century Kentucky society. In December, when the Council met to finalize the election results, Walter was dismissed from his position because voter qualification laws, such as literacy tests and poll taxes, disqualified him as a voter and, thus, as an elected official.

The Advocate has frequently changed owners and editors. After starting the paper with C.W. Harris in 1890, John H. Mason sold his share to J.W. Hedden in 1892. Four years later, Bruce W. Trimble purchased Mason's share. Trimble and Hedden then edited the paper together until 1910, when Trimble was replaced by Gemil B. Senff. For the next nine years Senff and Hedden ran the paper together until Senff left and J.W. Hedden, Sr. edited the paper with his son. That same year Mary Ayers joined the staff as news editor. Ayers left in 1939 and The Heddens became sole owners of the publication. Two years later, Hedden Sr. retired and Hedden Jr. was joined by H.W. Greene, who edited the paper briefly but would continue to own stock in the publication well into the 1990s. Lucile H. Reed also joined as assistant editor that year, but left after two years. In 1961 James W. Smith Jr. became the paper's editor until 1972 when Greene, again, assumed editorial duties. He continued to edit the paper until 1986 when Joan Hall became managing editor. Two years later, Charles T. Haskell, who had been associate publisher of the paper for 15 years, served as editor for a single year. In 1989, Jeff Spradling, and later Pam Logue Spradling, served as editors. The latter Spradling stayed until 1993 when Glen Greene became editor. In 2000, Steven Wilson began his five year tenure as editor until the current editor, Jamie Vinson-Sturgill, took over. After nearly 120 years, and more than 15 editors, the Advocate is still in print today.

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News Leader

History not yet available.

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Ohio Valley Worker

Scant evidence exists documenting the history of the Ohio Valley Worker. A single, four-page issue, dated September 10, 1904, is all that remains of this publication, one of several turn-of-the-century Louisville labor newspapers. Where its contemporaries--James McGill's Journal of Labor, Edward L. Cronk's New Era, and William M. Higgins's Kentucky Irish American [LCCN: sn86069180]--were each their editor's creature, the Ohio Valley Worker was put out by the Union Publishing Company, an entity of the International Typographical Union No. 10. In late 1902, the members of "Old No. 10," angry that the New Era was supporting non-union political candidates, established their own "non-partizan" organized labor paper. Ironically, Cronk, like William Higgins, was himself a typesetter and member of I.T.U. No. 10, while James McGill was a harness maker who had created the Journal of Labor to respond to repeated personal attacks by Cronk.

A committee headed by Fred W. Bonte worked throughout 1903 to ready the presses for the Ohio Valley Worker and subscriptions were taken late that same year. The first issue appeared in January 1904. A. C. Briggs, an active union member, served as editor. The masthead of the paper's sole surviving issue proudly declares the Ohio Valley Worker to be the "Official Paper of the Federated Trades Council of Louisville, Trades and Labor Council of New Albany, Central Labor Union of Jeffersonville."

The evidence suggests that the Ohio Valley Worker routinely offered a mix of national and local news. Not surprisingly, this newspaper was in direct competition for readers with the Journal of Labor and the New Era. The Ohio Valley Worker denounced both of its rivals in an article entitled "Crooked Labor Papers" and featured a front-page story on the importance of an independent labor press. A profile of American Federation of Labor president Samuel L. Gompers sits alongside "Base Ball News" describing a game between two local union teams (the Cigarmakers defeated the Butchertowns, 5 to 4.) Local labor news was reprinted, while a roster listed meetings of a number of union locals, including the Candy Makers' Union No. 124, the Bindery Women's Local No. 126, and the Colored Waiters' Union Local No. 261. Also notable in this issue are two contributions by Lucien V. Rule (1871-1948)--prolific Kentucky author and poet, Presbyterian minister, and prison chaplain: a description of a recent campaign visit to Louisville of Socialist Party presidential candidate, Eugene V. Debs, and a poem extolling Debs as "The Lincoln of Labor."

In 1905, James McGill sold the Journal of Labor to the Union Publishing Company. The Ohio Valley Worker briefly assumed the cumbersome title The Journal of Labor and Ohio Valley Worker before being renamed the Journal of Labor. By 1907, the Journal of Labor had passed into private hands and apparently continued publishing without interruption into the 1930s.

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Owingsville Outlook

The Owingsville Outlook was a weekly paper that served Bath County from 1879 through 1923. Thomas J. Young, a local politician and journalist, started the central Kentucky publication when many other weeklys, such as the Bath County News, were competing in the area for subscribers. Yet, the Outlook was robust and survived nearly 50 years before being sold to R.W. Kincaid and H.J. Lacy, ironically, owners of rival Bath County News. The merger created the Bath County News Outlook [LCCN: sn86069621] which is still published in Owingsville more than eight decades later.

Many of the men involved with the Owingsville Outlook were active politicians. Among Democratic executive committee members were regulars T.J. Young, founding editor, and later editor C.W. Honaker; the latter unabashedly advertizing his drug store on the front page of the Outlook at every turn. Edward C. O'Rear, of Versailles, spent two years apprenticing at the paper before becoming a prominent lawyer and Chief Justice of the Kentucky Court of Appeals. Little wonder, then, that the Owingsville Outlook offered a plethora of local and national political content alongside the regionally flavored articles of a more home-grown nature.

To that end, the Burley Tobacco Society, a Kentucky organization designed to combat the American Tobacco Company's monopoly, was a common hot topic for Outlook readers. After netting huge annual profits while local farmers were paid only a little more than the cost of production, "The Tobacco Trust" was often harshly scrutinized by the paper; "Farmers, don't let the Trust do it without the best fight you can put up". To underscore the paper's political nerve, County governments across the Commonwealth lacked ample funds to maintain roads in the early 20th century, and, as a result, many were owned and maintained by private turnpike companies – Bath County being no exception. Bath Countians burdened by the heavy tolls these companies demanded turned to the Outlook as advocate messenger for County ownership of the roads, often inundating the editorial pages with claims and criticisms. Editor D.S. Estill called it "impractical and nearly impossible" for the county to properly maintain the roads. Tensions escalated and, for a good while, violence against toll gate owners became a regular feature in the paper.

The Owingsville Outlook was led by a number of tenacious editors during its life. After seven years at the helm, in 1886 T.J. Young sold the paper to H.P. Scruggs. In a few short months, Scruggs sold the paper to Will E. Estill, who ran it for nearly a year until he sold it to D.S. Estill [relation unknown]. J.H. Herron and David Williamson bought the paper in 1891, but the latter Estill remained editor. C.W. Honaker, aforementioned drug store entrepreneur, owned a share in the paper beginning in 1892 and, after his death, his son John W. Honaker became editor. In 1914 O.B. Thompson bought the paper thus succeeded by his brother, E.D. Thompson, in 1920. Three years later, Thompson sold the Owingsville Outlook to R.W. Kincaid and H.J. Lacy who then merged it with the Bath County News to become Bath County News Outlook.

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Paducah Sun

Paducah's oldest continuously published daily, with its myriad titles, can be particularly confusing at the turn of the 20th century when its title(s) changed frequently. The Paducah Daily Sun [LCCN: sn85052151], with one remaining issue from September 21, 1877, was established that same year by Sun Publishing Company. It was issued daily - except Sunday: it's non-extant Weekly Sun marked for the honor.

Paducah Daily Sun should not be confused with Paducah Daily News [LCCN: sn84038267], a competitor that would eventually become the News=Democrat [LCCN: sn84027479], The Sun's chief rival. There was more than just title likeness between the papers. They each issued weekly editions, also with similar names, their content often mirrored each other, and they had opposing release times, morning versus evening. But it was their political views that were most polarizing. The Sun was a Republican supporter, The News that of Democrat. Over 52 years the antagonism between the papers escalated into a war that was hidden from no one, being aggressively fought through their editorials.

It is unclear when, or if, the Paducah Daily Sun and Weekly Sun ended or if they simply morphed into The Paducah Daily Sun (Paducah, Ky.: 1896) [LCCN: sn85052118]. The title, publisher, issue pattern, and content imply it is the genesis of the Paducah Sun legacy. In any case, by 1896, Paducah native, Frank M. Fisher, had bought Sun Publishing and, thus, The Paducah Daily Sun. Its volume number was restarted to 1, and its weekly edition - Weekly Sun (still non-extant) was also published.

After improvements were made to the print shop in 1898, Fisher consolidated the daily and weekly titles into the Paducah Sun (Paducah, Ky.: 1898) [LCCN: sn85052116]. This singular title was edited briefly by Frank W. Gregory but, in 1899, Fisher took the editorial reins. A year later he was joined by editor Edwin J. Paxton whose father, Paducah banker William F. Paxton, in 1896 had bought the failing Paducah Daily Standard [LCCN: sn85052102] and promptly closed it. It's not inconceivable that the elder Paxton financed the 1898 renovation for he was married to Fisher's sister, Fredrieka. For several months during 1902-1903, the paper's masthead read The Paducah Daily Sun, though the use of this title had officially ended in 1898.

In 1901, The Sunday Chat [LCCN: sn85052182] was introduced for "quiet of the Sabbath" reading. Records indicate it was also included with regular daily issues of the Paducah Sun. By 1902, a "weekly edition" of the paper, Paducah Sun (Weekly ed.) [LCCN: sn85052117], was being printed on Thursdays in addition to the regular daily edition. There are hints that this was an attempt to revive the Weekly Sun of yore but, more likely, it was meant to solidify a legitimate weekly issue. It seems that neither title was a stable endeavor, what with scattered issues being published, and it's unclear when The Sunday Chat ceased, but, by June 1902, the name of the weekly edition was formally changed to the Paducah Weekly Sun [LCCN: sn85052115].

In 1906 The Paducah Evening Sun [LCCN: sn85052114] was born from the daily edition while Paducah Weekly Sun continued unabated at least through 1913. By 1914 Fisher sold out to his nephew, E.J. Paxton. The papers flourished and, in 1929, the coup de grâce of the war with The News was Paxton's purchase of it. He merged the papers at once to become the Sun-Democrat [LCCN: sn85052113], continuing the enumeration of The Paducah Evening Sun. Prior to the merger, records show that Paducah News=Democrat Evening Sun was used to identify each paper's weekly edition though those weekly issues ended with the union.

The Sun-Democrat lasted until 1936 when the name was changed to The Paducah Sun-Democrat [LCCN: sn82014647]. It somehow survived the great flood of 1937 that plunged its printing shop under water for three weeks. In 1962 the title changed back to Sun-Democrat (Paducah, Ky.: 1962) [LCCN: sn85052143] but, in 1978, at the urging of E.J. Paxton's grandson, Jack, the paper once more took up the name Paducah Sun (Paducah, Ky.: 1978) [LCCN: sn82014667] where it remains today.

After more than 130 years in print, the Paducah Sun continues to publish from its McCracken County home at the confluence of the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers. The Paxton family, too, is still at the helm as The Paxton Media Group which today owns 32 daily and 7 weekly newspapers in 10 states plus one TV station (NBC affiliate, WPSD – connoting Paducah Sun-Democrat).

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Record

The Greenville Record, established in 1899, was published weekly by Owen Rice and Orien L. Roark of The Record Publishing Company in Greenville, Kentucky. Roark, formerly of the Democratic Muhlenberg Echo [LCCN: sn86069663], served as editor of the Record while Rice handled the paper's finances. Roark, who in addition to editing the Record also owned many businesses in Greenville, served as editor for the entirety of the paper's existence and for many years held the honor for the longest term served by any editor in Greenville.

Declaring in the first issue to be "the organ of no [political] party," the Record instead promoted collaboration between all Greenville citizens, Republican, Democratic, or otherwise, for the improvement of the city. Reflecting the intentions of the Record, the paper's masthead prominently displayed the seal of the Commonwealth of Kentucky; a symbol of brotherhood in the state.

The Record's content was considerably influenced by Roark's progressive attitude. In addition to local and national news, the paper offered a variety of intellectually stimulating material. There was crop and livestock selection and study developments in farm technology in an agriculture section which often received an entire page of the four page publication. Cultural events, such as shows at the LaMeade Opera house, academic lecture recitals, and Louisville's May Musical festival, were also frequent news items.

The development and upkeep of county and city roads was one topic of substantial importance to readers. Roark openly supported taxation for road upkeep and construction, often reporting on the issue as it related not only to Muhlenberg and surrounding counties, but to other states as well, including New York, Pennsylvania and Kansas. In June of 1909, Roark wrote in favor of the "Good Road" amendment to the Kentucky constitution, an amendment which would lift restrictions on taxation for road development. One month before the amendment would appear on the ballot for the 1909 general election, Roark again spoke in favor of the amendment, boldly declaring, "Muhlenberg roads are the most serious hindrance to our greater progress."

The Record also included a variety of original material. Kentucky historian, Otto Arthur Rothert, frequently contributed to the paper's content by presenting short historical sketches of the important people and places of Greenville. "Murphy's Lake and its Traditions" brought to light the historical and social importance of the lake located 12 miles south of Greenville. A column published in December of 1910 described the heroic role of Greenville native Lieutenant Ephriam McLean Brank at the Battle of New Orleans. Other columns explored the history of well known families in Greenville.

In 1938 Roark's health began to decline and the Record ceased publication after nearly 40 years.

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Reporter

The Kentucky Reporter, published in Owensboro and later in Louisville, was a small African-American newspaper with Republican leanings claiming devotion "to the Political, Religious, Educational and Industrial Interest of the Negro." Co-founded by two brothers, Robert T. and George W. Berry, in 1900, as a weekly, the newspaper continued at least into the early 1940s. Only one issue of the Kentucky Reporter from its Owensboro incarnation, dated March 3, 1902, and fewer than three years from the 1940s are extant.

While in Owensboro, the Kentucky Reporter was edited by Robert T. Berry and managed by George W. Berry. The Berry brothers were tailors before becoming newspapermen and even advertised their business in their publication. One source suggests that Robert edited another newspaper in Daviess County before co-founding the Kentucky Reporter. In 1912, the Berrys moved to Louisville and took the publication with them, possibly due to its declining circulation. George worked as a United States Storekeeper and Gauger, with duties involving issuing revenue stamps, and measuring and storing beverage alcohol. Robert opened a print shop on Seventh Street where he published the Kentucky Reporter. He also worked as an investigative reporter for the Courier-Journal [LCCN: sn83045188] and a city sanitary inspector. When Robert died on July 28, 1967, his Courier-Journal obituary simply noted that "for many years [he] was the editor of a small Negro-community newspaper."

By 1921, the Kentucky Reporter offices had moved to a building in the heart of the African-American business district of Louisville, which was also home to other African-American newspapers such as the American Baptist [LCCN: sn93062854], the Louisville Leader [LCCN: sn86069223], and the Louisville News [LCCN sn86069251]. Strong leaders in the African-American community--William H. Steward, I. Willis Cole, and William Warley--founded and edited these publications. Though some sources suggest that the Kentucky Reporter did not compete with these papers, certain incidents and anecdotes suggest otherwise, specifically when certain African-American leaders formed the Lincoln Independent Party (LIP), contributing to a rift with the Republicans in 1921. Soon after the formation of the LIP, the Kentucky Reporter printed 10,000 copies of an article, which was distributed free of charge to the African-American community, denouncing the leaders of the new party. Willis Cole, the editor of the Louisville Leader, stated that Republicans must have funded the publication of this issue, since Robert Berry typically printed 500 copies of the Kentucky Reporter and had difficulty selling them.

With so few surviving issues of the Kentucky Reporter, it is impossible to comment meaningfully on its content throughout its long publication history. Nonetheless, Berry seemed to have remained true to the publication's mission to promote the interests of the African-American community. Though some describe its politics as neutral, even the earliest extant issues of the Kentucky Reporter hint at its Republican leanings, and one could even infer a more conservative political outlook than that of the other Louisville African-American newspapers of the time.

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Richmond Climax

The Richmond Climax [LCCN: sn86069162], a weekly newspaper published by the Climax Publishing Company, covered Richmond and Madison County for nearly 30 years. The paper was established by William G. White and French Tipton in 1887 to serve as a vessel for the Democratic Party in Richmond. Despite being in constant competition with Richmond's other Democratic newspaper, the Kentucky Register, the then four-page Climax was well-received and by 1910 regularly printed eight pages per issue.

Politics played an important role in the development of the Climax. Founding editor Tipton, a Richmond lawyer and politician, was initially a staunch supporter of the paper's Democratic mission. However, during the campaign for the 1896 presidential election, Tipton, in disagreement with William Jennings Bryan's Free Silver platform, changed political parties and left the paper. He then became editor of Richmond's Republican newspaper, the Pantagraph, further severing his ties with the Climax.

Richmond politician, Clarence E. Woods, editor of The Climax at the turn of the century, continued the paper's tradition of radical leadership. During the summer and fall of 1900 the local press was involved in a debate regarding local ownership of the Richmond Water and Light Company. Woods, a loyal Progressive, argued with both the Kentucky Register and the Pantagraph in favor of local ownership and declared that the Water Company was in violation of its contract with the city. After months of heated editorial debate, Woods' commentary became so flagrant that Climax's owner, Judge John C. Chenault, asked him to resign. A few days later, tensions were still high, causing an altercation between Pantagraph editor French Tipton and Woods. After being assaulted on a Richmond street, Woods shot Tipton in defense. The founder of the Climax died within days.

The quarrel between Woods and Tipton did little to stifle Woods' professional career. After the incident, he continued to write for the Climax and in 1905 he was elected mayor of Richmond. Later he moved to Florida where he continued his career in journalism.

Tipton and Woods weren't the only politically motivated Climax editors. A.D. Miller, the paper's longest lasting editor, served as both a Councilman and a School Board Trustee in Richmond. John Cabell Chenault, who owned the paper alongside Miller, came from a long line of politicians and served as both Madison County Judge and Attorney City Judge of Richmond

Although the Climax and its editors primarily functioned as an organ for the Democratic Party, they never failed to inform the citizens of Richmond of the local and national news. The paper carried an assortment of news notes from around the state and the country, but also covered local topics including agricultural market reports and Madison county happenings. In 1910 the Climax honored Richmond with "A Brief Historical Sketch of the city of Richmond, Kentucky," a 17 page supplement covering the industrial, social, and political history of the city.

The Richmond Climax was led by a number of editors during its life. French Tipton started the paper in 1887 with William G. White, who left his editorial duties after about a year but continued to contribute to the paper. Tipton remained editor until 1896, with the exception of a few months in 1894 and 1895, when the paper was edited by S.F. Rock. In 1896 John Cabell Chenault and A.D. Miller purchased the paper from Tipton and were later joined by Clarence E. Woods in 1897. Woods left the Climax in August of 1900 and a few months later was replaced by R. Lee Davis, formerly of the Kentucky Register. After Davis left in 1901, Robert S. Crowe served as editor for about two years, after which Miller resumed editorial duties. Louis Landram became editor in 1908 and stayed until he sold his share to Steve K. Vaught in 1910. When Vaught left, B.D. Gordon and Stanford, Kentucky newspapermen E.C and William P. Walton edited the paper until 1913. Miller was again at the helm of the paper when in September of 1914, the paper was purchased by founding editor William G. White and consolidated with his newspaper, the Madisonian.

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Semi-weekly Interior Journal

In 1881, the Semi-Weekly Interior Journal [LCCN: sn85052020] got its start from predecessor The Interior Journal [LCCN: sn84038328]. The latter's success as a weekly inspired the name change which heralded the double publication rate. Aside from the masthead which bore the name Semi-Weekly Interior Journal, the appearance and content of the paper changed very little. It continued to produce content of equal substance to the Interior Journal. Even the volume and issue numbers continued that of the weekly.

Like the Interior Journal, the Semi-Weekly included an assortment of local and national affairs. News from the Lincoln County communities of Crab Orchard, Hustonville, and Stanford, plus nearby Garrard and Casey Counties, were regular highlights. Agriculture, Lincoln County's leading industry, was always of particular interest; sparking columns such as "Land and Stock" reporting market prices and farming news.

Lincoln County was one of three original territories that comprised the Commonwealth before being pared down to its present 450 square miles in Central Kentucky. Established over 200 years ago in 1780, Stanford, the county seat, was first known as Logan's Station – the second oldest establishment in the state. The famed Wilderness Road is now Stanford's Main Street which runs past the first courthouse west of the Allegheny Mountains and the Journal's offices; a location it has occupied from its start.

With such rich history there's little surprise the area is steeped in education. Many churches in the area built and sponsored schools from earliest opportunity, their news always respectfully covered by the Journal. Most notably was the Hustonville Christian Academy, a preparatory school which later became the Hustonville Christian College. The single building co-ed academy, built jointly by the Hanging Fork Presbyterian Church and the Hustonville Christian Church, was open for nearly 50 years. The campus was sold to the Hustonville School District in 1903.

The Semi-Weekly Journal had two editors. William Pulaski "W.P." Walton started the semi-weekly in 1881 after buying the first iteration Interior Journal from founding editors F.J. Campbell and D.W. Hilton. He was the first of three generations of Waltons to own the Semi-Weekly - and the successive Interior Journal [LCCN: sn85052021]. A railroad contractor from Virginia, Walton gained notoriety for his staunchly Democratic beliefs so there's little wonder the Journal followed suit. The paper, and Walton, was quick to endorse local and national Democratic candidates which included James B. McCreary; twice governor of Kentucky as well as U.S. Congressman and Senator.

W.P. Walton's brother, E.C. Walton, bought the paper from him in 1900, the same year the Hustonville Christian Academy's building was destroyed by fire. In 1905, he changed the name of the paper back to the original title: Interior Journal.

Name changes aside, the two titles together are the longest running newspaper in Lincoln County which is still in print today. And, although the title Semi-Weekly Interior Journal ended in 1905, it made no less a contribution to a legacy of over a century's worth of journalism to one of Kentucky's most important areas.

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Spout Spring Times

No history is currently available for Spout Spring Times.

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Springfield Sun

History not yet available.

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That Same Old Coon

No history is currently available for That Same Old Coon.

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Thoroughbred record

No history is currently available for Thoroughbred record.

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True American

No history is currently available for True American.

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Vindicator

The Kentucky Vindicator was established in 1899 and published in Owensboro by W.M. Likins, O.C. Likins, and J. Karl Taylor. The paper reported on the Prohibition Party's efforts to rid Kentucky and the nation of the scourge of alcohol. The Vindicator's unequivocal position on strong drink is evident in its masthead declarations--"The saloon must go" and "The liquor traffic cannot be licensed without sin." However, its content also suggests the challenges the Party faced from other temperance groups, most notably the Anti-Saloon League. The Kentucky Vindicator survives as a single, four-page issue, dated June 26, 1901.

The Prohibition Party, established in 1869, was convinced that neither major party would ever eschew the benefits derived from collusion with liquor interests by prohibiting the sale, manufacture, and consumption of beverage alcohol. After disappointing returns in the election of 1892, the long-standing division between those members who welcomed collaboration with other groups and who advocated more comprehensive and radical reform ("Broad Gauge") and the others who insisted on the exclusivity of prohibition as the Party's object ("Narrow Gauge") turned into open conflict. The Narrow Gauge faction effectively captured the Party in 1896, even as its leadership almost immediately was forced to compromise its position in order to remain politically relevant. Such efforts were most closely linked to the person of John G. Woolley (1850-1922), lawyer, orator, and the Prohibition Party's 1900 presidential candidate. Woolley appears briefly in the Kentucky Vindicator's pages.

The singular focus of the Vindicator's content suggests that editor, W.M. Likins, was a Narrow Gauge man. But the issues addressed and developments reported in the Kentucky Vindicator mirror those found in other Prohibition Party newspapers of the day, including The New Voice in New York City [LCCN: sn89090659], which served as Woolley's personal platform. The Vindicator reported on party conventions in various Kentucky counties and carried reports from "evangelists", a state-level organizing innovation pioneered by Indiana prohibitionists in 1899. The paper encouraged the faithful to attend the party's national conference in Buffalo, New York. A long editorial in support of excercising the option to prohibit the sale of alcohol locally reflects the spirit of moderation and compromise that Woolley and others in the Prohibition Party advocated in their ongoing flirtation with the once reviled Anti-Saloon League. There is relatively little advertising in the Kentucky Vindicator's pages, but a small ad for the patent medicine known as Hall's Catarrh Cure does appear. The Vindicator's editor was apparently unaware, or unconcerned, that many patent medicines contained a substantial measure of alcohol or other addictive substances.

The Kentucky Vindicator was apparently short-lived, for no mention of it has been found in contemporary sources after 1901.

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Weekly Reporter

No history is currently available for Weekly Reporter.

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Weekly Roundabout

No history is currently available for Weekly Roundabout.

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Winchester News

The Winchester News' first issue hit the streets October 12, 1908. Published daily, except Sunday, Editor Robert Richard Perry, also editor of Winchester's weekly Sun-Sentinel [LCCN: sn86069131], created The News with local businessmen W.A. Beatty and J.W. Chambers. The three men formed the Winchester News Company and set out to make The Winchester News Clark County's first successful daily.

The News grew monumentally and within its first month boasted a circulation of 1,500; roughly 9% of the County's 17,000+ population at that time. Perry acted as sole editor but was occasionally assisted by his daughter, Goldie.

Despite its quick success, the paper had a rather short run. Perry became seriously ill and turned control over to his daughter. In less than a month, as Perry's sickness progressed, the family sold out to Lucien Beckner & Carl C. Robbins in early 1912. Beckner and Robbins immediately changed the title to Winchester Sun [LCCN: sn86069132]; a name previously established in 1881 [LCCN: sn86069130] though it apparently ceased in 1903 – five years before the founding of The Winchester News. The preceding Winchester Sun became the leading paper in Winchester/Clark County, a fact that still stands.

Perry attributed the News' rapid growth to its ample advertisements, claiming that "no newspaper would be complete without its advertising." Local businesses such as the Winchester Drug Company and Winn Furniture usually published an ad in every issue, enabling the News to publish eight full pages of daily copy for over a year. Although the advertisements in the News were important, its content was what attracted the mass of readers. A variety of articles featured local and national news, agricultural reports, sports, and personal and society columns. It also included "K.W.C. Notes," a column devoted to the Kentucky Wesleyan College, a private Methodist school in Winchester from 1888 until 1951. In addition to being one of the first colleges in Kentucky to allow co-education, the college was responsible for the construction and operation of a series of Kentucky's preparatory schools in Winchester, Burnside, Campton, and London.

Baseball was one of the most popular sports in early 20th century Kentucky. The News followed the development of the Blue Grass League that included teams from Lexington, Frankfort, Winchester, and other central Kentucky cities. The League was established in 1908 and appointed the Winchester Athletic Association to oversee and organize the town's baseball team. The next year, the Winchester Hustlers, managed by Newton "Daddy" Horn from Nashville, finished their season at the top of the League standings.

It wasn't all fun and games in early 20th century. Foreign competition had all but destroyed the need for hemp; once one of the largest cash crops in Clark County. Western beef cattle had significantly limited the County's once prosperous cattle industry as well. Farmers were forced to diversify and burley tobacco was the answer. However, Clark County farmers, like much of Kentucky and Tennessee, was terrorized from 1906-1908 by Night Riders; violent assailants against the powerful American Tobacco Company which held a monopoly over the national market. Their tactics forced many Kentucky farmers into poverty. The Night Riders aggressively promoted a local pooling of crops to raise prices and frequently violated farmers unwilling to join the pool. They burned barns, destroyed fields, and even murdered some farmers and their families. Two lawyers who had openly denounced the "lawless element" were thusly assassinated. The News covered it all.

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Woodford Sun

No history is currently available for Woodford Sun.

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