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Centennial report of the business of Louisville, Ky., the cities of New Albany and Jeffersonville, Ind., and the mineral and agricultural resources of the state of Kentucky / Alexander Hogeland. Hogeland, Alexander. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-122-28575493 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Centennial report of the business of Louisville, Ky., the cities of New Albany and Jeffersonville, Ind., and the mineral and agricultural resources of the state of Kentucky / Alexander Hogeland. Hogeland, Alexander. Morton, Louisville : 1876. 32 p. : folded map ; 23 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1993. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN03472.04 KUK) Printing Master B92-122. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Louisville (Ky.) Industries. New Albany (Ind.) Industries. Jeffersonville (Ind.) Industries. CENTENNIAL REPORT OF THE BUSINESS OF LOUISVILLE, KY. AND THE CITIES OF NEW ALBANY AND JEFFERSONVILLE, IND. COMPILED BY A. HOGELAND, ecretary M. 5 At. Exckange, Lewisv'ille. PRESENTED TO ALL WHO ARE OR MAY BECOK INTERESTED IN THIS LOCALITY AS A HOME OR A PLACE OF BUSINESS. LOUISVILLE, KY.: JO04N P. MORTON CO., PRINTERS, 156 WEST MAIN STREET. 1876. i I I I I I This page in the original text is blank. 5'k 'H Cl This page in the original text is blank. ::) a a t ) I ! ASS W l 2 S l z I = i C l l l i - l I I _l I l l-----E-l l : : l i i i E E - - I R l 5 S l-- l _4 a- l E l S__ ua= R I X l c l - - fl I m= - I 1 X_ l I 1 e_ a L a ! , _ 9aF5 ] : I i , 1 R, EW This page in the original text is blank. CENTENNIAL REPORT OF THE BUSINESS OF LOUISVILLE, Ky., THE CITIES OF NEW ALBANY AND JEFFERSONVILLE, IND., AND THE MINERAL AND AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES OF THE STATE OF KENTUCKY. - COMPILED BY A. HOGELAND, Secretary M. - M. Exchange, Louisvizle, And published under the direction of the leading business men of Louisville and with the approbation of the Mayor and Board of Aldermen. Presented to all who are or may become interested in this locality as a home or a place of business. LOUISVILLE: JOHN P. MORTON CO., PRINTERS, 156 WEST MAIN STREET. 1876. This page in the original text is blank. LOUISVILLE, Ky., July 13, I876. HON. CHAS. D. JACOB, Mayor of Louisville: Dear Sir,-A pamphlet setting forth the resources and advantages belonging to our city and state has been prepared under the auspices of our M. and M. Exchange by their secretary, Col. A. Hogeland, designed for extensive home and foreign dis- tribution. At a public meeting of our business men, held recently, the undersigned were appointed a committee to arrange for its publication. We have received pri- vate subscriptions firom a large number of our leading public.spirited business men sufficient for that purpose. In order to secure for the work what its contents deserve, the fullest possible consideration on the part of those who may read it, we respect- fally request of you, and through you the honorable City Council, the appointment of a committee of one or more from each branch of the General Council who with yourself shall examine the said pamphlet and attach thereto an expression of their sanction and indorsement if found worthy. Very respectfully, C. S. SNEAD, J. NELSON HARRIS, W. T. HUNTER. OFFICE OF THE MAYOR, Louisville, Ky., Aug. I, 1876. Messrs. SNEAD, HARRIS, and HUNTER, Committee: Gentlemen,-Responding to your request, I have the honor to state that I have examined the "Citizens' Pamphlet," issued under the auspices of the Mechanics and Manufacturers' Exchange, and take great pleasure in indorsing it as a full, fair, and commendable exposition of the matters treated therein. It has also received the official indorsement of the Board of Aldermen. CHARLES D. JACOB, Mayor. MECHANICS AND MANUFACTURERS' EXCHANGE, Louisville, Ky., June 6, 1876. I TO THE PUBLIC:-At a recent public meeting of the business men of Louisville held at the Mechanics and Manufacturers' Exchange a committee of leading citizens was appointed to provide a suitable map of Louisville and Kentucky; alsQ to pre- pare in pamphlet form a statement of the numerous advantages that Louisville and the adjacent cities of New Albany and Jeffersonville, as well as the state of Kentucky, present for the consideration of manufacturers and others who contemplate locating in Louisville, and those who desire information regarding the advantages of our loca- tion and surroundings. That committee is composed of gentlemen of wealth and of the highest social and commercial standing. After a careful review of the following pamphlet on Louisville and her advan- tages, we are satisfied that it is entitled to the fullest credit, and we therefore com- mend it to the careful consideration of manufacturers and capitalists throughout the United States and Canada; also to those of Great Britain, France, Germany, and other European countries. B. F. AVERY, President, A. G. MUNN, Vice-President, R. A. E. MILES, Vice-President, H. DUMESNIL, Treasurer, JOHN M. CARSON, THEO. CIMIOTTI, H. BURKHARDT, T. E. C. BRINLY, A. HOGELAND, SecCy M. ' M. Ex. CENTENNIAL REPORT. To the Manufacturers, Mechanics, Merchants, and Capitalists of the United States, Canada, and Europe: In compliance with the action of a public meeting of the citizens of Louisville held recently at the Manufacturers and Mechanics' Ex- change appointing a committee to examine into and prepare for general distribution throughout the United States and Europe a brief summary of the mineral, agricultural, commercial, manufacturing, and other resources of our city and state, we beg leave to submit this report, believing the statements made herein will furnish substantial evidences that no city in the United States presents advantages superior to those of Louisville for manufactories of every class. It is proper to say in this connection that while Louisville ranks among the largest and best regulated cities of America, no extended effort has ever been made with a view to the advertising of its resources or the advantages of its geographical position, although it is fully admitted that no city on the continent is so fortunate in the possession of cheap coal and iron, of proximity to such vast forests of the finest walnut, oak, hickory, ash, and other timber, and of a location by which merchants and manufacturers are enabled to reach a larger portion of the United States by railroads and navigable rivers than can any other city. Location.-The city of Louisville is situated in north latitude 380 17' and in longitude 85 45' west, upon an elevated and beautiful plain on the south bank of the Ohio, in a great southern bend of that river, and immediately opposite its falls. It is by water 598 miles below Pittsburgh, 132 miles below Cincinnati, 368 above Cairo, 607 above Memphis, 1,377 above New Orleans, and 568 from St. Louis; and by rail 65 miles from Frankfort, 94 from Lexington, and I85 from Nashville. The city stands seventy feet above the low water mark in the Ohio River, and twenty-five feet above the highest flood mark. It has a river-frontage of twelve miles. Resources and Business Advantages of Its area is eighteen square miles, ample, without further extension, for a population of 500,000. Out of II 7 counties in the state of Kentucky its railways enable it to reach 75, and in addition 33 counties are accessible by water, thus making 1o8 out of the 117 counties of the state subsidiary to its com- merce. History, Population, etc.-Louisville was laid out in I 780, and incorporated as a city in i82-8. The population at the present time is i55,967. The confidence of its citizens in the future prosperity of Louisville, even in times of financial distress, has been evinced by the opening of new branches of industry and the erection of a superior class of build- ings for manufacturing and mercantile purposes. During the past year i,200 buildings have been erected at a cost of 2,500,000. The sales of property last year amounted to 6,ooo,ooo. The business of Louisville aggregated, last year, I00,000,000. These figures represent the bona fide sales, and do not, as in the case of the returns of many other cities, include all merchandise that hap- pens to pass tArough the city from other points. The credit of the city is excellent. Its bonds are secured by a well arranged sinking fund, the provisions of which are faithfully and rigidly carried out. During the great financial depression of the past three years the city's bonds have advanced from 85c to par. Water Power.- The subject of utilizing the immense water power which the city is so fortunate as to possess is now under careful consideration, and competent engineers are closely examining the matter, and they unqualifiedly indorse the practicability of the enter- prise. The improvement of this vast power is evidenced in the mills in successful operation on the Indiana side of the falls with capacity for i,ooo barrels of flour per day. Public Schools.-Deep interest is felt in the public school system. Fully thirty buildings have been provided and a number of rooms rented, the expense of the system being about 300,000 a year. Night schools have also been opened during the past two years,. also a school of design for apprentices and young mechanics. Comparative Health.-The death rate last year was only I 7 to every i,ooo, fully justifying the claim that the city is one of the healthiest in the country. All Machinery in the manufactories is by special legislation ex- empt from taxation. 6 Louiseille and Vicinity. Manufacturers.-Within the past few years the manufacturing interests of the city have assumed great proportions, and, as they are rapidly increasing in the present depressed state of affairs throughout the country, it is not improper to place Louisville in the rank of the great manufacturing cities of the country in the near future. It has four large manufactories of plows and agricultural implements, one of which is the largest in the world, with a trade not only from all parts of this country, but from Europe and even from other portions of the world. The united capacity of these manufactories in the item of plows alone is i,ooo per day. Other manufactories will be noticed under their appropriate heads. Tanneries.-The tanneries of the city are a source of just pride. There are twenty-three of them in the city, employing a capital of three millions of dollars. Their trade is divided between this country and Europe. Louisville sole leather has a great reputation, which is justly earned, being the second most important in this country. Iron Pipe Works.-Louisville is also noted for the superior quality of iron gas and water pipe which is now furnished from this to every principal city in the North, West, and South. The manufac- tory has a capacity for melting 200 tons of iron per day, and employs 300 men. Capital 500,000. Plate Glass Works.-There are two plate glass manufactories at the falls, the Louisville Plate Glass Manufacturing Company, in this city, and the Star Glass Company, at New Albany. Each represents fully 1,000,000 capital. They employ about 500 operatives. The glass made by them is equal to the best French plate, and has proved a successful rival to foreign glass. Orders are being shipped to all parts of the United States. Also at New Albany there are three fur- naces for the manufacture of window glass and one for jars and bottles. Paper Mills.-The city has two large paper mills making print- ing paper for books and newspapers exclusively. They employ a large force, and have a capital of I,oco,ooo. Planing Mills.-Twelve planing mills furnish lumber and build- ers' material to every Southern state. To these we are indebted in a measure for cheap building material. Engine and Machine Shops, etc.-Of these the city has a large number, which successfully compete with those in other parts of the Union. 7 Resources and Business Advantages of Bolt and Screw Works.-Of these there are two doing a thriving business. Carriage and Wagon Axle Works.-There is one extensive manufactory of this class. Boiler and Sheet Iron Works.-Louisville has several boiler shops and sheet iron works, the trade of which extends all over the Southern and Western States. Architectural Foundries.-The three architectural foundries and one at New Albany are classed among the largest and best regulated in the United States. They employ about 6oo operatives and 1,500,000, and are constantly filling orders for iron-front build- ings and other architectural work in many of the important cities of the country as far north as Chicago, as far south as New Orleans, and west to St. Louis. These foundries are famous for their fine castings and their superior class of work generally. Portable Saw Mills, Threshers, Axles, Sugar Mills, Corn Shellers, etc.-Louisville has several very extensive manufactories of this class of useful and popular machinery, among which can be mentioned the Southwestern Agricultural Works and the Louisville Axle Works. Cotton, Wool,. and Jeans Manufactories.-In Louisville there are three very large manufactories of Kentucky jeans, the "'Eclipse," "Old Kentucky," and " Hope " mills, and at New Albany is located the "New Albany Woolen and Cotton Mills." The reputa- tion of these goods is of the highest order, and their brands find a ready sale in every market, including New Orleans, New York, St. Louis, and San Francisco. Aggregate capital, x,o00,000. Burning and Lubricating Oils.-Of this class there are two manufactories. Manufactories of White Lead and Oil, and Paint Dealers. There are two extensive manufactories of white lead. Their brands are very popular and enjoy a large and ready sale. Capital, 350,000. Also four large wholesale establishments in painters' material. Iron Bridge Works.-An extensive and complete iron bridge works, covering an area of 14 acres, which constructs bridges for all parts of the country, is also successfully carried on. Capital, 300,000. The bridge here, one mile in length, was built by this company; cost, I ,800,000. 8 Louisville and Vicinity. 9 Car Wheels.-The "Louisville Car Wheel Works" make supe- rior wheels, and supply many of the most important roads in the country. Stone and Marble.-Fully twenty stone and marble yards enjoy a large trade in this city, and ship their goods to all points. These have all added greatly to the architectural beauty of the city by the addition of many stone and marble-front buildings for business pur- poses and private residences. Boots and Shoes.-There are six manufactories of ladies' fine sewed shoes. They have grown up within a short time. Their make is popular and takes precedence in the market over other goods, and their prices are lower than Cincinnati or. Philadelphia make of equal quality. There are some thirty wholesale boot and shoe houses, doing a business of 6,ooo,ooo annually. Pork-packing and Hams.-Louisville is one of the leading pork-packing cities of the country. There are several firms which give attention specially to the curing of hams, and it is generally con- ceded that Louisville hams are superior to most others. The great demand for them in this country, as well as in Europe, is a guarantee of their popularity. The capital invested in the pork and ham trade of Louisville is about 3,000,000. Rolling Mills and Forges.-Louisville has two large rolling mills, with a capital of over SIooo,ooo. They employ 500 operatives, manufacture merchant iron, sheet iron, and rails. There are also two mills at New Albany; one for merchant iron and nails, and one for railroad iron. Also at that point a steam forge for the forging of steamboat shafts, car axles, etc. Capital, I,5oo,ooo, with 500 ope- ratives. Saw Mills.-Seven saw mills make every class of lumber in use. Capital, 300,000; capacity, 20,000,000 feet of lumber annually. Ship Yards.-There are two ship yards at Jeffersonville, from which a number of steamers are annually launched. With few excep- tions all of the famous steamers and floating palaces on the lower Mississippi River, and in fact nearly all the large-sized steamboats, were built here. Louisville has secured this business on account of its proximity to the finest growth of timber found in this part of the country, an advantage which could not be overcome by other cities in their competition for boat-building. Resources and Business Advantages of Soap and Candles.-There are five large soap and two candle factories in Louisville, and one at New Albany. Over [,ooo,ooo capital is employed. Their trade extends over the entire South. Stoves, Grates, Iron Mantels, and Tin Ware.-There are several very large manufactories of stoves, grates, and mantels in this city and in New Albany. These have a trade that extends into every county in the Southern States. Louisville stoves and marbleized man- tels rank among the best in the United States. Capital, i,000,000. Flouring Mills.-Good flouring mills are not lacking. One of these, situated on the falls and driven by water power, is one of the largest in the United States. The mills have a capacity for iooo barrels of flour per day. The brands are considered equal to the best in the United States. Carriages.-Louisville is now making the best class of carriages to be found in any market. There are twenty of these manufactories. The abundance of choice and cheap timber, such as "'shell - bark hickory," ash, and sugar tree, is a great advantage to this class of manufacture. Wagons.-Of these there are several large manufactories, besides numerous smaller ones. The wagons made here are very substantial. One of these firms makes the famous Adams Express wagons, which, with their other work, are shipped both North and South. Cooper Shops.-This is a center for the manufacture of barrels, casks, etc. There are numerous shops, by reason of the abundance of timber. Bakeries.-All large cities have a long list of bakeries. Some of them here do a very extensive business in the exportation of crackers, biscuits, etc. Queensware.-In this branch of business there are eight first- class wholesale houses. They employ 500,000 capital. Their trade extends over the entire South. This being a port of entry, seaboard ports have no advantages over Louisville for the importation of arti- cles which are almost exclusively made abroad. Sewing Machines.-There are several agencies, representing the most popular sewing machines now before the public. Copper Works.-There are several manufactories of this class, filling orders for the largest distilleries, boilers, steamers, lightning sods and chemical operators, soda fountains, beer and tubing, and evaporating pipes for salt wells. I0 Louisville and Vicinity. xl Bell Works.-One of the oldest and most extensive manufac- tories of brass bells for church, school, and all other purposes is located here. Plantation Machine Works.-Manufacture extensively cotton gin drivers and cotton presses, either for steam or horse power. Cap- ital, 50,000. Electrotype and Stereotype Foundry.-It has one, doing an extensive business extending over the entire South. Direct Importers of Foreign Wines, Fruits, and Lux- uries.-The city has a goodly number of wholesale and retail dealers in foreign and domestic wines, being French, Italian, German, and American merchants. A large business is also done in choice fancy foreign fruits and delicacies. At least four wholesale firms are specially prominent. Edge Tools.-There are three manufactories of edge tools and choice fine pocket and table cutlery, and two manufactories of surgical instruments. Bellows Manufactories. -One very large and complete, making an article of bellows that is very superior and in use by smiths and in forges over the entire West and South. Auction and Commission Houses.-Our city has three of the largest auction and commission houses in the country, employing a very large capital, and selling to city and country dealers. One auction firm has been in successful operation since 1826. There are a large number of smaller auctioneers, who sell a large amouint annually. Plumbing and Gas Fitting, and Supplies for Same.-The city is supplied with several extensive manufactories, and there are besides many dealers in all the articles pertaining to plumbing, gas and steam fitting, and supplies for same. Scales.-Two scale manufactories do a large business. Iron Cornices.-Three extensive manufactories of galvanized iron cornices are in full and successful operation, with a rapidly in- creasing demand for their wares. Brass Foundries and Lock Manufactories. -There are three of this class of manufacturers, who supply locks and builders' hardware. The great Southern depot of supplies for manufacturers, the largest in the United States, is located in this city. Resources and Business Advantages of Terra Cotta and Drain Pipe.-There are two manufactories of terra cotta, statuary, vases, door and window caps, and drain pipes. These are articles much sought after by reason of their cheapness, their ornamental and durable character. Also one manufactory of cement pipe and well linings. Jewelry.-The number and extent of the manufactories and dealers in clocks, watches, diamonds, and jewelry has secured for Louisville the fame of being the most extensive market in the South. Children's Carriages and Toys.-There are several large man- ufactories of children's wagons, baby carriages, etc., where strong and durable work is made. Saddles and Harness.-Louisville is one of the leading saddle and harness manufactories of the South and West. There are about twenty manufactories, with ample capital. With 'the best quality of leather to select from, they are able to make horse collars, harness, saddles, and bridles of more lasting quality and cheaper than any where else in the United States. Trunk Manufactories.-Trunk manufacturing is an important interest. There are several factories. Two of these are the largest in the South or West. Every known variety and style is made. Iron and Hardware.-Louisville is a great center for the storing and distribution of every variety of iron, nails, steel, and builders' hardware. There are numerous wholesale firms, who employ a large capital, and have a business, like, that of dry goods, clothing, etc., extending into every Southern state. Car Works.-The Ohio Falls Car Works is one of the largest manufactories in the world. They build all kinds of passenger and freight cars, and their works are located at Jeffersonville at the head of the falls. A very large capital is employed. They have stocked many of the Western and Southern roads. The cheapness of iron, coal, and lumber, added to the facility of distribution, was the prin- cipal reason for the location of the works at this point. Furniture.-Louisville is especially proud of its furniture manu- factories. It is the second city in the United States in point of quan- tity and quality of products in this line.. The capital involved in furniture manufacturing and in chairs, etc., will aggregate 2,000,000, employing 2,000 operatives. There are two manufactories located at New Albany. The abundance and cheapness of lumber also gives to I2 Louisville and Vicinity. this business the greatest advantage. Walnut lumber is 5 to Io per thousand cheaper in Louisville than in Cincinnati, and 30 less than in New York. Every city and town in the Southern States can show, in addition to other manufactured goods, bills of lading for furniture from Louisville. Sash, Doors, and Blinds.-These are made in large quantities and shipped to all points. There are six large mills constantly at work. Lumber Yards.-Of these there are a great number, and, as previously stated, we have lumber in bard woods more abundant and cheaper than any city in the Union. Stained Glass and Decoration Painting.-Louisville has a wide reputation for the wonderful skill its artisans have displayed in many branches of industry, and among these are the decorations in the churches. Louisville artists are frequently called upon by other cities to display their taste and skill in the decorative art. Dry Goods and Notions.-The city is fully represented in all lines of this business. It has been the aim of its merchants to make this a market in every way equal to New York and Boston, and this in a great measure they have done. They duplicate orders to the great houses of the East. This could not be otherwise, since they procure their goods directly from the manufacturers of Europe as well as of this country, and thus save the profit charged by the im- porter and jobber, while their store and other expenses are not one half as much as they are in the East. Clothing.-Neither New York nor other markets can carry more complete stocks of ready-made clothing, however much larger they may be, than Louisville. The ample capital of the wholesale dealers enables them to import cloths direct from Europe, or to deal direct with home manufacturers, and to bring the manufacture of garments immediately under their own supervision. Their clothing is guar- anteed as to quality and work and as -to fashion in styles. Drugs.-The drug trade of Louisville is one of the most impor- tant in the West and South. It involves an immense capital, and dealers successfully compete with all other markets for the South- western trade. A large importing trade is carried on direct with France and England. Tobacco Manufactories.-Louisville stands among the fore- most of cities for the manufacture of tobacco. The chief reason for I 3 Resources and Business Advantages of the superiority of our brands is that our manufacturers are on the market every day, and can thus select the choice qualities of leaf, and from the largest stock in the world. Great care is bestowed in the process of manufacture. This branch of business affords employ- ment to over 2,000 people and pays a weekly revenue tax of nearly 100,000. Book Publishers.'-This is one of the most important book, job, and blank book manufacturing points in the United States. Three of the houses are among the largest for their specialty-that of blank books-and one makes a successful specialty of school books. Their united capital is not less than I,0o0,ooo. Flour, Grain, and Produce Brokers.-Louisville has a number of extensive dealers in flour, grain, and produce. In fact it has become a point for the concentration of flour and produce by reason of its superior shipping facilities not only with the South and Vest, but even with portions of the country more remote. The flour of many important mills at the Northwest finds a ready market here, notwithstanding the large mills in operation here. Manufacturers of Musical Instruments.-This city has long been famous for the production of fine pianos and organs. There are four manufactories of the former and one of the latter. An evidence of the popularity of this manufacture is the increase in the demand. Publishers of Music.-There are two houses publishing music. One of these has been in existence for twenty years, and is the largest in the Southwest. They have I 7,000 plates for music. Breweries.-There are a number of large breweries which do an extensive business and ship heavily to the South and West, which, coming under the head of luxuries, yields a heavy tax to the govern- ment. Hops and Malt.-There are several extensive houses dealing in malt and hops. Dealers in Tobacco and Cigar Manufacturers.-There are scores of cigar manufacturers and a number of wholesale dealers in plug tobacco and cigars. Their stocks are very large and their trade extends to every part of the United States. Metallic Burial Cases.-There are two manufactories of this class, supplying the trade of the South. 14 Louisville and Vicinity. I 5 Bourbon Whisky.-As the climate of France and Germany has made those countries famous for the richness of their wines, so has Kentucky become noted for the peculiar and superior quality of its Bourbon whisky. This finds a ready sale in all parts of the world among dealers in pure liquors, druggists, and compounders of medi- cines. There are over thirty wholesale dealers in this article of com- merce in Louisville, with a capital of several millions of dollars. Genuine Bourbon whisky is made only in Kentucky. Commercial Organizations.-The Mississpti Valley Trading Contpany.-Louisville has been selected as the headquarters in America of this company, the object of which is to open up a direct trade be- tween the Mississippi Valley and Great Britain. The English section of the company was organized by the co-operative societies of Great Britain, who number over 50oooo heads of families and represent 3,000,000 people. The American section is in rapid process of organ- ization, and the prospects are very encouraging. The joint capital of the company is 25,000,000. The American Co-operative Union.-This union has selected Louis- ville as a headquarters, and is working in harmony with the Mississippi Valley Trading Company. Three stores have been started in Louis- ville, and numerous others are springing into existence all over the states. A publishing company, called "The Co - operative Journal Company' has also been organized, and is already publishing an official journal, which is obtaining a rapid 'circulation. The National Grange.-This is the headquarters of the National Grange. Its objects are the social and moral improvement of the great body of husbandry, and also the keeping of full and accurate statistical reports of the soils and the productions of every section of the coun- try. It has also a commendable system of benevolence by which the inhabitants of any state or section suffering from famine or short crops may be supplied at once with the necessaries of life. Hogs, Cattle, Horses, and Sheep.-It will require no labored statement at our hands to make good Kentucky's claims to'be the lead- ing stock-producing state of this country, as for years past our stock- raisers have in many instances carried away from county, state, and national fairs the medals of gold and silver, the highest awards given in testimony of the best blooded stock. This. fact is so well known and so fully conceded that it requires only to be stated in order to be acknowledged. Resources and Business Advantages of Cheap Building Material.-Rock, Lime, Clay, Cement, and Sand.-It can not be said of any other city in the United States as it can of Louisville that the chief articles entering into building material, rock, brick clay, lime, sand, and hydraulic cement, are found in large quantities within the city limits. Cement Mills and Stone Quarries.-Eight cement mills make 450,ooo barrels of cement annually, which finds a market from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Canadas to the Gulf There is fully one million dollars invested in this manufacture. It is in- dispensable in the construction of stone masonry, bridges, sewers, water and gas works. Many of the principal houses and several churches in Louisville are built with hydraulic cement and stone from quarries in the vicinity, and are as compact as if built from Ver- mont granite. Fertilizers.-There are two 'mills making largely of bone dust and superphosphate of lime, bone guano, etc. Agricultural Products. -Corn, Hemp, Tobacco, Wheat, Oats, Rye, Hay, etc.-While tobacco is the staple crop of the state of Ken- tucky, and producing fully one third of the entire crop of the United States, the planters and farmers grow largely of hemp, wheat, corn, oats, hay, and rye. Of hemp this state produces more than .any five states except Missouri, and more than Missouri. The production of wheat, corn, oats, hay, and rye compares favorably with other states. Potatoes, vegetables, and small fruits grow in perfection. Tropical Fruits.-The convenience for reaching the Gulf States, Cuba, and Central America, both by river and rail, has resulted in the opening up of a large trade between these sections and Louisville. Oranges, lemons, pineapples, bananas, and other varieties of tropical fruits here find a point more central for distribution than elsewhere, and they are sold by wholesale as cheap as in New Orleans. Louisville and Portland Canal.-This is the largest canal in the world in capacity for steamboats, etc.; the locks are the largest ever constructed, and are of solid stone masonry. They are 8o feet in width by 370 feet from hollow cam to hollow cam, and 46 feet in height. Streets, Avenues, and Grand Thoroughfares.-Louisville is one of the few cities that has enforced a system of, wide streets, avenues, and drives, all in straight lines, crossing at right angles. It differs from all other cities in the width of the principal streets. Main Street is the site of the wholesale business in dry goodsi notions, and Louisville and lFeinity. groceries, furniture, carpets, grain, flour, cotton, and tobacco ware- houses, whisky and provision stores. Market Street has a long line of elegant stone and brick buildings in which are wholesale and retail stores, banks, etc.; also on this street are numerous manufactories arid extensive market buildings. Jefferson Street is also a thoroughfare of great width, and, like Market and Main Streets, makes a splendid showing of stone-front buildings, conspicuous among which are the City Hall and Court-house. Residence Streets.-Broadway eclipses all the streets in its great width, and also for the number of large and superb churches and elegant private residences. Chestnut Street is conspicuous for its many fine residences and as being a favorite drive for carriages. It is paved with the Nicholson pavement for a long distance, and its numerous large shade trees give it almost the appearance of a grove. Fourth Street, from Main to Broadway, nearly one mile, is a continuation of magnificent stone-front buildings for the retail trade, in which the greatest taste has been displayed. This street is not unlike Broadway, New York, for the crowds of people that throng it, especially on fair days. Third Avenue is a fine residence street, affording a drive of three miles. There are, of course, many other streets in the city conspicuous for elegant buildings, such as medical colleges, school buildings, churches, private residences, etc., but these suffice to give a brief outline of the more prominent. Blooded Horses.-Kentucky has justly acquired the enviable reputation of furnishing the best racing and trotting stock in the United States. Visitors to this city are delighted with the great num- ber of splendid match teams in harness, also single, and fine-gaited saddle horses. Liverymen have given much attention to procuring and training fine teams, and Kentucky horses are celebrated all over the world. Horse and Mule Market.-Louisville is a leading horse and mule market. A large number of horses and mules are disposed of daily at the several sale stables, and large annual shipments of mules and horses are made from this point to the cotton plantations in the South and Southwest. Fish and Game Market.-In no other market is game so abundant, especially migrating game, as wild ducks, geese, pigeons, wild turkeys, and deer. During the winter months buffalo meat from the Western plains is abundant. Native game, such as pheasants, grouse. B 17 Resources and Business Advantages of quails, snipe, squirrels, rabbits, woodcock, in their season are almost as cheap as domestic fowls. Daily arrivals by railroad and steamers, and improved modes of keeping fresh on cars, account for the plentiful- ncss of the game market. The oyster and fish market is bountifully supplied with both lake and river fish and mountain trout, fresh on ice or frozen, and oysters in cans and shells. City Property and Vacant Lots.-There are few cities in this country that present better advantages for the purchase of real estate acd building lots. At the breaking out of the late war city property suffered a heavy decline for a few months, but quickly rallied, and the rapid building up of the city was a fortunate source of speculation among lot-holders generally until the panic of September, I873-. Since that date there has been a steady but slow decline in prices, with com- paratively few sales. It is conceded, however, that the decline, which is from 40 to 50 per cent below the highest prices reached during the era of prosperity, can not in the nature of the case continue further, but that with the return of public confidence and general resumption of business throughout the country prices must again advance, and there never was a more favorable time for purchasing than the present. The usual terms of sale are a small cash payment and the remainder running through a series of years at six per cent interest. Milk and Butter.-Trains arrive regularly every morning from the midst of the Bluegrass dairies with the richest milk, butter, and cheese. The freshness and cheapness of these articles is a luxury not only to the man of wealth and laboring man, but to invalids and chil- drerf they are the greatest boon, for they can obtain these articles of as good a quality as though they were living in close proximity to the farms that produce them. Milk retails at I5 to 20 cts. per 'gallon and butter at I7Y2 to 25 cts. per pound, and our choice cuts of beef sell at about 8 to ir2 cts. per pound. Banks.-There are here a large number of banks, the directors in many of them being manufacturers, and personal knowledge proves that they are alive to the encouragement of manufacturers. Much of the Louisville trade, especially that of tobacco, Italian marble, queens- ware, and leather, being with Europe, correspondence between Louis- ville banks and those of the great cities abroad is very generally carried on. Foreign exchange is obtained quite as readily as do- nmestic. . , The City Water Works.-The supply of water in any city is a question in which all feel an interest, and in this Louisville is not 18 Louswmle and Vicinity. 19 surpassed. The water works are situated two miles above the city, where by mammoth engines a reservoir on tablerland above the city and covering several acres is filled, and thence is distributed through the city in iron pipes, which aggregate fully 96 miles in length. This is also of great importance to manufacturers. The water works are owned by the city, and can not be used as a monopoly. They now furnish water to the manufacturers under the following resolution of the board of directors: "Resolved, That the Louisville Water Company will furnish to any person or persons, company or companies, corpora- tion or corporations, who will locate here or have now located a manufacturing business, or to any now here who will enlarge their establishments, water for manufacturing purposes at the annexed rates, meter measurement: One million gallons, or less, per quarter, I5c per thousand gallons; over one million gallons, and not exceeding one and a half million gallons, per quarter, I4c per thousand gallons; over one and a half million gallons, and not exceeding two and a half million gallons, per quarter, x3c per thousand gallons; over two and a half million gallons, and not exceeding four million gallons, per quarter, I2C per thousand gallons; over four million gallons, and not exceed- ing five and a half million gallons, per quarter, ioc per thousand gallons; over five and a half million gallons, and not exceeding seven and a half million gallons, per quarter, 8c per thousand gallons; all over seven and a half million gallons, per quarter, 6c per thousand gallons." The works are valued at 2,000,000; prospects for addition, 0oo,ooo. The new improvements will double its capacity. City of Churches, School Houses, Orphans' Home, Char- itable Orders.-Practically Louisville, New Albany, and Jefferson- ville afford the best example to be found in the world as to the number of churches, school houses, orphans' homes, and charitable and benev- olent orders. They are at all times a theme of pleasing reference and generous approval from all sources; the tall spires and bold outlines are specially prominent and well defined when viewed from the grand chain of hills surrounding our city limits on the east and that of In- diana on the west. It is not surprising that the valley encircling thus the three cities, separated only by the beautiful Ohio, spanned by the great iron bridge, and dotted over by passing and repassing steamers, proves as enchanting to the eye of emigrants and visitors as Philadel- phia from Fairmount or Naples from the bay. Public Buildings.-Few cities of the continent can boast more public and private buildings compactly built and of more surpassing Resources and Business Advantages of architectural beauty. The most prominent are probably the new City Hall, United States Custom House, Court House, Industrial Exposition, and the Courier-Journal building. The latter was formally opened on the x8th of May, 1876, with impressive ceremonies and the unvailing of a statue of that eminent journalist of his time, Geo. D. Prentice. The Female High School is also an object of special pride. It is the most costly and convenient building for similar use in this country. This school, together with the Male High School, under their present management and the high order of education and discipline, and the long list of primary schools, are a guarantee to those who make Louis- ville their future home that they will secure unequaled educational advantages for their children. Orphan Homes and Asylums.-Every denomination of Chris- tians and all of the benevolent orders have made provision for the too often neglected orphan. The Masonic Widows and Orphans' Rome is widely known for the gracious shelter it affords the widows and orphan children of the members of that time-honored and benevolent fraternal order, is the first of the order built in this country, and is therefore the pioneer asylum of the Masons. There is also the Old Ladies' Home, then again the Young Ladies' Home, both affording a ready shelter and relief from the cares of life for those who are worthy. A new and precious charity is the " Infirmary for Women and Children," wholly benevolent. There are Presbyterian, Methodist, Catholic, Bap- tist, German Protestant, Episcopalian, and Jewish asylums. Even the poor deck hand on the river steamer finds a gratuitous home in the superb United States Hospital. The City Hospital is one which exceeds most others in its vast extent. There is also a home for truant boys or girls, or a house of refuge, where wayward children are placed under suitable restraint, and by kindness and firmness, with healthful labor and pleasant recreation, won over to a true appreciation of their duties to parents and superiors and to the importance of becoming self-reliant in order to be useful. Hotels.-Louisville is notably well provided with well regulated hotels. These are widely known throughout this country and Europe .to tourists ahd the traveling public, and, coupled with the pleasant climate and reputation for good health and choice markets, they are well patronized by pleasure-seekers and invalids, as well as by the large influx of travel at all seasons of the year. The most prominent of these are the Galt House, Louisville, Willard, St. Cloud, Rufer's, Central, Alexander, and Fifth Avenue. 20 Louisville and Viciniity. 21 The River Trade.-Louisville has 12,000 miles of river trade to points in the South and West. There are no less than thirty navigable rivers passing through a country tributary to Louisville, and acessible by steamers from this city. They are as follows: Alleghany, Arkansas, Big Black, Barren, Big Sandy, Cumberland, Des Moines, Grand and Green, Hatchie, Illinois, Iowa, Kaskaskia, Kentucky, Kanawha, Lamine, La Fourche, Missouri, Monongahela, Muskingum, Mississippi, Ohio, Obron, Osage, Red Rock, Sunflower, Tennessee, Wabash, White, Wis- consin, and Yazoo. In addition to these there are numerous bayous in Mississippi and Louisiana that furnish navigation through several hundreds of miles in the richest rice and cotton-producing districts of those states. These numerous rivers and bayous furnish avenues Qf trade and commerce with I5 states and over 340 counties-as stated by Richard Deering in 1859 in his notes on Louisville trade with a .population of 5,000,000 souls. The cash value of their farms in I850 was 601,412,4i6; of farm products, 218,992,007; live stock, 87,- 413,443; total value, 901,717,866. Such, says Deering, is the vast empire of population and wealth to which Louisville has access by means of river navigation. To the river facilities add those of River Travel and Palace Steamers.-Lines of splendid palace steamers leave the port of Louisville daily for Cincinnati, New Orleans, and intermediate points. The accommodations and attention which they give the traveling public compare favorably with the best class of ocean and lake steamers. There is also a daily line of steamers from Louisville to Henderson, distance 212 miles. Railroads.-First, the Louisville Nashville and Great Southern Railroad, connecting direct with Nashville, Memphis, New Orleans, Montgomery, and Mobile; with connecting lines to Richmond, Chat- tanooga, Charleston, and Savannah, and the entire Atlantic seaboard and Gulf cities. This road has also branches on the east to Richmond, Ky., Crab Orchard, Bardstown, and extending toward Knoxville, Tenn., as far as the rich coal mines in Eastern Kentucky at Pine Hill and Livingston. Then the Louisville Paducah Railroad, the Cincinnati Short Line, the Louisville Lexington, the Ohio Mississippi, the Louisville Indianapolis, the Louisville, New Albany Chicago, the Louisville Harrod's Creek, the unfinished Cumberland Ohio, and the St. Louis Air Line. It is an acknowledged fact that the unprece- dented growth in several branches of manufacturing is by reason of facilities so vast over an area of territory by rail and river, and the still further fact of the cheapness of coal, iron, and timber. All of Resources and Business Advantages of these roads mentioned have opened up to Louisville in addition to other valuable products alternate bodies of land abounding in hard woods, cedar, oak, poplar, hickory, and black walnut, with a saving in its favor in oak lumber of 4 per i,ooo less than St. Louis, and 5 to 1o less per I,ooo than Cincinnati for black walnut. Daily, Weekly, and Monthly Papers.-The following jour- nals and periodicals are published in Louisville, Jeffersonville, and New Albany: Louisville.-Daily: Anzeiger, Commercial, Courier-Journal, Globe, Volksblatt. Weekly: American Medical Weekly, Anzeiger Weekly, Weekly Courier-Journal, Commercial Weekly, Farmers' Home Jour- nal, Jeffersonian Democrat, Kentucky Presbyterian, Manufacturers and Merchants' Advertiser, National Granger, Omnibus, Louisville Medical News, Riverside Weekly, Saturday Review, Southern Agriculturist, Volksblatt Weekly, Western Recorder, Christian Observer, Glaubens- bote, Sunday Argus, Catholic Advocate, Poultry Journal, Hyatt's Southern Guide, Orphan's Friend, Christian Index. Mon/hby: Amer- ican Practitioner, Louisville and Richmond Medical Journal, Home and School, Co-operative Journal of Progress. New Albany.-Ledger-Standard, Deutsch Zeitung. Jeffersonville.-Daily Evening News, Weekly National Democrat. Real Estate.-Mechanics and others of small means can pur- chase a house and lot on terms not more exacting than monthly rents. The numerous street railroads in all directions make a residence in the suburbs of the city a matter of great convenience. Mineral Resources of Kentucky.-The counties which pro- duce lead and silver are Livingston, Crittenden, Caldwell, Franklin, Lyon, Henry, and Owen. The counties which produce coal, iron, zinc, antimony, sulphurate lead, fluor spar, kaolin, and steatite are Livingston (true fissure veins), Crittenden (true fissure veins), Lyon, and Caldwell. The coal measures cover an area of over thirteen thou- sand square miles, one third more than all the coal measures of Great Britain. Fluor spar, kaolin, and steatite abound in immense quantities. These are the properties from which choice English, French, and Ger- man queensware and china are made. The following is a list of the iron furnaces in Kentucky which have been so successfully operated and have given Louisville the best and cheapest pig iron in America: Ashland Furnace, Boyd County; Kenton, Campbell County; Norton Iron Works, Boyd County; Swift's Iron and Steel Works, Boyd Coun- ty; Bath, Bath County; Bellefonte, Greenup County; Belmont, Bullitt 22 Louisville and Vicinity. 23 County; Buena Vista, Boyd County; Buffalo, Greenup County; Cot- tage, Estill County; Estill, Estill County; Hunewall, Greenup County; Iron Hills, Greenup County; Kenton, Lewis County; Laurel, Greenup County; Luzerne, Carter County; Mt. Savage, Carter County; Nelson, Nelson County; Penna, Greenup County; Raccoon, Greenup County; Red River, Estill County; Dardie, Muhlehberg County; Carter, Lyon County; Laura, Trigg County; Monmouth, Lyon County; Trigg, Trigg County; Morris, Ohio County; Star, Carter County; Clear Creek, Bath County. These furnaces, as well as the coal mines and mineral lands, are accessible by railroad and river from Louisville. Counties in Kentucky Producing Iron.-Lewis, Greenup, Boyd, Carter, Rowan, Lawrence, Johnston, Morgan, Magoffin, Floyd, Breathitt, Wolfe, Powell, Estill, Owsley, Jackson, Perry, Letcher, Clay, Laurel, Knox, Whitley, Harlem, Nelson, Bullitt, Edmondson, Butler, Hart, Ohio, Muhlenberg, Webster, Hopkins, Crittenden, Livingston, Caldwell, Lyon, Trigg. Counties in Kentucky Producing Coal.-Ohio, Henderson, Grayson, Hancock, Davis, Union, Webster, McLane, Crittenden, Hop- kins, Muhlenberg, Butler, Edmondson, Christian, Trigg, Livingston, Lyon, Caldwell, Carter, Rowan, Lawrence, Johnston, Morgan, Bath, Magoffin, Powell, Wolfe, Floyd, Breathitt, Owsley, Estill, Terry, Clay, Jackson, Letcher, Laurel, Knox, Whitley, Harlan, Breckinridge, Hart; Pike, Boyd, Fleming, Pulaski-making a total of forty-six counties, much of which is known to be equal to the Pittsburgh coal. The fa- mous cannel coal also exists in this state. It is a well known fact that the cost of delivering Pittsburgh coal at our wharf does not exceed two cents per bushel from Pittsburgh, and that our coal dealers deliver it to families at 2.75 per cart-load of twenty-five bushels, which is the price paid by Pittsburgh families for the same article. It is fur- ther known that during the past winter Pittsburgh coal was selling readily in Louisville at 3 per cart-load, while Indianapolis was paying for the same article 5 per load of twenty-five bushels. It should still be borne in mind that while this city is receiving Pittsburgh coal it has also daily trains over the Louisville Paducah Road and Louis- ville Nashville Road, with coal but little inferior to the Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh coal is now delivered to manufacturers at 93/ cents per bushel by the barge-load. This is 2.37 per ton. By way of showing the contrast in the price Louisville manufacturers pay for coal and that paid by manufacturers of Fall River, Mass., which is a fair average of the price paid by all manufacturers of the New England seaport towns, Resources and Business Advantages of it is distinctly stated that the price of coal at Fall River is 6 per ton against 2.37 per ton at Louisville. It must be borne in mind that the coal for Fall River, Boston, and adjacent cities is from the mines of Pennsylvania, and is handled two and three times, and reaches its destination in slow, tedious-going brigs and 'schooners by ocean. The Alleghany and Cumberland Mountain Iron and Coal Fields.-In Tennessee there is an iron belt i6o miles long by 6o miles wide lying along the western shed of Cumberland Mountain. This is a continuation of the iron belt at Birmingham, Ala. The entire tract is interspersed with coal. This vast field will be traversed by the Chattanooga branch of the Cumberland Ohio R. R. This is the same belt of iron and coal that passes directly across the eastern portion of Kentucky and along the same slope of the Cumberland and Alleghany Mountains. It is a foregone conclusion that as West Vir- ginia and Pennsylvania coal and iron fields run along the same slope of mountain and make directly up to the Kentucky line, and as large furnaces are already opened in Boyd, Greenup, Lewis, and Carter Counties, Kentucky, along this western shed of mountain, there must be iron and coal equal to the best Tennessee and Alabama for a distance of 250 miles long by 6o miles wide in Kentucky in unlimited quantities, all of which can be reached by slack-water navigation of Kentucky River and by the extension of the Lebanon and Richmond branches of the Louisville Nashville and Great Southern Railroad, and also by the completion of the Lexington Big Sandy Railroad. The streams of water penetrating the iron and coal fields, and on which the iron furnaces and open coal mines are located, are Kentucky, Green, Barren, Cumberland, and Tennessee Rivers, all of which empty into the Ohio below Cincinnati, and next to Louisville; and as there must be a central port for storing the product of these furnaces in anticipation of any interruption to navigation from any cause, Louis- ville has necessarily become the great depot for storing surplus stock; hence there is always on hand here a full supply of the great staple, pig iron, made from various kinds of ore and adapted to more general use than the supply of any other city in the United States, the stock being about equally divided between red short, cold short, and neutral brands. East Tennessee Marble.-The fine East Tennessee marble at Rogersville is not twelve miles from the Kentucky line, and no doubts exists in Kentucky. Prof. Shaler, under authority of the state of Ken- tucky, is now making surveys of the resources of the great iron and 24 Louisville and Vicinity. coal belt, including marble, which will in due time be presented to the public. Block Coal.-The famous mines of block coal, a coal better than any other yet discovered, and surpassing charcoal in the manufacture of iron and steel, in Southern Indiana, are reached by the St. Louis Air Line, fifty-five miles from New Albany. This coal is now used in the -iron works of Indiana and in the Bessemer steel works of Cleveland, Chicago, and St. Louis. The close proximity of these mines to the cities around the falls furnishes another argument for manufacturers to settle. Coupled with this, the cheapest iron market in the United States, the falls of the Ohio should be the great center from which the bulk of the manufacture and commerce in iron and steel must eventu- ally come. Fluor Spar.-This is a very rare and valuable mineral. It con- tains about 48 per cent fluorine and 52 per cent calcium, therefore it is the most valuable flux used in the manufacture of iron and steel. The Greeks used it, and its great value has been known for thousands of years, but it has never been found in large commercial quantities before its discovery in Kentucky. A certain establishment in Europe has been using it for years secretly, at a cost of 5.6o to the ton of iron, with great profit. Fluoric acid, which is worth 2 per pound, is made from fluor spar by a simple process. It is valuable in the man- ufacture of. plate glass ware, pillars, and monuments, as it will prevent them from tarnishing. The largest deposits in the world are found on the Cumberland and Ohio Rivers, in Livingston and Crittenden Coun- ties, Ky., in true fissure veins from nine to thirty feet wide, accompany- ing lead and silver, while the great western belt of brown hematite ore crosses these veins at right angles. Prof. D. D. Owen in his geological report says there are also vertical veins of magnetic iron in the same district. This district is intersected by a railroad and three large rivers. Lead and Silver Mines.-An important discovery has been recently developed with a large and sufficient capital to insure its fullest development by the Edna Mining Company, of this city,.near the lower boundary of the state, bordering on and from one to two miles from the bank of the Ohio River, thus affording transportation both by rail and river, connecting by rail to and within a few hours of Louisville. The mines, from developments, promise to be among the very richest ones yet discovered in both lead and silver, yield- ing 8i Y per cent of the former, with evidence of sufficient silver to 25 Resourcu and Business Advantages of pay all expenses in working the mines, which- renders their fullest development of great interest to our city as an important commercial enterprise. The Cities of New Albany and Jeffersonville.-So closely allied are the interests of the thriving cities of Jeffersonville and New Albany, both of them situated directly opposite this city on the Indiana shore, the former at the head and the latter at the foot of the falls, that in a commercial point their interests may be classed as identical with it. They are easy of access by street railways and ferries, also by railroad trains passing and repassing hourly between the three points. New Albany is especially active as a growing manufacturing town. Both cities are valuable to Louisville, as providing a place of residence for hundreds of business men and mechanics, who find the ride over the beautiful Ohio valuable for recreation, and rents and marketing as reasonable as one can desire. The city of New Albany, under the influence of rapidly increasing manufactures and growing trade, has just completed a city waterworks, giving an abundant supply to manufacturers and families. The schools of New Albany are widely known for their high order of education and discipline. Mr. Cottom, in his circular published in i873 on the manufactories of New Albany, gives the number of manufactories of all classes at one hun- dred and twenty-three, with 20,000,000 capital; thirteen public school buildings and thirty churches. The inhabitants of both Jeffersonville and New Albany are noted for their industry, culture, and refinement. Mammoth Cave and Springs in Kentucky. - Everybody throughout the world has heard of the famous Mammoth Cave, situ- ated in Edmondson County, Ky., distant from Louisville about eighty miles, and reached by the Louisville and Great Southern Railroad in a pleasant ride of three hours. As a great national wonder it rivals Niagara Falls. The hotel accommodations are of the best, and every kindness and attention is shown to guests. Springs.-The state abounds in never-failing springs of choicest lime and freestone water, and in many parts there are springs of chalybeate water. Of these springs Crab Orchard and Grayson are places of great resort. Their waters are justly celebrated the country over for their medicinal qualities, and the salts, manufactured only in limited quantities, are widely known. Bluegrass.-The luxuriant growth of bluegrass over a large portion of Kentucky, especially over the famous bluegrass country of which the noted city of Lexington-the home of that great states- 26 Louisville and Vwiniiy. 27 man, Henry Clay-is the center, has always been a matter of astonish- ment to visitors, but viewed by the fortunate owners of the ground as a streak of good luck. All that can be said by way of explanation in accounting for this growth of rich pasturage is traceable to the fact that under the soil of this bluegrass country and close to the surface is a continuous bed of peculiarly rich limestone. This holds the rain deposits, and the grass and kindred vegetation are constantly drawing moisture from the best fertilizer yet discovered. Divines, Professional Men, and Scholars. -The city has taken a specially proud position among the cities of the nation in the number of men of acknowledged talent and superior scholarship. Certainly the legal profession of Kentucky has many representatives of acknowledged ability. The medical profession here has for years had many leaders, physicians and surgeons, who in their specialty are acknowledged the world over as authorities. Its claims are sustained fully for good chemists, sculptors, artists, and architects. Foreign Population.-This is the most inviting locality to be found for energetic and thrifty foreigners of all nations. Fully one- third of the population are intelligent Germans, Frenchmen, Irish- men, Scotchmen, and other nationalities. The worth of the foreign population i's fully exemplified in the numerous manufactories and other industries owned or managed by them, as well as many of the leading wholesale houses and some of the banks. The German population is especially prominent among the owners and proprietors of the twenty-three tan-yards and most of the furniture manufactories, all of which gives the strongest assurance to representatives of the same countries, but still in the Fatherland, that security in the prosecu- tion of their business and the enjoyment of their social and religious views are guaranteed. Theaters, Opera-Houses, and Public Halls.-Lovers of the drama have not been lacking in their endeavors to give Louisville attractive halls and theaters. In this respect their efforts have been crowned with signal success. Indeed, the elaborate decorations and taste displayed in their internal arrangement is a subject of wide-spread comment and praise for the projectors and owners. The halls of amusement are respectively Macauley's Theater, Masonic Temple, Kentucky Public Library Hall, Liederkranz Hall, and many others of minor note. Foreign Trade-Capitalists and Manufacturers.-For men of business who are practical and who desire to build up a trade in Resources and Business Advantages of any branch of business, Louisville is the place. In giving to the world a summary of the extent and importance of the manufactories and business interests that are largely or partially interested in this city, it is but proper that those branches of business which are not represented at all, or only partially so, should be so stated, that the business man or manufacturer in the overcrowded cities or localities of the old settled places in this country or in Europe may be informed of the advantages that Louisville now offers for building up any class of business. The city and trade needs a number of first-class cotton mills. It needs as many factories of fine, writing, and brown papers. It needs also several first-class hemp bagging manufactories. Immense quanti- ties of cotton sheeting and brown paper are sold, while there is no manufactory of them. Hemp bagging for fourteen mills is sold here; and yet there is only one factory. There is no malleable iron factory, no emery manufactory, and no steel works. Seven million dollars worth of boots and shoes are sold here annually, and there are only six shoe manufactories and no boot manufactories. There are no carpet manufactories. There are no saddletree manufactories; no starch manufactories; only two spoke and hub manufactories. There is no queensware manufactory, and but one tannery of calf skins, the others being of sole and harness leather. No silk manufactory. There is no manufactory of kid and goat skins. There are besides good openings for hundreds of other manufactories of countless articles in wool, silk, hemp, and linen, as well as many from wood and metals, that could be made with a fair profit. It can do no harm to correspond with committees appointed by the Merchants and Manufac- turers' Exchange, who will take pleasure in furnishing additional information. R SUM E. The following summary of claims can not fail to convince the merchants and manufacturers of the world that Louisville can justly say that it is to the manufacturing world what the great sea-board cities of this and other nations are to commerce. I. It is the great gateway into the South and Southwest. 2. It is more central in point of manufacturing than any other city, as it is midway between the North and the South, and East and West. 28 Louisville and Vicinity. 3. It is located on the Ohio River, with fully 12,000 miles of river communication. 4. It has a complete system of railroads reaching to every part of the country as quickly as from any other city, and the rates of trans- portation are equally as cheap. 5. Its river and railroad facilities enable its manufacturers to send their articles, goods, wares, and merchandise, over a larger scope of country without reshipment than any other city on the continent. 6. Louisville lies in the center of as fertile and well-timbered a section of country as can be found any where. 7. The surplus grain, lumber, fruit, etc., from the upper Ohio and its tributaries, and from Kentucky River, finds a ready market here, or in going South is compelled to pass through the city. 8. It has pig iron in greater abundance, superior in quality, and cheaper that any city in the United States. 9. It has coal in great abundance, and cheaper in price than any other city on the continent save Pittsburgh. The coal is as good for manufacturing purposes as any other to be found on the continent. io. The advantages of river communication are invaluable, for they float to its doors in the greatest abundance the choice pine lumber of the great forests of the Northeast; also black walnut, maple, cedar, etc., from the Ohio, Kentucky, and Virginia rivers. ii. With the cheapest iron, coal, and timber found in the United States, and the transportation by railroads and rivers reaching a larger scope of territory than from any other point, Louisville claims to be, as a geographical point, the most favored city on the globe. I2. It is on the very edge of the cotton-producing states, and one thousand miles nearer the cotton fields than the cotton manufactories of the East; and this fact can be turned to great advantage by the location of cotton mills here, which would have in their competition with the mills of other cities East the saving in freights, fifty per cent in the price of fuel, commissions, etc. 13. Louisville is especially fortunate, being in the latitude of seldom- failing apple, peach, and pear crops. Its climate is especially adapted to the culture of grapes, berries, vegetables, etc. 14. The state of Kentucky abounds in quarries of the finest building stone, almost equal to marble, which finds a ready sale 29 Resources and Business Advantages of throughout Kentucky and the South, and is shipped in large quantities to St. Louis and other cities on Westerh waters. 15. RIVERS.-A glance at the map shows that Kentucky is traversed by the Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Cumberland, Green, and Barren rivers, all of them navigable streams, passing through rich fields of iron ore and coal. The Tennessee and Cumberland pass directly into the cotton fields of the South. i6. Louisville as a tobacco market is the largest in the 7orld, and this has been secured by reason of the vast line of river and railroad communication. So important is this considered in the eyes of the commercial world that there now are resident agents from every impor- tant city in Europe, as well as from the governments of Italy, France, and Spain, and the agents from our own seaboard cities and other points. The important depots and sale warehouses are nine in number, and their sales and advances amount to io,oooooo annually. The houses are named respectively Farmers, Planters (Kentucky Tobaco Associa- tion), Falls City, Louisville, Boone, Ninth Street, and Pickett. The state of Kentucky produces above ioo,ooo hogsheads annually. The annual sales in hogsheads reaches 70,000. 17. There are here several large houses already in the cotton trade, with the best of results; showing that this may, at no distant day, grow in importance in the cotton trade and become a center in that, as it has in leaf tobacco. Fully 300,000 bales of cotton are shipped from this point, being the grand central route from the cotton fields of Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee to the manufactories East. i8. Louisville has not only choice vegetables, but its close proximity to the famous bluegrass pastures furnishes the several markets with the best beef found in America. I9. The city is provided with water works, and there are also two wells on an average to every square, giving an abundance of water to every part of the city. The fire department is pronounced by com- petent persons to be one of the most efficient in existence. 20. The Ohio River at this point is spanned by an iron railroad bridge, one mile in length, of great strength, and furnishes a ready transit for freight to and from the city. Passing completely around the falls on the Kentucky side of the river is the ship canal, giving a ready passage to steamers, barges, tows, etc., from the upper Ohio and all points South and West. zi. Louisville has a fine system.of street railroads, seventy-five 30 Louisville and Vicinity. 31 miles in length, and extending through the most populous portions of the city and the growing suburbs. It has also an efficient fire alarm and police telegraph. 22. The complete street paving, grading, and excellent sewerage is so thorough as to secure freedom from stagnant pools of water or malaria. 23. The public schools are also a source of just pride to the citizens. The buildings are very commodious. The teachers are selected by the members of the School Board from the respective wards of the city, and it is claimed that the schools have attained a system of proficiency seldom surpassed or equaled in the schools of other cities. 24. The medical colleges and law schools are the subject of wide- spread comment for the thoroughness of the instruction they give to young men aspiring to the honorable and dignified calling of a physician or an attorney. 25. Lou.sville has a great number of churches of all denomina- tions, all representing good congregations. 26. No city affords a greater safety to person and property. The mayor of the city and the municipal, county, and state government, including the police and all departments, are among the best men to be found in any city. 27. Libraries are also matters of the highest importance. The Kentucky Library (in the Public Library building) and the Louisville Library (on the corner of Fifth and Walnut) take a high rank with those of other cities. The Public Library has 35,000 volumes, and the Louisville I3,000. A WORD TO EMIGRANTS. With the showing made herein it is certain that the citizens of foreign lands who contemplate emigration can find nowhere on the globe a field so full of promise as Kentucky and the South now affords. It is absolutely the center for the cheapest of articles-iron, coal, lumber, leather, breadstuffs, and provisions, with unlimited transporta- tion, which really makes the only solid ba6is around which capital, skilled labor, and mechanics find their chief source of prosperity. The state of Kentucky is rich in lands, pasturage and timber, and the lands are cheap; and the state, in common with the city of Louisville, 32 Business Advantages of Louisville and Vicinity. has a large representation of Germans, English, French, Italians, Scotch, and Irish, who are enthusiastic over the unexpected advantages that they enjoy on arrival in our midst. It is a fact not generally known abroad or in our own country that Kentucky does not owe a single dollar of state debt. This is a strong proof of good financial management on the her executive authorities. R. A. ROBINSON, DENNIS LONG, NATHAN BLOOM, CHAS. BREMAKER, JAS. BRIDGEFORD, S. P. DrcK, E. D. STANDIFORD, W. N. HALDEMAN, GEO. C. BUCHANAN, J. W. STINE, T. C. COLEMAN, WM. H. DILLINGHAM, part of her people and W. H. WRAMPELMIER, GEO. AINSLIE, JOHN T. GATHRIGHT, WM. B. BELKNAP, C. STEGE, W. A. DAVIS, GEO. S. MOORE, SAMUEL AVERY, J. B. MCFERRAN, THEO. COtRAD, J. LAWRENCE SMITH, R.: H. WOOLFOLK, W. C. DEPAUW, New Albany, JAS. HOWARD, Jeffersonville, Commniitee. This page in the original text is blank. '4 0 0 z (I U) 0