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The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke Filson, John 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b02-000000002 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke Filson, John Printed by James Adams Wilmington Del. 1784. Coleman IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Noland, Stephen, 1818- T H E DISCOVERY, SETTLEMENT And prefent State of K E Nr r U C K E: A N D An E S S A Y towards the TOPOGRAPHY, and NATURAL HISTORY of that im-a portant Country: To which -is added, An A P P E N D I X, C O N T A I N I N G, I. The ADVENTURES of Col. Daniel Boon, one of the firfL Settlers, comprehending every im- portant Occurrence in the political Hiftory of that Province. II The M I N U T E s of the Pianka/haw coun- cil, held at Pof St. Vincents, A4pril 15, 1784. III. An A c c o u N T of the Indian Nations in- habiting within the Limits of the Thirteen U- nited States, their Manners and Cuftoms, and Refle&-ions on their Origin. IV. The STAGES and DISTANCES between Pbiladelphia and the Falls of the Ohio; from Pitoburg to Penfacola and feveral other Places. -The Whole illufcrated by a new and accu- rate M A P of Kentucke and the Country ad- joining, drawn from aftual Surveys. Wi/lnington, Printed by JAMES ADAMS, 1784. By yO MN FIL S O N. W E the Subfcribers, inhabitants. of Kentucke, and well acquainted with the country from its Iirft fettlement, at the requefi of the author of this book, and map, have carefully revifed them, and recommend them to the public, as exceeding good performances, contain. ing as accurate a defcription of our coun- try as we think can poffibly be given; much preferable to any in our know-_ ledge extant; and think it will be of great utility to the publick. Witnefs our hands this I 2th day of May, Anno Domni I1784, DANIEL BOON, LEVI TODD, JAMES HARROD, ( 5 ) PR EF A CE. T 5 HE generality of thofe geographers, who have attempted a map, or deJcription of A- merica, fiem either to have bad no knowledge of Kentucke, or to k-ave negleted it, although a place of infinite importance: And the re/7 have proceeded fo erroneoujy, that they have left the world as much in darknefs as beJore. Many are the mi/lakes, re- fpeding the fubjefl of this work, in all other maps 'which I have yet teen; whereas I can truly fay, I know of none in that wbich I here prefent to the world either from my own particular knowledge, or from the inlormation of thofe gentlemen with whojf a/lance I have been javoured, and who have been well acquainted with the countryfiqce the hfifr/fettle- tnent. When I v/ifted Kentucke, I found it lo far to exceed my expelations, although great, that I con- cluded it was a pity; that the world had not adequate information of it. I conceived that a proper de/crip tion, and map of it, 'were objeels highly interelling to the United States; and therefore, incredible as it may appear to fome, I mu/I declare, that this perform. ance is not publij/ed from lacrative motives, but fiokly to iAfiorm the world of the happy climate, and plentiful (6) pkendft foil of this favoured region. Aid I ima- gine the redtr wifi believe me the more eafilv when I injormn him, that I am not an inhabitant of Kentuc-. ke, but having been there fome time, by mv acquain.. tance in it, am fufficiently able to publifh the trutb, and from principle, have cautiouJlv endeavoured to avoid every Jpecies ot /alfehood. The confcioufinefs of tbij encourages me to hope fJr the public candour, where errors may pqo/ibly be found. The three gentlemen honouring this work with their recommen- dation, Col Boon, Col. Todd, and Col. Harrod, were among the fir/I fettlers, and perfiedly well acquaint- ed 'with the country. To them I acknowledge mv/elf much indebted /or their friendly a/iftance in this work, 'which they chearfully contributed with a di/intere/led 'w;:ew of being lerviceable to the public. My thanks at e more efpecially due to Col. Boon, who was earli_ er acquainted with the fiebjed of this performance than any ofher now living, as appears by the ac- count of his adventures, which I efleimed curious and interelling, and therefore have pzblib/Jed them from his own mouth. Much advantage may poi'- bly arife to the pofeJor of this book, as thofe who wi:ijh to travel in Kentucke will utndoubtedlv find it a Compleat Guide. To fuch I affirm, that there is nothing mentioned or defcribed but what they will find true. Con/cious that it would be of general utility, I have omitted nothing, and been exceeding particu- lar in every part. That it may have the degred j'ed. is tbefincere wioJf FILSON T H E DISCOVERY, PURCHASE A N D S E T TL E M4 E N T. O F K EN T UC KE. H E firfi white man we have certain ac. counts of, who discovered this province, was one James McBride, who, in company with fome others, in the year 1754, paffing down the Ohio in Canoes, landed at the mouth of Ken. tucke river, and there marked a tree, with the firft letters of his name, and the date, which remain to this day. Thele men reconnoitred the country, and returned home with the pleaf. ing news of their difcovery of the beft track of land in North-America, and probably in the world. world. From this period it remained concealed till about the year 1767, when one John Finley, and fome others, trading with the Indians, for- tunately travelled over the fertile region, now called Kentucke, then but known to the Indi- ans, by the name of the Dark and Bloody Ground, and fometimes the Middle Ground. This country greatly engaged Mr. Finley's attention. Some time after, difputes arifing between the Indians and traders, he was obliged to decamp; and returned to his place of refi- dence in North-Carolina, where he communi- cated his difcovery to Col. Daniel Boon, and a few more, who conceiving it to be an inter- dIling object, agreed in the year 1769 to un- dertake a journey in order to explore it. After a long fatiguing march, over a mountainous wildernefs, in a wefward direciion, they at length arrived upon its borders; and from the top of an eminence,- with joy and wonder, de- fcried the beautiful landscape of Kentucke. Here they encamped, and fonie went to hunt provifions, which were readily procured, there being plenty of game, while Col. Boon and Jolhn Finley made a tour through the country, which they found far exceeding their expec- tations, and returning to camp, informed their companions of their difcoveries: But in fpite of this promifing beginning, this company, meeting with nothing but hardlhips and adver- fity) (9) fity, grew exceedingly ditheartened, and was plundered, difperfed, and killed by the Indians, except Col. Boon, who continued an inhabitant of the wildernefs until the year 1771,' when he returned home. About this time Kentucke had drawn the at. tention of feveral gentlemen. Do loL Walk- er of Virginia, with a number more, made a tour weftward for discoveries, endeavouring to find the Ohio river; and afterwards he and Gene- ral Lewis, at Fort Stanwix, purchafed from the Five Nations of Indians the lands lying on tbt north fide of Kentucke. Col. Donaldfon, of Virginia, being employed by the State to run a line from fix miles above the Long Ifland, oa Hoiflein, to the mouth of the great Kenhava, and finding thereby that an extenfive tract of excellent country would be cut off to the Indi- ans, was folicited, by the inhabitants of Clench and Holitein, to purchafe the lands lying on the north fide of Kentucke river from the Five Na. tions. This purchafe he compleated for five hundred pounds, fpecie. It was then agreed, to fix a boundary line, running from the long Ifland on Holftein to the head of Kentucke ri- ver; thence down the fame to the mouth ; thence up the Ohio, to the mouth of Great Kenhawa; but this valuable purchafe the State refuted to confirm. E Cole ( 10 ) Col. Henderfon, of North-Carolina, being informed of this country by Col. Boon, he, and iorne other gentlemen, held a treaty with the Cherokee Indians at Wataga, in March 1775, and then purchafed fiom them the lands Iying on the fouth fide of Kentucke river for goods, at valuable rates, to the amount of fix thoufand pounds, fpecie. Soon after this puichafe, the State of Virginia took the alarm, agreed to pay the money Col. Donaldfon had contraaed for, and then dif- puted Col. Henderfon's right of purchafe, as a private gentlemen of another flate, in behalf of himfelf: However, for his eminent fervices to this country, and for having been inftrumental in making fo valuable an acquifition to Virginia that flate was pleafed to reward him with a traft of land, at the mouth of Green River, to the amount of two hundred thoufand acres; and the flate of North-Carolina gave him the like quantity in Powel's Valley. This region was formerly claimed by various tribes of Indians; whofe title, if they had any, originated in fuch a manner, as to render it doubtful which ought to poffefs it: Hence this fertile fpot became an object of contention, a theatre of war, from which it was properly denominated the Bloody- Grounds. Their contentions not being likely to decide the Right to any particular tribe, as foon ( 11 ) loon as Mr. Henderfon and his friends propofea to purchafe, the Indians agreed to fell; and notwithftanding the valuable Confideration they received, have continued ever fince troubleforne neighbours to the new fettlers. SITUATION and BOUNDARIES. K E N T U C K E is fituated, in its central part, near the latitude of 38 " north, and 8s 0 weft longitude, and lying within the fifth cli- mate, its longeft day is 14 hours 40 minutes. It is bounded on the north by great Sandy-creek; by the Ohio on the N. W. by North-Carolina on the fouth; and by the Cumberland mourn- tain on the eafi, being upwards of 250 miles in length, and two hundred in breadth; and is at prefent divided into three counties, Lincoln, Fayetteand Jefferfon; of which Fayette and Jeffer. fon are bounded by the Ohio, and the river Ken. tucke feparates Fayette on its north fide from the other two. There are at prefent eight towns laid off, and building; and more are propofed. LouifYville, at the Falls of Ohio, and Beards.. town, are in Jefferfon county; Harrodfburg, Danville, and Boons-burrow, in Lincoln coun- ty; Lexington, Lees-town, and Greenville, in Fayette county; the two laft being on Kentuc. ke river. At thefe and many other places, on this 12 ) this and other rivers, infpeiing-boufes are ella. bliffied for Tobacco, which may be cultivated to great advantage; although not altogether the flaple commodity of the country. R I V E R S. THE beautiful river Ohio, bounds Kentucke in its whole length, being a mile and fometimes Iefs in breadth, and is fufficient to carry boats of great burthen. Its general courfe is fouth 6o degrees well; and in its courfe it receives numbers of large atid fanall rivers, which pay tribute to its glo- ry. The only difadvantage this fine river has, is- a rapid, one mile and an half long, and one mile and a quarter broad, called the Falls of Ohio.. In this place the river runs over a rocky bottom, and the defcent is fo gradual, that the fall does -not probably in the whole exceed twenty feet. In fome places we may obferve it to fall a feAw feet. When the ftream is low, empty boats only can pafs and repafs this ra- pid;- their lading mull be tranfported by land ; but when high, boats of any burthen may pafs in fafety. Excepting this place, there is not a finer river in the world for navigation by boats. Befides this, Kentucke is watered by eight fmal. ler rivers, and many large and fmall creeks, as may be eafily feen in the map. Licking ( 13 ) Licking River heading in the mountains -with Cumberland River, and the North Branch of Kentucke, runs in a N. W. direstion for up-. wards of a hundred miles, colleffing its filver ftreams from many branches, and is about one hundred yards broad at its mouth. Red River heads and -interlocks with tbe maim branch of Licking, and flows in a S. Weft courfe into Kentucke River. being about fixty miles long, and fixty yards wide at its mouth, The Kentucke River rifes with three beads from a mountainous part- of the Country. its northern branch interlocks with Cumberland; runs half way in a weftern direftion, and the other half N. wefierly. It is amazingly crook. ed, upwards of two hundred miles in length, and about one hundred and fifty yards broad. Elkhorn is ap(mall river which empties itreIf into Kentucke in. a N. W. by W. couwre; is about fifty miles long,, and fifty yards broad at the mouth. Dick's River joins the Kentucke in a N. Weft direffion; is about forty-five miles long, and forty-five yards wide at its mouth. This river curioufly heads and interlocks its branches with Salt River, Green River, and the waters of ( 14. ) of Rock-caflle River.-.-Salt River rifes at four different places near each other. The windings of this river are curious, rolling its ftreams round a fpacious tract of fine land, and uniting almoft fifteen miles before they approach the Ohio, and twenty miles below the Falls. It is amazingly crooked, runs a weftern courfe near ninety miles, and is about eighty yards wide at the mouth. Green River interlocking with the heads of Dick's River, as mentioned above, is alfo a. mazingly crooked, keeps a weftern courfe for upwards of one hundred and fifty miles, and is about eighty yards wide at its mouth, which is about two hundred and twenty miles below the Falls. Cumberland River, interlocks with the north- ern branch of Kentucke, -is aforefaid, and rol- ling round the other arms of Kentucke, among the mountains, in a fouthein courfe for one hundred miles; then in a fouth wefern courfe for above one hundred miles; then in a fouth- ern and S. weftern courfe for about two hun- dred and fifty more, finds the Ohio, four hun- dred and thirteen miles below the Falls. At the fettlements it is two hundred yards broad; and at its mouth three hundred, having paf- fed ( 15 ) fed through North-Carolina in about half its courfe. The Great Kenhawa, or New River, rifes in North-Carolina, runs a northern, and N. Weft courfe for upwards of four hundred miles, and finds the Ohio four hundred miles above the Falls. It is about five hundred yards wide at its mouth. Thefe two rivers are juat mentioned, being beyond our limits, They run contrary courfes, are exceeding large, and it is worth notice, that Clench, Holftein, Nolachuckey, and French-Broad rivers, take their rife between thefe two, or rather weftward of New River, fome of them rifing and interlocking with it; and when they meet, form what is called the Tenefe, or Cherokee River, which runs a weft.. em courfe, and finds the Ohio twelve miles below Cumberland River. It is very large, and has fpacious traas of fine land. Thefe rivers are navigable for boats almoft to their fources, without rapids, for the great- eft part of the year. This country is ge- nerally level, and abounding with limeftcone, which ufually lies about fix feet deep, except in hollows, where ftreams run, where we find the rock in the bottom of the channel. The fprings and ftreams leffen in June, and continue ( i6 ) continue low, hindering navigationi, until No. vember, when the autum nal rains foon pre. pare the rivers for boats, and replenifh the whole country with water; but although the firears, decreare, yet there is always fufficient for dorneftic ufes. There are many fine fprings- that never fail; every farmer has a good one at leaft; and excellent wells may eafily be di;,. N A T U R E of the S 0 I Lb T H E country, in fome parts, is nearly level; in others not fo much fo-; in others again hilly, bat moderately, and in fuch places there is moft water, The levels are not like a carpet, but mterfperfed with imall rifings, and declivi.. ties, wbich form a beautiful profpet. A great part of the foil is amazingly fertile; fome not fo good, and fome poor. The inhabitants dif. tinguifh its quality by firif, fecond, and third rate lands; and Icarcely any fuch thing as a marfh or fwamp is to be found. There is a ridge, where Kentucke rifes, nearly of the fize of a mountain, which in the map we have reprefented as fuchs All the land below the Great Kenhawa un.. til we come near the waters. of Licking River is broken, hilly, and generally poor; except an fome valleys, and on Little and, Big Sandy creeks ( 17 ) creeks, where there is fome firft rate land, but moftly fecond and third rate. It is faid, that near this water is found a pure falt rock. Up- on the north branch of Licking, we find a great body of firfl rate land. This :fream runs near- ly parallel to the Ohio for a confiderable di- fiance, and is about feven miles from the mouth of Limeftone Creek, where is a fine harbour fdr boats coming down the Ohio, and now a common landing. It is fixty-five miles from Lexington, to which there is a large waggon road. The main branch of Licking, is about twenty-two miles from Limeftone. On this fiream we find fome firft, but moffly fecond and third rate lands, and, towards its head fomething hilly. There we find the Blue Licks, two fine falt fprings, where great -plenty of falt may be made. Round thefe licks, the foil is poor for fome diftance, being much impregnat- ed with falt. The fouthernm branch of Licking, and all its otber arms, as appears in the map, fpread through a great body of iroft, and forne fecond rate land, where there is abundance of cane, and fome falt licks, and fipings. On thefe feve. ral branches of Licking, are good mill-feats, and navigation to the Ohio, front the fork down to its mouth. The land is hilly, and generally C poor, ( 18 ) poor, yet along the fireams and in valleys we find fiome excellent land. The Elkhorn lands are much efteemed, bemg fituated in a bend of Kcntucke River, of great extent, in which this little river, or rather large creek, rifes. Here we find mofily firft rate land, and near the Kentucke River fecond and third rate. This great tract is beautifully fitu. ated, covered with cane, wild rye, and clover; and many of the ftreams afford fine mill fcats. The lands below the mouth of Elkhorn, up Eagle Creek, and towards the Ohio, are hilly and poor, except thofe contained in a great bend of the Ohio, oppofite Great Miami, cut off, as appears in the map, by the Big-bone and Bank-lick creeks, interlocking, and run- ning feparate courfes. Here we find a great deal of good land, but fomething hilly. On Kentucke River we find many fertile valleys, or bottoms along the river, efpecially towards its rife.. There is good land alfo on Red River, but towards the heads of this, and Kentucke, the foil is broken; but even here, we find in valleys, and along ftreams, a great deal of fruitful land. Generally the foil within a mile or two of Kentucke River is of the third and ( 19 ) and fourth rates; from about that diftance, as we leave it on either fide, we approach good lands. The country through which it winds its courfe, for the moft part, may be confidered as level to its banks, or rather precipices; trom the brow of which, we behold the river, three and fometimes four hundred feet deep, like a great canal. For a more particular account of this, we refer the reader to where we'treat of the cu- riofities of Kentucke. Dick's River runs through a great body of filrft rate land, abounding every where with cane, and affords many excellent mill feats. Many mills are already built on this fiream, fome of which are reprefented in the map, and will have a plentiful fupply of water in the dry. eft feafons. The banks of this river, near its mouth, are fimilar to the banks of Kentucke. The feveral ftreams and branches of Salt River afford excellent mill feats. Thefe roll them. felves through a great tract of excellent land, but the country from the junaion of thefe waters, and fome miles above towards the Ohio, which may be about twenty-five miles, is level and poor, and has abundance of ponds. For a confiderable diftance from the head of this river, the land is of the firf quality, well fitu- ated, and abounds with fine cane, Upon thuis, and ( 20 ) and Dick's River, the inhabitants are chiefly fet.. tied, it being -the fafeft part of the country from the incurfions of the Indians. Green River, affords excellent mill feats, and a conftant ftream. This is allowed to be the beft watered part of Kentucke. On its banks we find many fine bottoms, fome firft rate, but moftly fecond and third rate lands; and at Come diifance, many knobs, ridges, and broken poor land. Below a creek, called Sinking Creek, on this river, within fifty miles of Ohio, towards Salt River, a great territory begins, called Green River Barrens, extending to the Ohio. Moft of this is very good land, and level. It has no timber, and little water, but affords excellent pafturage for cattle. On fome parts of this river, we find abundance of cane, fome falt licks, and fulphureous and bituminous fprings. South of Green River, in the lands referved for the continental, and ftate troops of Virginia, an exceeding valuable lead mine has lately been discovered. Iron ore is found on Rough Creek, a ftream running into this river. That part of Cumberland River which is in the Kentucke country, traverfes a hilly poor land, though in Come parts we find good foil along its fides. Thesother rivers I mentioned (viz. Great Kenhawa, and Tenefe) are not in the Kentucke country, and therefore do not come properly within my plan. The ( 21 ) The reader, bycaftinghis eye upon the map, and viewinground theheads of Licking, fromthe Ohio, and round the heads of Kentucke, Dick's River, and down Green River to the Ohio,, may view, in that great compals of above one hundred miles fquare, the moft extraordinary country that the fun enlightens with his celeftial beams. The Ohio River, the great reservoir of all the numerous rivers that flow into it from -both fides, has many fine valleys along its fides; and we obferve that oppofite to each of them there is a hill; thefe hills and bottoms changing fides al. ternately. It only remains under this head to inform the reader, that there is a great body of firft rate land near the Falls, or Rapids, called Bare-grafs; and it will be fufficient juft to men. tion that the country on the N. Weft fide of the Ohio, fome of the waters of which I have repre. fented in the map, is allowed by all travellers to be a moft fertile, level country, and well wa. tered. AIR AND CLIMATE. T HI S country is more temperate and healthy than the other fettled parts of America. In Summer it wants the fandy heats which Virginia and Carolina experience, and receives a fine air from ( 22 ) from its rivers. In Winter, whichat moftonlylafls three months, commonly two, and is but fieldomn fevere, the people are fafe in bad hou res; and the beafts have a good fupply without fodder. The Winter begins about Chriftmas, and ends about the firfd of March, at fartheit does not exceed the middle of that month. Snow feldom falls deep or lies long. The weft winds often bring dlorms, and the eaft winds clear the fky; but there is no fteady rule of weather in that refpect as in the northern ftates. The weft winds are fometimes cold and nitrous. The Ohio running in that direCtion, and there being mountains on that quarter, the wefterly winds by fweeping along their tops, in the cold regions of the air, and over a long tradt of frozen water, colleat cold in their courfe, and convey it over the Kentuc. ke country; but the weather is not fo intenfely fevere as thefe winds bring with them in Pennfyl. vania. The air and (eafons depend very much on the winds, as to heat and cold, drynefs and moifture. SOIL AND PRODUCE. THE foil of Kentucke is of a loofe, deep black mould, without fand, in the firft rate lands about two or three beet deep, and exceeding lux- urious in all its produtions. In Iome places the mould inclines to brown. In Come the wood, as the ( 23 ) the natural confequence of too rich a roil, is of little value, appearing like dead timber and large ftumps in a field lately cleared. Thefe parts are not confiderable. The country in general may be confidered as well timbered, producing large trees of many kinds, and to be exceeded by no country in variety. Thofe which are peculiar to Kentucke are thefugar-tree, which growsin all parts in great plenty, and furnifhes every family with plenty of excellent fugar. The honey-locuft is curioufly furrounded with large thorny fpikes, bearing broad and long pods in form of peas, has a tweet tafte, and makes excellent beer. The coffee-tree greatly refemrbles the black oak, grows large, and alfo bears a pod, in which is enclofed good coffee. The pappa-tree does not grow to a great fize, is a foft wood, bears a fine fruit much like a cucumber in fhape and fize, and taftes lweet. The cucumber-tree is fmall and foft, with remarkable leaves, bears a fruit much refembling that from which it is nam- ed. Black mulberry-trees are in abundance. The wild cherry-tree is here frequent, of a large fize; and fupplies the inhabitants with boards for all their buildings. Here alfo is the buck-eye, an exceeding foft wood, bearing a remarkable black fruit, and fome other kinds of trees not common elfewhere. Here is great plenty of fine cane, on which the cattle feed, and grow fat. This plant in ( 24 ) in general grows from three to twelve feet high, of a hard fubftance, with joints at eight or ten inches diftance along theftalk, from which proceed leaves refembling thofe of the willow. There are many cane brakes fothick and tall that itis difficulttoppafs through them. Where no cane grows there is a- bundance of wild-rye, clover, and buffalo-grafs, covering vaflt trats of country, and affording ex- cellent food for cattle. The fields are covered with abundance of 'wild herbage not common to other countries. The Shawanefe fallad, wild let- tuce, and pepper-grafs, and many more, as yet unknown to the inhabitants, but which, no doubt, have excellent virtues. Here are feen the fineft crown-imperial in the world, the car- dinal flower, fo much extolled for its fcarlet co- lour; and all the year, excepting the three Winter months, the plains and.valleys are adorned with variety of flowers of the moft admirable beauty. Here is alfo found the tulip-bearing laurel-tree, or magnolia, which has an exquifite fmell, and con- tinues tot bloffom and feed for feveral months together. This country is richeft on the higher lands, exceeding the fineft low grounds in the fettled parts ot the continent. When cultivated it pro- duces in common fifty and fixty bufhels per a- cre; and I have heard it affirmed by credible perfons, that above one hundred bufhels of good corn ( 25 ) corn were produced from an acre in one feaion. The firft rate land is too rich for wheat till it has been reduced by- four or five years cultivation. Col. Harrod, a gentleman of veracity in Ken- tucke, has lately experienced the production of fmallgraia, and affirms that he had thirty-five bu(hels of wheat, and fifty bufhels Of rye per a- cre, I think in. common the land will produce a. bout thirty bufbels of wheat, and rye, upon a moderate computation, per acre; and this is the general opidion of the inhabitants. We may fuppofe that barley and oats will increafe abun- dantly; as yet they have not been fufficiently tried. The foil is very favourable to flax and hemp, turnips, potatoes and cotton, which grow in abundance; and the fecond, third and fourth rate lands, are as proper for fmall grain. Thefe accounts of fuch amazing fertility may, to fome, appear incredible, but are certainly true. Every hufbandman may have a good gar- den, or meadow, without water or manure, where he pleafes. The foil, which is not of a thir. fty nature, is commonly well fupplied with plen. tiful fhowers. Iron ore and lead are foundin abundance, but we do not hear of any filver or gold mine as yet dif- covered4 The ( 26 ) The weftern waters produce plenty of fith and fowl. The fifh common to thewaters of the Ohio are the buffalo-fifh, of a large fize, and the cat-fifh fometimes exceeding one hundred weight. Salmons have been taken in Kentucke weighing thirty weight. The mullet, rock, perch, gar.fifh, and eel, are here in plenty. It is faid that there are no trouts in the weftern wa- ters. Suckers, fun-fifh, and other hook-fifh, are abundant; but no ihad, or herrings. We may fuppofe with a degree of certainty, that there are large fubterraneous aqueduas ftored with fifh, from whence fine fprings arife in many parts proe ducing fine hook-hfh in variety. On thefe was ters, and efpecially on the Ohio, the geefe and ducks are amazingly numerous. The land fowls are turkeys, which are very frequent, pheafants, partridges, and ravens: The perraquet, a bird every way refembling a parrot, but much fmaller; the ivory-bill wood-cock, of a whitifh colour with a white plume, flies fcream. ing exceeding fharp. It is afferted, that the bill of this bird is pure ivory, a circumftnance very fin- gular i-n the plumy tribe. The great owl re- fembles its fpecies in other parts, but is remark- ably different in its vociferation, fometimes mak- ing a firange, furprifing noife, like a man in the moft extreme danger and difficulty. Serpents ( 27 ) Serpents are not numerous, and are tuch as are to be found in other parts of the continent, ex-t cept the bull, the horned and the mockalon fnakes. Swamps are rare, and confequently frogs and othei reptiles, common to ruch places. There are no fwarms of bees, except luch as have been introduced by the prefent inhabitants. Q U A D R U P E D S. AMONG the native animals are the urus, or Zorax, defcribed by Cefar, which we call a buffa- lo, much refembling a large bull, of a great fize, with a large head, thick fhort crooked horns, and broader in his forepart than behind. Upon his fhoulder is a large lump of flefh, covered with a thick bofs of long wool and curly hair, of a dark brown colour. They do not rife from the ground as our cattle, but fpring up at once up- on their feet - are of a broad make and diumiy appearance, with Ihort legs, but ran faft, and tutn not afide for any thing when chafed, except a ltanding tree. They weigh from five to ten hundred weight, are excellent meat, (upplying the inhabitants in many parts with beef, and their hides make good leather. I have heard a hunter affert, he faw ahove one thoufand buffaloes at the Blue Licks at once, fo nume- rous were they before the firft fettlers had wan- tonly iported away their lives. There Rill re- mains ( 28 ) mains a great number in the exterior parts of the fettlement. They feed upon cane and grafs, as other cattle, and are innocent harmlefs crea- tures. There are ftill to be found many deer, elks and bears, within the fettlement, and many more. on the borders of it. There are alfo panthers, wild. cats, and wolves. The watershaveplenty of beavers, otters, minks, and muk-rats: Nor are the animals common to other parts wanting, fuch as foxes, rabbits, Iquir- rels, racoons, ground-hogs, pole-cats, and op.. pofiums. Moff of the fpecies of the domeffic quadrupeds have been introduced fince the fettle-n ment, fuch as horfes, cows, (heep and hogs, which are prodigioufly multiplied, fuffered to run in the woods without a keeper, and only brought home when wanted. I N H A B I T A N T So AN accurate account is kept of all the male inhabitants above the age of fixteen, who are rated towards the expences of the government by the name of Tithables; from which, by allowing that thofe-fo enrolled amount to a fourth Part of the whole inhabitants, we may conclude that Kentucke contains, at preient, upwards of thirty thoufand ( 29 ) thoufand fouls.: So amazingly rapid has been the fettlement in a few years. Numbers are dai- ly arriving, and multitudes- expected this Fall; which gives- a well grounded expeffation that the country will be exceedingly populous in a fhort time. The inhabitants, at prefent, have not ex- traordinary good houfes, as ufual in a newly fettled country. They are, in general, polite, humane, hofpitaw ble, and very complaifant. Being collected from different parts of the continent, they have a diverfity of manners, cuftoms and religions, which may in time perhaps be modified to one u- niform. As yet united to the State of Virginia, they are governed by her wholefome laws, which are virtuoufly executed, and with excellent deco- rum. Schools for education are formed, and a college is appointed by aCt of Aflembly of Vir_ ginia, to be founded under the condut of truf. tees in Kentucke, and endowed with lands for its ufe. An excellent library is likewife bellow- ed upon this feminary, by the Rev. John Todd, of Virginia. The Anabaptifis Were the firft that promoted public worfhip, in Kentucke; and the Prefbyte- rians have formed three large congregations near Harrod's ifation, and have engaged the Rev. Da- vid Rice, of Virginia, to be their pallor. At Lexington ( 30 ) Lexington, 3s miles from thefe, they have form. ed another large corgregation, and invited the Rev. Mr. Rankin, of Virginia, to undertake that charge aniong them. At prefent there are no other religious focieties formed, although feveral other fefts have numerous adherents. But from there early movements it is hoped that Kentucke will eminently fhine in learning and piety, which will fulfil the with of every virtuous citizen. C U R I O S I T I E S. A M 0 N G S T the natural curiofities of this country, the winding banks, or rather precipices of Kcntucke, and Dick's Rivers, deferve the firft place. The atlonifhcd eye there beholds almoft every where three or four hundred feet of a fo- lid perpendicular lime-ftone rock; in fome parts a fine white marble, either curioufly arched, pil- lared or blocked up into fine building ftones. Thefe precipices, as was obferved before, are like the fides of a deep trench, or canal ; the land a- lbove being level, except where creeks fet in, and crowhed with fine groves of red cedar. It is on- ly at particular places that this river can be croff- ed, one of which is worthy of admiration; a great road large enough for waggons made by buffaloes, floping with an eafy defcent from the top to the bottom of a very large fleep hill, at or near the river above Lees-town. Caves ( 31 ) Caves are found in this country amazingly large;, in fome of which you may travel fevoral miles under a fine limeftone rock, fupported by curious arches and pillars: In mofl of them runs a fiream of water. Near the head of Salt River a fubterranean lake or large pond has lately been difcovered. Col. Bowman fays, that he and a companion tra. velled in one four hours till he luckily came to the mouth again. The fame gentleman men_ tions another which operates like an air furnace, and contains much ful phur. An adventurer in. a- ny of thefe will have a perfect idea of primeval darknefs. There appear to be great natural flores of fulphur and falt in this country. A fpring at Boonfburrow conftantly emits fulphureous par. ticles, and near the fame place is a falt fpring. There is another fulphureous fpring upon Four Mile Creek, a third upon Green River, and man. ny others in different places, abounding with that ufeful mineral. There are three fprings or ponds of bitumen near Green River, which do not form a ftream, but dilgorge themfelves into a common refervoir, and when- ufed in lamps anfwer all the purpofes of the fineft oil. There ( 32 ) There are different places abounding with cop.. peras, eafily procured, and in its prefent impure flate fufficient for the ufe of the inhabitants; and when refined, equal to any in the world. There is an allum bank on the fouth fide of Cumberland River, fituated at the bottom of a cliff of rocks projebting over it. In its prefent Riate it has the appearance and pofleffes the vir- tues of that mineral, and. when purified is a beautiful allum. Many fine falt fprings, whofe places appear in the map, conifantly emit water which, being manufaaured, affords great-quantities of fine falt. At prefent there is but one, called Bullet's Lick, improved, and this affords falt fufficient for all Kentucke, and exports Come to the Illinois. Salt fells at prefent for twenty fillings per bufh- el; but as fome other fprings- are beginning to be worked, no doubt that necefTfary article will foon be much cheaper. Drenne's-lick, the Big- bone, and the Blue-licks, fend forth ftreams of falt water. The Nob-lick, and many others, do not produce water, but confift of clay mixed with falt particles : To thefe the cattle repair and reduce high hills rather to valleys than plains. The amazing herds of Buffaloes which refort thi- thdr, by their fize and- number, fill the traveller with amazement and terror, efpecially when he beholds ( 33 ) beholds the prodigious roads they have made from all quarters, as if leading to fome populous city; the vaft fpace of land around thefe fprings defolat. ed as if by a ravaging enemy, and hills reduced to plains; for the land near thofe fprings are chiefly hilly. Thefe are truly curiofities, and the eye can fcarcely be fatisfied with admiring them. A medicinal fpring is found near the Big-bone Lick, which has perfetly cured the itch by once bathing ; and experience in time may difcover in it other virtues. There is another of like nature ear Drennei's-Lick. Near Lexington are to be feen curious fepul. chres, full of human fkeletons, which are thus fa. bricated. Firit, on the ground are laid large broad ifones; on thefe were placed the bodies, feparated from each other by broad ftanes, covered with others, which ferve as a bafis for the next arrangement of bodies. In this order they are built, without mortar, growing flill nar- rower to the height of a man. This method of burying appears to be totally different from that now pradifed by the Indians. For our conjec. tures on this fubject we beg leave to refer to ap. pendix No. 3.-.-At a falt fpling, near Ohio river, very large bones are found, far furpaffing the fize of any fpecies of animals now in America. The head appears to have been about three E feet ( 34 ) feet long, the ribs feven, and the thigh bones a,. bout four; one of which is repofited in the libra- ry in Philadelphia, and faid to weigh feventy. eight pounds. The tuiks are above a foot in length, the grinders about five inches fquare, and eight inches long. Thefe bones have equally excited the amazement of the ignorant, and at- traaed the attention of the philosopher. Speci. mens of them have been fent both to France and England, where they have been examined with the greatef diligence, and found upon comparifon to be remains of the fame fpecies of animals that produced thofe other folfil bones which have been difcovered in Tartary, Chili, and feveral other places, both of the old and new continent. What animal this is, and by what means its ru- ins are found in regions fo widely different, and where none fuch exiffs at prefent, is a queftion of more difficult decifion. The ignorant and fu- perftitious Tartars attribute them to a creature, whom they call Maimon, wvho, they fay, ufualm ly refides at tile bottom of the rivers, and of whom they relate many marvellous ftories; but as this is an aflertion totally divefted of proof, and even of probability, it has juffly been reject-. ed by the learned; and on the other hand it is certain, that no fuch amphibious quadruped ex- ifts in our American waters. The bones them- felves bear a great refemblance to thofe of the e- lephant. There is no other terreftrial animal now known ( 35 ) known large enough to produce them. The tufks with which they are equally furnifhed, equally produce true ivory. Thefe external refemblances have generally made fuperficial obfervers con- clude, that they could belong to no other than that prince of quadrupeds; and when they firif drew the attention of the world, philofophers feem to have fubfcribed to the farne opinion.,'- - But if fo, whence- is it that the whole fpecies has difappeared from America An animal fo laborious and fo docile, that the induftry of the Peruvians, which reduced to fervitude and fubjefted to edu. cation fpecies fo vaflly interior in thofe qualities, as the Llama and the Paca, could never have over- looked the elephant, if he had been to be found in their country. Whence is it that thefe bones are found in climates where the elephant, a na- tive of the torrid zone, cannot even fubfifl in his wild fRate, and in a flate of fervitude will not propagate Thefe are difficulties fufficient to flagger credulity itfelf; and at length produced the enquiries of Dr. Hunter. That celebrated anatomift, having procured fpecimens from the Ohio, examined them with that accuracy for which he is fo much diflinguifhed. He difcovered a confiderable difference between the flapc and ftruLture of the bones, and thofe of the elephant. He obferved from the form of the teeth, that they muff have belonged to a carnivorous animal; whereas the habits of the elephant are foreign to fuch ( 36 ) fuch fuflenance, and his jaws totally unprovided with the teeth neceflary for its ufe: And from the whole he concluded to the fatisfaftion of natura- lifts, that thefe bones belonged to a quadruped now unknown, and whofe race is probably ex. tinct, unlefs it may be be found. in the extenfive continent of New Holland, whofe receffes have not yet been pervaded by the curiofity or avidity of civilized mran. Can then fo great a link have perifled from the chain of nature Happy we that it has. How formidable an enemy to the human fpecies, an animal as large as the elephant, the tyrant of the foreffs, perhaps the devourer of man! Nations, fuch as the Indians, muft have been in perpetual alarm. The animofities among the various tribes inuft have been fufpend- ed till the common enemy, who threatened the ve- ry exiftence of all, ihould be extirpated. To this circumftance we are probably indebted for a faft, which is perhaps fingular in its kind, the ex- tination of a whole race of animals from the fyf- tem of nature. R RIGHTS OF LAND. T H E proprietors of the Kentucke lands ob. tain their patents from Virginia, and their rights are of three kinds, viz, Thofe which arife from military fervice, from fettlement and pre-emp- tion, or from warrants front the treafury. The military (.37) military rights are held by officers, or their repre- fentatives, as a reward for fervices done in one of the two laft wars. The Settlement and pre-emp. tion rights arife from occupation. Every man who, before March, 178o, had remained in the country one year, or raifed a crop of corn, was allowed to have a fettlement of four hundred a-. cres, and a pre-emption adjoining it of one thoufand acres. Every man who had only built a cabbin, or made any improvement by him- feif or others, was entitled to a pre-emption of one thoufand -acres where fuch improvement was made. In March, 1780, the fettlement and pre- emption rights ceafed, and treafury war-. rants were afterwards iffued, authorizing their pofleffor to locate the quantity of land men- tioned in them, wherever it could be found vacant in Virginia. The mode of procedure in thefe affairs may be inftrutive to the reader. After the entry is made in the land-office, there being one in each court- ty, the perfon making the entry takes out a co. py of the location, and proceeds to furvey when he pleafes. The plot and certificate of fuch 1fur. vey muft be returned to the office within three months after the furvey is made, there to be re- corded; and a copy of the record muft be taken out ( 38 ) out in twelve months, after the return of the Cur. vey, and produced to the afliftant regifter of the land-office in Kentucke, where it muff lie fix months, that prior locators may have time and opportunity to enter a caveat, and prove their bet. ter right. If no caveat is entered in that time, the plot and certificate are Cent to the land-office at Richmond, in Virginia, and three months more are allowed to have' the patent.returned to the owner. The validity of the right of Virginia to this extenfive weftern territory has been difputed by fome, but without reafon. The weftern boun. dary of that fRate, by charter, reftrited by the treaty of Paris,in 1763, is fixed upon the Ohio Ri. ver. She has purchafed the foil from the India ans, has firft fettled it, and eftabliffied wholesome laws for the regulation and government of the in. habitants; and therefore we conclude, that the right of Virginia to Kentucke is as permanent as the independence of America. TRADE OF KENTUCKE. A CONVENIENT fituationfor com- merce is the grand hinge upon which the popu- lation, riches and happinefs of every country greatly depends. I believe many conceive the fi. tuation of Kentucke to be unfavourable in this refpect. I confefs when Ifirft vifited -this country I Was ( 39 ) was of the opinion of other mifinformed men, that the beftc channel was from Philadelphia or Baltimore, by the way ot Pittfburg, and from thence down the Ohio; and upon account of the difficulties and expences attending this route, for which there is no remedy, that goods would ever be dear. This opinion I have fince reprobated, as the effect of ignorance of the trade up the Mif- fiflippi from New Orleans, or Mantchac, at the river or gut Iberville. Thofe who are acquainted with America know the Miffiffippi and Ohio rivers to be the key to the northern parts of the weffern continent. Thele are the principal channels through which that extenfive region, bathed by their waters, and enriched by the many ifreams they receive, communicate with the fea, and may truly be con- fidered as the great paffage made by the Hand of Nature for a variety of valuable purpofes, and principally to promote the happinefs and benefit of mankind; amongif which, the conveyance of the produce of that immenfe and fertile country lying weftward of the United States is not the leaf. A fhort defcription of thefe rivers, and fome others flowing into them, are obje6ts fub- mitted to the reader's attention, in order to form From Philadelphia. to Pitburg is a land-car- riage of 320 miles, froM Baltimore 28o. ( 40 ) a juft idea of the favourable commercial circumS dtances of that important country. The Ohio river-begins at Pittfburg, 320 miles weft of Philadelphia, being there formed by the junEtion of the Alleghany and Monangehela rivers, and running a winding courfe of S. 600 Weft, falls into the Mifliffippi 1Q74 miles, by the mean. ders of the river, below Pittfburg. The only obltruc. tion to navigation on this river are the Rapids, as defcribed before under the defcription of the Kentucke rivers; but they are paffed in fafety when the ftream is high. The moft remarkable branches compofing the head waters of Ohio are Red-itone Creek, Cheat River, and Yochiaghany. Thefe waters are na. vigable to a confiderable diftunce above Pittfburg, from November until June, and the Ohio a month longer; but from great Kenhawa, which is one- hundred and ninety-fix miles and a half be. low Pittfburg, the ftream is navigable moft of the year. Down this river great quantities of goods are brought, and fomne are conveyed up the Ken. tucke rivers, others on horfe-back or in waggons to the fettled parts, and fold on an average at one hundred pounds per cent. advance. The current of the Ohio defcends about two miles an hour in autumn, and when the waters ale ( 4' ) are high, about five miles. Thofe of the Ken. tucke rivers are much the fame, and without ra0 pids, and are of immtnfe value to the country, affording fifli and fowl, and tranfportatioin of the produce of the country to the beff market. Thefe rivers increafe the Ohio more in depth than breadth. At its mouth it is not more than one and a half mile in width, and enters the Mi'ffifippi in a S. weft direffion with a flow cur- rent, and a fine channel. This great river, at the junEtion with the Ohio, runs in a S. eaft di. recaion, and afterwards in a S. weft, having been a little before joined by a greater river called Mif. fouri, which runs in at eaftward direation through Louifiana, and afterwards communicates to the Miffifippit its own muddy and majef- ticappearance. From themouthof the Ohioto New Orleans, a diftance not exceeding 460 miles in a ftraight. line, is about 856 by water. The depth is, in common, eight or ten fathoms until you approach its mouth, which empties itfelf by fe" veral channels into the gulf of Mexico. Here the navigation is dangerous, on account of the many iflands, fand bars and logs, interfperfed in its -mouth, which is about twenty miles wide. F This TheMif/ouri is fuppofed to be about 3000 miles long. the T i'fppi is faid to be about 2500 Miles long. ( 42 ) This difadvantage may be remedied almoft in the fame manner that the ftream was difconcerted. The conflict between the lea and this mighty ri. ver, which brings down with its ftream great numbers of trees, mud, leaves, &c. caufes them to fubfide and form fhoals. One of thefe trees, ftopped by its roots or branches) will foon be join- ed by thoufands more, and fo fixed, that no hu- man force-is able to remove them. In time they are confolidated, every flood adds another layer to their height, forming iflands, which at length are covered with fhrubs, grafs and cane, and fork Cibly fhift the bed of the river. In this manner we fu ppofe moft of the country on each fide of the Miffiippi, below the lberville, to have been formed, by iflands uniting to iflands, which in a fucceffion of time have greatly encroached on the fea, and produced an extenfive tracct of country. If fome of the floating timber at the mouths of this river were moved into fome of the channels, numbers more would incorporate with them; and the current being impeded in thefe, the whole force of the river uniting, one important chan- nel would forceably be opened, and fufficiently cleared, to admit of the moft excellent naviga. tion. About ninety-nine miles -above Orleans is a fort, now called Mantchac by the Spaniards; formerly Fort Buteby theEnglifh, whobuiltit. Near this is a laige ( 43 ) a large gut, formed by the Miffiflippi, on the eaft fide, called Iberville; fome have dignified it with the name of River, when the M\lifliflippi, its fource, is high. This is navigable at moft not above four months in the year for the firfi ten miles; for three miles further it is from two to fix feet in autumn, and from two to four fathoms the remaining part of the way to lake Maurepas, receiving in its courfe the river Amit, which is navigable for batteaux to a confiderable difance. Lake Maurepas is about ten miles in length, and feven in breadth; and there is a paflage of feven miles between this and Lake Pontchar- train, Lake Pontchartrain is about forty miles long, twenty four broad, and eighteen feet deep. From this lake to the fea the channel is ten miles long, and three hundred yards wide; and the water deep enough to admit large veffels through thefe lakes, and their communications. This place, if attended to, might be of confequence to all the the weflern country, and to the commerce of Weft-Florida: For it may reafonably be fuppol. ed, that the inhabitants and traders of the weft- ern country would rather trade at this place than at New Orleans, it they could have as good re. turns for their peltry, and the produce of their foil, as it makes a confiderable difference in their voyage, ( 44 ) voyage, and faves labour, money and time. Ex- perience will doubtlefs produce confiderable im. provements, and render the navigation of the Miffilfippi, either by thefe lakes, or New Orleans, nearly as cheap as any other That the MIififip.. pi can anfwer every valuable purpofe of trade and commerce is proved already to a demonft-ration by experience. I have reafon to believe that the time is not far diffant when New Orleans will be a great trading city, and perhaps another will be built near Mantchac, at lbervillel that may in time rival its glory. A prodigious number of iflands, fome of which are of great e6xtent, are interfperfied in that migh- ty river; and the difficulty in ascending it in the Spring when the floods are high, is compenfated by eddies or counter currents, which mofily run in the bends near the banks of the river with nearly equal velocity againft the ftream, and affift the afcending boats. This river is rapid in thofe parts which have clufters of iflands, fhoals and fand-banks; but the rapidity of thefe places will be no inconvenience to the newly invented me- chanical boats, it being their peculiar property to fail beft in fmart currents. Fromn tbisplan is now in agitation in Virginia, and ( 45 ) From New Orleans to the Falls of Ohio, bat. teaux, carrying about 40 tons, have been rowed by eighteen or twenty men in eight or ten weeks, which, at the extent, will not amount to more than five hundred pounds expence, which expe. rience has proved to be about one third of that from Philadelphia. It is highly probable that in time the diftance will be exceedingly fhortened by cuting a-crofs bends of the river. Charlevoix relates, that at Coupee or Cut-pointj the river formerly made a great turn, and faime Canadians, by deepening the channel of a fiall brook, diverted the waters of the river into it.. The impetuofity of the ifream was fo violent, and the foil of fo rich and loofe a quality, that in a thort time the point was entirely cut through, and the old channel left dry, except in inunda. tions, by which travellers fave 14 leagues of their voyage. recommended to government by two gentlemen of fr/ rate abilities,. Mr. Charles Rumfey and Dol. fames MWMacken. Their propofals are, "to conflrut a fpecies of boat, of the burthen cJ ten tons, thatjhall fail, or be propelled by the 7orce of mechanical pow- ers thereto applied, up the liream of afreth water river the di/lance of between 25 and 40 miles a day, notwith/landing the velocity of the waterfozuldd move at the rate of Io miles an hour, to be wrought at no greater eapence than that of three hands," (46) voyage. The new channel has been founded with a line of thirty fathoms without findixng bottom. When the diftance is fhortened, which I believe may readily be done, and the mechani- cal boats brought to their higheft improvements the expences of a voyage from New Orleans to the Falls of Ohio will be attended with incon- fiderable expence. Now we know by experience that forty tons of goods cannot be taken to the Falls of Ohio from Philadelphia under fixteen, hundred pounds expence; but by improve- ments on the Miffiffippi, with the conveniences of thefe boats, goods can be brought from New Orle- ans to the Falls for the tenth part of that expence; and if they are fold at one hundred pounds per cent, now, when brought from Philadelphia! at expences Co great, what may the merchant af- ford to fell his goods at, who brings them fo much cheaper Befides, the great advantages a. rifing from the exporting of peltry, and coun- try produce, which never can be conveyed to the eaftern ports to any advantage. It is evident ala. fo that the market from which they receive im- ports, muft confequently receive fheir exports, which is the only return they can poffibly make, By Efating the commerce of Kentucke in its proper terms, we find the expences. fuch, that we conclude with propriety, that that country will be ( 47 ) be (Applied with goods as cheap as if fituated but forty miles from Philadelphia. But perhaps it will be replied, New Orleans is in the poffefflon of the Spaniards, who, whenever they pleafe, may make ufe of that fort, and fome others they have on the Miffiff1ppi, to prevent the navigation, and ruin the trade. The paflage through Iberville is alfo lubjectt to the Spaniards, and befides, inconvenient; that ftream continua ing fo fhort a time, and in the moft disadvantage- ous feafon, I grant it will be abfurd to expeAt a free navi-, gation of the Miffiflippi whil' the Spaniards are in poffieffion of New Orleans. To fuppofe it, is an idea calculated to impofe only upon the weak. They may perhaps trade with us upon their own terms, while they think it confiflent with their ins tereft, but no triendfhip in trade exiffs when in4 tereft expires; therefore, when the weftern coun- try becomes populous and ripe for trade, found policy tells us the Floridas muf beours too. Ac. cording to the articles of the Definitive Treaty, we are to have a free and unmolefted navigatiQn of 4 Article 8rA of the late Defniti'oe Treaty, fays, The navigation of the MiYfppi Riverjrom its fource to the ocean, (hallfor ever remain free and open to the fubjegs oj Great-Britain and the citizens of the United States, ( 48 ) of the Miffiffippi; but experience teaches man. kind that treaties are not always to be depended oh, the moft folemn being broken. Hence we learn that no one (hould put much faith in any ftate; and the trade and commerce of the Mifliflippi River cannot be lo well fecutrd in any other poffeflion as our own, Although the Iberville only admits of a fhort and inconvenient navigation., yet if a commercial town were built there, it would be the center of the weftern trade; and a land carriage of ten or twelve miles would be counted no difadvantage to the merchant. Nay, I doubt not, that in time a canal will be broke through the gut of Iberville, which may divert the water of Miffiffippi that way, and render it a place of the greateft confe- quence in America; but this important period is referved for futurity. APPENDIX: ( 49 ) A P PENDIX I . The ADVENTURES of Col. DA- N IE L BOO N; containing a NA R R A- TIVE of theWARs of Kentucke. C U R I O S I T Y is natural to the foul of man, and interefting objets bave a power- ful influence on our affeftions. Let thefe influ- encing powers aEtuate, by the permiffion or difpofal of Providence, from felfifh or focial views, yet in time the myfterious will of Heaven is un- folded, and we behold our conduct, from what- foever motives excited, operating to anfwer the imr- portant defigns ot heaven. Thus we behold Kentuc- ke, lately an howling wildernefs, the habitation of favages and wild beafis, become a fruitful field; this region, fo favourably :.i.finguiffied by na- ture, now become the habitation of civilization, G at ( 50) at a period unparalleled in hiftory, in the midt of a raging war, and under all the difadvantages of emigration to a country fo remote from the inhabited parts of the continent. Here; where the hand of violence fhed the blood of the inno- cent; where the horrid yells of favages, and the groans of the diffrefed, founded in our ears, we now hear the praifes and adorations of our Creator; where wretched wigwams ftood, the mi- ferable abodes of (avages, we behold the founda-. tions of cities laid, that, in all probability, will rival the glory of the greateft upon earth. And we view Kentucke fituated on the fertile banks of the great Ohio, rifing from obscurity to fhine with fplendor, equal to any other of the ftars of the American hemifphere. The fettling of. this region well deferves a place in hiflory. Moft'of the memorable events I have myfeif been exercifed in; and, for the fa- tisfaffion of the public, will briefly relate the circumftances of my adventures, and fcenes of Iifd, from my firf movement to this country un- til this day. It was on the firft of May, in the year 1769, that I refigned my domeftic happinefs for a time,, and left my family and peaceable habitation on the Yadkin River, in North-Carolina, to wan. deer through the wildernefs of America, in queft of the ( 51 ) the country of Kentucke, in company with John Finley, John Stewart, Jofeph Holden, James Monay, and William Cool. We proceeded fuc. cefsfully, and after a long and fatiguing journey through a mountainous wildernefs, in, a weft. ward direEtion, on the feventh day of June fol. lowing, we found ourfelves on Red-River, where John Finley had for merly been trading with the Indians, and, from the top of an eminence, faw with pleaf'ure the beautiful level of Kentuc. ke. Here let me obferve, that for-fome time we had experienced the molt uncomfortable wea- ther as a prelibation of our future fufferings. At this place we encamped, and made a fhelter to de.- fend us from the inclement feafon, and began to hunt and reconnoitre the country. We found e- very where abundance of wild beafts of all forts, through this vaft foreft. The buffaloes were more frequent than I have feen cattle in the fet- tlements, browzing on the leaves of the cane, or croping the herbage on thofe extenfive plains, fear- lefs, becaufe ignorant, of the violence of man. Sometimes we faw hundreds in a drove, and the numbers about the falt fprings were amazing. In this foreft, the habitation of beafls of every kind natural to America, we praftifed hunting with great fucceis until the twenty-fecond day of December following. This day John Stewart and I had a pleafing ramble, ( 52 ) ramble, but fortune changed the fcene in the clofe of it We had paffed through a great fo- ref, on which Rood myriads of trees, fome gay with bloffoms, others rich with fruits. Nature was here a feries of wonders, and a fund of de- ligbt. Here fhe difplayed her ingenuity and in-. duftry in a variety of flowers and fruits, beauti- fully coloured, elegantly fhaped, and charming- ly flavooured; and we were diverted with innu- mnerable animals prefenting themselves perpetual. ly to our view.-In the decline of the day, near Kentucke river, as we afcended the brow of a fmall hill, a number of Indians ruffied out of a thick cane-brake upon us, and made us prifon- ers. The time of our forrow was now arrived, and the fcene fully opened. The Indians plun- dered us of what we had, and kept us in confine- ment feven days, treating us with common favage. ufage. During this time we difcovered no un- eafinefs or defire to efcape, which made them lefs fufpiciQus of us; but in the dead of night, as we layv in a thick cane brake by a large fire, when fleep had locked up their fenfes, my fituation not difpofingme for reft, I touched mycompanionand gently awoke him. We improved this favoura- ble opportunity, and departed, leaving them to take their refi, and fpeedily dire6ted our courfe to- wards our old camp, but founditplundered, andthe company difperfed and gone home. Aboutthistime my (53 ) my brother, Squire Boon, with another advent wnrer, who came to explore the country fhortly after us, was wandering through the foreft, de. termined to find me, if poffible, and accidentally found our camp. Notwithftanding the unfortu.. nate circumatances of our company, and our dan- gerous fituation, as furrounded with boftile fa- favages, our meeting fo fortunately in the wilder- nefs made us reciprocally fenfible of the utmoft fatisfafion. So much does friendfhip triumph over misfortune, that forrows and fufferings va- nifh at the meeting not only of real friends, but of the mofi diftant acquaintances, and fubftitutes happinefs in their room. Soon after this, my companion in captivity" John Stewart, was killed by the favages, and tie man that came with my brother returned home by-himfelf. We were then in a dangerous, helplefs fituation, expofed daily to perils and death amongft favages and wild beafis, not a white man in the country but ourselves. Thus fituated, many hundred miles from our families in the howling wilderness, I believe few would have equally en joyed the happinefs we ex. perienced. I often obferved to my brother, You fee now how little nature requires to be fatisfied. Felicity, the companion of content, is rather found in our own breadfs than in the enjoyment of external things: And I firmly believe it ream quires ( 54 ) quires but a little philofophy to make a man happy in whatfoever ftate he is.. This confifts in a full refignation to the will of Providence; and a refigned foul finds pleafure in a path ftrew- ed with briars and thorns. We continued not in. a ftate of indolence, but hunted every day, and prepared a little cottage to defend us from the Winter forms. We re- mained there undifturbed during the Winter; and on the firft day of May, 1770, my brother returned home to the fettlement by himfelf, for a new recruit of horfes and ammunition, leav. ing me by myfelf, without bread, falt or fugar, without company of my fellow creatures, or e- ven a horfe or dog. I confefs I never before was under greater neceffity of exercifing philofophy and fortitude. A few days I paffed uncomforta- bly. The idea of a beloved wife and family, and their anxiety upon the account of my abfence and expofed fituation, made fenfible impreffions on my heart. A thoufand dreadful appreben. fions presented themfelves to my view, and had undoubtedly difpofed me to melancholy, if further indulged., One day I undertook a tour through the coun- try, and the diverfity and beauties of nature I -met with in this charming feafon, expelled every gloomy and vexatious thought. Juft at the clofe of ( 5 ) of day the gentle gales retired, and left the place to the difpofal of aProfound calm. Not a breeze fhook the moll tremulous leaf. 1 had gained the fummit of a commanding ridge, ahd, looking round with aftonithing delight, beheld the ample plains, the beauteous trais below. On the other and, I furveyed the famous river Ohio that rolled in filent dignity, marking the weffern boundary of Kentucke with inconceivable grandeur. At a vaft diftance I beheld the mountains lift their ve- nerable brows, and penetrate the clouds. All things were ftill. 1 kindled a fire near a foun- tain of fweet water, and feafted on the loin of a buck, which a few hours before I had killed. The fullen fhades of night foon overfpread the whole hemifphere, and the- earth feemed to gafp after the hovering moiflure. My roving excur- fion this day had fatigued my body, and diverted my imagination. I laid me down to fleep, and 1 awoke not until the fun had chafed away the night. I continued this tour, and in a few days explored a confiderable part of the country, each day equally pleafed as the firft. I returned again to my old camp, which was not diflurbed in my abfence. I did not confine my lodging to it, but often repofed in thick cane-brakes, to a. void the ravages, who, I believe, often vifited my camp, but fortunately lor me, in my abfence. In this fituation I was conflantly expofed to danger, and death. How unhappy fuch a fituation for a man ( 56 a man tormented with fears which is vain if no danger comes,, and if it does, only- augments the pain. It was my happinefs to be deftitute of this affliling. poffion, with which I had the greateft reafon to be affeEted. The prowling wolves di-A verted my nocturnal hours with perpetual howl. ings; and the various fipecies of awmals in this vaft foreft, inthe daytime. were continually in my view. Thus I was furrounded with plenty in. the midf1 of want. I was -happy in the midft of dangers and inconveniences. In fuch a diverfity it was impoffible I ihould be difpofed to melancholy. No populous city, with all the varieties of commerce and lately fru6tlures, could afford fo much plea. fure to my mind, as the beauties of nature I found here. Thus, through an uninterrupted fcene of fyl. van pleafures, I fpent the time until the; 27th day of July following, when my brother, to my great felicity, met me, according to appointment, at our old camp. Shortly after, we left this place, not thinking it fafe to ftay there longer, and pro. ceeded to Cumberland river, teconnoitring that part of the country 'until March, 1771, and giving names to the different waters. Soon after, I returned home to my fami- ly with a determination to bring them as foon as poflible ( 57 ) poffible to live in Kentucke, which I efeerned a fecond paradife, at the rifk of my life and for- tune. I returned fafe to my old habitation, and found my family in happy circumftances. I fold my farm on the Yadkin, and what goods we could not carry with us; and on the twenty-fifth day of September, 1773, bade a farewel to our friends, and proceeded on our journey to Kentucke, in company with five families more, and forty men that joined us in Powel's Valley, which is one hundred and fifty miles from the now fettled parts of Kentucke. This promifing beginning was foon overcall with a cloud of adverfity; for up. on the tenth day of Oober, the rear of our company was attacked by a number of Indians, who killed fix, and wounded one man. Of thefe my eldeft fon was one that fell in the adtion. Though we defended ourfelves, and repulfed the enemy, yet this unhappy affair fcattered our cat- tle, brought us into extreme difficulty, and fo difcouraged the whole company, that we retreat- ed forty miles, to the fettlemcnt on Clench river. We had paffed over two mountains, viz. Powel s and Walden's, and were approaching Cumberland mountain when this adverfe fortune overtook us. Thefe mountains are in the wil- dernefs, as we pafs from the old fettlements in Virginia to Kentucke, are ranged in a S. weft and H N. eaft ( 58 ) N. eaff diretion, are of a great length and breadth, and not far diftant from each other. Over thefe, nature hath tormed paffes, that are lefs difficult than might be expeEted from -a view of fuch huge piles. The afpea of there cliffs is Co wild and horrid, that it is impoflible to behold them without terror. The fpeaator is apt to imagine that nature had formerly fuffered fome violent convulfion; and that thefe are the difmembered remains of the dreadful fhock; the ruins, not of Perfepolis or Palmyra,. but of the world.! I remained with my family on Clench until the fixth of June, 1774, when I and one Mi- chael Stoner were folicited by Governor Dun. more, of Virginia, to go to the Falls of the Ohio, to conduct into the fettlement a number of fur- veyors that had been fent thither by him fome mnonths before- this country having about this time drawn the attention of many adventurers. We immediately complied with the Governor's re- quefl, and conducted in the-furveyors, compleat- ing a tour of eight hundred miles, -through ma. ny difficulties, in fixty-two days. Soon after I returned home, I was ordered to take the command of three garrifons during the campaign, which Governor Dunmore carried on a- gainf the Shawanefe Indians : After the conclu- lion of which, the Militia was difcharged from each 59 each garrifon, and I being relieved from my poll, was folicited by a number of North-Ca-. rolina gentlemen, that were about purchafing the lands lying on the S. fide of Kentucke River, from the Cherokee Indians, to attend their trea- ty at Wataga, in March, 1775, to negotiate with them, and, mention the boundaries of the purchase. This I accepted, and at the requeft of the fame gentlemen, undertook to mark out a road in the bell paffage from the fettlement through the wildernefs to Kentucke, with fuch affiflance as I thought necefary to employ for fuch an important undertaking6 I Coon began this work, having collected a num- ber of enterprifing men, well armed We pro. ceeded with all poflible expedition until we came within fifteen miles of where Boonfborough now fiands, and where we were fired Qpon by a party of Indians that killed two, and Wounded two of our number; yet, although f'urprtfed and ta- ken at a difadvantage, we ftood our ground. This was on the twentieth of March. 1775- Three days after, we were fired upon again. and had two men killed, and three wounded. After. wards we proceeded on. to Kentucke river with. out oppofition ; and on the firft day of April be. gan to erect the fort of Boonfborough at a falt lick, about fixty yards from the river, on the S. fide. ( 6o ) On the fourth day, the Indians killed one of our men.-We were bufily employed in building this fort, until the fourteenth day of June following, without any farther oppofition from the Indians; and having finifhed the works, I returned to my family, on Clench. In a fhort time, I proceeded to remove my family from Clench to this garrifon; where we ar- rived fafe without any other difficulties than fuch as are common to this paffage, my wife and daughter being the firft white women that ever flood on the banks of Kentucke river. On the twenty-fourth day of December fol- lowing we had one man killed, and one wound. ed, by the Indians, who feemed determined to perfecute us for ereating this fortification, On the fourteenth day of July, 1776, two of Col. Calaway's daughters, and one of mine, were taken prifoners near the. fort. I immediately pur- fued the Indians, with only eight men, and on the fixteenth overtook them, killed two of the party, and recovered the girls. The fame day on which this attempt was made, the Indians di- vided themfelves into different parties, and at. tacked feveral forts, which were fhortly before this time ere ed, doing a great deal of mifchief. This was extremely diftreffing to the new fettlers. The innocent ( 6i ) innocent hufbandman was fhot down, while bu- fy cultivating the foil for his family's fupply. Moft of the cattle around the flations were de_ ftroyed. They continued their hoffilities in this manner until the fifteenth of April, 1777, when they attacked Boonfborough with a party of a. bove one hundred in number, killed one man, and wounded four -Their lofs in this attack was not certainly known to us. On the fourth day of July following, a party of about two hundred Indians attacked Boonf- borough, killed one man, and wounded two. They befieged us torty-eight hours; during which time feven of them were killed, and at laft, finding themfelves not likely to prevail, they raifed the fiege, and departed. The Indians had difpofed their warriors in dif. terent parties at this time, and attacked the dif- terent garrifons to prevent their affllifng each other, and did much injury to the diftreffed in- habitants. On the nineteenth day of this month, Col. Logan's fort was befieged by a party of about two hundred Indians. During this dreadful fiege they did a great deal of mikchief, diftreffed the garrifon, in which were only fifteen men, killed two, and wounded one. The enemies lofs was uncertain, ( 62 ) uncertain, from the common practice which the Indians have of carrying off their dead in time of battle. Col. Harrod's fort was then defended by only fixty-five men, andI Boonfborough by twenty-two, there being no more forts or white men in the country, except at the Falls, a con- fliderable diftance from there, and all taken cole lefively, were bult a handful to the numerous warriors that were every where difperfed through the country, intent upon doing all the mifchilef that favage barbarity could invent. Thus we paffed through a fcene of fufferings that exceeds defcrip- tion. On the twenty-fifth of this month a reinforce. ment of forty-five men arrived from North-Ca- rolina, and about the twentieth- of Augufi fol. lowing, Col. Bowman arrived with one hundred men from Virginia. Now we began to ftrength. en, and from hence, for the fpace of fix weeks, we had fkirmifhes with Indians, in one quarter or other, almoft every day. The favages now learned the faperiority of the Long Knife, as they call the Virginians, by experience; being out-generalled in almoft eve- ry battle. Our affairs began to wear anew af- pect, and the enemy, not daring to venture on open war, prafaifed fecret michief at times. On 63 On the firft day of January, 1778, I went with a party of thirty men to the Blue Licks, on Licking River, to make falt for the different garrifons in the country. On the feventh day of February, as 1-was hunts. ing, to procure meat for the company, I met with a party of one hundred and two Indians, and two Frenchmen, on their march againft Boonfborough, that place being particularly the object of the enemy. They purfued, and took me; and brought me on the eighth day to the Licks, where twenty-fe- ven of my party were, three of them having previoufly returned home with the falt. I know. ing it was impoffible for them to efcape, capitu- lated with the enemy, and, at a diftance in their view, gave notice to my men of their fituation, with orders not to refift, but furrender them. felves captives. The generous ufage the Indians had promifed before in my capitulation, was afterwards fully complied with, and we proceeded with them as priqW foners to old Chelicothe, the principal Indian town, on Little Miami, where we arrived, after an uncomfortable journey, in very fevere weather, on the eighteenth day of February, and received as good treatment as prifoners could expect from faa vages. ( 64 ) vages -On the tenth day of March following, I, and ten of my men, were conduaed by forty Indians to Detroit, where we arrived the thirtieth day, and were treated by Governor Hamilton, the Britifli commander at that poft, with great humanity. During our travels, the Indians entertained me well; -and their affe6tion for me was fo great, that they utterly refufed to leave me there with the others, although the Governor offered them one hundred pounds Sterling for me, on purpofe to give me a parole to go home, Several Englifh gentlemen there, being fenfible of my adverfe fortune, and touched with human fympathy, gee neroufly offered a friendly fupply for my wants, which I refufed, with many thanks for their kind. nefs; adding, that I never expeted it would be in my power to recompenfe fuch unmerited ge- nerofity. The Indians left my men in captivity with the Bririfh at Detroit, and on the tenth day of April brought me towards Old Chelicothe, where we arrived on the twenty-fifth day of the fame month. This was a long and fatiguing march, through an exceeding fertile country, remarkable for fine fprings and ifreams of water. At Che- licothe 1 fpent my time as comfortably as I could expet; was adopted, accordin to their cuftom, into ( 65 ) into a family where I became a Con, and had a great [hare in the affeafion of my new parents, brothers, fiffers, and friends. I was exceedingly familiar and friendly with them, always appear- ing as chearful and fatisfied as poffible, and they put great confidence in me. I often went a hunt- ing with themn, and frequently gained their ap- plaufe for my a'iivity at our fhooting-matches. 1 was careful not to exceed many of them in Ihooting; for no people are more envious than they in this fport. I could obferve, in their coun- tenances and geftures, the greateft expreflions of joy when they exceeded me; and, when the re- verfe happened, ot envy. The Shawanefe king took great notice of me, and treated me with profound refpect, and entire friendlhip, often en- trufting me to hunt at my liberty. I frequently returned with the fpoils of the woods, and as often prefented fome of what I had taken to him, expreffive of duty to my fovereign. My food and lodging was, in common, with them, not fo.good indeed as I could defire) but neceffi.- ty made every thing acceptable. I now began to meditate an efcape, and care- fully avoided their fufpicions, continuing with them at Old Chelicothe until the firft day of June following, and then was taken by them to the falt fprings on Sciotha, and kept there, mak- ing falt, ten days. During this time I hunted I fome ( 66 ) fozne for them, and found the land, for a great extent about this river, to exceed the foil of Ken- tucke, if poffible, and remarkably well watered. When I returned to Chelicothe, alarmed to fee four hundred and fifty Indians, of their choiceft warriors, painted and armed in a fearful man- ner, ready to march againft Booniborough, I de- termined to efcape the firli opportunity. On the fixteentb, before funrrife, I departed in the moft fecret manner, and arrived at Boonfbo- rough on the twentieth, after a journey of one hundred and fixty miles; during which, I had but one meal. I found our fortrefs in a bad fRate of defence, but we proceeded immediately to repair our flanks, ftrengthen our gates and pofterns, and form double baations, which we compleated in ten days. In this time we daily expeted the ar- rival of the Indian army; and at length, one of my fellow prifoners, efcaping from them, arrived, informing us that the enemy bad an account of my departure,and poftponedtheir expedition three weeks.--The Indians had fpies out viewing our movements, and were greatly alarmed with our increafe in number and fortifications. The Grand Councils of the nations were held frequently, and with. more deliberation than ufual. They evi.. dently ( 67 ) dently faw the approaching hour when the Long Knife would difpoffefs them ot their defirable ha. bitations; and anxioufly concerned for futurity, determined utterly to extirpate the whites out of Kentucke. We were not intimidated by their movements, but frequently gave them proofs of our courage. About the firf' of Auguft, I made an incur. lion into the Indian country, with a party of nineteen men, in order to furprife a fmall town up Sciotha, called Paint-Creek-Town. We ad. vanced within four miles thereof, where we met a party of thirty Indians, on their march againft Boonfborough, intending to join the others from Chelicothe. A fmart fight enfued betwixt us for fome time: At length the favages gave way, and fled. We had no lofs on our fide: The enemy had one killed, and two wounded. We took from them three horfes, and all their baggage; and being informed, by two of our number that went to their town, that the Indians had entirely evacuated it. we proceeded no further,, and rev turned with all poffible expedition to affift our garrifon againft the other party. We paffed by them on the fixth day, and on the feventh, we arrived fafe at Boonfboroughz On the eighth, the Indian army arrived, being four hundred and forty-fourin number, commanded. by ( 68 ) by Capt.Duquefne, eleven otherFrenchmen, and fime of their own chiefs, and marched up with. in view of our fort, with Britifh and French co. lours flying; and having Cent a fummons to rMse, in his Britannick Majeffy's name, to furrender the fort, I requefted two days confideration, which was granted. It was now a critical period with us.-We were a fmall number in the garrifon:-A powerful art my before our walls, whofe appearance proclaim. ed inevitable death, fearfully painted, and mark. ing their footiteps with defolation. Death was preferable to captivity; and if taken by ftorm, we muft inevitably be devoted to deftruffion. In this fituation we concluded to maintain our garrifon, if poffible. We immediately proceeded to colleft what we could of our horfes, and other cattle, and bring them through the pofterns into the fort: And in the evening of the ninth, I re. turned anfwer, that we were determined to de. fend our fort while a man was living --Now, faid [ to their commander, who food attentive- ly hearing my fentiments, We laugh at all your formidable preparations: But thank. you for give ing us notice and time to provide for our defence. Your efforts will not prevail; for our gates (hall for ever deny you admittance.-Whether this anfwer affefted their courage, or not, I cannot tell; but, contrary to our expectations, they formed ( 69 ) formed a cheme to deceive us, declaring it was their orders, from Governor Hamilton, to take us captives, and not to defiroy us; but if nine of us would come out, and treat with them, they would immediatly withdraw their forces from our walls, and return home peaceably. This found. ed grateful in our ears; and we agreed to the propofal. We held the treaty within fixty yards of the garrifon, on purpofe to divert them from a breach of honour, as we could not avoid fufpicions of the favages. In this fituation the articles were formally agreed to, and figned; and the Indians told us it wascuftomary with them, on fuch occa-. fions, for two Indians to fhake hands with every white-man in -the treaty, as an evidence of en- tire friendfhip. We agreed to this alfo, but were foon convinced their policy was to take us pri. foners.-They immediately grappled us; but, although Surrounded by hundreds of ravages, we extricated ourfelves from them, and efcaped all fafe into the garrifon, except one that- was wounded, through a heavy fire from their army. They immediately attacked us on every fide, and a conftant heavy fire enfued between us day and night for the fpace of nine days. In this time the enemy began to undermine our tort, which was fituated fixty yards from Ken. tucke ( 70 ) tucke iiver. Theybegan atthewater-markatidpro- ceeded in the bank fome diftance, which we un. derftood by their making the water muddy with the clay; and we immediately proceeded to dif. appoint their defign, by cutting a trench a-crofs their fubterranean paffage, The enemy difcover- ing our counter-mine, by the clay we threw out of the fort, defifted from that ftratagem: And ex. perience now fully convincing them that neither their power nor policy could effectt their purpofe, on the twentieth day of Auguft they raifed the fiege, and departed. During this dreadful fiege, which threatened death in every form, we had two men killed, and four wounded, befides a number of cattle. We killed of the enemy thirty-feven, and wounded a great number. After they were gone, we pick- ed up one hundred and twenty-five pounds weight of bullets, befides what ftuck in the logs of our fort; which certainly is a great proof of their induftry. Soon after this, I went into the fettlement, and nothing worthy of a place in this account paffectin my affairs for fome time. During -my abfence from Kentucke, Col. Bow. man carried on an expedition againft the Shawanefe, at Old Cheligothe, with one hundred and fixty men, in July, 1779. Here they arrived undi- covered, and a battle enfued, which lafted un- til ( 7' ) til ten o'clock, A. M. when Col. Bowman, find- ing he could not fucceed at this time, retreated a- bout thirty miles. The Indians, in the mean time, collefing all their forces, purfued and o- vertook him, when a fmart fight continued near twohours, not to the advantage of Col. Bow- man's party. Col. Harrod propofed to mount a number of horfe, and furioufly to rufh upon the favages, who at this time fought with remarkable fury. Th is defperate ftep had a happy effeCt, broke their line of battle, and the favages fled on all fides. In thefe two battles we had nine killed, and one wounded. The enemy's lofs uncertain, on- ly two fcalps being taken. On the twenty-fecond day of June, 1780, a large party of Indians andrCanadians, about fix hundred in number, commanded by Col. Bird, attacked Riddle's and Martin's ftations, at the Forks of Licking River, with fix pieces of ar- tillery. They carried this expedition fo Lecretly, that the unwary inhabitants did not difcover them, until they fired upon the forts; and, not being prepared to oppofe them, were obliged to furrender themrelves miferable captives to barba. rous favages, who immediately after tomahawked one man and two women, and loaded all the others with heavy baggage, forcing them along toward ( 72 ) toward theIr towns, able or unable to march. Such as were weak and faint by the way, they tomnahawked The tender women, and helplefs children, fell viElims to their cruelty. This, and the favage treatment they received afterwards, is fhocking to humanity, and too barbarous to relate. The hoflule difpofition of the favages, and their allies, caufed General Clark, the commandant at the Falls of the Ohio, immediately to begin an expedition with his own regiment, and the arm- ed force of the country, againft Pecaway, the principal town of the Shawanefe, on a branch of Great Miami, which he finifhed with great fuc- cefs, took feventeen fcalps, and burnt the town to aflies, with the lofs of feventeen men. About this time I returned to Kentucke with my family ; and here, to avoid an enquiry into my conductt, the reader being before informed of my bringing my family to Kentucke, I am under the neceflity of informing him that, during my captivity with the Indians, my wife, who de- fpaired of ever feeing me again, expeffing the In- dians had put a period to my life, oppreffed with the diftreffes of the country, and bereaved of me, her only happinefs, had, before I returned, tranf- ported my family and goods, on horfes, through the wildernefs, amidif a multitude of dangers, to her father's houfe, in North-Carolina. Shortly ( 73 ) Shortly after the troubles at Booniborougb, I went to them, and lived peaceably there until this time. The hiftory of my going home, and re- turning with my family, forms a feries of diffi- culties, an account of which would fwell a vo- lume, and being foreign to my purpofe, I Shall purpofely omit them, I fettled my family in loonfborough once more; and fhortly after, on the fixth day of OCtober, I780, I went in company with my brother to the Blue Licks; and, on our return home, we were fired upon by a party of Indians. They fhot him, and purfued me, by the fcent of their dog, three miles; but I killed the dog, and efcaped. The Winter foon came on, and was very fevere, which confined the Indians to their wigwams. The feverity of this Winter caufed great difli- culties in Kentucke. The enemy had deffroyed moft of the corn, the Summer before. This ne- ceflary article was fcarce, and dear; and the inhabitants lived chiefly on the flefh of buffaloes. The circumftances of many were very lamenta- ble: However, being a hardy race of people, and accuftomed to difficulties and neceffities, they were wonderfully fupported through all their fuf- ferings, until the enfuing Fall, when we receiv- ed abundance from the fertile foil K Towards ( 74 ) Towards Spring, we were frequently haraffed by Indians; and, in May, 1.782, a party affaulted Afhlton's Rfation, killed one man, and took a Negrq prifoner. Capt. Afhton, with twenty-five men, purfued, and overtook the favages, and a fmart fight enfued, which lafted two hours; but they being fuperior in number, obliged Captain Afhton's party to retreat, with the lofs of eight killed, and four mortally wounded; their brave commander himfelf being numbered among the dead. The Indians continued their hoftilities; and, about the tenth of Auguft following, two boys were taken from Major Hooy's flation. This party was purfued by Capt. Holder and feventeen men, who were alfo defeated, with the lofs of four men killed, and one wounded. Our affairs became more and more alarming. Several ftations which had lately been ereIed in the country were conti- nually intefted with ravages, flealing their horfes and killing the men at every opportunity. In a field, near Lexington, an Indian fhot a man, and running to- fclp him, was himfelf fhot from the fort, and fell dead upon his enemy. Every day we experienced recent mifchiefs. The barbarous favage nations of Shawanefe, Che- rokees, Wyandots, Tawas, Delawares, and fe- veral others near Detroit, united in a war againft us, ( 75 ) us and affembled -their choiceft warriors at old Chelicothe, to go on the expedition, in order to deftroy us, and entirely depopulate the country. Their favage minds were inflamed to mifchief by two abandoned men, Captains McKee and Girty. Thefe led, them to execute every diaboli- cal fcheme.; and, on the fifteenth day of Auguft, commanded a party of Indians and Canadians, of about five hundred in number, againifl Bri. ant's flation, five tniles from Lexington. With- out demanding a furrender, they furioufly af. faulted the garrifon, which was happily prepared to oppofb them; and, after they had expended much ammunition in vain, and killed the cattle. round the fort, not being likely to make them. felves nirafters of this place, they raifed the fiege, and departed in the morning of the third day af- ter they came, with the lofs of about thirty kill- ed) -and the number of wounded uncertain.-Of the garrifon four were killed, and three wound- ed. On the eighteenth day Col. Todd, Col. Trigg, Major Harland, and myfelf, fpeedily colle ted one hundred and feventy-fix men, well armed, and purfued the favages. They had marched be- yond the Blue Licks to a remarkable bend of the main fork of Licking River, about forty-three miles from Lexington, as it is particularly repre.. fented in the map, where we overtook them on the ( 76 ) the nineteenth day. The favages obferving us, gave way; and we, being ignorant of their num- bers, paffed the river. When the enemy law our proceedings, having greatly the advantage ot us in fituation, they formed the line of battle, as reprefented in the snap, from one bend of Lick. ing to the other., about a mile from the Blue Licks. An exceeding fierce battle immediately began, for about fifteen minutes, when we, be. ing over-powered by numbers, were obliged to rew treat, with the lofs of fixty feven men ; feven of whom were taken prif6ners, The brave and much lamented Colonels Todd and Trigg, Major Harland and my fecondfon, were among the dead. We were informed that the Indians, numbering their dead, found they had four killed more than we ; and therefore, four of the prifoners they had taken, were, by general content, ordered to be killed, in a moft barbarous manner, by the young warriors, in order to train them up to cruelty i and then they proceeded to their towns. On our retreat we were met by Col. Logan, haffening to join us, with a number of well arm- ed men. This powerful aflifance we unfortu- nately wanted in the battle; for, notwithftanding the enemy's fuperiority of numbers, they ac- knowledged that, if they had received one itore fire from us, they Ihould undoubtedly have giv- en way. So valiantly did our ftnall party fight, that, ( 77 ) that, to the memory of thofe who unfortunate.. ly fell in the battle, enough of honour cannot be paid Had Col. Logan and his party been with us, it is highly probable we fhould have given the favages a total defeat. I cannot reflect upon this dreadful fcene, but forrow fills my heart. A zeal for the defence ot their country led thefe heroes to the fcene of ac_ tion, though with a few men to attack a power. ful army of experienced warriors. When we gave way, they purfued us with the utmoft ea- gernefs, and in every quarter fpread deftruction. The river was difficult to crofs, and many were killed in the flight, fome juft entering the river, fome in the water, others after croffing in afcend-. ing the cliffs. Some efcaped on horfe-back, a few on foot; and, being difperfed every where, in a few hours, brought the melancholy news of this unfortunate battle to Lexington. Many wi. dows were now made. The reader may guefs what forrow filled the hearts of the inhabitants, exceeding any thing that I am able to deicribe. Being reinforced, we returned to bury the dead, and found their bodies ftrewed every where, cut and mangled in a dreadful manner. This mourn. ful fcene exhibited a horror almoft unparalleled: Some torn and eaten by wild beafts; thofe in the river eaten by fithes; all in fuch a putrified conq dition, 78 dition, that no one could be dif'tinguilhed from another. As foon as General Clark, then at the Falls of the Ohio, who was ever our ready friend, and merits the love and gratitude of all his coun- try-men, underftood the circumftances of this unfortunate afion, he ordered an expedition, with all poffible hafte, to purfue the favages, which was fo expeditioufly effeded, that we overtook them within two miles of their towns, and pro- bably might have obtained a great vitory) had not two of their number met us about two hun- dred poles before we come up. Thefe returned quick as lightening to their camp with the alarm- ing news of a mighty army in view. The fa. vages fled in the utmoft diforder, evacuated their towns, and reluffantly left their territory t6 our mercy. We immediately took poffeffion of Old Chelicothe-without oppofition, being deferted by its inhabitants. We continued our purfuit through five towns on the Miami rivers, Old Chelicothe, Pecaway, New Chelicothe, Will's Towns, and Chelicothe, burnt them all to afh. es, entirely deftroyed their corn, and other fruits, and every where fpread a fcene of defolation in the country. In this expedition we took fevers prifoners and five fcalps, with the lofs of only four men, two of whom were accidentally killed by our own army. ( 79 ) This campaign in fome meafure damped the fpirits of the Indians, and made them fenfible of our fuperiority. Their conneffions were diflolv- ed, their armies Scattered, and a future invafion put entirely out of their power yet they conti- nued to praffife mifchief fecretly upon. the inha. bitants, in the expofed parts of the country. In October following, a party made an ex- curfion into that diftrict called. the Crab Orchard, and one of them, being advanced Come diftance before the others, boldly entered the houfe of a poor defencelefs family, in which was only a Ne- gro man, a woman and her children, terrified with the apprehenfions of immediate death. The favage, perceiving their defencelefs fituation, with- out offering violence to the family attempted to- captivate the Negro, who, happily proved an o- ver-match for him, threw him on the ground, and, in the ftruggle, the mother of the children drew an ax from a corner of the cottage, and cut his head off, while her little daughter fheut the door. The favages inflantly appeared, and ap- plied their tomahawks to the door. An old ruf ty gun-barrel, without a lock, lay in a corner,. which the mother put through a fmall crevice, and the favages, perceiving it, fled. In the mean time, the alarm fpread through the neighbour- hood; the armed men collected immediately, and purfued the ravagers into the wildernefs. Thus Providence, ( 80 ) Providence, by the means of this Negro, fived the whole of the poor family from deftruftion.. From that time, until the happy return of peace between the United States and Great-Britain5 the Indians did us no mifchief. Finding the great king beyond the water difappointed in his ex. peffations, and confcious of the importance of the Long Knife, and their own wretchednefs, fome of the nations immediately defired peace; to which, at prefent, they eem univerfally dif. pofed, and are fending ambaffadors to General Clark, at the Falls of the Ohio, with the mi- nutes of their Councils; a (pecimen of which, in the minutes of the Piankafhaw Council, is fubjoined. To conclude, I can now fay that I have veri. fied the faying of an old Indian who figned Col. Henderfon's deed. Taking me by the hand, at the delivery thereof, Brother, fays he, we have given you a fine land, but I believe you will have much trouble in. fettling it.-My footifeps have often been marked with blood, and therefore I can truly fubfcribe to its original name, Two darling fons, and a brother, have I loft by favage hands, which have alfo taken from me forty va- luable horfes, and abundance of cattle. Many dark and fleeplefs nights have I been a compa- nion for owls, feparated from the chearful focit- ety of men, fcorched by the Summer's fun, and pinched ( 81 ) pinched by the Winter's cold, an inifrument or- dained to fettle the wildernefs. But now the fcene is changed: Peace crowns the fylvan fhade. What thanks, what ardent and ceafelefs thanks are due to that all-fuperintending Providence which has turned a cruel war into peace, brought order out of confufion, made the fierce favages placid, and turned away their hoffile weapons from our country! May the fame Almighty Goodnefs baniih the accurfed monfter, war, from all lands, with her hated affociates, rapine and infatiable ambition. Let peace, defcending from her native heaven, bid her olives fpring a- midfi the joyful nations; and plenty, in league with commerce, fcatter bleffings from her copi- ous hand. This account of my adventures will inform the reader of the moft remarkable events of this country.-I now live in peace and fafety, enjoy- ing the fweets of liberty, and the bountres of Providence, with niy once fellow-fufferers, in this delightful country, which I have feen pur. chafed with a vaft expence ot blood and trealure, delighting in the profpect of its being, in a fhort time, one of the molt opulent and powerfnl ftates onthe continent of North-America; which, with the love and gratitude of my countrytmen, L I efteem ( 82 ) I efteem -a fufficient reward for all my toil and dan gers. DANIEL BOON Fayette county, Kentucke. PIANKASHAW COU NCIL. In a CO U N C I L, held with the Piankajhaw Indians, by Thomas 7. Dalton, at Pql St. 7incent's, April r 5, 1 7 84. MY CHILDREN, WXT HAT I have often told you, is now come to pafs. This day I received news from my Great Chief, at the Falls of Ohio. Peace is made with the enemies -of America. The White Flefh, the Americans, French, Spa- niards, Dutch and Engliih, this day fmoke out of ( 83 ) of the peace-pipe. The tomahawk is buried, and they are now friends. I am told the Shawanefe, Delawares, Chica. faws, Cherokees, and all other the Red Flefh, have taken the Long Knife by the hand. They have given up to them the prifoners that were in their nations. My Children on Wabajh, Open- your ears, and let what I tell you fink deep in your hearts. You know me. Near twen-q ty years I have been among you. The Long Knife is my nation. I know their hearts; peace they carry in one hand, and war in the other. I leave you to yourfelves to judge. Confider, and now accept the one, or the other. We ne- ver beg peace of our enemies. If you love your women and children, receive the belt of wampumn I prefent you. Return me my flefh you have in your villages, and the horfes you ftole from my people at Kentucke. Your corn-fields were ne- ver difturbed by the Long Knife. Your women and children lived quiet in their houfes, while your warriors were killing and robbing my peo- ple. All this you know is the truth. This is the laft time I fhall fpeak to you. I have waited fix moons to hear you fpeak, and to get my people from you. In ten nights 1 fhall leave ( 84) leave the Wabafh to fee my Great Chief at the Falls of Ohio, where he will be glad to hear, from your own lips, what you have to fay. Here is tobacco I give you: ;Smoke ; and confider what I have faid.-Then I delivered one belt of blue and white wampum; and faid, Piankafhaw, fpeak, fpeak to the Americans. Then the Piankafhaw Chiet anwered; My Great Father, the Long Knae, You have been many years among us. You have fuffered by us. We ftill hope you will have pity and compaffiooh upon us, on our women and children; the day is clear. The fun ihines on us; and the good news of peace appears in our faces. This day, my Father, this is the day of joy to the Wabafh radians. With one tongue we now fpeak. We accept your peace-belt, We return God thanks, you are tbe man that delivered us what we long wifhed for, peace, with the White Flefh. My- Father, we have many times counfel- led before you knew us; and you know how fome of us fuffiered before. We received the tomahawk from the Englih.: Poverty forced us to it : We were attended by other nations: We are forry for it. We this day collectl the bones of our friends that long a- go were Scattered upon the earth. We. y them ( 85 ) them in one grave. We thus plant the tree of peace, that God may fpread branches; fo that we can all be fecured from bad weather. They fmoke as brothers out of the peace-pipe we now prefent you. Here, my Father, is the pipe that gives us joy. Smoke out of it. Our warriors are glad- you are the man we prefent it to. You fee, Father, we have buried the tomahawk: We now make a great chain of friendfhip never to be broken; and now, as one people, fmoke out of your pipe. My Father, we know God was an- gry with us for ftealing your horfes, and difturbr iog your people. He has fent us fo much fnow and cold weather, that God himfelf killed all your horfes, with our own. We are now a poor people. God, we hopes will help us; and our Father, the Long Knife, will have pity and compaffion on our women and children. Your flefh, my Father, is well that is among us; we fhall colleEt them all together when theycome in from hunting. Don't be forry, my Father, all the prifoners taken at Kentucke are alive and well; we love them, and fo do our young women. Some of your people mend our guns, and o- thers tell us they can make rum of the corn. Thofe are now the fame as we. In one moon af- ter this, we will go with them to their friends at Kentucke. Some of your people will now go with ( 86 ) with Coftea, a Chief of our nation, to fee his Great Father, the Long Knife, at the Falls of Ohio. My Father, This being the day of joy to the Wabafh MIdi. ans, we beg a little drop of your milk, to let our warriors fee it came from your own breaft. We were born and raifed in the woods; we could ne- ver learn to make rum-God has made the White Flefh mailers of the world; they make every thing; and we all love rum- Then they delivered three firings of blue and white wampum, and the coronet of peace. PRESENT, in COUNCIL, M U S K I T O. Capt. B E A V E R, WOODS & BURNING, BADT RIPES, A N T I A, M O N T O U R, C A S T I A, GRAND COURT; With many other Chiefs, and War Captains, and the Principal Inhabitants of the Poft of St. Vincent's. (87 ) OF THE I N D IA N SO W o r E have an account of twenty-eight dif- ferent nations of Indians, Eaftward of the Miffiflippi. Their fituation is as follows. The Cherokee Indians are neareff to Ken-. tucke, living upon the Tenefe River, near the mouths of Clench, Holftein, Nolachucke, and French-Broad Rivers, which form the Te- nefe or Cherokee River, in the interior parts of North-Carolina, two hundred miles from Ken- tucke. The Chicamawgees live about ninety rliles down the Tenefe from the Cherokees, at a place called Chicamawgee, which in our language figni- fies a Boiling Pot, there being a whirl-pool in the river dangerous for boats. The Dragomo- nough, a Chief of the Cherokees, with fixty more, broke off fromthat nation, and formed this tribe, ( 88 ) tribe, which is called by the name of the Whirl- pool. The Cheegees, and Middle-Settlement Indi. ans, are fettled about fifty and eighty miles South of the Cherokees.-.Thefe four tribes fpeak one language, being defended from the Cherokees. The Chicaf'aws inhabit about one hundred miles N. W. from our fettlement at French Lick, on Cumberland River, on the heads of a river called Tombeche, which runs into Mobile Bay. The Chotaw nation are eighty miles from the Chicafaws, down the fame river. The Creek Indians live about one hundred and fixty miles South of the Chotaws, on the Apa. lache River, which runs into the Gulph of Mex- icoa fome little diftance Eaft of Mobile Bay. The Uchees Indians occupy four different places of refidence, at the head of St. John's, the Fork of St. Mary's, the head of Cannuchee, and the head of St. Tillis. Thefe rivers rife on the borders of Georgia, and run leparately into the ocean. The Catauba Indians are fettled in North-Ca- rolina, ( 89 ) rolina, about two hundred miles diftant from Charles-town, in S. Carolina. The tribes to the Weftward of Ohio River are the Delawares, living upon the Miikingum Ri- ver, which runs into the Ohio one hundred and eighty-feven miles above Sciotha, on the N. Weft fide. The Mingo Nation lives upon A N. W. branch of Sciotha River, as is reprelinted in the map. The Wyandotts poffefs the banks of a river call. ed Sandufky, which heads and interlocks with Scotha, and, running in a contrary direffion nearly N. W. for a great diflance, falls into Lake Erie. The Six Nations are fettled- upon waters run. ning into Lake Ontario, that head in the moun- tain, from whence the Ohio and Sufquehannah rivers rife. The Shawanefeindians occupyfive towns on the waters of Little and Great Miami, as appears in the map. The Gibbaways are fixed on the Eaft fide of Detroit River, and oppofite the fort of that name, This river runs out of Lake Huron M . into ( 90 ) into Lake Erie, is thirty-fix miles in length, and the fort ftands on the Weft fide, half way be. twixt thefe lakes. The Hurons live fix miles from the Gib. baways, towards Lake Huron, and on the fame fide of the river. The Tawaws are found eighteen miles up the Mawmee or Omee River, which runs into Lake Erie. There is a fmall tribe of Tawas fettled at a place called the Rapids, fome diftance higher up the river than the former. The Mawmee Indians live two hundred. and forty miles up this river, at a place called Ro- fedebeau. The Piankafhaws refide about one hundred and fixty miles up Wabafh River:- The Vermilion Indians about fixty miles higher;-and the Wyahtinaws about thirty miles fill further up the fame river. The Wabafh beads and interlocks with Maw-. mee, and runs a contrary direffion into Ohio three hundred and eighteen miles below the Falls. The ( 91 ) The Long-ifle or Ifle-River Indians live on, Ifle, or White River, which runs into Wa- bafh. The Kickapoos are fixed on a branch of Mawmee River above the Long-ifle Indians. The Ozaw Nation lives on the Ozaw River, which runs into Miffilfippi :"- And the Kakaiky Nation, on the Miffiflippi, two hundred miles above the Ozaws. The Illinois Indians inhabit upon the Illinois River, which falls into the Miffiflippi;- And the Poutawottamies near St. Jofeph's, a town on a branch of the Illinois. The Sioux and Renards, are neighbours to the fort of Michillimackinac, on Lake Michigan. Thefe are the principal part of the Nations within the limits of the United States. Allow- ing about feven hundred to a nation or tribe, they will contain, in all, twenty thoufand fouls, and confequently may furnifh between four and five thoufand warriors. I The Speculations of curious idlenefs have fram- ed ( 92 ) ed many fyftems to account for the population of this immenfe continent. There is fcarce a people in the old world which has not had its advocates; and there have not been wanting fomre, who, defpairing to loofen, have cut the knot, by fuppofing that the power, which fur- nifhed America with plants, has in the fame manner fupplied it with men, or at leaft, that a remnant in this continent was faved from the univerfal deluge, as well as in the other. As this fubjeEt is rather curious than ufeful. and, in its verynature,does notadmit of certainty, everything that paffed in America before the arrival of the Europeans being plunged in Cimmerian darknefs, except thofe little traditional records, which diffufe a glimmering light on the two empires of Mex- ico and Peru, for about two hundred years at moft before that period, we Ihall only flightly touch on that fubje(t; chiefly for the fake of taking notice of Come modern difcoveries which feem to ftrengthen the probability of fome for- mer theories The great fimilarity, or rather i- dentity, of the perfons and manners of the A- mericans, and thofe of the Tartars of the N, Eaftern parts of Afia, together with a prefiump- tion, which has long poffeffed the learned, that Afia and America were united, or at leaft fe- parated only by a narrow fea, has inclined the more reflefting part of mankind to the opinion, that the true origin of the Indians is from, this quarter. The immenfe feas, which feparate the two ( 93 ) two continents on every other fide, render it high. ly improbable that any colonies could ever have been fent a--crofs them before the difcovery of the magnetical compafs. The ingenious M. Buffon too has remarked, and the obfervation appears to bejuft, that there are no animals inhabiting in common the two continents, but fuch as can bear the colds of the North. Thus there are no ele- phants, no lions, no tigers, no camels in Ame. rica; but bears, wolves, deer, and elks in abun._ dance, abfolutely the fame in both hemilpheres, This hypothefis, which has been gaining ground ever fince its firt appearance in the world, is now reduced almoft to a certainty by the late di f, coveries of Capt. Cook. That illuftrious, but unfortunate navigator, in his laff voyage, penes trated for a confiderable diflance into the ftrait which divides Afia from America. which is only fix leagues wide at its mouth ; and therefore eafi- ly practicable for canoes. We may now there- fore conclude, that no farther enquiry will ever be madein to thegeneraloriginof theAmericantribes. Yet, after all, it is far from beingimprobable that various nations, by fhipwreck, or otherwife, may have contributed, in fome degree, to the popula- tion of this continent. The Carthaginians, who had many fettlements on the coaft of Africa, be- yond the Straits of Gibraltar, and pufhed their diIcoveries as far as where the two continents in that ( 94 ) that quarter approach each other the nearefi, may probably have been thrown by tempefts on the American coaa, and the companies of the veffels finding it imprafticable to return, may have in- corporated with the former inhabitants, or have forrhed new fettlements, which, from want of the nqcemary inftruments to exercife the arts they were acquainted with, would naturally degene- rate into barbarity. There are indeed fome an- cient writers, who give us reafon to fuppofe, that there were colonies regularly formed by that na- tion in America, and that the communication, after having continued for Come time, was ftop- ped by order of the State. But it is difficult to conceive that any people, effablifhed with all thofe necefiaries proper for their fituation, fhould ever degenerate, from Co high a degree of cultivation as the Carthaginians poffeffed, to a total igno. rance even of the mofi neceffary arts: And there- fore, it feems probable, that if that nation ever had fuch colonies, they muft have been cut off by the natives, and every veffige of them de._ ftroyed. About the ninth and tenth centuries, the Danes were the greateft navigators in the univerfe. They difcovered and fettled Iceland; and from thence, in 964, planted a colony in Greenland. The ancient Icelandic chronicles, as reported by M. Mallet, contain an account of fome Icelanders, who, ( 95 ) who, in the clofe of an unfuccefsful war, fled to Greenland) and from thence Weftward, to a country covered with vines, which from thence they called Vinland. The adventurers returned home, and conduct-. ed a colony to their new difcovery; but difturb- ances arifing in Denmark, all communication with Greenland, as well as Vinland, ceafed; and thofe countries remained unknown to the reit of the world for feveral ages. The remains of this colony are probably to be found on the coaft of Labrador, in the nation of the Efquimaux. The colour of their fkins, their hairy bodies and bufhy beards, not to mention the difference of manners, mark an origin totaUy diftint from that of the other Indians. In the year 1 170, Madoc, fon of Owen Gwyn.. nedh, Prince of Wales, diflatisfied with the fi.. tuation of affairs at home, left his country, as related by the Welfh hiflorians, in queft of new iettlements, and leaving Ireland to the North, proceeded Weft till he difcovered a fertile coun. try; where, leaving a colony, he returned, and perfuading many of his country-men to join him, put to fea with ten hips, and was never more heard of. This ( 96 ) This account has, at feveraltimes, drawn the attention of the world; but as no veftiges of them had then been found, it was concluded, perhaps too rathly, to be a fable, or at leaft, that no re. mains of the colony exiaed. Of late years, how. ever, the Weftern fettlers have received frequent accounts of a nation, inhabiting at a great difi. tance up the Mifflouri, in manners and appearance refrembling the other Indians, but fpeaking Welfh, and retaining fome ceremonies of the chriflian worfhip; and at length, this is univerfially be-e lieved there to be a faft. Captain Abraham Chaplain, of Kentucke, a gentleman, whofe veracity may beentirely depend- ed upon, allured the author, that in the late war, being with his company in garrifon at Kafkaiky, fome Indians came there, and, fpeaking in the Welfh diale6l, were perfectIy underftood and converfed with by two Welfhman in his compa- ny, and that they informed them of the fitua- tion of their nation as mentioned above. The author is fenfible of the ridicule which the vain and the petulant may attempt to throw on this account; but as truth only has guided his pen, he is regardlefs of the confequences, and flatters himfelf, that, by calling the attention of mankind once more to this fubjectt, he may be the means of procuring a more accurate inquiry into ( 97 ) into its ruth, -which, if it fhould even refute the ftory of the Welfh, will at leaft perform the important fervice to the world, of promoting a more accurate difcovcry of this immenfe conti. nent. There are feveral ancient remains- in Kentucke, which feem to prove, that this country Was for- merly inhabited by a nation farther advanced in the arts of life-than the Indians. Thefe are there ufually attributed to the Welh, who are fuppof. ed to have formerly inhabited here; but having been expelled by the natives, were forced to take refuge near the fources of the Miflouri. It is well known, that no Indian nation has e. ver prafifed the method of defending themfelves by entrenchments; and fuch a work would even be no eafy one, while thefe nations were unac- quainted with the ufc of iron. In the neighbourhood of Lexington, the re. mains of two ancient fortifications are to be feen, furnifhed with ditches and baftions. One of thefe contains about fix acres of land, and the o0 ther nearly three. They are now overgrown with trees, which, by the number of circles in the wood, appear to be not lefs than one hundred and- fixty years old. Pieces of earthen veffels have alfo been'plowed up near Lexington, a ma. N nufature ( 98 ) nufacture with which the Indians were never ac- quainted. The burying-grounds, which were mentioned above, under the head of Curiofities, form ano- ther ftrong argument that this country was for- merly inhabited by a people different from the. prefent Indians. Although they do not difcover any marks of extraordinary art in the ftruture, yet, as many nations are particularly tenacious of their ancient cuftoms, it may perhaps be worthy of enquiry, whether thefe repofitories of the dead do not bear a confiderable refemblance to the ancient Britifh remains. Some buildings, attri- buted to the Pifts, are mentioned by the Scottifh antiquaries, which, if the author miftakes not, are formed nearly in the fame manner. Let it be enough for him to point out the road, and hazard fome uncertain conjefures. The day is not far diftant, when the fartheft receffes of this continent will be explored, and the accounts of the Wel(h eftablifhed beyond the poffibility of a doubt, or configned to that oblivion which has already received fo many fuppofitions founded on arguments as plaufible as thefe. PERSONS AND HABITS. T H E Indians are not born white;. and take a great ( 99 ) a great deal of pains to -darken their complexion, by anointing themfelves with greafe, and lying in the fun. They alfo paint their faces, breaas and fhoulders, of various colours, but generally red; and their features are well formed, efpecially thofe of the women. They are of a middle fta. ture, their limbs clean and ft raight, and fcarcely any crooked or deformed perfon is to be found among them. In many parts of their bodies they prick in gun-powder in very pretty figures. They (have, or pluck the hair off their heads, ex.. cept a patch about the crown, which is orna. mented with beautiful feathers, beads, wampum, and f'uch like baubles. Their ears are pared, and ftretched in a thong down to their (hoilders. They are wound round with wire to expand them, and adorned with filver pendants, rings, and bells, which they likewife wear in their nofes. Some of them will have a large feather through the cartilage of the nofe; and thofe who can af.- ford it, wear a collar of wampum, a filver breal-. plate, and bracelets, on the arms and wriffs. A bit of cloth about the middle, a fhirt of the En-. glifh make, on which they bef1ow innumerable broaches to adorn it, a fort of cloth boots and mockafons, which are fhoes of a make peculiar to the lndians-, ornamented whth porcupine quills, with a blanket or match-coat thrown over all, compleats their drefs at home; but when they go to war, they leave their trinkets behind, and mere ( 100 ) mere neceffaries ferve them. There is little dif. ference between the drefs of the men and wo- men, excepting that a fhort petticoat, and the hair, which is exceeding black, and long, club- bed behind, diftinguifh fome of the latter. Ex- cept the head and eyebrows, they pluck the hair, with great diligence, from all parts of the body, efpecially the loofer part of the lex. Their warlike arms are guns, bows and arrows, darts, fcalping-knives and tomahawks. This is one of their moft ufetul pieces of field-furni- ture, ferving all the offices of the hatchet, pipe, and fword. They are exceeding expert in throw- ing it, and will kill at a confiderable diftance. The world has no better marks-men, with any wea- pon. They will kill birds flying, fhlies fwimming, and wild beafts running. G E N I U S. T H E Indians are not fo ignorant as fome fuppofe them, but are a very underftanding peo- ple, quick of apprehenfion, fudden in execu- tion, fubtle in bufinefs, exquifite in invention, and indufrious in action. They are of a very gen- tle and amiable difpofition to thofe they think their friends, but as implacable in their enmity; their revenge being only compleated, in the en- tire ( 101 ) tire deftrution of their enemies. They are very hardy, bearing heat, cold, hunger and thirat, in a fu1rpifing manner, and yet no people are more addicted to excefs in eating and drinking, when it is conveniently in their power. The follies, nay mifchief, they commit when inebriated, are entirely laid to the liquor; and no one will revenge any injury (murder excepted) received from one who is no more himielf. Among the Indians, all men are equal, perfonal qualities being moft efteemed. No diftinfion of birth; no rank, renders any, man capable of doing pre. judice to the rights of private perfons ; and there is no pre-eminence from merit, which begets pride, and which makes others too fenfible of their own inferiority. Though there is perhaps legs delicacy of fentiment in the Indians than a. mongft us ; there is, however, abundantly more probity, with infinitely lefs ceremony, or equivocal compliments. Their public conferences hew them to be men of genius; and they have, in a high degree, the talent of natural eloquence. They live difperfed in fmall villages, either in the wood-s, or on the banks of rivers, where they have little plantations of Indian.-corn, and roots, not enough to fupply their families half the year, and fubfifting the remainder of it by hunting, fifhing and fowling, and the fruits of the ( 102 ) the earth, which grow fpontaneoufly in great plenty. Their huts are generally built of fmall logs, and covered with bark, each one having a chim- ney, and a door, on which they place a padlock. Old Chelicothe is built in form of a Kentucke Rfation,. that is, a parallelogram, or long fquare; and fome of their houtes are (hingled A long Council-houfe extends the whole length of the town, where the King and Chiefs of the nation frequently meet, and confult of all matters of importance, whether of a civil or military na. ture. Some huts are built by fetting up a frame on forks, and placing bark againft it; others of reeds, and furrounded with clay. The fire is in the middle of the wigwam, and the fmoke paffes through a little hole. They join reeds together by cords run through them, which ferve them for tables and beds. They mofily lie upon ikins of wild beafts, and fit on the ground. They have brafs kettles and pots to boil their food; gourds or calabafhes, cut afunder, ferve them for pails, cups and diffies. RELIGION. ( 103 ) RELIGION. T H E accounts of travellers, concerning their religion, are various; and although it cannot be abfolutely affirmed that they have none, yet it mufl be confeffed very difficult to define what it is. All agree that they acknowledge one Su- preme God, but do not adore him. They have not feen him, they do not know him, believing him to be too far exalted above them, and too happy in himfelf to be concerned about the trifling affairs of poor mortals. They feem alfo to believe in a future flate, and that after death they fhall be removed to their friends who have gone before them, to an elyfium, or paradife. TheWyandotts, near Detroit, and fome others, have the Roman Catholic religion introduced amongft them by mifflonaries, Thefe have a church, a minifter, and a regular burying. ground. Many of them appear zealous, and fay prayers in their families. Thefe, by acquain. tance with white people, are a little civilized, which muff of neceffity precede chriftianity. The Shawanefe, Cherokees, Chickafaws, and fome others, are little concerned about fuperfti- tion, or religion. Others continue their former fuperftitious worfhip of the objefs of their love and ( 104. ) and fear, and efpecially thofe beings whom they moft dread, and whom therefore we generally de- nominate devils; though, at the fame time, it is allowed they pray to the fun, and other infe- rior benevolent deities, for fuccefs in their under- takings, for plenty of food, and other necelWa- ries in life. They have their feffivals, and other rejoicing- days, on which they fing and dance in a ring, taking hands, having fo painted and difguifed themselves, that it is difficult to know any of them; and after enjoying. this diverfion for a while, they retire to the place where they have prepared a feaft of fifh, flefh, fowls and fruits, to which all are invited, and entertained with their country fongs. They believe that there is great virtue in feafts for the fick. For this pur- pofe a young buck muft be killed, and boiled, the friends and near neighbours of the patient invited, and having firft thrown tobacco on the the fire, and covered it up clofe, they all fit down in a ring, and raife a lamentable cry. They then uncover the fire, and kindle it up; and the head of the buck is filr fent about, every one taking a bit, and giving a loud croak, in imitation of crows. They afterwards proceed to eat all the buck, making a moft harmonious, melancholy fong; in which ftrain their mufic is particularly excellent. ( 105 ) As they approach their towns, when fome of their people are loft in war, they make great lax mentations for their dead, and bear them long af- ter in remembrance. Some nations abhor adultery, do not approve of a plurality of wives, and are not guilty of theft; but there are other tribes that are not fo fcrupulousin thefe matters. Amongft theChicka- faws a hufband may cut off the nofe of his wife, it guilty of adultery; but men are allowed greater liberty. This nation defpifes a thief. Among the Cherokees they cut off the nofe and ears of an adulterers; afterwards her hufband gives her a discharge; and from this time fhe is not permitted to refufe any one who prefents himfelf. Fornication is unnoticed; for they al- low perfons in a fingle ftate unbounded free- dom. Their form of marriage is fhort.-the man, be- fore witneffes, gives the bride a deer's foot, and fhe, in return, prefents him with an ear of corn, as emblems of their feveral duties. The women are very, flaves to the men; which is a common cafe in rude, unpoliffied nations, throughout the world. They are charged with being revengeful; but this revenge is only doing themfelves juflice on thofe who injure them, 0 and ( 106 ) and is Seldom executed, but in cafes of murder and adultery. Theit king has no power to put any one to death by his own authority; but the murderer is generally delivered up to the fiiends of the de- ceafed, to do as they pleafe. When one kills a- nother, his friend kills him, and fo they conti. nue until much blood is fhed; and at laft, the quarrel is ended by mutual prefents. Their kings are hereditary, but their authority extreme. ly limited. No people are a more ftriking evi. deiice of the miferies of mankind in the want of government than they. Every chief, when of- fended, breaks off with a party, fettles at fome diffance, and then commences hoffilities againft his own people. Thev are generally at war with each other. Thefe are common circumifances amongft the Indians. When they take captives in war, they are exceed. ingly cruel, treating the unhappy prifoners in fuch a manner, that death would be preferable to life. They afterwards give them plenty of food, load them with burdens, and when they arrive at their towns, they muff run the gauntlet. In this, the favages exercife fo much cruelty, that one would think it impoffible they Ihould fur- vive their fufferings. Many are killed; but if one outlives this trial, he is adopted into a family as a fon, ( 107 ) font and treated with paternal kindnefs; and if he avoids their fufpicions of going away, is allow- ed. the fame privileges as their own people. THE CONCLUSION. H A V I N G finifhed my intended narrative, I (hall clofe the appendix, with a few obfervations upon the happy circumftances, that the inhabi- tants of- Kentucke will probably enjoy, from the pofiefflon of a country fo extenfive and fertile. There are four natural qualities neceffary to promote the happinefs of a country, viz. A good foil, air, water and trade. Thefe taken collec. tively, excepting the latter. Kentucke poffeles in a fuperior degree : And, agreeable to our de_. fcription of the weftern trade, we concludes that it will be nearly equal to any other on the conti- nent of America. and the difadvantages it is fub- jectt to, be fully compenfated by the fertility of the foil. This fertile region, abounding with all the lux- uries of nature, ifored with all the principal ma- terials for art and induftry, inhabited by vir- tuous and ingenious citizens, muff univerfally attract the attention of mankind, being fituated in the central part of the extenfive American em- pire, ( 108 ) pire, (the limits of whofe ample domains, as de., fcribed in the fecond article of the late Definitive Treaty, are fubjoined) where agriculture, induf. try, laws, arts and fciences, flourifh; where affliEted humanity raifes her drooping head; where fprings a harveff for the poor; where con- fcience ceafes to be a flave, and laws are no more than the fecurity of happinefs; where nature makes reparation for having created man; and government, fo long proftituted to the moft crimi- nal purpofes, eftablifhes an afylum in the wil- dernefs for the dillreffied of mankind. The recital of your happinefs will call to your country all the unfortunate of the earth, who, hav- ing experienced oppreffion, political or religious, will there find a deliverance from their chains. To you innumerable multitudes will emigrate from the hateful regions of defpotifm and tyran- ny; and you will furcly welcome them as friends, as brothers; you will welcome them to partake with you ot your happinefs.-Let the memory of Lycurgus, the Spartan legiflator, who banith_ ed covetoufnefs, and the love of gold from his country; the excellent Locke, who firif taught the doarine of toleration; the venerable Penn, the firft who founded a city of brethren; and Wafhington, the defender and protestor of perfecuted liberty, be ever the illuitrious exam- ples of your political conductt. Avail yourfelves of ( 109 ) of the benefits of nature, and of the fruitful coun. try you inhabit. Let the iron of your mines, the wool of your Rocks, your flax and hemp, the fkins of the fa- vage animals that wander in your woods, be fa. fhioned into manufatdures, and take an extraor- dinary value from your hands. Then will you rival the fupeyfluities of Europe, and know that happinefs may be found, without the commerce fo univerfally defired by mankind. In your country, like the land of promife, flowing with milk and honey, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths, that fpring out of valleys and hills, a land of wheat and barley, and all kinds of fruits, you Shall eat bread without fcarcenefs, and not lack any thing in it; where you are neither chilled with the cold of Capricorn, nor fcorched with the burn- ing heat of cancer; the nuildnefs of your air io great, that you neither feel the effects of infec. tious fogs, nor peflilential vapours. Thus, your country, favoured with the fmiles of heaven, will probably be inhabited by the firft people the world ever knew. ARTICLE ( 110 ) ARTICLE II. of the fate DEFINI[TIVE TREATY. A N D that all difputes which might arife in future on the fubjeat of the boundaries of the faid United-States, may be prevented, it is here. by agreed and declared, that the following are and ffiall be their boundariesviz. From the N. W. angle of Nova-Scotia, viz. that angle which is formed by a line drawn due North from the fource of St. Croix River to the Highlands, along the faid Highlands, which divide thofe rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Law- rence, from thofe which fall into the Atlantic o- cean, to the North-Wefternmoft head of Con- neficut River; thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of North lati- tude; from thence by a line due VVWe on faid la- titude, until it ftrikes the river Iroquois, or Ca.. taraqui; thence along the middle of the faid ri-" ver into Lake Ontario, through the middle of the faid lake, until it ftrikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake Erie; thence along the middle of faid communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of faid lake until it ar- rives at the water communication between that lake and Lake Huron; thence along the mid- die of faid water communication into the Lake Huron; thence through the middle of faid lake to the water communication between that ( 111 ) that lake and Lake Superior; thence through Lake Superior Northward of the Ifles Roy. al and Phelipeaux to the Long Lake, thence through the middle of faid Long Lake and the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods, to the Lake of the Woods; thence through thefaid lake to the. moft N. W.point there- of, and from thence on a due Weft courfe to the river Miffiflippi; thence by a line to be drawn a. long the middle of the faid river Mifliffippi un. til it fhall interfet the Northernmoft part of the thirty-firf degree of North latitude; South, by a line to be drawn due Eafi from the determi.. nation of the laft mentioned in the latitude of thirty-one degrees North of the equator, to the middle of the river Apalachicola, or Catanouche; thence along the- middle thereof to its junffion with the Flint River; thence (traight to the head of St Mary's River; and thence down a. long the middle of St. Mary's River to the At- lantic ocean; Eaft, by a line to be-drawn along the middle of the river St. Croix, from its mouth in the bay of Fundy to its fource, and from its fource directly North to the aforefaid Highlands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic ocean from thofe which fall into the river St. Lawrence, comprehending all iflands within twenty leagues of any part of the fhores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due Eaft from the points where the aforefaid boundaries between ( 112 ) between Nova-Scotia on the one part, and Eaff- Florida on the other, fhall refpeEively touch the bay of Fundy and the Atlantic ocean, except- ing fuch iflands as now are, or hertofore have been, within the limits of the faid province of Nova Scotia. ROADS ( 113 ) R 0 A D from Philadelpia to the Falls of the Ohio by land. F R 0 M4 Philadelphia toLancafter To Wright's on Sufquehannah To York-town- Abbott's-town - Hunter'stown - the mountain at Black's Gap the other fide of the mountain the Stone-houfe Tavern Wadkin's Ferry on Potowmack Martiplfburg _ _ Winchefter - - Newtown Stover's-town - WoodIfock - - Shanandoah River - the North branch of Shanandoah Stanton - - the North Fork of James River James River - - Botetourt Court-houfe - Woods's on Catauba River Patterfbn's on Roanoak the Allegany Mountain - New River - - the forks of the road P I M I M.D 66 10 76 1 2. 88 15 -103 o J 13 3 xi6 7 123 25 T48 14 i6z 13 175 20 195S 8 203 JO 213 1 2 225 [5 240 29 269 15 284. 37 321 18 339 12 351 2 1 372 9 381 8 389 12 401 i6 417 To a ( 114 ) To Fort Chiffel - a Stone Mill - - Boyd's _ _ head of Holitein - Wafhington Court-houfe the Block-houfe _ m Powel's Mountain - - Walden's Ridge - the Valley Station - - Martin Cabbin's - Cumberland Mountain - the ford of Cumberland River the Flat Lick - Stinking Creek - Richland Creek - - Down Richland Creek Rackoon Spring Laurel River - - H-lazle Patch - - the ford on Rock-Caffle River Englifh's Station - Col. Edwards's at Crab-Orchard Whitley's Station - Logan's Station - - Clark's Station _ - Crow's Station - - Harrod's Station Harland's - - MMAD 12 429 II 440 8 448 5 453 45 498 35 533 33 566 3 569 4 573 25 598 20 6i8 13 63 I 9 640 2 642 7 649 8 657 6 663 2 665 I5 68o 10 69o 25 715 3 7I8 5 723 5 728 7 735 4 739 3 742 4 746 To ( 115 ) To Harbifon's - Bard's-town the Salt-works the Falls of the Ohio I M IKJD l0 756 25 781 _ 25 8o6 _& , 20 826 Kentucke is fituated about Soutb, 6o0 Weft from Philadelphia, and, on a ftraight line, may be about fix hundred miles diaant from that cia ty. R 0 A D to PittIburg, and Diflances from thence down the Ohio River to its mouth, and from thence down the Miffiffippi to. the Mex-. ican Gulph. oR M Philadelphia to Lan- cafter - J To Middletown - Harris's Ferry - Carlifle 4 Shippeniburgh - - Chamber's-town - Fort Loudon _ _ Fort Littleton - - Juniata Creek - - I M I M.D 166 26 1o 17 2I 1 1 13 18 19 92 102 119 1,40 '51 I 64. 182 20I To ( 116 ) To Bedford - the foot of the Allegany Mountains Stony-Creek - the Eaft fide of Laurel Hill Fort Ligonier - - Pittfburg FRCOM Pittfburg to Log's-town 1 on the Ohio River, N. fide, To Big Beaver-Creek, N. Little Beaver-Creek, N. O Yellow-Creek, N. Ming's Town - - Grafs-Creek, N. - Wheelen-Creek, S. fide, - Grave-Creek, S. the Long' Reach - - the end of do. _ - Mifkingrm River, N. - Little Kenhawa, S. _ Hockhocking River, N. Great Kenbawa River, S. Great Griandot, S. _ Big Sandy-Creek, S. Sciotha River, N. PI Big Buffalo-Lick Creek, S. a Large Iflandc the Three Iflands Limeftone-Creek, S. Little Miami, N. M I M.D 14 2I5 1 5 230 i5 245 12 257 9 266 54 320 I8 1I 13 9 IS 2 25 6 '5 23 12 '3 I 24 J3 45 24 20 10 7 65 29 42 51 69 71 96 so6 122 '37 160 172 185 J96 220 233 278 302 32Z 332 339 404 To ( 117 ) To Licking River, South fide, Great Miami River, N. Big-Bone Creek, S. Kentucke River, S. the Rapids of Ohio Salt River, St. the beginning of the Low 1 Country J the firft of the Five Iflands Green River, S. - a Large Ifland Wabafh River, N. - the Great Cave, N. Cumberland River, S. Tenefe River, S. - Fort Meffia-River, S. the mouth of Ohio River the Iron Banks) S. - Chickafaw River - the River Margot - St. Francis's River Akanfa River Yazaw River the Grand Gulph the Little Gulph - Fort Rofalie, at the Natches, the River Rouge - the uppermofi mouth of ] the Miffiflippi J IM.I M.D. 412 27 439 32 47r 44 515 77 592 23 6xg 132 747 38 78S 27 Si1a2 5 870 40 910 62 972 33 1005 12 1017 46 Io74 15 xo89 67 1156 I04 ii6o 70 i230 I08 1338 I65 1503 3 9 1542 '4. 1556 3 1 I587 36 1643 3 I646 To ( 118 ) To Point Coupee Ibberville the Villages of the Alibama l Indians - J New Orleans, S. fide, the mouths of the Miffiffippi IM. I M.D. 50 I696 35 '73' 39 1770 6o -1830 105 1935 A ftraight line drawn from Pittiburg to the mouth of the Miffiffippi may be computed at two thirds of the diffance by the meanders of the ri- vers, which will be twelve hundred and ninety miles. IL4j