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Ancient history, or, Annals of Kentucky : with a survey of the ancient monuments of North America, and a tabular view of the principal languages and primitive nations of the whole earth / by C.S. Rafinesque.
Ancient history, or, Annals of Kentucky : with a survey of the ancient monuments of North America, and a tabular view of the principal languages and primitive nations of the whole earth / by C.S. Rafinesque. Rafinesque, C. S. (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-122-28575511 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Ancient history, or, Annals of Kentucky : with a survey of the ancient monuments of North America, and a tabular view of the principal languages and primitive nations of the whole earth / by C.S. Rafinesque. Rafinesque, C. S. (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840. Printed for the author, Frankfort, Kentucky : 1824. iv, 39 p. ; 23 cm. Coleman "The following pages have appeared as an introduction to the second edition of the History of Kentucky by Humphrey Marshall, esq."-p. [ii] Fitzpatrick, 467 Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1993. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN03472.08 KUK) Printing Master B92-122. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Indians History. Indians of North America Kentucky. Kentucky Antiquities. ANCIENT HISTORY Constantine Samuel Rafinesque This page in the original text is blank. ANCIENT HISTORY, OR ANNALS 0 tERYTVMXn WITH A SURVEY Or THE ANCIENT MONUMENTS OF XORTH AMERICA, ,li-2 a, Tabular Viezw of the Principio Languages and Pn'roi- tive JVations of the vwhole Earth. By G S. RA-FIESQUE, A M, Ph. D, Pf.in Trans. Univ.-Sup't. of thre T.ans Bot Csrden-Sec'y oftbO Kent. Institute, and member ofu e followiig Societies: Imp. Nat. Cur of Bonn Lit. Phil Soc. ot Nw York, Imp. Econ, Soc. of Vienna, Lc. of Nat. Hist of Kew Yorl, R. Inst. of SciencesofNapies, Ac, of Nat. Sc. otPhiladelphia, It. Ac. of Arts and Sciences, Antiq. Suc. of Iennessee, Lin. Soc. of Paris, Med. Soc of Ci-icinnati, Amer. Antiq Soc. Med. Soc, of Levxngton, Histor. Soc. of New York, 8C. C. CJ(umquam otioesu.) FRANKFORT, IN KENTUCKY. PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR. 1824. THESE PAGES ARE DEDICATED TO ALEXANDER DE HUMBOLDT, IN TOKEN OF THE HIGH VALVE SET UPON NIS RESEARcHES ON HERSCA. The following pages have appeared as an introduction to the second edition of the History of Kentucky by Hum- phrey Marshall Esq.-Some copies have been printed in a pamphlet form, to which the author now prefixes a Philolo- logical and Ethnological Table, abridged from an elaborate survey of about 500 languages and dialects of both Conti- nents; reduced to 50 mother languages, (besides 25 exam- ples of Dialects) with their principal roots for four impor- tant words. This will demonstrate those leading facts of his history relating to the derivation of American nations and languages. As a first and arduous attempt, it ought to claim the indulgence of the philologists, if any inevitable omissions or inaccuracies should be detected; but none will be found of a nature to invalidate the general results. At a future time the subject may be renewed, enlarged and ren- dered still more evident, in connection with a general histo- ry of the nations and monuments of America. The individuals to whom this essay will be sent, will con- fer a favor on the author, if they are able to communicate to him, some additional vocabularies of any language or dia- lect of North or South America; essential words and cardi- nal numbers are particularly wanted. ERRATA. Page 6, line 22, for Amygdalvid read Amygdaloid. p 12. 1 24, Termurians Fermuriaqs. 13, 23, Orenoe Orenoc. 17. 27, Gadesiems Gadesians. 20, 21, Copatta Copatla. 23, 15., Karitist Caralit. 2, 29, Curas Ctiz". 34, 22, 7500 4500 36, 31, county country. 38, 15, Has Star. 20, HarmaT Harmon. 39t 17, Vaelt Vater. IETHNOLOGICAL AND PHILOLOGICAL TABLED OF THE 1rimitire JatttioUs aU41 LAnguages. The words Heaven, Land, Water and Man have been selected to fornm this table; which is the first attempt ever made to ascertain and compare the roots of all languages. This has been done by reducing those words from dialects and analogous languages into their primitive, essen- tial and radical sounds. The sounds of universal speech are 64, or 12 vowels, 12 nasals, 15 Consonnw-nts, 15 Sibilants and 10 Aspirations; the orthography adapted to express them is phonological and .invaria- ble. rhe relative connection and affirnities of the American nations and languages with those of the eastern continent, will be perceived at a glance by comparing these roots. The number following each Radical Language indicates from how many dialects the roots lai e been evolved; but few radical Languages are omited, while the words cf some impor. tant Dialects are added as examples. This singn! marks the roots iden. tica: with the American roots. PRIM. NAT. LANJ. ROOTS ROOTS ROOTS ROOTS OF OF OF OF AMERICA. HEAVEN LAND, WATER, MAN, GdD, SIEY, LAHTH,WORLD, SEA, RIVER, MALE, NA- 1. EASTERN BRANCEH :ARADISE. anOUND, SOIL. LAKE, RAIN. TION,PEOPLa 1 Atalan or Cutan 5 FI,ca. ta Poconchian . Taxat Cherokih . Calangota 2 Aruic or Antilan 7 Ya. zn. 3 Cariban 6 Ca. pU. ta. Tamanac . - . Capu 4 Guarani 4 Pn. ta. Bragilian . Tupana 5 Muiscas 1 Zac 6 Araucanian 2 Huen. 7 Peruvian 2 Ca. It. ASIATIC OF 8 Mexican 3 ll. il. eo. 9 Misurian orOmnan 9 Pa. no. .lMniar ih- - Apah-hi. 10 Floridan 12 Co. hua. to. Chactah . - Itolo 11 PanisorApachian5 Sca. tu. 12 Ler apiar 35 Scu. mug. Shawanih - Spimikih 13 Meiiguy 20 To. ho. Tuscorora . . Toendeloh 14 Caralit 5 Ac. na. Co. cal. .'cal Catun Ay. ca. En. an. no. Noni lb. Ha. ya. Ha. Ahua. amah A, ira. Ttu.co.no.lo. T2uno lab. ud. ma. ibi. ibuy, Ig uh. At. Tu. map. Co.ro.le. ma, An. ac. Ma, U'. lo. Cu. uil. sca. Cud. Sca3ytJ. Co. gua Ii. uc. ir. Oi.0 ukil Ap. .1ba. tapoy. Cs. En. Ra. na. co. R WESTERN BRANCHI. 1.1. an. Al. at. ul. E', Mah. ca. Nih. mi. Nu. hua. ma. A/mah M3inih Mlat, zha. Ca. na. Cu.hua.lu.goNa. cay. is. .A ani Nacana Ocuh. Ocah. Aloknih. Ar. ta. oc. Pa. ec. lsb.tuy. gap. Ac. in. ze Ih. tu. ni. si. In li. di. .Akih stppih Linnih. Co. hun. chi. (En. nic. En. on. ni. )leniyen Ohuen Etntec. nihsah. Na. can. Im. tal. En. in. ga. EUROPEAN LANGUAGES AND NATIONS. 15 Pelasgian 10 Eo! as. se. ur. Ar! ay! en! ta! Hu! ru! a! An. Cu! Cantabrian Saerit Lurre. Eri Uva ,Nar. 16 Celtic 54 Et! ne! eo! Ar! la! so. tal. Um.on-ac!ri. Molr! ni! Irish, . . Neam Talu Enasc. loc..r. mo.dinih. Provential - iel Tere. Sou, tig mar Ome. 17 Gothic or Scythian 30 El !eo.ca. Ard. Ian. od. At! thi. lQ! M41 ! an. Teutonic - . Jimel .qrd. land Uat. atta. J.71t. 18 Sarmatian 22 Des. ni. Sem. or. li. Us! od. Oc. mo. Russian - - Jebesi Semli Voda .loco. 19 Chudish 12 Ta! el! me! Ma! zo. do. Ua! mu. Er.! is' ( iv. ) ASIATIC PRIMITIVE NATIONS AND LAN GUAGEE. 1. IRANIC OR WLSTERN. Aramic 18 El! em! IAo! se, Ar! ds, ma! Hu! mu, ya, Z'-nd 8 As! she-Ar! en,ac! zawma, Au, ep, ri, Persian - . Asmon Zemin .,qva Caspian 6 Ch-l ir, Er, ac! Su, mu, mi! Arinenian Girkin Gercru Xua Abassian 8 Za. Il! TOU! ec, lat! At! ta, hu! Cushasib . . Zila Tula At.u Oct1, sia casuan 8 Zr, chasten, Ac, ma! z i, Uh! su, Paisachian 4 Za, pa! Ac la! ra, Um, hi! JX)itay- - Lezpauc Ishin Sanserit 25 Ur, ma, eo, Ar! b, ib! Ig! ni! ud! 5 sa.VP,gt, ac! pa,cut Zngani - - Amengi,ch/uro. Bu Puba, Pani II. TATARIAN OR NORTHERN. Cu. mar,ul,as Ma! er, Ten, gri, Ca! ne, ul, No, ga, ol, gan, chervol, Ni. can! cu, Cando Tin, el! ca! Nu. in, ja, Ar! da, za, Na! en! ar! La! to,ac! ul. , Jutolat Oc! tan, to, Cudan Si, mo, to, Ja, ma! tu, 27 Ogurian 4 28 Mogulian 6 29 roxiguzian 4 SO Ostiac 12 Coriac . K/I 31 Ainuh 6 Cur'ilian 3t Nipau or Japan 3 33 Samojed 20 Ish! ic, Er. aic, ur, JVer Ar; ma! Arm, En! Lena Is! en, Ip, mu, mi, Mi; Ish! ca! ur, MJuca gur! Ua! su, Ap Su, uh! Er. Ca! Mu, cu, in, On! ni in! Hi! pi, ri, Ca! ga! Pihi Gasi. Pi! hua! Nu! our, in! Peh, Peth, ,Ainuh Mt! hu! ne To. I! bi, as, tuy, Ne! si. III. CHINESE OR EASTERN. 34 Thibetan 2 Na! ke, hen, Sa, di. en!Ip! In! 35 Chinese 6 Tien, lo! Ti, di, chi! M! bau! na! Nan, In! yu, 86 Birman 14 Sa, an, Ca! gay, Ye, ri, ti,Vo, lu, pa, 37 Avanese orMon 8 Can!mo,.Op, la! i! toma! Na! pa! co. Na! chay,on! POLYNESIAN NN T IONS AND RADIR AL LANGUAGES. 38 Igoloteh or Papuati 7 Ker, da, A,! ta! po, io, Yo, si! na! Am, 39 Malav 22 Ra, ta! ni, I a!n-!bu,en. Ay, hua! En! an. tr. .A-ucahian Hani, tahua, llennua Ehuay, tay, Enata 40 Tagalan 12 La, V,un,jo, Na! ;p, guy, Th! r. ni! Ic,ga! Liuchiu .lijoh Sanna, Ushi midzi. Ikigah, AFRICAN PRiMIlrVE NAI1 ONS RADICAL LANGUAGES. I. BROWN NATIONS. 41 Egyptian 3 Coptic 42 Attantic orBerber Guanchian 43 Abyssinian 8 44 Danakil 3 45 Caffer 6 46 Hottentot 6 11 47 Nubian 4 48 Sudan 10 49 Galla 10 50 Corgo 12 D MWalemba Fo Iao! ta! (;ay! umon, F'a, Cahi 7 ri. taW8 gi, Ay! un, Tigo Oya Ze, ja, ur. Za,er, to,mid Se, am. ur, Ar! Am, si, La. um, Ga, hom, Ca! gu, hu, BLA'CK OR NEGRO N. ze, ul, Ur, ca, As, ra, al, Ar! di,bo,su, Ac, gua, Un/la! ga,di, Lu! zi, I a!po,to,ze! Izulu, Zela, n'tato, MU, hu! iar, Im, an, lar,moh/uiom An, na! Aenum Mi! ri, hu! El, li, da, MW! hul, Cu! muu, ATIONS. Ec, ro! To, Vi, Be, mi! su, Ma! bu, cu! Maza, m'bu, Im, Uan! Co! Guan, coran, Na! hua! Ca! ma! ut, Ca! huan! An; cua! Oc. ha, An, ya, Ma!ni!oc,us, Un, Ca! Alunta, Thia is the primitive Black or Negro Nation of Asia, fragments ofwhich are found on that continent, and throughout Polynesia, 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 ANC\'ENW A XNALS OV XEMXC1YX on, INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY A)ND ANTIQUITIES OF THB STATE OF KENTUCKY. 13Y Cb S. RAFINESQUE, A. M.Pnu. D. PZtOrESSOR IN TRANSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY, AMBSER OF TlE ZNTUC" lNSTITUtE, AND 15 OTHER SCIENTIFIC OR LITERARY SQ9aTa IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE. (JNtqwm oftiowuU.) This page in the original text is blank. Mv enquiries during several years, concerning the antiqul ties of the western states, have led me to extend my researcle over the whole circle of North American antiquities, and com- pelled me to enter the dedalus of ancient history. The result of my researches may be given in a more ample form at some future period, when rendered adequate to illus- trate the interesting primitive periods of human existence in both hemispheres. I shall merely attempt at present to deli. neate the first rudiments of the ancient history, involving the revolutions of nature and nations, in that central part of Noi th America, now linown under the name of Kentucky, and sur- rounded ty Virginia, Tennessee, the rivers Ohio and Missis- sippi, extending upwards of 400 miles from east to west, and from latitude 36 1-2 to 39 degrees north. In order to ascertain the filiation, migrations and annals of the American nations, all the sources have been consulted from which plausible or certain information might be derived. The evidences which they afford, stand in the following order:- 1, Features and complexions of nations; 2, their languages; 3, their monuments; 4, their religions; 5, their manners; 0, their histories; and 7, their traditions. 1. The white, tawny, coppery, brown and black varieties of mankind are connected by numerous links, and claim a com- mon origin; they have been early divided, variously separated, and occasionally blended again, yet preserving a sufficient dis- tinction to guide us in tracing their successive settlements. The white men became tawny by constant exposure, brown in warm climates, coppery in cold regions, and black in the sands of India and Africa. The Mongol features had origin in the deserts of Northern Asia, and the negro features in those of Southern Asia and central Africa. There are Mongols with zVoirbiulm EXORDIUJIL different complexions, white, pale, tawny, yellow, olive, cop- pery, c.; and there are white, yellow, brown and black ne- groes. Real negroes have been found in all the parts of the world, except Europe and North America, while in Africa they are confined to the central and western parts of that continent. 2. The primitive language of mankind was gradually modi- fied and divided into dialects, which became languages after producing other dialects: their mixture has produced all those which have existed or still exist. The analogies of those dia- lects, in their roots and most important words, afford the best mean to trace the relative parentage of nations. 3. 4. 5. Monuments of arts, traces of various religions and similarity of manners, compared and elucidated by each other, are ofhigh importance in historical investigation. 6. 7. There is such a diversity in the ancient history, chro- nology and traditions of the several nations, that it is very difli- cult to fix precisely the dates of many events; but we may trace with a bold hand a general view of their migrations and set- tlements: although the revolutions of the earliest empires arc involved in fables, we can draw even from those fables, some correct inferences and true events. It is almost impossible to make a plausible choice among the various chronological tables, even of the many texts of the Sepher or Hebrew Bible, and not easy to make them harmo- nize with the contradictory accounts of Berosus, Plato, Herodo- tus, Sanchoniato, Manetho, the Hindoux, Chinese, c. I shad not attempt it at present, as this would require too many dis- cussions, and I shall substitute thereto mere periods of time, or epoqbs, which may be composed of indeterminate ages. 4 attIE.t RMNSI Part I .. Pro CXio, OR, GEOLOGICAL ANNALS OF THE REVOLUTIONS OF NATURE IN KENTUCKY. 1. EVERY complete history of a country ought to include an account of the physicaikhanges and revolutions, which it may hav'e undergone; 2. The documents for such a geological survey, are to be found every where in the bowels of the earth, its rocks and strata, with the remains of organized bodies imbedded therein, which are now considered as the medals of nature. 3. The soil of Kentucky shows, like many other countries, that it has once been the bed of the sea. In James's Map, the primitive ocean is supposed to have covered North America, by having a former level of 6000 feet above the actual level. Since the highest lands in Kentucky do not exceed 1800 feet above the level of the actual ocean, they were once covered with at least 4200 feet of water. 4. The study of the soil of Kentucky, proves evidently the suiccessive and gradual retreat of the salt waters, without evin- cing any proofs of any very violent or sudden disruptions or emersions of land, nor eruptions of the ocean, except some casual accidents, easily ascribed to earthquakes, salses and submarine volcanoes. 5. There are no remains of land or burning volcanoes in Kentucky, nor of any considerable fresh water lake. All the strata are nearly horizontal, with valleys excavated by the tides and streams during the soft state of the strata. 6. After these preliminary observations, I shall detail the successive evolution of this soil and its productions, under six distinct periods of time, which may be compared to the six ,pocls or days of creation, and supposed to have lasted art indefinite numlbr of ages, .ANCIENT dVAXMLS 1st Period.-General Inundation. "In the beginning, GOD created the heavens and the earth.' "And the spirit of GOD was moving over the waters." The briny ocean covers the whole land of Kentucky, and the United States, rising above 4000,feet over the Cumberland or Wasioto mountains, and 5000 feet over the limestone region near Lexington. The Oregon and Mexican mountains alone rise above the waters in North America. Gradual decrease of the ocean, by the decomposition and consolidation of the waters in the formations of rocks and deposi- tion of strata. The rate of this decrease can only be conjec- l ured, and is rather immaterial. The ocean subsides to 3000 feet. The parallel strata are formed in the following order, or near- ly: 1, limestone; 2, slate; 3, sandstone; 4, freestone; 5, grit; C, pebble stone, They are not always superincumbent, nor co- existent: but are generally horizontal, except the four hast towards the Cumberland mountains, which having probably a granitic nucleus, have compelled the incumbent strata to be- come obliqual or slightly inclined from 10 to 30 degrees. By the operation of submarine volcanoes, the strata of coal, clay and amygdalvid are formed and intermixed at various in- termittent times with the above strata. Several minerals, flint, quartz, calcedony, onyx, ovulites, marls, barytes, iron, lead, pyrites, c. are successively formed and imbedded or alternated with the proeminent strata. CREATION OF SEA ANIMALS, fishes, shells, polyps, c.; the exuvia of many pelagic animals become buried under or within the strata, where they exist to this time: they belong principal- ly to the genera terebratula, gonotrema, orthocera, encrinies, pen. tremites, turbinotites, astrea, millepera, cyclorites, mastrema, favao sites, c. 2nd Period.-EZmersion of Mountains. The Cumberland or Wasioto mountains emerge from the sea, which sinks to the level of 1500 feet above its actual level, and form a peninsula attached to the Allegheny Island or moun. lain. The schistose formations proceed under water. OF KEXTUCK Y. The Black, Laurel, Pine, Log and Gelico mountains emerge successively, after the Cumberland mountains, and an inland sea remains between them, surrounded by sandy hills. The heavy tides and rains furrow these new lands, and form valleys through the soft sandy strata. Grass and reeds grow, VEGETATION BEGINS. Springs appear. Streams begin to flow, and gradually increase in length as the laiid extends, but decrease in depth and bulk by the excava- tion of valleys. 3d Period.-Einersion of Table Lands. Further diminution of the sea, till its level is reduced to 1 (10 feet above the actual level, and all the table lands and high lands of Kentucky become uncovered. An inland sea remains over the Ohio limestone basin, cover- ing part of the states of Ohio and Indiana, and extending from the actual mouth of Scioto river to that of Salt river. It is bounded W. and S. by Muldrow hill, or the ascent of the cen. tral table land of Kentucky, E. by the Knob hills of Kentucky and Ohio, N. by the Silver hills of Indiana. Another inland sea fills the actual Cumberland basin, boun- ded N'. by the Green river knobs, S. by the Cumberland moun. tains, and open to the west. The upper Cumberland sea is drained, the Cumberland river flows, forms its upper valley, the Falls, and empties into the Gulf of Cumberland. The Ohio flows above the Scioto, and falls into the large Limestone sea; a long and narrow straight is formed below the Silver hills. Green river forms its vallev, c. All those streams and their branches excavate dcep valleys. The Kentucky river falls into the Limestone sea below Red river. Thc knobs are formed like don on the shores of the Lime. sta e sea. Mluldrow hill shaped like a wall by the currents being principally composed of slate schist. Sea aaiw,- Vs still living in the Limesto ne sea, and their ezu vas imnedded in the last limeston schist. 7 AZNCIENT ANXIMS CREATION of land animals, insects, reptiles, birds and quad- rupeds on the dry land. Vegetation increases, a thin soil is formed, trees and shrubs begin to grow, and form forests: they succeed the mosses, reeds, grasses and maritime plants produced in the second period. 4th Period.-Draining of the Limestone Sea. Level of the sea gradually reduced to 700 feet above the actual level. The Limestone sea of Kentucky drained, but full of marshes, and muddy swamps; licks, clay and marl salses, c. The Ohio river and Its branches, Kentucky, Licking, Salt, Miami, c. excavate their valleys in thie soft muddy lime strata, which only became indurated after a long lapse of time. The plains and glades of the Cumberland gulf are drained, and the sea recedes west of them, to the alluvial gravel hills, formed under water, between the actual Cumberland and Ten- nessee valleys. The alluvions and bottoms begin to form in the valleys and gulfs, by the attrition of the strata and soil conveyed and depo- sited by the streams. Animals and plants increase and spread; the sea animals be- come gradually extinct, while the land animals multiply their individuals and species. Some small lakes and ponds left over the land. The sinks and aves of the limestone regions are formed. A soil is formed by the decomposition of strata and the decay of vegetable substances. CREATION OF MANKIND in Eden, in the highlands of Asia.- Adam, or Admo, or Adimo, (first man;) and Eve, or Evah, (life;) are the parents of the primitive or antedeluvian nation, called the Adamites. This fourth period of Kentuckian history, answers therefore to the sixth day or period of the general creation. The first and second periods of creation having produced the light, suns, stars, planets, and the earth with her primitive crystallized mountains, rising from 10 to 30,000 fcat above the actual oc wan2 besides the burning volcanoes, c. OF KENTUCKY 5th Pcriod.-TNoah's Flood. treat flood of Noah, Nub, Menu, or Nahu, in the eastern continent, which may have reached America; but has not left any evident traces of any such violent convulsion, (in Ken- tucky at least;) the organic and human remains buried in the soil, are adl in gradual depositions. In Kentucky the ocean, which still bathes its western cor- ncr, subsiides gradually to 300 feet above its actual level, and abandons Kentucky forever; forming merely a gulf in the Mis- sissippi vallcey T'e great northern inland sea of North Americas Whith i cluded all the great lakes, and extended from the Mississippi to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, is gradually drained. The greft lakes with their outlets and falls are formed. Southt of Kentucky, the Gulf stream of Mexico deposits the alluvial ground reaching from Louisiana to New York- All the valleys of rivers and creeks in Kentucky, c. receive their present shape. Stratas begin to consolidate. The ponds and marshes de- crease; but the salses or muddy volcanoes increase. VegetaX tion overspreads the soil. Animals multiply. Earthquakes are frequent; sOme strata are deranged by them. 6th Period.-Peleg's Flood. 'Oreat volcanic eruptions of the sea in Europe, America, c. with awful earthquakes, convulsing the Atlantic ocean, West indie, Mediterranean, c.; destroying many countries and The ocean acquires its actual level, and the American cowk tinent its actunl shape. The strata becomie indurated, and the soil firm and solido Jakes disappear. Springs diminish, and streams decrease i4 bulk; rains are less heavy, c. Huge animals ramble over the soils such as the mammoths or mastodons, elephants, megalonyx, big bears, elks, buffaloes, jaguars, c.; they form licks. Some of them become extinct; their bones are found at Big-bone Vick, Dreznon's lirk, the Ohio valley, c.in the miAd or alluvion7. 9 JZXCET b .Nz41S Vlart 11 ..... Clio, R, HISTORICAL ANNALS OF MANKIND IN KENTUCKY CIIAI. L-ADAMITES, c. RELIGION, philosophy, geology, history, and tradition, corer bine to teach and prove that mankind was created in Asia, and that thc second cradle of mankind after Noah's flood was also in the lofty lands of Asia, where mountains and peaks from 20 to 30 thousand feet high (over our actual ocean,) arise among table lands elevated from 10 to 15,00O feet. The loftiest table lands and mountains of America are much less elevated, from 6 to 22 thounand feet at utmost, and they are besides entirely volcanic, unfit therefore to have been the cra- dles of mankind. It is an evident and positive fact therefore, that America was populated from the eastern continent in thI first instance. The first cradle of mankind was called Eden, or Ima, and was in the highest land of Asia. The Adamites, or Antedelu- vians, were spread over the eastern continent; but we have no positive proofs that they came to America, as very few, if any, remains have been found that might be ascribed or traced to that previous existence of mankind. I shall not venture there- fore to offer mere conjectures on that subject. All the Ameri- can nations can be traced to the second human stock, and need not therefore be deemed descendants of the Adamites. The second cradle -tf mankind has received many names,- Theba, Tibet, Meru, Iran, Taurus, Ararat, c.; all referring to lofty mountains of Asia. Noah, the second parent, monarch and legislator of mankind, was known to all the ancient nations TEnder many consimilar names: He is the Nuh of the Persians; Nb1nnmh of the Hindous; OF KENTUCKY Ta-nauh of the Scythians; Ni-nuh of the Assyrians; U-ra-nuh of the Celts; PC-non of the Chine;e; Me-non of the Armenians; Ac-mon of the Atlantes; Me-nu of the Egyptians; Oa-nq of the Chaldeans; Noch or Cox of the Mexicans; Noch or Moch of the Chiapans, c. The three sons of Noah were also known by many ancieut nations under peculiar names. The principal nations of the eastern continent which have contributed to people North America and Kentucky, were The Atalans and Cutans, who came easterly through the Atlantig ocean; The lztacans and Oghuzians, who camne westerly through the Pacific ocean. CHAP. iH-TIlE ATALANS AND CUTANS. THE history of those two nations, and of their settlements in America, may be divided into five periods, as follows: 1. From the dispersion of mankind to the first discovery of America, including several centuries. 2. From the discovery of America to the foundation of the western empires, including some centuries. 3. From the foundation of these empires to the Pelegian revolution of nature, including several centuries. 4. From the Pelegian revolution to the invasion of the Izta, can nations, including about twelve centuries. 5. From the lztacan invasion t the decline and fall of the Atalan and Cutan nations in North America, including about thirty centuries to the present time. 1st Perid.-To te Discorvery of J4meic a. After the Noachian revolution of nature, mankind was spread again over the earth, from Iran, Aran, Merun, Sbinar or Cash- nir, different narnes given to tie highlands of Asia. I ANCIENT VJ4V'LS The first colonies of the primitive nation, preferred to resides on mountains:-the mounts Shingar, Hima, Liban, Ghaut Shensi, Laos, Altay, Caf, Arat, Cush, Ural, ct in Asia; the ;nountsr Carpath, iemus, Arcad, Appenines, Alps, Pyrenecs, c. in Europe, and the mounts Atlas, Samen, Tigreb, c. in Africa, became the first abode of nations, who gradually spread, in the plains. Several empires were successively established in Hindostan, China, Turan, Persia, Egypt, Abyssinia, c. which underwent many revolutions, and sometimes attained universal dominion or preponderance. The nations which peopled the western shores of the castera continent, were the Gomerians in Europe and the Atlantes in Africa. The Atlantes formed a powerful empire in North Africa, which gave laws to many nations, such as the Leha-mim or Lybians, the Phuts, Naphthuhim or Numidians, the War- bars, Barabars or Berhers, the Darans, the Garamans, the Corans or Guanches, c. In Europe, the Gomerians divided into many nations; those that occupied the sea shores were-1st. the Pelasgianb, scat- tered from Greece to Ireland, under the names of Tirasiims in Thracia, Arcadians in Greece, Lestrigons in Sicily, (Euotrians c. in Italy, Tubalan-s in Spain, Cunetans or -jenetans in France; Termurians in Ireland, c.;-2nd. the Celts, or Pal- is, who became Hellens or Yavanas in Greece, Meshekhans, Ausonians and Ombrians in Italyf Sicules in Sicily, Gaels in France, Hesperians and Gadelians in Spain, Direcotians in Ireland, Cumrics in Scotland, Feans or Fcines in England, c..; -3d. the Secas, who became Magas in England, Saxons and Rasins in Germany, Etruscans or Tuscans in Italy, Sicaniar's in Sicily, c. ;-4th. the Garbans, who, became Cyclops in Greece and Sicily, Ligurians in Italy,, Cantabrians in Spain, Bascans in France, c. All those nations were intimately connected in languages and manners. The Pelasgians were bold navigators, aid ven, tured to navigate from Iceland to the Azores and Senegal. The Azores, Madera, Canary and Capverd islands wcre then OF XTWNTUCKY.I united in one or more islands, called the Atlantic Islands, which have given the name to the Atlantic ocean, and were first popu- lated by the Darans and Corans or Western Atlantes. Iceland was called Pushcara, and was not settled, owing to the severe climate and awful volcanoes. Numerous revolutions and invasions took place among those nations, until at last the Atlantes of Africa, united them all by conquest in one powerful empire, which extended over North Africa, Spain, France, Italy, part of Greece, Asia, c.; and lasted many ages under several dynasties and emperors. It was during the splendor of this upivire, that America was discovered, by some bold navigators who were led by the trade winds, to the West Indies, in a few days from the Atlantic islands, They called them Antila Islands, whlich meutnt be- fore the land, and America was called Atala. or Great Atlantes., -Returning to the Azore land, by a north east course, they extolled the new country, and a great settlement was soon formed in Ayati or Ayxcut4 (Hayti,) and the neighbouring continent by the Atlantes. 2nd Period.- To the Foundation of Enmpircs. The Atalans, or American Atlantes spread themselves through North and South America, in the most fertile spots; but the marshy plains of Orenoe, Maranon, Paraguay, and Mis- sissippi, as well as the. volcanoes of Peru, Chili, Quito, Guati- mala and Aiahuac, prevented them from settling those parts ofthe continent. Many of the subjects ofthe Atlantic empire, such as the Tubalans, Cantabrians, Cyclops and Cunetans, fol' low the Atalans in America, and become the Cutan nations. It is very difficult to trace the American nations, who have sprung from those early settlers, owing to the numerous revoa- lutions and intermixtures which they have undergone: nor is it my intention to give now a complete genealogy of the Atalan and Cutan nations, I must confine myself to North America, or even Kentucky. The Allegheny mountains were called Loocloca. Beyond them the country was called Great White Land, (Mahasweta- bhumi of Hind:) and it became the seat of a great empire, to .4 or the WOern Atlantic Empire, This included of course Kentucky, but extended from lake Ontario in the north, to the mississippi. The Atlantic shores called Locuta, or Lacha- cuti, were not settled, owing to their arid soil, lately emerged from the sea. This western empire may be called the Atalau empire. 3d Period.- To the Rerolution of Peleg. The country watered by the Ohio and its branches was the centre of the Atalan empire, and its metropolis stood some- where on the Ohio. It was divided in several provinces, and ruled by a powerful monarch of the Atlas family. The Atlan- tic monarchs of Africa, Europe, Atlantia and Atala, often conw tended for supremacy, and the Atalan emperor obitin d it once. Their dominion extended from Atala to Syria: they were repulsed in Greece and Egypt. The African emperors were acknowledged generally as lords paramount; but they resided in Europe as often as in Africa, and had to contend against the Titans, a branch of their family reigningin the Alps, There weire successively many Atlantic emperors and mo- napchs, bearing the names of Ian, Atlas, Actnon, Ouran, Ilan, Silvan, Sanu or Satur, Japet or Yudish, Titan, Neptune or Napltur, Plut, Evenor, Oanes, Derceto, Tritan, Muth, Lucip, Rahu, c., iA both continents, who where often at war with the ;nonarchs o Egypt, Ethiopia, Scythia, Iran, and Bharata or flindostan. An intercourse was kept up more or less regularly between all the primitive nations and empires from the Ganges to the MississIppi. Crishna or Hercules, and Ramachandra, two heroes of India, visited Atala and the court of the. western monarchs, which is called one of the heavens on earth, by the holy books of the east. The Atalans were civilized like the Atlantes; lived in towns; built houses of wood, clay and rough stones, They worshipped the sun and mown as emblems of the Deity, and built them cir- cular temples. They knew geometry, architecture, astronomy, glyphic tips ,or writing; the use of i metals, agriculture, kc, ANCIET AN'Nar Or K1NTUCXY. 1 ey had public games, festivals, e. Their food was flesh, fish, fruits, roots and corn which they brought from the east. At the time of their highest prosperity, a dreadful comvul sion of nature happened in the Atlantic ocean, and other parts of the world, which is recorded in the oldest annals of many nations, the Hebrew, Hindoux, Chinese, Mexican, Greeks, Egyptians, c. It appears to have been occasioned by simul- tainous eruptions of volcanoes and earthquakes, which sunk, destroyed or convulsed many islands and countries, and among others the Atlantic land, of which the volcanic islands Azores, Madera, Canary and Capverd are the remains. In America, the Antilan lands were severed, the Carib islands formed, the Atlantic shores inundated by awful tides, and many countries sunk or altered. This cataclysm is the division of the earth under Peleg, the flood of Ogyges or Ogu the sanscrit convulsion of the White sea or Atlantic ocean.- The terror occasioned by this phenomenon interrupted the in- tercourse betwoen Europe and America. The Eastern Atlan tes thought that the whole American continent had sunk, like the Atlantic and many Antilan islands; and the Atlantes of the interior of America becaimn insulated and separated from the Atlantic empire. 4th Perior.-To the 1ttaca 1i vs iZ. The Atalans of North America became now divides in many states and nations, such as The Apalans or Tlapalans,scattired from Florida to Virginia. The Tialans from Texas to Gtiatimala. The Pochs or Locans from the Allegheny to Panama. 'These divided again into Golocas, Conoys, Nanticoes, Zola, cans, Lomashas, Popolocas, Warons and Poconchians. Tih Corans from Missouri to Mexico. The Talegans in Kentucky, Illinois, Ohio, Virginia, C. While the Cuxtans of North America became also indpen dent, and formed many nations, such as The Ayacutans of Hayti, c. The Lachacutans of Cuba and Alachuans of Florida, Ihre Yucutans of Mcxico. and Yucuyans of Bahama. 1 A1YCIEX7,I' /yxaA The Arohuans of many islands and South America. The Tunicas of Louisiana, Tepenacas and Tononacas of Anahuac. The Panucans of Texas, and Tanutans of Tennessee. The Catabans of Carolina and Florida, The Cuzans, Cuzadans or Quezedans of Tennessee and Alabama. All those nations were often contcnding for supremacy; ex- cept the Islanders, who became happypeaceful nations, whence the West Indies were called the Fortunate Islands when dis- covered again. It appears that the Talegans of the Ohio, and the Apalans south of them, were two of the most powerful empires of that period. The Apalans had many provinces or tribes, such as the Apalachis, Apaleheb,Ilapah, Alatamaha, Ichiti, Opalusas, c.; and were often at war with the Talegans. These Talegans, which we found named Talegawes or Al- leghanys afterwards, had dominion over a large extent of country. Their several provinces were situated in the most fertile regions, such as kentucky, Ohio, the Kenhaway valley, the Illinois, the banks of lake Erie and Ontario. After some centuries, America was visited again by the na- tions of West Europe and Africa, but neither frequently nor in numbers. A casual intercourse was restored between the two continents. The Azores were visited as well as Madera, but not peopled owing to their active vokanoes; but the Canary or Hesperides islands were; from thence the navigators went to Cerne or St. Jago, and in 18 days to the Carib islands- About this time the Carib, or Galibis, must have come to South America; they appear of Cantabrian origin. The great Aa- tion of Guarani which extended all over Guiana, Brazil and Paraguay was of Daran origin and previous arrival. When the Arcutans or Fermurians of Ireland, were expelled by the Dannans, a tribe of Pallis or Gaels, (after many revolt. tions in the island,) they fled to Ayacuta, or Western Island of Hayti, and becamie trobably the 4rphuac nation, OIP kENTUC.KY 1 -Till then all the inhabitants of America had cbme from the east; but now a great invasion took place from the west or from Asia. Pecrhps thesc Asiatit nations haa crossed the ocean before the Pelegan or Ogugan catastrophe. They are traced to the north west comst of America. and gradually came in contact wi th the Atalans and Cutans on the Missouri tnd in Anahuac. I shall call them lztacan, from their ancestor Iztac, 51h Period.-Decline and Fall of the Jtalans, rc. The wars which hppened in consequence of the Iztacan invasions, had the eflbct to aunihilate some nations, and scatter mnaIy other owhile several were subdued rand incorporated with their conquerdrs. Kentucky was conqucrd by the Ulmecas, the Iluasiotos and Tacisas; three Iztacan nations. After the successive rule of these nations on the Ohio, the Siberian na- tions or Oguzian tribes began to appear and wag war on the Iztacans and tMi Atalans4 which they drove away to the south. Trhe last rem-ains of the former Atalans and Cutans, which can be.traced to have escaped these conflicts and were still existing towards 1500, were the follosving:-The Wocons in Carolinaj the Homoloas, Malicas, Apalachians and others in Georgia and Florida, the Conoys of Virginia, the Nanticoes of Maryland, the-Catabas of Carolina, the Calhutitas andCahlusas of Alabama, the Tunicas of Louisiani, the Corans, Coroas or Escoros of the- Missoni, Arkanzast Carolina, California and Mexico; besides many nations of Anahuac, c. Before the christian era a casual intercourse was kept up between the two continents. The Phenicians and Gadesiems traded to America: this continentwas known to the maritime nations of West Europe and North-west Africa. The Nurnit ianswent there 2000 years ago, as well as the Celts; they frequented Paria and Hayti principally. r'he Etruscans, a powerful nation of Italy, who settled there from the Rhetian Alps about thrq thousad years ago, went to America and 1wanted to send colonies there, but were prevented by the Carthagetians. This intercourse gradually declined, owing tothe numerous shipwrecks and warlike habits of the Caribs, D 11 cXircaL AA.tL" Mztacans and Oguzians, till the knowledge of America becante almost lost or clouded in fables and legends. During the'declihe of the-Atalans, some fled to Anahuac and South America, where they founded new empires, or civilized many nations, such as the Cholulans of Anahuac, and the Muy- seas, Puruaysf Collaos, Tiafiuanac6s and Cojas of South Ameri- ca, who ascribe their ancient civ;igation to white and bearded strangers. Thus the ancient arts and sciences of North America were transferred to the South. In the- greatest splendor of the Atalans and Cutans, they had built above one thoutand towns on the waters of the Ohio, of which nearly tWo hundred were in Kentucky, and the remains of above one hundred are seen to this day. The population must have been as great as the actual one, and Kentucky must have had half a million of in- habitants at least. The monuments of these early nations are casily distinguished from the subsequent Iztacan monuments, by a greater antiquity, their circular, elliptical and conical shapes. CHAP. III.-HISTORY OF THE IZTACANS. TuE annals of the numerous nations who claim this originf may be divided into five periods of time. 1. From the Iztacan empire of Asia to the Iztacan settle- mnents in America and Kentucky, including many centuries. 2. From the invasion of Kentucky to the foundation of the Natchez empire, including about ten centuries. 3. From the Natchez empire to the Oghuzian invasion, in- cluding about five centuries. 4. From the Oghuzian invasion to the expulsion of the Natchez from Kentucky, including about five centuries. 5. From the Natchez expulsion to the present time, including the Chicasa and Cherokee dominions in Kentucky,-about tez4 centuries. 1st Period.- To the Invasion of Kentucky.. Soon aftert he formation of the great Asiatic empires of Iran, Ayodhia, Vit ra; China, c. another was founded near thm OF BapTJCiAt, Caspian sea, on the mountains of Caf or Caucasus and Vipula or Bactrij, which was successively called Aztula, (strong land) Aztlan, Tula, Tollan, Turan, c. The first monarch of it was lztac-mixcoatl, (strong head snake:) Ui had six sqns, who became the heads of as many nations; they were Xelhua or Colhua, the father of the! Colhuans, c. Tenoch or Tenuch, ancestor of the Tenuchs, c. Olmecatl or UlmecatI, ancestor of the Olmecans, c5 Xicalancatl or Xicalhan, of the Zicalans, c. Mixtecatl or.Miztecatl, of the Tecas, c. Otomitl, ancester of the Otomnis, c. Prom these have sprung all the hztacan nations, scattered ai over North America and Part of South America. Many other empires having begun to rise in the vicinity of Aztlan,. such as those of Bali, Scythia, Thibet, Oghuz, the kItacan wer .driven eastwards, north of China; but some fragments of the nation. are still found in the Caucasus, c. asch a the Abians or Abassans, Alticezecs, Cushazibs, Chun- Qags, Modjors, c. The six Iztacan nations being still, pressed upon by their 'neighbours the Oghuzians, Moguls.c. gradually retreated or sent colonies to Japan, and the islands of the EAcific ocean; having discovered America at the peninsula of Alasca, during their navigAtiqns, the. bulk of the nation came over and spread from Alasca to Auahuac, establishing many states in the west of America, such as Tula, Amaquemeca, Tehuajo, Nabajoa, Teopantla, Huehue, and many others. After crossing the mountains they discovered and followed the Missouri and Arkanzas rivers, reaching thus the Mississippi and Kentucky. 2nd Period.-To the Fololda1ion of the Natchez. The Olmecas or Hulmees were the first Iztacans who ven- tured to come to Kentucky, where they did not make a perma- nent settlement. They came in contact with the Talegtns, and not being able to subdue them, they left the country, iii- vaded Tennessee, c. The Winginas and Westoes of Caro- lina, as well as the Yamassees of Georgia, may be remains of these Olmecas; but the bulk of the nation went to Anahuac, A dNCIEN'T A LS with the Xicalans, having made an alliance with them. The Xicalans were another Iztacan nation who had come down the Arkanzas; meeting on the Mississippi with powerful Atalans, such as the Corans, Talagans, c. they joined the Olmecas in a confederacy against them. After partly settling in Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia and Florida; they were both compelled to go to Anahuac, which they reached from the north-east, and where they became powerful in time. The Otomis were the most barbarous of the Iztacans, being hunters rather than cultivators; they had spread gradually from the Missouri to Anahuac, in the rear of the Xicallans, under the names of Mazahuas or Mabas; Huashashas or Ozages, Capahas or Arkanzas, Otos or Huatoctas, Mint- was or Missouri or Ayowas, Dareotas or Nadowessis, Hua- tanis or Mandans, c. They began to make war on the Talegans of Illinois, Ohio and Kentucky, an the Otos appear to have become the Sciotos of Ohio, the Huasiotos of East Kentucky, and the Utinas of Florida. The Colhuans and Tenuchans came the last on the Arkan- zas, and settled the kingdoms of Tollan, Tula, Huehue, Co- patta, c. in that region. The Atalans and Iztacans were successively at war or in peace; but-the Iztacans prevailed at last in West Kentucky, when all the Iztaclns cast of the Mis- sissippi formed a confederary against the Atalans; this was the beginning of the Natchez dominion. During these struggles, many peaceful Atalans left the coun- try and went to Anahuac, Ayati, Onohualco and South Ameri- ca, where they became legislators and rulers. 3d Period.-To the Oghuziaon Invasion. The Natchez empire, or confederacy of Iztacan nations, extended from the Ohio to Florida, and from the Alleghenies 'to the Mississippi; west of it were the kingdoms of Capaha, Pacaha and Copatta, (perhaps only one,) also Iztacan. This confederacy consisted of five hundred towns, and many tribes, such as the Natchez, Taensas, Chitimachas, Movila, Yasoos or Hliatus, and many more. East of them were the Apalachian 2D OF KEUTEUC" and Cataa confederacies, and north the Talegans who had retreated on the north side of the Ohio. lThe nations formning this empire or league, were eivilized and cultivators; they became polished by their intercourse with the Atalans, and borrowed many customs from them,- They worshipped the sun and fire; but didnot build circular temples, erecting instead pyramids and bigh altars, generally of a square or angular form. Each tribe had a king, each town a governor; l)ut the Natchez kings who were called Suns, had the supremacy over all. Agriculture and trade were well attendcd to. Many contentions and revolutions happened; but tle Og)huzian invasion was the most fatal. Tue Siberian nations, which had spread over the north of Asia at the dissolution of the Oghuzian empire, having come to America across Behring Strait, sought milder climates by travelling south and coming in contact witb the civilized but less warlike nations of anterior origin, began to wage war over them, and drive them gradually further south, towards Florida and Anahuac. 41k Period.-To the expulsion of the Xatcte: from Kentucy. At the Oglhuzian invasion, the Taencas, a Natches tribe, occupied West Kentucky, the Huasiotos were in East Ken- tucky, and some Talegans still field the banks of the Ohio, c. The Cherokees or Zulocans, an Atalan nation dwelling west of the Mississippi, being driven by tthe Oglhuzians, came to Kentucky and Tennessee, and settled 4t last after many wars in the mountains of Carolina, where they became a nation of hunting mountaineers, and gradually destroyed the luasioto nation of the Cumberland mountains. Tl.e Shawanees, an Oghuzian tril)e, came then in contact with the Natchez and expelled them from Kentucky, which they occupied for a long time. The Talegans north of the Ohio, were partly destroyed or driven south, through Kentucky, to join the Apalachian, or down, the Mississippi towards Louisiana and Mexico. 51h Period.-To fte present time. The Natchez confederacv declined gradually, becoming di- AXCIEiVT .dXXdLS vided into several independent nations, such as the Taeesas,. Chitimachas, Alabamas, Coosas, Cahuitas or Cowetas, Win-. ginas, c. spread from Louisiana to Carolina, which however did not wage war together, but were often united against the Cherokees, Catawbas and Oghuzian nations. When the Toltecas of Mexico drove away the Xicallans, the ,bulk of that nation, came to the Mississippi, and settled on both sides of it, above the Natchez; many nations have sprung from that stock, all intimately connected in language and manners, such as the Chicasas, Chactaws, Yazoos or Tapousas, Mus- colgees, Cofachis, c. spreading north abd east of the Natcliez, they formed a bulwark between them and the northern inva-, ders; the Chicasas extended their conquests to the banks of the Ohio in Kentucky. The great Otomi nations, extending froift the Missouri to Anahuac, divided-into numerous tribes, such as the Osages or Wahashas, Missouris, Ottos, Mazahnas, or Omauas, Capahas or Arkansas, Mandans, c.: the Osages, Missouris and Arkan- zas, penetrate as far as West Kentucky, the banks of the Wabash, c. A succession of wars and contentions take place between the, numerous nations of various stocks scattered in North America, by which they are weakened and prevented from improving their civilization, or uniting against the encroachments of the Europeans. The Spanish, French, and English, after the discovery of America by Columbus, settle in North America, and in three hundred years occupy all the land from Canada to Mexico, except a few small spots, acquiring possession of it by various means, conquests, cessions or purchases. CHAP IV.-HISTORYOF THE OGHUZIANS. SOMrrHING like a chronological order can be now introduced. The records of the Mexicans, the traditions of-many Oghuzian nations, and the annals of the Europeans, afford sufficient npw. terials for a complete history; but I must be very brief. 22 OP KEXTUCKY. otJ Period.-From the Invasion of .North America by the Oghu- zians, towards the first year of our Era, to the Defeat of the 7ialegans, towards 500, including five hundred years. Nearly two thousand years ago, great revolutions happened in the north of Asia; the Oghuzian empire was severed, and a swarm of barbarous nations emigrating from Tatary and Sibe- ia, spread desolation from Europe to America. In Europe they nearly destroyed the powerful Roman empire, and in North America they subverted many civilized'states. Several of those Oghuzian nations, driven by necessity or their foes to the north-east corner of Asia, came in sight of America, and crossing Berhing Strait on the ice, at various times, they reached North America. Two of them, the Lenap and the Menguy, seeking milder climates, spread themselves towards the south; while another, the Karitit, whith came after them, spread on the sea shores from Alaska to Greenland, And some others settled on the north-west coast of America. The Lenaps after settling some time on the Oregon and Multnomah rivers, crossed the Oregon mountxins, and follow- ing the Missouri, fighting their way through the Ottomies, c. they reached the Mississippiy nearly at the same time with the Menguys, who had come north of the Missouri. They found the powerful.talegans in possession of Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky, who opposed their progress and cut off the first party that ventured to cross the Mississippi. A long war en- sued, in which the two Oghuzian nations joined in a eobfedera- cy against the Talegans, and succeeded after a long struggle to drive them away to the south. Ind Period.-From the Defeat of the Talegairs, towards 500, to the Dispersion of the Lenaps, towards 891.-inicluding three hundred years. When the Lenpaps had defeated the Talegans, they had to contend with the Natchez of West Kentucky, the Huisiotos of East Kentucky, the Sciotos of Ohio, besides many remaining branches of the Atalans, Cutans, c. scattered in North Ame- rica, which they vanquished, destroyed or drove away, occupy- Ing all the country from the Missouri to the Allegheny mour- tains; while the Metnguys settled north of them on the lakes. .2AVCIET N2XMILS The Lenaps were hunters, but lived in towns, arnd, becdme partly civilized by the prisoners and slaves that they made.- They began to cultivate corn, beans, squashes, tobacco, c. Their hunters having ventured across tbe Allegheny moun- tains, discovered a fine country not occupied lby any nations, in Maryland and Pennsylvania. Many were induced to remoVe to that country, where they should be more distant from their southern foes. A settlement was made cast of the mountains, and the great Lenapian nation became thus divided into inany distaut tribes, ind1ependent of each other; but connected by a similarity of language, religion4 mannerss and atknowled ged. origin. The principal of these tribes, which thus became indepen- dent natioiis, were the Chinucs on the Oregon, db Anilcos and Quiguas on the Missouri, the Utawas and Mliainis nXifth of the Ohio, the Shaianiees or M81assawomees in Kentucky, the No- higans and Abniakis in New England, the Sauikikans in Newv Jersey, the Unamis and Minsis in Pennsyl vania, the Pewwhatang in Virginia. the -Nanticoes in. Maryland, the Chipeways and Clistenos on the upper Alississppi, e. A similar division took place in the McInguys, and the in- dependent nations sprung from them,, were the Hurofis or Wandots near lake Jiuron, the Eries or Erigas on lake Erie in Ohioi the Tuscororas in Kentucky, the Senekals, Mobawks. Cayugas, Oneidas on the St. Lawrence, c. That portion of the natjon which remained west of the Mississippi, became mixt with some Oitmian tribes, and formed the great Darcota nation, since divided into many tribes, such as the Sioux. Assini- boils, Tintons, Yanctons, c. 3d Period.-From the Dispersion of tIU Leivps, towards 800, to the Shuance Confederacy, towards 1 100--including three kun- dred years. The Gghuzian natiots had united for a long whileagainst their southern lepemnies; but many Menguy tribes became jea- lous of the Lenaps when they saw, them possessed of the best lands and 'growing very powerful. Dissentions occurred be- tween the various tribes east and west ofthe mountains. The OF KENYTUCK Seneka andd Mohawks begin to quarrel with the Mohigans and I ,naps. They endeavour to excite wars between them and the Cherokces. Several wars occur between the Lenaps and many Menguys, in which the Wyandots and Erigas take no part. Meanwhile the Shawanees of Kentucky have many quarrels and wars with their neighbours; they drive away the Tuscaro- ras to Carolina, and some Erigas towards Florida. They wage war by turns with the Natchez, Tapoussas, Cherokees, and Apalachians to the south, with the Catabas, Wocons and Westos to the east, the Capahas, Ozagesr, c. to the west. Not satisfied with the possession of Kentucky, they extend their conquests and settlements as far as lake Ontario to the north, in Carolina and Georgia to the south. The Cumberland river became the centre of their settlements. They were hostile to all their neighbours except those of Lenapian origin, and be- Ing in Contact with many more than any other branch, were considered as the bulwark of that nation. In order to resist their numerous enemies, they formed a general confederacy extending from the Lakes to Florida, which soon became formidable even to their former allies, under the name of Massawomees or Wassawomees. The branches of this great alliance were known by the names of Sakis and Ki- capoos in the west, Uchees and Chowans in the cast, Satanas in the north, Savanas in the south, c. 4th Period.-From, the Shawanee Confederacy, towards 1100, to the Utaza Supremacy, towards 1400,-including three hundred years. The Utawas were a branch of the Lenaps, settled north of the Lakes, and holding supremacy over the Northern Lenaps; being driven south of the lakes, by their wars with the Men- guys, they assumed a superiority over the Miamis of Ohio, whom they defeated in battle; but they had more difficulty in their contentions with the powerful Shawances. A long war was the result; the Iltawas conquered part of central Ken- tucky, and compelled at last the Shawanees to acknowledge E AAMfENT .XIJLS them as superiors and entitled to hold the great cumncil ifre ift the west, as the Lenaps did in the east. During this struggle many revolutions had occurred around Kentucky. The Conoys had become powerful in the Ken- haway valley, and the Illinois oIl the Wabash. The Shawa- nees enter into an alliance with them. The Chicasaws begin to grow powerful in the south-west, and wage war with the Shawanecs, c. The supremacy of the Utawas was acknowledged gradually by all the Lenapians west of the mountains, and the chief of that tribe was considered as the greatest chief. They settled in many parts of lake Huron and Michigan, on the Mississippi, and left Kentucky to the Shawanees. 5th Period.-Frorn the Utazva Suprrmacy, towards 1400, to the Invasion of Soto, towzards 1540,-including about 140 years. Towards the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, the situation of the nations residing in Kentucky or the immediate neighbourhood was nearly as follows: . The Massawomees or Shawanees had possession of the greatest part of Kentucky, the Cumberland valley in Tennes- see, nearlv all the banks of the Ohio, and they had settlements or colonies in Illinois, Georgia, Carolina, Gennessee, c. They had nearly one hundred towns, many of which very populous. The Chicasaws claimed by conquest the wvest of Tennessee and Kentucky, and resided southerly of the Ohio. West of the Mississippi near Kentucky, the most powerful nations were the Capahas, Ozages, Anileos, Quiguas, c.; the two last of Lenapian origin, and extending east as far as the Wabash. In Ohio were the Miamis, Erigas, Tongorias, c. In Virginia, the Conoys, Monacans, Powhatans, c. In Tennessee, the Cherokees, Chugees or Ichias, c. On the St. Lawrence, five tribes of Menguys-the Senekas, Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas and Onondagos, had united into a league, which soon became formidable (under the name of Iroquese or Five Nations,) to all the Oghuzian nations. OF KENTUCKE. On the Atlantic shores the Lenapian tribes had divided into numerous nations, often at war with each other for supremacy or dominion. Several other nations, besides the Atalans, Cutans, Iztacans, and Oghuzians, had reached various parts of Amefica, before the modern Europeans, such as the Mayans or Malays, the Scandinavians, the Chinese, the Ainus, of Eastern Asia, the Nigritians or African negroes! c.; but as they did not settle in or near Kentucky, they do not fall under my present scopes CHAP. V.-H1STORY OF KENTUCKY, c. From the Spanish Discovecry or Invasion under Solo, towards 1543. till the Settlement of Kentucky by the Virginians in 1773-irA- cl ding, abouh Iwo hundred and thirty sears. 1st Period.-Introduction. 1492. Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. 1496. Discovery of North America by Sebastian Cabot. 1512. Discovery of Florida, by J. Ponce De Leon. 1520. Discovery of Georgia by Mirvelo, who calls it Cicoria. 1525. Invasion of Georgia by D'Aillon and Mirvelo, who are defeated by the Shawanees and other nations. 1.528. Second invasion and defeat of the Spaniards in Florida. 1536. Third invasion of the Spaniards in Florida. Alvae Nunez discovers the Mississippi, and reaches Culiacan on the Pacific ocean across the continent. 2nd Period.-Sixteenth Century. 1539. Fern. Soto, governor of Cuba, invades North America with an army of 1050 men and three hundred horses: he lands in Florida, defeats many nations, and winters in Apalachia. 1540. Soto visits the Cofas, Cherokees, Shawanees. Curas, c.; discovers Tennessee, wilns a great battle at Mobile, and winters at the Chicasas. 1541. Battle with the Chicasas; Soto crosses the Chuca. gua or Mississippi, visits Capaha and Tula, discovers Arkanzas, and winters in Utiangue. 1542. Soto wanders west of the Mississippi, discovers the Missouri, 'md dies atGuachoya,(the Washasha'sorOzages) neat .1. XYiJET ANNIJVLS the AnliicoS or Ilicos, (Illinoi,.) He is succeeded by Moscoso, who vainly attempts to reach Mexico by land, goes no further than the Aches or Panis, and returns to the Missouri near the Ozages, winters at Minoya or Minowas. 1543. The Spaniards reduced to 350 men, and threatened by the king of the Quiguas (or Wiwas,) with a powerful attack, embark in 21 boats, and going night and day, reach the mouth of the Mississippi in twenty days, after losing many men in battle with the Quiguas, who pursued them for ten days., Only 300 Spaniards reached' Panuco and Mexico. Discovery of Illinois and KENTUCKY in descending the Mississippi. 1545. The Muscogees settle cast of the Mississippi, and be- come afterward the head of the southern confederacy. 1550. The 1Ienguys begin to wage war with all their neigh- bours; they destroy the Satanas, a branch of the Massawomees, and settle in their country south of lake Ontario. 1560. The Massawomees of Kentucky are at war with the southern nations, and many eastern nations; but at peace with the nations north of the Ohio ;-they form a settlement on the Susquehannah. 1562 to '68. Settlements and wars of the French and Span- iards in Carolina and Georgia, in which many nations take a part. 1584 to '89. First settlements of the English in North Caro- lina; wars with the Winginans, c. Three unsuccessful colo- nies. Kentucky was included in the charter of the colony. 1590. Wahun-Sanacoc, king of the Powhatans in Virginia, conquers many tribes, and becomes formidable to all his. neighbours, even the Massawomees and Erigas of Kentucky. He adopts Opechan,a wise Shawanee, for his brother, and makes him king of Pamunkey. 1595. The Erigas, a powerful nation of Menguy origin, is now scattered from lake Erie to Florida in various tribes, called Erieronons, Tongorias, Rechehecrians, Grigras, c. and is at war with the Jfenguys of Gennessee. OP KENTUCKYE 3d Period.-Seventeenth Century. IG0;. Permanent settlement of the English in Virginia, the colony including Kentucky in its charter. The French settle in Canada. . 1608. First interview of the English with the Shawanecs nr Wassawoomees of Kentucky. Sir J. Smith meets one of their war party in the Chesapeak, going to attack the Susquehan- noes and Tocwoys. The Nantaquaes or Nanticoes of Mary- lautd went to trade with them beyond the mountains. 1618. Death of Wahun Sanacoe, king of the Powhatans; he AS succeeded by Opechan, the Shawance king of Pamunkey, who takes the title of Mango-Peomen, and becomes the foe of the settlers. 1640. The Menguys succeed to destroy the Erigas of Ohio: the remains of that nation fly to East Kentucky, c. 1642. End of the wars between the English and Powhatans, which had lasted twenty years; Opechan is taken, and dies, 95 years old: he is succeeded by his son Totopotomoi, who makes peace. 1654. Col. Wood explores Kentucky as far as the Mississippi. 1656. The Rechchecrians or Grigras cross the Allegheny, and invade Virginia, being molested by the Menguys; Captain Hill and, King Totopotomoi who attack them, are defeated; the king is killed. They soon after leave the country, and are admitted l)y the Natchez into their confederacy. 1660. The Menguys rendered powerful by fire arms, lay waste all the country on the Ohio, and make war on the Ton- gorias, Shawanees, Miamis, Illinois, Chicasaws, Natchez, c.; often coming down the Ohio in war parties. They destroy the Conoys or Kenhaways. 1667. Captain Batt visits the Allegheny mountains, from Virginia. 1670. Captain Bolt visits Kentucky from Virginia. Is he the same as the labove 1672. Father Marquette descends the Mississippi from Illi- nois, and discovers the Missouri, Ohio, Wabash, c. He finds 40 towns of Shawanees on the Ohio and its lower branches. 30 A t'IENT A.NVLS 1680. Father Hennepin descends the Mississippi to its mouth from Illinois, and visits Kentucky, c. The Tennessee is called Cherokee river. 1683. Captain Tonti descends the Mississippi to its mouth, for the first time, with Lasalle. Kentucky visited again. 1685. Second voyage of Tonti down the Mississippi. 1688. Third voyage of Tonti down the same. 1700. At the end of this century, the Shawanees of Ken- tucky were defeated and humbled by the Menguys. Those of Georgia were compelled to enter the Muscolgee confederacy. The Tongorias of East Kentucky were united with the Chero- kees' and the Illinois, Miamis, Kicapus, c. often crossed Kentucky, to go to war against the Chicasas. 4th Period.-Eiighteenth Century. 1710. Col. Spottswood, governor of Virginia, crosses the Allegheny mountains and explores the country near Kentucky. 1712. The great Apalachian nation destroyed, partly by the Carolinians in 1702 and the AlabaMous in 1705; the remains blend with the Muscolgee confederacy. 1720: The French traders begin to descend the Ohio. 1722. Treaty at Albany between the Virginians and Mei- guys or Iroquese; the land west of the Allegheny ridge is. acknowledged as belonging to the Iroquese, who claim it by conquest over the Erigas, Conoys, Tongorias, c. 1731. The Natchez are destroyed by the French; the re, mains of that great nation take refuge with the Chicasas; a war follows in consequence with the French, which lasts many years. 1739. Mr. Longueil descends the Ohio, from Canada, and discovers Big-bone lick in Kentucky. Many Canadians fol, low that road. 1745. The Shawanees of Kentucky had retreated on the banks of the Ohio, Miami and Muskingum, to avoid their southern enemies, being now at peace with the Menguys, and allied with them against the Cherokees, Catawbas, Muscolgees, Chicasaws, c. Kentucky remained the hunting ground of the northern and southern nations where they met at war. on OF KENTUCKY' 1750. Dr. Thomas Walker, of Virginia, crosses the Alleghe. ny and Wasioto mountains, which he calls Cumberland. He discovers Cumberland Gap, the Shawanee river, which he calls Cumberland river, Kentucky river, which he calls Louisa, c. 1751. Several Indian traders descends the Ohio. 1752. Lewis Evans publishes his map of Kentucky, c. from the account of those traders. 1754. James McBridc descends the Ohio as far as the mouth of the Kentucky. 1760. Second visit of Dr. Walker to Kentucky, as far as Dick river. 1764. The Shawances remove to Ohio from Pennsylvania, and to the Wabash from Green river. 1767 to 1774. Kentucky is visited by traders and hunters from Virginia and North Carolina, and begins to be settled, after extinguishing the claims of the Cherokees and Iroquese; but the Shawanees' best claim having never been attended to, this was the cause of the war which they waged with their allies, against the Virginian settlers for more than twenty years. Ever since 1756 an alliance of all the Oghuzian tribes north of the Ohio having been formed against the Iroquese, Cherokees and Chicasas, the Virginians were considered as new intruders, who had bought the land from their foes. CONCLUSION. ALL the details which might have explained, and the notes which would have proved, my statements, have been unavoida- bly omitted, in order to confine myself within the short pre- scribed limits. I am merely allowed to add the enumeration of the principal monuments of antiquity, and a mere list of the authors in which all the facts are to be found which I have asserted, except those derived from my personal examination of the geology, antiquities and languages of North America. A philological and ethnological view of nearly four hundred American and eastern nations or languages, with their com- parative names for land and water, was also found by far too long for insertion, although this is nowv considered as the base of historical researches. 31 This page in the original text is blank. ENUMERATION ) the Sites of Aniejnt Towns and Monunients ofe Kentueky, , Tirs following Catalogue contains the first general account ever pub- lished of the ancient monuments hitherto discovered in this State, the grea- test part of which have been discovered, surveyed, drawn, and described by myself in ray large manuscript work on the antiquities of Kcntucky, which has nearly 100 niaps and views. As a further illustration of the sub- ject, I add a short account of the monuments of the surrounding States, so s-ntimately connected with ours. They are all very ancieut. except these ar L. whih appear to be less ancient (from 10 to 10 years) and to 'belong to the Lenapian nations. Total Ala. of COUN4TIES, c. Sites dvons. 1 t1s Atr, on the c umbtrland river 1 3 Bath, on the waters of Licking river 4 8 Boone, on the Ohio, a town near Burlington, 8c. 5 46 Bourbon. a circus ot 1450 feet on Licking River, a town, poly- gon of 4675 feet on Stoner's creek L. c 4 0 Bracken, great battle ground, c. near Augusta, iron rings and a copper medal with unknown letters, c. 1 1 Caldwell, a dtone fort on Tradewater r"ver I 1 Calloway, a mound 15 feet high on Blood river 2 4 Campbell, near Covington and at Big bone lick 5 12 Christian, near Hopkinsville, kc L. 5 18 Clarke, near Winchester, Boonesborough, ke, 6 6 Clay, near Manchester, c. 15 36 Payette, on North IElkhorn, a beautiful circus, a dromus, c. on South Elkhorn, near Lexington, a polygon town, L several squares, mounds, graves, ;c. 9 East lndian Shells found in the ground, e. 1 1 Gallatin, at U e mouth of the Kr ntu ky river 3 12 Garrard, principallymounds and small circus on Paint Creek, bSugar Creekr, c. 1 3 Greenup, fine remains opposite the mouth of the Scioti 2 5 larlan, on the Cumberland river, near its source 2 7 Hart, moutads near Green river. e. mummies in caves 5 16 Harrison, a circus near Cynthiana, many mounds, round, ellipti- cal or ditched, 16J 20. 25 and 30 feet high 1 1 Hickman, a fine Teocall! on the Mississippi below the Ironbanks, 450 feet long 10 high, only 30 wide 4 1 Jefferson, on the 0o near Louisville 4 10 Jessamine, mounds, graves, embankments, 3 7 Knox, On the Cumberland river, mi near Barboursmift 1 1 Lewis, on th eOhio I. AttEND!X TIotal JO. of CtZTNTCS C. ies teMons. 2 1 In Lincoln, on Dick's river, and near Wilininp 3 14 Livingiston, an octogone of 2852 feet on Iuiricane creek, Uc. mouth of the Cumberland 10 I 42 Logan, towns and mounds on Muddy river, 'b. a silver medal found in a mound 3 7 i Madison, near the Kentucky, kc. rhounds, c. 2 Mason, near Washington, a small teocalli 35 M'Crachan, on the Ot6io, a fine square teocalli of 1200 feet and 14 high, on the Mississipi, 5 rows of mounds, c 6 12 Mercer, a fort on Dick'a river, several remains on Salt river, c. 110 48 Montgomery, squares, hexagons. polygons, c. on Somerset and Rluck creeks, many high, round, etlriptical or ditchedl mounds. A fine circus or circular temple, c. 1 1 Pendleton, at the fork of Licking river 1 1 Perry, a long dromus near Hazard ') 7 Pulaski, stone mounds on Pitman and Buck creeks i 1 Rockcastle, a snone grave 200 feet long, S wide, 3 high, near Mountverilon 3 12 Scott, a ditched to An near Georgetown, on the South Elkhorn, a square on Dry-run, c. 2 2 Shelby, near Shelbyville, and south of it d 24 Trtgg, a walied town, 7500 feet in circumference, at Canton, on the Cumberland, inclosing several large mounds and a square Teocalli 150 feet long, 90 wide, 22 high. Many mounds on Cumberland, Little river, Cadiz, c. t 16 Warren, a ditched town, irregular octogone of 1385 feet on Bigbarren river, near Bowling green, inclosing 5 houses, and 2teocallis. Mounds, c. 6 66 Whitley a townon the Cumberland, above Williamsburgh, with 20 houses, a id a teocalli 360 feet long, 150 wide, 12 high.- Remains of tovns dith houses on the waters of Laurel river and Watts creek 6 12 Woodford, a fine octogon teocalli of 1200 feet, and 8 high. A town of 2700 feet on South Elkhorn, a square on Clear creeklc. The tofal number of ancient sites known to me in Kentucky, as 148 505 mounts therefore to 148, and the ancient remains or monuments _ aife50S Those tdretdy known to me in the remainder of North i AmTerica, are the following:- 14 '54 n Alabama, many towns forts, mounds, c. Au elliptical teo- calli of 800 feet, and 15 high. on Cedar creek. A teocalli of 1120Teet, and 75 high, on the Etowee. A circus of 25 acres if Jones' valley, with a square teocalli in the centre, of 720 feet and 30 high, c. 10 45 Akktanzas, towns, mounds, c. several mounds and teocallis, as high as 40 feet, below the town of Arkanzas. Remains of a town built of sunburnt bricks, on the St Francis river, c. A., 7 Canada, mounds and forts between lake Huron and Erie 2 3 Connecticut, inscribed rocks at Seaticook and Tiverton. L. 12 32 Florida, many embankments, excavations, mounds, c. not very ancient ,L.-Many high mounds, avennes and artificial ponds or tanks, rlear lake George, c. 16 30 Georgia, many large square teocallis, some with 3 stories; and avenue lvading to squab ;exayation5 on we OQlcmvlge, S Tofal JVTh. of COtNTIES, C iles Jlons. Four square teocallis and 4. square exSaVatiOMs near A)pai- / chicola. Two ova) teocallis on Sooquee creek. one is 100 feet high, the other 40. A stone fort on a high bill;c 1 170 Illinois, many conical mounds in the American bottom, on the Mississipiq a squared teocalli of 1200 feet, 100 high, and with 2 s.oping stages on the Cahokia; a square teocalli of 600 feet aid ,20 high, near St. Lobis.-A stone fort on Salinre river. Mounds near the moutli of the Ohio, c. 8 18 Inditno, towns ant mounds on the Wabash, White river and the Ohio, near the falls, c. 6 20 10ousiana, mnny mounds on the Mississipi, at Baton Rouge, c. Four square teocallis, of 240 feet and 22 high, equal, forming a square, jqined by a wall and ditch, With an avenue leading to a conical teocalli 115 feet high, (spiral road on it) on Bayou Cataoulou. Five mounds of shells. near lakle Catabulou is 80 feet high. A high mound on lIed river, built in 1728 by the Natchez. Many in Teulsa, c. I 1 Maine, a conical teocalli of 6()0 feet, SS high; with a paved summit, on the river Kennebeck 2 3 Massachussets, the sculptured rocks of Dighton, and the inscrib- ed stone of Rutland, of which maily opinions have been forms ed, supposed Atlantic, Phoenician, Coptic or Lenapian ! 12 106 Mexico, many towns, teocallis, stone buildings, c. in Anahuac. Michuacan, Yucatan, Guatinialaf c 6 16 Michigani. tqwns, forts and mounds on river Huron, lake St. C lair; nesar Detroit, c. 25 60 Mississipi, several square, octogon and round teocallis on the Mississipi, Yazoo, c. X great teoalli at Sultzertown with mounds onl it, 90 feet high. A. teocalli 150 feet long, 100 broad, 35 high near Natchez .. teocalli of 2650 feet square 20 feet hiMh, on Big-black river, with a wall and ditch 2400 feet long, ,joining the highlands, c 24 64 Missouri, many mounds, forts, graves, c. at the mouth of Osage, Missouri, Merimnack, Chlepousa, c. 27 mounds and a pris- matic teocalli at, St Louis. A square teocalli of 800 feet an 14 high, below the mouth of. Ohio. A conical teocalli of 1204 feet, 40 high, with a ditch on the lake Chkepousa, c. 4 10 Multnomah Country, on thtf Pacific ocean Several towns and mounds on the Columbia or Multnomah river 9 20 Nadowessie or Sioux Country, or Upper Mississipi. Many fortm, excavations and mounds tin the river St. Peter, Menomonie, Gaspard, Wapisinekan, e. poligon below lake Pepin. A small square teocalli on Racine river, lat. 44. 12 70 New-Mexico. Ruins of towns built of clay or stones, in Sonora._ on the tlio-gia and in Cibola, lat 36, C :36 125 New-York. All in tle western part of tle state; the most east- erly site is ou the river Chenango. Many aicient towns, forts and mounts, on the rivers Seneka, Genessee, Black. c. near Auburn, Pompey, Muf'loe, Onondago, Canandaigua, c. some of which appear modern or built by the Metigtiv na- tion; an inscription with unknown letters was found at Oaon- dago. A circus at Unadilla , two parallel rows of townsor forts extending 50 miles, ,lu the an jent shli'reo of lalce 1Ek t. APEPEDIX 1 APPEND2IX To0a,1No, of COUNSTIES, C. StCJ Jzoar. Many towns south of lake Ontario, beyond the mountain ridge or most ancient land, very ancient; Uc. 6 8 IN North Carolina, some mounds near Saraw, towns on lHolston,ri- ver. On Enoe river 2 inscriptions were found in ploughing, on octogon stone pillar and a circular piece of brass! with unknown letters !-It, Rowan County 2 ironstone walls un- der ground, supposed basaltic by many, but erroneously. 72 1S 0 Ohio, this state contains numerous fine monuments like Ken- tucky, but only a part have been described although more than of any other state; another portion hU been surveyed by myself, many are yet hardlk known At Cincinnati, a large town, circus, mounds, c. OR Paint Creek, 3 towns with stone walls, mounds, teocallis, c. At the mouth of Scioto, a town, dromus, mounds, Mc. At Circleville, a fine circus and mound Near Chillicothe, five towns, with temples, avenues, e. In Belmont county, a mound of 16 feet, where iron and silver has been found On Lake Erie, many towns in Asbtabula cty. with mounds, c. On the Little Miami, many towns, stone forts, temples, c. a, copper com was found with Persian letters! At Marietta, X town, mounds, c. a silver cup found there Near Newark, 2 towns. with avenues, pits, mounds, etc. In Perry county, a town with a stone mound Mouth of Big Miami. a stone fort, a town with round pits, mouwn' and ditch, elleptical teocalli 550 feet, 25 high. Mouth of Maumee, a town and fort On Twin creek, two elleptical teocallis Vtauy other monuments rear Granville, Franklinton, Worthing- ton, New kthens, Gallipolis, etc, 28. n Panis, county of Upper Missouri, many fortified towns on the Missouri, at the mouth of Osage, Chayenne, Laplate; also on rivers Kanzas, Laplate,Yellowstone, Jaques, etc. Two squares of 12M0 feet on Petit-ark creek. A large pit 200 feet long,, 130 wide, 30 deep, near the Panis, etc. 25 32 Pennsylvania, mostly in the western parts; mounds and forts near Pittsburgh. Near Meadvflle 7 circles, mounds, etc. Se- veral towns and forts on the Monongahela, also carved rocks. On the Allegheny,,some towns, etc. A town on a hill near the Tyoga river with a circus, etc. 1 5 South Carolina, near Cambden, in the Wateree, many monu- ments, a teocalli 20 feet high, a wall or parapet three miles long ! wrongly supposed to be built by Soto, who never was there4 4 74 Tennessee; this state was anciently united to Kentucky and its monuments are very important for our history On the south fork of Forcadeer river, several towns, teocallis. mounds ; toe finest pyramid of the United States is there, it is 150 feet high, 1200 feet at the base, 120 at the top, per. fectly squares It was discovered only in 1822. On Duck river, a stone fort Near Clarksville, on the Cumberland, a town, many teocallis.; and k9Vr Palziyra, on Ditto) augther town, busts found tlere. I. APPEDIX, 37 2WaI No. of coats, c. Sewsaont. Near Nashville, on ditto, several towna, teocallis, statues, etc.- On the Canyfork ot Tennesee, a circus where the triune vessel was found Near Pulaski, a subterranean brlckwall Near Carthage, a fort, graves On Big Harpeth river, several mounds, one is 40 feet high, a sun and moon painted yellow in a perpendicular cliff of 70 feet On French broad, paintings and letters on a vertical cliff, 100 feet above the water! In Warren county, a town with mummies, etc. Near Brasstown, on Tennessee, the enchanted mountain with carved tracts of men and beasts 3 3 n Texas, at the head of river Sabine, an elleptical teocalli 6 feet high, a mound on the river Trinity, etc. I 1 Vermont, sculptured rocks at Bellows falls on Connecticut 32 72 Virginia, principally on the Ohio, Kenhaway and Holston - Near Abington, a circus and mound On Clinch river, a late town, with a ditch round it, L. On the Ohio, painted rocks near the mouth of King's creek-, with figures and letters! mounds near them. Towns near Belleville, Letarts falls, Parkersburgh, Park's bottom, Gal- lipolis, etc. On the Kenhawanv, 105 circular temples, towns, mounds, ect. one mound is 40 eet high and 420 round At Big Grave creek, many mounds, the largest is a conical py- ramid surrounded by a ditch, 70 feet high, base 540 feet ;und, top 180 feet At little Grave creek, many mounds, the largest is like that of Big Grave, but 75 feet high At Burning Springs, sculptured hierogliphics on rocks. Many mounds, etc. on the Guyandot, Elk river, Slhenaudoah, Mo- nongahela, Fluvanna, Rtivanna, etc. L. The actual number of ancient seats of population or sites already ascer- tained by me, in North America, amount therefore to 541, of which 393 out of Kentucky, and 148 in Kentuckv, while the ancient monuments found in those sites amount already to 1830, of which 505 in Kentucky and 1U25 out of it. If by my researches during 4 years, I have been able thus to increase the knowledge of the number of ancient sites and monuments in the single State of Kentucky, from 25 sites to 148, and from 100 monuments to 505: it is very probable that when.equal industry will be exercised in the other States, that number will be more than doubled; since I entertain no doubt that 1000 sites and 4000 moiuments exist still in the United States, exclu- sive of Mexico, besides the small burrows, and those that have been des. troyed, II. AVP1 MNIYT CATALOGUE Of the .luthors and Works consulted. Adair, llist. of Creeks, etc. Adt-lung,, ithridates, Ad; lung, Fr. Catal. of Languages, Arrian History. Archeoh gia Americana, Vol. 1. Asiatic esearchei, 12Vol. Atwater Antiq. s f Ohin Azara; travels it. Paraguay Barrow, travfls in Chutis, etc. Barton, Indian languagest etc. Bartram. travels in Florida Beck, Alissouri ect. Boone, advenw ures in Kentucky Bossu, travels in Louisiana floudinnt, 'Has. in the West Breckenridge, Louisiana and memoir Bruce, Abyssinia, etc. Buffin, Natural History, etc. Cabow, Discovery of North kmerica Campbetl, Western Antiquities, etc. Carli, ,nerican Lett.rs Cartier, travels in Canada Carver, travels in North America Charlevoix, do. History of Canada, St. D)omingo, Paraguy Clavigero, History of Mexico Clifford, Letters on N. . Antiq. Colden, History of the Five Nations Col-brook-, Dissertations on India Colimbus. travels Condamine, travels in South America Cook, travels Cornelius, Memoirs Castiglone. Viaggi in America Cram- . Ohio Navigator Cumuming, travels in the U. S. Cuvie, geological works, c. Dana WVest-rn Gizetteer Darbv. Louisiana Guide. -c. Det.rizhofer, Abipones Delisle, .Nonde primitif, c. Delametherita t eology Depons, Caraccas Dictionnaire hist-'rqive -. D'HistQire Naturelle Diodorus, history Douglas, History of North America Duponceau, on Amer. Lang. c. Duprats, History of Louisiana Drake, Cincinnati Dwight, travels Edwards, West Indies Edinburgh Review Egede, Greenland Ellis travels Filson, Kentucky Forster, travels and observations, Gage, travelsin Mexico Garcilago de la Vega. conquest of Florida, his. of Peru, c. Gebelin, Monde primitif Gilleland, Ohio Pilot Grosier, Histoire de la Chine. Cumilh, Orenoko Harmar, West Caledonia Havywood, Tennessee Heckenwelder, hist. of Lenapiansc. Hearne, travels to North Sea Hennepin, travels in North AmericF Henry. ditto. Herodotus, History Hudson, travels Humboldt, travels, researches, c. Hutchins, North American Map, c( Imlay, Letters on Kentucky James, Say and Long, travels Jefferson, Notes in Virginia Jewett, Nootka Jones, dissertations on Asia Lusaye, travels in North America Labillardiere, Voyages Lahontan, travels in N. America Lavoisne. historical Atlas Leod, Lewche'v Islands Lewis and Clarke, travels Levden, languages of India Loskiel, Nlissionp of N. America Mackenzie, travels in N Americ Maalison, Memoir 'en Am. A tiq, Massachusetts, Historical collectiqvs. 39 Mwarsden Sumatra and Malays Meares, travels Mellish travels and Maps Mitchill, Dssiertations, c. lsigeon, voy. de Pythagore New Y:.rk tlist. Collections North American Reviewv Nuttall, travels to Arkanzas Oldmixon, North America Officer, travels of an Olivet, new translation of Sepher. Origine des Loix, des Sciences et des Arts Pages, travels round the world Pallas, travels in Russia c. Parry, travels Pennant, Artic Zoology Pernetty, ki lkland I. Peron, travels 1Perouse, travels Pickering, Indian languages Pike, travels in North America Pinkerton, Scythians, fossils, c. Pliniius, Natural History Pownal's Map, c. Proud; History of Pennsylvania Ptolemy, Ancient Geography Quarterly Review Elafinesque, Manuscripts of Tellus, Ancient history of North America Antiquity of North America, Ge- neral view of the American lan- guages, c. Raleigh, travels Ramsay, History of Carolina Telaud, American lang ages Robin, travels in Louisiana Rogers, North America Rollin. Ancieut History Romans' Florida Sanford, History of the IJ 5ttes Shermerborn state otlndians in 1812 Schoolcraft, travels Sibley, travels Smith, Narrative Smith, History of New York Southey, History of Brazil Sullivan, History of Maine Thomas, travels Tonti and Laralle, travels Traditions (in Ms. of the Shawta nees, Ottawas, c. Ulloa, travels and researches Universal History Valancey, Antiq .f Ireland Vanegas, History of Californe Vancouver, Travels Vaetl, o'i Languages Verazanz, travels Vespuctus, travels V dInev, va. ions works 4ilford, resea'clies Winslow, comments Winthrop, tistory Winterbotham, America Zuniga, conquest of Peru. SUPPLEMENT. Annales philosophiques Americaines Bozman, listory of Maryland Burk, History of Virginia Cumberlad, Origines Gentium t ankldnpolar eravels Hdnxes, American Annals Jameson, Hermes 9cythicus Langsdorf, travels lawson, Carolina Long, travels Maurice, History of Hindostan Philadelphia, philosophical tran- tions. -ft. APPENIb.