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A century of Negro education in Louisville / by George D. Wilson. Wilson, George Dewey, 1898- 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b02-000000014 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. A century of Negro education in Louisville / by George D. Wilson. Wilson, George Dewey, 1898- Louisville Municipal College [Louisville, Ky.] [19--] Coleman IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Noland, Stephen, 1818- 3-I (-j b 7 r 0- 4 N o. /LW1 + Lc t A Ha L at v tle Ada s t GA le I :r 43-3 - 77-Z SWor-k Pk"4,J,--L A A eo) evcP -4-1 ko . Vhis page in the original text is blank. Vhis page in the original text is blank. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Preface Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V Chapter VI Chapter VII Chapter VIII Chapter IX Chapter X Chapter XI Part I Pre-Public School Education Education Prior to the Civil War.................... Education During the Civil fvar and Under the Freedmnts Bureau....................... Part II Public School Education The Beginning of Public Education - 1870-1875....... The Development of Hig;h School and Night School Classes - 1875-1893 ....................... Expanding Schools for an Expanding Community _ The Creation of Junior High Schools and Progress to 1941 ....................... Part III Collegiate, Professional and Private Vocational Institutions Simmons University and Affiliated Institutions...... Louisville Municipal College ....................... Other Professional and Vocational Institutions...... Part If Other Educational Institutions and Agencies Types of Training Under Federal Auspices............ Other Institutions and Agencies Performing the Educational 0........... Post'seript...6.00480 . . . 0..0-...... .....00..0....00.... Appendix...........o.. .oo.....00............ eoeooq00..g0... .. Reference Notes on chapters ............. .............. Indx............ ...... ..g-.o...a.. ......g...e........ Page 2 13 30 52 79 103 137 156 174 189 209 223 224 232 252 Preface In attempting to write a history of this sort, there has been great labor under severe handicaps. ITuch of the material used in the history of any aspect of Negro life must of necessity be what is aptly designated "fugitive literature." Such material is difficult to locate and much more difficult to verify as to its absolute accuracy. Because of the nature of the reference material, numerous footnotes have been used in order to indicate clearly the source of the information included. However, these notes will be found not at the bottom of the pages but at the back of. the book followning the Appendix. It will be Hoted especially that much of the early history of public Yegro Education is based upon newspaper accounts. This has been due- to the fact that the primary source, as represented by the minutes of the Board of Edurcation, was not available to the workers on the project. It was found, also, that there have been so many persons who have contributed in some manner to the development of Negro education in Louis- ville that it is a hazardous job, indeed, to select those individuals to be mentioned by name in a volume of this kind. Doubtless, there have been omitted names which should appear, but it is to be hoped that the reader will agree that those included should not have been omitted. The labor and constructive cooperation which have made this book possible cannot e too gratefully acknowledged. The research entailed was done by Project workers under the Fork Projects Administration Special mention should be made in this connection of Mrs. Eugenia Duncan Rodgers, who did much of the newspaper research, and MTiiss Irene Minter, Mr. Robert Jackson and AMiss vWesley 14 Watson who rendered valuable service in the assembling and classifying of materials. Acknowledgement for assistance in securing materials is made to War. Harold Brigham of the Louisville Free Libraries for access to daily newspaper files; IvMrs. Rachel D. Harris, director of the Negro branch libraries, for assistance in locating materials; Dr. Zenos E. Scott. Superintendent of Louisville Public Schools, for access to the annual Reports of the Board of Education; Mr. I. illis Cole. Editcr of the Louisville Leader, for access to the files of the Louisville Leader; Mrs. Henrietta Butler, for access to the files of the American Baptist; fir. Frank L. Stanley, Editor of the Louisville Defender, for access to the files of that paper; Mr. Atwood S. Wilson, Mr. A. E. feyzeek and Mr. William H. Perry, Jr., principals of Louisville public high schools, and manyi others too numerous to list who have assisted in many ways. Finally, special acknowledgement should be made of the service of Miss Helen N. Haralson who typed the preliminary draft of thn of the chapters and the final draft of the completed work. G. D. WNilson Professor of Education Louisville Municipal Qollege PART I PRE-PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATION 2 Chapter I EDUCATION PRIOR TO THE CIVIL EAR I. Historioal Background of Louisville as a settlement. in December of 1603 when the first British Colonists set sail for the newr world, all of North America from Maine to Georgia was called Vir- ginia. In 1632, King Charles the First took out the first slice of Vir. ginia when he gave to Lord Baltimore all of what is now Maryland and Dela- ware and a part of Pennsylvania. In 1634, the territory of Virginia was again divided, this tiLme Aftor the old English custom into shires-eight of them. Not until 1643 did Virginia call them oaanties. In 1783, Frederick and Augusta Counties were made west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. They were made from Orange County which had been formed from Sussex. In 1769, Vir- ginia cut Augusta County in two and called the second part Botetourt County. Fincastle County was formed from Botetourt and in its heart lay the beauti- ful region now called Kentucky. For four years more there was still no re- gion called Kentucky,- for it was all Fincastle County but in 1776 Virginia gave it a name. From Finoastle County she formed three new counties- Montgomery, Washington and Kentucky. Kentucky was at first spelled with an "elf, as its terminal letter making it Kentucke. This final "eft was later changed to a "ye. Kentukyt's attainment of statehood is unique among the states ofAmeria for it never organized in territorial form. It was first known as Kentucky County-a county of Virginia; next, in 1783-as the Dis- trict of Kentucky; then, in 1788, it was called the Commonwealth of Ken- tucky, and it was so named when it formally entered the sisterhood of states in 1792 1-Just three hundred years after the discovery of America. Kentucky 3 County had virtually the same limits as has the State of Kentucky. For four years the territory remained Kentucky County, then, in 1780, Virginia removed the name from her books. In its place she put three new counties which she called Jefferson-for Thomas Jefferson; Fayette--for La- Fayette; and Linooln-for General Benjamin Lincoln. So, for a time, the name Kentucky existed only in its original capacity as title of the beauti- ful winding river which threaded its way through Fincastle County and which was named "Kentuoke" by natives of the region long before Columbus left Genoa.2 In November of 1780,,the Virginia Legislature passed an act referring to the three new counties which were being formed into a judiciary district. A part of the act read: "These three counties with all division of them that shall hereafter be made shall be legally anoffioially known as Kentucky." In the year of 1778, Colonel George Rogers Clark with three companies and about twenty families settled on an islanda-later named Corn Island-in the Ohio River, opposite the spot on which Louisville now stands. In the fall of 1778, the settlement moved to the mainland. On May 14, 1780, the legislature of Virginia-'-incorporated the settlement under the name of Louisville, in recognition of the assistance given by Louis-XVI of France to the colonies in the Revolutionary War. Therefore, instead of being Louis- ville, Kentucky, it was at first Louisville, Virginia and it was not until Kentucky Wias admitted to the Union as a state on June 1, 1792 that it could be called Louisville, Kentuckyy. From the date of incorporation in 1780 until the granting of the first charter by the Legislature of the state of Kentucky in 1829 Loulisville was governed by trustees. Such trustees were at first appointed by tbe Legis- 4 latures of Virginia and Kentucky and later were elected by the citizens of the town. During this period of forty eight years the little settle- ment at the Falls of the Ohio had made noticeable progress. From the groups of twenty families which built eighteen log cabins and a blockhouse on Corn Island, it had grown to have a small fort at the foot of Third Street; a large one on the east side of the ravine which entered the Ohio at Twelfth Street; a few log cabins scattered near the Twelfth Street Fort and about one hundred people. When,-in 1828 it received its charter as a city, Louisville boasted of several rather imposing public buildings. Among these were the Courthouse, the third which had been built and which housed the Library of the "Louis- ville Library Company' in one of its upper rooms; the Marine Hospital; the Jefferson Seminary,a state institution; the Postoffice; the County Jail and the Poorhouse. The population had increased from about one hundred to' ten thousand and there were several businesses. The educational facilities in the thriving town were provided by several log school houses where a small fee was charged for instruction in thei ele- mentary branches. Pupils desiring further training could enroll in the Jef- ferson Seminary to complete their education. None of these schools was sup- ported or controlled by the municipality. With the granting of the charter as a city all power passed from the trustees to a mayor and ten councilmen,.who were to be elected annually by the qualified voters of the city. Authority for the establishment of public schools were encouched in the charteri as follows: 'The Mayor and Councilmen shall have power.and authority to establish one or more free schools in each ward of said city, and may secure donations 5 of real and personal estate to ereot the necessary buildings and to pro- vide the necessary means for their maintenance, and may supply the funds from time to time by a tax on the ward where such school or schoolsshall be established." . In April 1829j the city council passed an ordinance establishing a public school to be conducted on the monitprial plan. The government of this sohoolowhioh was to be open to all white children in the city from six to fourteen years of age, was vested in the hands of six trustees to 4 be elected by the Mayor and Board of Councilmen each year. By 1840 there were fourteen (14) schools conducted by the city in which the average at- tendance was 948 and the aggregate attendance 1287. In addition to these schools the city now possessed a college, as the Jefferson Seminary had been converted into the Louisville College under control of the city. II. Negro Education Prior to the Civil War Naturallypersons of African descent did nob attend any of these schools in spite of the fact that there were 3420 slaves and 609 free Ne- groes residing in the city according to the census of 1840. As was true in all of the border states, slavery was not as cruel an institution in Ken- tucky as it was in the cotton fields and rice swamps of the extreme south. In fact it was felt by the slaves themselves that the worst calamity which could befall one of their number was to be "sold down the river." It is apparent that the ownersof slaves shared this view also for when sellinr slaves the reason for the sale was usually statod and it was very often stipulated that families were not to be divided by such transactions. MolDougle in his study of slavery in Kentucky ccgments on this praotice as follows: 6 "The prevalence of statements giving the reasons for and the re- strictions upon these sales should show beyond a reasonable doubt that public opinion could not tolerate any suspicion of a heartless traffic in slaves. These sentiments were especially prevalent in the central portion of the State."5 A genuine traffic in slaves was never admitted by the citizens and the slave was regarded a distinct outsider. None of the Louisville di. rectories of the period listed any slave traders. Even the papers de- voted exclus1vely to commercial transactions of the city with "price quotations weekly for every conceivable kind of goods in the market to- gether with the volume of sales" did not mention any-prioes-orz trans. 6 actions in slaves. It appears likely that in spite of the fact that some Louisville merchants bought and sold slaves as a part-time activity, there was little export of '"purely Kentucky slaves" except duringthe decade from 1850 to 1860.7 The Negroes of Louisville, As in Lexington and other urban centers, were assigned largely to household tasks as cooks, maids, garde/ners, butlers and coachmen. Others were employed in skilled and semi-skilled occupations such as caterer, baker, blacksmith, wheelwright, or cabinet maker. That their lot was not always tragic or devoid of opportunity for learning has been pointed out by Dr. Carter G. Woodson, an authority upon this period: "'In the states of Kentucky and Tennessee friends of the race were often left free to instruct them asa they wished. Many of the people who settled in those states came from Scotch-Irish stock of the Appalachian Mountains, where early in the Nineteenth Century Negroes were in some cases treated as equals of the whites. Kentucky had a system of regulating the egress and regress of slaves but never passed any laws prohibiting their instruction." Maryland and Tennessee were the only other slave states which did not 7 at some time pass laws forbidding the instruction of slaves. Legally, however the slaves had no vested right to education in Kentucky. While there was no penalty attached to the education of slaves on the one hand, there was no encouragement given on the other. "Those slaves wrho learned to read were the servants of masters who because of conscientious scruples taught them how to read the Bible. Few slaves ever learned to write, for thoy might then be tempted to serve as unofficial dispensers of passes in the owner's name. The general objection to any reasonable amount of education was the tendency towards dissatis- faction with the servile status thereby aroused. If the slave could learn to read well, it was feared that he would become a victim of the"filthy" abolitionist literature, which through the resultant effect upon the Negroes would have produced no end of trouble to the slavery system.9 Some observers of the period believed that many slaves were about as well off as if they had been free. This was due largely to the types of occupation in which they were engaged. Their locationi in an urban center where many held positions of responsibility in the household, in the shop, -and as skilled mechanics in the acnaunity made education a practical neces- sity. This fact was recognized by some slave owners who provided their slaves the rudiments of an education. Other slaves secured learning in a clandestine manner from literate slaves or from free blacks. The presence in the community of some six hundred free persons of color who supported their own churches and social organizations indicated that education and a certain degree of culture were not altogether unknown to the Negro dommunityo Moreover, religious instruction was provided many slaves in the homes of their owners. This was especially true with regard to the slaves performing the duties of household servants. Thuswsth a liberal attitude on the part of the white population and 8 some degree of educational culture on the part of some members of the Negro population',onditions wore ripe by 1841 for the establishment of a formal educational institution conducted by and for Negroes. It was rather natural that such a school should be started by a Negro minister who was pastor of the first Negro Church in Louisville, the Fifth Street Baptist Church. On December 7, 1841,the first school for Negroes of which there is record was opened by Rev. Henry Adams in Woods Alley ( the alley between Walnut and Madison) between Ninth and Tenth Streets with an enrollment of five pupils. Over a period of years the enrollment increased to such an extent that the services of four additional teachers were necessary and Annie Lee, Mary Jones Richardson, James M. Priest and J. C. Corbinwho was later State Superintendent of Schools in Arkansasjwere added to the staff. In 1864 the school was transferred to the Fifth Street Baptist Church and continued to operate until public schools were available for Negroes.10 By 1847 although the population of free Negroes had remained practi- oally stationary, the slave population had increased abcut 1000 souls.o In that year there came to Louisville a free Negro who was to exert an in- fluence upon the Negro population for a half century. This freeman, William H. Gibson, was born and reared in the city of Baltinore where he had received a good education. Gibson arrived in Louisville in June 1847 upon the invitation of Rev. - James Harper of the Fourth Street Methodist Episcopal Church. This church was unique in that as a result of a Chancery sale in 1845 its property was 9 vested in a board composed of free Negroes, although the congregation held membership in the Methodist Episcopal Church South12 Gibson found three schools in existence; the Adams school, a second school conducted by Rev. Peter Booth and a third by one of the members of the Fourth Street Church trustee board, Robert ML. Lane, who was at that time conducting a school on East Street between Walnut and Chestnut Streets Gibson associated himself with Lane's school for six months then opened his com school in the basement of the Fourth Street Church. There was some feaz of hostility from the white people but such fears soon subsided. Gibson himself stated: '"In January, 1848, I opened a school in the basement of the Fourth Street M.E. Church, situated at the corner of Fourth and Green Streets (now Liberty Street). This move attracted considerable attention from the fact that the locality was in the heart of the city. The theatre was on the southeast corner, and the Negro Church and day school on the opposite corner. I was advised by some persons not to open the school there, as it would be closed by the city authorities. For a few days we changed front and occupied a small church on Center Street,( now Armory Place) in the rear of the Fifth Street Baptist Church--.but through the indefatigable efforts of the Rev. James Harper and his white friends wre uwere permitted to teach the school at the church on Fourth and Green Streets, with instructions to teach no slaves without a written permit from their master or mistress. Of these permits we had hundreds on file; for amid the stricture of the laws and prejudices of slave holders to Negroes learning to read and write, there were other Chris- tians (white) who did not object and would give these permits."13 Although the white people of Louisville allored the education of free Negroes, their freedom itself was not at all tires secure should they wander from the borders of the city. One field of skilled service open to free Negroes, which took them out of the city borders, was the steamboat traffic on the Ohio River. Here freemen could earn princely salaries, steards, commanding a salary from 150.00 to 200.00 per month, second stewards 175 10 to 100.00; barbers on a trip from Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and Louisville to New Orleans, netted from 50 to 75; cabin boys from 40 to 050 a trip; 14 stewardesses from 50 to 100." Such life, however, was not without its grave perils for freemen,who constantly had to be on the alert to prevent their being sold into slavery at ports along the lower Mississippi. This danger did not deter the free Negroes from seeking a livelihood and pleasurable experiences on the Ohio. Among the pleasures enjoyed by free Negroes were the steamboat excursions, trips by water and rail to points on the free soil of Indiana and Ohio and house parties which featured Cusic and sometimes dancing. The great center of the Negro's activities, however, was his church. By 1850 there were at least eight churohes-.Fifth Street Baptist Church, Green Street Baptist Church, York Street Baptist Church( now Calvary Bapy tist Church) Fourth Street M.E. Church ( now Asbury Chapel ) Bethel A.M.E. Church (now Quinn Chapel) Center Street M.E. Church (now Chestnut Street C.M.E.) Jackson Street M.E. Church(now R. E. Jones Temple ) and a resby_ teriAn Church on Center Street ( now Ferguson Memorial). Possibly the one type of frolic in which both freemen and slaves could engage were the Sunday School picnics which were held, oddly enough for the slaves at least, on the Fourth of July. The picnics were union affairs and the blacksboth slave and freelassembled at their several churches from which they marched to the site of the outing with "'one or two policemen, at two dollars a day" to see that proper decorum was main- tained and that no incendiary speeches were made.15 11 It was evident that even unlettered slaves could appreciate the irony of such an outing on Independence Day. Proof of this is shown in a speech quoted by Mr. Gibson from one such picnic in spite of the presence of the guardians of the law. The slave, a carpenter, hired out to citizens of Louisville spoke as follous: "Little chillen: We hab 'sembled to celebrate the Fourth ob Juy- Indenpendence Day it is called-_ but I never could lam whar de independence comes in. We are here sembled in dis grove to yourselves, cept dese pader- 'ols, who is here to watch us. Now whar is yo independence. Little chillens, dis is not yo day, but you will hab a day, for de prophets say so, de possels say so, and God say so. You read yo Bible and it tells you dat God made all men free and etcal, and he made dem all ob de same blood, only one white in de face, anodder black in de face; and anodder red in de face, but dey were bredden and eqcal; but man being so wise habe changed it and today we are not escal, but the day is commn' whar you will be free and as e-cal as Gineral Washington. Den you willhab a days But dis is not yo day, little chillen, but you wi1 hab a day. God haste it on is my prayer. Amen." '16 Because of the surreptitious distribution of abolition literature every contact of a free black with slaves was suspected. Such free Negroes risked accusation as being agents of the underground railroad and arrest, imprison- ment and possible enslavement. The upholding of the Fugitive Slave Law by the Supreme Court had an adverse effect upon the free Negroes of Louisville. In addition a law was proposed to bind out all children of free Negroes until they were of age. Free families fled the city in fear for northern states and Canada. The bill failed to pass and a number of those who had left in_ 17 eluding Mr. Gibson returned to Louisville. One point of contact between the whites and blacks in the education of the latter was had in the Sunday schools of the various churches. Here 12 whites could avoid the possible stigma of being labelled abolitionists and labor as home missionaries to teach the "heathen at their own door" to read 18 the Bible. Many whites thus carried out their hurane urge to do something about the slaves. They felt it possible to aid in freeing the minds and saving the souls of the slaves although they could not free their bodies. In 1854, Quinn Chapel, which had been founded in 1849 as Bethel A. M.E. Church, began the construction of a new edifice. The Quaker Friends of Indiana gave liberally towards the construction with the understanding that a school would be connected with the church. In accordance with this promise a school(yas opened in the basement by Mr. Gibso6nIwhich enrolled - free and slave children. 94 The late fifties witnessed the establishment of a school for advanced pupils, when in 1858 Rev. R. G. Mortime established classes in algebra, geometry and latin at Asbury Chapel. Later Rev. Mortime was offered the chair of mathematics at Wilberforce University When he left for that in - stitution he took several of his students with him. These were the first 20 Louisville enrollees in that institution. 13 Chapter II Education During the Civil War and Under the Freedmen's Bureau Soaiiiglyt little wax done a1lng the lite of formal. education during the Civil War Period. Kentucky attempted to remain neutral during the early part of 1861. Louisville was the center of agitation both for the Union cause and for aiding the sister states of the South. Not only were there fiery speeches and conventions but the local newspapers were divided in their sympathie s. Although Kentucky did not desire to secede from the Unionshe never- thses-s- was keenly conscious of her Southern relationships. Enlistments in the Confederate Army were encouraged openly in Louisville whereas those desiring to enlist in the Union Forces were obliged to cross the Ohio River to Camp Jo Holt in Indiana. Trade with the South was a thriving industry with Louisville as the center of the trade until September 18, 1861 when Kentucky cast aside her neutrality and decided definitely to stand by the 1 Union. Louisville from that time became a center of Union activity as many troops pitched tents or marched through the city. The decision to cast her lot with the Union served, however, to keep ..k- r agriculture and commerce booming with the Federal Army now 4o iihe purchaser of Kentucky products Louisville as the military headquarters for the state received a great share of the contracts. Especially thriving were her tobacco, whiskey and pork packing industries. Even some cotton was raised and sold on the Louisville market under the stress of the war.2 Louisvillo made preparation for her defense by appropriiting 50,000 on April 23, 1861 to arm the city. Subsequently an additional 100,000 was added to the omigdai sum.3 Later when the Confederate armies were approaoh- ing from the south and Louisville feared an invasion both free Negroes and slaves were impressed iuto a spade and shovel brigade tbo throw up earth works to protect the city. Although Negroes were not enlisted in the Union forces at the early period of the var) their labor activities freed white men for military services The slaves received a new appreciation of their value to the community in their relations to the whites. The raising and transportation of Kentucky products placed a severe stress on the labor market as the slave and free white labor were fast being enlisted. The tractability of the slaves was not increased by President Lincoln's suggestion of compensated emancipation in July 1862 or his pre- liminary proclamation of emancip.ation of September 22, 1862 to take effect on January 1, 1863. The uncertainty of the slave as a laborer thus depressed the market until in 1862 slaves were selling for from 200.00 to 400.00 which would have brought from 500.00 to 1200.00 two years previously. Although the first Negroes in the United States, who were actually accepted by the Federal government, were enlisted in September 1862 in the state of Louisiana,5 the enlistment of Negroes was slow starting in Kentucky. It was rot until June, 1863 that the question of enrolling free Negroes in Kentucky for purpose of future enlistment in the Union forces was fought out in a battle of despatches between high ranking officers in the army and President Lincoln. This exchange is so enlightening as to the atti- tildes in Kentucky, that it is reproduced in its entirety. CAX NELSON, KY., June 25, 1863 Col. J.B. FRY: General Finnell has just infonred me that you have ordered the enroll- ment of free negroes for military service in Kentucky. There are only 4,130 free male negroes in the State. One-eighth of them is a fair estimate of those between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, giving less than '700. If you gain these, you will lose more than 10,000. You will revolutionize the State and do infinite and inconceivable harm, and I am sure this is all wrong and there is not an honest, loyal man in the State in favor of it, and it will meet with decided opposition. For the peace and quiet of the country I beg you will change your order on the subject. I request that you confer with President Lincoln on the subject and show him this telegram. J. T. BOYLE, Brigadier-General. CINCINNATI, June 28, 1863 President ,LINCOLN Washington, D. C. I am satisfied from my knowledge of Kentucky that it would be very unwise to enroll the free negroes of that State. it would not add materially to our strength, and Iassure you it would cause much trouble.. I sincerely hope this embarrassment to the interest of the public service will not be placed in our way. Please answer at once. Respectfully, A.E. BURITSIDE,'p Major-General. CINCINNATI, June 26, 1863-P P.M. His Excellency ABRARAM LINCOlN, President of the United States: 16 I beg to call your attention to rmy dispatch of yesterday from Camp Nelson to Colonel Fry, Provost-Marshal-General, in regard to enrollment of free negroes in Kentucky. Further reflection strengthens the opinion expressed in that dispatch. J.T. BOYLE, Brigadier-General. PROVOST-iMARSHAL-GENERAL' s OFFICE Washington, D. C., June 28,1863 Brig. Gen. J. T. Boyle, Louisville, Ky. GENERAL: The enrollment is simply taking the census of persons between the ages of twenty and forty-five. I don't see why infinite and inconceivrable harm, as you state, should be done by my ascertaining and informing the Gov- ernment how many free negroes there are between those ages in the different States, and their names, and I have a better opinion of Kentucky than to think she would be revolutionized if such information is eought for by me, as it has been by the Census Bureau without revolution. I shall endeavor to get this information in Kentucky, as in other States, unless the Govern- ment orders otherwise, and to use your language, I do not see how any honest, loyal man in the State can oppose it. I will show your dispatch to the Government today. JAMES B. FRY, Provost-Marshal-General. CINCINNATIJune 27, 1863 His Excellency ABRAHAM LINCOLNt President of the United States: Your dispatch of this date is received. The enrollment of the free negroes properly belonging to the State will not yield 1,000 men subject to draft. If draft is required in Kentucky the number required from this class will not be over 300; for this small number we will lose a much larger number of good white volunteers and give the secret enemies of the Government a weapon to use against it. If there wan any principle of right involved in it I would say carry it out, but the people are ready and willing to stand the draft, if necessary, from the white population. There will not be half in the State of Kentucky there will be in Indiana, Ohio and Illinois. 17 The enrollment of these negroes is what the loyal people fear will do the harm. We not only need all these for labor, which we draft at our pleasure, but we draft slaves for labor continually, and if any of the free negroes wish to join the colored regiments none forming in this department they are at liberty to do so. I was just about issuing an order drafting all the free able-bodied negroes in the State for labor on a military road. I sin- cerely hope the enrollment may be stopped. Kentucky is in good order now. A.E. BURNSIDE, Major-General. EXECUTIVE VMNSION Washington, D.C., June 28(27), 1863. General J.T. BOYLE, Cincinnati, Ohio: There is nothing going on in Kentucky on the subject of which you telegraph, except an enrollment. Before anything is done beyond this I will take care to understand the case better than I now do. 8 A. LINCOLN. In March of the followring year a similar battle of dispatches was 7 staged over the question of enrolling slaves in the state. Nevertheless, it was not until May, 1864 that the first regiment, the 107th Regiment Infantry Corps d'Afrigne was formed in Louisville. The 108th,109th,122nd, and 123rd regiments were formed the same year and the 125th in February, 8 1865. Although these regiments were organized in Louisville they were not formed the main of Louisville Negroes. Since Louisville was the military headquarters, slaves from every- where in Kentucky and from other southern states, who could make their 18 escape, came there to be under the protection of the Union soldiers. The enlistment of such Negroes was accelerated by the widely circulated false report that the wives and children of enlisted slaves would be free, and that such slaves as enlisted would not only themselves be free but wiould receive a bounty of 400.00 and a thirty day furlough in which to move their families to free soil.9 Congress gave further stimulus to the progress of enlistment, when on March 3, 1865k it enacted legislation which did make the wives and chil- dren of such enlistees unconditionally free. Many enlistments were carried on after the cessation of hostilities. Meamwhile, the movement of slaves was accelerated by the issuance of passes, supposedly to free Negroes and the wives and children of soldiers, which entitled then to travel where they willed. Later, passes were issued to all comers with no questions '10 asked. In Louisville from 150 to 300 passes were issued daily. In this manner thousands passed through Louisville on the way to northern states. While there is no record of educational activities among the Negroes enlisted in Louisville, the fact that Negro soldiers in other camps sought eagerly after the rudiments of an education would probably indicate that Kentucky and Louisville were no exception. A further indication of such activity is that the Negro regiments Yere not rustered out of service until 1866 and one regiment as late as October 1867. Thus thgeneral tribute to the black soldier doubtless applies also to Louisville Negroes. "Unlettered themselves, they became daily more and more deeply im- pressed, through their military associations, and by contact with things that required knowledge, with the necessity of having an education. Each 19 soldier felt that but for his illiteracy he might be a sergeant, company clerk, or quartermaster, and not a few, that if educated, they might be lieutenants and captains...-...... "Generally there was one of three things the Negro soldier could be found doing when at leisure: discussing religion, cleaning his musket and accoutrements, or trying to read. His zeal frequently led him to nogloct to oat for the latter. Every camp had a teacher, in fact every company had some one to instruct the soldiers in reading, if nothing more. Since the war I have known of more than one who ha. taken up the professions of preaching and law making, Wheso first letter was learned in camp; and not a few have entesred college. PIEPARING THE WAY FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS When the thirteenth Amendment became effective on December 18, 1865 a new era was ushered in for the Negro in Kentucky. The question of the freedmen's rights was settled by the repeal of the old slave code and the extension of all civil rights to the Negro in Kentucky except the right to sit on juries and to give testimony against whites in court of law.13 From December 1865 to the year 18 _0 was an important period for Negro education for it marked three great movements, which, going hand in hand, paved the way for the inauguration of public schools for Negroes in Louis- ville. These three movements were (1) the establishment and extension of the educational program of the FreedmentsBureanu (2) the establishment of a number of private schools and (3) the agitation on the part of Negroes for public education. On Decembel' 26, 1865 the Freecbrn'sBureau was extended to Kentucky and Clinton B. Fisk was placed in charge with the title of Assistant Com- missioner with headquarters ii Louisville. One of the first functions at- tempted by the Bureau was to halt the hordes of wandering Negroes and settle 20 14 them in positions with their former masters. The Bureau was instru- mental in arranging many contracts' between the freed slaves and those who had need of their services. However, many Negroes interpreted free- dom as meaning freedom from all that the old life had hold4including workt of any kind-and the drift to the city continued. The PreedmenfsBureau early turned its attention to providing education- al opportunities for the former slaves and refugees. The educational pro- gram was conducted in cooperation with various religious organizations and denominations. One of the first agencies to open schools in Louisville was the Western Froedmu n's Aid Commission which received its support from several denominations in the North. It began its operation in the city the early part of 1866 and up to April 1868 had furnished seven teachers as instructors in schools designed to provide elementary education.1 In accordance with the policy of the Freedments Bureau to establish ini each state a central higher school for the training of Negro teachers,, a normal school was built at the corner of Broadway and Fourteenth Streets which at the time was considered "'one of the largest and finest school structures in the city." The building cost 13,58 of whichbamount the United States Government paid 10,00O0 m the balance was paid .by the American Missionary Society and the Western Freedaa's Aid Commission.16 The school was named the Ealy Normal School in honor of General John Ealy of the United States Army. Many prominent white people of Louisville were present at the dedi.. 21 cation and the principal speaker, Rev. E.M. Cravath, later President of Fisk University, took advantage of the occasion to outline the policy of the Qomi a8aiQon "The establishment of common schools, to be supported and carried forward by the united efforts of benevolent societies and the people them- selves, until the Free school system of instruction for all classes shall be successfully established by Municipal or State law. The schools are designed to be equal to the best common schools in the North and thus to be models for the school system of the South. "The establishment as far as possible,in the important cities and villages of each state of permanent schools of high grade, to give tone and efficiency to the common schools and to furnish the best facilities to those who are seeking a more extended and liberal education than the public system when adopted can, for a long time, at least furnish. "The establishment in each State of a Central Institution, at which provision shall be made to meet the most advanced educational wants of the people. These institutions are designed especially to be training schools for teachers, and are the germs of college.'27 T here was little opposition to the school and its staff of white teachers and the majority of White people were pleased to have such an institution in their city. One newspaper in the city, however, lifted 18 a voice of protest in an indirect manner. "Of the thousand miseries in the South, one of the greatestIfs that the sons and daughters of even the best portion of the old population are generally growing up without the advantage of any schools whatever. They cannot obtain so much as the rudiments except from their mothers and fathers, who in the present condition of affairs are so much absorbed by the sterner necessities of life as to have little leisure for even so important a mat- ter as the teaching of their children. In some places schools have been established and are kept iup by the Federal government, but these are under the superintendence of the Freedmen's Bureau and of course are devoted exam elusively to the education of Negroes. The white children of the South will not be sent to Negro schools." Although the Freedmen's Bureau was not finally liquidated until 180 22 it ran into difficulties because of decreasing funds and found it necessary C'"teVp) 11_,24 to 1 its local programs through the state. On July 16, 1868 Circular No. 8 was issued by the Assistant Commissioner's Office: "To the Freed people of Kentucky. That the Government may be relieved from the burden of expense and for the reason.that the Asst. Commissioner believes that the time has ar- rived when the freed-people should begin to learn the lesson of self-relinoe, he has this day, with the approval of Yaj. Gen. Howard and the honorable Secretary of War, discontinued the local agencies of the Bureau throughout the state. The general agencies, one at Lexington, one at Paducah and one at Louisville-remain to exercise a general supervision over Freedmen's affairs. The results of the efforts of the Bureau since its establishment have been eminently satisfactory. Three years ago, not five colored persons in one hundred could read or write. NoJ,, large numbers can both read and write; and nearly ten thousand of your children are found in your schools. Were this all that had been done, this alone would be worth to you and your people of Kentucky ten times the cost of the whole organization; but it is not all. Your sick, destitute and suffering without friends or home have been cared for and furnished rations, medicines and clothing. The orphan children of your race have been provided with a home. You have been taught that to labor is honorable, and you have profited by this teaching. In short, the government has liberated, protected, fed, clothed and educated you. It is the act of a just and generous people; and the officers of the Bureau are not ashamed of their work. The educational department will be continued until such time as the State of Kentucky shall bq law provide for the education of her people No agents or troops will be left to guard your school houses. The Asst. Commissioner hopes that the white people of Kentucky, recognizing the fact that.intelligent labor is necessary for their prosperity, will lend a helping hand, and no protection will be needed. Should, how- ever, any evil-minded men inteffere with your teachers, destroy your school- houses, a4.agent and troops to support him, if need be, will be at once posted in the vicinity where such outrages may occur. You will-no longer have officers or agents to advise with regard- ing your contracts, but there are many good men upon whom you-ca rely for counsel and advice. 23 The Asst. Commissioner trusts that you will enter into con- traots to labor with care and consideration, and that having entered into them, you will faithfully observe and carry out your bargains. Be honest and true to yourselves, and you will have nothing to fear. All right- minded men will aid and befriend you Should any outrages be committed upon you, the United States oourts-are open to you, and the officers thereof will aleways be, in the future, as they have been in the past, prompt to right your wrongs and award to you equal and exact justice . An officer of the army will, from time to time, visit each lo- cality in the state to look after your interests, hear your complaints, etc. All communications addressed to Brevet Lieut. Col. J.S. Catlin, Chief Sub. Asst. Com'r at Louisville, Brevet Lieut Col. R. E. Johnston, Chief Sub. Asst. Comer at Paducah or to this office will be promptly at- tended to. The Assistant Comminsioner trusts that you will persevere in the work of- educating your children; that you will cultivate friendly relations with the white people of Kentucky; that you will labor diligently, carrying out all your contracts in good faith, and in time, that you may continue the work of fitting yourselves to secure and enjoy the rights and privileges of American citizens. By order of Brevet Brigadier General Sidney Burbank, Asst. Com'r; State of Kentucky. 19 Ben. P. Runkle, Brevet Colonel U.S.A, Chief of Staff. The activities of the Freedmen's Bureau and associated missionary and benevolent organizations did not deter local Negro churches and individuals from continuing their own educational projects which had been badly dis- rupted or had ceased altogether during the war. Several new schools were also established. It seems well authenticated that at least two schools were opened in 1865. One of these was operated by D.A. Stroker in St. Marks Episcopal Church (now Church of Our Merciful Savior) on Greene Street near Ninth. Later Rev. J.S. Atwell was pastor of the church and principal of the-school. 24 He was held in high esteem and upon his resignation to accept a call else-where the Louisville Courier stated: "The Rev. J. S. Atrell, has resigned the charge of the above church to accept r. call from St. Stephen's Church, Petersburg, Virginia. Mr. Atwell has labored very faithfilly for the elevation of his race, both morally, intellectually, and spiritually. His interest in schools can- not be denied. "We learn that a complimentary concert is to be given tonight as a mark of respect to, and appreciation of the labors of Mr. Atwell as the late principal of the schools connected with the mission. EV According to one account2this St. Mark school subsequently removed to Madison Street between Tenth and Ninth and was taught by the Roxborough sisters. In 1865, also, a school was opened in Jackson Street E.E Church. By 1866 the school enrolled over one hundred children. The first teach- or was a Mrs. Cook (white) from the Methodist Episcopal Church in the North, who actually organized the school. No fees were paid by the pu- pils and the teacher's salary was paid by the Northern Methodistu In 1866 Prof. Henry Merriweather of Louisville became the teacher. He taught until 18711 when he resigned to be succeeded by Miss Julia Au- thor, a Negro, who taught until the.school was disbanded. The school had an enrolument of over 250 pupils at that time. In 1865 or 1866 W. H. Gibson, who had been teaching refugee chil- dren in Inc44napolis, Indiana, during the war, returned to Louisville and resumed his instruction at Quinn Chapel. Belle Goins taught a pri- vate school in 1868 to 1869 on Center Street, north of Walnut, and then at the corner of Thirteenth and Magazine, and later at the rear of a home on Magazine Street west of Thirteenth. What was known as a elee- 25 mosynary school was conducted by Reve. W.'ZJ. Tyler in 1869 in "Baptist Row" which was a part of Eiast Madison Street. Another school was con- duot1ed in the same square by Aunt Pendy, the Rev. Mr. Brooks and Jesse 23 Davis. During this period the first separate work among Negro Catholics was instituted by Father J. Lancaster Spalding. As assistant at the Cathedral he conducted special services for Negroes early in the year 1868. The following year he began the construction of the St. Augustine Church and school on Fourtoenth near Broadway Streets. Dedicatory exer- cises Nwere held on April 30, 1869. The school itself was under the di- rection of the Sisters of Charity of Nazarothl JAboat sixty children 24 were enrolled the first year. All during the period the Negro was becoming more vocal in his demand for public schools. In 1867 Kentucky enacted its first legis- lation concerning Negro education when it provided "that the capitation 4., and other taxes collected -from Negroes and Mulatoes should be set a- A part and constitute a separate fund for the support of their paupenrfnd the education of their children., In the same year a convention of Ken- tuoky Negroes was held in Lexington which memorialized the legislature to establish colored schools for the members of the race. Meanwhile the public sohooXr'of Louisville, had developed rapidily until in 1869 there were eighteen public school buildings with a total valuation of 55Z,100. In addition a new building had been authorized 26 to cost 0500009. 5While Negroes were not enrolled in the public schools, certain taxes on Negro property had been set abide since 1866 in order 26 to accumulate a fund to estabiLish and support Negro schools. Following up the convontion of 1867 in Lexington another Negro ode- cational convention was called for Louisville in July 1869. The see- sions were held at Benson's Theatre at Third and Jefferson Streets. The convention lasted three days. Among the speakers -were John M. Langston, John G. Fee, President of Berea College, Martin R. Delany and B. M. Cra- vath who was at that time Secretary of the American Missionar-y Associa- 27 tion. Rev. H. J. Young of Quinn Chapel who was elected temporary chdr- man, stated that since the Federal legislation appropiatinig funds for the education of Kentucky Negroes had expired, it was the. duty of the conventiorn to petition Congress for further appropriations and to peti- tion the state legislature to make funds available to assist in their 28 education. After much speech making on the first two days of the convention, the third day witnessed the adoption of the following resolbions: Whereas, We have learned with regret that the appropriations of money furnished by the government for the support of the Freedmen's schools in this state will soon be withdraw, and unless; aid is given the schools by the state, our children will recur bad4c again, to some extent, into a state which borders on barbarism, such as existed in the days of slavery- a condition which we pray God we raay nrever see again: Therefore be it Resolved: That this convention ,petitioil.tnited States Congress through General 0.O. Hoard, the General Supervisor of Freedmen's School and Hon. Jas. B. Beck our present Representative and otherin Congress for the present school aid allowed for Kentucky tobs continued until the State shall establish the common schools for the benefit of our people. Resolved: That this convention petition our State legislature, at its 27 next sitting for the school fund which is gathored from our taxes and said fund be appropriated for the benefit of said schools. ITheareas: As it is expected that the eduoationsl business of the Freed- men's Bureau will soon teriinato in this State, it is Resolved: By this convention to recommend thD forming of a State Educational Society for the purpose of continuing the educational interests already begun amongst the Colored Children in this State, the center of which shall be in the City of Louisville or Lexington, with its auxilaries in every county in the State, and that the delegates to this convention be instructed to proceed forthwith upon their return to their constitutlents to form such uxilaries .t29 The oonvention also took cognizance of the unsettled labor condi- tion among the former slaves. Many Negroes had refused to work and con- tinued the migratory habits developed during the later part of the Civil War period. The year of the education convention, the white people of Kentucky had become so desperate that at a Commercial Congress convened in Louisville considerable attention had been devoted to the subject of encouraging the immigration of Chinese coolies and other foreigners to replace the freed blacks as laborers.30 Fearing that if such immigration was encouraged Negroes would lose the opportunity of earning a living, those present at the educational convention at the evening session of the last day passed a resolution. "Resolved: That this convention recommend to the young men and youth of our state that they should learn trades and engage in agri- oulturist pursuit as a proper means of supporting themselves and giving encouragement to mechanics and agriculture, and by all means to procure homes for themselves and families.31 Thus in less than five years after the close of the war the Negroo3 of Kentucky had expressed themselves in favor of equal taxation and equal 28 education for all Kentuokians regardless of race. Furthorzmorethey had perfected an orqpnization to carry on the fight for the principle and had appealed to the Justice of the vhite population in its dealings with the Negro in educational matters. 29 PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATION MAT II Chapter III 30 Beginning of Public Education for Negroes By .8M) Louisville had reached a population of O10753 inhabi- tants. There was an average addition of 3,272 persons per year for the previous decade which represented a 48 per cent increase since 1860. Of this total number of inhabitants 14,956 were Negroes, who were be- coming more and more vocal in their requests for public schools for their children. There were two premises upon which they based their requests that public schools be provided. In the first place beginning in 1866 the Kentucky legislature had passed a series of laws providing for the taxation of Negroes to support special public schools for the Negro population. The provisions and effects of the various legislation have been pointed out as follows: "On February 18, 1866, the legislature passed a law providing that all taxes derived from a five cent levy on property of Negroes and Mulat toes be set aside to be divided equally for taking care of Negro pau- pers and the education of Negro children. The funds provided by the collection of taxes from a people so recently freed from slavery and having title to very' little property could necessary be very meager.--- "The law of 1866 was permitted to operate only one year before it was completely repealed and replaced by another enaoted on March 9, 1867. In addition to the property tax the new law le-ied a capitation tax of two dollars on every male Negro over the asge of eighteen and provided that the entire sum be used for schools and paupers. An essential dif- fference, however was that the new law provided for education first, and that the residue be put in the pauper fund. In the very next year this law was so changed as to prevent all possibility of an appreciable amount of state aid being given to Negro schools. The new law provided that no part of the funds authorized to be used for the benefit of Negroes and Mulattoes would be applied to school purposes except whatever excess there might be after providing for the Negro paupers of each county. It Pfirther provided that the money already collected under the act of 1867 be spent in accordance with this amending provision. This amend- ment had the effect of almost completely nullifying the development of colored schools so far as state action was concerned for in most counties there waj no money left for education after the need of pau- pers was served.' In spite of the character of this state legislation over 4500.00 had accrued to the education fund for Negroes in Louisville who felt that such sum should be spent for the purpose. indicated. A still more important premise, however, in increasing the pressure foi Negro edu- cation was the fact that the new city charter of 1870 provided that 2 Negro schools be established. With the adoption of the Third Charter a committee on schools for Negroes was appointed on April 4, l87T from the membership of the city school board. The committee began studying the situation with the pur- pose of establishing such public schools as were thought advisable. On September 22 of that year the Committee on Colored Schools made its report in part as follows: "Gentlemen--Your committee on Colored Schools respectfully report that, to the best information they have been able to get, the amount of city school taxes paid and to be-paid by the people of the African race in this city, for the years 1866, 1867, 1869 and.l8TYO is 3,899,32 which together with 729.53 due to the Colored people from the State amounting to 04,628.85, we recommend this shall be placed to the credit of the Colored School Fund. Vie recommend that, on the first of October, two schools for the Colored people shall be opened; one in the Center Street African Metho- dist Church, and the other in the Fifth Street African. Baptist Church; and, as soon thereafter as a suitable place can be obtained, another- school shall be opened making three in all; that in each of these schools three teachers shall be employed; one, who shall be principal at a sal- ary of 40.00 per month, one other at 30.00 and the other at 25.00; and that toward defraying the expenses of these schools for this school year, .3,500 be appropriated."4 On October 1, 28'YO the first two public schools for Negroes in Louisville were opened in the two specified churches. The teachers appointed in the Fifth Street school were: Susie Adams, principal, E. G. Green, first assistant and Ada Miller, second assistant. In the Center St. Church Sallie Adams was appointed principal, M. A. Morton, first assistant and John Arthur, second assistant. All of these teachers 5 were colored. Shortly after public schools for Negroes were opened, the Cokmit- tee on Colored Public Schools met and offered several resolutions which were passed at a regular school board meeting. Among the resolutions were the following- "The Committee on Colored Public Schools for the City of Louisville shall have the itnediate control and supervision of the Public Colored Schools, and report from time to time upon their condition, character and efficiency. In connection with the Committee on Public Colored Schools, there shall be a Board of Visitors, composed of nine colored men, who shall be appointed annually by the Committee on Colored Public Schools; and whose duty it shall be to visit said schools and report to said committee the efficiency of the teachers and schools, and who shall exercise a general supervision over said schools, and through whom the moral character of all applicants for positions in said public schools shall be made known to said committee. The Board of Visitors shall report directly to the Cotmmittee on Public Colored Schools, and exercise their authority only through said committee. The name graded system and the same text books now in force and used in public ward schools shall be in force and used in the Public Colored Schools. The same rules and regulations shall govern the teachers and scholars of the Colored Public Schools as are now in force in the pub- lic schools of the city of Louisville, with the exception that the average number of pupils to each teacher shall be sixty as the minimum. '33 There shall be an examination of all teachers non employed in the oolored schools, and of all applicants for positions as teachers in said schools in September 1870, and thereafter all applicants shall be examined in the month of July annually, under the control of the committee on Examination and course of Study of the Board of Trustees. No one shall be employed as teacher in. the Public Schools unless he, or she, is of-good moral character and has a certificate, granted after examination, signed by the officiers of the Board of Trustees. The secretary and 'Treasury of the Board of Trustees of the Public Schools shall monthly, upon the report of the principal of each school, signed by the Board of Visitors and countersigned by the chairman of the Committee on Public Colored Schools, pay the teachers employed from said public colored fund then in the treasury, and shall pay none other than those in she employ and under control of the Board of Trustees from said fund." William Drysdale, John D. Pope and W. F. Miller composed the first Committee on Colored Public Schools and Horace Mlorris served as the first secretary of the Board of Visitors of the Colored Publio Schools. Table No. I gives some idea of the enormous task placed on the shoulders of the teacher in the colored public and private schools of Louisville in 1870. T-r i, . n : V II. C.- t .p j Sk t d I I C Ai \ A) V ( z _ - OI C LOUISVILLE POPULATION ATTEND SCHOOL Wizards Colored M F First 311 5 3 Second 356 12 9 Third 589 50 33 Fourth 1868 78 92 Fish 2372 97 129 Sixth 1353 17 34 Seventh 883 22 9 Eighth 1293 36 86 Ninth 2162 89 102 Tenth 2255 77 84 Eleventh 1178 35 43 Twelveth 336 9 10 14956 527 634 Adaped fomCompendium of the Ninth Census 7 I 4-O 1 Adapted from On September 4, 1871 the three Negro sohools wore consolidated at 14th and Broadway in a rented building which had previously housed the Ely Normal Schoot but the building could not aqmoMq4atqe Afll ahoaggr There was 633 students enrolled in this school and 304 remained the en- tire year. The 633 students enrolled showed a slight decrease from 646 the previous year. The nine teachers employed this year were paid a combined salary of 2,490.95 while an additional 254.00 was spent for tbe upkeep of the school . During the school year a controversy arose between the mayor and the board of education over the interpretation of section.0 86 of the city charter which provided that the taxes collected from persons of the African race be used exclsuively for the education of children of that race. Since there were about 1200 Negro children of school age (6-20) And an income of less than 1500.00 per year, the mayor argued that the sum, approximately eighty six cents per oapita, was insuffi- cient to maintain the schools for Negroes. The mayor therefore assumed that because the charter did not expressly forbid the use of tax money collected from white citizens to support Negro schools, funds thus col- lected could be used. The school board did not concur in the inter- pretation but held that the Negro schools should receive only such 8 funds as were received from the taxation of Negroes. In spite of the continuance of the tax controversy throughout the following school year, the schools continued to progress. In SepA- 35 (ember 1872 another school for colored children was opened in the eastern section of the city in a rented building at Chestnut and Campbell Streets.9 There were 1,012 children taught by eleven teachers enrolled in the schools during the school year 1872-72. The sum of 4,150.10 was re- quired to maintain the colored schools for this year. Mr. Wyatt Stuart was employed as principal of the new school at Chestnut and Campbell Streets at a salary of 700.00 per year. Music had been introduced rin white schools as part of the curri- culum but so far had not been offered in the colored schools. When the school board met in October 1872, Mr. Pope, a member of the committee on Colored schools again raised the question of music in the schools. An assistant music teacher had been appointed for the purpose of intro- ducing music in the colored schools but no attempt bad been made to carry out the plan beyond appointing a second teacher of music. At this meeting Mr. Pope reminded the members that they had gone back on their promise to teach music in the colored schools and offered a re- solution, "that is is the sense of this Board that the additional assistant for music was appointed on condition that the colored schools 10 shall each have one lesson per week and also the primary Branch School." The resolution was adopted and music thus introduced in colored schools. In addition to the two public schools operated for Negroes there were several private schools. One of these, located. on Madison Street near Floyd, was known as the Polytechnic Preparatory School and had 250 students enrolled, with an average daily attendance of 200. The school was conducted on the same basis as public schools though most of the students were orphans. Rev. W. Taylor, pastor, York-St. Bap- tist Church was Superintendent, Mrs. M.A. Johnson was principal, Misses Fischer and Roberts were first and second class assistants respectively. The Industrial Department of the schools provided classes two days a 11 week for girls. Up to that time there were only two public schools for Negroes. At a meeting of the school board on February 3, 1873 an act for the benefit of the colored children of the city which had been passed by the state legislature and approved by the Governor was presented to the board. Whereas, By an act entitled "An act for the benefit of the public schools in the city of Louisville, Kentucky, approved January the seven- teenth day of the year eighteen hundred and seventy, the General Council of the city was authorized to execute and deliver to the Board of Trus- tees of the Male High School, Female High School and other public schools of Louisville eighty-five bonds of said city for one thousand dollars each, bearing interest at the rate of seven per cent per annum and the sinking fund of said city was charged with the principal and interest of said bonds and the receiver of taxes of said city was directed to pay out of said school moneys to the commissioners of the sinking fund sums sufficient to meet the principal and interest of said bonds at maturity, and twenty-one of said bonds have been paid, and it has been represented that the school moneys are relieved of the payment to the sinking fund of the remaining sixty-four bonds and the sums thus relieved appropriated to the construction of three school houses for colored children in Louis- Ville, the School Board vill be enabled to provide.adequate facilities for the colored of said city. Now thereforeto effect these ends. Section 1-- Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Common- wealth of Kentucky: That the second section of an act entitled: 1136 "An act for the benefit of public schools in the city of Louis- ville" approved January the seventeenth day of the year eighteen hun- dred and seventy shall be and read as follows: The sinking fund of the city of Louisville is charged with the payment of principal and interest of the said bonds. Section 2: That the portion of school moneys, which under the act mentioned, in the first section of this act would have gone to the commissioners of the sinking fund shall be appropriated and used by the Louisville School Board in the construction and equipment of . three school houses for colored children, to be respectively located in the ea'stern, western and central parta of the city of Louisville; and said school house and the schools to be established and operated therein shall be under the control and management of said School Board: Provided, however, that any balance left after building said houses shall be set apart and invested for the benefit of the colored schools, and the interest arising therefrom shall be exclusively and sacredly applied to the payment of teachers of said schools and for their maintenance and operation. Section 3: This act shalL take effect from its passage.12 On April 8, the Committee on colored schools, which had been given tba responsibility of selecting sites for new Negro school buildings, reported that its members had decided it would Oe advis- abld to build a central high school first. It reooomended that a lot 871 x 200 feet at Sixth and York be purchased for this purpose. The proposed purchase price was 7,875.00 or 90.00 per foot. After lengthy debate the report was adopted. The building committee was instructed to have an architect todraw plans for the building and to advertise for builders.13 Considerable opposition developed to the purchase of the prow posed site for the new school. A white school was located only a block away at Fifth and York and the area was populated by whites. Z8 They felt that as tax-payers they should not tolerate a Negro school in the ocmunity. White citizens wrote open letters to the edito= of local papers which also carried comments of their own concerning the proposed school. A letter and a comment will suffice to show the feeling of the affected neighborhood. The letter to the editor appeared the day after the board's official action was announced to the public. (To the Editor of the Courier-Journal) A great error is about to be committed in the location of the schoolhouse for colored people at the northeast corner Sixth and York. The proximity of the school house already built for white children at Fifth and York will lead to daily collision between the two races. There is already a Negro church in the same vicinity, and there is no just reason why this neighborhood should be made to endure so many nuisances. The vested rights of property holders are entitled t some respect. A place may be found for the school, one which will not meet with opposition, and its is to be hoped that they who have charge of this matter will pause for a time before they thus do violence to a large and respectable number of good citizens.l4 Two days later the paper made this cryptic comment under the heading, "'Local Brevities": The location of the new colored school building has created quite a stir among the people in the vicinity of its proposed site. They don't want it. They say they 'in't care where the house is built, so it is not in their neighborhood; The pressure was so great upon the owner of the lot that he used a stratagemi to avoid the conveyance of the lot to the school board by presenting the board a deed for a smaller lot than for which they had contracted. The board after arguing the legal aspects of the case, some desiring the owner to be hold to his bargain, others wishing to withdraw the board's offer, the whole re t rerrdto the com- mittee on colored schools and the finance committee. After some de- liberation these committees reported in favor of abandoning further 16 efforts to purchase the lot. The matter of the selection and pur- chase of a suitable size was left to the two committees. Little time was lost deciding upon another site and the Committee on Colored Schools reported to the board on May 9 that a lot on the Northeast corner of Sitb and Kentucky Streets had been purchased for 17 05,850.00. Plans for the proposed building had already been sub- mitted and a building to cost about 20,000.00 was soon under con- struction. It was intended that the new building be ready for occupancy on August 10th but due to unforseen delays the school year was begun with the building still uncompleted. Plans were then made to open the schoolf on October lst. Frederick Douglas visited tho school early in September and was requested totake part in the dedication ceremonies 18 but was forced to decline because of previous engagements. It was also found necessary because of the severe illness of Mr. Thompson/"the candidate for principal of the central colored school" to examine additional applicants for the position. For this purpose an examination was scheduled for September 12, at which two candidates were 40 also examined for positions in the colored school in Portland for 19 which a building had been rented. The Portland school opened on September 22 with an enrollment of thirty pupils. The attendance was a disappointment as it was ex- peoted that the enrollment would reach at least seventy-five. The building was unsuited for school purposes. Mr. Charles Taylor, an assistant at the school at Broadway and Fourteenth Streets was transferred to take charge of the school. By the end of September there were 457 pupils with six teachers, enrolled in the Fourteenth Street school, 291 pupils in the school at Chestnut and Campbell Streets with three teachers, and 47 in the Portland school with one teacher. There was a total of 795 Negro children out of an total enrollment of 11,843 children in Louisville public schools. Howp ever, there were only ten Negro teachers out of a total of 249 pula- Ilio school teachers in the city.21 These figures did not include the now Central school Wbi2h1 22 was not dedicated until October 7. The Louisville citizenry gemn erally seemed proud of the ten room structure which had cost with its lot approximately 32,000. The Courier-Journal epitonized the general sentiment in an editorial: The Colored People and Their Schools The dedication yesterday of a costly and well-appointed building designed to carry out the purpose of our city authorities to extend the benefits of free education to the colored people of this city was an event of no little significance. It places Louisville in the strong light of the highest progress of the day and is an earnest of her con- sistent intention to make all her people, of whatever race or color, good citizens and capable and qualified voters. It is a recognition of the safety embodied in a: thorough and proper popular education, which shall in the future contribute to her best and most material prosperity. Our colored population in growing with the growth of the city, the last directory giving the number of that people as 19,276. These figures are probably much below the actual fact, and the tendency of the race to seek the cities will un- doubtly greatly increase the present population in the next few years, aside from any natural causes. They are beginning to hold large a- mounts of real estate. Certain districts of the city are, indeed, in- habited by colored men who ovn the ground upon which they live. They mean to remain here, and before the city gave them ward schools they instituted church schools of their own and throagh many obstacles fought their way to knowledge, recognizing from their own observatio4 that it is power. Gradually the privileges of the public school system have been accorded them. The Board of Schbol Trusteds have withheld nothing in the scope of their power and means, and the comely btilding, which was dedicated with such interesting exercises yesterday, is a monument to the liberal policy pursued by our municipal authorities. The pro- mise was made to our colored people yesterday that such educational facilities would be increased, and the evident gratification which followed the announcement is proof of the deep interest taken in such measures. 'It is left for these people to avail themselves of such facilities. The enlightened amaong them have clamored for the oppor- tunity which equal education privileges afford, and have promised now ble things in mental and social progress. The opportunities are pre- sented them, the way is open, and the issue is in the bandsff the color- ed people themselves. Louisville can do no better work thin this, not only the general cause of advancement, but for her ow material interest. The day following the dedication, the school opened with "about two hundred scholars." However,-Mr. Maxwell1of Xenia, Ohio who had been examined on Neptember 12 and appointed prinoipalwas not in charge. On the opening day he left the city to accept a position in the Pens ion Bureau in Washington, D. C. at a "handscne salary. Miss 24 Lottie Adams was the acting principal. 42 With four public schools in existence, the private schools which taught merely reading and spelling began to disappear rapidly. Ap- parently the controversy over the Negro school tax had died. The school board, although receiving only about 2000.00 per year from the tax on the property of Negroes, spent over 5000.00 per year to support the Negro schools by the simple expedient of making up the difference from 25 the white school fund. With four public schools for Negroes in Louisville the buildings continued to be overcrowded. Moreover, the structures with the exception of the Central school, were poorly suited for school purposes. In October there were some 350 students in average daily attendance at the Fourteenth Street school where eight grades were taught by six teachers and approximately eight hundred more students were in average daily at- tendaince at the other three schools with nine teachers. In spite of these handicaps the schools were making great progress. The following letters were written by two pupils of the Fourteenth Street school. The first Was written by a thirty-year old married woman who had been at- tending school but two months and the second by a nine-year old boy who had attended school six months. My Dear teacher I love School very well and I never Was in an school before but i intend to try to Learn my lessons. Mrs. Josephine Wilson The following is what Robert Thompson Brown, "Esquire", had to say on schools Louisville October 28th 1873 Dear teacher i hope that the children will stop giving you trobble And i hope the children Will improve and be better boys and girls Their are 43 Same very naughty Boys and girls. i am now going to say something about myself. When i first Went to school i was nine years old and i wanted to go to school and i was glad to meet my sohoolnates there i am now triing to get' out of the fifth grade in to the sixth grade Whitoh i am now. i love my teacher i know of some very bad girls and Boys and When they grow up they will be use loss drain doing nothing for themselves or anybody else. Yours respectflly Written to Mrs. Aurthor by Robert tomm as Brown "esquire The enrollment continued to increase so rapidly that the school board was forced to examine and employ more Negro teachers. On Nov- ember 3 three teachers were added at the Central School when nearly 27 five hundred pupils were reported enrolled. Two days later six hund- red and forty-two pupils were present, representing an increase of nearly two hundred since the previous week and more teachers were needed for the third and fourth grades. In five more days over seven hundred pupils were present, ten teachers were at work in the school 29 and two more teachers were needed2 By the end of November there were two hundred and three pupils in the Eastern School, eight hundred and seventeen in the Central School, three hundred and sixby-itwo in the Western School and fifty-eight in the Portland School. This was a total of 1440 pupils of whom 1164 were in average daily attendance, 30 and for whom nineteen teachers were employed. The Negro citizens were not unmiddful of the conscientious ef- forts of the school board to provide schools for their children. The following communication was presented to the board on their behalf by the Board of visitors composed of Negro men to advise the school board on matters related to their schools: 44 To the Board of Trustees of the Public Sohools Gentlemen-_. The members of the board of Visitors desire, through the Comittee on Colored Public Schools, to return their sincere thanks for the uniform courtesy and consideration shown them and the earnest hearty cooperation extended in all measures advocated for the advancemnt of the colored school interests, permit us to say that we are not unmindful of the numerous drawbacks under the present school law, that we are fully aware of what has been done and how it has been accomplished and that more has been done for out little fellows then, under the circumstances, we had reason to expect. In view of all the facts, with grateful hearts we return you in the name of the colored people, our sincere thanks and will ever remember with gratitude all the members of the present Board of Trustees, who have so noblysaonded our efforts for the education of the colored youth. By order of Board of Viitors, Horace Morris Iuch of this growth had been at the expense ot the private schools. In fact not only did the public schools receive the for- mer pupils of the private schools but some of the better equipped teachers as well who were recruited for the larger public service. It was only natural that in a period when other states of the south was undergoing reconstruction that Kentucky, although not a "reconstructed state' should feel some of the heat generated in her sister states. In Louisville demonstrations of all kinds were kept to a minimun. Howoverlshortly after the opening of the Central school it was reported that some of the pupils of that school in- suited and sometimes fought white pupils whom they met-on their - 32 way to and from school. Later it appeared that truants from white 33 and colored schools had almost daily pitched battles with stones Fortunately, however, the incidents were treated as juvenile pranks and did not spread to the adult Notch 45 The crowded condition of the schools led the board to con. sider the construction of other schools which had been contemplated in the action of the legislature the year before. Accordingly it wan decided to erect an eight-room building in the eastern part of the city somewhere between Preston and Clay, and Chestnut and Laurel 34 Streets as soon as a suitable lot could be secured. The Comittee on Colored Schools was given the task of select- ing the site and finally decided upon a lot on Roselane near Clay 35 Street which 'was 125x102 ft. and could be purchased for 3,000. Having mde public the proposed location of the now school the School Board was sent a letter written by Mr. Horace orris, secretary, of the Board of Visitors of Colored Schools, stating 1egroes objeoted to the proposed location. The letter vas accompanied by a second comunioation from the Board of Visitors or Colored schools asking 36 th'e Board of Education to reconsider the location. The request was granted and the Committee on Colored Public schools wasz asked to select a now site between Preston and Hancock, and south oft Jacob Street. The result was the purchase of a lot at the corner of Jackson and Breokenridge Streets. The deal was com- pleted April:8, 1874 with the payment of 3,500. The lot was-lseven- ty-five by, one hundred fifty feet.57 The Building Committee met in April to oomplete plans for can- struotion of the school and adopted the plan of F.W. Vogdes, arch.. 38 itect-to build a three story,, nine room brick school house. .After 46 opening bids for construction of the new school the Sohool Board met may 5, and adopted the plans of Messers. Hazzleton and Henderson to construct a three story, xi-e room building. At the conclusion. of this meeting the names of Madison Msinns, George Thaos and William H. Gibson were added to those of Horace Morris, Marshall Woodson, Napoleon Bonaparte, Andrew Bibb, Jesse Meriweather, George Brow, George Taylor, Basoom Rodgers and William Stewart who were already members of the Board of Visitors of Colored Schools, in- 39 creasing the membership from 'nine to twelve. They were given permission to hold their meetings at the School Board when the room was not in use. When the third charter of the city had been adopted it had provided not only for an annual tax of twrenty-five cents on each 100 worth of oity property but 'in addition thereto a tax of eight cents on each 100 worth of real estate and improvements Was author rized to be levied for three years, and longer, if the Council should 40 so order, for the purpose of supplying additional school houses." In June after the refusal of the city Council to renew the eight cent tax, the School Board toted to discontinue the use of all rented buildings on July 1st as no money could lawfully be taken from the 41 general educational fund to pay rent. Increasing attendance and the opening of the new school neces- sitated additional teachers. On June 30, and July 1, twenty-seven colored and eleven white persons took the teaohers examination. 47 The subjects listed tdr examination were scheduled as follows: Tuesday, 84 a.m. to 12 m., arithmetio Tuesday, l1 pm.i...... 5 p. nm., Geography and History; Yed. in sm ......... l2., Grammar and Geometry;42 ed. l' p. me ......6 p. m., Physiology and Natural Philosophy. Shortly after this examination was given, the Board of Visitors of Colored Schools asked that the salaries of teachers in oolored schools be increased as it was not an easy matter to get competent teachers at the present rating. The request resulted in a ten dollar monthly 43 raise for the principal but the teaoherat salaries remained the same. On September 3, 1874, the now eastern school building at Jaokson and Breokenridge Streets was dedicated. This made the second 44 new school building dedicated within a year. This school know to. day as Booker T. Washington, still operates as a colpred sohool. Mr. M.N. Brown was named principal of the school. Miss Julia Arthur, first assistant, Misses Florence Morrow ard Mary C. Baker, second 45 class assistants and Nora Steele, third olass assistant. J. M. Ferguson was appointed principal of the central school at' the same meeting, with Miss Lottie Adams head assistant. First as- sistants were Virginia M. B. Shavers and Clarenoe Jl. Miller. Second class assistants were Mary L. Waters and H. C. Parker. Third class assistants were Rebooca W. Quigly and William P. Annis Mr. Allen We Hensen was appointed principal of Western school, Miss Lizzie S. Morris first assistant, Miss Martha A. Mattin and 48 W. L. Gibson second class assistants and Miss Maria.F. Cox and 48 Richard H. Cole, third class assistants In October 1874, a first attempt was made to obtain night schools for those unfortunate Negroes who were not able to attend day-:olasses --similar skobols already had been opened for white boys. The request was made in the form of a letter to the edi. tor of one of the daily paperst instead of making the request 471 directly to the School Board. Consequently, at that time nothing was done about opening night schools for Negroes, although three night schools were opened for white working boys. Ar. W. L. Gibson was appointed teacher of a school opened in a rented building on the Point-extreme eastern section of Louis- 48 ville-on Norember.10, 1874, with forty-six students in attendance. The .school was opened to enroll children in that section tho were far removed from the other Negro schools then established. When rules were first adopted in 1870 governing the operation of Negro schools it was stipulated that the number of pupils per colored teacher should not exceed sixty. On Februax'yl, 1875 the board placed the Negro schools 'on the same footing as the white 49 schools in that respect." This action of the board aided in re. moving one of the great handicaps under which Negro teacher labored. At the same meeting the Committee on Colored schools pre- sented resolutions to authorize the advertising for bids "for a lot 49 somewhere between Fourteenth and Seventeenth, and Chestnut and Maple Streets for the ereotion of a now colored school house " and for 50 plans and specifications for the ereotion of the proposed building. At the first School Board meetng..inA-pril 1875, R. M. Payne, Rev. E. D. Smith, William Spradling, and Milton Clark were made now members of the Colored Advisory Board. Lateu in the year the names 31 of Peter Lewis and Durastus Jones were added to fill vacanoies. During' the school year 1874-5 the board of Education had con- tinued its liberal policy with regard to the expenditure of the gen- eral school funds in support of Negro schools. Over four times as much as was collected in taxes from Negroes was spent in operating their schools. The report for the year listed sums spent for sa8- /aries alone as follows. Fulton Street Colored Shool (Point) .............434.6O Eastern Colored School... 4 Central Colored Sahool'............... 5,208.50 Western Colored School..................... 3,611.50 Portland Colored School ...........o...........635.25 14,037.54 However the totil expense of all teachers' salaries in the city uan 230,906.25 for the school year. Actual receipts for the Colored 52 School Fund were onlyf5,319.48 for the year. Thq school year 1875-76 was begun with three school Buildings constructed specifically for school purposes. In addition to the Central and Eastern schools, the Western Sohool which had been con- duoted at Broadway and Fourteenth Streets in the building formerly 60 ooupied by the Ealy Normal School during the period of the Freed- men's Bureau, was now housed in a new structure, on Magazine Street between Fifteenth and Sixteenth Streets The dedication service was held on September 2 with many persons of both races participating. The Central school opened under the direction of a new prin- cipal, J. M. Maxwell, who had been elected as principal when the school was erected but had resigned to accept a governmental position at the nation's capital. Other faoulty members appointed to the Central school were Miss Lottie Adams, head assistant; Mrs. M. F. Mead and William P. Axnis, first class assistants; Mr. M. A. Norton E. S. Bass and Clarence W. Miller; second class assistants and Mr. LA. Johnson, R. W. Quigley and Miss C. T. Prince, third class as- 53 sistants. The enrollment continued to increase. At the end of October 2,039 Negro pupils iad enrolled out of a total of 15,198 in the city. Of this number 1, 913 were still in school and the average daily attendance was 1,607. There were at that tiime thirty-two Negro teachers of the total force of 341 teachers in the city. By February the continued pressure upon the constantly ex_ pending facilities caused the Committee on Colored Schools to re- cimmand to the board that two additional lots be purchased "tone in 56 the upper and one in the lower portion of the city." However, no immediate action was taken toward the erection of additional buildings. 61 During the school year 1875!6 the school board had received 2,340.90 for the fund for Negro schools and expended 17,183.30. This represented a deficit of 14,842.40 for the school year and an accumulated deficit of, 37,195.09. The total coat of maintaining schools for white and Negro pupils of the city was 272,278.98 for 56 the year. On July 1, 1876 there remained only 3,498.95 in the Colored School Building Fund but the colored schools were now firmly established and, for the most part, operating under favorable circumstanoes. 52 Chapter IV i Development of High School and Ni ht School Classes With the close of the school year 1875-76 which marked six. years of operation of public schools for Negroes, great strides had been made in Negro education in terms of enrollment, teaching force and buildings constructed solely for school purposes. The school year 1876-77 was the beginning of a period of slower progress large- ly due to the fact that the rapid expansion of both white and ool- ored schools had outrun the available financial resources under the tax schedules The salary schedules for the various teaching positions in the city not only give but the relatively the meeting of the schools were fixed Male High School Principal 4 Professors -(each) Two teachers, for "a" grade (each) 1-Janitor FaHih School Principal I teacher of Natura: Science 1 teacher of Natura Science' an index of the large expenditure for salaries smaller amounts received by Negro teachers. At board on July 3, 1876 the salaries in the white as follows a Idteediate District and Prima Schools 3,000 Fourteen Principals (each) 1650 2,000 Five Principals (each) 1000 Two Principals (each) 750 1,000 Two Principals (each) 650 500 Head Assistants Male Depart. ment First Grade, (each) 900 Had Assistants Female De. 3,000 partment (each) 800 3. First Grade Intermediate 2,000 Assistants (each) 600 1 1,500 First class Assistants, Distriot Department (each) 600 53 9 teachers, (each) 900 Second class Assistants, District 1 Janitor and en- Department (each) 500 gineer 1200 Third class Assistants, Distriot Department (each) 400 Trinin School Germiar Principal 2,000 Chief Assistant 1,650 First Superintendent 1650 Six Critic Teachers (each) 800 Prinoipal or highest class assistant 1000 -Second class Assistant or second class principal 600 Next highest class assistant 500 Next highest class assistant 400 1 The Committee on Colored Schools asked for an extension of time to report on colored schooIs. 'When the conmittee did make its report the schedule adopted was as follows: Eastern School Principal z J. Me Ferguson 700 First class Assistants: Areen Cary, C. A. Iambe and R. W. Quigley 600 Second class Assistants: A. R. Anderson, L. A. Lindsay, C. H. Brown 450 Third olass Assistants: W. H. Gibson, Jr., D. C. Young, George Walker 3560 Central School Principal: J. M. Maxwell 1200 Head Assistant: M. Lottie Adams 600 First Class Assistant: M. L. Mead, We P. Annis Mt. A. Morton 500 Second Class Assistantst C. Me. Miller, M. V. Robinson, sK. L. Washington 450 54 Third Class Assistants: C. B. Paris, M. A. Johnson, A. Jo Young 360 Western School Principal: W. T. Peyton 700 First Class Assistants: W. ML. Burks, L. S. Morris, C. B. Preston OQQ Second Class Assistants: C. B. Price, J. C. Bridgewater, M. F. Cox, M. C. Ferguson 450 Third Class Assistants: J. C.IUdKinly, E. C. Wood, F. M. Robinson, La S. Patterson 350 Portland School Pi'ioipal: W. La Gibson 500 Fulton St. (Point) School : 2 Principalt J. A. Arthur 500 It will be noted from a comparison of the salaries in white and colored schools that the twenty-three principals of the white inter- mediate district and primary schools, in which group the Negro schools would nomally have fallen, received salaries ranging from 650 (two persons) to 1650 (fourteen persons). In contrast the Negro princi- pals received salaries ranging from 500 to 1200. 'White assistants received 600, 500 and 400 respectively for the first, second and third class posts. Negro assistants received 500, 450 a 50 res- peotively. It in quite possible, however, that the white teachers, having had access to good schools for several decades, were on the average better prepared than the Negro teachers of similar grades. The wonder 55 is that there would be sufficent teachers among Negroes to staff the necessary schools. The white teachers had been exposed to a wider range of subject matter and to a higher level of instruction inolud- ing normal school work. As a matter of faot there was not even a high school available to Negro aspirants for the teaching profession. However, when the Central building was erected it was planned that eventually it would become a high school. The first step in this- direction was. taken on October 2, 1876 when the School board decided to establish an 'A" grade at the school 'Ato be taught by the principal, and to consist sp) 3 of those persons who had passed an examination from the first grade. In spite of all the limitations attending instruction in schools so recently organized it appears that in the judgement of white fel- low teachers the schools were well conducted. White teachers wel- comed the opportunity to visit the schools. Regarding one such group, the following coment was made in the Courier-Journal under "Local Brevities": A nuaber of teachers of the Sixth ward public schools visited the colored school on Jackson and Breokinridge yesterday. They were re- ceived in an agreeable manner by the principal and his assistants, who took pleasure in enabling them to witness .with what dispatch and in- telligence their pupils transact their studies. The deportment and smart ess of the colored children were highly complimented by the visi- tors. During the year two additional buildings were erected for Negro schools-already.li existence A one-story brick was built on the corner ofTwenty-eighth and Lytle Streets for the Portland School d 88 a building was erected at the corner of Poshontas and Zlm for the Falton Sohool. In.1874 the School Board had attempted to haye the City Council renew the eight cent tax by which more schools could be built but the council failed to do so and the school board closed some of the white schools in rented buildings because it could not legally pay for the upkeep. Subsequently the School Board sued to compel the city toievy the tax. As a result of this the School Board agreed in May 1877 to 6 accept 31,000.00 from the city as a compromise and dismiss the suit. It was decided that the 31,000 should be spent to build more sohoo3s and renovate others. However, it was not planned that the colored schools should share in the program. In June 1877, thirteen students took examinations for admission 6 to the 'A" grade. Eleven of this number were successful. In July) all' the Negro principals were returned to their respective posts,. for the school year 1877-78 except W. L. Gibson of the Portland School. He was replaced by A. P. Anderson.e7 Before their reappointment the Committee on salaries and supplies of the School Board had increased the salaries of the principals at Eastern and Western schools to 1000. Increases in. salaries were regretted before the end of the school year for it soon became apparent that the resources of the board were not sufficient to meet the cost of operating the schools. In January a special ommittee on Retrenchment was appointed to in- vestigate ways of reducing the expenses of operating the school system. 57 About a month later, the committee recommended that the salaries of iJ / 10 ; all teachelk, anitors and other school employees be reduced. How- ever, the Board.did not act upon the recommendation as it contended. that the salary schedule adopted for the school year represented-a contract which should be fulfilled. The school board continued to struggle with the adverse financial situation during the remainder of the year 1878-79. The rate of increase of enrollment slowed down in this two- year period. While the enr6llment in the entire school system in- creased from 19,260 in June 1878 to 19,484 in June 18797the Negro enrollment decreased from 2,983 to 2,215. In spite of the decrease, the attendance of Negro pupils in the latter year was much better as the figures for average daily attendance for the two years were 1,684. and 1,743 reipectively. Thirty-three Negro teachers were employed in 1877-78 and thirty-six wore employed in 1878-79. The total number of teachers in the system was 318 and 327 for the two 12 years. Although the board was spending approximately 17,000 a year for the operation of the colored schools of which only aboat 02500 came from the colored Sohool Fund, the Negro teachers felt keenly the differential in salaries and asked the board to eq4lize their l pay with that of the white teachers. They based their pleas upon the fact that they performed the sme duties and were compelled to 13 pass the same examinations as their white fellow teachers. That the Negro teachers throughout the state resented the racial differentials also, is Ohom'' through the discussion at the S8 Colored State Teachers Association held in Louisville, August 1879. During the session itweas pointed out that the per capita for Negro children was only about one-fourth that for white children in Ken- tucky; that the legal school ago for Negro children in the state was from six to sixteen as contrasted with the ago for white children which was from six to twenty and that while other southern states had founded state supported normal schools,, no steps in that direc- tion had been taken in Kentucky.14 The school year 1879-80 opened with the further disquieting news that the per capita to be paid by the state for each white child would be reduced from 1.50 to 1.25 and that the per capita for each Negro child would be reduced from fifty cents to forty eight cents. On this basis the school board felt called uponl to re- vise its budget.15 Nevertheless, the teachers were undaunted In their quest for equal salaries. In this plea they had the moral support at least of the Colored Board of Visitors wholin a oamanioation to the school board stated: To the members of the Board of Education, Louisville, Kentucky Gentlemens Another school year has drawn to a close, and with it comes the time for us to render an account.of our stewardship . The schools undet our supervision have not retrograded, but on the con- trary have siown a very satisfactory degree of improvement. The teachers have steadily improved in scholarship, ability to impart in- struction and to maintain healthy discipline. This year we are proud of the fact that all the teachers who were appointed had certificates, conditioned in but three cases, and those on but one subject. This result is especially gratillking to 69 to us as it is unmistakable evidence that air teachers appreciate their advantages and are determined to improve themselves. The arrangement of the very comprehensive and practically useful course of study for the A grade, speaks in s ignificant terms of your liberality and desire to do the best possible under the circumstances for our children and arouses within us a sentiment of deep gratitude which is shared by our people at large. In conclusion, we desire to return our hearty thanks for the many favors and marks of esteem and confidence showered upon us during the year just alosed.21 In February 1881,the mininum daily attendance required per-teacher- in colored schools was. lowered from forty to thirty. When the schools were opened in 1870)the attendance requirement had been set at sixty per teacher. Laterlit had been lowered to forty when such action appeared necessary to prevent the dismissal of teachers ine xcess of the allotted number. Toward the end of the year)attention was turned to the question of prioviding additional schools houses when in April the Committee on Build- ings and Finance was directed to investigate whether now facilities were needed. The Committee on Colored Schools recommended in June "the abo- lition of the Colored Board of Visitorsthe teachers in the colored schools having now become well, enough acquainted with their duties to make visits of the board unnecessary" The recommendation isa adopted bringing to an end the work of the board of visitors. The constant agitation for the equalization of salaries brought about slight increases for sane principals and teachers for the school year 1881-82. The salary of fourth class assistants Was increased from thirty-one to thirty-five dollars per month. At the same time the salaries of the principals of Eastern and Western schools were increased from s0 ninety to one hundred dollars and the salary of the principal of 20 Central from 108 to 120 per month. In August 1881 Mr W. H. Perry was appointed principal of Eastern School. When Mr. Perry had entered the sohool mystem in 1877 as a fourth class assistant at Western School, the boad-fe1 governing the mininn age of appointees had been suspended because 21' he was under eighteen years of age. He subsequently had been trans- ferred from Western to Central School. Prior to the fall of 1882 only the work of 'grade A" had been offered prospective teachers and the course of study had been rather limited. Inlthat year the high school with a three year curriculum was organized to replace grade 'A' and a regular teacher was appointed. The course of study comprised rhetorio, English,.Amerioan phi zoology, geolog9, elements of Astronomy, algebra, geometry, ' trigonometry, lAtin, Roman history, Caesar and Virgil. A request was made for a new school in 'California" to take care of the children in that district since a survey made in SepV tiember had revealed that approximately one hundred small children were forced to go out of that section to other schools. The situa- tion was relieved when the School Board rented a church at 76 a year to be used for school purposes in the California district. In October night sohooos for Negroes were first Iaugurated. At the school board meeting on October 2- 1882, the Cosmittee on night 81 schools made recommendations in part as follows Fixing Salaries Report of Night Schools Rules and Regulations Rule 1_ There shall be established five night schools for working boys and girls. The schools for white boys shall be located as fol- lows: One in the Min -street school building and one in the Duncan Street school building. The schools for colored boys shall be lo. oated as follows: One in the Western colored school building and one in the Eastern colored school building. A school for white girls shall be located in the Female High School Building. Rule 2- These Schools shall be opened on the sixteenth night in Oato- ber, and each Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday night, and shall be continued till the last Thursday night in February, beginning at half-past seven and closing at half-past nine o'Olook. Rule 3-To be entitled thdmission each pupil shall be not less than twelve years old, shall present a certificate from his employer cer- tifying to the fact that his character is such as to render it pro- bable that attending night school will be beneficial to him. Rule 4-Any pupil who is guilty of insubordination or other improper conduct or who shall fail to supply himself with such books as shall be necessary or who is absent two nights in a week without a written excuse from his parents or employer, shall be suspendedo Rule 5-The average number of pupils to each teacher shall be not less than thirty-five. Rule 6.No person shall be emplojred as principal, who has not a princi- pal's certificate, and no one as teacher or assistant who has not a primary certificate, and ieit least twenty years of age and has had an experience of two years. The salary schedule for night schools provided that principals be paid 250, teachers 1.50 and janitors 1.00 per night. On the opening night, October 16, the schools were visited and a grpphic description appeared in the local paper. The parts apply. ing to the colored schools are herewith quoteds 82 The four night schools for white and colored children were started last night. The principal cause of the failure of the for- mer night schools, if failures they were, mas want of disciplines and therefore the committee resolved to select the best teachers in the city to conduct these night schools6 and in this way over- come.that obstacle...............e. 0 0 0 60 The Eastern colored school on Jackson and Breokinridge Streets was next visited and the pupils were found to have been divided into their respective grades, but were collected together in the chapel. There probably never was a queerer looking set of persons assem- bled as pupils in a school building before. The majority of them were grown men, many being over fokty years of age, and some even older, of every size and description. Here and there throughout the assemblage a mischievous little head, with a face stretched into a broad grin, would peep up over a desk beside an old and solemn man bearing the appearance of a grandfather and child, ra- ther than fellow-pupils, actuated by a like desire to qjoumulate a little store of knowledge. Many of these grown men were ques- tioned, and stated that they were compelled to work every day - for a living and never before had an opportunity afforded them to attend school. They seemed extremely glad of the opportunity and expressed a greater desire to learn than even the white children.. The corps of teachers in this school is as follows: Jo A. Maxwell, Principal; and Messrs. W. H. Perry, W. P. Annis, Co Ad Millard, and W. L. Gibson, ohosen from among the best colored teachers in the city. The Western Colored School was then duly inspected, and much the same scene presented itself. The teachers had gotten a little farther along than the others, however, and had organized all their classes and had them at work. Each room was inspected in turn add presented a business-like appearance, the boys and old men being classed together according to the knowledge possessed........... The teachers employed in this school are all fully qualified and experienced. They are as follows: WillialT. Peyton, Principal; Messrs. Brown, Kley, Ferguson and Wood. The Ohio River wont on a rampage in January and flooded the low lying sections of the city. The Fulton Sahool building-was washed some distance from its original site. The sohobl board agreed to sell the building as it would cost more than it was worth to rebuild it 83 Since the colored board of visitors had boen Abolished, the work of supervising the Negro Sehools. fell giore heavily upon the Conaittee on Colored Schools. The ommittee had noted for some time the pressure of the increasing enrollment in the Negro schools and after a careful canvass of the situation made a following report and recommendations Your Committee on Colored Schools met last Friday afternoon to review and consult as to the past and future of air colored schools. It affords us pleasure to-report that we-finLd all these sohoolst except the Fulton-street school, which IAi non-existing, oin-a flouris ing condition. The unfavorable weather since Christmas, has had its effects upon the attendance, but the roll being so large for the lily- sited Ember of rooms at our disposal, it has not been necessary to discharge a teacher in consequence thereof, on the oontrary, we find attendance comfortable in all the schools in bad weather. But with a series of fine days the complaint is, 'we are over-crowded," and it is an undoubted fact that they were in need of more school facilities. In the first place we find the Central Colored School with its dis- trictsfor the primary department, extending from Brook to Tenth Streets and south toithe city limits. We also find that the majority of the school children of the sixth, seventh, and eight grades, who live in two extreme ends of the district do not attend the school on account of the distance. Likewise, the location of the Eastern School is not central by any means, as its district extends over that territory east of Brook Street and south to the city limits. Therefore'- com- pelling the children in the northeastern part of the city to travel miles to school. True, we did have a branch school, but the floods came, and that which wasis no more. It is also the opinion of the Committee, that the building should never be replaced on its former foundation. As a solution to the above, we recommend that the board sell or trade off the property on Thirteen Street, next to the engine- house. Also that on Elm and Pooahntas Streets, and buy two lots; one north ,of Walnut, between Seventh and Tenth Streets, and the other north of Walnut, betieen Preston and Hancock Streets, on each of which to build a school-house, not to cost more than 5,000 each.- With these two additions we think the accommodations for the color- ed children will be ample for the next ten or fifteen years. We now submit thesesuggestions in advance of our annual report, that the members may carefully study and consider them so as to be ready to advise us when this caomittee again comes before you asking for additional eccomodations for the colored public. Frank H. Pope, Jas. Atkinson, D. D. Thompson, J. R. Aubrey, R. C. Davis, Committoe 84 The board acted immediately to relieve the congestion by au- thorising the ooinittee to rent a two or three room building north of Walnut and east of Preston Street for the remainder of the school year.' The matter of selling the proportion on Thirteenth Street and on Elm Street was referred to the Finanoe Committee with instruction 28 to act on the suggestions made. :n order to ipoomodate the pupils who had been attending the Fulton school, two frame oottages on Cabel Street near Elm were rented at 1400 per month. Due to the failure of the first regular high school teacher to qualify for permanent appointmentman examination was authorized to be held to select another teacher to fill the position. As a result) C. W. Houser was appointed high school teacher at the Central school. .A-staff of fofty-one Negro principals and teachers were appointed to the schools for the year 1883-84. Of this number ten were at Cen- tral, eleven at Easter,fifteen at Western, two at TIaton, two at the California School and one at the Portland School. At a School Board meeting in September 1883,the committees on Finance and Buildings, which had been instructed to purchase profi )erty for erection of a Negro school in the Calfornia district, re- ported purchase of a lot on Horney Street between 16th and 17th 11WO feet front by 150 Beet deep, at a cost of 130j. Many students who should have attended the California school attended the Central and Western schools Instead thereby overcrowding tbese schools and a6 depopulating the California school. So serious did the situation become that the chairman of the Committee on Colored schools at- tempted to suspend the law which gave students their preference of (:3) the school to be attended. The board did not concur in the matter. Aother winter flood in 1884 submerged the buildings in which the classes of the Fulton school were taught. After the water had receded it took time for the building to dry out and for repairs to be made. The school was not reopened until the first week in April. The first senior class of the high school was now instruction. The class consisted of persons who had attended Grade Ae in 1881-82, entered the second year of high school when organized in 1882-83 and who now were enrolled in the third or senior year. The school board was tlus obliged to give rather careful consideration to the equipment and course of study of the high sohook grades at the Central school. Near the close of the school year requests were made for a oelestifal globe and set of charts for the class in astroa Al nomy at the High School and for the addition of German classes. The request for materials for the astronomy class which totaled 65.00 v1s granted but the request for German was refused on the grounds that the course of study was sufficiently heavy. Examinations for seniors in the high school were set for June 2nd through the 5th, with oamencement exercises to be held at Ma- 3; oaulcy's Opera House on Thursday June 12th. An attempt was made at a school board meeting during the week of tb emaminations to 86 make it possible for the members of the first senior olass to be granted certificates to teach In the city schools provided they .shall pass a satisfactory examination In general fitness and the theory and methods of teaohint The board heldlhoweverbthat seniors who were candidates for positions in the oolored schools would hare totake the regular teacher's examinations to be held on June 23rd 37 through the 26th. There were seven graduates in the first olasus Arena Brown, Lieele Prather, John T. Bell, Lucretia Bibson, E= 30 Alexander, Bettie Daniels and John Stark. When the term began in September 1884 the attendance had in- -04- tL 4v oreased 482 over the corresponding monthj4eyear thus necessitating additional teachers. In order that some teachers might be appointed in the colored sohoolsjthe rule governing the qualifications nec- essary for appointment as teachers vas suspended and Miss Lillie B. Brennon and LL. K. Gbsonygraduates of the high. sohooljwere elected to serve on year. So crowded.were the students of the Portland Sohool that an- appropriation of 300.00 was requested to enlarge the school. Tie. requestwas n8ot granted but additional space was rented for the school. Not only did the attendance increase in dayfclasses but in gight school as well. The night school term began in October 1884 and the sohools were open sixteen instead of twelve weeks as had been true in former years. The first class that had been enrolled as students in the 67 high school for three full years was graduated June 11, 1885. One of the city papers in reporting the onmenoement stateds Probably none of the numerous commencements in the city possessed more interest for the student of our social institutions than that of the Colored High School at Maoauley's last night. The success of those who participated in the programme was deserved and roflected oredit both on the pupils and the teachers. Mr. P. N.o Pope, Chairman of the Com- mittee on Colored Schools, made a few happy remarks in delivering the diplomas. Names of the graduating class--Charles S. Morris, Valedictorian, first honor, average, 5.81; Julia M. Booker, Salutatorian, second honor, average, 5.73; Raohel J. Davis, ArabellhSilkran, Prima A. Fitsbutler, Mattie E. Fowles, Oatavia C. Wood. When the night schools were first established they were intended for boys. Later girlsW of high school ageiwho found it impossible toattend day schools because of their employment were admitted. The night classes were becoming more and more filled with adults far a- bove school age. Early in the school year 1885-6, the school board gave some discussion to the propriety of allowing elderly men and w- men to attend night school. The matter was. left unchanged pending investigation. At the board meeting of January 4, 1886, the chairman of the Committee on Colored schools presented the following oomunications In order to have more and better school facilities afforded us, this comunication is now offered. During several years the attend- ance in th9 Colored public schools has been so great the school buildings are inadequate In an endeavor to meet the demand for more accomodations, we are spending for rented buildings a sum equal to the legal annual interest on 16,000. This expenditure--does not give us comfortable or suitable schoolrooms. Moreover, branch schools are seldom satisfactory, from the fact that parents usually prefer to send their younger children in company with their older brothers and sisters to tbo big building. 8 That the Central Colored School be no longer a school for colored children, and the Main-street building be hereby made a school for the colored High School, colored Normal class, inter- mediate school and a primary department. This change in desirable and provides an intermediate school in the extreme eantern and western portions of the city. One in the Main-street building and another in the Magazine and Sixteenth-street School will accomplish this. The school house on the corner of Ninth and Magazine Sti'eets is betteradapted for our uses than for its present use. We there- fore recommend that this school building be no longer a school for white children, but that the building, corner of Sixth and Kentucky streets, be hereafter a school for white pupils, and the Ninth and Magazine Streets school be one for colored pupils. We recommend, in harmony with the report of tbh Sanitary Coa- mittee, that ,a substanial four-room building be erected for the Portland colored-school. In conqlusion, we earnestly considered this matter, and be- lieve the changes recommended will be of great value to us and will work injury to none. since it was felt that there would be some feeling among the people of the section affected it was considered wise that the board should consult with those affected before reaching a decision. The matter was referred to the Committee on buildings to include members from the fourth and, ninth wards in which the shifts of racial popu- lation were taking place,. With the beginning of the night school session in September 1886 a new ruling was enforced with regard to an upper age limit on attendance. Since the controversy of the preceding year,,a bill had been introduced in tbe legislature to allow any person under forty years of age to attend. Because of opposition to forty as an age limit a compromise was reached upon twenty-five as the upper age 89 for attendanoe upon public night sohools. The 8esi0in for the night school was shortened with the sohools olosing before Christmas. Classes were held at the Eastern and Western Schools. The enrollment in the public schools was still on the increase. The enrollient in the regular day classes of the previous year (1885- 86) had totalled 2QP64 pupils in the entire system. Of this total 3,894 were enrolled in the Negro schools causing an over-orwded condi- tion more serious than ever. The board had not acted formally upon the recommendation to exchange certain white and colored schools in the fourth and ninth wards to relieve the pressure. As a consequence the board found it necessary to rent additional space to aocomodate Negro pupils. A lease was taken on property on Lafayette Street although seve- ral board members objected to the location of the school "in a neigh- 48 borhood of such unsavory reputation. Later in the school year, on February 7th the Committee on Colored Schools offered a report con- demming the use of the Lafayette Street building for school purposes, adding that other dilapidated buildings were used for colored sohools. The discussion at the. board meeting brought out the faot that the surrounding neighborhood was immoral and produced a ;4 in- fluence. A oommittee uws appointed to investigate. A month later the special committee reported that the Lafa- yette Street school was totally inadequate for sohool purposes as it was too smal and so badly lighted tbat the teachers were foroed 70 to use lamps on bright sunny days. The committee recommended the erection of a twelve room building somewhere in the east end to care for the pupils now housed in inadequate rented buildings. This recommendation was concurred in by the Committee on Colored Schools which recommended also than an addition be oonstructed at the Went- 4S ern School. At the board meeting on June 6, 1887 the two oommittees--the Committee on Colored Schools and the Finance Comnittee which had been given the task of selecting a suitable sitejreported that the commit- tee had examined two pieces of property, on Main Street west of Pres- ton. One property consisted of a house and lot which could be pur- chased for 12000. but would have cost an odditional 5871 for re- modelling for school purposes. The other property was a lot 70x204 feet which could be purchased for 6000. It was estimated that a. new building could be erected on the lot for an additional l000. After some discussion the board wisely decided to purchase the lot 4.9 and erect a now building. The school year 1887-88 opened in September with all schools crowded to capacity. The nine rom addition to Western School was occupied in November and relieved some of the congestion in the west side school. Before the end of the year the new building on Main Street was ready for occupancy. The average daily attendance of Negrowuring the year was seventy for the High school and 3,322 In n t2.e elementary achools. Thore were eighteen graduates from the high 61 school in June Sixty teachers were appointed to the seven Negro schools in 1888 -41889. The four larger sohools required over fifty of these teaohers. YWestern School, alone, which was said to be the largest Negro school in the United States, contained twenty-two rooms. The astern Shool had ten rooms and aaooiodated its overflow enrollment in two cottages adjoining the school building. The new school on Main Street, to which S. B. Taylor had been appointed as principal, required a staff of eight teachers. The High school department of Central had two fi2 teachers while the elementary department required nine teachers. Seventytwo t served during the year as increased en- rol-ments necessitated additional appointments. The total enrollment of white and colored pupils in the city had reached 229588 and the average daily attendanco was 16)196. The enrollment of Negro children totalled 4PO8 with an average daily attendance of 3,001. The decrease in average daily attendance as compared to the previous year was due to an epidemic of measles and of other childhood diseases during the school term. In October 1889 the school board accepted fith regreit the re- signation of Mr. Gavin H. Cochran as a member of tbh board. Mr. Cochran had served for years on the Committee on Colored Schools 72 during which he had been the staunch ohampion of the need for the erection of suitable school structures for the Negro pupils and for the payment of proper salaries to Negro teachers. In spite of the suooesses of the oommittee in the matter of securing new buildings, the Negro schools wore still overcrowded and in some instances inadequately housed. Proof of this fact may' be seen from the following recommendation of the Committee on Colored Schools: The Committee on Colored Schools would report that the Eastern Colored School and the Main Street School are greatly overcrowded, there being as many as 120 to 140 pupils in some of the rooms. They would recommend that the cottage now rented at the Eastern School be enlarged, by authorizing the owner to build additional rooms to be taken at the same rate of rental as at present. Further, that the Colored School Conxuittee be authorized to secure a building sub- ject to the approval of the Board, at some point in the Eastern part of the city, to be used as an additionalfzolored school. The committee would recommend also the appropiation of a sum not exoeed- ing 150 for preparing a room in the bjsement of the Central Colored School, to be used as a laboratory." The resolution made in the report of the committee was adopted. The Maiden Wne School, to replace the Fulton School destroyed by flood, was opened in September 1890 with Mr. A. E. Mleeek as prin- eipal. Miss Lucy N. DuValle was appointed prinoipal of-the -Cal-- 568 fornia School which now had a staff of four teachers. During the following school year the needs of the colored schools were kept be- fore the board members by Mr. Norburne Gray the newly appointed chair. man of the comiittee. Early in 1891 he made an inspection of the colored schoQls visiting each olass. His visits convinced him that the 73 overcrowded conditions and poor auxillary building were affectinrg the attendance adversely. He recommended that the situation be corrected. Table number II provides a comparative study of enrollment in the white and colored schools of Louisville for the school year 1890-91. It will be noted that for both whites and Negroes there was a great difference between the number of pupils enrolled during the year and the number of pupils remaining at the end of the year. Between these two sets of figures there was a difference of 4206 for white elementary dis- trict schools and 1734 for Negro elementary schools, with an average daily attendance for the year in each instance almost equal to the nume ber of pupils remaining at the end of the year. Doubtlesswmuch of the problem of overcrowding was connected with the faa' that there-was-9- large number of pupils who enrolled at or near the beginning of the ses- sion and then withdrew before the yearts end. This condition also created a problem in the assignment of teachers to the various schools and the payment of those whose enrollments had fallen below the required mini- mun. Such deductions in salary, as an alternative to dropping a number of teachers, Chad been necessary in February 1890. At this time it was decided by the board to prorate the necessary deductions among all the 58 teachers. As shoiwn in Table Number III the cost of operating the schools ) was steadily rising. For the year the total costs of the schools was 391,143.49 which represented a cost of 21.40 per pupil enrolled for all types of service and expense. The total cost for teachers' salaries 74 Table Number II IWOING TITS ENROLLMENtT AND THE ATTENDANCE OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS FOR THE YEAR ENDING June 30, 1891s NO. a!XLI2D XO. I MIXING AVEAGE SCHOOLS DURING THE AT END OF YEAR NO. ;YEAR PUPILS District Schools 17,297 13,091 12,559 Male High 286 251- 253 Female High 521 436 444 Normal Class 38 37 36 Commercial Class 83 74 73 Total White 18,225 13,889 131405 Colored District 4,772 3,071 2,985 Colored Rioi 134 101 110 Total Colored 4,906 3,172 3,095 Total White 4nd Colored 23, 131 1X,061 16,500 59 was 264,320.70. Of the amount, 44,867.50 was spent for Negro teach- ers' salaries at a per pupil-oost of 13.01 as compared with the per pupil Cost of 14.87 for white schools. It will be noted that Negro pupils did not,, however, have access to normal classes or oommer stud ies. 76 Table No. III BH(XING THE COST OF TFiE SCHOOLS AND THE RATE A PUPIL FOR THE SCHOOL YEAR ENDING June 30, 1891S SALARIES OF AVERA GE COST SCHOOLS TEACHERS PER PUPIL Yale High 15,100.00 Female High 16,121.60 Total High 1171.60 Nonmal Class 2,623.45 Commercial Class. 1,313.70 District 184,344.45 Total H., N.C., 0.C., and D. NqT4371 Colored High 2,600.00 Colored District 42,267.50 T otal Colored 44,867.50 Total H., X.C., C.C., D. and C. 264,320.70 Janitors Salaries 17,904.50 Incidental Expenses 23,186.79 General Expense 6,300.20 Repairs and Improvements 1155.19 Total Expense 65,546.68 Total Expenses and Salaries 329,867.38 Rents 1,148.80 Building Account 47,469.56 Real Estate 4,685.00 Night Schools 6,413.00 Extra Expenses 1,564.75 Total Cost 391,143.49 25.01 34.45 42.58 70.90 16.87 13.25 14.87 22.61 12.68 13.01 ,14.52 3,59 . 18.11 6.63 60 21.648 When the schools opened in 1891.several changes in the principal- ships had been made. Mr. William H. Perry was transferred from Eastern to Western. Mr. A. E. Meyzeek was transferred from the Maiden Lane School and appointed principal of Eastern School, while Mr. W. T. Pey- ton who had been principal of Western was transferred to the Maiden 61 Lane Post. In January 1886,the committee on colored schools had made a pro. - posal that the colored school at Sixth and Kentucky Streets be oo0- 76 verted into a Negro school. At that time it was recozmnended that the proposal be thoroughly discussed by the citizens of the sections in-; 82 volved. After a lapse of six yearsit wasdat a School board meeting in February 1892 that the schools would be ex- 83 changed within two weeks. There was imnediate opposition by both white and Negro residents. Mr. William Robert, one of the strong opposers took out an injunction against the School Board. Hs con- tended that the resolution was passed at a meeting when none of the Trustees o the 9th Wardin whose ward the white school was located, were present. Nothing definite could be done after the injunction was granted. The case remained in court from February 6, 1892 uns til April 1893. The School Board was victorious in the suit and the change was definitely decided upon because there were more Negroes in the vicinity of 9th and Magazine Streets than whites and more whites near 6th and Kentucky than Negroes. Before the beginning of the school year 1892-93 and over seven months before the school board knew the decision of the Chancery Court in the school transfer oaselit was decided to extend the ourri. culum of the high school department at the Central School to four years A special comuittee was appointed to arrange a course of study which would be in line with the curriculum of the white high schools. Up to the time no attempt had been made to offer the same curriculum in the colored high school as in the white high schools though the lower grades had identical courses. A month later the committee re- 77 porte. in favor of establishing the same curriculum in the colored high school as prevailed in the white schools for girls with a few exceptions. The Delsortean System of Culture and Gesture was denied the Negro school. In the first year, the only change was the sub- stitution of physics for botany. In the second yearthe Delsorte system of physical culture, botany and German were dispensed with. In the third year botany, German, the Delsorte system of Gesture. were removed and political economy substituted. In the fourth year, American classics Were substituted for Carey's Translation of Dente's Divine Comedy. Taoitus, the Latin course, was adopted in place of Ovid and German abolished. At the same. meeting at which the fair year ourrioulum was ap- proved, the board voted to increase the salaries of all four of the teachers in the high school. The salary of the Professor of Science was increased to 1,000 while the salaries of the other three were increased to 900. Thus ten years afber the establishment of the first genuine high school classes, the Negro high school became a four year secondary school with a curriculum essentially the same as in the schools for white pupils. In the ten year period there 68 had been ninety-eight graduates from the three year curriculum. Table Noe IV shows the number of graduates by years. There was no class in June 1893 because of the reorganization of the high school into a four year curriculum. 78 TABLE NO. IV GRADUATES OF HIGH SCHOOL, DEPARTWINT OF THE CENTRAL COLORED HIGH THROUGH June 1893 YA NUMBER OF GRADUATES 1884 7 1885 7 1886 6 1887 7 1888 18 1889 14 1890 6 1891 20 1892 13 1893 No class Ten Tear Total 98 Each year sone of the graduates had taken the examination to teach in the publio schools of Louisville. A number had been ap- pointed and were proving their worth as teachers in the elementary grades. Thus the sohools were being gradually developed toward the establishment of a regular normal ourriculum for prospective teachers. 79 Chapter V Expan ngSchools fortn Endgn. Cmimmunity Aooording to the United States census of 1890 the population of Louisville had increased to 169,129 souls. Of this total popu- lation 28,672,were Negroes. In the early 1890's Louisville had ex- perienoed critical times. In the spring of 1890 a tornado had struck with, great force. Coming from a northwesterly direction, the tornado passed through Parkland "With a width of about six blooks"D and crossed the Ohio River into Jeffersonville. Twisting back into Louisville 'the tornado struck along Main Street. Seventy-six per- Wns were killed outright and over two hundred were injured. The property damage amounted to 2,150,000. Included among the build- ings destroyed were five churches, three school buildings, ten to- baco warehouses, thirty-two manufacturing establishments and 532 dwellings. The Union Station at Seventh Street and the River was also destroyed. Louisville had hardly recovered from the effects of the tor- nado before tot was engulfed in the finanoial panic of 1893 which affected the whole nation. However, the city weathered the finaur.;2 , stom much better than many American communities and had fewer bank closings and business failures. Neither the tornado tor the financial panio affooted the aity's 80 growth. Negroes were settling in new communities. In the 1880's the first Negroes moved into Parkland which had not at that time been annexed to the city of Louisville. By 1891 there was a sizable settlement on Orleans Aveme between Thirty-sixth and Thirty-eighth Streets. A church and a sohool were soon started in the home of one of the residents. A grocery -was opened at the corner Vrleanir- Avenue and Thirty-eighth Street. Thus the settlement which had been named "Needmoret provided food for the body, mind and soul. Later the people in Louisville oalled the settlement "Little Africa" 2 a name by which the community is known at the present time. The section of the city 'known as Fort Hill received its first Negro inhabitant in 1892 when one Dave Taylor built a house on the southeast corner of Bland and Burnett Streets. Other Negroes soon followed, moving into other sections of Fort Hill. During the lat- ter part of the nineties the first Negroes settled in South Louis- ville near Churchill Downs. Most of the settlers came after the close of the century. Theere attracted tof considerable degree by the presence of the L. and N. shops and the Kentuoky' Wagon Works which provided employment in that section of the city. In general the Negro of Louisville was developing social and business enterprises. State University provided higher education, the Young Men's Christian Association provided recreation and re- ligious oulture. A newspaper, The Ohio Falls Express, was being 81 circulated among the Negro population. The number of churches had- increased to include not only more ahurches of the Baptist, Metho- dist and Presbyterian denaninations but the Episoopalkans, Roman Catholics, Christians and Congregationalists supported one church each. It was in such an alert and expanding community that the Negro teachers of the last decade of the Nineteenth Century served. The shifting of population and cultural development called for changes in the schools. Thus the appointment of teachers and principals for the school year 1893-94 involved a shifting of some of the prin- oipals. A. E. Meyzeek was made principal of the Central Colored School and placed in direct charge of the high school department. J. M. Maxwell, a former principal of Central, was transferred to the prinoipalship- of the Maiden Lane School. W. T. Peyton who had filled the principal's post at Maiden Lane was shifted to a similar post at Eastern school. S. B. Taylor was returned to the principal- 3 ship of the lMain Street School. Miss L. N. DuValle was permitted 4 for the first time to draw a principal's salary without teaching. The problem of overcrowded classrooms still persisted. This was especially true at Eastern where 145 pupils and two teachers in one room necessitated the renting of two additional rooms near 5 the school. This was to be purely a temporary expedient for the board in June of the previous year had received bids for a new 6 -.additiaon of nine rooms at th shool. 82 In October the first step toward providing some professional training for Negro teachers in the school system was made when upon the call of the Committee on Colored Schools the entire corps of Negro teachers met in the chapel of the Central School to hear the new plan set forth by fAssistant Superintendent MoConathy. The plan which was very modest in its coaception and execution called for a class at the Wester Night Sahool 'in which the different subjects of the course of study would be taught as they are taught 7 in the well regulated normal schools." In March of the same school year the Assistant Superintendent was responsible for the introduction of the first practical handi- oraft into the public schools of Louisville. A description of the venture was given in the columns of the Courier-Journal as follows: A Sewing class at the Central Colored School has been most successfully introduced by the Principal, Prof. A. S. Meyzeek. One of the tendencies of the modern systems has been toward making know- ledge practical. Assistant Superintendent MoConathy was the orginator of the idea at the present instance. While paying a visit to the schools .with Mr. Finzer he suggested that some industrial department might be started in the school, but he saw no way of realizing his idea just then. The Principal, however, Uwas determined to test its feasibility. He interested his teachers to the extent that six of them agrejed to buy material and to give their time to the sewing oha ss from two to four p. m. certain afternoons of the week. There are fifty girls in the class, who are taking hold with deep interest. Miss Sarah Rogers, a sister of a Miss Rogers who teaches the sewing classes in the New York Public Schools, was present at the class yesterday, and gaive the teachers and pupils some suggestions on the work,. She bas just got out a book explanatory of a Normal Sewing department which will be very valuable in this work. She examined 83 the work done by the pupils after two lessons and pronounced it very good. The idea of introducing such an industrial department in our public school system has been thought of frequently, but the Central Colored School has been the first to take the initiative. The only thing in the way now is a lack of fands. Before the end of the year the Sawing classes were established in several of the elementary schools and an exhibit was held of the work of the several mohools early in June. One of the special at. 9 tractions was a quilt made by the girls of Western School. On June 18 the first class was graduated from the four year ourriculum of the High School. It was the tenth commencement, since there had been nine previous commencements with no graduating class for the year 1892-3. The members of the class were as follows: Mary Moss Hayden, first honor Pearl E. Hill Mary B. Wilson, second Alice C. E. NIugent Ida B. Dorsey honor Jessie E. Clinton Lena R. Finley Anna B. French Julia McGowan Bristow R. Neal Emma W. Glover Madison Beaumont Minnis Cora E. Roberts Susie Jo Young Etta B. Graves Katie B. Preston Charles G. Moore Alonzo McAfee Will B. Gibbs Ewde Irving Masterson .in. G.Miller Maude Va. Morris Jas. Rayman Harris Anna B. Gibson Ada V. Bland Ellen M. JaoksonZj l Lena M. Bullock Mary Vernon Hicks During the summer vacation period of 1894 important decisions were made with regard to the colored schools. On July 7 it was voted to appropriate 1600 to convert the Central School at Sixth and Ken. tucicy into a white school and the w hite school at Ninth and Magasine Streets into a colored school. This was in keeping with the decision, reached by the board over two years previously. The court decision in 84 April 1893 had cleared the way for the board's appropriation to bring 12 about the exchange of the schools. Since the high school for Negroes now offered a four year curriq.,- fulumn it was believed by certain board members the time had arrived to develop a normal class for Negroes. Thus on August 24 a resolution was adopted to establish a normal class to be composed of the graduates of the colored high school for which a teacher should be appointed. 13 It was further reooomended that the course should aover fifteen months. The proposals of the resolutions were nullified a few days later when on September 3 the board reconsidered the resolution and decided against 14 the opening of a Normal School for Negroes. Other important decisions reached were that a now school should be opened for colored pupils at Preston Street and Burnett Avenue where the board had rented a brick building capable of aooomodating at least 15 200 pupils, and that a class in typing and stenography should be be. 16 gun at the Golored High School. When classes for the school year 1894-95 were begun the High School department was housed in the renovated school building at Ninth and Magazine Streets. The subjects offered in each of the four years of the high school were as follows: First Er__ English, Latin, Algebra to Quadratics, Phy- siology, Ancient History, Music,. Drawing Second ear-English, Latin, Higher Algebra, Physics, General History-Italy, France, Spain, etas Rhetoric, Drawing, Munsio a5 ThirY yearLiterature and Reading, Latin, Geometry (Plane and Solid), Chemistry, English Composition, History (English and American), Music, Drawing. Fourth year--Literature and Reading, Latin, Rhetorioals, Psychology and Logic, Solid Geametry9 completed, and Algebra, review, Phyqios, review, Arithmetio, Grammar . e oraPhYs five mouths rFevi w, )bouiO, Drawings The ourrioulum, it may be seens was 1typical of the period with its emphasis upon latin and mathematics. It was essentially the same as the curriculum of the white high. schools. of the city. There were five teachers in the high school department and a tatal enrollment of 188 pupils for the year. The enrollment in both the Negro and white schools was steadily increasing. For the year 189415 there were 48 day schools in operation. In addition there were several white and three Negro Night Schools. There were thirty-two, white and nine colored district (elementary) 18 schools and six white and one colored high school. The two new schools had grown as extensions of service in the Eastern and Western districts. Both were housed in rented buildings. The school ini the Western district was at Seventh and Ormaby while the one in the Eastern district was on Shelby Street. For the school year 1895-96, J. S. Cotter was appointed principal of the Ormsby Street School and Mrs. L. D. C. Bramea was appointed principal of the 19 Shelby Street School . In April 1896, the rooms rented for the Seventh and Omasby Streets SohoQl having been found unsuitable, a property at Eight and Kentucky 86 Streets was purchased for 1200. Upon the lot-- 170 by 260 feotwas a building which had been used as a private school. The pupils were transferred to the soiool in May after temporary repairs had been made. Further alterations during the summer transformed the structure 20 into an eight room building well adapted to school purposes. At the close of the school year 1896-97,the school board pro- vided for the organization of a normal class to be conducted In the Central High School at Ninth and Magazine Streets. The first oomr- mencement of the Normal class was held on June 16, 1898 in the Chapel of the high school building. Since only one year had been allowed for the completion of the normal curriculum the new principal, Mr. F. L. Williamso 4ater prinoipal of Summer High Sohool in St. Louis., Mis- souri) in his report to the superintendent pointed out the difficult tlak of accomplishing so much in so little time. In part of the report he stateds The brief period assigned for the completion of the course, and the responsibilities to be assumed bytbe graduates, have caused the teachers much trepidation and anxiety. So, we have striven to inou te habits of study, to fix right ideals, and to generate an ardent love for the profession. From the theoretioal point of view, it seemed unwise to cover so much ground in Psychology as is embraced in "Halleck's Psychology and Psychic CultureW and "Education of the Central Nervous System"; in the "History bf Educatione we used Browning's Educational Theories; for the study of organization, ends of management, discipline, and moral -training, "White's School Management" was used; Dr. Tomphins "Philo- sophy of Teaohing was used as the text-book on the Theory of Teaching. Professor C. W. Houser, instructor in Mathematics in the High School, was relieved of a first year class that he might give instruction 87 to the Normal pupils in Nature.Study and Drawing. The entire Normal Class was carried through a course in GMmnastios. Each member was then assigned a grade to instruit in the same. Following this the Normal pupils prepared nusic lessons under the supervision of Prof. O. MoConathy and instructed the several grades in the same. When the class had had opportunity for observing the teaching of the studies in the curriculum, les1ins were prepared and taught under the direction of the Normal teacher. The first class was an especially large one, consisting of thirty who had been graduated from the high school In several different years. Those graduates were: Laura E. Diokerson Lula E. J. Flint Lydia Branohe 9 Claire Harding, Ophelia Jones Nora Robinson Mary Beard Julia Alwxander Estella Morris Mary White Florence Nunn Laura Locfust Manmie Morris Myra Fitzbutler Daisy Harris Nora Wilson Bessie Johnson Atholene Peyton Nora Ferguson Hallie Taylor Georgia Mattingly Bessie Barrett Gertrude Evans Anna Gibson 1hry Brown Minnie Simons Mary Woolfork Anna French Ada Bland 22 During the sohool year changes were made in the curriculum of the high school. The school board approved changes which resulted in the following courses by years with an option between the courses starred in each year. First year-English 5 periods Music 1 period History 5 periods Algebra 5 periods Drawing 1 period Drawing.0 .v lWoodwork 5 periods Word Analysis 6 periods Second yearx-Rhetorio 3 American Literatuwe Latin Ei Geometry 5 Physics 6 History 3 Music 1 Drawing 1 Drawing Woodwork 6 -periods 2 periods periods periods periods periods period period periods 88 Thidyar Rhetoric 2 periods Fourth year English 5 periods English Liter- 3 periods Arith- ature metio 6 periods latin 5 periods Physical Geometry-Algebra 5 periods Geography 5 periods Elementary Chem. 5 periods Psychology 3 periods Word Analysis 3 periods (Civil. Gaov) Musio 1 period (U. S. Hist.) 5 periods Drawing 1 period Music 1 period Drawing 1 period 23 The high sohool commenoement was held on Junel 7 at the Temple Theater -at which time fifteen students were graduated. The principal's report for the year's work is so interesting as to merit reproduotiona Prof. E. H. Mark, Superintendent Louisville Public Schools: Dear Sirs I have the honor to submit the following report of the Central Colored High School for the sohool year ending June 30th, 1898. The Central Colored High Sohool has registered, during the year, the highest enrollment in its history; and the per cent of with- dravals has been lower than in preceding yearsl The average -dlily attendance for 1894-5 vas 148; 1895-6 was 165; 1896-7 was 165; 1897_8 was 199. Great effort has been made to have the pupils realize the privi- Deges and opportunities of school life; to have them feel and think that their school days are as real as any other days oan be. To the aacomplishnient of this end, brief, praotioal ta k have occasionally been given the pupils by men and women able to in- struct and inspire. Among those who have contributed much to the success of this feature are Mr. G. H. Cochran, President Louisville School board; Prof. E. H. Mark', Superintendent Louisville Public School; Dr. Henry Fitzbutler, Miss Anna Ingalls, Mr. T. G. Watkins, Rev. C. H. Parrish, D.D.0 Mr. J.IM. Chatterson, Trustefs5f fifth District; Rev. J. H. Heywood, D.D., Attorney A. S. White, Mr. A. S. Barber, Boston, Mass. To further the end mentioned'above, each member of the faculty, in a carefully prepared talk, presented to ti, school the value 89 and practical bearings of the subject taught by himself. These o0- oasional exercises not only gave zest and intensified the earnestness of the pupils, but, also greatly reduced the tardj list; for these addresses were given at the opening of the school, and tardy pupils were not admitted. All boys wero organised into companies and had military drills at the second reaees. On Washington' a birthday oblebration the several companies had competitive drill. The company exhibiting most skill in the movements was awarded a beautiful flag by the pupils of the school. This, occasion was one of oonsiderable interest to the pa- trons as well as to the pupils of the school, and many witnessed the exercises. There has been considerable complaint heretofore by pupils in regard to monthly marks given by the teachers. The faculty concurred in the adoption of a rule permitting all pupils not satisfied with the marks tobe examined by the principal on the month's work, and the result of such an examination to be the pupilts record for the month. Not withstanding the fact that the month.previous to the adoption of this rule, fifty pupils had complained to. me that they had not been justly marked by their teacher, after the adoption of this rule and its announcement to the pupils, not one application was made for such an examination, and the complaints suddenly ceased. The fourteenth annual commencement was held at the Temple Theater, June.17, 1898. The building would not Mild the great number of per- sons wishing to witness the exercises . The new school year opened with large enrollments in all the schools. By Octoberthere were 5058 Negro pupils enrolled in ele- mentary and high school. The high school alone had an enrollment of 286. Three additional rooms had to be rented in a building across the street to accomodate the large enrollment at the Ninth and Maga- 25 zine Street School and three new teachers were appointed . In spite of the fact that many new schools had been built there still remained some which were unfit for occupancy. Some of these 90 were the topic for frequent disoussionu At the time the city wards were the basis for educational as well as political activity. Each ward had a .representative in the school board. Under such oiroums stanes it was only natural that each 'trustee" would work to the ad. vantate of the schools in his ward.. This striving for advantag, often led to acrimonious discussions and at times Impeded progress. However, such discussions sometimes had merit in that the mem- bers of the board pointed out the unfavorable conditions existing in their several wards. thus at a meetin; on March 6, 1899 it was pointed out that the roams which had been so recently rented for the Central school were unfit for school purposes because of insufficient light.and poor ventilation. It aas pointed out likewise th.irepairs- Were needed at the Eastern and Main Street Schools as well as In a number of white schools. One of the latter was denominated "an old 26 boxI June 1899 saw the graduation of a normal school class of seven. The High School class which was exceeding large for that period in- 27 eluded forty persons. At the opening of the new years it was pointed out that while there was an increase in the Louisville schools generally there was a decrease of 238 in attendance at the colored schoolso Of the ap- proximately 800 Negro children six years of age in the city only about 500 were in school; of the 656 seven years old only 456 were in daily attendances of the 680 eight year old hhildren only 466 91 were in schools and of 720 fourteen year olds only 240 were enrolled. The board decided to force the children to attend. As a first step in the program the Superintendent met with a numbercC Negroes on Ooto-. 28 ber 30 in order to enlist their aid. One new school was opened in South Louisville in a private home. During the school year 646 teachers were employed in the day and night schools of the city system. Of this total 123 teachers were Negroes. Table No V shows the distribution of the white and Negro teachers among the various types of schools in Louisville. Table No. V Teachers in Louisville Public Schools Durinn 1899---1900. Wite Negro Ttl Type of School women Men- Women Men Ttl High Sczool Teachers 20 27 1 9 57 District Schools Teachers 430 9 92 11 642 Special Schools Teachers (Normal and Commercial) Teachers 6 O 0 1 7 Total in Day Schools 496 36 93 21 606 Ignh s(3i1os JURGIMur5 3 Total number of teachers in day and night schools 533 123 646 29 A highlight in the commencement activities of June 1902 was the preseneo.of Booker T. Washington as the chief speaker for the graduating oAass of the Normal School. He spoke at the Auditorium 30 on the night )f June 5th.. His appearance evidently made a deep im- pression upon the graduating class of the high school whose com- 92 mencement was held about two weeks later. At the High School oom- menoement the Washingtonian philosophy of life was evident in all the class orations as the listeners were urged to rise by industry 31 and economy. There were thirtyu-seven graduates. While Booker T. Washington was in theo ity he inspected .the. work of the Negro schools. He was especially impressed with the .exhibit of sloyd work arranged for his inspeotion at the Eastern school. The work had proved very popular with the boys enrolled in the school. The sloyd project was described at some length in the Courier- Journal. Tlhe article stated in parts It is probably known to but few persons that the only Sloyd School in the city is the Eastern Colored School, at Jackson and Breokenridge Streets, under Prof. A. E. Meyzeek. Sloyd work in the. graded schools was inaugurated in the East, where it has since become a potent factor .in e ducation. The purpose of Sloyd work is to drill the child in working out details, and to exercise him in planning and executing the same. There is also a physical development, the muscles being constantly used in the manual labor, and are greatly strengthened and developed. .Sloryd work begins with the simplest drawing and wood-cutting, and becomes more and more difficult as the child acquires skill in Mini- pulation of tools and in the method of construction. The beauty of it all in, there is no limit to this work. It goes on from the whittling 'of a square stick round to the finestwood-oarving and to the construo- tion of the most intricate and delicate piece of workmanship. Under the management of Prof. Meyseek this work wan supported soleLy by the teachers of the Eastern School with no appropriation from the School Board. - The expenses of the class, which numbered twenty-four, amounted to 65 for this term of five months. The expense Was met cheerfully and defrayed without hesitation. The teachers were so interested in the work that several of them joined the class of instruction in order to assist the next year in teaching. Until 1902 there had been no kindergartens operated by the Board of Edioation. The kindergartens in operation were supported by the Louisville Free Kindergarten Assooiation. However, the School Board had lent its support to this movement by allowing some of these classes apace in the public schools. In 1899 the thirteenth year of the Association there were approximately ten kindergartens in opera- tion with an enrollment of more than 400 children. At this time there was one Negro kindergarten located at 13th and Walnut Streets 33 knovv as Hope Colored Kindergarten. ,In March 1902, kindergartens were inaugurated into the public school system by an act of the legislature of 1901-2. Nine kinder- gartens were opened. Two of these were for colored children. One kindergarten was opened at the Main Street Colored School and the 34 other one at Western Colored School. Not only did the staunch suppQrters of the kindergartens secure passage of the Bill but were instrumental in having a special tax levied to support the kindergartens after their establishment. This tax was to be continued permanently for this purpose but after two years it was discontinued and the burden of supporting the kinder- 36 gartens fell on the regular tax levied for school purposes. In January 1905.,a movement was launched to provide manual training and domestic science in the Central High School. Mr. Charles C. Stoll suggested the establishment of a manual training school fund and the idea wgas accepted whole heartedly by well known Negro educators. Immediataly a Negro organization was formed to further the cause anci aid in raising sufficient funds to assure such depart- 36 monte. A nuiiber of public spirited Negro citizens pledged 2500 each toward the sohool. The Finance Gomuittee of the SohoolB_.pard reonmaended the appro- priation of 10,000 for the establishment of a manual training school. By February,45,000 had been raised by pledges from four people- C. C. Stoll pledged 2,000, Theodore Ahrens l,000, Jacob L. Symser 1,000 and ar, additional 1,000 in tools, for workshops by W. R. Belikap. How- everthese pledges were made on condition that the School Board contri- 37 but. 10,000. Dreams of such a school faded when the School Board failed to pass on the Finance Committee's recommendation saying tt did not have funds to donate at that time. Nevertheless, a year later in June 1906, the Examination and Course of Study Committee recommended the establishment of a domestic science department in the colored high school effective at the beginning of the 38 following tem. The recommendation for domestic science was accepted and preparations for the class began. Miss Georgia Lattimore was ap- 39 pointed instructor in domestic science. The finanioial condition of the schools was precarious. Many of the buildings were still overcrowded. Nine of the school buildings were of frame construction. Five of these-the Maiden Lane, Shelby Street, South Louisville, Portland and Twelfth Street schools were for 40 Negroes. Ten of the eleven Negro school buildings were heated by stoves. In the fall of 1906 the Pearl Street School was completed in the east end at a cost of 5,043.00. It provided for the pupils who .96 had boon attending the Main Street School. In the sAm year property. on Twenty-ninth Street was purchaedd10gr s Under the amended city oharterx. a new board of education was created to consist of five members to be elected upon a non-partisan ballot from the oity at large. As a result of the election in November 1910, Dr. T. N. Bloom, Victor Endelhardt, Edward Gottschalk, John C. Strother and Albert B. leaver were elected as the first members of the new board. On January 1, 19,l1 the board members assumed office replacing the fturteen member board elected to represent the various wards of the city. The 42 Board selected Dr. E. O0 Holland as superintendent. The Superintendent and the Board immediately instituted a period of reorganization and consolidation. Two problems which engaged their attention from the start were the duplication of effort among theseven white high schools and the overcrowded condition in both white and Negro schools. The problem of the high schools was partially solved by the reduction of the number of white high schools from seven to five. This of course did not affect Negro pupils or teachers. The problem of overcrowding did affect the Negro schools directly although such overcrowding was common in the schools for each race. In January 1911 in the elementary schools forty teachers had classes ranging from fifty-five to sixty pupils while twenty-four teachers had classes larger than that number. Five teachers had classes of more than eighty pupils. To relieve the congestion twenty-five 96 portables were purchased. It was necessary of aourse)to employ additional teachers to take care of the now classes formed. A new regulation was adopted govem- 44 ing the appointment of teachers from the two normal schools. All appointments, promotions and transfers of teachers and truant officers, and introduction and changes of textbooks and apparatus, shall be made only upon the recommendation of the superintendent and the approval of the Board. All appointments and promotions of teachers shall be made upon the basis of merit, to be ascertained as far as prac- tioable, in oases of appointments by examination, and in cases of pro- motion by length and character of service. Under the new regulation the superintendent was wholly respons- ible for the appointments to the school system. Dr. Holland followed the principlb of selecting teachers upon the basis of their rank in their graduating class. Although he found it necessary to make ape- pointments to the white elementary schools from the state at large and from outside the state, the number of graduates from the Colored Normal 45 School was suffiCiont for the needs of the Negro schools. The Colored Normal School had reached a new level of proficiency as shown by Mr. A. E. Meyzeek, the principal in his annual report which stated in part: This school was established several years ago in connection with the high school. Its early career was varied by reason of the fact that it received little assistance or consideration, being easily over- shadowed by the high school. Its cuurse of study was ill-defined with no special standard of entrance, no reference or pedagogical library and no organized practice department. The recent transfer of the Normal to one of the district schools, where it came into vital touch with primary children and special grade work, atouded great interest in the study of the child, its nature and sooial problems. Under your direction several improvements were instituted as fol- lows: The entrance requirement was raised, while the students, who after a fair trial failed to show adaptability, were advised to with- draw, course of study strenghtened, clearly defined and well related, and the tone and character of the school was elevated. An excellent pedagogical library was installed which proved to be of inestimable value. The weak spot still remaining was its practice field the life and strength of a normal school. However, this work was kindly super- vised by the regular teacher of the district school, but no one felt responsible. Under your direction six skillful teachers, selected from the several colored schools, were sent.to the Normal, and a cri- tic department was organized .46 The new policies were associated with another type of profes- sional improvement among the Louisville teachers On March 19,1912 a retirement bill having been passed by the state legislature was signed by the Governor of Kentucky to become a law. The act pro- vided for the payment of annuities to teachers out of a fund to which the teachers themselves were to contribute. There were 702 teachers in the system at that time. Of this number 130 were Negro 47 teachers employed to teach some 4300 pupils. Attention of the new board was also focused upon the improve- ment of the school buildings and their equipment. The Lincoln school began under the old "ward" board was completed at a total cost of 78 48 000. In the fall of 1912 to relieve the congestion at the Central school at Ninth and Magazine, part of the elementary pupils were moved to a school to be later known as the Samuel Coleridge Taylor School which was opened at Thirteenth and Green(now Liberty) in the structure which fomerly housed the Tenth Ward school for White 98 children . the first step to provide special facilities for Negro ohildren.vs not taken until February 18, 1913 when a special class for colored boys was established. The cla's formed at the school at Thirteenth and Green Streets under the instruction of Miss Georgia G. Moore enrolled only four pupils when it opened. At the end of the term in'June, seventeen had been enrolled, the majority of whom were in the second and third grades. Under the plan employed boys who did creditable work were permitted to return to their regular classes. Most of those who returned improved both in deportment and rate of 49 school progress. By December 1914 the new board had been in officelong enough to summarize its contributions toward a progressive school system. The president of the board in his report stated: "By this time we are able to contrast results under the for- mer School Board oomposdd of fourteen men elected by wards with those obtained by the present Board of Education, composed of five members, who were elected by the people at large on a non-partisan ticket. Anyone reading this, the third annual report or either of the two preceding reports, will be able I think to understand that the schools of the city have been immensely imprQyed during the past four years. -------------This movement has taken into account such important matters as improvement in the sanitary condition of all school buildings of the city: the providing of a single desk for each pu- pil; the installation of steam heating and modern toilet systems in many of the older school buildings; the reduction in the number of pupils per teacher; the establishment of special schools for groups of children.who are in need of individual attention, and finally the changing of the salary schedule which has meant at least one increase l-F every teacher employed in the elementary schools of the city. Realiiing that a progressive school program required modern q9 buildingswith ample play space, the board recommended the passage of a million dollar bond issue to build new schools and improve existing ones. In the November election of 1913 the Louisville oitizenry ap- prorod the bond issue. While the board did not include aty new stirues tures for Negro children in its expansion program, it did make avail- able more space for Negro children through the transfer of the school a-c Ninth and Chestnut for ocoupanoy by Central High School, thus feee- ing the building at Ninth and Magazine for the use of elementary children exclusivelys The transfer of pupils was made in 1916. The school year 1916-17 was marked by the entrance of the United States into the World War. The school year 1917-18 witnessed a con- oentration of energy on several types of activity which had for their purpose the adding of the armed forces of the country. On the part of menteaehers this often meant enlistment in the army. To the children it meant tIhe raising of gardens and the learning of now les- sons indemooravy. The data compiled by the War Department showed the need not only for fundamental uraining of the literary level but for training in vocations. In fulfilling the latter purpose it was decided to consolidate all of the vgoationalwork at the Central High School.'/ For men instructionwas offered in automobile mechanics, black- smithing, molding, core making, carpentry and wood turning. For imi women there were classes in sewing, cooking, preserving and canning, with special emphasis upon preparation of substitute foods. The on- rollment for the fall semester totaled 276 persons. Of this number 140 were enrolled in vocational subjects while 135 were enrolled in academic subjects exclusively. The enrollment exceed the combined attendance of the several night schools maintained during the im- 52 mediate preceding years. In spite of the emphasis on war aid the regular program of the school progressed. The Central High School had a enrollment of 404 pupils. The program of studies had been expanded to include courses by years as follows of which those marked with the asyeriA were elective: Firstlyear: First terms EnglishX, Algebra, Latin, Physical Geography, Physical Training, Domestic Science & Arts, Mafiual Training Second term: English, Algebra, Latin, General Science, Physical Training, Domestic Science & Arts, Manual Training Second year First term: EnglishAlgebra, Latin, History, Biology, Physical Training, Domestic Science & Arts, Manual Training Second terms English, Geometry, Latin, History, Biology, Physical Training, Domestic Science & Arts, Manual Training ThNird year: First terms English, Latin,FrenchCommeroial Geography, Spelling, Stenography, Typewriting, ;!n- manship, Geometry, Physics, History, German, Physical Training, Manual Training, Domestic Secod trm:Science and Arts. Second tens English, Geometry, French Latin, German, History, Physics, Bookkeeping, Stenography, lot. Third years Second term: Typeyriting, Physical Training, Domestic Soienoe, Arts, Manual Training Fourth years First terms English, Geometry, Trigonometry,,Commeroial Arith- metio , Latin,Frrnoh, Germrn, History, Manual Train- ing, Typewriting, Chemistry, Commercial Law, Book- keeping, Stenography, Physical Training, Domestic Science & ArtsManual Training Second termsEnglish, Algebra, Spelling,Latin,Fmnch,German, Civil Government, Chemistry, Bookkeping, Salesniblp, Stenograpqy, Typewriting, Office Pgactioe, Physical Training, Domestio Science & Arts, Manual Training 63 The commercial program of the school was expanded greatly and for the first time an attempt was being made to prepare persons for open- ings in the business world. The complete course could be taken in two years and was available to pupils who had completed the first two years of high school. During the summer of 1918 the first Colored Summer School was operated in the school at Ninth and.Magazine.s It opened on June 24 and closed August 2. Pupils were enrolled from eleven different schools. Most of those enrolled were reviewing work of the previous year but a number were enrolled in t dvanoe w ork. The total number enrolled was 189 and the average daily attendance 151. The work was directed by !54 Lucy N. Duzalle. Shortly after the close of the World Waragitation was started in Louisville for the adoption of the 6-3-3 system in the white schools to replace the 8-4 system which was followed. About 1920 the Board of Education agreed to reorganize the sohools on this basis and sought to float a bond issue to provide several white junior high schools. How. 102 ever, Negro citizens had learned a valuable lesson through receiving so little benefit from the 1913 bond issue. So alert were they to the situation that they resolved to work against any bond issue which made no provision for Negro children and determined toattempt to elect a Negro, to the Board of Eduoation. A mass meeting was held in September 14, 1920 at which it was decided to present Mr. Wilson Lovett as the Negro candidate for the 55 board. Mr. Lovett promised to make an active campaign stating that, if elected, he would work for the interest of the Negro children who were handioapped because of inferior equipmentand buildings which were often those abandoned by white children who had moved to new 56 structure. 103 Chapter V1 The Creation of Junior High Schools and Progress to 1941 During September and October of 1920 a vigorous campaign was waged for the election of Mr. Wilson Lovett to the Board of Education. The three Negro newspapers espoused his candidacy and many ministers and civio leaders worked for his election. At the same time these groups worked for the defeat of a proposed bond issue for the Uni- versity of Louisville which was before the electorate for action. The purpose of the proposed bond issue was to enable the University to purchase a new site and expand its program. Negroes worked for the defeat of the bond issue because no part of the million dollars was to be used to foster higher education for Negroes. In spite of efforts to elect Mr. Lovett, he was defeated at the polls in November. However, the bitterness of this loss was -. 1 offset to some extent by the defeat of the proposed bond issue. The campaign had served to call the attention of the general oom- munity to the shortcomings and inadequacies of the educational program for Negroes. It had made the Negro more conscious of the power of the ballot and' had strengthened the belief of many that the only certain way to seoure adequate eduoational facilities would be through having a, Negro representative on the school board. Notwithstanding the excitement of the campaign the schools had an exceptionally good session. One principal, Mr. A. E. Meyseek, 104 seisea--upon the opportunity to stress citizenship and the franchise at the Booker T. Washington School(whioh had formerly been known as the Eastern School ) by organizing the students along lines of a munioi- pal government with the city officers elected through a campaign be- tween two political parties Practical civil government was stressed 2 throughout the school. At the June comenoement fifty-five were graduated from the Central High School and tenfrom the Normal Class. About this period the number of Negro schools was increased through the addition of two schools. The Highland Park School became A city school when the territory it served was annexed by the city. Prior to 1920 it had been operated by the county board of education. The same was true of the Parkland School which was added by annexation in 1921 when the city extended it.s boundaries beyond Southern Avenue. The Parkland School had been operated as a County School since 1892 3 when it moved to its Southern Avenue site. During the Autumn of 1921 another bond issue. for the public schools was presented for action at the polls by the electorate. The proposed issue was to be for one million dollars. Mindful of the fate of the bond issue for the University of Louisville which had met de- feat be6ause of no provision for Negro education, the Board of Edu- cation let it be understood that 9125,000 of the total issue would be spent to provide additional facilities for Negro pupils The same Negro leaders who had worked to defeat the University bond issue urged 106 the passage of the new issue with the result that it was approved at the polls. During the following sohool year construotion mas begun on an addition to Central High School, which would provide ten additional classrooms, a oafeteria, a gymnasium, and shower and looker rooms. Construction was also begun for a new school on Virginia Avenue west of Thirty-sixth Street to be of four rooms, principal's office, play- rooms and lavoratories with mechanical equipment for the erection of six additional rooms when needed. The new building and the high. school addition were ready for occupancy at the opening of the school year 1923-24 Portables replaced the old brick building at the Eight 4 and Kentucky Street School which became an open air sohooli bI- though the site was highly unsuitable, being notonly near the yards of the Union Station but surrounded on two sides by coal yards one of which operated a traveling crane which scattered dust in the air surrounding the schools. On the grounds that there were too many graduates of the Colored Normal School on the waiting list for teaching positions, the Normal classes conducted at the Booker T. Washington School were temporarily discontinued by the Board of Education in 1923-24. During the same year the school board took aotion which was directed toward the organization of junior high schools in the city. Plans were made for a bond issue in 1925 for the purpose of erecting seve- -- 6 ral buildings to effect the change to the 6-5-3 plan of organization. Durin4 the school year 1924-25 the Board of Edueation had a survey made of congestion and need for new buildings. In its annual report the board stated: A survey has been made of the congestion and needs for new buildings. The enrollment is now 8,000 beyon4 standard capacity. Portables now number 132. In addition to these temporary classrooms, auditoriums, basement rooms and halls are being used for instructionf. Twenty-two thousand children are being taught in over-crowded rooms and in temporary make-shifts. Since the congestion equaled the enrollment of junior high schools grades, i.e. 7th, 8th, the Board of Education approved the recommend- ation that junior high schools be built for the entire system and that the citizens be asked to vote a five million dollar bond issue for this purpose. The annual reports for seventy-five years have set forth the finanical needs of the public schools. This lament is still with us. The claim from the General Council of the increased support of the schools is misleading. The expense per pupil in 1914 was 33.18; in 1924, 58.73. The increased appropriations from the City government have only kept pace approximately with the growing enrollment and the depreciated dollar. The only relief for the schools is fiscal inde- pendence. Louisville is the only community in the state where the state schools have not this advantage. 6 The school board did not get its wish for fiscal independence from the city governmental machinery but the five million dollar bond issue was passed in November 1925 and the money itself was made avail- 7 able in May 1926. This aotion assured the inauguration of the 6-3-3 plan in Louisville. The Colored Normal 8ohool which had boon temporarily sumpended, was reopened in September 1926. It was transferred from the Booker T. Washington School to the Ninth and Magazine Street School whioh had been named the Dunbar School. Candidates were admitted on egami- 107 8 nation. The fifteen young Women having the highest score were admitted. On June 1, 1926 the Board of Education Adopted a "single salary" sohedule with the following provisions: Normal School Graduates Years Glass A 120000 1300.00 1400.00 1500.00 90. 2000.00 6. 6. 7. 8. Years Class B 1600.00 1700.00 1800.00 1900.00 College Graduates Years Class A Years class B 1500.00 .1600.00 170000 1800.00 1900.00 2000.00 7. 8. 9. 10. 11, 2100.00 2200.00 2300.00 2400.00 2500.00 (Heads of Department in high schools may receive an additional 1200.00) Elementary Supervising Prinoipals and Supervisor of Special Subjects Years Years Class A Class B 2000.00 2100.00 2200.00 2300.00 2400.00 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 2500.00 2600.00 2700.00 2800.O0 2900.00 Kentuoky Laws "All promotions shall be made on basis of merit.. ..to be asoertained............by length and oharacter of ser- vioe' Teaohers whose servioe is satisfactory will be advanced 10000 eaoh year until the maximam of Class A is reached. Class B, 1. 2. 3. 4. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3- 4. .50 108 salary schedule is reserved for those teachers whose superior teaohing, advanced study and higher professional equipment justifq higher compensation than the teachers in Class A re- weive. This action paved the way at last for justice to the Negro teacher. with regard to salaries, provided that in the administration of the schedule all teachers should be advanced into Class B on terms of merit alone without respect to race. It marked the first time that there had not been a separate salary schedule for Negro and white teachers. With the sale of the bonds authorized in May 1926 feverish actitity was begun as the expansion and modernization program got under way. Re- oeipts and disbursaments of the board of education were as follows from April 16, 1926 through June 30, 1927t Resources Cash from Sale of Bonds Cash from Interest on daily balances Cash from Rental of Improvements Total Resouroes Disbursements Crescent Hill Site Highland Junior High Site Highland Junior High Bldg. Southern Jr. High Site Southern Jr. High Bldg. 22Ad Main & Rowan Jr. Hi. Site n " " n Bldg. 2,600,000.00 73,451.96 _ .9364.38 69,238.56 2661921.05 60,726.63 18,101.90 109,773.19 136,893.25 40th & Cedar Sts. Site 25th and Wilson Sts. Site Oakdale Site Jackson & Breckenridge Its. Col. Site Field School Addition Bldg. Belknap School Addition Bldg. 2,682,716.24 60,863.96 69,238.56 336159.61 78,828.53 2468,666.44 100.414.78 64,977.60 14,685.39 33,706.46 16,464.25 20,155.01 109 Heywood Sohool Addition-Bldg. Shawnee School Addition-Bldg. Foster School Addition-Bldg. Beeohmont School Addition-Bldg. 47,6 Beeohmont Soliool'Addition-Site _ 3,4 Virginia Ave. Col. Addition-Site Virginia Ave. Col. Addition-Bldg. _ Cash paid to Board of Education Current Fund for Architects' Costs flash Paid for Insurance .Cash Paid for Educational Advisory Serrios Cash Paid for sundry expenses Total Cash Disbursements July 1, 1927 Cash Balance Recapitulation Total Cash Available Total Expended for Sites Total '" Bldgs. " Architects. n Eduoitional Advisory Service Total Expended for Insurance & Expense July 1, 1927 Cash Balance 519,797.56 723,202.63 33,076.59 . 7,6688.42 .2 044.75 12A785.95 96.78 01.00 10.00 51,"73 78,810.72 25,260.15 39,047.85 51,097.70 73j861.76 33,07659 985.98 7,668 .42 1,058.77 1,283,789.93 1,298,926.29 2p582716.24 .2,582,716.24 10 1,298,926.29 Actual construction Was begun on only one Negro school during the year. The projected six roomaddition to the Virginia Avenue School was undertaken and completed at a cost of 73,851.75. The only other ex- penditure for Negroes during this first year was 33,706.46 for a site at Jackson and Breckenridge for a Junior high school. During the period three white Junior high schools were constructed, anrd additions were built at six elementary schools. The slowness with which th6 construotion program for Negro junior high schools got under way was partly explained when white pupils frm 110 the School on Madison Street near Eighteenth were transferred to the newly constructed junior high school at Twenty-seoond and Main Streets. A departmental school for Negroes was opened on the Madison Street School in January 1928 and adjoining property was purchased in February as a site for an addition with the intention that the building and the new addition be converted into a junior high. school to serve the rapidly 11 expanding Negro population in the western part of the city. Actual construction did not begin until November 1928. During the second semester of the school year 1927-48 classes along departmental lines were conducted in the old building. A faoulty of one principal and eighteen teachers served the school which consisted of eight seventh grades and six eighth grades with a total enrollment 12.. of 520 pupils.. Mr. A. S. Wilson, a former science teacher at Central) was made principal. During the same year the contract was let and construction begun on the Jackson Street Junior High School. Just as at Madison there was already a building on the plot. The Booker T. Washington elementary school was on the corner of Jackson and Breckenridge. Howeverthe plan of architecture for the junior high schQol made it possible to build around the old structure without connecting to it. The, new building was opened to classes in September 1929 and the dedication was held on December 16th when the principal, Mr. Meyzeek, the staff of eighteen teachers and the five hundred pupils showed the new three story structure, its olassrooms, gymnasiums and shops to proud citizens. It was fimrally agreed by, such persons that the ill building was the most beautiful school structure for Negroes in the city but that its beauty was marred by the presence of the old building which continued as an elementary school and the row of dilapidated cottages which.djoined the new building on the North. Careful observa- tion of the building revealed the fact that as constructed allowance was made in the architeotural design to add another wing to the North which will oomplete the symetry of the building. Under such airoum- stances, with the removal of the old building, the enlarged building would be a medel of beauty, modern in all its appointments, and one of the f school structures in the city. At the November election thfe voters approved an additional three million dollar bond issue. The School Board had found the five million dollars previously voted insufficient to provide adequate buildings and equipment for the school system and the additional levy had been deemed 13 necessary. The new building of the Madison Street Junior High School was of- fically opened on January 27,1930. The new structure was described in, the school annual. The building, including the equipment therein, has cost about 0500, 000.00. The new building has been annexed to the building formerly on this site and the entire plant is worth about 600,00O.00. The building is of fireproof construction, reinforced concrete skeleton with brick and tile walls. It is of Georgian design, being built of red brick with white stone trimming. The following are some of the features of the building: 1. Steam0 heat with warmed air ventilation. 2. Lookers in the corridors for all pupils. 3. Boya and girls lavatories on each floor. 4. Electric lights, eleotrio olooks, a telephone in each room and an automatic fire alarm system' 112 6. Twonty-sovon well-equipped olas rooms, a 04- '7,asium with showers and looker rooms for boys and girls, a spaoious library, an art room equipped with art tables, and a social room. 6. Two well-equipped science rooms, a typewriting room, and music room. 7. A sewing room, a laundry unit, and a domestic science room for girls. 8. Woodwork shop, mechanics shop, printing shop, and shoe repairing and pressing shop for boys. 9. A principal's main and private office, a medical room, and examining room. 10. Steel files, electric mi.jeograph, a radio and other modern equipment. 4 With the opening of the new building the school could begin in earnest upon its junior high school program in place of the modified denartmental procedure of the three preceding semesters. As reorganL zed the curriculum included: Periods Periods Periods Subject Per Week Subject Per Week Subject 9B --9A 7B 7A 8B 8A Eng. Penmanship 5 Literature & Li- brary 3 Arithmetic 5 Phy. Ed. & Hygiene 3 Piano & Violin Music 1 General Science 0 Household Mech. & Woodwork 7B Boys Shoe Repr., Pressing Printing, 7A Boys Cooking-7B Girls Sewing-7A 'Girls 4 Comercial Subjeots 6 Engl ish 3 4 3, Mathematics Sanitation 6 5 English 4 4 Algebra 3 3 Phy. Ed. 2 Music 2 Z 2 Gen. Science2 2 Woodwork & Household Meoh. 8B Boys Printing Shoe Repr. Pressing 8A Boys. Laundry - 4 Home Science 8B Girls Domestic Art, 8A It 4 4 Typewriting 4 Jr. Bus. Training 2 0 5 5 5 5 3 3 Music 1 Gen. Scienoe5 (Elected Course) Industrial Education 5 COI o eroiaIti 5 Type 6 6n 5 6 113 . Periods Periods Periods Subject Per Week Subject Per Week Subject Per Week 7B 7A 8B 8A 9B 9A Aitt 2 1 ;.Art 2 2 Art 5 5 Social Studies 6 4 Social Studies 4 4 Community Civics 5 5 General Language 0 0 General Lang. 0 2 Latin or French 5 5 Clubs and Homeroom 2 a Club, eto. 2 2 Club, etc. 2 2 15 _ _Ninth grade students may elect ten periods per week from atmOrench, Community Civics, the industrial education subjects, art and type- writing.. Bight grade girls may also elect typewriting or home econo- mics. All 8th and 9th grade pupils use one of the English periods in the library. One of the social studies pdriods is used for guidance. The industrial part of the curriculum 'was organized into various "try but" coursed. Pupils ha4 the opportunity totake such courses in the seventh and eighth grades. For boys, shoe repairing and pressing, household mechanics, printing and woodwork were provided. For girls, homemaking, laundry, domestic science and domestic art were offered. In the ninth grade one such course could be elected. The schools for Negroes were now entirely organized on the 6-3-3 plan for with the establishment of the junior high schools, the ninth grade had been dropped from Central which had been organized as a three year senior high school. The sohool graduated 114 persons at its com- menoement. The Louisville school system was at the peak of a remarkable period of e'pansion and improvement. This development was summarized in the school board's report covering the decade. There were 14,839 more pupils enrolled in-the.public schools in 1929-30 than were enrolled in 1920-21. The total enroilnent-in-92-9-80v was 49,634. Two major factors contributed toxthis most remarkable growth- 114 ---the increase in the general population of the city and the tendency of the children to remain longer in sohool. Of the total increase 4,462 were envolled in the upper six grades of school. This steady and rapid growth necessitated the erection of many new buildings. The best possible solution of the growing congestion was un- doubtedly the adoption of the junior high school program. This program wEqs adopted in 1925, when the authorization of a five million dollar bond' issue was approved by the voters. During the years immediately following the bond issue, construction was carried forward and the Highland, Southern, Western, Shawnee, Parkldnd, Jackson Street Colored, and Madison Street Colored Junior high schools, together with additions to certain elementary schools, were completed. Growth in school popu- lation continued as it was predicted it would, and as it is now doing and it became known definitely that a new bond issue must be floated to make possible the completion of the program so excellently begun. In November, 1929, the people again expressed their confidence in the educational program by authorizing the issuance of an additional three million dollars in bofds makin'i possible the e ction of s8x ad- ditional school aWwa- Aehi le4altc ctt.--dv 8leal p. -It is certain that the building needs will not all be met when this additional money has been spent. The city will doubtless continue to grow, thus necessitating new buildings to care for the increased school enrollment. The need to abandon, consolidate, and rebuild some of.the older buildings will become more and more recognizable. It is. very probable that large savings in operation, instruction, and main- 'fenance costs could be realized if the five schools now located in the east central section of the city could be abandoned and one or two mo- dern buildings erected to serve the needs of the. locality. The present administration building is inadequate. The Central High School for colored pupils is already badly overcrowded. In all probability it will be found advisable, in the near future, to find other quarters for the administrative staff and to convert the present 1B administrative building into an annex of the Central Colored High School. The system in 1929-30 included fifty-nine buildings for white pupils and nineteen buildings for Negro pupils, with 1255 white and 264 Negro teachers. T he total school enrollment by levels was white high schools, 5132, Central High School,909; white junior high schools 3,878, colored junior high schoolslO36; white eleibentary schools 26,080, colored elementary schools 5983; white kindergartens, 2837, colored 17 kindergarten 420; white normal sohools, 213, colored normal school, 37. 114 The types of servioe rendered in the white and Negro schools were about the same except that while provision was made for four teachers of hospital classes, seventeen teachers of ungraded classes and one teacher of A deaf class for white children, no such provision for such specialized service was made for Negro pupils. The Negro population of Louisville had increased 18.1 per cent during the decade from 40.087 in 1920 to 47.35rin 1930. Of this number 24,612 were female and 22,742 were male; 33,171 were twenty-one years old or over while 14,183 were under twenty-one of whom about eight and a half thousand were of school age. It was fortunate for the schools, at least, that the bosIr issues were voted during the lush period of the twenties for in 1929, foljowing the crash of the stock markets of the nation, the entire country qntered into a period of 'widespread financial disaster and depression. Bad the boszrd issues not been already voted it is doubtful that they would have been voted for many years and the Louisville schools would have faced the future in a far more precarious condition than they did. By the middle of the school year. 1931-32 the conditions of the school system's finanoes had become so critical that it became neces- sary for, the board "to discuss thenatter of eliminating ons month from the regular school tem and putting into effect a 'ten per cent sus- pension of salaries of all employees other than principals and teachers". l1 Such a suspension became effective January 13, 1932 and on April 5th the board announced that schools would be closed one month early. The school teachers of the oity,both white and oolored3 rose to the occasion and volunteered to serve for two Sty weeks without pay. The school board accepted the offer and the school term was thus shortened only two instead of four weeks. Fortunately city tax receipts exceeded expectations to such an extent that at the close of the fiscal year there remained ' balance sufficient to not only to pay the principals and teachers for the two extra weeks of service but to restore the ten per cent reduction of 19 the salaries of other board employees. Nevertheless several retrenchments and economics were instituted during the year 'with little or no loss to the actual work in education. The board in its economy program: 1. Discontinued the night schools. 2. Reduced the size of visiting teaching staff from 24 to 16. 3. Had passed a resolution to the effect that no summer school would be conducted during the summer of 1932. 4. Closed two elementary schools and transferred to other schools pupils and teachers. 5. Increased the size of classes from Kindergarten through high school. 6. Put back into classrooms in elementary schools special teachers of music and physical education. 7. Reduced purchases for neow equipment and reconditioned old equipment. 8. During the year vacancies had occured which in normal times wouldlave been filled by the appointment of new teachers. These vacancies, however, were taken care of by a shift in the present X arrangement, with no loss in effectiveness of the work being done. The program of retrenchment brought about a reduction of the teaching staff from 1554 in 1930.31 to 1428-in 1931-32 There were 110 117 fewer white and sixteen fewer Negro teachers in the latter year. The great majority of thebe represented teachers eliminated through the 21 abolition of the night schools of the city. In contrast to the reduction of staff some slight improvements were made in school plants in 1932-33. Additional property was pur- chased at Jackson Junior high school and at the Phyllis Wheatley (Cali- fornia) school. At the Mary B. Talbert (Eight and Kentucky Streets) school the old brick building was torn down and portables from white sections where now elementary buildings had been erected were placed 22 on the site. Through several studies of vocational opportunities and training for Negroes, attention was focussed upon the need. for further vocational training in Negro schools. One of these studies was a University of Chicago thesis by Mr. Atwood S. Wilson, Priniopal of the Madison Junior High School. In 1933-34 a reorganization of the shop-program was in- stituted which was described in the report of the superintendent of schools in his annual report. A forward step was taken this year in the reorganization of the shop program of the Central Colored High School. A nnit of work in building construction was introduced as a prelimary step towards a building trades course. This building construction unit was given the freshmen and sophomore students and met with enthusiastic response. This unit oansists of a study 'of various types of joints, foundations and framings, followed by construction of small sections of floor, wall, window and door framing. Mirlature houses were built. These -v houses ranged from the simplest doghouse to a cathedral with its lofty spire, and a residence with its modern appointments. All construction was in keeping with standard methods. With the background of knowledge acquired through the experiences on the minature houses, the pupils were fiven a real job o. construction. A full-size two-car garage was planned and oonstructe n the large room adJbining4ood shop. This 118 garage was complete in every detail with the exception of a concrete foundation which was prohibited by virtue of its location. The me- chanical drawing department is co-operating in this new program by introducing a course in architectural drafting. A complete set of plans for a small residence has been made by students in this course. With increased facilities a course in building trades can be made of inestimable value by providing -wwational trmining ij3a field where the Negro can find abundant opportunity for success. In February the federal government and the State Department of Education inaugurated a program of emergency education for adults under lodal supervision. Thirty-four classes were organized to be taupt by unemployed needy teachers. Classes in home economics both for white and colored women were organized and older girls were taught the science of homemaking. At the elementary level there were two classes for white adults and thirteen for Negroes. This work overed the regular grade work from the first through the eighth grade. At the high school level two classes were organized for white adults and three for Negroes. The classes for Negroes were held at the Jackson and Madison Junior high schools, Phyllis lheatley Branch Y.W.C.A. and the Eastern Branch Library. This program was later expanded under the federal works Pro- gress Administration with activities carried outside of the sphere of the public schools. In the summer of 1935 the Board of Education took a step which later led to a salary suit in federal court. On July 2, the board adopted a new salary schedule. The procedure leading to its adoption had been a complex one. The procedure as described in the official report was as followsz In 1933, there was established machinery for the study of a salary schedule, a committee being formed of 150 members representing 119 all the teachers. This large committee was broken down into a small committee of 30 and this one into a still smaller of six. The oommaittee of 6 during fall and winter of 1934-4 with the director of research, continued the study. In the spring of 1935 a revised draft of the schedule was submitted to the committee of 30 and later, after some modifications, to the committee of 150. The members of the latter committee presented the schedule to the teachers in the several schools who were asked to choose between two state- ments of position. 1. I have no suggestions to make. (This does not not necessarily' mean that every provision is wholly concurred in theory, but that, in light of all conditions, the schedule appears to be as practicable as it can be made at this time. 2. I suggest the following modifications: (Please refer to page no. item no. and subject, and let comment follow). The teachers' suggestions were organized by a steering committee and submitted to the superintendent of schools with a draft of the pro- posed schedule. A final revision of the schedule incorporating as many suggestions as were not in violation of established principles, and as were otherwise feasible was submitted to the board. This draft was, with few further modifications by the Board, adopted on July 2, 1935. 25 The imfortunate part was that some time after the original pro- posals had been submitted to the teachers of the city and the time the schedule was submitted to the board a new item was inserted which had for its purpose the establishment of a fifteen per cent differential against Negro teachers so that they would receive only eighty-five per cent of the salary paid white teachers of equal training, experience and rating. The entire salary schedule which is too lengthy to be in- eluded here is reproduced in Appendix pages 1N;to 2.3 t . The A offending clause, number 6-A read: In any school in which the aggregate 1934-35 contract salaries of teachers and the principal would have to be increased in 1935-36 by from ten per cent to twenty per cent or more to meet unrestricted salary schedule provisions, the scale of salaries shall be fifteen per cent less than the scale provided in the schedule, for the, teachers and Grin-. cipals now employed, or who may hereafter be employed in that schools provided, however, that the application of the provisions of this clause shall not operate to cause, of itself, the reduction in salary 6f any teacher or principal now employed in suoh a school. 120 It was natural that the Negro teachers would resent the diffeFr_ ential and the method which had been used to have them, along with their fellow white teachers, vote upon a salary schedule principle which was to be nullified by what appeared to them to be a neat trick. During the same year a curriculum study was inaugurated under an executive committee composed of the Superintendent and the three assistant Superintendents. Under this committee was a curriculum cabi- net, composed of thirty four "ks, people" including the executive com- mittee. The actual working groups were composed of persons in the specific subject matter fields. On the elementary level each of the committees were oomposed of one principal and twelve teachers, under the general direction of the Assistant Superintendent in charge of elementary education. On the secondary level there were committees of twelve under the general.direction df the Assistant Superintendent in 26 charge of high schools. As no Negro teachers were appointed as members of any of the curriculum committees.they again were made to feel that they were not considered as an integral part of the public school system. The Negro teachers felt that such a polioy on the part of the school administration had the effect of setting up under the guise of demo. cratic procedure the very worst type of undemocratic practice. In 1930 the Board of Education had suggested that new quarters be secured for the board off ice and that the hundred year old building at the corner of Eighth and Chestnut Street should be turned over to 122 the Central High School which occupied the same block. -On December 12, 1935 this proposal became reality and rising resentment was further increased when the buildingrenamed the Practical Arts Buildingwas dedicated as part of Central high School after "remodernizatiori at a cost of approximately 90,000. ,The dedicatory exercises were enlivened by the address of the principal speaker--the Rev. J. A. Johnson speaking in behalf of many Negro citizens who were dissatified with the Central plant, he stated that the Negro desired no less than a new high school building and that the building to be dedicated represented for them a temporary makeshift. His final words were addressed to the board as follows: "Mr. President and members of the board of education, after this, 27 what"' Improvemnnts in the other two buildings making up the high school included transforming the girls gymnasium into a library with a seating capacity of i44 pupils, a new gymnasium for girls, a medical suite, mu- sic room and enlarged facilities for home economics and chemistry. In the Practical Arts Building were shops for teaching woodwork and build- ing trades, meohanioal drawing, molding, tailoring, pressing and hat blocking, bookkeeping and typing. The principal'offioe was moved to the arts building also. The dissatisfaction with general facilities in Negro schools did nctabate with the dedication of the Practical Arts annex. The news- papers and various civio groups kspt the issue before the Negro popu- lation. One such group, the Women's Progressive League drafted re- solutions which were presented to the Board of Educations 122 Wae, the members of the Women's Progressive League, whose aims, efforts, and services are dedicated to the uplift, growth and develop- ment of our racial group, that the youth of our group may receive the benefit of every possible opportunity to prepare himself to better serve his own and to become a worthy oitizeni, make and recommend the following resolutions for your consideration and adoptions 1. That a trade unit, similar to DuPont, Manual High and Ahrens Trade, be established, thereby giving opportunity to boys and girls who go from our junior high sohools to continue training in the trades and vocations of their choice and that apprenticeship be provided as far as is possible, to sustain more adequate results; thus'.fitting them to render more efficient labor in the fields offered them and to work out their economic problems. 2. That with some of the oity, state and W.P.A. funds a program ,0or the erection of' modern senior, junior and elementary schools for Negroes be put into effect at once. 3.. That the erection of palatial schools, gyms, stadiums, etc., for one group to the utter disregard of the needs and demands of the other is unjust since the funds used are public funds and the Kentucky Statues deolare: "Equal educational advantages and opportunities for every child in Kentucky," we ask that these be given the Negroes in Louisville by the recommendations of those elected to administer such. 4.. That teachers and principals and others employed in the public school system, who for any reason whatsoever be requested to resign, be given an :opportunity to appear before the Board or some committee duly authorized by it, to appeal their case giving them an opportunity to prove their innocence, or tou4mit their guilt, as the case may be. 5. That the zoning of the "red light district"' be made so as not to include any public school in the same area with houses of ill fame and disrepute that contribute very definitely to delinquency and the morals of young people. 6. That the proper traffic protection be given all schools when children are going to and from school. 7. That, where medical examinations are required of those em- ployed in any capacity in the public school system for members of our group, that Negro physicians be recommended. 8. That preparation and meiit alone, be the basic requirement and qualification to positions as teachers, principals, etc. in the Louisville Public Schools; when possible employing. those of our om citizens, thereby eradicating the possib3lities of partisanship. The personnel of league, parents, civic workers, representative citizens, hope that the board of education will plebe the proper im- portanoe upon these requests and recommendations. In Febiry 1936 both the white and the colored normal schools ' were closed. Sinai its removal from the Booker To Washington to the 123 the Dunbar School there had been 105 graduates from the Colored Normdl School. The students who were enrolled at the time the school was di.- continued Completed their work at the Kentucky State College in Frank- fort The curriculum had been.-improved through the years. Below is the curriculum at the time the normal school was abolished. JUNIOR YEAR URSE NO. WEEK PEROSD PER WEEK OF PERIODS SEMESTER HOUR Fundamentals of Teaching 18 3 50 min. 3 Freshman Eng. (Comp. & Grapmar) 18 3 60 min., 3 Teachers' Arithmetic 18 .3 50 mine 3 American History 18 3 50 min. 3 Public Sohool Music 36 1 50 min. 2 Public School Art 36 1 50 min. 2 Industrial Art 36 1 50 mine 2 Penmanship Teacher's Certificate Freshman Eng. (Oral & Written Comp.) 18 3 50 min. 3 Classroom Management 18 3 50 min. 3 Geography (Principles) 18 3 50 mine 3 Educational Psychology 18 3 50 min. 3 Tests and Measurement 18 2 50 min. 2 Child Psychology 18 2 50 min. 2 Science (Nature) 36 1 50 min. 2 36 SENIOR YEAR American Gov. & Citizen- ship 18 3 50 min. 3 Teaching the Common School Branches 18 3 50 min.. 3 (Reading Methods (Xtgn., Primary Methods Eng. (and Materials (Reading Methods in (Middle Grades 18 2' 50 min. 2 English Literature 18 3 50 min. 3 Children's Literature 18 3 50 min. 3 Biology-Zoology 18 5 50 min. 5 Directed Observation & Phrtiopation 18 2 60 min. 2 Physical Edacation (Games Play) 18 1 S0min. 1 124 Industrial Art 18 1 50 min. 1 Health Education & Per- sonal Hygiene. 18 2 50 min.e 2 Supervised Student Teaching 18 6 50 min. 5. Credits required for graduations 64 Semester Hours.29 January 1937 will long be remembered in the annals of Louisville. For a month there had been almost steady rain up and down the entire Ohio River Valley.. By January 20 a few sections of Louisville had be- come flooded. By Friday, the 22ndthe populace realized that a major catastrophe was in the making as an estimated 200,000 persona began. to leave their homes to avoid the rising waters. On Saturday, January 23 a call was sent out for all janitors and engineers in the school system to report to their respective buildings. These employees stayed on the job for a week or more putting in twenty- four hours or over of service at a time. Fifty-eight of the seventy- eight school buildings in the 'city were used for numerous emergency pur- poses. Fifty-five were used as refugee centers, eighteen as food oom- missaries, nine as hospitals, three as police headquarters, one as Red Cross headquarters and one as a boat base. More than 300 teachers and principals aided in caring for the refugees and performing other re- 30 lief work. Since practically all of the Negro schools were in the flooded areasNegro school employees gave heroic service during the emergency. In several buildings refugees had to be moved to upper floors as the first floor became inundated. When the flood waters receded the aggregate damage to school property was estimated at 322,000. Because the buildings had housed 1 26 refugees under the most primitive conditions and had been contaminated by the flood waters it was impossible to reopen any of the buildings until they had been thoroughly cleansed and inspected by the city health officials. In addition were numerous other problems such as "securing equipment and supplies, comunicating with and locating instructional personnel (teaohers:;had scattered to points as far away as Indianapolis, Indiana and Chicago, Illinois) and deciding what should be done with the numerous pupils who were still not in their own homes and school 31 districts ." On Monday, February 22, forty-five schools were reopened and twenty-one additional schools were reopened by the middle of March. Five colored and four white elementary schools were unable to use their buildings and instruction was carried on in churches, private homes and other schools. One such school caring for many pupils from out- side its regular district was the Mary B. Talbert School, at Eighth and Kentucky Streets, which operated two four hour sessions per day including Saturday 2 Both the school system and the parentsof such children needed aid In rehabiting themselves after the flood. The federal govern- ment by the allotment of funds through the Works Progress Administration came to the aid of the school board and provided the means for re- ,habilating the school buildings. The Red Cross and local relief agencies eased the plight of many of the families which had lost all 126 or nearly all in the flood. In fact, the recovery of the city was so rapid that visitors to the city a few weeks later could scarcely be- lieve that Louisville had suffered a major catastrophe. On October 13, 1937 there ocoured what proved to be the opening gun in a oznpaign to eliminate the fifteen per cent salary differential. The local association of Negro teachers--The Louisville Association of Teachers in Tolored Schools-- at one of its regular meetings had sche- duled an address by Dr. Zenos'E. Scott, superintendent of the Louis- ville public schools. One of the field representativess,.Ms.v-.sL ainpacnr, of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Nvb's baaofL cst A People was .n the city conducting a membership drive for that organi- zation. She was presented to the teachers at the meeting and seized the opportunity to mention to the teachers and the Superintendent that the fifteen per cent differential was not constitutional and should be 33 removed. The declaration fell as a bomb in their midst. Some teachers felt that one outside the ranks of teachers should not have broached upon such a subject in the presence of the superintendent. Others were con.. vinced that a statement of truth could do no harm regardless of the source of such a statement. The result of the whole matter was that a determined minority of the Negro teaching staff decided to win the majority of their fellow teachers to the cause of seeking to remove the differential. Later because of their activity a committee was appointed to I upon the superintendent and lay before him a 127 petition, hearing.the names of practically all of the Negro teachers, asking that the differential be removed. The superintendent's reply was noncommittal, but the teachers who had registered an effective protest to the practice of discrimination made plans for a follow-up campaign for the elimination of the differential. One of the high lights of the school year 1938-39 was the visit of Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, wife of the President of the United States, to the Dunbar School on October 4th. WThile her visit was made primarily to inspect the work of the Work Progress Administration sewing project which was housed in the school building, Mrs. Roosevelt greeted the children of the school, and acknowledged the presentation of a bouquet of flowers. BEr gracious manner and bouyant personality iipressed all who greeted her upon that occasion. The principal of the school Mrs. Ellen Taylor summed up their feelings when she stated: 34 "Mrs Roosevelt made us feel like Americans.t The fine attitude ce -Mrs. Roosevelt spurred many Negro citizens to redouble their efforts to achieve full and equal rights. During the year 1938-39 a citizen committee was formed to press for the elimination of the differential in teachers' salaries and the Louisville Association of Teachers in Colored School .es4 as an organization to agitate for pay parity although Negro teachers As In- dividuals still sought to obtain fullipay through the activities of the oitizens! ommittee. T he agitation finally led the Kentucky Negro 126 Education Association to appropriate five hundred dollars toward a fund to prosecute a salary case through the Federal courts if necessary. Louisville Negro teachers contributed to the fund also to insurea. Hum sufficient to defray the expense of possible litigation. In February 1940 a further appeal was made to the Board of Education which gave the answer that the differential would be eliminated if, as,, and when funds became available for the purpose. Naturallysuch an answer was considered evasive and entirely inadequate by both teachers concerned and by Negro citizens in general. As a result, in November 1940, a petition was prepared in the name of Mrs. Valli Dudley Abbington, a teacher-at the Jackson Junior High School, in behalf of herself and the other Negro teachers employed in the schools of Louisville asking that the differential be removed beginning the ensuing school year. On December 3rdsa public hearing was held by the Board of Education on the petition at which the-Board of Education refueedto go on record as Wiilling.to ask for funds to equalize salaries. At this hearing the teachers were represented by Mfr. J. Prentice Thomas, Attorney-at-law of Louisville with whom was associated Mr. Thurgood Marshall of New York City and Baltimore, Maryland who had previously prosecuted similar cases in Maryland and Virginia. Two days later a suit was filed in' the district Federal court in the name of Mrs. Abbington. The local daily newspapers sympathetic with the Negro teaohers complaint throughout the long period leading up to the suit. Editorials 129 and feature articles appeared which expoused the Negro teachers' cause. A number of white teachers were openly or secretly in favor of the eltti- nation of the differential. A few of the more militant met and joined by Negro teachers formed in 1941 a local unit: of the American Federation of O in the hope that joint action would better the conditions of all teachers both white and Negro. The Louisville Federation of Teaohers at its first public program on March 18, 1941 presented its objectives as follows: GENERALt 1. To protect and further true democracy in our educational system. 2. To provide fuller educational opportunities for all public school children, by expanding and bettering school facilities. 3. To promote higher professional standards among teachers and to to secure proper conditions of employment. 4. To improve oommunity-school relationships, improve the servioes of the sohools and make the community aware of the schools' serrices. SPECIFIC, 1. To restore immediately the salary schedule for all teachers in the public school system. 2. To eliminate immediately the existing differential between Negro and white teachers in the public school system. 3. To raise the salaries of the women teachers in the public schools to the male level. 4. To provide adequate aid for indigent children in the public schools. 5. To secure an adequate tenure law for public school teachers. 6. To secure teacher participation in the drafting of contracts for public school teachers. 74 To protect the teacher retirement law, and to insure full support for annuitants retired under the old city retirement system. 8.. To secure' Improved conditions for substitute teachers. 9. To secure extension of sick-leave benefits for teachers, to the end that teachers will not expose themselves and their pupils to unnecessary health hazardso The organization of the Louisville Federation of Teachers had a good effect in helping to break down the barriers between Negro and white teachers. An immediate evidence was the fact that a committee composed of teachers of both races waited upon the Board of Eduoation urging the abolition of the differential and the restoration of the salary .scliedleo. On May 16, 1941, eleven days before the scheduled hearing of the salary differential case in the Federal court, the Board of Eduoc tion voted to eliminate the fifteen per cent differential against Negro teachers, the 200 sex differential against women teachers and to re- store the suspended salary schedule. It was estimated that this action of the board would entail an increase of six cents in the tax rate to produce about 205,000 more revenue for the school year. 1941-42. Analyzed)the various cost items were set as follxs: 65,000 for elimination of the race differential, 55,0O0 for elimination of one-fourth of the sex differential and 85; 35 000 for restoration of the salary schedule. The sum required for 1941-42 would have been higher had not the women teachers agreed to the elimination of the differential over a four year period. These forward steps by the Board of Education and the emphasis upon education for democracy caused by the tense international situ- ation which threatened to engulf the world with dictatorship focused attention upon the public schools. Many citizens were beginning to realize that the school system had developed to the point where 1311 it was the biggest business organization in the comnunity, oaring for 53076 white children in fifty-seven buildings with 1202 classrooms and 36 9469 colored children in nineteen buildings with 267 classrooms. The valuation of all buildings and grounds under the control of the Board of Education in 1938-39 was 13,488,405.60 of which 1,707,43030 re- preseited the valuation of buildings and grounds of the nineteen Negro schools. This was a far cry from the days of 1841 when slaves received permission to attend the Adams school, or the days of 1866 when a few tax dollars on-the property of Negroes was set aside into a special school fund lookint toward the inauguration of public schools for their children. Yet many inequalities still remained in the school year 1940- 41 to remind Negro citizens that they had not attained full rights ith- in the school corporation. While the Negro pupils represented 15.1. of the total enrollment the value of buildings and grounds allotted to the use of Negro pupils 37 represented only 12.6 of the total valuation of such property. This percentage, however, is misleading for while only one building and two branch buildings for white children were of frame construction out of fifty-seven structures---seven of the nineteen buildings for Negroes were of frame construction. Twenty-three of the fifty-seven buildings for white children had one or more portables with a total of sixty- eight in use while eleven of the buildings for Negroes had portables totalling forty in number. Two of the Negro schools the Mary B. Talbert 132 at Eighth and Kentucky and the George McClellan at 1807 W. Eleventh Street were composed entirely of portables. Only two of the fifty- seven white buildings were heated by stoves whereas eight of the 38 Negro buildings were so heated. ThAre. was also great disparity in the facilit1es provided in white and Negro schools. Out of forty-four white elementary schools, nine- teen were reported as having gymnasiums in 1938-39 whereas only one Negro elementary school out of sixteen was reported as having a gym- nasium. In spite of the fact that the great majority of Negroes fall in the lower economic levels, no adequate provision had been made at the Central high school to prepare boys for integration into industry although a trade school and a system of apprenticeship had been in operation for white youth for a number of years. This lack became very apparent during the National Defense program inaugurated in 1940. The burden had not been borne by the teachers alone, for beginning in 1899 a parent-teacher organization had been established in the Phyllis Wheatley School. The movement spread slowly until by about 1913 such organizations were found in all the schools then in existence. The organization in the various schools sought to interpret the school to the home and to bring about a genuine community interest in the school district. The organization has also been of great material assistance to the schools themselves and to many children in need of assistance. A number of financial projects have been undertaken such as the purchase of band instruments, reoreation equipment, handwork 133 materials, pictures for the school, stage curtains and books for school libraries. Aid to deserving children has taken the form of clothing, shoes, free lunches, Christmas baskets, and street oar oheoks for chil- dren in the Junior and Senior high schools who live4far from the school attended. Gradually the schools have taken on the names of prominent Negroes of local and national importance. When Mr. Cotter became principal of the school at Ninth and Magazine Street he secured permission to name the school for Paul Lawrence Dunbar, the Negro poet. Other schools have been renamed as shown in Table number VTZ which shows also the location and number of teachers in 1940-41, the year each school was opened as a school for Negroes and the name of each school when opened. An examination of the table will show that the nineteen schools for Negroes Une-scattered throughout the city.. Every area of the city and the various communities populated largely by Negroes sa served. Naturally the majority of the larger schools Ho located in the areas of densest Negro population. From 1870 through 1941, notwithstanding the inequalities which existed in educational opportunities, the public schools for Negroes have courageously faced the task of lifting a handicapped segment of the population of the city to a new vision of opportunity and civic dignity. The public schools have been the chief agency through which, since the Civil War, three generations of Negro citizens have been prepared to make an ever increasing contribution ftt the economio and social development of Louisville. 134 mo 0co"Il (0 0 0 o t 0) u- - CoCot- 0 0 cQ C)O) CoQ co0) 0.co a c 0) co ( cc D f-4- 0 0 0- 0 o 0 0 0 0 pound; pound;0 0 4 ,1 f 4,c o o 0 4 0 ch 0.0 J., ,- to4';44,1 4 4 44,9 P4P4Co -P.0 Pu P4 o P 4. v-I co1 .44, F 4'r4 )4 ,F 4 o5Os 0 4t0 as Os0 O 0.14.14 1 1 0.0 F 4 V ( 0C O 0 1 - 4 . 4,'ciFlCo4 o 4 co pound;0 - PF l.1 4004 - . 4 ,. 4 C o 0'ci 0 co oPO 4 ,10 F 'Ci4.14Os dc 0) 04'ci.4Os Oss).0 4co 4o r -440 . 'c i - Fl. F ) q.. C aO s, ,41 4-I ' c CdCs 0 4, Fl 0 toIOs Ol A 40-m. 00 l 0 0 - om60 e-0 'OJF 4 CO ' C)C-I0 t-t-pound;0 CDo) 0 Co co wco o 0 o 0 Co pound;0A 00 '0 - 0.0 l - l 0 00 0 0 0 0. 4, 4,0D 0 0 to pound; CIO pound;0 4 co 4 .1 04..O V0 P4 0) coCco - Hw - m-u-Iu-I02f-I co 4 0 ) 0 0 Fl0 co 4 4,4 -0,0.Os wrO4 - boCQ C N.Ospound;0 'ci W14F l c uw Fl4 mVs -9 u - 60 60 o 0 F o r 5 00- -I 0 0 v- 0 O 0 .t I d co 't E-1Or- . 400F l ' 4 0 fu - I 40 0s )s 6 05 4 4O s0 1 4 5 0 . - IC60lit- I 0 -PC44,Cr M9A. Cs s '0 coco 14 , 0E-4 "-4 0 ;hPf 0 Ml 0H Fl 'i'i 4 O -4 v --iF lF la w I l F Oll 0 . 4F Cd0 0 1. Cs H-0 1 ' Om u- 4 4 1 4 )M4 4 .. C L AL f t. 1.tv4 - , - I Fl0 oC 'boo'00 . 14 0 0. 4 . 0Cs 0o 4 C to0 1-4 'd14 0 '-4 P.1 fr el-I 0 .14 0 C.4 60 0 54 0 co 0 .4- .14 4-4 0 0 ri-I EA cId 0 .0 0to '-I ,0 0)d 04' q44 00 9Cs E-I 5:1 0 .14 4, 5 0 04 0 to .4 0 as I i I I I I I I i I 131; The task.has been difficult but the schools and the counity have been fortunate in having in their midst persons who have been equipped and willing to wage a relentless contest to overcome the forces of re- aotion. This unceasing conflict has been waged upon many fronts and has involved the questions of teachers' salaries, adequate equipment and sup- plies, well appointed buildings, and the whole gamut of problems assooi- ated with the question of full participation of the Negro in all aotivitios of the school system. Certainly, there is no cause for shame in the pro- gress of the public schools for Negroes in their seventy years of exis- tence. 134 PART III COLLEGIATE, PROFESSIONAL ASD PRIVATE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 137 Chapter VIIt Simmons University and Affiliated Institutions In August 1865, shortly after freedom came to the slave, messengers from twelve Baptist churches meet at the Fifth Street Baptist Church in Louisville and organized a state convention of the Colored Baptist of Ken- tuckiy. Rev. Henry Adams pastor of Fifth Street Church was made president. The interest of Kentucky Baptist in higher education actually ante- dated the formation of a state organization for there was an understanding among Baptist ministers of the state that a higher institution should be established. This was evidenced by the purchase of a tentative school site knwon as the "Hill Property" in Frankfort. After the organization of the State Convention the property which had been bought at a purchase price of 2000.00 was conveyed to the trustees of the convention at the original 2 price of purchase on August 21, 1866. During 1867 and 1868 plans were perfected to raise money to pay for the Hill Property and to erect a building suitable for the proposed Nor- mal and Theological Institute. However, in 1869 the Convention was trans- formed into the General Association of Colored Baptist of Kentucky and it was decided by a vote of twenty-five to twenty-four to locate the new in- 3 stitution in Louisville instead of Frankfort. In 1873 the Association of white Baptist'sought permission to coope- rate with the colored Association in the erection of the building for the Normal and Theological Institute. On November 24, 1874 the Normal and T heologioal Institute was opened at the Olivet Baptist Churoh at the cor- nor of West and Walnut Streots. Professor A. Berry was seleoted to opo- rate the school at a salary of 05000 per month. The session lasted five 4 months and eighteen students were enrolled during that period. On May 3, 1879 the Hill Property in Frankcort was sold for Its sum of purchase. In the same month a decision was reached to buy the Zane Property in Louisville at a purchase prine of 13,800. The property oon,- sisted of a lot 217 by 375 feet which extended from Kentucky Street to Zane Street in the block bounded also by Seventh and Eighth Streets. On ,the lot was a brick mansion containing twenty-four rooms which could be used to house the institution. On November 25, 1879 the institution began its first session on the new site under the presidency of Dr. E. P. Marrs. Associated with him in 8 the work were Rev. W. R. Davis and Miss S. Gertie Hutchison. Dr. Mares remained asiresident only one year. The next president, Dr. William J. Simmons, was born a slave in 1849 but had been taught ko thoroughly by an uncle) that without attendance upon formal schools he had laid a foundation for college work. He received the bachelor's degree from Howard Uni- versity in 1873 and was granted the M.A. degree from the same institution in 1881. When the institution was established in 1873 there were three de- partments---the grades, the Academyr and High School, and the Normal de- partment. Ten years were required for a student beginning in the grades to finish the normal department. Thus the first regular graduating class was that of.1883 which consisted of the followings 13c7 H. C. Marrs W. E. Browm Tinnie Miller A. H. Payne Blanche Brown Hughos Lavania E. Sneed Benoni Tiakes James Lyons Katie Scltt' Tillie Waters Mary Cook Parrish T. C. Williams 7 E. J. Anderson Hattie P. Marks Ella Smith Walker In 1881 with the addition of a college department the institution changed its name to State University. The first college class was gradu- ated in 1886 when Charles H. Parrish, O. F. Sneed and Sara E. Nelson all 8 of Lexington, Kentuokyr, were graduated. One of the number Charles H. Parrish was later to become president of the institution. When President Simons had assumed office in 1880 he had two instruo- tional assistants. The staff increased to such an extent that when the first college class was graduated there were ten teachers employed. With the inauguration of collegiate instruction the academic department was discontinued. Beside collegiate and normal work, sewing, cooking and 9 printing were taught. The total enrollment was about two hundred. The commencement in May 1887 was highlighted by the conferring of a number of honorary degrees upon outstanding church leaders including: Hon. George Williams, soldier and author, L.L.D.; Rev. R. L. Berry, Ph.D.; Rev. James Poinderton, D.D.; Rev. R. DeBaptist, D. D.; Rev. D. A. Gaddie, D.D. The A. B. debree was oonferred on two graduates in course and upon 10 two by special examination. The commencement was held at the Lieder- krantz Hall. During these early days of the institution the fees were very modest. The cost of board at the school was only seven dollars per month, tuition was one dollar per month and three dollars covered other incidental ex- penses for the entire school year. An advertisement appearing in the American Bapist in 1890 stated "vocal music, room rent, coal and 1 ights" 11 were free and that "tstudents were received at any time." An attempt to secure jobs for the products of the school and other institutions was provided through the organization of the Colored Teachers' Southern Bu- 12 reau by J. H. Lawson, instructor in the college department, and associates. In December, 1890, President W. J. Simmons died. During his tenure of office he had not only developed the institution as a local educational agency but had made it known nationally bringing to its support both whites and Negroes from various sections of the country. He was succeeded in the presidency by Rev, James H. Garnett of Texas who served for four years. President Garnett began his administration with plans to erect a dormitory on the school property. A permit was secured, to erect a build- ing to cost not less than 30,000. The young men of the school "forsesing the difficulty of iaising.such a large sum of money, determined to do their part toward the erection of the new building, and taking their picks and shovels, they dug the entire excavation for the foundation" thus saving 500.00 according to the estimated figures of the contractor who had charge 13 of the work. By April, 2600.00 had been raised toward the stonework and the foundation was. soon laid. However, it became necessary to discontinue the work when fire destroyed the chapel. The money which would have been used to further the construction of the dormitory was used to erect a 14 now chapel at a cost of 5000.00. Although from its beginning the institution had provided training for ministers there had been no formally organized theological curriculum t4t until 1893. In that year a curriculum leading to the degree Bachelor of Divinity was organized. Thus the institution had now achieved one of its early ambitions-----the creation of a division of the school to provide a' trained ministry.1 At the commencement in 1894 Dr. Garnett surprised the trustees, faculty and students by offering his resignation to return to Texas. Rev. Charles L. Puree who had served for ten years as the president of Selma University in Alabama was elected as Dr. Garnett's successor. Dr. Puree 16 also occupied the chair of Philosophy and Theology. During the eleven year presidency of Dr. Puree from 1895 to 1905 the progress and effec- tiveness of the institution were greatly increased. The first degree in theology was conferred by State University in 1897 when the Bachelor of Divinity degree was conferred upon Theodore L. Wilson, a minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church, who had previously completed the Greek Course in Theology at Gammon Theological Seminary in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1900 the newly established commercial department presented its first diplomas to Almira M. Gray of Chicago, Illinois and William H. Parker of Livingston, 17 Alabama. Prior to the administration of Dr. Puree there had been twenty-six graduates of the college department and about one hundred and fifty gradu- ates of the normal department. During his eleven year tenure thirty-eight 18 graduates of the college department were added to the alumni list. The alumni of both departments were showing an increased interest in the wel- fare of the college and were activo in contributing toward a fund to per- petuate the work of the institution. After: the death of Dr. Puree, Mr. William Steward, the chairman of the Board of Trustees of the institution was acting president for one year. Dr. James R. L. Diggs served as president two years until 1908. In that year a dormitory for girls was erected through efforts of the colored wo- men of Kentucky. Since 1901 the colored Baptist women of the state through the Baptist Women's Educational Convention had been working to secure funds to erect a dormitory for girls. Through their efforts a conditional gift of 05,000 was secured from the General Educational Board provided they raise 10,000 toward the erection of the building. The ground breaking took place on April 14, 1908 when Mrs. MaWie B. Steward, wife of the chairman of the Board of Trustees of the university and president of the Women's Educational 19 Conventiovaised the first spadeful of soil. The building when completed was three stories.high and contained thirty dormitory rooms, five rooms for teachers and in addition a number of classrooms, a dining room and kitchen. WIhen Dr. Diggs resigned to assume the presidency of Virginia Seminary and College at Lynchburg, Virginia, Dr. William T. Amiger became the next president. He brought to the presidency of State University a rare train- ing for his day. Among the institutions he had attended were Wayland Semi- nary in Washington, D. C., State Normal Schoofin Genesso, New York, linooln University in Pennsylvania, and Newton Theological Seminary in Massachusetts.. Music, home economics and millinery were added as speoial subjects during his administration. Dr. Thomas Jesse Jones who was making a survey of Negro education for the federal government visited the school during the period, making visitsin April 1914 and March 1915. His data and conclusions were set forth in detail in the two volum94evoted to the survey of Negro private and higher schools. One of the significant faots disclosed was: that while the school had gained the confidence of many influential white people of Louisville and Kentucky, the work was being handicapped by in- adequate finanoial support as indicated by a growing debt which had reached 19,129 of which 10,500 represented a mortgage on one of the buildings. The estimated value of land, buildings and equipment was 20 60,000. Recognizing that the institution was serving a real need in the community, Dr. Jones made the following recommendations: 1. That the organization of the school be simplified and a name more descriptive of the work be selected. 2. That foreign language, Greek and Latin, be not allowed to in- terfere with adequate provision for teacher-training, gardening and Sim- ple industrial training. 3. That the movement of the white Baptists of Kentucky to supple- ment the money raised by the2iolored Baptist to save the institution be extended as far as possible. Upon Dr. Amiger's decision to enter the missionary field, Rev. Mt. B. Lanier dean of the institution became acting president for a two year period. In June 1918 Dr. C. H. Parrish, scholar and world traveler, was elected president of the University. His presidency was a period of ex- pansion in plant, facilities and enrollment. In 1920 the institution was recognized as a standard college by the Kentucky State Department of Edu- 22 cation. Due to the increase in enrollment it was found necessary to house some of the nale students in cottages owned by the school. The increased denand for dormitory space led to the launching of a campaign to raise funds to erect a dormitory for men. Dr. James S. Anderson of Somerset, Kentucky, a prominent Negro who operated a sixty-five room sanitorium known as the Chootan Siok Home became, upon the inauguration of Dr. Par- rish, one of the benefactors of the university e In December 1918 he made a gift of 500 to the institution and promised to give three dol- lars for every dollar raised by the President, Faculty and friends of State University. It was agreed that the faculty and friends of the in- stitution raise 10,000 at once in order that Anderson Hall, Dormifory 23 for Boys" be ready for occupancy by September 1, 1919. However, upon Dr. Anderson's return home he became ill and never recovered. Upon his death it was discovered that his will made no pro- vision for the 30,000 with which to match, at the rate of three dollars to one dollar, the 10,000 tobe raised by the institution. It was re- ported, that after his death, his private papers were all destroyed in- 24 cluding a oodicil to his will. Finally the institution sued his es- tate for the claim. The Pulaski Circuit Court effected a compromise through which, due to the insolvency of the estate, the university could 25o collect only, a prorata of, its claim. The failure to receive the 30,000 left the school in an embarras- sing position for many students had been attracted to the institution be- cause of the proposed new facilities. It was resolved to launch a camw paign to secure funds to erect a building and expand faoilities generally. The sum to be raised was set at 250,000. Mayor Houston Quinn pledged his support to the campaign. Many white BaptistAlf state and national prominence endorsed the effort. The campaign was sot to open October 26, 1922. The committee was made up of Negro leaders of all denominations and included W. H. Wright, Chairman, Rev. James Bond, H. C. Russell, Dr. J. A. Emerson, A. L. Gar- vin, H. E. Hall, G. P. Hughes, W. B. Matthews, E. E. Meyzeek, Rev. W. P. Offut, Dr. Robert Oliver, Dr. C. H. Parrish,, W. H. Perry, W. H. Steward, Rev. R. S. Stout, B. L. Thomas, William Warley, J. E. Wood, Rev. W. M. 26 -Johnson, R. T. Berry, I.eWillis Cole, and Bishop George G. Clement. At the launching of the campaign the Louisville Leader in & stimu- lating editorial stateds "This paper would rather see the entire sum needed raised by Colored people. Indeed we have no right to ask white people to build our schools for us. It ought to be a mtter of Racial Pride for us to raise this money by our own contribution. It would lift the Race 100 per dent in the eyes of our white friends if we did raise it by our own contributions. With 300,000 colored people in the State of Kentucky we ought to raise 0250, 000 to build a real University to educate our own boys and girls.tt 27 On Sunday July 22, 1924 the boys dormitory which was in course of construction on the campus by Mr. Samuel Plato was dedicated. The con- struction was progressinjg in spite of the fact that the institution had not realized its campaign goal. On the occasion of the dedication 11,000 was donated of which 10,000 was raised by the Baptist Womens' Educational Convention of the State of Kentucky, the same group which had sponsored 28 the erection of the dormitory for young women some years before. It was 29 finally necessary to arrange a loan through a local trust Oompany. In the school year 1926-27 the Federal government conducted a survey of seventy-nine Negro colleges and Universities. Simaons University was one of the colleges surveyed. The survey showed that with the addition of the new dormitory the estimated value of theplant which included four buildings was 130,487. By the school year 1926-27 the income hadr isen to 39,718.00 of which 22.9 per cent was derived from church appropriations, 30 54.1 per cent from student fees, and 33 per Wtfrom other sources. In that year an endowment of 6,150 was acquired and a campaign for 100,000 was launched to pay off the indebtedness of the University including a 75,000 mortgage- held by the trust company. Dr. Klein, the director of the survey, in his report ooncening the institution stated that the accounts were well kept with monthly balance sheet furnished to the Gen- eral Association of Colored Baptists of Kentucky and that the aconunts 31 were audited annually by certified public accountants. A partial statement of the conclusion as a result of the survey was as follows t The survey committee is of the opinion that Simmons University is confronting a serious crisis in its history. It recommends: That the t friends of the institution, including the General Association of Colored Baptists of Kentucky and white leaders of the Baptist Church, either arrange to nrovide a definite fixed annual income, thereby placing the institution on a sound fihaneial basis for the future or that its ope- ration be discontinued. That, in case operation is continued, the institution be thoroughly reorganized by the abolition of the secondary school, the release o f high. 4: school instructors, and elimination of all other expenses connected with the high school. That its future academic program be concentrated on collegiate work and the entire internal administration, finances, faculty, curricula be strengthened and invigorated with this purpose in view. The survey report was not released until 1928. The peak of national financial prosperity in 1929 was followed by the nationwide collapse which made the financial outlook for Simmons darker than ever. In August, 1930 it was deemed advisable because of the indebtedness to sell the property to the city of Louisville for munioipal college for Negroes.t4 be-et All of the buildings with the exception of the new boys dormitory were taken over by the trustees of the University of Louisville immediately and a ten year option was acquired by the University of Louisville on the latter building. It was agreed that the instructional program to be carried on in the building retained by Simmons would be confined to theo- logical and religious training. On April 8, 1931 Dr. Parrish died ending a definite period in the history of Simmons University. Dr. M. B. Lanier, a product of Wayland Seminary, Lincoln University and Western Theological Seminary of Pittsburgh, who had been associated with the work of the institution for many years as dean, succeeded to the presidency. It was his problem to adjust the institution to its new pro- gram of theological and religious training. He entered the work with the determination to -develop a theological school which should carry on the fine traditions of Simmons University. J40 In December 1985 the University of Louisville exercised its option on the building in which the theological school was operating. As the result Simmons moved to a new site wsich it purchased at eighteenth and Dumesnil Streetsi The property consisted of a large lot 165 x 270 feet upon which there was a building of thirteen rooms whih had been formerly used as a colored orphan home. The purchase was made possible largely through the beneficenoe of the- late Wood F. Axton, a white capitalist, of Louisville. Mr.Axton crowned his gift to Simons over a period of more than fifteen years by providing for the school in his will. Under its provisions an estate in excess of500,000 was disposed of including bequests to Simuons University in. the following language: (Art. X) "I will ten thousand dollars (10,000) to Simmons provided it is functioning at the time of my, death." (Art XVIII) "I will the income from-l- of the 1/8 to Simmons Uni- versity for twenty years after my death providing it is functioning as a theological or other school. After twenty years the principal to be paid the endownment fund of Simons URversity. The other i of the 1/8 to the University of Louisville. The curricula and program of Simmons as an institution for the training of ministers and religious workers were reorganized and expanded until in 1938 four degrees were offered: A. Requirements for Degree Graduate in Theology 1. High school graduation, or equivalent in credit units. .2. The completion of seventy semester hours of seminary work. B. Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Theology 1. Two years of college work (60 semester hours) 2. Completion of seventy semester hours of Seminary work. C. Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Divinity I- Bachelor of Arts Degree or an equivalent degree. 2. Completion of 100 semester hours of Seminary workc. D. Requirement for the Degree of Master in Theology 1. Bachelor of Arts Degree or equivalent degree. 2. Bachelor of Divinity degree 3. Completion of a year's work of not less than three minor studies and one major subject. 4. A thesis of not less than 5,000 words onla subject relative to the major study. In order to strengthen the faculty it was arranged that a number of persons on the staff or in attendance upon the graduate curricula of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (white) should teach courses at Simmons. This plan not only worked to the advantage of the students en- rolled but brought about a closer relationship between the two Baptist institutions. The faculty in 1940 consisted of six regular teachers of fKt 34 institution and three persons from the Southern Theological Seminary. During the existence of Simmons University it has graduated men and women who have become leaders of today in Louisville and Kentucky. It has had associated with its'program persons r,_4lwho have made envi- able records in the state and in the nation. The institution was very fortunate in having from its foundation until his death in 1935, Mr. William H. Steward as chairman of its board of trustees. Born July 26, 1847 he secured his education through private sources. He taught school for a few years but was known especially as the founder and edi- tor of the American Baptist. As chairman of the board he guided the destinies of the institution through the years of its formation and rise at to its place of prominence and usefulness in the community. Institutions Affiliated with Simmons Univeraity Under the provisions of its charter as a University, Simmons was the only Negro institution in Kentuoky which had the power to offer work leading to degrees in theology, medicine and law. It was only natural under thoo airPamtam0cu hth tho Wtituti01 wuld ha" Bhe dosife to exercise these wide charter powers. This ambition was made possible through the establishment of professional institutions, which though independent foundations, entered an affiliated relation with Simmons for mutual benefit. Thus the Louisville National Medical College and the Central Law School came into existence. The Louisville National Medical College In 1888, Dr. Henry Fitzbutler of Ontario, Canad4, with the aid of Dr. Rufus Condrad, and Dr. W. A. Burnley of New Albany, Indiana, organized the Louisville National Medical College for Negroes. A charter was ob- tained from the legislature and plans nade for the opening of the in- stitution in October of that year. Under the terms of the charter train- 3b ing was to be provided in both medicine and surgery. A class was fomed and the school started in the United Brothers of Friendship Hall at Ninth and Magazine Streets. In 1889 the Louis- ville College of Pharmacy, a white institution moved to new quarters at First and Chestnut Streets and the National Medical College purchased the old building at 122 Green Street (now Liberty) just west of First Street. Since the building was arranged for medical or pharmoeutical lectures, its possession gave the college a fine structure for its acti- 38 vities at the beginning of its third thrm. In April 1893;Dr. Condrad-who had assisted in the organization of the college died. He had been one of the first colored physican to prac L- / 39 tice in the South and had been in.Louisville about seventeen years. At the commencement a year later special tribute was paid to his memory at 40 the exercises of the college. By its sixth year of operationsthe medical school was fully ac- credited by the State Board of Health to whom Dr. Fitzbutler paid a high tribute as men who demonstrated "that men of science act according toevi- 41 dence and not according to hearsay."' At the commencement of the sixth year of operation on April 10, 1894 there were five graduates---two more than at the preceding commencement. In 1895 there were eight graduates and the college seemed well established, attracting students from other states. Evidence that the school had won public confidence was shown by the news item concerning the commencement in 1896 which said in part: The Eighth annual commenqe'ment exercises of the Louisville National Mkedical College, for colored students, were held last night in Odd Fel- lows Hall, 13th and Walnut Streets, before a large audienoe, which had the right to come away with feeling of considerable pride on what repre- sentatives of the colored race can achieve, for the addresses, papers and services would reflect credit upon medical schools which boast of much higher standing. An orchestrak composed of colored people brightened the programme with patriotic and familiar music. After the opening prayer, which was offered by the Rev. Dr. J. M. Abbey, of Memphis, who is a graduate Of'this college, quite pertinent remarks were made by H. Fitzbutler, M.D., the dean of the college. It afforded him pleasure to state that no graduate of this institution had eve brought disrepute upon the medical profession, and that yet grdater credit would be, it was believed reflected upon the alma mater by the present graduating class. He spoke of the difficulties encountered be- fore this institution was freed from a tendency with the public to ridi- cule its purposes, and in complimenting the abilities and possibilities of ambitious young colored men, expressed gratification that the idea of sending colored people back to Africa was now dead. A prime feature in the exercises was tha address by the Rev. Sel- ton Wayne Parr, who caught his hearers with "There are Doctors and Doe- tors: Homeopaths, Allopaths, Faithoures, Herb Venders and Hoodoos."' In the serious part of his address he sought to show the relationship be- tween the soul and the body, and the necessity of a physician realizing that he also had a moral or spiritual mission to observe. He told how medical skill ceased to be of avail when the patient suffered bodily death, but how the soul, the spiritual body, coul hiave been strengthened for the journey it was taking. The diplomas and degrees of "Doctor of Medicines were conferred by W. A. Burnley, assisted by the Rev. J. M. Abbey. A few words of advice were given by Dr. Binley and the benediction by Dr. B. F. Por- ter closed the exercises. In 1891 the State Board of Health promulgated new standards re- quiring a four year curriculum for medical colleges to take effect in 1899. The National Medical Collegesin accordance with the new stan- dards.revised its curriculum so that by the school year 1897-98 it had +3 a full four year course and an enrollment of thirty-five students. From its beginning the Medical College had supported an auxil- lary hospital equipped with the clinical, bacteriological and patho- logical laboratories used for the benefit of the medical students. Later a second building located at 1525 Chestnut Street was purchased as a hospital known as the Citizens National Hospital. The course in Nurse Training was offered and attracted young women from many states. The College was operated until April 29, 1912. At that time it was forcdd to close its door because the rising standards in the medi- cal profession made it impossible for an institution to operate which lacked a sure income such as would be possible through generous bene- factors or a large well invested endowment. More than 150 physicians were 44 graduated during the life of the College. After the close of the Medical College the Citizens National Hospital continued for some years as the nurse training department of Simmons University. The Central Law School On November 24, 1871 the Courier-Journal carried the following news item: "Yesterday N.R. Harper and George A. Griffiths, both colored, were examined by Judges Stites and Bruce, of this city and being found well qualified, were licensed to practice law as attorneys in all the courts of Kentucky. They will be sworn in today, and will be ready to attend to the interests of clients. These are the first Negroes who have been admitted. to the Kentucky bar." It is thus shown that a liberal attitude toward Negro lawyers has existed in Kentucky since the close of the Civil War. For in that day it was the custom for persons desiring to learn the practice of law to "read' law in the office of some attorney. Shortly after his admission to the bareMr. Harper opened The Ear- per Law School and soon other Negroes, aspiring to practice, were read- ing law and preparing for entry into the legal profession. Thus with a tradition of legal training and legal practice for Negroes in Louis- ville, it was not surprising that Prof. Rohn H. Lawson associated with Simons University should organize the Central Law School in 1890. The first commencement was held at the Masonic Temple Theatre on May 10, 1892. There were five graduates----John P. Jetton, of Louis_ yille, Issao W. Thomas of Hemphill, Texas, Charles W. Mason of Evansville, Indiana, Robert A. Goodall of Church Hill and We. H. Perry of Louisville. A news report of the occasion stated in part: The Louisville Central Law School was founded two years ago, and sessions have been held in the State University, on Kentucky Street, be- tween Seventh and Eighth. It is the third of its kind in the United States the other two being Howard University and the sohopl at Nashville. It is intended to build a school here as soon as th4 und can be realized. One of the graduates Prof. Perry, is and Has been for some tine,. principal of the Eastern colored school. Prof. Perry has not taken the course for the purpose of adoption of the practice of law, at least not for the present but mainly for its culture and other attainments. In speaking of the field for colored lawyers Prof. Perry said, last evening: 'At present it does not look very prosperous or inviting, but those of our race who have already begun to practice are gradually break- ing their way, overcoming the prejudiceAAthat exist as to the practice of law by colored people. There are three lawyers in this city and all are making a living, if nothing more. I am of the opinion that the law school will dispose of the existing prejudices in tinre, some of us who are graduates, are teachers and have taken the caurae simply for its benefits, though we 45 may at some time, when the field iscpened, enter upon active practice." The fact t1at the field was not an exceptionally lucrative one, is well shown through an interview with Mr. Harper in 1893 in which he stated: "Most of the, cases are before the City Court, and the colored la-1yer seldom has an opportunity to deal with the highest order of white lawyers, who are the ones certain to treat him with respectful consideration and create in hil a desire to emulate their manners and method of conducting cases " CV"hat was the largest feelI ever made The best fee I ever re- ceived-in one case was 600, and was only a few years ago. Practice is not as good now even with white lawyers as it used to be when the-e were abstracts of titles to be made and which brought in, all told, a considerable revenue, This and similar work which lawyers formerly performed, is now being done through agencies and companies organized especially for such purposes." Yes, I have had white clients and have three or four cases now for white people. For the past three years I have been devoting much of my time and energies to stirring up my people to indiistrill works by encouraging the buying of property and building of homes. Upon Mr. Lawson's death in 1896 Albert S. White became Dean of 47 the Central Law School, a position he held until 1911. In that year Mr. W. C. Brown, a graduate of the school in 1903 became dean. The classes were held on the campus of Simmons University until that in- stitution moved from the old site at Seventh and Kentucky Streets. Since that time the Central Law School has been conducted in the Law offices of its Dean. During incumbency of Mr. Brown there had been about eighty-five graduates oe the institution through the school year 1939-40. During the school year 1940-41 there were eight students enrolled in the three-year law course. Chapter =rVYM LOUISVILLE ITJNICIPAL COLLEGE It was almost a century from the inauguration of municipally supported higher education for the white youth of Louisville to the extension of such opportunities to Negro youth. In 1837 a Modical sehool was founded, which together with a subsequently established liberal arts college and schools of law, denistry, engineering and graduate instruction, was forged into the University of Louisville providing instruction for the white people of the city. In 1920 when the expansion of the institution was threatened, the Kentucky legislature authorized the city to issue one million dollars in bonds for acquiring grounds and erecting and equipping buildings for the University. A two-thirds vote of the people was necesswry to make the issue effective. The Negro taxpayers seized this opportunity to demand that, if they should support the bond issue at the polls, some provisions must be made for the higher education of Negroes. The Urban League---- an organization noted for the championing of Negro rights---arranged for a committee of Negro citizens to wait upon the Board of Trustees of the University of Louisville to press their claims. The committee, which included such outstanding leaders as A. E. Meyzeek, Wilson Lovett, William Warley, Dr. J.A.C. Lattimore, And the late Bishop George C. Clement, did not receive much encouragement from its conference. The committee sas told that no provision could be made for Negro students because the act of the legislature prohibited the spending of any por- tion of the million dollars. for anything other then the, purposes for which the sum had been voted, and that Negroes should have asked that certain provisions be made for them before the legislature passed upon the bond issue. The statement by one member of the Board that Negroes had not ap- plied for higher education was challenged by a member of the Negro com- mittee who stated that he had applied for admission to the University and had been denied entrance because he was a Negro. It was also pointed out that Negro teachers in the Louisville public school system had been forced to leave the city and seek higher education elsewhere, whereas white teachers enjoyed the privilege of attending school at home at low cost. The board members attempted to allay the Negro committee by promising to "itake care of Negroes' if the bond issue was passed. Considering the vague promises of the Board unacceptable, the oom- mittee announced its intention to fight against the bond issue and to de- feat it if possible. A number of prominent white people, led by Col. P. H. Callahan, joined with the committee in the valiant fight, with the result that the bond issue was not approved by the necessary two-thirds vote. This defeat forecast inevitable hardships for the University. The Board of Trustees decided that the financial problems of the University could best be met by the resubmission of the bond proposal to the people. This decision led to a conference between the same Negro committee that had worked so hard to defeat the bond issue in 1920 and the members of the Board of Trustees of the University of Louisville. At this meet- ing the Negro representatives stated that they desired to see a higher institution for Negroes established under the University Board with all colored teachers. To this principle the trustees readily subscribed, but it was only after repeated conferences that the trustees finally agreed to set aside a sixth of the million dollars for the higher education of 2 Negroes. Thus in 1925 the question was again before the voting public. This time, supported wholeheartedly by the same Negro committee whode- feated it four years previously and by the Negro voters in general, the bond issue was passed. After the sale of the bonds, 100,000 was placed ina bank, at in- terest, until definite plans could be made about the new institution. After four years had expired the Negro committee began making demands on the trustees again. This time President A. Y. Ford suggested a junior college. He presented a blueprint of a junior college--a two story building of four or six rooms. He estimated such a building would cost between 35,000 and 40,000 and that the remaining portion of the money could be used for equipment. The committee would not consent to such 3 plans, so the project was temporarily abandoned. Subsequently, 2,000 of the sum set aside for the new institution was appropriated to Simmons 4 Uriversity for extension work. Soon after President Raymond A. Kent assumed the presidency of the University of Louisville in July 1929, he was waited upon by a Negro 5 committee desirous of kaowing what was to be done about the Negro school. Although he gave no definite reply, the matter was again brought before the trustees for their consideration. The suggestion was advanced that it would be feasible for the University Board to purchase Simmons Uni- versity, which was at the time suffering severe financial reverses that made the foreclosure of an existing mortgage probable. The proposal was accepted and on August 30, 1930 three buildings---the girls dormitory, the chapel and the administration building and their surrounding cam- pus were purchased from Simmons University and a ten-year option was ob- tained upon the remaining buildinga boys dormitory and class building. Under the terms of the purchase Simmons University could operate as a theological school in the latter building until such time as the option should expire or the building should be purchased. The girls' dormitory was remodeled as a classroom building and the chapel as a library and administration building while the administration building, an old mansion, was razed. Through the aid of the General Education Board, which appropriated 25,000 for the remodeling and equip- ping of the buildings, and the Rosenwald Fund, which made a gift of 1000 to assist in purchasing volumea for the library, the institution was en- 6 abled to make an auspicious opening. The total expense for purchase of 7 the property, remodeling and equipping the buildings was 145,000. Of this amount 116O0COrepresented the original sum set aside with aocufr- law.ed interest. The resulting institution--The Louisville Municipal College for Negroes--which opened its doors as a junior college on February 9, 1931 with an enrollment of eighty-three students, was the third municipal liberal arts college for Negroes to be established in the United States The Houston Junior College in Houston, Texas had been founded in 1927 and the Dunbar Junior College of Little Rook, Arkansas had been opened in 1929. The Louisville Municipal College differed from these institutions in support, control, and administration. The Texas and Arkansas insti- tutions formed a part of the regular public school systems. They were housed in the same buildings with the public secondary schools and were under the control of the local boards of education. Their financial sup- port came from the regular school funds The Louisville Municipal Col- lege, on the other hand was housed upon its oan campus, under the con- trol of a University Board separate and apart from the public school board and under the administrative responsibility of the President of the University 6f Louisvilleo Its support came from funds appropriated solely for the support of higher education. Although legally a separate institution it has from its inauguration been administered as an integral part of the University of Louisville under regulations similar to those governing the other schools and colleges of the University. President Kent exercised great care in the selection of the faculty which faced the students on the opening lay. Although he had been im- portuned by various individuals and committees to make purely local ap- pointmepits, he had insisted that the persons selected should measure up to the scholastic standard necessary to develop the good college that he had pledged himself to establish. After examining many prospects he finally selected for the dean of the new institution a former resident 141 of Louisville, Dr. Rufus Early Clement, son of Bishop George C. Clement of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. The selection proved to be a very wise one for Dr. Clement brought to this task both scholarship and experience. The new dean was a graduate of Livingstone College, in Salisbury, North Carolina and held the degree of Bachelor of Divinity from Garrett Bibical Institute and of Master of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy from Northwestern University. He had served Livingstone, his alma mater, as professor of history and for nearly ten years as dean. In the Municipal College faculty Dean Clement also held the chair of History. Other faculty members selected were Daniel Lamont Lawson, B.A., Fisk University, M.A., Simmons University formerly Dean and pro- fessor at Simmons University, Assistant Professor of Physics and Mathe- matics; Earl Louis Brown, A. B., Harvard University MLA., Boston Uni- versity, Instructor in Economics; William Milton Bright, B.A., M.S., Howard University, Instructor in Biology; Nancy Elizabeth Bullock, B.A. Shaw University, M.A. Columbia University, Instructor in English; Ant Jrew William Ramsey, A.B., Butler University, Instructor in Romance Languages; and Henry Spence Wilson, B.A., M.A., Indiana University,. 8 Instructor in Chemistry. Other members of +he staff were Mrs. Ollie Carpenter, Librarian, Milton Coleman Young, M.D., Student Health Phy- sician, and Miss Cecilia Anne Fisher, Secretary to the Dean. During the first semester of its existence, the college was ac- credited as a junior college by the Committee on Accredited Relations of the University of Kentucky. However, from its inception it was planned definitely that the work of the college would be organized into four-year curricula leading to the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees. During the second year of operation the college was accredited as a standard four-year Senior College by the Universitycf Xentucky and was ihpbodd f rt ing by the gouthoeti Anaoiiti bf 9 Colleges and Secondary Schools. A total of 201 persons were regis- 10 tered as students in the college. Evening classes were instituted for adults desiring to attend for general culture or to pursue work toward degrees. The courses offered were especially adapted to the needs of school teachers and social work- ers. To instruct the latter group the college was fortunate in secur- ing the services of Miss Pauline Parr, Director of Social Service of 11 the Louisville City Hospital. Forty-eight persons were enrolled in the evening school during the year 1931-32. The curriculum was further enriched through the addition of new courses in English, Education, Biology, Mathematics, History, Psychology, Chemistry., Romance Languages, Political Science, Economics and Sociology. Many of these courses were of an advanced nature in the several fields of possible student specialization. The expanding student body and increased course offerings made necessary the addition of new members to the teaching staff. The aug- mented faculty made it possible to substantially parallel the organi- zation of the Liberal Arts College of the University. The work of the Iunici Tal College had already been divided into junior and sentior levels. Similarlythv, curriculum had been organized into three divisions, the Social Science Division, the INatural Science Division and the Division of Humanities, as was done in the undergraduate work of. the University. The first commencement exercise tvas held on June 1, 1932 wrhen ona graduate, Florence Harriet Johnson, was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science. Hiss Johnson, like many other students, had transferred to the college with advanced standing, having previously attended Sirnmons 12 University and Indiana Universitby. She was an honor student. During the year the Curriculum Committee had undertaken a study of the offerings and program of tie college in the light of community needs. The Comittee concluded that tithe Basic offerings of the college v-ere sound from both a social and 6duoational point of vievzt but re- cormmended certain changes chief among wMahich was the more complete in- teegration of the work of the junior college. The enrollment for the year increased to 324. Much of this in- crease was due to the establishment of a summer session of six w.-reeks from June 10 to July 16, 1933. There were eighty-one persons enrolled in the summer session, sixty in the evening classes and 183 in the ren ular day classes. Eight persons were graduated at the commencement ]n June. By reason cf the acorediment of tohe institution as a Class B college by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools the graduates were eligible to admission to full standing in teeny lead- inr- vraduateschoolso' -Ghec13 in;, graduate schools of the countryJo The year 1934-35 was distinctive for several reasons chief among these was th. fact that June 5, 1936 witnessed the graduation of the first class which contained many members who had done all of their college work at the institution. There were thirty graduates. Eight students oom- pleted their work either with honor or with distinction. The class ranked 14 high in the quality of Its membership. Those graduating were: Yaohelor of Arts Penelope Perdue Adam Kalyn Irene King Helen Alyce Anthony Mary Magalene Black Katherine Louise Cole Catherine L. Blaokwi Carl Ganee Davis Henry M. Faulkner Frances Louise Glasi Anna B. Hamilton Jerome C. Hancock Ruth Ella Tate Ray Russell Thelma L. Lewis LeVetta Jones Smith Irene Alfretta Minter Sadie E. Merchant Juanita H. Offut Naomi Anthony Lattimore Amelia Lee Sawyer Frank Johnson Rachel Crampton Jones Virginia P. Winlock Elizabeth B. Winstes ell I Ld Bachelor of Science Nathaniel B. Brown Ernest Mayo, Jr. Kathlene Amos McClain George A. Woodson Another significant development of the year 1934435 was the establish- ment of a distinct department of education. In preceding years courses in education had been taught in the regular day classes by persons in the Sociology Department and by part-time teachers in the evening school. With the expansion of the department;, the college, through the University of Louisville entered into a cooperative agreement with the Board of Educa- tion of the City of Louisville by which seniors of the college were per- mitted to do practice teaching in the Central High School and the Madison and Jackson Junior High Schools. Twenty-three persons were enrolled for such practice during the first year under sixtee instruators in the pub- 1I.toI 4" 15 lie sohool system who served as oritio teachers. Despite the prolonged period of depression the nation was experieno. ifg, the enrollment of the college continued to grow. An unexpected source of aid for a number of students appeared with the establishment by Congress of the Federal Emergenoy Relief Administration and the allocation of funds to the college. The funds were so distributed as to aid nine- 16 teen students during the 1934-35 session. Such allotments have been con- tinued under the program of the National Youth Administration. The college rendered another service connected with the Federal Emer- gency Relief Administration when it provided office space in the science building for the local offices of the Adult Education program of the Admini- stration. Mr. Lyle Hawkins, a graduate of the college in the class of 1933, was appointed supervisor of the work among Negroes in Louisville and Jef- ferson County. In December 1935 the Board of Trustees exercised its option upon the building in which Simmons University had been operating as a theo- logical school. This building was remodeled to provide space for the library, classrooms, offices, study room and a temporary auditorium. The General Education Board made a gift of 19,075 which represented half of 17 the estimated cost of remodeling the building. The actual cost was 45,000. WThen Simmons University moved to its new site at Eighteenth and Dumesnil Streets, the college had then come into possession of the entire city block bordered by Seventh, Eighth, Kentucky and Zane Streets, ex- ept, several lots upon which were small freae cottages on the south- eastern corner of the plot. In April 1936,the General Education Board appropriated 7,500 to purchase these parcels of land in consideration 4 of the fact that the University of Louisville had spent 10,200 for the purchase of land and houses on the northwestern corner a short time pro- 18 viously. e During the year the faculty spent much time in a slf-survey of its work and a re-examination of its aims. As a result there was a complete restatement based upon the fact that the college was both a municipal , it 40 +Lt A-4At "Wty VsW +h Id6 RAW ot college .B-' e with certain obligations to the members of that weak minority on the other hand. The statement finally adopted was as follawss The Louisville Municipal College for Negroes attempts2 1. To offer such instruction as will make it possible for the student to acquire the essentials of factual information and an elementary understanding of the methods of thinking and work in each of the three divisions: the social sciences, the natural soiences, and the humanities 2. To enable the student to achieve a reasonable mastery of subject matter and methods of work in a particular field, so far as this may be expected on an undergraduate level. 3. To prepare the student for professional and graduate study in certain fields. 4. To develop in the student an intelligent consciousness of the major social problems of the present day. 5. To assist the student to acquire that social intelligence and those 6thical standards which will enable him to carry on his whole social experience as far as possible with understanding and good will. 6. To develop in the student an interest in the achievement of the Negro with special emphasis upon the problems of his life in America and his future progress. 7. To aid the student to act intelligently in solving his racial problems. 8. To offer to the student body and to the comaunity at large those opportunities which are inaccessible except through the aid of the College .. )16 9. To carry on a definite program of vocational guidance through which the student may be acquainted with possi"e vocational opportunities which now exist or which may be created. In December (1936) the committee of the Southern Association on the acorediting of schools for Negroes announced that the college had been given an "A" grade status by the Association. The announcement was hailed with pleasure by the general public an well as by those assooiated with the collegeo. The period from January 22, to June, 1937 was one of varied emo- - tional experiences for it included in less than six months the most dis- asterous flood in Louisville history, the moving of the library and classes into the newly remodeled building, the celebration of the centennial of the University of Louisville and the resignation of Dean Clement. The flood water did most damage in the basement of the newly re- modeled building where it rose to a height of about eight feet. The Gen- eral Education Board, upon solicitation by the University, made an allot- ment of 2000 toward reconditioning this building and the two others which had received rather rough treatment during the process of oaring for some 20 eight hundred refugees. By the 25th of the month some of the classes and offices were moved into the new building. On March 12th, following the repairs due to the floods the library also was moved to its new home. The new quarters were a great improvement over the old for beside a well-lighted reading room which could aooomodate 110 readers there was ample space for office, work room and in addition three levels of stacks for books with a lift to faci- l4t litate their handling. Eaoh college and school of the University of Louisville was re Presented in a committee to plan for the celebration of the centennial of the University, Louisville Municipal which was represented on the committee by Dean Clement selected the week beginning Sunday, April 25th for its special participation in the centennial observanoe. At one of the exercises in accordance with the previous action of the trustee board the buildings on the campus were formally named. The building faoiniveast which had been used by Simmons University as a girls dormitory was named Parrish Hall in memory and honor of the late presi- dent of Simmons University--Dr. Charles H. Parrish. The newly remodeled building which had served Simmons University as a boys dormitory and re- citation building was named Steward Hall, in honor of the late William H. Steward, long-time chairman of the board of Trustees of Simmons. The small building on Zane Street formerly occupied by the libraryr was named the Student building in prospect of a centralised program of student 21 activities. At the close ce the school year Dean Clement resigned to become president of Atlanta University and left behind a well-laid foundation of which the college had reason to be proud. The President of the Uni- versity of Louisville in his annual report of 1936 praised the high quality of work done by Dean Clement when he said: "It is eminently fitting here that acknowledgment he made of the high qualities of leadership---personal, administrative and educational, which Dr. Rufus E. Clement, Dean of the Municipal College, has shown since be took charge of the College at the time of its opening. Inthe 4er face of the peculiar difficulties attending the opening of a new educational unit which replaced one of long standing that had and still worthily has its most ardent supporters, he, with his faculty, has built up a college of high standards that has won its esteem and support from its clientele, without antagonism. In achieving this he has performed a unique service for the 22 institution itself, to the community and to higher education of Negroes." During the summer of 1937 Mr. David A. Lane, Jr., Dean of the West Virginia State College came to Louisville to confer with President Kent relative to the acceptance of the deanship of the Municipal College. fresi- dent Kent was influenced in his invitation to Dean Lane because of the latter's long administrative experience at West Virginia State College and high scholarship as evidenced by his having earned the bachelor's degree and a Phi Beta Kappa key at Bodoin College and master's degree at Harvard University. On his return to West Virginia, Dean Lane wrote a letter at Presi- dent Kent's request in which he outlined a program for the college, which -contained reoommendations-for the expansion of the work including: (1) A program of health and physical education for all students, with the implied necessity of providing a gymnasium and recreational facilities. (2) A department of home economics. (3) A course in business practice adopted to the Louisville situation. (4) Training in the field of social service administration. (5) A definite program of adult education and discussion. (6) An expanded program of cultural activities that should sakythe college the"oultural center" of Negro life in Louisville. As a result of his favorable impression President Kent recommended Mr. Lane's appointment to the Board of trustees. He was elected as Dean jib of the oollege to begin his duties on August 15. His first years have been marked by the expansion and reorganization of certain phases of the college program and the constant pressing toward the.attainment of the above six phases of institutional expansion to which he has added a seventh, the development of a curriculum in elementary education leading to the Bachelor's degree and the standard certificate in the elementary '24 field. In the light of community needs the college increased its offerings leading toward two specific vocations. First, the offering in library science were revised and expanded so that the graduates of the college 25 might qualify as teacher librarians in the schools of Kentucky. The second field of specific vocational offering was' the field of social work which was undertaken after a survey showed the need for such a pro- gram in the local community. "In order that all work done should meet the standards of training for social service administration as nationally recognized, registration was restricted to college graduates whose tramn haripts showed a considerable amount of work in social sciences and re- 26 lated subjects." The scholastic years 1938-1939, 1939-1940 and 1940-1941 were marked principally by the consolidation of gains registered in the immediate preceding years and the increased effectiveness of the college. The college had had a very rapid growth during the first half of the first decade of its existence. The enrollment during the initial five year period increased from 83 students in 1931 to 437 in 1934.6 )ir which witnessed the first graduates of the college who had done all of their work at the institution. The number of graduates in the same period increased from/one to thirty. Since that time there has been little numerical increase. Dean Clement had made a very accurate prophecy in his report for the year 1935-1936 when he observed: "It will be noticed that the increase of the 1935-1936 enrollment over that of 1934-1935 is comparatively slight. There are two reasons for thiss the first is that in June 1935, the college graduated its first full four year class. There were.thirty students who received degrees at this time, six others completed their work in the Sumer Session of 1935. Prior to this the students who entered the college returned for additional work at the opening of each term. From June 1935, forward, the. college will lose from thirty to fifty students annually by graduation." "The second reason for the slight increase in enrollment between 1934-1935 and 1935-1936 is the fact that the institution has probably reached the level of its normal enrollment for some years to come. At the present time approximately seventy per cent of all the graduates of the Louisville Central High School who go to college enroll in the Muni- cipal College. About ninety per cent of the sjrudents in the College are graduates of this one high school. Unless th entral High.Sohool has a decided increase in graduates it is to be expected that the number of students ij the college will not increase very rapidly under present conditions On7 Table Number which shows the enrollment and the number of graduates by years clearly illustrates this. tendency toward a levelling off of enrollment. The college staff kept pace with the increased enrollment.From an Z original teaching force in 1931 of seven teachers--one professor,n no assistant professor and five instructors-the teaching staff, including all those doing intramural teaching, numbered nineteen in 1940-1941 dis- tributed as follows---four professors, two associate professors, six T1 71W pro(essors assistant two teaching librarians and five lecturers. There were in.addition twenty-nine persons holding oritic teacher oom- missions who were available for oooperation with the college in its teaching training program. Year 1951-to Jt 1931-1932 1932-1933 1933-1934 1934-1935 1935-1936 1936-1937 1937-1938 1938-1939 1939-1940 1940-1941 Table Noer-_ Enrollment and Graduates of the Louisville Munioipal College by Years 1931 to 1939-----------1940 Number of Students Enrolled Gross I Regular Day Evening Summer Total I me.. 83 83. 153 48 ..... 201 183 60 81 324 190 80 70. 340 209 90 138 437 190 80 204 474 185 62 82 329 2 185 100 154 439 203 95 158 454 4 171 89 71 331, 2 Total less )uplication .01 . I91 391 :17 288 348 WTP-A,.9Suer Session enrollment- Indludes At the Tenth Anniversary Commencement of the College on June 4, 1941, it was disclosed that 209 persons had been graduated prior to June 1941 of whom no less than fifty-seven had attended graduate and professional shhooli of first rank in the nation. Twenty-five of these graduates had No. of Grad. 0 1 8 12 30 32 33 43 26 25 20 - r73 earned graduate or professional degrees. The institutions at which the advanced degrees had been earned were Atlanta University, Columbia University, Fisk University, Hampton Library School, Howard University, Indiana State Teachers' College, Oberlin Theological Seminary, Ohio State University, University of Chicago, University of Cincinnati, Uni.. versity of Illinois, and the University of Michigan. Graduates had also attenidd several other institution fnoluding the Atlanta Sohool of Social Work which although conducted on the graduate levelgranted no degrees at the time such graduates completed the ourrioulum. It was also announced that among the alumni of the college were forty-one teachers in the Louisville public schools, twenty-three teachers in other publio schools in the Falls Cities area and other localities in Kentucky, the librarian or assistant librarian in six colleges, faculty members in nine other colleges, the Director of Recreation among Negroes in Louisville, the administrative secretary of the college, an inspector of food dispensaries of the Louisville Department of Health, the direc- tor of adult education for Negroes in Louisville and Jefferson County, social service workers and administrators in Kentucky, Indiana and Ten- nessee, other persons who are making good records in the practice of law, in business, journalism, the ministry, and other professions and occupations. '1q' Chapter)X Other Professionaleand Vocational Institutions There have been many and varied educational ventures in Louisville. Many of these ventures were short lived and came to an end with no written reoord of their birth, struggle or death. Any complete history of edu- cation should include such ephemeral enterprises but obviously, to reoon- struct their history through conflicting memoirs of various individuals is well nigh impossible. For this reason the institutions included for discussion in this chapter must in no sense be considered the total num- ber of professional or vocational institutions which have played a part in the development of Louisville's Negro population. Nurse Trainnsg In the year 1898 there was no hospital in the city where Negro phy- sicians could continue to treat their patients when the patients had been admitted. In addition there were no facilities for the training of nurses or for clinical practice by the physicians themselves. For these reasons some of the more energetic of -the younger physicians organized a drive to interest the citizens of Louisville in the establishment of a hospital. Dr. W. T. Merchant was the leader in the movement. Associated with Dr. Merchant in the enterprise were Drs. E. D. Whedbee and R. B. Scott. Many other Negro citizens, both men and women were active in support of the movement. Representatives were sent to churches and other oivio-minded organi- zations to secure funds for the project. While the first results were not entirely encouraging their kept on until they were able to see the Red Cross Hospital chartered in 1902 under the laws of Kentucky. The hospital ita) was not imposing as it consisted of a two room rented cottage at Sixth and Cedar Streets, on part of the land where the Arm- ory now stands. When the hospital had been opened the faithful supporters worked harder untilAn 1905 enough money had been secured to begin buying a property well situated at 1436 Souath Shelby Street which consisted of a lot on a hill with a two story frame dwelling. The house was re- modeled and served as the hospital until 1912 when a brick structure was erected on the front of the lot from funds contributed by numerous individuals and organizations. It was just prior to the occupancy of the new building that Mrs. Mary E. Merritt, who has been one of the out- standing spirits in the hospital became Superintendent of Nurse's. A warm friendship developed between Mrs. Merritt and Mrs. J. B. Speed, Louisville philanthropist which has meant much in the way of financial assistance to the hospital. Mrs. Speed became a regular contributor to the maintenance and expansion of the hospital plant. There were other contributors among the white citizens of the city also. In 1920 Dr. John Little of the Presbyterian Colored Mis- sions made a gift of 5000.00 to construct a Children's Annex as a memorial to his.wife Eleanor Tarrant Little. In the beginning it was a five bed ward devoted especially to the treatment of indigent children. The state made an appropriation for its maintenance. Later the Crip- 1016( pled Children's Commission, which operated the Kosair Hospital for crippled white children, provided funds for the maintenance of five additional beds in the children's ward at the Red Cross Hospital to care for crippled Negro children. Prom thirty to forty crippled children have been cared for each year. The children's annex with a fifteen bdd capacity, was planned to be light' and airy to provide happy surroundings for the patients. Two wards were complete with lavatory, shower baths, sun porch, play room, opera- ting room, sterilizer and ultra-violet ray equipment. The hospital pkoper which provided sixty beds contained two general wards, diet kitchen, opera- ting room, delivery room, X-ray, chemical laboratory and eight baby bas- sinettes. From the very first the hospital sought to offer the opportunity for young women to learn the profession of nursing. Classes were organized and the trainees instructed in the prattical and theoretical phases of nursing. In 1936 Mrs. Speed contributed a nurses home to the hospital. It was therefore a distinct blow when the nurse training had to be dis- continued about 1938 because of the fact that the hospita although a sixty bed institution, could not meet the standard of _. patients con- tinuously under treatment. Dr. Merchant, the founder of the hospital died in 1932 and Dr. Whed- bee died in December, 1940 leaving Dr. Scott as the only member of the AW original staff. However, the institution hasJhd staunch support from a antA- L9L 4JJ1 / q4 )7'7 Women's Board of Managers, a white advisory Committee, and several spon- soring olubs among which may be mentioned the Silvey Memorial Red Cross Club, the Red Cross Circle and the Bates-Speed Club. These loyal sup- porters have been instrumental in the development of a plant which was valued at over 90,000 in 1941. With the discontinuance of nurse training at the Red Cross Hospital it became apparent to both physicians and the laity that a movemeut would have to be started to obtain adequate facilities for nurse training and en- larged opportunities for Negro physicians. There was a division of9Pinion. Some desired that the Red Cross Hospital be expanded and a cooperative training course worked out with the University of Louisville. Others thought that efforts should be instituted to secure the admission of Negro physicians -be prmatlt ift A4-g a Aand the enrollment t of Negro women in the training course for nurs 8 t i i44- d.-Ji kt 4-' ti-Is p The Jefferson County Sunday School Assooiationwhich had become a militant organization under the leadership of Rev. Daniel Hughlett assumed the lead in agitation. The Falls Cities Medical Association composed of Negro doctors and dentists of the Louisville area were interested but pre- vented for professional reasons from assuming the leadership in such a campaign. Other organizations which became interested in the oampaig5)re the Louisville Interracial Commission and the Urban League. The latter agency made a survey of conditions and published its findings, May 10, 1939. The report stressed the need for more Negro doctors and nurses in Louis- yille and for better hospital and clinical facilities. It was pointed out that the number of Negro physicians had declined from fifty-one in 1930 to thirty-two active physicians in 1939. It was shown further that only two Louisville Negroes had been graduated from medical school since 1930 and that neither of these had returned to Louisville to practice. It was ree. Jmmended that Negro doctors and nurses have access to the city hospital 2 or other grade "A" hospital supervised by the University of Louisville. As a result of this agitationtwo Negro nurses were admitted to the City Hospital in the spring of 1940. These were not students, however, but regular members of the staff working in the colored ward. Agitation has been continued for training facilities and for the admission of Negro internes and physicians. The Bourgard College of Music and Art The Bjourgard College of Music and Art was founded in the autumn of 1926 by Miss Caroline B. Bourgard who had served for thirty-one years as Supervisor of Music in the Louisville public schools and two years as Director of Music for the state of Kentucky. Her purpose in founding the college was to provide training in music for talented Negroes who other- wise would have been financially unable to secure such training. Instruction was first offered at the Phyllis Wheatley Branch of the Young Women's Christian Association building. The first teacher,;eside 'Miss Bourgard were 6rtist purpils from the Louisville Conservatory of music. In 1927 Miss Bourgard purchased a large brick residence at 2503 West Wal- Ill nut Street and equipped it for the work of the college. Before her plans could be perfected she died but provided in her will an endowment to main- tain the program of the institution. At the time she died the enrollment of the school had reached about 150 pupils( \ere adults. To carry out the terms of the will the college was incorporated in May 1928 and a. board of ten trustees named. Five of the trustees were white and five were colored. The Negro trustees were Mr. Aitwood S. Wilson, Miss Ethel B. Malone, Mr. J. 0. Blanton, Mr. R. Todd Duncan and Mrs. W. B. Matthews. With the removal of Mr. Duncan from the city, Mr. Horatio W. 0'aannon was named to the board. In August 1928 the now board selected Mr. G. P. Bruner as dean and the school entered a new phase of its management and development. In 1929 the first summer session was conducted and an arrangement was consummated with Indiana University to accredit the courses offered at the college. Mr. Bruner served until 1934. In that year Miss Iola Jordan, a former pupil of Miss Bourgard, was named Resident Teacher and Registrar. In 1940-41 the teaching staff consisted of four members. Instruction in Art had not been offered for some years but instruction was offered in piano, organ, voice, orchestral instruments, theory and public school music. The average enrollment since the second year of operation through June 1941 was about 100 per year. The desire of the founder had been made manifest in the large number of scholarships which had been given to deserving pu- 3 pile. )go Commercial Schools. Several oommercial schools have been established in Louisville at various times. It has been Impossible to obtain information concerning all such schools. However, there are thea about which some information has been obtained. As far as could be asoertained the first such school was established by Lee L. Brown in 1909 under the name The Brown Comer- cial School. The founder saw the need of an institution to teach shorthand, Sook- keeping and Offioe practice to Negroes of Louisville. As the years passed he added equipment to the school until it was in position to train students thoroughly in stenographic skills. During the world war the school performed a distinct service in train- ing men for the duties of company clerk in the army. Up to 1938 over three hundred persons had been enrolled for courses during the life of the school. Many graduates are serving acceptably in positions in many parts of the 4 country. In 1921 Miss Zelda Wilson, who had been associated the year before with the Brown Commercial School established a training center of her own. She named her school the Wilson Efficiency Institute. Classes were con- duoted at her home and consisted of typing, shorthand, bookkeeping and business English. Classes were held at night from six to nin/o'clook and the curriculum could be completed in two years. The school graduated its last olass in 1926. lei The Foust Commercial school had its beginning in 1928 when Miss Gladys B. Foist organized classes in typing and shorthand. In 1932 bookkeeping was added. In 1937 the school was incorporated under the laws of the state of Kentuoky. In addition to regular commercial subjects the school conducted remedial work in the principles of mathematics and English. Service was also rendered to teachers through instruction in seat work and duplication 5 technique and to insurance men through accounting. Commercial training was continued within the enlarged program of the school when it became the Foust O'Bannon School in 1939. The Foust-O'Bannon School For years prior to 1939 there had been a need in Louisville for an institution to train persons desiring to improve themselves for the better paying positions in the field of domestic service. Several sporadic at- tempts had been made to develop such an institution but each attempt had gained little headway. In February,.1 939,the Kentucky State Employment Service mlenCt S-ev4ee focused public attention on the need for such a school. The Em- ployment Service received calls daily for domestic servants which it was unable to fill and many persons sent to jobs were ill prepared for the duties they were expected to perform. It was suggested that a school if established should offer free training through the cooperation of women's clubs, health agencies, parent-teacher organizations, housewives, and 6 business establishments. In the meantime a Negro woman, Mrs. H. W. O'Bannon, had caught a vision of the possibilities of a school of domestic service and fortome months had been seeking a suitable location for the undertaking. Mrs. O'Bannon, who before her marriage had taught commercial subjects in the Louisville school system and operated the Foust Commercial School already mentioned, brought to the undertaking the basic knowledge of business practice so essential in a new venture. Finally, the opportunity came to secure a large brick house at 3414 Grand Avenue and the training program was begun on May 1, 1939. The step was acclaimed by housewives employing domestic help. The Food Editor of the Courier-Journal inspected the school and wrote a feature article which stated in part: "At long last Louisville has. a training school for domestics in which employed or unemployed Negro girls may learn the proper way to cook, to do laundry work, to care for children, to serve a meal, to become a personal maid or the general manager of a home...00.0.0.0 "The school is sponsored by several civic groups among Negroes and Miss artha H. Davis of the Mother's Aid Department of the City Department of welfare is helping to develop the program. An advisory board e nsisting of five white and eight Negro members is working with the group. Since the institution trained both employed and unemployed persons, it developed a program of both day and evening classes. Grade school gradu- ation was required for entrance but preference was given to persons whfh ad received at least some high school training. Health was stressed and physi- oal examinations were required before certificates of proficiency were awarded. Recognizing the advantage to be gained by cooperating with such an institution, several municipal agencies turned to the Foust-O'Bannon School to rehabilitate social work cases. The Children's Agency was one of the earliest of such organizations. In March 1940 it entered an agree- ment with the school for the training of unmarried mothers who needed aumf- training to enable them to earn their livelihood. In the early part of 1941 the Municipal Relief Bureau began sending employable girls from relief families to the school for training. The specific types of training offered at the school included: maid service, cAef cookery, table service, and cafeteria management. A small fee was charged for instruction and the classes ranfrom six to eight weeks. A system of follow-up service insured that the trainees were competent before certificates were granted. The staff in 1940-41 was composed of six persons. In addition to the regular domestic training, classes were conducted in dressmaking shoe repairing, upholstering and allied homecrafts. Schools of Beauty Culture In 1900 two enterprising Negro women began. separate though similar business enterprises in two adjoining states-------Indiana and Illinois. These two women were Mrs. Annie M. Malone and Mrs. C. J. Walker. Mrs. Malone established the Poro Company at Lovejoy, Illinois, and MrsWalker the Madame C. J. Walker Company at Indianapolis, Indiana. Each company manufactured a line of hair and beauty preparationsand in order to t rain persons to use their products properlyestablished schools of beauty cul- ture. The Poro Company later moved to St. Louis, Missouri, and then to Chicago, Illinois. The W:alker Company remained in Indianapolis. The Louisville branch ofP the Poro Beauty College was established in January 1932 by Mrs. Ione(Garnett) Stanley, a former instructt---at the main Poro College then in St. Louis. 'Whilo serving as a travelling representa- tive for the company she came to Louisville and inamediately recognized the city as a potential center for beauty culture training fLor-Kentuck-y. The first class to be graduated contained twenty-five stduents. Throa.,.i . .pJune 1941 there had been 177 persons to complete the course. Out of this number only one persona failed to pass the State Board of Beauticiant' examination. Several graduates made perfect scores, and although the pass- inqg grade was !only,.r'seventy-fiive,a large-percentage of stuaents made scores of ninety or above. The school has been fully recognized by the State and provides not only c6urses in proper culture of the skin, hair, scalp and naila buti those basic courses in anatomy and physiology, which are essential for an under- standing of the proper functioning of the human organizm anrz the measures necessary to safeguard health. The miniraun time allowed for cormmletiono f the couise is six months during which the student must armass 1000 hours of practice properly distiributed among the various divisions of beauty culture,. The Madame C. J. Wrialker School of Beauty Culture was established in 1934 after the State had passed legislation setting up a board to repglate and supervise beauty parlors. The board set us standards of training for beauticians and outlined a curriculum for schools offering training to per- ier sons desiring to enter the field. The founder of the school9, Mrs. Sara E. Thomas, had graduated in 1919 from the Madame C. J. Walker School of Beauty Culture in Indianapolis. Mrs. Thomas prior to the establishment of the school had operated a beauty shoppe, first in her home and then in separate quarters.and thus had a background of about fifteen years of experience in the beauty cul- ture field. The first graduating class contained eighteen persons. The number of students graduated from June 1936 through June 1941 totalled 145. Although the school was founded during the depression period, mo- dern equipment was soon installed and upstatr5rooms in the building remn4- pled and occupied...d o-czp' as classrooms and laboratory. As early as 1938 the equipment included a permanent waving machine, electric steamer, electric dryers, vibrators and theropeutic lamps. The format describing the work of the school indicated that brush up courses and a teaeherls course were available for those meeting re- quirements. Subjects offered included sterilization, physiology and ana- tomy, elementary chemistry, shampooing and pressing, rinses, facial massages, hand and arm massage, eyebrow arching, art of make-up, manicur- ing, fancy hairdressing, hair bobbing, finger waving, marcel waving, cro- 9 quignole, shop ethics and 'anagement, and advertising and salesmanship. Insurance TrainIng Classes Both of the two Negro insurance companies with home offices in Louisville have established training courses for their. agency workers. The Domestic Life Insurance Company was a pioneer in this respect forib started its school in 1921 on a small scale with a manager, an assistant manager, a clerk and ten agents. The training required of the Domestic agents emphasized insurance salesmanship. A manual was prepared by Mr. J. E. Smith of the compariv which together with approved textbooks provided basic readings and exer- cises for those enrolled. Classes were conducted one night each week with monthly lectures given by the company officials. A grade of eighty-five was required for the successful completion of the eighteen months course. In the summer of 1933 the Urban League sponsored an insurance school for a six weeks period. This school was under the supervision of Mr. W. C. Buford of the Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company. The teach- ing staff was composed of men of wide experience in the insurance field including H. E. Hall, president, A. D. Doss, agency director, and B. N. Larke, district superintendent, of the Mammoth Life; W. F. Turner, seo- retary, and J.E. Smith, agency director, of the Domestic Life and J. L. Leake, District Manager, of the Atlanta Life. The teachers received no compensation for their services nor did those enrolled pay any fees. The enrollment consisted of thirty-six per- sons many of whom were former students of Louisville Municipal College. Thirty of those enrolled were employed upon completion of the course by the insurance companies cooperating in the enterprise. Unfortunately the school, although highly successful, was- not operated in the sub- 10 sequent summers. The Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company began its insur- ance school in 1936. In that year the states of Ohio and Indiana which were among the states in which the company operated, passed laws re- quiring all life insurance agents to pass a satisfactory examination be- fore being licensed. The company commissioned Mr. W. C. Buford to pre- pare a suitable course of instruction in the fundamentalsof insurance and salesmanship. Such a course was instituted and the Sales Promotion Department was organized with Mr. Buford as director. During the sub- sequent years the department has put new force and drive into the entire 11 agency staffs. PART IV FEDERAL PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION Chapter XIM T; rinf rinigUnder Fedral - Auspices From the very beginning of the period of financial depression job opportunities for the youth of America had become a pressing problem. Hundreds of thousands of youth were jobless and thousands of these had become transients moving from placd to place in search of work or relief from ennui and boredom. Many such youth had lost the hope of future social and economic adjustment. The term "lost generations was being more and more applied to them. Under such circumstances it was only natural that the federal government should take steps to save the youth of the land from social and moral decay. The national government developed two principal agencies toattack. the problems of youth. The first of these, the Civilian Conservation Corps was organized in April 1933. Its purpose was to provide employ- ment for young men and At the same time provide financial assistance to their families. Camps were set up in various federal and state parks and forest reserves. While these corps were under the direction of army officers and although the enrollees wore uniforms, the C.C.C. was not military in nature. The young men built roads and trails, erected5hhelters, rustic bridges and park equipment, and carried on the various activities confected with a conservation and reforestration program. Since as in other states the Kentucky camps were located in out- lying and rural areas none of the activities of the C.C.C. were carried on in Louisville. However, many Louisville boys bth white and Negro1 enrolled and served in the corps. 110 The National Youth Administration The second of the agencies organized by the federal goverment to aid in the solution of the youth problem of the nation was the National Youth Administration organized in June .1935. Unlike the Civilian Conservation Corps, the National Youth Adminis- tration enrolled both young men and young women. Furthermore, its pro- gram of aid included in-school as well as out-of-school youth. The four objectives for which the National Youth Administration was established were: first, to provide aid to deserving high school and college students in order that they might remain in school. Second, to provide employment for needy out-of-school youth in order that they might become fitted for work in private industry by developing occupa- tional skills and getting work experience. Third, to encourage and further guidance in cooperation with other agenciesf thereby stimu- lating the development of placement, guidance and recreational faoili- ties. Ad Fourth, the establishing and operating of socially desired projects of conmunity value in conjunction with local agencies. There have been two distinct phrases of the NIYA, one dealing-with youth in-school and the second with youth out-of-school. Employment has been provided through three major activities. The first activity was "NYA High School Aid, which enabled needy students to earn up to 6.00 per month in order that they might continue their education. A total of 21,481 young persons, residing in every county of Kentucky, had been 1. employed on June 30, 1938. Expenditures totalled 964,176.12. The second activity was, VYA College Aid, which enabled students who otherwise could not have attended college to earn up to 315.00 monthly. During the three year period 5,841 students in attendance at thirty-five Kentucky college; were given college aid employment. Expenditures were 2 748J47Z.62. The college aid program was merely an expansion of the Fede- ral Emergency Relief Administration which had inaugurated a programca the college level in 1934, Because Negro students in the southern states were compelled to go outside the southern states for graduate work, these states including Kentucky were recipients of special funds set aside in the Na. tional Youth Administration office in Washington for students pursuing graduate work. Students who desired such aid applied directly to the pre- sidents of the colleges they wished to attend. The third activity, 'NYA Work Projects for Out-of-School YoutcM en- abled youth members of families receiving some form of public assistance to earn a small income, and at the same time, to obtain training and work experience in varioUs fields---construction, workshop, auto mechanics, landscaping, library service, clerical work, homemaking, mimeographing and 3 others. In addition to these activities the program was so arranged as to pre- pare young people to secure private employment by providing public emply- ment offices with trained junior counselors for this work. In such offices information was givenfJong the lines of recreation, use of leisure time, health, vocations, occupations and any other that we enable the applicants to better prepare themselves to obtain jobs and to become more useful. add eor0 better citizens. They were also introduced to various social organizations such as recreation and social centers, libraries, adult education classes5 Y.M.C.A., medical clinics, and other organizations, the knowledge of which 4 might be of benefit to them. Table Number 1 -Tinprovides a cumulative statistical report of Negro division of the Junior Placement office in Louisville from January through June, 1937. During this period there were conducted 753 inter- views with 692 different individuals. Of this number 348 were new appli- cants for positions. Of these the bulk, 201 were between the ages of eighteen and twenty-onesalthough the upper and lower age limits were six- teen year and twenty-five years respectively. From the educational standpoint.t.it.vvery significant to note the level of schooling reached by the applicants. Almost sixteen per cent of the applicants, 233, had graduated from the eighth grade. Of these, 130, had done some high school work, twenty-eight had completed high school and nine had attended college. Only fourteen of the 348 were on relief. During the six month.period 136 persons were placed in employment of either a per- manent or temporary nature. NYA In-School Aid The first WYA funds were made available to school youth of Louisville in September, 1934. At this time the student aid program was inaugurated. This program dealt with youth in school between the ages of sixteen and twenty-five whose .families need not necessarily be recipient of relief but were in need of additional funds to keep their children in school, It was lidil 41DLO0) di VDrj LO' diCOtO 4C'0D0-tC 0 L r. V)914l0 ct- E- 1LC-r3E 2'Lr. ' 0 r-f coCQ cCD OQt-LQ ')C' ;q0 04 n C0I4.-HL)L' 4' I P-Nr 02a-I AWH .4 030 VD n4OCD )0 o 0t 0 0 40.604H0 a-400000F40 0r 0 Hm C 0 -H 0 raIC'H C2 - Co LOto CQcoLOcQt .a0 Co4 0 m w QCcoto C O bo c-r-IC-3D-I ' '0- -P0 .14 Y r-I c4 oc2' 0 0 OSfr 43t CaL0 r4 V .14 430 .p a-D O O 0 3 or-i wr r-4 0 0 00 Or4p 0000 44S-aI140 0 0 0 0 0 10 0lctO LO 0 0a4.c r-I CDCOj a-0 D4 CDp --00 0 14- not the purpose of the program to give stipulated amounts to youth in order that they might remain in school but to provide a work training program in wxhich students were assigned certain tasks and received paymentt for their services. 1NYA assistance was made available first at Louisville Municipal Col- lege and Central High School for the school year 1934-35. The following years additional allotments were made to the Jaokson and Madison Junior High Schools. At the junior high schools, students receiving such assist- anoe were for the most part assigned duties in oonneotio fith grounds and building maintenance although a few were used in clerical or messenger work. At the Central High School a wider range of duties were performed by re0ipients of such aid. Among the types of activities were: 1. clerical 2. construction 3. library work 4. mimeographing 5. art work, (placards, etc.) 6.- assistance in departments. 7. laboratory assistance 8.. recreation 8. grounds and buildings maintenance 10. work in home economics department While under the federal regulation each designated college student was eligible to receive 15.00 per month from NYA funds, from the very beginning Municipal College adopted the policy of aiding a larger number of students each year by giving most of such students a smaller allottment than was possible under the law. Thus actual aid to individuals rangedgeneralfrom five to ten dollars, dependent upon the financial needs of the individual students, Few students received the Pal maximum of fifteen dollars. Another policy of the college from the very first was to employ stu- dents on tasks that were in keeping with their major purpose as students in a college. Few students were ever assigned to maintenance work al- though during the first year some students were assigned to work at the city hospital. Instead themajority were assigned as assistants inde- partmental offices, in the library, in the dean's office, and in the soience laboratories. Thle result of this wise policy was that nearly".ll stuients. received profitable development along intellectual lines and at the same time were doting work which was highly useful to the college. Table Number E shows the number of students receiring NYA assistance from 1934---l42; While there was considerable fluctuation in the number of pupils assigned from year to year, the high point of total students aided was reached in the school year 1936.W wkew due to the fact that the Negro t students were largely resident in the sections of the city most disas- trously affected by the flood. During the trying period many students, who along with their parents had been made destitute by the flood waters, were enabled to remain in school. A large number came from homes where practically all clothing had been lost along with the home furnishings. Table Numberj j Students Receiving NYA Aid from the Beginning of' the Program to 1939-1949. School NYA N wYA NYA lYA NYA A 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37 137-389 1938-39 3_9- Central High 21 33 45 52 76 Madison -- 10 16 7 4 Jackson No figures available Louisvilloe Mun3A- Hi al Collhere 43 39 114 63 73 4- e 1 During the second semester of 1936-37 it is doubtful that Municipal College would have had fifty per cent of its first semester enrollment had it not been for the generous allotment of additional assistance to a large proportion of its student body. Of the total amount alloted to the University of Louisville for the second semester 39,0495.96 was ex- pendedby the National Youth Administration at the University during the year. the principal of Central High School, paid tribute to the NYA in the period of emergency a's follows: "Approximately 100 students of 800 students enrolled were given NYA assistance during 1936-37. These pupils worked on projects under the guid- ance of the school counselor and under the direction of teachers to whom they were assigned. .The objectives of the program seem to have been met when one observes the attitudes of the pupils aided and the results of the financial help given the-pupils. Mostce the pupils who received flA. assistance could not have remained in school had this project not been set up. Especially has the NYA program met a great need because the financial status of many of the students was at a very low ebb after the flood disaster of 1937 in Louisville. While the 6.00 per month may s eem small, it has, nevertheless, been the means of enabling most of those one hundred children to-attend school regularly. In addition to the financial benefit derived from the NYA program, training has been given the pupils. Some pupils have worked in the library, several in the lunchroom, some in the chemical laboratory, some in home ec- onomics rooms, somein industrial art shops, and otherin various capacities, such as clerks, assistants to janitors and messengers. By virtue of this employment pupils have beentaught certain attitudes of industry and they have learned how to do certain work in such a way that they can probably use their experience from NYA assignments to help lace them in some job of a s8imilar natu- e. Because off the fact that the NYA students have been required to keep up scholastic standing, we are justified in saying that the INYA program has promoted better scholarship in the school. A number of NYA students have been among those who attained the school honor roll. Among the hun- dred students on the NYA program, only two had to be withdrawn because of a failu-e to keep up in their studies. Summarizing, thejNYA program has been of financial benefit to the students, has given them a hopeful outlook for the future, has trained them "or certain industrial and clerical pursuits, and has created a better schox- astic standing in the school." National Youth Administration Out-Of- The work training program for youth out-of-school was begun in Kentucky in 1936, at which time Mr. Theo. E. Brown was appointed to take charge of Negro activities for the state. He immediately organized at Louisville the first Negro project in the state. As inaugurated the project enrolled ap- proximately sixty-five girls who were eager for the opportunity to develop themselves educationally, socially and morally. Four supervisors were ap- pointed namely: Mesdames Jessie T. Scott, and Ruthlyn West and Misses Lottie Rhodes and Irene A. Minter. Originally the project was begun as a sewing center. Old garments were secured from various sources and the girls were carefully instructed in rip- ping, washing, ironing, dying, drafting, making various btitches, and using sewing machines. After having improved sufficiently these girls were given new materials upon which to sew. In conjunction with sewing the girls were taught recreation and personal hygiene. .In the recreation classes they were taught various kinds of game; folk dances, and handicraft work. The program was varied as an attemptw as made to cover as many interests as possible in order that each girl might select an interest which appealed to her most and concentrate upon it. It wUas found that some of the girls had left school before finishing the fourth grade and as a result Misses Minnie Howard and Addie Wilson were loaned from the Adult Education program to provide special instruction jqer in elementary school subjects. This program of basic training proved very helpful. As the persons engaged upon these projects were persons not intchool, studies were made of the amount of schooling they had received, their reasons for leaving school and their occupational classes if any. On November 1, 1936 there were 196 Negro boys and girls engaged on projects in Louisville and Jefferson County-out of a total of 758 persons in that city and county 8 and 7501 persons in the state. The average years of school completed by the 196 Negroes was 8.07 which was higher than the total Louisville and Jefferson County average of 7.86 years and the total state average of 6.46 years.- While the large majority 79l,, of Negro Youth stated that they left school for financial reasons, it was doubtless true that many would have remained had they been interested in the school program. Actually only four per cent had admitted lack of interest .9 whereas about ten per cent said they became discouraged. The comparable per- centage for withdrawal of the white persons on WA in the city and county were approximately 55 per cent for financial reasons, 34 per cent for lack of 10 interest and three per cent because of discouragement. Statistics from the National Youth Administration and the Civilian Con- servation Corps throughout the nation indicated the need for an expanded program of vocational education. Such local programs were based upon needs shown through community studies. One such need revealed in Louisville was for the training of young women in various phases of home care and managemen. Toward this ndcooking classes were held in which girls actually prepared meals after devoting a prelimary period to the study of theory. Courses in first aid and child care were also made available. After several changes the project in 1939 had approximately fifty-one girls whose average age was twenty. Their program was divided into five general headings namely: Recreation, Cleaning, Laundry, Sewing, which con- sisted of cutting, fitting, designing, embroidery and weaving, and Cooking which embraced menu planning, table service, decorations and maid craft. All of these courses were conducted on the same basis as school room work because the enrollees received both theory and practice. The project had a well equipped center on the campus of Louisville Municipal College which consisted of a living room, dining room, bed room, kitchen, laundry room, and sewing room. In March of the same year that the project for girls was begun (1936), another p roject was set up with approximately sixty boys under the super- vision of Messers. William Coleman and Russell Lee. This project was spon- sored by the Welfare.Department of the City of Louisville and it was the function of these employed to improve recreational facilities and public property. A report of their activity stated: "They constructed eighteen softball diamonds, three croquet courts, cleaned and levelled playgrounds, reconditioned and cleaned various5ret- reation centers. Later, many of the boys received practical instruction in woodcraft through their work in the workshop set up by the NYA. Wahile working in the shop these boys lave repaired furniture, built volley ball standards', constructed tables, cabinets and other pieces of furniture. They also built a model home which is used by the City Health Department in connection with a health campaign."111 By 1939,the workshop program consisted of carpentry and related cour,4- tes in drafting, architectual drawing, painting, bricklaying and plastering. A The boys received no pay for time spent on these related courses which were considered as outside activities. Arrangements were made for boys,1t be apprenticed to various persons engaged in such vocations for at 1 east eight hours a month as long as they remained on the project. The ultimate goal was private employment for each trainee who became proficient in a particular activity. On April 20, 1939, approximately thirty boys were taken from the wood- work project in Louisville and sent to Lincoln Ridge as resident workers to build an additional building on the campus. The boys selected for this work were those who had-received sufficient training in carpentry to quali- fy them for the work required. New persons were added to the Louisville rolls until there were again approximately fifty boys on th roject in Louisville. A third project for Negro youth started in 1936 Was one in the field of recreation. The youth who came to this project had had very little, if any training for this type of work. It was thus apparent from the beginning that something must be done to offset this lack of training. Arrangements were made for the workers to meet from time to time to play games ande x- change ideas. They were given instructions in folk dancing and other re.._ /reational adtivities. Later institutes were held and the youth and super- visors profited by taking courses in story telling, handicraft, organization, and administration, nature study and social recreation. Some of the workers were assigned to public playgrounds to a ssist city recreation workers, or in various centers and nursery schools to assist with the recreational activities. Others operated special NYA playgrounds. This project was closed after operating about two years. A Publio Assistance project was started in Louisville in November 1937, with headquarters at Jones Temple Church on Sixth Street. Girls were em- ployed whose average age was twenty. These girls were placed in various agencies where they received such training as clerical work, care of chill- dren, keoping house, practical nursing and preparing diets. These activities developed into what became knows as the Chestnut Street Center project with an enrollment of about eighty girls who radiated from the center to various types of activities at such institutions as: the East End Day Nurserty, Children's Free Hospital, Red Cross Hospital, Waverly Hills Sanitorium, Louisville City Hospital, Nursery School, Phyllis Wheatley Branch YWCA, Urban League, Chestnut Street Health Center, Plymouth Settle- ment House, Municipal Recreation Department and the Kentucky State Reem- 12 plqyment Service. From the very beginning of the program more girls were enrolled than boys. Due to the nature of the girls'activities it was more convenient to establish NYA centers in various parts of the city. Orginally the girls activities were earrrd on at the Jones Temple Methodist Episcopal Church. Later cen- S C ters were established at the Pleasant View Baptist Church, Gethesme Bap- tist Church, Antioch Baptist Church, New Coke Chapel Methodist Episcopal Church and the Municipal Recreation Center at 920 West Chestnut Street. The church centers were subsequently closed and the work concentrated at the Municipal College and at the Recreation 6enter. The average period of enrollment for girls was approximately eighk- seen months although the time had varied widely among the enrollees f1rom, a few months to four years in one case. In March 1941, Supervisors esti- mated that about twenty per cent of the girls had received employmentm the basis of the training received. An additional twenty per cent married after the period of training. These were doubtless benefitted to a great degree in that many of the activities were good preparation for home manage. ment and the responsibilities of parenthood. The problem of activities among the boys was not so easily solved. It was planned from the first that the activities Uw- have value as voca- tional training but much of the training had been confined to woodwork. Thus with the beginning of the national defense work program, public-spirited citizens in cooperationwith the Urban League urged the inclusion of Negro 17YA workers in the program. As a result two construction projects, one a public bath house at lest and Madison Stre.ets and the other a tool house on Eighteenth Street Road were undertaken. In 1941 three of the origina.l supervisors Mrs. Jessie T. Scott, M.1iss Lottie Rhodes and Mr. Russel Lee wvere still in service. Miss Rhodes was Homemaking Supervisor", Mrs. Scott, General Supervisor and Mr. Lee was General Supervisor of boys activities. Associated with Miss 'Rhodes was Miss Sadye Bryant and with YMr. Lee, Mr. Fred Bomar and Mr. Stuart Johnson as construction project supervisors. Mr. Harvey C. Russell who became State Supervisor of Negro Activities of the I1YA in January 1939, in summarizing the activities of the Adminis- tration in Kentucky in January 1941, devoted.some attention to the needs of-excpanded facilities .in Louisville. Among his conclusions were the following: 1) The urgent need for Negro girls in the Louisville Area of an adequate working center in which a few diversified activities could be conducted. 2) T he setting up of a project for the preparation and serving of lunches to the one hundred and forty girls on the sewing project at Louisville iMunicipal College. 3) That the seventy-five girls of the Chestnut Street Center pro- ject all of whom were classified as clerical workers be re- classified into clerical workers and hospital attendants. 4) That a general supervisor for Negro workers should be appointed for the Louisville area for work among the girls, her activities to include health supervision and follow-up, vocational counsel- ling and work placement, mass cultural and recisational activi- ties and liaison services with the Area office. Adult ducation Under Federal Ans-oices During the depths of the economic depression which began with the financial collapse of 1929, discussion wuas turned more and more to the theory that in times of widespread unemployment it was the function of the federal government to provide useful employment for its citizens. One type of such useful work, which it was felt would not only give employmentts o a number of so called "white collar" workers but benefit a large segment of the adult population was the teaching of illiterate and near illiterate persons in the nation. As a result of agitation for such a program the teaching of adults was begun in 1934 under the Federal Emergency Relief Act Which was passed by Congress. Centers were established in various sections of the country to train persons to inaugurate the adult education program. One such center for I.oeroes was opened at Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia in June, 1934. Among those attending this fivo week training session was Mr. Lyle Hawkins of Louisville Who was selected by responsible officials to launch an/ dult education program for the Negroes of Louisville and Jefferson County. On September 3, 1934, nineteen teachers were assembled and the adult education program was organized. Each teachdr selected the district in which he or she would work and immediately began a house to house canvass soliciting name'Af prospective pupils. As a result two thousand signatures were secured.. Of these two thousand prospective students the average at- tendance by October was 573 and the teaching staff was increased bytwo. By March 1935 the average attendance had increased to 944. At the close of the school year, June 1935, there were five departments in this program namely: 14 Academic, ComnercialHome Economics, Handicraft and the Nursery School. During the school year 1935-36 the staff was increased to thirty-two. There iere four hundred and seventy-three enrolled in literacy classes, eight hundred and ninety-three in general adult classes and two hundred and seventy seven in vocational classes. The program showed marked improve- .ment. An accredited adult high school, the first one in the United Stater, was established. The Nursery School department was increased to four teachers and two cooks with an enrollment of one hundred thirty-four pre- school age children. The program was vell-rouided, the children receiving pre-school. care and training in early health habits, constructive play, 15 story telling, music3conversation and free play. During the summer of 1935 a summer school for adult education teachers was organized. The objectives of the school were "'first, to give definite and specific training in courses allied to the teaching of adults;second, to offer such courses to adult education teachers, whereby they might earn college credits for the renewal of State Certificates or earn new teachers' certificates and third, to serve in the afternoon, as a work shop in which adult education teachers could work out definite plans, methods and materials, which could be used in the Commonwealth of Kentucky by alli.ult education teachers. Worthwhile reports and findings of the shop periods were compiled in a volume known.as "tCompendium of Adult Eduoation--Methods, Planswad Out- 16 lines." Seventy-one teachers from the entire State attended. In connection with the summer session a practice school was put into operation in which adults were enrolled as students. This waseas far as is known, the first such s chool in the United States. Work taken in the sum- mer school was recognized by the University of Louisville and the State De- partment of Education, and college credit was given for it through the Louisville Municipal College. In June 1936,twelve adult education tudents were graduated in the first class from the high school. department. The first graduates were persons who had entered with credit for three years of high school work completed else- where. Beginning students were required to present certificates ot;.:kraduation from the eighth grade. A four year curriculum was offered. The school year 1936-37 was one in which a constant rechecki was made by W.P.A. certifying officials which caused the number on the teaching staff to fluctuate greatly. Hovwever, at the close of the year there wre twenty-seven adult education teachers, four nursery school teachers, two cooks and one registered nurse. In spite of this difficulty the high school department was given an "A" rating during this school year by the State De- partment of Education. The elementary work had been previously recognized by the Jefferson County Board of Education which had already begun the 17 practice of issuing certificates to the eighth grade graduates. The average attendance of pupils up to June 1939 wses twelve hundred per year. The Nursery schools averaged thirty per month. The high s chool maintained en average of eighty-six in attendance. Oddly enoughthis large attendance was attained in spite of the fact that no adult education classes were held in any public school building. The classes were held in churches, libraries, lodge halls, private institutions. Under such a procedure it was necessary.for each teacher to pay the rental of his or her awn classroom ppace. Another unique feature of the Louisville adult education program was the fact that each of the teachers was fully certificated to teach the subject or grade levels taught. Many of the teachers were outstanding in their fields. This fact led the Louisville Board of Education to employ Adult Education teachers to fill vacancies in the Louisville Public school system. During the first twec years of the Adu-it Education program eleventeachers were placed in the public schools of the city. Two others were teaching in private institutions and two were employed as educational advisors in CCC 18 camps in Kentucky. One source of professional growth was the antual--state meeting of all Adult Education teachers in Kentucky in conjunction with the meeting of the Kentucky Negro Education Association in Louisville. The Adult teachers organized an a ssociation which a ffiliated with the state association in 1936. Exhibits and demonstrations were featured at each annual meeting in the. assembly room of the Western Colored Library. That the Kentucky Negro Education Association fully appreciated the worth of the adult edu- cation program wad demonstrated at the meeting in April 1938 when Mr. Lyle Hawkins was presented the Lincoln Award, a golden key presented to persons who have been responsible for great achievement in Negro education in Ken- 19 tucky. From June 1934J when the adult program beganup to February 1940, 2165 persons were taught to read and write in Louisville and Jefferson County. Based upon the 1930 ce.nsus figures of 4181 illiterate Negroes in Jefferson 20 County, the amount of illiteracy had been cut in half. The program, how- ever, had not been narrowly academic. Sewing, cookery, handicraft, child care, health and sanitation and good citizenship were included through courses and materials. Many individuals were aided in their vocations .through increased knmwledge and through reading and other skills. Smith-Hughes Work at Central FHigzh School In 1918 the Smith-Hughes act which provided federal funds for the promotion of training in trades was passed. Courses under the provisions of the act were instituted at Central Hiigh School in 1935 when. Mr. Frank L. 'whitaker was appointed Smith-Hughes instructor in tailoring. The first class was instituted with twenty-five boys. As organized the course developed skill in other arts besides tailoring including, cleaning, pressing, spotting and hat blocking. The students spent three clock hours per day in the shop and in addition two periods in related work and one period in English, it being the object of the course to develop sound -and industrial intelligence. The work in tailoring was so successful that Smith-Hughes work in other fields was added including carpentry, foundry work, auto mechanics and dress- making. Iany of the students who completed the courses have been able to secure employment eor to make work opportunities for themselves. Chapter XIa Other Institutions and Agencies Performing Educational Functions In addition to the institutions and agencies already discussed there are several others which provide education comparable to that of the put- Plic schools. Others carry on educational activities which supplement the work of public or private schools. Chief among such institutions or.agen- cies are the Catholic parochial schools, the Ridgewood school, the Ken- tucky State School for the Blind and the Free Colored Libraries. While this chapter will deal with the above named institutions and agenciessome others should be mentioned at least as performing some func- tions of an educational nature. A partial list includes the various churches and Sunday schools, the Presbyterian Colored Mission, the Plymouth Settlement, the Baptist Fellowship Center, the Daily Vacation Bible Schools, the Phyllis Wheatley Branch of the Young Women's Christian Association, the Chestnut Street Recreation Center, the Boy Scouts, the Girl Scouts, the Pan-Tfellenic Forum, the Urban League, the Girl Reserves, the Camp Fire Girls and the East End Day Nursery. These and others have contributed to the education of Louisville Negroes in the broad interpretation of the term. It is unfortunate that some statement of their work cannot be included here Parochial Schools Louisville since its very foundation has had strong Catholic adherents in its population. Thus it is not surprising to find that shortly after the Civil War Father J. Lancaster Spalding, an assistant at the Cathedral, began special services for Negroes in Louisville. He followed these ser- vices, begun in the spring of 1868, with the erection of a church on Four- teenth Street near Broadway. The new mission named for St. Augustine was dedicated April 30, 1869. At the same ceremony the St. Augustine School was also dedicated. The school was opened under the direction of two Sisters of Charity of Nazareth with an enrollment of about sixty pupils. The mission and school grew rapidly during the next few years. By 1873 there were no less than three hundred connunicants of the church and 2 the School enrolled 120 pupils. Father Spalding directed the mission until that year vwhen the work was taken over by other assistants from the Cathedral. Under a succession of able priests the program of the church and school were expanded. From 1898 to 1917 the church was guided by Father Frances Felton who built the present edifice at 1308 .!;est Broadway in 1911. There seems to be no record of the early work of the parish school. The efforts of the teachers were summed up in succint fashion on the oc- casion of the golden jubilee as follows: "The teachers at the beginning of the school were sisters of Charity of Nazareth. fchile they left no records of their work, they have been faithful to their task ever since. Yet we can state that its history is the history of the parish itself, for the Sisters were in the classroom day after day throughout the school terms teaching the little ones who were to be the future men and women of the parish."3 During the ten year period from 1917 to 1927 Father Frankenberger was in charge. Under his direction the St. Augustine school was re- modeled and a parish high school established. During this period shorbly after the World War of 1914-18, the Knights of Colunbus conducted a free evening school for colored ex-service men. Classes were contingent upon .n enrollment of at least ten in each subject. The courses listed for offering were accounting, advertising, American history, Auto-mechanics, bookkeeping, business Enlish, correspondence, civics, commercial arith- metic, elementary and advanced English, journalism, motor transportation, penmanship, public speaking, salesmanship, Spanish, stenography and type- 4 writing, and telegraphy. In 1930 the parish priest reported that the church had 1500 members and that the elementary school enrolled 260 pupils. The Catholic high school, located at Eighth and Cedar Street which had received state accredit- 5 ing, enrolled sixty-eight pupils. Another Catholic Church, St. Peter Claverwas founded on Lampton Street by the Cincinnati Province of Francesca Fathers in 1910. A school 6 connected with the church was opened by the Ursuline Nuns. The three Catholic schools had enrollment in 1940-41 as follows: St. Peter Claver, 120 pup3ls with three teachers; St. Augustine school, 181 pupils with five teachers; the Catholic High school, seventy-three pupils with four teachers. Ridgewood, a Division of The Louisville a =ef -ounty Childr;fz Home In 1865 the House of Refuge was established in Lot isville to care f or delinquent white boys. Later the institution became known as the Louis- ville Industrial School of Refom, operated by a board appoint-ed by the Mayor. W4hile these provisions had been made to care for white juvenile delinquents, Negro juvenile delinquents were placed in jails and workhouses. However, various groups were aware of this fact and several legislative measures to remedy this condition were proposed but constantly postponed. In 1874 a group of Negroes sent the following petition to the City Council,"To the honorable, the General Council of the City of Louisville, Kentucky: Gentlemen--The undersigned colored citizens respectfully petition your hcnorable body to provide a House of Refuge for the colored youth who may become amenable to the law for the committing of petty offenses. For committing the same crime for which white youth are sent to the House of Refuge the colored youth are sent to the common jail, the work-. house and penitentiary. Having confidence in your desire to do justice, and believing that justice requires that the present practice be changed, we confidentially petition your honorable body to favorably consider our prayer, and as in duty bound your petitioners will ever pray. Horace Morris 7 Etc......(29 other names) At the meeting at ikaioh the above proposal was presented the follow-. ing resolution was also submitted by the General-)Council of the City of Louisville: "That the members of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Ken- tucky, representing the city of Louisville, be and they are hereby requested to pass, so amending the Charter of the Louisville House of Refuge as to authorize and empower the General Council of the City of -Louisville to levy and collect annually not exceeding five cents on each one hundred dollars worth of property in said city, subject to taxation under the revenue laws of the state of Kentucky, addition to the sums now authorized and collected. The sum derived from the tax herein authorized to be fketd by tAhe mana!!ers of said House of Refuge in the erection of a suitable house or housesof refuge for cblored juvenile offenders, delinquents, and for the annual maintenance of the several institutions under their management." 8 This resolution had been adopted by the General Council of the City of Louisville' but when it was presented to the General Assembly it was not accepted because the Assembly did not want to levy any additional tax. After considerable discussion the resolution was voted upon and lost by a small majority. Mayor JacobSin his annual message of 1874 to the Council proposed a new solution: fall classes of citizens agree that-some protection should be afforded to colored juvenile offenders, and as it seems almxost impossible to spare from our ordinary appropriations a sum sufficient to erect a proper building, I would urge upon your honorable body the propriety of turning over to the Board of Managers the new Eruptive Hospital building as a suitable "House of Refuge for Colored Uhildrqn."' Though erected for smallpox and eruptive diseases, this building has never been occupied since its completion, and the city has had to pay forty. dollars per month to a watchman to protect it. It is beautifully situated in one of the best portions of Jefferson county, and would suit admirably for the purpose I have suggested. It may be appropriate to say here that I have made frequent, but fruitless, efforts to sell this property, and as it now stands the building is an idle burden, with the lease on the ground on which it is erected rapidly expiring.9 After further legislative measures had been proposed with no action a resolution was adopted to the effect that the matter be referred to the M1anagers of the House of.Refuge, the city attorneys and Commissioners of Public Charities with instructions to report at an early period the best means in their judgement to successfully provide for the construction and -maintenance of a House of Refuge for colored children.10 After much debate and many meetings a decision was reached to erect a House of Refuge for colored boys. This decision was very pleasing to Mayor Jacobs who for a long time had done everything possible to arouse enough' interest among the various governmental departments of the city to appropriate funds for hush an institution. Then the matter was settled he was the first to congratulate them for their step toward making good citi- 11 zens of a people so recently liberated. A tax of five cents on each one hundred dollars of property in the city had been levied in order to run the two Houses of Refuge for whites and money had been appropriated for the erection of the House of Refuge for colored. At the completion of the building only eight hundred dollars --as left for equipment. No funds for operation were available from the tax already levied which meant that before the building could be occupied 12 additional funds had to be granted. In 1877 the House of Refuge for colored boys was opened. With the completion of the boys' institution a fight was begun for a similar in- stitution for colored girls who were still being sent to jails and work- houses. It was not until 1889 that the movement to build a House of Re- fuge for colored girls began to get large public support. After years of agitation, hardships and disappointments, the House of Refuge which had been renamed the Louisville Industrial School of Reform, was opened to colored girls in 1896. In 1920 the Louisville Industrial School of Reform and the Jefferson County Parental Home founded in 1912 for the care of white dependent child- ren, were consolidated under the name Louisville and Jeffers"nJ-C6unty Chil- 13 dren Homse. The two controlling boards were replaced by a bi-partisan board appointed jointly by the Judge of Jefferson County and the Mayor of Louisville. A great forwvard step was taken in 1924 when the Kentucky Legislature granted authority to the Home to place children to board in private homes. It was also made legal in instances where there was abject poverty but no parental neglect to place children with their own mothers and1 pay board to them in the form of "mothers' aid." This plan proved very wise as it enabled children to grow up under more nearly normal conditions than any institution no matter how good fcan provide. It should be made clear that all persons committed to the Louisville and Jefferson County Children's Home were not incorrigible. Many were simply wards of the city or county through absolute dependency or neglect. The children who were committed to the institution were provided basic education and taught useful trades in order that they might become good citizens of the community . Until February 9, 1925 the Home occupied a forty acre tract at Third and Shipp Streets. On that date all the children were transferred toa new- ly built, thoroughly modern plant at Ormsby Station about thirteen miles from Louisville which was given the name Ormsby.Village. The tract of land and buildings formerly occupied were purchased by the University of Louis- ville and became the Belknap Campus. In 1926 the Louisville Detention Home, which since 1888 hadonerated under a board appointed by the Judge of the Police Court to give temporary care to delinquent, dependent and neglected children pending final disposi- tion by the courts, was transferred to control byr the Board of Managers of the Louisville and Jefferson County Children's Home. In 1928 the Mother's Aid Department was organized as a separate unit and by special arrangement by the Fiscal Court was given special .approp.i- ations with trained social case workers to undertake the investigation of all applicants for mother's aid. Such investigations made certain that the homes approved were proper places for the rearing of children. It was not until 1929 that a separate department for colored chil- dren known as 'Ridgewood located a mile from Ormsby Village proper,was opened. As was the case at the Village, Ridgewood was built on the cottage plan thus providing segregation of the sexes and some degree of segregation ac- oording to age and tendency toward delinquency. A farm of more than 500 acres made possible for the first time the production of sufficient vegetables, fruit, milk, butter, eggs and meat to fill the needs of the Home. The farm also made possible healthful/l' abor for the boys of the village and a disciplinary and vocational training. The academic work among Negro children was inaugurated in 1923 with a staff of four teachers. The retoval of the institution to the increased facilities of Rido-ewood made it possible that each child be given special- iztd instruction in keeping with his interests, and potentialities. In keeping with this plan the educational work was divided into the academic, vocational, and industrial departments. Insddition to the regular graded school work instruction for boys('h as included home mechanics which consists of learning to make home repairs to the home itself, to electrical and plumbing fixtures, and to furniture; shoe repairing; farming. The course for girls in addition to academic work has included sewing', cooking, laundry and the homemaking activities. The aporoximate number of students enrolled at Ridgewood from 1928-48, exclusive of those larger children engaged solely in dairying and domestic service were as follows: 1928-------------------62 1930----------------108 1932----------140 1929----- ------101 1931-----------------83 1933-----------121 1944------------9------------3-115 1936-------------------------02 14 1937-------------------------111 9 1938---------3---------------1010 Music was instituted and instruction offered inland instruments, violin, piano and group singing. Recreation has also been stressed, as a character building activity. Many a child has been thus helped to.a fuller and more complete development and aided in adjustment to a cooperative type of society such as is maintained at Ridgewood. While, unlike at Ormsby-Village proper, academic work has not been undertaken beyond the eighth grade, Ridgewood has arranged for pupils of promise to further their education. A number of such pupils have'a ttended Lincoln Institute at Lincoln Ridge, Kentucky where somehave completed the high school course. Several graduates of high school have been sent to Tuskegee Institute in Alabama to further their trade education. Kentel Scoolfor theBind While not a locally controlled institution, the Kentucky School for the Blind has long been a landmark in Louisville. It is thus not out of place to include a brief review of its history. The institution., the eighth school of its kind to be founded in the United States, was established in 1842. The purpose in founding the in- stitution was to give the blind children and those of acutely defective vision a good education including some type of hand training. A beautiful site wms selected not far from the Ohio River on gentle hills -which afford a fine view of the surrounding territory. In 1884, the state legislature passed an act which provided for the establishment ofa department for blind colored children. In compliance with the act a three- story building was erected and was occupied for the year 1886-87. The department had a small beginning. Only five pupils were enrolled in January 1888. Such an institution devoted to Negroes was so uniquelyt that time that it was anticipated in some quarters that the colored depart- 15 ment would become a national mecca for the colored blind. The requirement for admission has been simply "that the child be of so defective vision as to be unable to get an education in the ordinary schools; that it be of good health and sound mind, and within the ages of six and eighteen....." It has been emphasized, however, that the school is neither 16 a hospital or an asylum. From the very beginning the institution stressed the principle that the school was established for education rather than charitable purposes based upon the American conception that "free education is the birthright of every child in the rdpublic.` 1Writh such a basic conception the purposes and curriculum have been thoroughly practices and have been stated as follows: A blind child or one with defective si ht, should be sent to school as soon as it can get along without a nurse, say at six or seven years of age. Every years' delay after that time renders the task of its education more difficult and incomprlete. From the moment it reaches the school, tho sense of touch has to be persistently trained. The kindergarten, with its great variety of devices and employMent for busy fixi-ers, ig of inestimable value. and the work done by the children in. this department arrests the attention and excites the admiration of' the most careless visitor. After the kindergarten, the child studies thinSs and models of things; and in its study of geography, models in sand and clay, the surface of his state and Country, and the grand divisions of the oglbe; he is taught to read and write and cipher; he studies grammar, history, natural philosophy and all the branches of a good education. If he has any musical ability, it is scientifically and sedulously cul- tivated, for it is in the practice of the art of music that he can compete with his seeing comrades on more equa-l terns than in any other occupation. He is also given instruction in the workshop, where he learns to cane chairs, make brooms, mops, baskets, and to do simple carpentry and upholstery, such as the repairing of lounges and the manufacture of mat- tresses. If he is capable of learning it, he is taupht the art of piano tuning, in which art several of our graduates have obtained well-deserved success ..... . .. The girls are carefully taught the use of the needle and learn, as they progress, house to cut aot, fit together and make their a;rm garments. They are also taught basketry and weaving, and are given a thorough course in domestic science, which includes the care of a house and the prepara- tion and cooking of food. In this course of study and development, extending over eight or ten years, the blind child gains a confidence in his own power that enables it to overcome, to a great extent, the natural awkardness of blindness. It has become a youth of intelligence, an agreeable companion, a self-re- specting, independent personf, familiar with current events, with a well trained mind and familiar with the Z.-enities of civilized life. He is, to a considerable extent, Prepared to earn a living for himself. To withhold from a child such opportunities is a serious mistake, while no greater kindness can be shown such a child than to secure for the advantages of an education. The school year begins the second NJednesday in September and closes the second "Wednesday in June, and at the close the children are re- turned to their homes, as it is the desire of the trustees to maintain, as far as possible the home ties of the child. '- The colored department from its founding up through the school year 1940-41 had enrolled slightly more than 200 individual pupils. Some of the outstanding graduatps.of the school were: Virginia Fleming, pianist and teacher, Clara 7Woods, teacher, Otis wades, teacher at the Blind tohool-. director and trainer of band and orchestras John H. Gatewood, concert soloist engaged by Noble Sissle, Charles Saulsbur teacher of music at Vilberforce Uniiversity for five years, Shelby Dishman, radio star, Gladys Wra..ts, vocal and piano soloist, Harriet Gaines, pianist and business wo- man, Mrthur Ransom, coal and ice business, Elmer McKee, business in chair canting. Public Libraries In the early 1890's there was no absolutely free public library in Louisville for white or for colored people. The only central librrymas operated by the Polytechnic Society for special benefit to its members. Only those members and such outsiders as were willing; to pay a subscription 18 of four dollars per aennun were permitted to take books out of the buildings. Agitation arose among the white people of the city for a public lilb- rary which would really be free to all persons. It is doubtful that the majority of agitators for a public library had in mind an institution which would be open to Negroes. For that reason it was fortunate that Mr. A.E. Meyzeek who was then principal of the Central High School had temerity to take Negro pupils to the Polytechnic building to test the issue of the N1e- gro's right to read and withdraw books. No objection was raised at first but when the number increasedjNegroes were denied admittance. Mr. Yeyzeek appearing before the library board as spokesman for the Negro citizens made a strong plea for their inclusion in the library pro- gram. As a result when the public library systeritas established a branch library for Negroes was opened in temporary quarters on Chestnut Street between Tenth and Eleventh, September 23, 19065. The branch was housed in three rooms of a private residence with 1400 books available for use. iMir. Thomas F. Blue was named branch librarian and Mrs. Ra-chel D. Harris 19 was placed in charge of the children's department. Through the generosity of Andrew Carnegie funds were provided for a new building which was opened October 29, 1908. The building which vwas constructed on the South W1est corner of Tenth and Chestnut Streets at a total cost of 47,410 was modern in its appointments and equipment through- Out. Of brick and stone construction it contained reading and reference 20 rooms, magazine and newspaper alcoves, lecture and classrooms. The Negro residents of the eastern section' of the city were in- spired to work for the establishment of a branch library to serve that part of the city. Ministers and civic leaders raised `1,000 toward the purchase of a site through plays, ent3ertainments, concerto, suppers, and the like. An additional 04O00 was secured from the library board. This sum represented the residue from the sale of the Polytechnic pro- perty on Fourth. Street. Mr. Carnegie furnished the funds for the erec- tion of the building the total cost of site and building -was 'p31J,024. 21 The building was formally opened January 28, 1914. By 1915 western Branch Library contained 10,554 volumes and the Eastern Branch 3101 volumes. The circulation since the opening of the libraries included 595,048 volumes drawn for home use in addition to the much larger reference use in the library by pupils, teachers and citizens in genoral. M4r. Blue in charge of both branches thus creatc1Xa Colored De- partment with eight assistants to serve the two libraries. In 1930 which marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the opening of the Western Branch the Colored Department had 27,800 volumes with special service 22 through collection in the Negro schools of the city. As a result of agitation on the part of Negroes in Parkland ub- branch was opened on September 24, 1936 at the residence of MNrs. Lula Huff on Grand Avenue at Thirty-sixth Street. It was later moved to Vir- ginia Avenue cjposite the Virginia Avenue school and then to Thirty-sixth Street between Grand and Hale Streets in the residence of Mr. William Prather. From the very beginning under M1r. Blue until his death and since January 1906 under Mrs. Rachel Harris, the libraries have operated in close cooperation with the public schools. Pictures of all kinds, papers, special bulletins have been always at the disposal of teachers and pupils. The libraries have haa a natural influence in that , as pioneers in the field, the Louisville branches have been the training centers for libraries for other communities. Some of the communities which have se- cured apprenticeship training for their Negro librarians are Atlanta, 23 Birmingham, Chattanooga, Knoxville, MIemphis, Nashville, Houston and Tampa. Postecript No one can gainsay that the Negro has made phenomenal educational progress since that December in 1841 when Reverend Henry Adams opened his school in an alley. Enrolling freemen, freedmen and slaves it pointed the way towaard education under the freedom which was to come. Little could Rev. Adams or his pupils seated on their rude benches know that in one hundred years their children and their children's child- ren would be celebrating-a centennial of Negro education under the reign of such benign conditions as face the Negro of Louizville in 1941. Nor could they forsee that the hundred years would bring with it the edu- cational opportunities which have come to their descendants through the establishment of public schools, a public college and various institutions, present and pastwhich have contributed to the general and professional education of Negroes. These pioneers of our educational heritage builded a- foundation better than they knew. Upon that foundation their sontnd daughters have erected a commanding superstructure. Standing upon this loftier of vantage the Negro citizen of Louisville in 1941 is challenged etoX-taSS wJmqv'i, to = the new century of education with that ,tr' s irit o_ ;I alnar;ih4zkv surmount the obstacles - e which now prevent the complete participation of Negroes in all phases f'f educational activity in the Louiville Community. APPENDIX lo, _njl- It=--" SALARY SCHEDULE, LOUISVILLE PUBLIC SCHOOLS LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY Adopted by the Board of Education July 2, 1935 This schedule is designed for all principals, supervisors, and teachers and certain other professional personnel. The main factors upon which it is based are training, experience, and quality of service, or merit. It shall become effective September 1, 1935. I. Training A. Four training levels are recognized, namely, 1. Two years of normalschool work, or the equivalent, above high school. 2. A.B., B.S., B.S. in Education, or other equivalent degree earned through four years' work above high school. S. A.M.M.AI A.,1 M.S., or other equivalent degree earned through five years' work above high school. 4. Ph. D.34of Education, or other equivalent earned degree with a major an any subject field. (Oote l.a. Teachers in service at the time the schedule. goes into effect, and who have less than two years' training shall be as- sumed.to have met this requirement, for the purposes of the salary schedule. b.or teachers inx service at the time the schedule goes into effect, and who have, or shall secure, 90 semester hours of credit, there shall be recognized a fifth training level; namely the three-year training level. c.In evaluating degrees and credit hours the requirements of accrediting agencies such as the Southern and North Central Association of Secondary Schools and Colleges must be met. Also, the application of training to the Particular position to which a teacher is assigned shall be a fActor in the evaluation. Credit hours which have in-the past been accepted shall continue to be accepted as meeting the conditions for Which they were accepted. d.Persons who present. evidence of special training in music or fine arts, but not in terms of semester hours may have such trainzig evaluated in terms of semester hours. e.Teachers of trade or industrial subjects of whom such qualifications are required as are not provided in standard colleges and universities are placed on the schedule at the two or four-year training level (or, in cases of teachers now in service, at the three-year training level,) as their training and vocational experi- ence and compensation for like services in the vocation may warrant. 1. Other teachers of industrial subjects and commercial sub- jects in the service of the Louisville Public Schools at thle time this schedule goes into eoffect, shall have any vocational experience and cdc-- pensation for like services in the vocation may warrant. f. Adjustment for training levels attained in service are placed; n force in September immediately following the date that official evidehce from the institution giving the training is received and apprc.-ed by, the superintendent of schools, provided that the superintendent shall approve the program of additional training in advance. B. Basal Salary 1. The basal salary is 90.00 per year. C. Adjustments for training 1. Beginning salaries for persons meeting only training re- quirements, Al, A2, AS, or A4 are as follows: a. Al, the basal salary or ;9O0.OO b. A2, the basal salary plus 6200.00 or ;ll0O.OO c. AS, the basal salary plus Ci0.00 or ' 1300.00 d. A4, the basal salary plus 700.00 or 160O.O0 2. For maximum salaries attainable by teachers on each train- ing level, and years necessary to attain maximum salaries see scale on page 7. 1!. (N'ote 2.) Teachers referred to in Note I, g. on the three-year training level, are placed on the schedule for teachers -writh two years training, but they may progress by annual increments of 50.O0 to a maximum of 41-800.00 S. To teachers who attain higher training levels while in the service or the Louisville schools, there are accorded four equal annual in- crements sufficient to overcome the differential between the new training level and the former one. II. Egperience A. For each year after the first a teacher receives annual increments of the amounts indicated on the scale, on page qa r B l. Experience outside of Louisville Public Schools shall be counted equal to that. in Louisville provided that in the opinion of the superintendont of the Louisville Public Schools the wvork was com- parable to that done in similar Positions in the Louisville Public Schools. Should tAhe. v;Frk not be considered comparable, the super- intendent nm,.y accredit sorme proportionate part of the experience. 2. In calculating experience fractions of years mray be used in ar- riving at the total, provided that no fractions of less than half-years may be used, and provided that the sum used shall be the last whole number of" years arrived at by this process. a. There is not taken into account here the matter of merit which might increase the number of years necessary to reach the maximum. Also no account is taken of the plan whereby certain teachers may on a merit basis, exceed the stated maximum. (See page 3, III Mrerit.) II. Merit A. Those teachers ranked by the superintendent so low, on a merit ranking basis, as to cause question as to satisfactoriness of their service (but not so low as to warrant their beings released from service) shall receive no increment for experience for the year immediately following the year they were thus ranked . (Records of past years would indicate that his number probably would include from five to ten per cent of the teaching staff.) B. Those. teachers rankd by the superintendent exceptionally hig'h, on a merit ranking basis, and who have not reached maximum salaries shall receive an extra 50.00'increment in salary for the year next succeeding each year they may be so ranked. This increment shall not be permanent, but must be earned for each year in which it is granted. (Records of past years indicate that this number probably would include from five to ten per cent of the teaching staff.) C. Teachers who reach the stated maximmum salaries for their training levels, and who are ranked as superior by the superintendont, Fall be eligible to receive four annual increments of :.50.00 each, such merit increment to be permanent. The following conditions shall apply to this provision: 1. The according of these incremnents shall be on4a merit rank- ing basis. 2. Each increment must be earned individually in different years. Such increments may or may not be earned in successive years. 3. Not more than tw;grenty-five per cent of the eligible group shall receive the 'super mazirnum!t at any orne tire nor shall the amount of money expended for these augmented salaries ever be more than would be required to pay twenty-fivd per cent of the eligible group the full possible amount of the augmented salaryo (In other words more than twenty-five per cent of the eligible group may, at a given tire be among those .re.eiving augmented salaries, but if so their total extra salary shall not be more than if only twenty-five per cent of the group were on the liast, and receiving the added maximum, of .;200.00 each.) 4. The granting of the above mentioned "super maxinumt' incre- 3ments shall at any time during the soperation of this sche- dule be optional with the board. of education. IV. Position Schedule (for other than teachers) A. Principals 1. Teaching principals receive 200.00 above tho amount they would roccivo as teachers. 2. Supervising principals. Years of Minimum 'Training Increment Per Teacher in Increment for Experience Size- Group 1. For schools with up to 10 teachers 2. For schools with 11 to 20 teachers 3. For schools with 21 to 31 teachers 2 2000.00 3 220000 4 2300.00 5 2500.00 2 2000.00 3 2000.00 4 2300.00 5 250000 2. 2250.00 3 2250.00 4 2550.00 5 2750.00 0 0 0 0 25.(0 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00. 0 0 50.00 per yr. until ant. reaches 50.00 per yr. until amt. reaches ,350.00 per.yr. until amt. reaches 50.00 per yr. until amt.. reaches 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 per yr. per yr. per yr. per yr. per yr. per yr. until amt. reaches until amt. reaches until until until until amt. reaches ant. reaches amt. reaches amt. reaches .;2000 .00 2200.00 2700.00 3000.00 2300.00 2500.00 3000.00Q 3300.00 2600.00 2800.00 3300.00 3600.00 4. For schools viith 31 to 50 teachers 4 2800.00 25.00 50.00 per yr. until ant,. reaches 5 3000.00 25.00 50.00 per yr. until atb. reaches 5. For schools with 51 or more teachers 4 3300.00 5 350000 0 100.00 per yr. until amt. reaches 0 100400 per yr. until amt. reaches as In administering the above the roinimum is established for principals on each training level, and for each size of school group. For instance, for schools in the 11 to 20 grol.p the minirium salary for a principal with a bache- lor's degree would be "230000. Then for each teacher, beinnng with the eleventh, there would be added 25.00. Should there be fifteen teachers, the beginning salary would be 12425.00. Then there would be added s;50.00 per year until the maximum of 3000.00 should be reached. (In applying the schedule for principals, assistant Principals and supervisors, note 4 must be taken intGo account). b. Refers to teachers and librarians permanently assigned to a given school. The size of a school for any year shall be the number of teaching positions in that school in the previous year, provided that in cases in which reoraani- zation is contcemplated which might affect the size of the school appreciably, Possible YaX LOux. 3700.00 4000.00 4000.00 4000.00 the size of ;hnc school shall be determined in September of that year. The "size of school" for any principal having two, or more schools under his super- vision shall be the number of teachers in those schools. c. In calculating salaries of principals and supervisors, should the minimum salary for a posit ion prove to be a larger sum than the state maximum for a particular principal (due to deficient training or short experience) the for- mer amount shall be the maximum, except that this shall not operate so a s to violate Note 4. (i-ote 3. The salary for the present principal of the special school for boys shall remain unchanged.) B. Supervisors and assistant principals The mimimuxm salary shall be 4300O.OO. There shall be added an increment of -;5000 for each year of experience until a maximum salary of QlOCO.OO above corresponding teacher status, not to exceed 3600.00, shall have been reached (Note 4. Shou ld an increase of more than ten per cent of the contract salary of a principal, an assistant principal, or a supervisor in the year previous to the installation of this schedule be required to equal the naxiuwmn provided in the schedule, the amount of the contract salary of the previous year, plus ten per cent, shall become the maximum for that position, regardless of state minima and maxin-A in the schedules, until such time as the appropriation for salaries shall be sufficient to put the schedule for those on classroom teachers' schedules into full effect. Thereafter this restriction shall be removed and these grouts shall be placed at their proper positions on the schedule, or be granted equal annual increments until they reach schedule positions.) C. Assistant supervisors and research assistants The regular schedule for teachers shall be applied, except that they shall be paid a differential of 4400100. D. Deans The regular schedule for teachers shall be applied, except that they shall be paid a differential of ;200.00. E. Teachers of certain special classes 1. Teachers of classis for the hard of hearing, and sight-saving classes shall be accorded a differential of 10000 provided they meet precribed special training qualifications. 2. Teachers of ungraded classes shall be accorded ad inferential of ;50.0O, provided they meet prescribed special training qualifications. F. Librarians and assistant Librarians 1. The regular schodule for teachers applies, except that the maximum for assistant librarians shall be Q20,00 lessthan for librarians, G. Visiting teachers shall receive a differential of k1OOQ0 for the use of an automobile. H. Change in position When a person is transferred from one position to another the salary schedule provided for' the latter shall be applied in ad- justing salaries of such persons. V Differential for Yen ,A. Mven whose salaries are based on the scale-for classroom teachers shall be actorded a differential of '200.00 after their third-year of teach- ing experience. VI. Mrodification of the Scale for Certain Schools A. In any school in which the aggregate 1934-35 contract. salaries of the teachers and the principal would have to be increased in 1935-19Z6 by from. ten per cent to twenty Der cent or more to meet unrestricted salary schedule provisions, the scale of salaries shall be fifteen per cent less than the scale provided in this schedule, for tic teachers and principal now employed, or who may hereafter be ipmoployed in that school; provided, however that the application of thepro- visions of this clause shall not operate to cause, of itself;' the reduction in salary of any teacher or principal now employed in such a school. BI In adjusting any person's salary to the scale provided in thisschedule the arnual salary shall be adjusted to the nearest five dollars, two dollars and fifty cents to be counted as five dollars. VII. Certain Provisions for Installation and Administration, of the Schedule At In installing this schedule, increases in salaries of individuals shall be limited in the first year of operation of the schedule to "lOO.00 plus differeiitials rrovided for certain groups on the regular teachers' schedule. Each year thereafter normal increments due shall be allowed and persons who are not yet up to their schedule position shall be given additional increments of not less than 10.00 untail they arrive at their proper places on the schedule. Should it ever become necessary to suspend any part of teachers' salaries, such suspension shall be based on salaries arrived at from year to year in the manner described in the immediately foregoing. 31 B. In the future should it appear desirable and possible to increase the scale of salaries covered in this schedule the increase shall be made- either by shortening the number of years rscessary to reach the maxima .( by providing larger annual increments) or by providing greater minima and or maxima, or by applying both techniques. C. In iitst6 1ing; fihis schedule decreases in salaries shall be li-mitnied to ten per cent of the contract salaries of the year previous to the year in which the schedule goes into effect. Salary Scale for Persons on Classroom Teachers Schedule 1 2 3 4 Years ofu to Years' Bachelorts s ster's1 :xperience Training Level Level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1i 17 18 19 20 vj900 950 1000 1050 1100 1175 1250 1300 1375 1450 1500 1550 1600 6,1100 1150 1200 1250 1325 1400 1500 1600 1675 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 1300 1350 1400 1450 1525 1600 1700 1800 1875 150 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 This schedule does not take into account-any mighat result from the operation of the merit elude the differentials provided for certain ment rmust be made to care for the provisions modifications that factor, nor does it in- persons. Also adjust- in section VI. 1 The few teachers who may be employed with Ph.D. degrees are granted a differential of ;300.00 above those with master's degrees, and may progress to `400.00 above master's status at the end of twenty-four years, through the application of annual increments of d;50.00 after the twenty-third year of experience. RIFKRIMNCE NOTES ON ClITAPTERS Chapter I Education Prior to the Civil War 1. Fannie Cassidy Duncan, Whsen Kentucky was Youngr, pp. 3-4 2. Ibid. 3. First Ch-rter of Louisville, Kentucky, Section 12, Article XI 4. "Public Schools--Their Rise and Progress in Louisville'" L 5. Ivan E . 2ulcDougle, Slavery in Kentucky, p. 18 6. Ibid., p. 21 7. Ibid., p. 23 8. Carter G.11lFoodson., The Educaticn of the .Negro Prior to 1861, pp. 211-215. 9. Ivan B. McDougle, op. cit., p. 79 .10. Louisville Library Collection, p. 50 11. History of the Ohio Falls Cities and Counties, p. 294 12. 7J. H. Gibsonr Historical SkIcetch of the Progress of the Colored RM e in Louisville, Keiitucky. pp. 5-6 13. Ibid., pp. 4-5. 14. Ibid., p. 31 15. bid., p. 66 16. Ibid. 17. Ibid 35 18. Ibid., p. 23 19. Ibid., pp. 19-20 20. Ibid., p. 70 Chapter II Education During the Civil VV-ar and Under the Freedmen's Bureau i. E. 1,1erton Coulter, The Civil W.1'ar and Re'djustment in Kentucky, University of North Carolina Press, p. 126 1-33 2. History of Ohio Falls Cities and Counties, Vol. 1. p. 327 3. Ibid., p. 325 4. E. Nerton Coulter, op. cit., p. 247 5. The "First Regiment Louisiana. Tative Guardsn" as mrwstered into ser- vice on September 27, 1862. On Juno 6, 1863 its cddsigna;ion was changed to "First Reg"Jment Infantry Corms d'Af'rigmn. 6. 71ar oo the Rebellion, Official Records, Series III, Volume I, pp. 4166,418,-420 7. Ibid., Series II-, Volume IV, pp. 174-178, 187, 188, 195, 201,202. 8. Joseph T. WNilson- The History of the Black Phalanx, pp. 477-78. 9. E. M.11erton Coulter, op. cit., p. 247 10. Ibid., p. 265 11. Joseph T.IWilson, op. cit., pp. 477-478. 12. Ibid., pp. 503-504. 13. Ibid., p. 340 14.,E. Merton Coulter, op. cit., p. 341 15. Louisville Daily .Courier, April 7, 1868, P. 1 16. Ibid., April 22, 1868, p. 3 17. Ibid., April 17, 1868, p. 1 18. Loisi1svlle Journal, Jiune 135, 1868, p. 2 19. The Daily Courier, July 17, 1868 i 1. 20. Louisville Courier, August 19, 1868, p. 3 21. Louisville Library Collections, p. 51 22. Interview withl Mirs. Cassella Lynch, December 1, 195' 23. Louisville Library Collection, p. 50 24. The Record, Official Publication of the Diocese of Louisville, February 27, 1936, Section 2, p. 5 25. Louisville Courier-Journal, Lpril 9, 1869, p. 4 26. Ibid., "ublio Schools"-, January 9, 1881, p. 1 27. Ibid., July 15, 1869, p. 1 28. Ibid. 29. Ibid., 30. E. I.erton Coulter, op. cit., p. 345 31. Louisville Courier-Journal, January 0, 1881) Chapter III Beginning of Public Educatiori for EIegroes 1. Rufus B. Atvwood: "1Financing Schools for Negro Children from State School Funds in Kentuckly", The XJE.A6i.EA Journal, Vol. X, No. 2, p. 11-12 2. tPI-'blij Schcols-Their Rise and Progress in Louisville" Courier- Journal, January 2, 1881, p. 1 3. Courier-Journal, April 5, 1940, p. 4, col. 1 4. Ibid., Septeomber 23, 1870, p. 4, ccl. 1 5. Ibid., January 2, 1881 "Publie Schools--Their Rise and Progress, p. 1 6. Louisville Courier-Journal, Sept. 6, 1870, p. 4, col. 2 7. Corxmendiurm of the' Nint",. Pensus, p. 468, Table XXVII- Population, School Attendance and Illiteracy---1870 8. Couvier-Journal, Dec, 12S,1871, p. 4, col. 2. Also see Daily Louis- -.ille Commercial, Oct. 22, 1872, p. 4, col. 4 9. Daily Louisville Commercial, August 24, 1872, p. 3, col. 4 10. Ibid, October 9, 1872, p. 3, col. 3 11. Ibid., November 30, 1872, p. 4, col. 2 12. Courier-Journal, Februarxj 4, 1873, p. 4, col. 2-3 13. Ibid., April 8, 187, p. 4, col. 2 14. Ibid., April 9, 1873, p. 4, col. 4 15. Ibid., April 11, 1873, p. 4, col. 1 16. Ibid. April 15, 1873, p. 4, col. 3 17. Ibid., iMay 10, 1873, p. 4, col. 3 18, Ibid-., September 8, 1873 19. Ibid., September 4, 1873, p. 4, col. 3 20. Ibid., SeDtember 23, 1873, p. 4, col. 1 21. Ibid., October 6, 1873, p. 4, col. 3 22. Ibid., October 7, 1873, p. 4, co!. 6 23. Ibid., October 8, 1873, p. 1,col. 1 24. TIid. October 9, 1873, p. 4, col. 1 25, Ibid., October 28, 1873, p. 4, col. 3 26. Ibid., October 289 1873, p. 5, col. 3 - 27. Ibid., November 4, 1873, p. 4, col. 1 28, Ib id . November 6, 1873, p. 4, col. 1 29. Ibid.'. Nlovember 11,- 1873, p. 4, col. 1 30. I'id., Noverber 30, 1873, p. 4, col. 1. Also December 2, 1873 p. 4, col. 3 31. !bid., Decermber 2, 1873, p. 4, Col. 3 32. Ibid., 'Nover.ber 23, 1873, p. 4, aol. 1 33, Ibid., January 25, 1874, p. 4, col. 1 34. Ibido, February 7, 18741, p. 4, col. 1 5. Ibid., LSearch 3, 1874, p. 4, col. 2 36. Ibid., ,arch 10, 1874, p. 4, col. 3 37. bid., April 9, 1874, p. 4, col. 3 38. Ibid., April 16, 1874, p. 4, col. 1 39. Ibid., May 5, 1874, p. 4, col. 2 also see Courier-JournalApril 7,1874 -4.1 40. "Public Schools: Their Rioe and Progress in Louisville", Courier- Journal, January 2, 1881, p. 1 41. Courier-Journal, June 2, 1874-, p. 4, col'.14-a-nd Jun 3, 1874, p. 4, col. 3 42. Ibid., Junxe 30, 1874, p. 4, col. 2 43. Ibid., July 4, 1874, p. 4, Col. 2 44. Ibid., September 3, 1874, p. 4, col. 5 45. Ibid., September 8, 1874, p. 4, col. 3 46. Ibid., Sbcz- - zS74; -4v:c,1 3 47. Ibid., actober C. 1874, p. 4, Col. 3 and see Novembor 17, 1874 48. Ibid., Novtember 1b, 1874, p. 4, col. 1 49. ibid., Februanjr 2, 1875, p. 4, col. 2 0. IbDid., Ftrq-;,,: n .8i sj: .n r. 51. Louisv-ille Daily Coirzner6al, April 6, 1875, p. 4, col. I and June 8l 1875, p. 4, col. 3 52. Courier-Journal, September 7, 1875, p. 4, col. 2 53. Ibid., July 30, 1875, p. 4, col. 4 54. Tbid., Nonvember 2, 1875, p. 4, col. 3 55. Ibid. Febru, 8, 1876, p. 4, col. 2 56. lbid., August 8, 1876, p. 4, col. 4 Cha -oter IrV Developiment of High School and Nigiht School Classaes i. 'Courier-Journal, July 4, 1876, p. 2, ccl. 2 2. Ibid., July 18,. 1876, p. 4, col. 4 3. id.. October 3 1876, p. 4, col. 2 4. Ibid., December 16, 1876, p. 4, col. 1 5. Ibid., Eay 8, 1877, p. 3, col. 3 6. Ibid., June 30, 1877, p. 4, col. 1 7. Ibid., July' 3, 1877, p. 4, col. 2 8. Ibid., June 5, 1877, p 4, col. 2 9. Ibid., Janualy 8, 1873, p. 4, col. 2 10. Ibid., February 5, 1878, p. 4, col. 4 11. Ibid., February- 12,.1878, p. 4, co'. 2 12. Ibid., January 1, 1880, p. 2, col. 2 13. Ibid., June 19, 1879, p. 4, col. 2 also January 1, 1880, p. 2 col. 2 14. Ibid, Settember 1, 1879, p. 4, col. 5 15. Ibid., September 2, 1879, p. 4, col. 2 16. Ibid., August 3, 1880, p. 4, col. 1 17. Ibid., February 8, 1881, p. 2, col. 4 18. Ibid., April 5, 18sl, p. 1,.col. 1 19. Ib id., June 8, 18.81 p. 2, col. 6 20. Ibid., July 1, 1881, p. 2, col. 5 21 Ibid., August 7, 1877, p. 4A col. 3 22. Ibid., SeptemberS6, 1888, p. 23, col. 3 23. Ibid., October 3, 1882, p. 2, col. 5 also see issue for Seotember 5, 1882, p. 6, col. 4 24. Ibidp, October 3, 1832, p. 2, col. 5 25. Ibid., October 17, 1882, p.. 6, col. 5 26. Ibid., Fabruary 1, 1883, .)- 6, col- 4 27. Ibid, Feboruary 1, 138-, pa 6,- 3cl. 4 28. Ibid., Lebwua 1) 1833, p'- 9 "c. 4w 29. Ibid., April 3, 1883, p. 6, col. 1 30. Ibid. 31. Ibid., July 3, 1883, p. 6, col. 5 32. Ibid., September 4, 1883, p. 6, col. 4 33. Ibid., October 6, 1883, p. 6, col. 4 34. Ibid., April 3, 1884, p. 8, col. 1 35. Ibid., April 8, 1884, p. 8, col. 4, also see issue for IMay 6,D-84, p. 8, col. 3. 36. Ibi d., May 6, 1884, p. 8, col. 3 37. Ibid., June 3 ,1884, p. 6 ,col. 4 38. Central - Eigh School Files 39. Courier- Journal, September 2, 1884, p. 6, col. 7 40. Ibid.. 41. Ibid., Aeril 4, 1885, p. 6,1col. 5 42. Louisville Evening Post, June 12, 1885, p. 3, col. 43 Courier-Journal, INovemiber 3, 1885, p. 2, col. 1 44. Ibid., January 5, 1886, p. 4, Col. 3 45 Ibid., September 9, 1886, p. 6, col. 3 46. Ibiid., November 2, 1386, p. 5, col. 5 47. Ibid., Februaxy 8, 1887, p. 8, col. 2 4Q bid., 'Miarch 8, 1887, p. 6, col. 3 49. Ibid., Junie 7, 1887, p. 6, col. 3 50. Ibid. Novbrnber 8, 1887, p. 6, col. 7 51. Ibid., Septemb er 6, 1888, p. 23, col. 4 52. lbid., July 3, 1888, p. 2, col. 3 also see issue for September 6, 188 p. 23, col.. 3-5 53. ibid., July 18, 188j9 p. 3, coal. O 54.1 Ibid., October 3, 1389, p. 6, 001. 5 55. Ibid., 0,e 8, 1e9,po . i6 a;J S 56. Ibid., Septemiber 2, 189O, p. 6, col. 7 57. Ibid., .arch 22, 1891, p. 13, col. 7 58. lbid., February 2, 1890, p. 2, col. 4 59. ibid., September 2, 1891, p. 8, col. 2 60. 'rbid., -wZ.e9 2.-,S, . 2-i 61. Ibid., Ju.ly 7, 1891, p. 2, col. 2 and July 14, 1891, p. 8, col. 3 62. See pa-es 67-68 .63. Courier-Journal, February 2, 1892, p. 3, col. 1 64. Ibid., February 7, 1892, p. 12, col. 2 65. Ibidlb, April 27, 1893, p. 6, col. 3 66. Ibid., September 6, 1892, p. 6, col. 5 67. lbid., .j3t'maar 6 . 18-92, 0. '6, ccl 5 68. Central -Ifigh School Files Chapter V. xpalding Schools for an E:andinE Community 1. j. Stoddard Johnston: imorial history of Louisville, Vol. I pp 115-6 2. Jozeoh S. Cottbar: Tenty-fifth Anniversary of the Founding of Colorid Parklarnd or "Little Africa", 13914l916, p. 12 Courier-Jo-urnal, July 6, 1893, p. 4, col. 5-6 4-. Ibid., eptember 5, 1893, p, 6, col. 2 5. !bid., Septemrber 22, 1893, p. 6, col. 6 6. Lbid., June 6, 1893, p. 4, col. 6 also see second issue for June 10, p. 8, col. 3 7. Ibidy, October 3, 1893, p. 7, col. 2 8. Ibid., ;Tfi.aroh 31, 1894, p. 8, col. 6 9. Ibid., June 9, 1.894, p. 12, col. 2 10. Ibid., Juno 18, 1894, p. 8, col. 5 llo Ibid., July 8, 1894, p. 6, col. 3 12. See pages 67-68 and 75-76 in Chapter TV lv , Cotrier-Jour-al, August 25, 1894, col. 3, . 5 14. Ibid., September 4, 1894, p. 5, col. 4 15. Ibid., Attgust 30, 1894, p. 7, col. 1 16. Courier-Journal, Septemnber 4, 1894, p. 5, col. 4 17. Stoddard J. Jobnston: op. cit. Vol. I, p. 242 18. Ibid., p. 237 19. 1report of the Public Schools, Louisville, Kentucky 1896, p. 21 20. ibid., p. 33 21. Reoort of Louisville School Board for Fiscal Year Ending December 31, 1897 and the School Year Ending June 30, 1898, p. lc--I b' 22. IbDid, D 22. Ibid., xe2 24.. Ibid., 0' i"/ 25. Louisvilee vE-n7.ing Post, October 4, 1898, p. 5, col. 5 26. Caurier-Journal, MIarch 6, 1899, p. 8, col. 1 27. Ibid., June 6, 1899, p. 6, col. 2 28. Louisville Evening Post, 3N4ovembor 1, 1899, p. 11, col. 5 also sec Courier-Jourlarl, October 3, 1899, p. 8, col, 5. 29. Adapt-ed frorm Louisville IdiUnicipal Report--School Board 1899-1900, p. 246 50. Courier-Journal, M,,Tay 31, 1902; p. 14, col. 2 31. Ibid;, June 21, 1902, o. 3, col. 1 32. Ibid., July 6, 1902, p. 7, col. 1 33. Ibid., September 19, 1899, n. 6, col. 1 34. Report of Louisville School Board, 1902-3, 1903-4, p9041-5; p. 4-3 35. ibid. 36. Courier-Journal, January 16, 1905, p. 10, col. 3 37. Tbid., February 23, 1905, p. 4, col,. 6 38. Ibid., June 5, 1906, p. 4, col. 5 39. lbid., September 4, 1906, rp. 5, col. 5 410 Renort of School Board 1904-5, p 217 4. iRport- of School Board 1906-7, p. 69 429' Frr-, iI e-.Jort of the Board of' Educe.tion of Louisville, entu.cy-, Jarnairy 1e 1911 to Jun.,e 30 fi.l2, pp. 1-4: 4-2 Zecond Re-ort of the Board o-f Education of Louisville, 1K.e:tucky, July 1, 1912 -o June 30, 1913, p. 49 44 First Report of' the Board of Education of Louisville, Kentuccy, f rov jcnanuary 1, 1911 to June 30, 1912, p. Z5 45. bid., p. 28 4".; Ibid, p. 193-196 L7 lb id, p. 219-220 3. bid.,p. 2 49S Second Report of the Boardc' Educationi of Louisville, Kentuce r Crnm Jul y 1, 1912 to June 30, 1913, p .69 50. Thrird Report of the Bcard of Ed'xcation of Louisville, Xentuck'y-or Jiuy 1, 1913 to June 14,. l94i , 5- et 51. T hird 'Report of the Board of L EduCation of Louisville, -Kcntucly, July i, 1913 to June 30, 1914,4. p. 15 52. Seventh P.eport of the Board of Education of Louisville, Kentucky, from July 1, 1917 to June 30, 1918, pP 1S-)i 53. Ibid., p. 127 54. Ibid., p. 142 55. Louisville Leader, Septemnber 25, 1920. 56. Ibid., October 9, 192l0 Chapter VI Th4 Creation of Junior Hi'h Schools and Progress 1. For a fuller discussion see Chapter IX pp. 137-169 2. Louisville Leader, January 29, 1921., 3. The Voice of Virginia Avenue and Parkland Schools, (School Arnual) 19g39 ., ;.;. , 4. Thir toent' I2.eport of thle Boa-rd of Education of Louisville, Kentucky July 1, 1923 to June 20. 1924, p. 34 5. Ibid., P. 5 6. Fourteerth Report of the Board of Education of Louisville, Kentucky from July 1, 1924 to Jun3 30, 1925, po. 12 7. Fiftoenth Re-pr-rt pf the Board of Education of Louisville, Kentuck-,y fLromrr July 1, 1925 to June 30, 1926, o. 8 8. Ibid, p. 12 9J lbid., p. 11 -- SiSeent;h Report of the Board of Education of Louisville, uentucky froXi July 1, 1926 to June 30, 1927, -p. 11. eventhentzL RePort of the Board of Education of Louisville, Kentbucky f'rom July 1 1927 to June 30 1928, p. 5 12 The M dison M.irror, 1928, p. 13. .i,-htooritl ROport, 0oi tbo Boanrtd of 1iidlC-Lvion of Lou,.6ville, !rTrhucky from July 1, 1928, to Junb 30, 1929, p. 5 14. The L-71adison 1,,irror, 1930, p. 18 15. Ibid., p. 22 16. Nineteenth Report of the Board of Education of Louisville. enucky rom July 3, 1929 to June 30, 1930, p. 8-9 17. ioz- !...,u4 ; - - ; July. I,1929.io Junz.30j -1930 p.035. 18. Twenty-Cirst Report of the Board of Education of Lcuisville, Kentuckyvr from July 1, 1931 to June 30, 1932, p.5 19. Ibid. 20. Ibid., p. 8 aOIbid., p. 40 22. Twrenty-secorld Report. of the Board ol Education of Louisville ,Kentucky from July 1, 1932 to June 30, 1923, p. 73 23. Tw-venty-third Report of'tIhe 3oard of Education of Louisville, Kentucky from July 1, 1933 to June 30, 1934, p. 50 24. Ibid., p 63 25. Tventy-fPourth Report of the Board 'L Edumca- ion of Louisville, Kentucky from July 1, 1934 to June 30, i935, P. 20 26. Twrenty-fif-t'h Reor of the Board of Education of Louisville, Kentuclkyr fromm Jul y 1, 193.5 to June 30, 1936, pi32-34. 27. Louizvilie Defender, December 21, 1935, p. 12 Col. 1 28. LcuA sville Defender, September 23, 1936, p. 1, col. 29. FurcL filBes of Colored Normal School 30. -Tenty-sixth Report of twhe Boardof Educati on of Louis vill e, Xentucic, fro- Julyr 1, 1936' to June 30, 1937, p 16-18. 1..IBcid., hp. 18-19 32. Ibid., p. 20 33. KenItucky Re-porter, October 15, 1937, p 1, col. 6 / 34. -The Louisville News, October 8, l938, p. 1, col. 4 35. CourL- --Journal, May 16, 1941, p. 1, col. 1 36. Twenltyoniighth Report of the Board & Edcu.catIon of Louisville, .kontucnj from. Sptember 1, 1938 to September 1, 1939, p.-27 37. Tvrenty-eighth Report of the Boa rd of Eduotaion. of Louisville, YEerCtuc1i. from Septeamber 1, 1938 to September 1, 1939 ,7p, 40-45 58. Ibid. ,. 40-53 Chapter VII 'B.riT Slt of a Fewr Persons Connected / I-t 'h the grl-y Develom,:rnt of Public Schools,/ 1. "7lil'.iama H. Gibson: ciitorical Ske'tch of the Progress o' ' Colored R ace in Louisville, ,ertucky, pe 69 / 2. `'`I. D. Johnson, B3 ogralphical Skcetches of Prominent hpr o Ilen and -.omen in Ke rtu 4 1897, m. 25-26. 3. Based on an n-oublished term paDer by Addia Yf bni19z 4, For an 5 teresting account of 'ir Cotterts ii-e and wvorks see 6 Tom anid Co,. nt Revievp, Volume V, July 1934, p. 36 5 T; sIetch is based largely upon an un, bIshed term na errbbv Bessie LI'Bans -a . -- /) A'.J. Chapter VIII Collepiate, Professional and Pr vatc VoCational Educat ion 1. M,. B. Lanier, `Simmons University America,- Baptist, Mo r l a, 1939. 2.- Ibid. , November 17, 1939 Ibid. hIoveL mber 24, 1959 4. Ibid._,. American Baptist, December 1, 1939 6. I- -id, d Ame5irican Baptist, December 8, 1939 7. C. '.. Parrish, Sr. Golden Jubillee of the General Associatiobn of Colorod Baptis-t in KentLucky, p. 182 8. SiUmion University Academic Year, 1919-1920 9. CcuCier-Jorurnal, .y 13, 18Z5, p. 6, col. 5 10. Courie--JOurnal Z.ay 13, 1887, p. 3, col 4 11. American Bartist, Januarn 24, 1890, p. 4, col. 4 12. Ibid., iv 4, col. 5 13. Couricr-Journral, April 29, 1891, p. 6, col. 5 14, Courier-Journal, Yfhy 26, 1895, p. 9, Col. 1-2 1 5. f izmons Univers ity Aa.e4 e - ' f Opw 16. Ccurier-Jour nal, M.1ay 26, 1895, p. 9, col. 1-2 17. Ibid., 18.- --- iUniversity, Academic Year 1919-1920, p - . 19. 2,ri e B. Stcw-,-rd, 1T he BaptistJ 7,7oments Educational Con-vention" in The Golden Jubillee, p. 1-43 20. Thoma.ns Jesse Joxnes, Wqgro Educat-ion Vol. II p. 275 ( U. S. Bureau of Education, o Bulltin'1916, ,No. 39, Vol. II) 21. Ibid., 276 22. AErthuar J. ,Klein,, Survey of 1eYgro Collcrges and Universities, ICha-0ter X p. 2 ( U. S. Bureau of Education,, Bulletin 1928, No. 7, Chapter X) 23. Louisville Leaderi, December 13, 1919, p. 3, col. I 24. Ibid., Mal9.rch 13, 1920, . 1, ool. 1 25. I.id., Janua y 15, 1921, p. 1, col. 5 26. I'id., Oc-ober 7, 1922, p. 1, col. 1l 27. bid., Oc ,ober 23, 1922 5 p. 4, col. 2 28. Irbid, July 22, 1924, p. 1, Col. 5 29. Arthur J. ilein, op. cit. C'h1apter X, p. 2 30. Ibid., p. 3 31. Arthur J. Klein, op. cit., Chapter X, p. 2-3 32. Ibid., p. 9 33. Quoted in the Louisville Leader, April 20, 1935, p. 1, col. 4 34. The faculty in 1940-4-1 donsisted of President M. B Lanier, Rev. L. A. Offut who died during the year and ;-as succeeded by Revr. James B. Cayce Rev. B. J. MJiller, Rev. MI. L. Garnes, Mrs. C. B. Crain;. and MYiss F. C. Harris. Assisting from the Southern Theological Seminary were Rev.r C. L. Jordan, Rev. H.oward 'Ycalain and Rev. J. B. Hubert. 35. G91den Jubillee of the General Association of Colored Baptist in Kentucky, p. 289S-290 36. Ccezurier-Journal, September 6, 1888, p. 23 37. Prom an interview with Dr. IMt. A. Blackburn, November 3, 1938 38. Courier-Journal, Ocotber 21, 1889, p. 6, col. 5 39. Ibid., April 13, 1893, ;o 7,col. 8 40. Ibid. Aoril 11, 1894, . 6, col. 6 4C1. IbId. 42.Ibid. April 8j 1896, p. 8, col. 4 43. Ibid9, April 6, l898, p. 6, col. 8 44, Based on an intervie'wwith Dr. I. A. Black'burn, Novemiber 3, 1938 45. Courier-Journal, .MDray 11, 1892, p. 5, col. 2 46. !bid., January 22, 1893, p. 11, col. 5 4'7. FroGm a-n interviewa t;iih M1r. 'PT. C. Browmn. Dean of the Central Law School Chapter :X Louisville Municipal College 1 For a det'ailed histo"ry of the University see A Ce;nt;ennial Hist-ory of the Universit y of Louisville, Federal Writers rojact 2. Based unn intervie7ws with memiibers of the Negro committee; accordin - o 'tis version, the sum to be alloted for higher education for -arroes s'vould; 'have been 166 668.66 instead o' thre Sl0000 which was later se aside. B3ased ul'nn interviews with imerfbers of Ne-1o com-mlittee. 4. Kentucky W.1riters Project, A Centennial History of the Univerc ity of Lo;.-di-svil9e, para 212 5. Ibid. 6. Amnnual Reponr of[' the President of the University of Louisville 'for. the year endi:ng June 30, 1936, p. 24 7. Ibid., p. 27 8. 1,Zeport of the Dean of the Loulisville 1.Murnicipal College for 4the Period February 1 to June 30, 1931, p. 1 9. Re4ort of the Dean bf the Louisville M,.nicipal College for tGhe session 1931-1932. p. 4 10, Ibid, p. 3 11. Ibid. 12. Ibid., p. 5 13. Tbid., pp. 2-4 14-. Annual Report of Louisville ClunicipaJ College for 1Tegorooes, i934-0193, P. 6 15e Ibid. 16. Ibid., p. 3 17. ArLUual Report of the -Prsiden: of, the University Of Louisville for the year ending June 30, 1936, p. 24, 27. 13. Ibi d., 19. Arnnual Re-oort of. Louisville I-imunicipal Coller_,e for FTegroeo'19s35-3G,, p. 6-7 Al-so oresented in: ai.nnual catGalouos . beginniing with volume VI, :i 7-y 19';3 20. Armual Report of the President of t-he Universitiy of Louisville, 19g36.7, .r 21,. Annual Report of the Louisville lunicipal Col.ege, 1936-37, p. 7 22. A-nnua.: 7.enort of th;e President of -the Universi-ty of Louisville for the year - xding June 30, 1936, p. 25 .23. Arnnali Re-oort of the Louisville Mviunicipal College, 1937-1938, p. 17 24. Ibid. 25. Ibid. 2. 9 Ib id. 27. Annual e ort of the Louisville Municipal College 1935-1936,-p. 4-5 Chapte X ther Professioxnol. and Vocational Irnstitl-t cins Chaer X :11 -Uib; L. Hallie E. Wilson ,The Red CA;oss Eossoitial, i Jnrublished tenr ,:a3er; Do- partrnent of Sociology, Louisville M,.'unicipal College, p. 2 2. Courier-Journal, Maray 11, 1939, p. 4, col. 1 3. Based upon -1'ormaation furnished by M.liss Ethel B. io-ne, Socretai7 of th:ne College 4. Based on interview with Mlr. Lee L. Bron,, October 13, 1938 5 Based orn inter-view -.,7ith founder, Octobor 13, 1938 ., Lounsville'Tiimes, February 20, 1939 Seotion 2, page 8, col. 5 7. Courier-Journal, M,'-ay 11, 1939, p. 14, col. 1 80 Based on an interview w.Kith Mrs. StaCley, October 13, 1938 and June 4, 1941. 9 k.rzee . . J. 'Wak1er School of Beauty Culture, 19410, -pp. 4-6 10. From an intervio-VV with MI.Ir. W..V. C. Buford on Decermber 12, 1938 11. S'ilver Jubilee Year MaImmnotGh Lifc and Accidenti Ihsurarnce Colraomany 19,15- 1940, p . 21 Chap-ter Xi Types of` Trainin- under Fedeoal Aus-ices C-M, 2. 'National Youth Administration f2et4nI for Kentutcky -p. 2 139 ...... M c s , , 3a- Ib 1J. 4 . actional Youth Adninistrati-on (Bulletin 81937) p. 28xiegro Youth 'in K y 5 From f4`iles of, SCtate Ieg-ro Sulpervisor of NlaJ i6-dal YTouth Admin; is-tat ion 6. pound;Na-i 0onal Youth A62.2iDiistrattion University of Louisville, Re-ort for. year ending June 30, 1937, Table 2, pare 10 7. NYA B, u I 1 oin 8 ;1 9ti7N 7.J: . 3.8 i'fYf Aulletina 10OO 4ua B).1 Tblcs sNo. I 3: II 9. 1-lZ-AU- 3uI211 ' iOO98C;-3 31E Tables I.6. i 8. VI 10. Ibid., (qorlauted frc;=ables V & VI) 11. 1YA Bulletin 81937 p. 2liBiegrc YoutUh in XenluckV 12. From f iles of State Supervisor TlIatiornal Youth Administration 13. 'arvroy 0. 11.ssoll, A Brief Stundy of NegrO Partication in National Yout'h Adm-inistration in Kentucky as of January 31, 1941, pop. 14-15 14. Louisville Defe.der, Septeemiber 4., 1937, p. 3, col. 1 15 . Iid. 1. From files in Adult Education Office 17. Thid. 18. Louisville Defender, Septemli.ber 4, 1937, p. 3, col. 2 19. Ibid., -ay 7, 1938, P. 10, col. 7 20. Louisville Times, 7ebruary, 2, 1940, p. 2, col. 1 Chanter XII Ot:hr Institutionis and A-c.encies rning Educat ional Func-t'ions 1. The Record, Official Publication of the Diocese of Louisville, Febr-;a-ry 27, 1936, p. 25 2. Courier-Journal, Oc-5bber 26, 1873, p. 4,. col. 2 3, St. Auvustine School ---The Golden. Jubilee--1870-1920 4. LTouisvill a Leader, Seotenber 25, 1920, p. 4 5. The Record, op4 cit. . 25 6. Ibid., po. 32 7. ''Jouisville Courier-Jourznl, i'eb-.ruary 6, 1874, p. , col. 2 8. Tbid., . 4, col. 2 9. Ibid., Februry 5, 1875, p c 4, o1 2-3-4 lO Iid., Septemrnber 16 1 874, Courier-Journal, January 21, 1876, p. 4, col. 4 Ibid., January 5, 1877, p. 4, col. 2 Tforration from a prosoectus of the institution From f4iles at RildGewood Courier-Journal,, Se teraber 6, . 1888, p. 23, co3l. 3 Re-,,oi of the Kentuckly School for tihe Blind for year ending June 30, 1925, p. 37 -i'd., p. 36-37 Cour ier-Journal, Febvxuairr 11, 1894-, p. 12, col. 2 Fuller, T. 0. Pit-'oria. flistory- ofthe Ancricasn iegro, p. 250 Colored Branch of the Louisvillle Free Public Library, 1915, -. 1-9 Ibid. T 0. Fuller, Pictorial History of te Am-erican W1ego, p. 250 !bid. .1' S 12. .1 17 '_J V 14. 15. 16. 17. 130 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. I IKLx i:_ . OrWe, esta;_ Isheni t of 55; trans-iformi-in.ti ion ato hi h school, 60; Adams, T '.i ienry,' pound;o;rdinEg first s-chool, 8 _''dCu.lt ivducation Under Kd'.ork Projects Ldminist'rati.cr., 20-207; see also 118 ..hur, sJulia, 24; 47 Axtoron. i.ill of `:Tood F., 148 L) :,,-, c;r chool, -Znjarn;in, 43; 56; 62; 1:34 ;a .u tu yr 3' zlt u ra o- S olro s , 1 a 3-'I 8 5 1 ., Ken tu.ck Srchool for the, 217-2195 o, rdG Of Iuc-ion, croation Mo, 94; achieverents b 191by 8; survey of co-z.imstion ia schools, 106; buildiri:, developrnt, 115-114 3 o:3.rd o f Visitor-3, Colored,, letter to Bos.rd o-f 'i'rustees 18374,44I; ablci-shied 59 ond issuQ;e, ofA l-1, 99;.pound; X' 1921, 104-10C5; Of 1925, 105-103D; ef 19-25, 111 Uvnc--Irity C; LouiSville, 102 n-d S rchool, Jmes, site murclased, 94 14 v(OS_1) S cI- C) C.F, IG1 or IS.- ,ol cr of O usi and ;.. 178-179 I r ovmr C oe a 1 Sc h o o, 18 0 -.:3'1',.2s, Public ;-cool, l';i -.3.FtiO n for, 36-37r roc.c,.e , . t- io n f"o r tr s- C, du t -Io., 1,1 statu.-s for, .,'-39 75; Co1X1;On i-n an0d - do 'e ac; to bi oror rled 2; l93!'-v3 131z; names and dates built or t8ranlsferred, 1:34 2 541i C aif oriia 5chool, (see 74heavtley S hcol, 'hyllis) entralrl Kikc School, uildinp' dedicated, 410-41; "A" Alrl d establlheK, 5-5; h1-i4c-h school depa-tmonrt oroganized, GO; gr1uat..s o2 first c'ass, e5-6Q fouzrt'h year added, 76-77, 83; ttr.ni- .'erredto ',0,hazire Steet, 84; curr- culun 13'4-195, 84-84; 1-97-08, 87-88; 1S' 7-18, 100-101; transfr-red to ChesItiu;t Strect, 69; Practical Ar;s Annce dedic'.tcd, 120-Lul; 154- central La; School, 153-155 Churche's., L rurnmber and names in 1350, 10 O'o lcnt, Th.vpound;us L .161 168 qorLrercj az 8'hcols, -180 ',: itte on colored sclocils, Recommme.-ndaticns of, 3j, 67, 69 ,c-ivent iczns, I-ducwational 1867, 25- 865, 26-27 tCotter, Joseph S. 85 ! aat-h,-A Rev. B.i. 21; 26 Culrrticulum, 120 (see salso uind7er Ce,-ntral- i.-h School rpd 'Tormial school) D 'c es-tic Life iand Accident Insurance Compmany tr-Alin"., class, 15-186 DomEest-ic 'Sci nce in Ti h School s 93-94 lDomestic serv ice turaining, 131-183 C'!oul grederic6k, 39 . 9 Do, ,--laS.Schoo7, t--edericl: SU-94, iaE 134 _;v91lC Tie, _, N.ov'\ 72, 101 J 0 J fa:v .o.G:1 School, 20-2154 ,-C'v--2Lrn School (see .;KshiugtOn School, T-Heoker T.) 255 , i2c- cSyi S chiool s,. 24 ''roIln 1upi 187`-79, 57; G86-87, 69; 1883-89, 71; 180c-91. 7-74: 1 92s- 3 0,0 113-14 Axiija iot, Teacher 1374, 47 ;eid--"I ( c for Te-.:ro Schools, 1874-75 49; 1875-76, 51; 1890-91 74-79; under bcr-d issue 107,1C8; retren.c-iunSf ini 19b1-32, 114-115 F 7ero;-so;n, J. I T. 4 7 Fit'DUzbuJe) Qr , Dr. T 1ernry, 1 70 7looK of 0 83, Fe63; of 1937, 124-126 Fcust Co-mrercisal Schcol, 181 lslOt' Panno, or Schooll, 193-95; 181-183 P-recdrmenlts Bureau, extended to Ketntuckyr, 19; estab-lishmnt of sool i' zouieville, 20; circular to frecd poo01e of Kentucky, 22-23 re vegrce s, -,opulat ion,, 5; status, 7, 9-12 UTlCtn School, 3cc Dannoker Sc'hool, Ben2jamin G .ibson, :illia. ., 9, 4 Go ins S3hGcl, 24 c.,;I5, LiTy, 21, 219 A;Ad. P,-I Clo'., orod vchcol, 104, 1 34- - v l Cf IRc, Cfus.e, 21l7 214 J-..ra c e T r ai nin; ClIa9sses, s185-187 J Jackson Junior Tlir,;h School, 110-111; 134 Jaclso:,sstreet I-. Bo Chruch School, 24 J-ui-i-r -i 'h S'chools,, a itation for esitablislument, 101; for Jackson Junior hi h 'nchool purchased, 109; Ia-dison Junior 1-i.;h School ozoned, 110; Jakson- Junior F`.-ih School onened, 110-111 I' Y 1'uck..r, neu't rality during; Civil i"a-, 13; onrollmormt of TLeroes, 1'.-17; en- 1is-z:ent of tPOC5 1.7 KcntUckuy Scoo;.l for the Blind, 217-219 ,..i.er,:aren, S93 L Lafayette vStret School, 69-70 Lane, David A. (Jr.), 168,169 Lane S:.:hooi, 9 Lanier, Rev. ... B , 143, 147 Li Ir:rics, L.oui ville Free Fublic, afitaio for establishlament o, 219-220 '-..stern branch eotablished, 219; -'astern branch efstuablished, 221; Park- .and bira.hch esta`lished 221 LinA'1coln School, 84, 96 Louis-, i `le ity of, found i 3; firtc er, 3-4; as a Unior.N7"i. Iit- a ry jdo aters: 1 T'hnird charter and adoption, 31 7 jefi'iee 2,d Jferson County C-ildrens' Yome (see Ridgec.od school) G,.isFili; e- deration of teachers, 129 L oi.u ie I :,uniCiPa Co11e e, U.:ivors- ity cf LoE ui is i1lo b cnd iss ue, 10C0,2 l53;et;0l ':Qnt, 156-159; openini: 159-161; eSenn chool C eStab0I iSeLd- 162; ;us-: - seszo-. est.ablished, 163; first fo-ur year class, 124:; prac- tice toe .achLg--;- 1So_; c-tion exoircised on ! Si.m: oas Dropovrty, 165; objcctives o', 166, Tbrary science added, 170; n_,rollmnent fromn 1j31S-1z91, 172 Loidsvil;- --io al .- Uocal ollece, 150-153. 2 '- 6 257 M asdison Junior tliph School, transferred to Negroes, 100-410; nevi buliding opened, 111-112; curriculum in 1930. 112-113; 134 M'aiden Lane School, 72, (see also Banneker School, Benjamin) Lain Street School, selection of site, 70; establishment, 71; report on ovw'Se rw4iAzg, 72i tatef 61' papils -to Poa.1 Sbrt- Sehool C 4-95 ,.-amnmoth Life and Accident Insurance Cogpany training class, 198-99 Manual Tr inigg, 93-94 i.'a-xwell, J. M., 41, 81 YcClellan School, George, 13.4 1'erchant, Dr. W.T., 174, 176 M.,;eyzeek, Aaron E., 72, 75, 81, 82, 92 1M1igratory Negroes, 27 Moore, Georgia G., School, 91, 134 M1ortimer, Rev. R.G., 12 N Thtional Youtih Administration, 200-203; objectives, 200; in-sch6e1-aid, 192-197; out-of-school-aid, 197-203 .Ni ht Schools, attienpt to obtain, 48; established, 60,o2; regulations govenning, 61; description of openag nigrht, 62; a.ge limit imposed, 68 Ninth and Muagazine Street School, ' see Dunbar School) :orinal ' chool (Colored), resolution for introduced, 84; established, 86; first rraduating class, 87; report on activities first, 86-87; report on activities 1911-12, 96-97; suspenddd, 105; transferred to Dunbar school, 106-7; abolished, 122-23; curriculum when abIlished, 123-24 orman and Theological Institute, (see Simmons University) NTurse Training,.174-178; at Louisville National Medical School, 152; at Red Cross Hospital, 176-177; agitation for nurses in city hospital, 177-178 0 Orrzsby Street ;clhobl (see Talbet School, M-ary B.) 258 Cvercrowding of School buildin-s, 1872-73, 42; report 1888-89, 72; class size in 1911, 95 Ornnsby Village (see Ridgewood School) Parkiland Colored School, established, 8O transferred from oounty to Gitys 104 Parochial Schools, 209-211 Parrish, Rev, Chrales H. (Sr.), 145-144 Private Schools early, 8-9; 12; 23-24 Pearl Street School (see Douglas School, Frederick) Perry, Sr., ' VT. , 60; 75 Peyton, W. T., 75, 81 Point, School on the, (see Banneker School, Benjamin) Dolytechnique Preparatory School, 35 PorQ Beauty Coll-ege, 184 Portland School (see Young School, Charles). Publ ic Schools, early recommendations for establishment, 31; first schools opened, 32; resolutions concerning first schools, 32-33; attendance first year, 33; consloidation on Broadway in.1871, 34; music introduced, 35 R Red Cross Hoatipal, 174-77; established, 175 building =ereeted, 175; children's annez, 175-76; Nurses home, 176; Nurse training discontitued, 177' Roc-evel, ,rs. Franklin D., 127 Roxborou_,h Sisters School, 24 Ridgewood School, 211-217 259 Salary differential, adoption of 1935 schedule, 118-120, 225-231; first petition for abolition, 126-27; citizens cortmnittee formed for elimi- nation, 127-28; public hearing on second petition, 128; suit filed for elimination, 128-29; abolished by Board of Education, 130 Salary sche ule for 1876-77, 52, 55; request for equalization of 1878-79, 57; increased 1881-82, 59; single schedule adopted 1926, 107-108; adoption 1935 s-hedule, 118-120;.225-231; petition for abolition of differential' 126-27 Ehelby Street SchQol, 85 Si m.ons, i.illiam J., 139, 140 Simmons University, tHill property purchased t.nd sold, 137; Kentucky, Street property purchased, 138; established, 137-38; first class, 137-39 name changed to State University, 139; college department organized 139; early fees, 19-40; Theological department organized, 140-41; Girls' dormitory erected, 142; federal survey of 1915, 143; Anderson claim, 144-45; campaign for :'250,000, 145-46; federal survey 1927, 146; sold to University of Louisville, 147; transfer to l.;th and Du:mesnil, 148; Axton bequest; 148; Theological curricula, 148-149 Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, 25 Slavery in Louisville, slave population 1840, 5; mildness of, 5-7. Sloyd work at Eastern School,' 92 Smith Fughes Courses, 207-208 South Louisville School (see M:oore School, Georgia G.) Spalding, Father J. Lancaster, 25 State Baptist Univerisity (see Simmons University) -Ste;..rard, William H,.,' 142. 119 St. 'arks Episcopal Church School, 23 Stroker, D. A. , 23 Summer-Session, Public School, 101 260 T Talbert School, Wary B., 85-85, 117, 134 Taxes'. for Nogro paupers and education, 25; for Elegro schools, 30; coon troversy over interpretation of third charter, 3A; dismissal of tax suit (1877), 56; estimated amount to eliminate differentials, 130 Tayl.or, S. B., 71 T aylor, Rev7.., 36 Taylor School, S.muel Coleridge, 97, 98, 134 Teachers, examination 1874, 47; number in 1877078, 57; number in 1883-84, 64; number in 1888-89, 71.; number in 1899-1900, 91; appointment adeording to rank in Normal school, 95; reduction due to depression, 116-117; salary differential, 118-120, 127-28 Tyler, Rev. IWN W., 25 U University of Louisville, founding, 156; bond issue, 102; 156-158 V Visitors, Board of, thanics to Board of Trustees, 1874, 44; selection of site for Eastern School, 45; new members added 18751, 49; abolished, 59 Virginia Avenue School, 104, 108, 134 W Thalker School of Beauty Culture, 184-185 .ar work in schools, 1918-19, 98-99 .!ashinr'ton, Booker T., visit to city, 90-91 'lashingtn Scnhool, Booker T,.opening, 47; report on overcrowding, 72; addition built, 81; 134 ,e stor. School, established, 49-50; addition built, 70; 134 7hrieatley School, Phyllis, 60,64, 134 261 1..1edboe, Dr. . D., .174, 176 Wrilson AtWood S. 110 117 :ri1SOn Street School, (see MIcClellan School, George) il son Efficiency Institute, 192 -y Young School, Charles, founding, 40; building constructed, 55; additional space, 66; 134 Brief Sketches of a Few Persons Conneoted with the Early Development ,y ibis weof Publia Schools No history of public Negro Education in Louisville would be com- plete without pointing out specifically the profond influence on the Negro schools of four persons--------Henry Adams, William H. Gibson, John D. Pope and Gavin H. Cocran. Strangely enough none of the four was a teacher in the public schools. John D. Pope and Gavin H. Cook- ran were white men who as members of the school board and chairmen of the Committee on Colored Schools steered the course of those schools in the formative period. Henry Adams and William H. Gibson were free Negroes and(n'ng those pioneer spirits who held high the torch of learning in the dark days of slavery. It was they and their kindred spirits who lighted the way for public Negro education. While neither became a- teacher in the public school, both not only blazed the trail but turned to give a helping hand to insure that Negro education should tread in that way. 1. Two Trail Blazers ---Rev. Hengr Adams and William H. Gibson Reverend Henry Adams was born December 17, 1802 in Franklin County, Georgia. He was . ordained in 1825 and preached in Georgia and South Carolina before coming to Louisville in 1829 as pastor of the First Baptist Church (Fifth Street). Talented in both English and the classic languages, he opened a school for Negroes in Woods Alley in 18419 Little information is available concerning the school except 13.7 that it grew to a size to warrant four assistant teachers and that transferred to the Fifth St. Church, it operated until public schools were established. Rev. Adams, showed keen interest in all levels of education. He was responsible for organization of the state Baptist Convention in 1865 Which from its establishment evinoed enthusiasm for education which cul- minated in the development of State Baptist University. Rev. Adams did not live to see the fruition of his labors for he died November 3, 1873. A similar pioneer was Mr. William H. Gibson although unlike Rev. Adams, he lived to see the fruition of their labors Born in Baltimore, Maryland and educated in private schools and under the tutelage of pri- vate instructors Mr. gibson came to Louisville in 1847. He associated himself with Mr. Robert M. Lane's school for six months then opened his own school in the basement of the Fourth Street Methodist Episcopal Church (Asbury Chapel).Vith the exception of a brief time during the Civil Wtar he operated a school at different churches. Mr. Gibson was in the vanguard of those who worked for the esta- 6lishment of free public schools for his race, and cooperated in memori- alizing the Governor and the State legislature. Very active in the first and second educational conventions in 1867 and 1869, he was a leader in the establishment of the permanent educational districts in the State, iwhen at the second convention he was made president of a State Board to divide the state into school districts under the super- 1 vision of the Freedman's Bureau. With the opening of public schools in 1870 Mr. Gibson closed his school. In that year he accepted an appointment as railway mail agent. 4.... 4.... This position proved too hazardous for the South and he soon relinquished it. Four years later ho reooived an appointmenb as a United States uager. Although not active in the classroom, he maintained his interest in edu- cation and served for a time on the Colored Board of Visitors which in- speoted and supervised the work in the oolored schools. In the early seventies Mr. Gibson became nationally prominent as a leader in fraternal ordqers including the Mason, Odd Fellows and United Brothers of Friendship. The last thirty years of his life was identified with work of such organizations. He lived to see many of the religious, educational and social causes, for which he labored, flower and prosper. He died in 1906 after a full and eventful life. 2. Helping Hands Across Race Lines-4---ohn D. Pope and Gavin H. Cochran Vthenunder the charter of 1870,provisions were made to open public schools for Negroes in Loiuisville there was appointed from the membership of the School Board a Copmittee on Colored Schools. The selection of Mr. John D). Pope as chairman of the committee was a fortunate one for he entered into his work with enthusiasm and a high resolve to give to the Negro the best education possible under the existing circumstances. Al- though he served but a short time as chairman of the committee, during his occupancy of the office the leaders of the committee set a high standard for their successors. In spite of frequent changes in the per- sonnel of the committee the members sought diligently to further the development of the Negro school during the seventies. The 6utstanding champion of the colored schools during the eighties was Mr. Gavin H. Coohran who worked assiduously to develop them to the full standards of the Louisville school system. During his membership on the Committee on Colored Schools he was successful in having the average class size in Negro schools lowered, new facilities and equipment provided, a high school organized and placed upon a currioular parity with the other high schools in the system. Mr. Cochran fought desperately to equalize the salaries of white Mnd Negro teachers, but while he succeeded in ob- taning some salary advances his major purpose of equalization was not attained. Later, when he became chairman of the School Board he still sought the utmost advancement of the colored schools. 3. A Triumvirate of Pioneer Principals: J. M. Maxwell, J. M. Feruson, W_.T. Penon When in January 1873,the General Assembly passed the act whigh made possible the construction of the first city owned school buildings for Negroes, the Louisville School board was confronted with the problem of providing competent principals for the three schools. The Central school at Sixth and'Kentucky Streets was the first constructed and Mr. John Miller Maxwell er examination selected as principal in September, Ia7a Due to a trick of fate and the sway of politicshe accepted instead a position in the pension office in Washington D. C. and did not actually begin his principalship of Central until 1875. Mr. Maxwell came to Louis- ville with what was considered for his generation a rich educational back- ground. Born in Fayette County, Ohio in 1842 he attended district school and in 1865 completed the course at the Xenia, Ohio, high school, He then taught in the district schools, was principal of the city school in Zanos- Ville, Ohio for two years before becoming principal of the colored schools in Xenia. While serving in the Pension Office in Washington he matric- lated in the Law Department of Howard University but did not complete the 2 curriculum because of his return to the offer at Louisville. At the time Mr. Maxwell assumed charge of Central it was not a high school although it did offer the work of the upper grammar grades and was designated a "secondary school" in contrast to the elementary schools con- ducted at other points in the city. In 1876 he sought and secured per- mission to establish an advanced class beyond the eighth grade which he himself taught and which was known as the "A" grade. Completion of the "A" grade came to be considered as a year of pre- paration for the teaching profession. Doubtless the record of the students of the "A" Grade had a share in winning the school board to the policy of establi5hing a high school. In 1882 Mr. Maxwell's efforts to secure genuine secondary education of the Negro youth of Louisville Yrwarded with the establishment of a three year high school. As the high school continued the task of supplying teachersqmuch credit must be given to Mr. Maxwell in the preparation of a large proportion of the early teaching force in the Lou isville schools. He remained as principal continuously until 1893 when a general trans- fer of principals removed him from the post for a few years. He died May 5, 1902. It was unusual that during these early years the larger schools in the city enjoyed a continuity of administration under one principal,. Eastern school ( Booker T. Washington) was completed in the Autumn of 1874 and the Western School a year later. During the first year of the existence of Eastern, J. M. Ferguson was serving as principal of Central. Upon the arrival of Mr. Maxwell the following year, Mr. Ferguson was appointed principal of Eastern school where he served continuously until 1881. In the same year that Mr. Ferguson took the Eastern post. Mr. William T. Peyton was assigned as the principal at Western. Like the other early principals Mr. Peyton was not a native of Kentucky. He was a graduate of Gaines High School in Cincinnati, Ohio and had served as principal of schools in Madison, Indiana and Keokuk, Iowa. He remained as principal of Western School until 1890 at which time he was trans- ferred to Maiden Lane School for two years and then to Eastern School .where he served until 196. He then turned to the practice of medicine until his tragic death. 4. Representative Gradaates of 'At' Grade: Miss Belle Alexander Miss Lucy N. Duvalle Mr. t.H. Perry, Miss Georgia G. Moore Miss Belle Alexander was a graduate of the "A" Grade in 1878. The following school year she began her career as a teacher at the Western school. After five years of service she was transferred to the Eastern School where she remained as a teacher of front rank for forty years. She ended her teaching career as instructor in the Colored Normal at the Dunbar School. Recognition from outside the state cane to Miss Alexander through her appointment as an instructor at the State Summer Session for teachers 7 7 at Durham, North Carolina. When she retired from the school system in 1928 she received fine tribute from citizens of the oommunity. She still lives 3 to garner the rewards of her service.a Miss Lucy N. Duvalle was born and educated in the public schools of .Lousx-vl'le. She completed the "A!" Grade in 1878 and was appointed to teach in the fall of that year beginning her service at Eastern school. She is best remembered,however, as the first principal of Phyllis Wheatley School where she served for forty years. In September 1890 Miss DuValle became principal of the Wheatley school which was then known as the California school. Her record of punctuality was phenomenal. In her forty years as principal she was never absent or tardy. She was an advocate of the policy that children should be taught mofe than Just "books" and leaned toward the Booker T. Washington philo,4- toRphy of vocational training. She initiated at the Wheatley school the following projects: (1) a program of health (2) program of parent edu- cation (3) program of school citizenship (4) a program of industrial edu- cation on an extra-curribular basis. She taught fifty years in the public schools of Louisville serving in both the Lastern and Vestern schools before being elevated to the principalship of the Wheatley school. She was oonsoiezdtious and ,trongly civic minded. Her charities though unadvertised were large. She died of a heart attack Decembe0l, 1928. Mr. William H. Perry, Sr. was born in Terre Haute, Indiana on March 5, 1860. After he had completed the elementary grades in Indiana his parents moved to Louisville where he graduated from the l"e Grade in 1877 maintaining a high record of scholarship. During the summer after gradu- ation he took the teachers' examination which he passed. Since he was under the age of eighteen, the minimun age for an appointment as a teacher in the Louisville Schools, it eas neoessary for the school board to sus- pend the rules in order to make the appointment. After teaching during the school year 1877-78 at the Western school, he was transferred to Central. In 1881 he was elevated to the principal- ship at Eastern School. In 1891 he became principal of Western School, a position which he held until his retirement in 1927 after fifty years in the public schools of Louisville, Thirty-six of these years Were spent as principal at Western where he developed one of the outstanding elemen- tary schools of the South. Credit for the establishment of high school classes for Negroes in Louisville has been attributed by some of her contemporary to Georgia G. Moore. According to their story, the Louisville school board in the seventies and early eighties did not believe tHiw Negroes were capable of pursuing high school subjects and that Myiss Moore as a graduate of the "A"' Grade convinced them that.Negroes were capable of such training. It is known that Miss Moore was valedictorian of the "A" Grade in 1882 and that she captivated her audience with her mastery of English and her scholarly: dlivery. It is doubtless true that the members of the .school board who were present were much impressed. Be that as it may, the fact remains that a three year high school was established in the fall of that year. Suprisingly enough, however, Miss Moore did not continue with te 7 high school work but accepted a position in the Louisville schools instead. She became one of the outstanding teachers of the eighth grade subjects. 'When in 1913 a special class for retarded boys was opened at +he S. Cole- ridge Taylor School Miss Moore was placed in charge. She died in 1915 and three years later the South Louisville school was renamed the Georgia G. Moore School in her memory. From Manual laborer To Poet and Principal-Joseph S. Cotter One of the most interesting careers among the Louisville teachers is that of Joseph S. Cotter. He was born in Nelson County, Kentucky, February 2, 1861 but was reared in Louisville. His early life was a struggle against poverty and heavy odds. He could read before he was four years of age but his opportunities for formal schooling were so meager that when he entered night school at the age of 22, he was assigned to the studies of the primary grades. Up to the age of 24, he was a manual laborer. After a brief attendance at night school, Cotter took the teachers examination and became a teacher at Cloverport, Kentucky in 1885. In 1889 he,-was appointed a teacher at the Western School in Louisville where he taught until he became principal in 1895-96 of the Mary B. Talbert school which was located at that time at 7th and Ormsby Streets. In 1911. he became the first principal of the S. Coleridge Taylor School at 13th and Liberty Streets. In June 1941 he had completed thirty years of service at that school. Practically self-educated Mr. Cotter won distinction as a writer and poet before the close of the century. He introduced story telling Io into the colored schools and the colored libraries of the city. It has been said that "his stories of city Negro life are so remarkably bold 4 and candid that he seems to use a scapel rather than a pen." A Fearless Champion of the Negro's Cause,----A. E. Meyzeek Born in Toledo, Ohio but spending his childhood in Toronto, Canada Albert Ernest Meyzeek was reared in an atmosphere charged with the stories of the underground railroad and the struggles and achievements of the Negro. He attended Wiley High School in Terre Haute, Indiana where he, the only Negro, graduated as valedictorian of his class. He next completed the Indiana State Normal School at Terre Haute. He was instrumental in the establishment of a school in the east end of Terre Haute and became its first teacher. He came to Louisville in 1890 and took the examination for principals and was placed in of the Maiden Lane School for the year 1890-91. In 1891 he was trans- ferred to the Eastern School and two years later to Central High School which at that time had a three year currioulum. During his three year period of service at Central, the curriculum was lengthened to four years, a library established for the school and the way prepared for the establishment of a colored branch library on Chestnut Street near Twelfth. In 1896 Mr. Meyzeek was returned to the Eastern school and the colored.Normal was transferred to that school. He was principal of the Norel school and Eastern until the normal was transferred to the Dunbar School in 1925 With the opening of the Jackson Junior High school, in addition to zhtA of the elementary school, he held the prm- it cipalship of the. Junior High school until the enrollment of the high school required his full time. This position he still holds (1941) with distinction tr. Meyzeek early became known as a fearless fighter for the rights of the Negro. Unique was the fact that he did not hesitate to fight for changes and advancement within the school system itself although he knew that by so doing he jeopardized his position in that system. Among some of the educational causes he championed were the struggle to secure adqquate library service for Negro pupils, the establishment of higher edu- cation for Negroes under the University of Louisville and the campaign to 5 secure two junior high schools for Negroes. Some Outstanding Graduates of Central High School During its Fi=uarterenta During the early period of the Central High school there vwere many graduates who made records of singular achievement in the community. To list them all or to chronicle their achievements will not be attempted here. The purpose will be to list a few representatives of that larger number of graduates who have influenced the lives of mAny through their varied endeavors. Many of the early graduates of Central entered the,,profession and have influenced the lives of the children and youth of Louisville. Among these may be mentioned Misses Lucretia Gibson, Marie Spratt Brown, Enma Alexander, Carrie Alexander, Georgia Nugent, Josephine Kelley, Em Glover, YxsrHelen(DuValle) Rogers and Mrs. Hallie Q(Jones) Armstrong.