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Isaac Shelby : revolutionary patriot and border hero (vol. 1) / by Archibald Henderson. Henderson, Archibald, 1877-1963. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-133-29323835v1 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Isaac Shelby : revolutionary patriot and border hero (vol. 1) / by Archibald Henderson. Henderson, Archibald, 1877-1963. North Carolina Society, Raleigh, N.C. : 1918. 2 v. : port. ; 23 cm. Coleman Microfilm. v.16 no.3 (Jan.1917), v.18 no.1 (July 1918). Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1993. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN03768.06 KUK) Printing Master B92-133. "In North Carolina Booklet, vol. 16, no. 3 (Jan. 1917) and as vol. 18, no. 1 (July 1918)." IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Shelby, Isaac, 1750-1826. North Carolina History Revolution, 1775-1783. ISAAC SHELBY Revolutionary Patriot and Border HIero PART I.-1750-1780 BY ARCHIfAALD HtNDERSON This page in the original text is blank. VOL XVI JANUARY, 1917 No. 3 N O R TH.... -.... __............., ......... CB O O K.........L No;RTH CAROLINA BOOKLET "Carolina!' Ca ! Heaus bleGgs attend her ! Whif we livee P mlc rot and def n er" Published by TIME NOR rH CAROLINA SOCIETY D)AUTljj1EFRS OF THE REVOLIUTiON The objetof Tud BOOKLT Is to aid in developinr and preserving North Carolin imItory. Tie pro adlug from Its publeation will be (C otto patriotic purpos. EnITo. CoMMEECI PRNTIN COMPANY PINTES AND 1GBD S ADVISORY BOARD OF THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKELET MRS. HUBERT HAYWOOD. Du. RICHARD DI)LLABD. MRS. E. E. M OF'FITT. DR. KEMP P. BATTLE. MR. R. D. W. CONNOR. MR. JAMES SPRUNT, DL D. H. HILL. MR. MARSHALL DEIANC(EY HAYWVOD) Dv.. WILLIAM IK. BOYD. CHIEF JUSTICE WALTER CLARK. CAPT. S. A. AsIXE MAJOR W. A. GCAHAM. Miss ADELAIDE L. FRIES. DR. CHARLES LEE SMITH. MISS MARTHA HELEN HAYN WOOI). EDITOR: MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. BIOGRAPHICAL EDITOR: Ias. E. I. MOFFITT. OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLV-IO10N 1914-1916 REGENT: MISS MARY HILTLIARD HINTO)N. vleg-uEGI -T: Mvs. MARS IAlL WILTLIAM . HXONORARY REGENTS. MIs I. 71. MOFFITT. 1M118, TJ K. BR HT.ER, RECORDING SECRETARY: MlS. L E. CO CNGTON. 0. ORESPO,'DIN' SECRETARY: MRS. PAUL H. LEE. TREASURER: MRS. CHAS. LEE SMITH. REGISTRAR: MISS SARAH W. ASHE. CUSTODIAN OF RELICS: MRS. JOHN E. RAY. CHAPTER REGENTS Bloomsbury Chapter.. MRS. HUBERT HAYWOOD, Regent. Penelope BArker Chapter . . ........ MRS. PATRICK MATTHEW, Regent. Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter ---------MRS. I. M. MEEKINs, Regent. General Francis Nash Chapter_____-- Miss REBECCA CAMERON, Regent. Roanoke Chapter_____ __ _ _ _ __--IRS. F. M. ALLEN, Regenlt. Mar y Iotumbn Chapter ----------- IMss G'EORGIE HICKS, Regent Colonel Thimas Robeson Chapter ____ AIts. ANN UIE, Regent FOU2NDER OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY AND REGENT 18964-192 MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. REGENT 1902: MRS. D. H. HILL, Sn.jt REGEXT 1902-91906: MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. REGENT 1906-1910: MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. Dieod November 25, 1911. t Died December 12,1904. This page in the original text is blank. ISAAC SHELBY MATTHEW HARRIS JOUETT From his most famous portrait, never before reproduced, owned by William R. Shelby, Esq., of Grand Rapids, Michigan The North Carolina Booklet Vol. XVI JANUARY, 1917 No. 3 Isaac Shelby Revolutionary Patriot and Border Hero By ARCHIBALD HENDERSON. Among that group of early pioneers whose intrepid daring and superior sagacity, tested in the crucible of border warfare and frontier conflict, were potent agencies in laying the foun- dation stones of the republic, Isaac Shelby occupies a position of conspicuous leadership in both martial and civil life. De- ficient in the vision of a Richard Henderson or the craft of a Daniel Boone, Shelby possessed much of the glorified common sense which distinguished James Robertson. Temperamen- tally more phleg natic than bis comrade in, arms, the impetu- ous John Sevier, he exhibited in the crucial moments of his career a headlong bravery and an unwavering self-control which marked him as a trustworthy leader of men. In per- sonal bravery the match for his friend, George Rogers Clark, Shelby was a born fighter; and although not endowed with the tactical brilliance of the conqueror of the Northwest, he exhibited such unerring judgment in battle and such poise in leadership as to inspire the confident faith which procures ultimate victory. His contribution to the cause of American independence is an integral part of the history of the Revolu- tion. This chapter which to this very day, in any adequate sense, remains unwritten, the present monograph purposes to supply. It was from a line of Welsh ancestors that Isaac Shelby derived the phlegmatic temperament and cautious balance which stood him in such good stead throughout his eventful and turbulent career. His father, Evan Shelby, was born in Wales in 1720; and with his father and mother, Evan and Catherine Shelby, he emigrated to Maryland about 1735. The THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET family settled in the neighborhood of Hagerstown, near the North Mountain, then Frederick County. Strength of charac- ter and an iron constitution, reinforced by the qualities of tenacity and approved courage, express the dominant charac- teristics of this famous border character, Evan Shelby, Isaac's father. In the French and Indian wars which began in 1754, he served with distinction, first it is presumed, as a private soldier; but in 1756 his recognized skill as a hunter and woodsman, acquired in patrolling the border and guarding the frontier, as well as his bravery, led to his appointment as Lieutenant of Maryland troops. I It is related that on Forbes' campaign, "he gave chase to an Indian spy, in view of many of the troops, overtaking and tomahawking him."' The fol- lowing letter is like a ray of light flashed into the dim ob- scurity of the mid-period of the eighteenth century. It is a letter of Governor Sharpe, of Maryland, to General Forbes :2 lsr oF AUGUST, 1758. To General Forbes: SIB:-This serves to introduce to you Capt. Shelby, who waits on your Excellency with his company of volunteers to receive your com- mands. He has served as a Lieut. more than two years in the Mary- land troops has always behaved well, which encourages me to hope that he and his company will be found useful on the present occasion. The expense I have been at in furnishing his men with blankets, leg- gins, moccasins camp kettles is pound;82-3-2 pens currency, as Capt. Shelby his lieut., who was likewise an officer in our Troops until the end of May last, found themselves under some Difficulties by not being paid the arrears that were due them, I have let each of them have pound;15 out of the 510 currency, which, with Your Excellency's ap- probation, Mr. Kilby is to advance towards paying the Maryland Forces. I most sincerely wish Your Excellency the perfect Recovery of Your Health a successful Campaign, I am c. Serving as Captain of Maryland troops, in the provincial army destined for the reduction of Fort Duquesne, Evan Shelby was engaged in a number of severe battles in the course of Braddock's war. In 1758, in pursuance of Governor Sharpe's orders, he reconnoitred and marked out the route 'Draper's King's Mountain and Its Heroes, 411. 2Maryland Calendar State Papers, ii, 1757-61, 237. 110 ISAAC SHELBY of a road to Fort Cumberland; and following his report to the Governor that "three hundred and fifty men might open such a road as he proposed in three weeks," as it was not more than sixty miles in length, the road was laid out by him with the assistance of the desired quota of men, by order of Governor Sharpe.3 As a soldier he was conspicuous for gal- lantry in the battle fought at Loyal Hanning (now Bedford), Pennsylvania; and he led the advance guard of General Forbes, when he took possession of Fort DuQuesne in 1758. Early in the 'sixties, it is reasonable to suppose, he removed with his family to Pennsylvania-perhaps as the result of un- certainty in land titles in consequence of the dispute over territory between Maryland and Pennsylvania. For some years thereafter he engaged in trade with the Indians of the Northwest. During the conferences with the Indians, held in connection with the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, lasting from October 24 until November 6, 1768, an extensive grant of land was made by the Six Nations of Indians to twenty-three Indian traders, most of them from Pennsylvania, to recom- pense them for very large losses incurred during the war of 1763. In the list of the twenty-three names is found that of Evan Shelby, along with such other well known names as William Trent, David Franks, John Baynton, Samuel Whar- ton, and George Morgan. This grant included all that part of the present state of West Virginia lying between the Ohio, the Little Kanawha, and the Monongahela rivers, the Laurel Ridge, and the South line of Pennsylvania extended to the Ohio. Trent and Wharton, two of the traders, went to Eng- land, to endeavor to obtain a confirmation of the grant, which was named Indiana by those who wished to erect it into a colony; but while there they were induced to throw in their interests with Thomas Walpole, Benjamin Franklin, and others, in securing the grant of Vandalia, which included the 3Cf. Sharpe to Capt. Evan Shelby, June 15, 1758; Maryland Calen- dar State Papers. Letter Book III, 206; Sharpe to Calvert, Letter Book I, 358-9. For Capt. Evan Shelby's report from Frederick, June 25, 1758, cf. also Maryland Calendar State Papers, Letter Book III, 212. illl THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET grants to the Ohio Company and to William Trent and his associates, and extended to the mouth of Scioto. Although the draft of the royal grant had actually been prepared in the spring of 1775, it ultimately failed of confirmation by the Crown.4 During the third quarter of the eighteenth century, ranches, or "cow-pens" were established at many places in the Pied- mont region of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Caro- lina. The more adventurous farmers, taking advantage of the fertile pastures of the uplands, pressed far beyond the ordinary farmer's frontier, and herded in large flocks of cat- tle and stock. Many of these were wandering wild upon the country; as a contemporary observer says, "notwithstanding every precaution, very great numbers of black cattle, horses and hogs-run at large, entirely wild, without any other pro- prietors than those of the ground they happened to be found upon."5 In 1771, according to the best authorities, Isaac Shelby, the son of Evan Shelby, was residing in Western Vir- ginia, living the life of the rancher, and engaged in the bus- iness of feeding and attending to the herds of cattle over the extensive ranges of the uplands.6 And in this same year, as Draper states, the Shelby connection removed to the Holston country, in that twilight zone of the debatable ground between North Carolina and Virginia.7 Evan Shelby settled on the site of the present Bristol, Tennessee; and in conjunction with his friend, Isaac Baker, purchased the Sapling Grove tract, of 1946 acres, Robert Preston dividing it equally be- tween them. 4Plain Facts, Philadelphia, 1781. New Governments West of the Alleghanies Before 1780, by G. H. Alden, Madison, Wis., 1897. C0. also, Hanna's The Wilderness Trail, ii, 59-60. 5J. F. D. Smyth: A Tour in the United States of America, ii. 1434. 6L. C. Draper: Kings Mountain and Its Heroes, 411. 7Summers, in his Southwest Virginia, 1903, 671-2, states that "in the year 1765 or shortly thereafter, Evan Shelby and Isaac Baker left their homes in Maryland and came to the Holston country." The facts, as stated above, would indicate that the date, 1765, is incorrect, with reference to the migration to the Holston country. of Evan Shelby, at least. It may be that Isaac Baker preceded Evan Shelby to the Holston country, and induced him to remove thither. 112 ISAAC SHELBY Isaac Shelby was born near the North Mountain, in the vicinity of Hagerstown, Maryland, on December 11, 1750, being the eldest son of Evan Shelby and his first wife, Letitia Scott, of Frederickstown, Maryland. The intimacy between Evan Shelby and his friend Isaac Baker is shown by the fact that Shelby named one of his sons Isaac and Baker named one of his sons Evan. Endowed, like his father, with an iron constitution, and reared in a martial atmosphere, Isaac early adapted himself to the strenuous life of the pioneer and be- came expert in the arts of hunting and woodcraft. Even be- fore he reached man's estate he served as Deputy Sheriff of Frederick County, Maryland-a tribute to his self-control and personal prowess.8 Despite the fact that the country was continually harrassed with a succession of Indian wars, young Isaac nevertheless succeeded in obtaining the rudiments of a plain English edu- cation. After the removal of the Shelbys to Kings Meadows (near Bristol), Evan Shelby and his four sons, Isaac, Evan, Moses, and James, continued to herd and graze cattle on an extensive scale along the Virginia border, about forty miles north of Watauga.9 An authentic account of the career of Evan Shelby and his services to the cause of American independence would con- stitute an extended chapter in the history of Indian battles and border warfare. As indicative of the high estimation in which he was held in his former home, one may cite the fol- lowing fragment of a letter to Captain Evan Shelby from General William Thompson, bearing the address, "Carlyle, 6th July, 1775." "Had General Washington been sure you could have joined the army at Boston without first seeing your family (you) would have been appointed Lieut. Colo. (of the) Rifle Battal- ion and an express sent by you being so--------------the 8This statement is made on the authority of Cecil B. Hartley, in his sketch of Isaac Shelby, published in 1860, along with The Life and Adventure8 of Loui8 Wetzel. 9James R. Gilmore: The Rear Guard of the Revolution, 1903, 64. 113 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET general concluded it (would not be ) for you to take the field before seeing your family. I leave for Boston on Mon- day night." Upon his Sapling Grove plantation Evan Shelby built a fort named Shelby's Station, where hundreds were sometimes forted during the Revolution. At this fort the Shelbys kept a store, which supplied the pioneers with ammunition, dress stuffs, articles of food and drink. Daniel Boone pur- chased supplies here in preparation for his ill-timed and ill- fated expedition in 1773. The stout old Welshman, stern though he may have been, was evidently not averse to con- viviality; on an old ledger, dated Staunton, Va., Nov. 22, 1773, conspicuous in the account against Evan Shelby are such entries as: "1 Bowl tody," "1 Mug cider," "1 Bowl Bumbo," "To Club in Wine." His first wife, Letitia Cox, died in 1777, and is buried at Charlottesville, Va. Late in life he was married to Isabella Elliott; and the records show that this prudent lady required one-third of his estate to be deeded to her before marriage. In 1794 Evan Shelby died, at the age of 74, and his widow afterwards was married again to one Dromgoole. His remains now repose in Bristol, Tenn", on the lot now occupied by the Lutheran Church, on the corner of Fifth and Shelby streets."1 It was not long after the settlement of the Shelbys at Sap- ling Grove that they formed the acquaintance of such leading men of the border as James Robertson, John Sevier, Daniel Boone, and William Russell. A little incident indicative of the experience of even the most expert pioneers of the day at the hands of the treacherous and furtive red men is recorded in that valuable repository of historical lore, Bradford's Notes on Kentucky. "In 1772," records Isaac Shelby in one of these notes, although we know from other sources that he should have said 1771, "I met Daniel Boone below the Hol- stein settlements alone; he informed me that he had spent the two years preceding that time in a hunt on Louisa river lHUf. Oliver Taylor: Historic Sullivan, 1909. Also L. P. Summers: Southwest Virginia, 1903. 114 ISAAC SHELBY (now Kentucky), so called by all the Long Hunters; that he had been robbed the day before, by the Cherokee Indians, of all the proceeds of his hunt." It was at the instance of the Shelbys that Sevier moved to the Holston settlements. In 1772 John Sevier attended a horse race at the Watauga Old Field, and witnessed the theft of a horse by a burly fellow named Shoate. Sevier was about to leave, disgusted by the incident-for the thief pretended that he had won the stolen horse as the result of a wager- when Evan Shelby remarked to him: "Never mind the rascals; they'll soon poplar"-by which he meant, take a canoe and get out of the country. One of the first measures taken by the Watauga settlements was the passage of laws to protect them from horse thieves. The following year the Seviers removed to Keywood, about six miles from the Shelbys, later settling in Washington County.12 It was not long before Isaac Shelby, young though he was, came to be regarded as a man of promise in the frontier set- tlement. In 1774 he was appointed Lieutenant in the militia by Colonel William Preston, the County Lieutenant of Fin- castle County. The anecdote is related that, when Isaac thoughtlessly sat down instead of remaining at attention while his commission was being written out by Col. Preston, his father, with characteristically imperious manner, sternly admonished him: "Get up, you young dog, and make your obeisance to the Colonel !" Whereupon the young officer, considerably abashed, arose and made the amende honorable to his superior officer. In time to come the graceless "young dog" was to prove himself, as soldier an- statesman, the superior of his bull-dog father, the grizzled veteran and Indian fighter. Endowed, like his father, with an herculean frame, though built on a somewhat larger scale, he presents a formidable and impressive appearance in the portraits that have come 12Draper Mss.; also cf. F. M. Turner: Life of General John Sevier, 1910. 11,5 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET down to us-with firm, compressed lips, heavy chin, massive features, beetling brows over fixed, deep-set eyes-a man of "uncommon intelligence and stern, unbending integrity." II. Daniel Boone's attempt, without shadow of title, to make a settlement in Kentucky, in September, 1773, had met with a bloody repulse on the part of the Indians. In a letter to Dartmouth, Dunmore said in regard to the "Americans," the pioneer settlers: "They acquire no attachment to place: But wandering about Seems engrafted in their Nature; and it is a weakness incident to it that they Should for ever Imagine the Lands further off, are Still better than those upon which they are already Settled."'13 The continued encroachments of the white settlers upon the Indian hunting grounds fanned to flame the smouldering animosity of the red man. The Six Nations, at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768, had sold to the Crown, through Sir William Johnson, their unwarranted claim to a vast stretch of territory extending as far to the southward as the Kentucky River. The Southern Indians, the aboriginal occupants of the soil, indignantly denied the right of the Six Nations to this Territory. The Indians along the border were aroused to a pitch of excessive hostility by the continued incursions of the whites. A succession of attacks by the Indians upon outlying and scattered settlements soon led to bloody reprisals on the part of the whites. The open letter of Conolly, Governor Dunmore's agent, calling upon the backwoodsmen to prepare to defend themselves from the attacks of the Shawnees, was issued on April 21, 1774, and the barbarous murder of Logan's family at the mouth of Yel- low Creek on April 30, by one Greathouse and a score of carousing white companions, rendered the conflict inevitable. Yet actual hostilities were slow to commence, and it was not until the summer of 1774 that Daniel Boone and Michael Stoner were dispatched by Dunmore to Kentucky, to conduct ILDraper Mss., 15J4-48. 116 ISAAC SHELBY into the settlements the various parties of surveyors scattered about through the Kentucky area. The war was now begun, and Lord Dunmore, hoping to reconcile the differences be- tween the colonists and England by a successful campaign against the Indians, proceeded vigorously to carry the war into the enemy's country. There were two divisions in Lord Dunmore's army, one of fully twelve hundred men under the command of the earl in person, the other of about eleven hundred strong, under the command of General Andrew Lewis, a stalwart backwoods fighter. For some inexplicable motive, which has been sus- pected, no doubt, erroneously, as an attempt at treachery to the Americans, Dunmore decided not to unite his force with that of Lewis; and after a long march he took up his position at the mouth of the Hockhocking, erected a stockade styled Fort Gower, and awaited news of Lewis's brigade. The divis- ion of Lewis reached the mouth of the Great Kanawha River on October 6 and encamped at Point Pleasant. On the ninth the order came to Lewis from Dunmore to join him at the Indian towns near the Pickaway Plains. The sagacious Cornstalk, the Indian leader, divining the plan of the whites, resolved to hurl his entire force of one thousand warriors upon the sleeping army at Point Pleasant. Of the several commands under Lewis one was composed of the Fincastle men, from the Holston, Clinch, Watauga, and New River settlements, under Col. William Christian. The Holston men were the advance guard of civilization at this period, the most daring settlers who had pushed farthest out into the western wilderness. In Col. Christial's command were five captains, Evan Shelby, Russell, Herber, Draper, and Buford; and under Evan Shelby were his sons, Isaac, a lieutenant, and James; and James Robertson and Valentine Sevier, orderly sergeants. The battle which ensued has been described in such accurate and graphic terms in a letter to John Shelby, by Isaac Shelby, 117 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET who played an important part in the fierce engagement, that his letter is given here in full :14 CAMP OPPOSITE TO THE MOUTH OF GREAT CANAWAY, October 16th, 1774. DR. UNCLE:-I Gladly imbrace this opportunity to Acquaint You that we are all threel5 yet alive th(r)o Gods Mercies I Sinceerly wish that this may find you your Family in the Station of Health that we left you. I never had anything Worth Notice to quaint you with since I left you till now, the Express seems to be Hurrying that I Cant write you with the same Coolness Deliberation as I would; we arrived at the mouth (of) Canaway Thursday 6th. Octr. and incampd on a fine piece of Ground with an intent to wait for the Governor his party but hearing that he was going another way we Contented our selves to stay there a few days to rest the troops c, when we looked upon our selves to be in safety till Monday morning the 10th Instant when two of our Compys. went out before day to hunt. To wit Val. Sevier Jas Robison Discovered a party of Indians; as I expect you will hear something of our Battle before you get this I have here stated this affair nearly to you. For the Satisfaction of the people in your parts in this they have a true state of the Memorable Battle faught at the mouth of the Great Canaway on the 10th. Instant; Monday morning about half an Hour before Sunrise two of Capt. Russells Compy. Discovered a large party of Indians about a mile from Camp one of which men was killed the Other made his Escape brought in his intilligence ;18 in two or three minutes affter two of Capt Shelbys Compy. Came in and Confirmed the Account. Colo. Andrew Lewis being Informed thereof Immediatery ordered Colo. Charles Lewis to take the Command of 150 men from Augusta and with him went Capt. Dickison. Capt. Harrison. Capt. Willson. Capt. Jno. Lewis from Augusta and Capt. Lockridge which made the first division. Colo. Fleming was also ordered to take the Command of one hundred fifty more Consisting of Botetourt Fin- castle and Bedford Troops Viz. Capt. Buford of Bedford Capt. Love of Botetourt Capt. Shelby Capt. Russell of Fincastle which made the second Division. Colo. Lewis marched with his Division to the l4The copy here used is made directly from the original in the Draper Mss., 7 ZZ 2. The text used by Roosevelt (Winning of the West) is drawn from a manuscript copy of Shelby's letter, In the Campbell Mss. l5Captain Evan Shelby and his two sons, Isaac and James. lOThese were Joseph Hughey, of Shelby's company, and James Mooney, of Russell's. The former was killed by a white renegade, Tavenor Ross, while the latter brought the news to camp. Mooney was a former neighbor of Daniel Boone, upon the Yadkin in North Carolina, and had accompanied him upon the disastrous Kentucky hunting expedition of 1769. He was killed at Point Pleasant. Cf. Dunmore's War, edited by Thwaltes and Kellogg, 271-2. 118 ISAAC SHELBY 119 Right some Distance up from the Ohio. Colo. Fleming with his Division up the banck of the Ohio to the left: Colo. Lewiss Division had not marchd. little more than a quarter of a mile from Camp; when about sunrise, an Attact was made on the front of his Division in a most Vigorous manner by the Undid tribes of Indians-Shaw- nees; Delewares; Mingoes; Taways,17 and of several Other Nations in Number not less than Eight Hundred and by many thaught to be a thousand; in this Heavy Attact Colonel Charles Lewis received a wound which soon after Caused his Death and several of his men fell in the Spott in fact the Augusta Division was forced to give way to the heavy fire of the Enemy. I In about a second of a minute after the Attact on Colo. Lewiss Division the Enemy Engaged the Front of Colo. Flemings Division on the Ohio; and in a short time Colo. Flem- ing reed. two balls thro his left Arm and one thro his breast; and after annimating the Captains and soldiers in a Calm manner to the pursuit of Victory returned to Camp, the loss of the Brave Colonels was Sensibly felt by the Officers in perticular, But the Augusta troops being shortly Reinforced from Camp by Colonel Field with his Company together with Capt. M'Dowel, Capt. Mathews Capt. Stuart from Augusta, Capt. John Lewis, Capt. Paulin Capt. Arbuckle Capt. M'Clanahan from Botetourt, the Enemy no longer able to Maintain their Ground was forced to give way till they were in a Line with the troops left in action on Bancks of Ohio, by Colo Flem- ing in this precipitate retreat Colo. Field was killed, after which Capt. Shelby was ordered to take the Commd. During this time which was till after twelve of the Clock, the Action continued Ex- treemly Hott, the Close underwood many steep bancks Loggs favoured their retreat, and the Bravest of their men made the use of themselves, whilst others were throwing their dead into the Ohio, and Carrying of(f) their wounded, after twelve the Action in a small degree abated but Continued sharp Enough till after one oClock Their Long retreat gave them a most advantages spot of ground; from whence it Appeared to the Offlcers so difficult to dis- lodge them; that it was thought most adviseable to stand as the line then was formed which was about a mile and a quarter in length, and had till then sustained a Constant and Equal weight of fire from wing to wing, it was till half an Hour of Sun sett they Continued firing on us which we returned to their Disadvantage at length Night Coming on they found a safe retreat. They had not the satisfaction of scalp- ing any of our men save One or two straglers whom they Killed be- fore the Engagement many of their dead they scalped rather than we should have them but our troops scalped upwards of twenty of those who were first killed; Its Beyond a Doubt their Loss in Number farr Exceeds ours, which is Considirable. Field Offlcers killed Colo. Charles Lewis, and Colo. Jno. Fields, Field Officers wounded Colo. Willm. Fleming; Capts. killed John l7The Ottawas, a Northwestern tribe. THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET Murray Capt. Saml. Willson Capt. Robt. MeClanahan, Capt. Jas. Ward, Captains wounded Thos Buford John Dickison John Scid- more, Subbalterns Killed Lieutenant Hugh Allen, Ensign Mathew Brakin Ensign Cundiff, Subbalterns wounded, Lieut. Lard; Lieut. Vance Lieut. Goldman Lieut. Jas. Robison about 46 killed about 80 wounded from this Sir you may Judge that we had a Very hard day its really Impossible for me to Express or you to Concieve Acclamations that we were under, sometimes, the Hidious Cries of the Enemy and the groans of our wound (ed) men lying around was Enough to shuder the stoutest hart its the general Opin- ion of the Officers that we shall soon have another Ingagement as we have now got Over into the Enemys Country; we Expect to meet the Governor about forty or fifty miles from here nothing will save us from another Battle Unless they Attact the Governors Party, five men that Came in Dadys (daddy's) Company were killed, I dont know that you were Acquainted with any of them Except Marck Wil- liams who lived with Roger Top. Acquaint Mr. Carmack that his son was slightly wounded thro the shoulder and arm that he is in a likely way of Recovery we leave him at mouth of Canaway one Very Carefull hand to take Care of him; there is a garrison three Hundred men left at that place with a surgeon to Heal the wounded we Expect to Return to the Garrison in about 16 days from the Shawny Towns. I have nothing more Perticular to Acquaint you with Concerning the Battle, as to the Country I cant now say much in praise of any that I have yet seen. Dady intended writing to you but did not know of the Express till the time was too short I have wrote to Maam (m) y tho not so fully as to you as I then expected the Express was Just going. we seem to be all in a Moving Posture Just going from this place so that I must Conclude wishing you health and prosperity till I see you and Your Family in the meantime I am yr truly Effectionate Friend Humble Servt ISAAC SHELBY. To Mr. John Shelby Holstons River Fincastle County favr. by Mr. Benja. Gray. This recital, written by the young Isaac Shelby, modestly omits any mention of the very important part which he him- self played in the battle. Upon the death of Colonel John Field, Captain Evan Shelby was ordered to the command, and upon so doing he gave over the command of his own com- pany to his son, Isaac, who, while only holding the rank of a lieutenant, acted in the capacity of a captain during about half the battle. Cornstalk, Logan, Red Eagle, and other brave chieftains, fighting fiercely, led in the attack; and above the terrible din and clangor of the battle could be heard the 120 ISAAC SHELBY deep, sonorous voice of Cornstalk encouraging his warriors with the injunction: "Be strong! Be stronTg!" The Indians led by Cornstalk adopted the tactics of making successive rushes upon the whites by which they expected to drive the frontiersmen into the two rivers, "like so many bullocks," as the chief later explained. So terrific were the onslaughts of the red men that the lines of the frontiersmen had frequently to fall back; but these withdrawals were only temporary, as they were skillfully reinforced each time and again moved steadily forward to the conflict. w About half an hour before sunset General Lewis adopted the dangerous expedient of a flank movement. Captains Shelby, Matthews, Arbuckle, and Stuart were sent with a detachment up Crooked Creek, which runs into the Kanawha a little above Point Pleasant, with a view to securing a ridge in the rear of the enemy, from which their lines could be enfiladed. Concealed by the undergrowth along the bank they endeavored to execute this hazardous move- ment; and John Sawyers, an orderly sergeant, was dispatched by Isaac Shelby with a few men of the company to dislodge the Indians from their protected position. This fierce attack from an unsuspected quarter alarmed the Indians. Cornstalk leaped to the conclusion that this was the advance guard of Christian's party, and giving the alarm hurried his forces to the other side of Old Town Creek. The battle continued in a desultory way until sunset, and no decisive victory had been achieved. But Cornstalk and his warriors had had enough, and withdrew during the night.'8 In this remarkable battle, the most stubborn and hotly con- tested fight ever made by the Indians against the English, Jit was the flanking movement of the detachment in which Isaac Shelby took a leading part that turned the tide and decided the victory for the whites. This battle, which brought about 18Compare the account given by Withers in his Chronicles of Border Warfare, edited and annotated by R. G. Thwaites; Cincinnati, 1908. See also Stuart's Narratire, in Virginia Historical Collections, vol. I. The most exhaustive account of the entire campaign is embodied in Dunmore's War, edited by Thwaites and Kellogg, Madison, 1905. An excellent map is found In Avery's History of the United States, vol. 5, p. 183. 121 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET an early conclusion of peace, was from this standpoint com- pletely decisive in character; and it should not be forgotten that Isaac Shelby, the twenty-four year old captain, thus played an important role in this thrilling scene of warfare preliminary to the great drama of the Revolution. "This action," comments Isaac Shelby in his Autobiography, "is known to be the hardest ever fought with the Indians and in its consequences was of the greatest importance as it was fought while the first Congress was sitting at Philadelphia, and so completely were the savages chastised, particularly the Shawnees and Delawares (the two most formidable tribes) that they could not be induced by British agents among them, neither to the North nor South, to commence hostilities against the United States before July, 1776, in which time the frontiers had become considerably stronger and the settle- ment of Kentucky had commenced." Indeed it was this victory of the Great Kanawha, with its temporary subjugation of the savages, which made possible Colonel Richard Henderson's gallant advance into Kentucky in March-April, 1775, ultimately eventuating in the acquisi- tion of Kentucky and the vast trans-Alleghany region to the territory of the IUnited States. Shelby's comment is signifi- cant in its emphasis, as he was present at the "Great Treaty" at the Sycamore Shoals of the Watauga in March, 1775, and a little later was serving as surveyor in the employ of the Transylvania Company. Without the impetus given to the colonization of the trans-Alleghany region by Richard Hen- derson and the Transylvania Company, there would have been no bulwark on the west against the incursions of savages from that quarter during the Revolution; and at the conclusion of peace in 1783, the western boundary of the Confederation of States would doubtless have been the Alleghany Mountains and not the Mississippi River. Isaac Shelby was a hero of the first battle preluding the mighty conflict which was ultimately to end victoriously at Yorktown.19 19Cf. Hale's Trans-Alleghany Pioneers, Cincinnati, 1886, ch. XXXII. Also Todd's Life of Shelby, in National Portrait Gallery, I, 1835. 122 ISAAC SHELBY At the close of the campaign, if not immediately following the battle, a small palisaded rectangle, about eighty yards long, with block houses at two of its corners, was erected at Point Pleasant by order of Lord Dunmore. This stockade, entitled Fort Blair, was strongly garrisoned, and the chief command was given to that splendid border fighter, Captain William Russell. The young Isaac Shelby, in recognition of his valued services in the recent bloody battle, was made second in command.20 It was here, says tradition, that the Indian chief, Cornstalk, came to shake the hand of the young paleface brave, Isaac Shelby, who had led the strategic flank movement which stampeded his army.2' The following interesting letter, addressed to "Mr. Isaac Shelby, Holston," explains the state of affairs which then ex- isted in that region, and the movements being set on foot. It is a double letter, for at the end of Col. William Christian's letter to Isaac Shelby, which Shelby had forwarded to Colo. William Russell, the latter wrote a supplementary letter, and returned the whole to Isaac Shelby. DUNKARD BOTTOM, February 18, 1775. DEAR SiR:-I have lately been at Williamsburg, and applied to his Excellency the Governor to know what was to be done with the garri- son at point pleasant. His Lordship has been disappointed in getting the consent of the Assembly for the continuance of the Company, but he desired me to acquaint Captain Russell that he was to return to his post and remain there until the treaty with the Indians, which is to be at Fort Dunmore in may, or until further orders. I think it will be in June before that treaty is finished also that his Lordship wishes that the garrison could be kept () up from a desire he has to serve the Frontiers. I have wrote to Captain Russell to come down7 in order to take the charge of one of the Shawnese Hostages who was sent up with me. The design of sending him is to satisfy the Indians 201saac Shelby's Autobiography. Cf. also Dunmore's War, p. 310 n; Chas. S. Todd's Life of Shelby, National Portrait Gallery, vol. I. Thwaites says that General Lewis, who reached Point Pleasant on October 28, left there a garrison of fifty men under Captain Russell. Cf. Withers's Chronicles of Border Warfare, 1908, p. 176n. 21Southern Heroism in Decisive Battles for American Independ- ence, by Charles Henry Todd, In Journal of American History, vol. II, No. 2. -2 123 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET of our friendly intentions, in contradiction to several reports spread among them by pensilvania Traders intimating that we designed fall- ing on them next spring. The reports it was feared might set on foot a general confederacy among the Shawnese their neighbors. I expect Captain Russell will contrive to be as far as McGavocks the 7th. of March on his way to the post and I now write to you thinking it may reach you much sooner than Captain Russell could send to you, thereby to give you more time to prepare for joining him. I saw Jno. Douglass this evening he thinks that near 50 men of those now on duty will agree to continue perhaps that will be enough. If you get this letter quickly would it not be well for you to ride over and consult with the Captain what is to be done. It is certain that you or him must set of (off) soon with the Indian, or I think it may (mutilated) to come the time I have mentioned. A convention of delegates is to be held at Richmond the 20 of March to consist of two members from each county corporation, what is to be the consequence of the present disputes is yet uncer- tain, but nothing pacifick is expected. The lowland people are gen- erally arming and preparing themselves. Please to give my compliments to your Father tell him that it is most probable that the Committee will meet the day of our Election which is to be the 7 of March that if he can make it convenient he may as well come up. I am Sir Your friend servant, WM CHRISTIAN On the next sheet occurs the following, in the handwriting of William Russell: MY DEIA SIR: I just Recd. this letter of yours and one of my own. It seems Captain Morgan of the Shawanees is sent up for us, to guard out to the Shawanees Towns upon Business of Importance, therefore re- quest your goodness to meet me on Sunday next at Mr. Souths about Night in order to go together to MeGavocks against Tuesday next to a meeting of the Committee either to Proceed from there or to return by my House, If so, you can return Home (mutilated) I start, I am Dear Sir. Your most obedt Humble Servt W. RusSELL Tuesday the 27th, 1775. To Mr. Isaac Shelbey Holston. When Daniel Boone and his friend, Captain William Rus- sell, the leading pioneer in the Clinch Valley, at the head of a party of emigrants, attempted their settlement of Kentucky in 1:24 ISAAC SHELBY 1773, they were driven back by the Indians on September 25, and abandoned the enterprise. For years, in fact since 1764, Daniel Boone had been making exploring expeditions to the westward in the interest of the land company known as Rich- ard Henderson and Company.22 Another explorer for Rich- ard Henderson, who later made hunting tours and explora- tions in Kentucky, was Henry Skaggs, who as early as 1765 examined the lower Cumberland region as the representative of Richard Henderson and Company and established his sta- tion near the present site of Goodletsville, in Davidson County, Tennessee.23 With the Western country thoroughly disturbed and infested with bands of hostile red men, during 1773 and 1774, Col. Henderson recognized the signal unwis- dom of attempting a western settlement on an extended scale. It was Daniel Boone's impatience to reach the West and his determination to settle there, regardless of legal right and without securing the title by purchase from the Cherokees, which led to his disastrous setback at Walden's Ridge in 1773. This entire episode exposes Boone's inefficiency as an executive and his inability to carry through plans made on a large scale. It was not until the remarkable legal mind of Judge Henderson and his rare executive ability were applied to the vast and complex project of western colonization that it was carried through to a successful termination. Two momentous circumstances now intervened to make possible the great western venture, upon which Judge Hen- derson, during a decade and more, had staked all his hopes. Correspondence with the highest legal authorities in England assured Judge Henderson that despite the Royal Proclama- tion in 1763 he would be entirely within his rights, as a Brit- ish subject, to purchase the western lands from the Cherokees and secure authentic title thereto. The victory of the back- woodsmen over the red men at the Battle of the Great Kana- 22Compare the author's The Creative Forces in Westward Expan- sion: Henderson and Boone, in the American Historical Review, October, 1914. 23Albright's Early History of Middle Tennessee, Nashville, 1909, p. 23. 125 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET wha greatly reduced the dangers incident to a visit to the Kentucky wilderness, and in 1775 warranted the bold venture which, in 1773, Boone, upon his own responsibility alone, had found so disastrous. Following the Battle of the Great Ka- nawha, Judge Henderson, accompanied by his friend and neighbor, Colonel Nathaniel Hart, visited the Indians at their towns and, upon inquiry, learned that the Cherokees were disposed to sell their claims to the Kentucky territory. The agreement was made to meet the entire tribe of the Cherokees in Treaty Council at the Sycamore Shoals, on Watauga River, early in the next year. On their return to the settlements Judge Henderson and Colonel Hart were accompanied by the Little Carpenter, a wise old Indian Chief, and a young buck and his squaw, as delegates to see that proper goods were pur- chased for the proposed barter. These goods were purchased in December, 1774, at Cross Creek, near Fayetteville, North Carolina, and forwarded by wagons to Watauga. Since his repulse at Walden's Ridge, in September, 1773, when the sons of both Russell and himself had been slaugh- tered by Indians, Boone, together with his family, had been residing in a cabin upon the farm of Captain David Gass, seven or eight miles from Russell's, upon Clinch River. He was now summoned to Watauga, instructed to collect the en- tire tribe of Cherokee Indians and bring them in to the treaty ground. The news of the purposes of the Transylvania Com- pany became public property when Judge Henderson and his associates, in January, 1775, issued their "Proposals for the Settlement of Western Lands," which, in the form of broad- sides, were distributed widely along the fringe of settlements upon the Indian border line. News of the proposed treaty quickly reached young Isaac Shelby at Fort Blair; and his pioneering instinct unerringly drew him to the focus of in- terest, the treaty ground. We are fortunate in having handed down to us, from that early time, a description of the treaty on the part of the young Isaac Shelby, who was an eye-witness. Following the confiscation of the Transylvania Company's claims by the State of Virginia, a series of extended investiga- 126 ISAAC SHELBY tions in regard to the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals were made by order of the Virginia Legislature. The points that were in great need of being settled were: First, whether the de- ponents were financially interested in lands under the Tran- sylvania Company; second, whether the treaty was conducted with entire fairness; and third, whether the deeds taken by the Transylvania Company were identical, in regard to the metes and bounds of the territory purchased, with the verbal statement of the negotiators of the treaty, made to the Chero- kees. As it was subsequently proven, as a result of the inves- tigations of the Virginia Commissioners, that the treaty was conducted with scrupulous fairness by Judge Henderson and his partners, it is interesting to read the following extract from the deposition sworn to on December 3, 1777, before Edmund Randolph and Jo. Prentiss, by Isaac Shelby: "That in March, 1775, this Deponent was present at a Treaty held at Wattaugha between the said Henderson and the Cherokee Indians: that the deponent then heard the said Henderson call the Indians, when the deed by which the said Henderson now claims was going to be signed, and declared that they would attend to what was going to be done: that the deponent believes the courses in the said Deed contained, to be the very courses which the said Henderson read therefrom to the Indians and were interpreted to them. That the said Henderson took the said Deed from among several others lying on a table, all of which appeared to the Deponent to be of the same tenor with that which he read-That at the time of this Treaty, one Read who was there and suspected that the said Henderson intended to purchase some lands which he himself had his Eyes on, desired the said Deed to be read before it was signed, which was accordingly done, and the said Read objected not thereto." It was doubtless at some time during the course of the treaty-a treaty universally conceded to have been unparal- leled for honesty and fair dealing with the Indians on the part of the whites-that Judge Henderson, attracted by the sterling qualities of the young Shelby and by his manifest 127 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET eagerness to connect himself with Henderson's plans of colonization, secured the promise of his services in the future, following the expiration of his term of enlistment, as surveyor for the Transylvania Company. The garrison of Fort Blair was not disbanded until July, 1775; and immediately Shelby journeyed to Kentucky and engaged in the business of land surveyor for the proprietors of the Transylvania Company, who had established a regular land office as the result of their purchase of the Kentucky area from the Cherokees. Here he remained for nearly twelve months, surveying numerous tracts of land for the Transylvania proprietors, and likewise making a number of entries of land for himself in Judge Hen- derson's land office.24 His health finally became impaired, owing to continued exposure to wet and cold, combined with the frequent necessity for going without either bread or salt. On this account he was compelled to return to the settlements on Holston. In July, 1776, during his absence in Kentucky, Shelby was appointed Captain of a minute company by the Committee of Safety in Virginia. As described by Shelby this was "a species of troops organized for the first emergency of the War of the Revolution, which, however, was not called into actual service from the extreme frontier on which he (Shelby) lived." On December 6th of this year, the General Assembly of Virginia passed an act dividing the county of Fincastle into three distinct counties, to-wit: Montgomery, Washington, and Kentucky. In this act the bounds of Washington County were defined as follows: "That all that part of said county of Fincastle included in the lines beginning at the Cumberland Mountains where the line of Kentucky county intersects the North Carolina (now Tennessee) line; thence to the east along the said Carolina line to the top of Iron mountain; thence along the same east- 241n his deposition, referred to above, Isaac Shelby stated: "This Deponent has made several Ehtries for lands In Mr. Henderson's Office, but does not conceive himself to be in any manner interested in the Event of the dispute, between the Commonwealth of Virginia and the said Henderson." Cal. Va. State Papers, I, 296-7. 128 ISAAC SHELBY erly to the source of the South Fork of the Holston river; thence northwardly along the highest part of the highlands, ridges, and mountains that divide the waters of the Tennessee from those of the Great Kanawha to the most easterly source of Clinch River; thence westwardly along the top of the mountain that divides the waters of the Clinch river from those of the Great Kanawha and Sandy Creek to the line of Kentucky county and thence along the same to the beginning, shall be one other distinct county and called and known bv the name of Washington." The eastern boundary of Washington County as thus de- fined was altered by Act of the General Assembly at its ses- sion in the month of May, 1777, as follows: "Beginning at a ford on Holston river, next above Captain John Campbells, at the Royal Oak, and running from thence a due south course to the dividing line between the States of Virginia and North Carolina; and from the ford aforesaid to the westerly end of Morris's Knob, about three miles above Maiden Spring on Clinch, and from thence, by a line to be drawn due north, until it shall intersect the waters of the Great Sandy river."25 The officers of the county commissioned by Governor Pat- rick Henry on the 21st day of December, 1776, were as fol- lows: James Dysart, sheriff; Arthur Campbell, county lieu- tenant; Evan Shelby, Colonel; William Campbell, lieutenant- colonel; and Daniel Smith, Major. Among the names of those on the same day commissioned justices of the peace was that of Evan Shelby. The first court assembled at Black's Fort (now Abingdon) on the last Tuesday in January, 1777. On the second day of the court, being the 29th of January, Isaac Shelby was recommended, with others, to be added to the Commission of Peace for the county, and was accordingly commissioned. It may be interesting to record that, when, on February 26, 1777, the court recommended to the Governor of Virginia the militia officers for Washington County, both 25Hening's Statute8, 1776. 129 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET John Shelby, Sr., and James Shelby were duly commissioned with the rank of Captain. During some portion of this time Isaac Shelby was busily engaged in acting as commissary of supplies, a post to which he was appointed by Governor Henry, for a large body of militia posted at several garrisons for the purpose of guarding the back settlements. Of his activity we have evidence in the great distances which he travelled. For instance, in September of this year, we find him at Harrods- burgh, in Kentucky, swapping horses with the future brilliant and meteoric figure, the conqueror of the Northwest. In Clark's diary one finds the following terse entry: "Harrodsburgh, September 29.-Bought a horse, price pound;12; swapped with I. Shelby, boot 10." I have often wondered who got the "boot"-the phlegmatic Welshman or the mercurial Virginian! During this same year, Isaac Shelby was likewise in- structed to lay in supplies for a grand treaty, to be held at the Long Island of Holston River, in June and July, with the tribe of Cherokee Indians. "These supplies could not possibly be obtained nearer than Staunton, a distance of near three hundred miles," says Shelby, writing in the third person, "but by the most inde- fatigable perseverance (one of the most prominent traits in his character) he accomplished it to the satisfaction of his country." It is necessary for us to recall that in 1772 Colonel John Donelson, of Pittsylvania County, acting as commissioner for Virginia, had established with the Cherokees the western boundary line of that colony, viz: a course running in a direct line from a point six miles east of the Holston River toward the mouth of the Great Kanawha River, until the line struck the Kentucky River, and thence along that river to its junction with the Ohio.26 26A price was agreed upon and promised, but not then paid, for the large section of Kentucky north and east of the Kentucky river thus alienated to Virginia. Considerable doubt still prevails as to whether the price promised by Donelson was ever paid over to the Cherokees. 130 ISAAC SHELBY1 In 1777 Governor Henry, of Virginia, notified Governor Caswell, of North Carolina, of a treaty to be had with the Cherokees. The object of Virginia was to alter the boundary line as run by Colonel Donelson, and to have the road to and through the Cumberland Gap, the gateway to Kentucky, in- cluded in the cession. The commissioners chosen to represent Virginia were Col. William Preston, Col. Evan Shelby, and Col. William Christian, or any two of them. The commis- sioners chosen to represent North Carolina were Col. Waight- still Avery, Col. William Sharpe, Col. Robert Lanier, and Colonel Joseph Winston. The treaty lasted from the 26th of June until the 20th of July, when it was concluded to the, satisfaction of both Virginia and North Carolina. The line established by Donelson in 1772 was not materially altered; but the alteration involved the lands claimed by the Transyl- vania Company under their purchase from the Cherokees in March, 1775. For reasons of policy and because of lack of instructions from their respective governments the commis- sioners refused to take account of the memorial presented by Judge Henderson and his associates. The treacherous and wily Indian Chiefs characteristically sought to convince the commissioners that Judge Henderson had treated them hardly in maintaining the provisions of the "Great Treaty" of 1775; but the deposition of Isaac Shelby (already quoted from in part) is conclusive on the point: "That being present at the late Treaty at Long Island, this deponent remembers to have heard Occunostoto or the Tassel (but which he does not recollect) say that ever since he had signed the paper to Mr. Henderson, he was afraid to sign one, and that Mr. Henderson ever since he had signed the Paper, deprived him of the privilege of catching even Craw fish on the land. That this deponent was present at the time of signing the said Deed at Wattaugha, when everything was conducted fairly on the part of the said Henderson, who after signing, desired the Indians to go and take the goods which he designed for them."27 27Cal. Va. State Paper8, I. 131 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET This was a memorable gathering of the leading pioneer figures of the day. Revolution was the burning topic of dis- cussion, and the spirit of independence, so long held in leash, found universal expression. In the characteristic phraseology of the patriotic Putnam: "Here were Robertson and Sevier, Boone and Bledsoe, Shelby, Henderson, Hart and others-all men of worth, of nerve, of enterprise 'men who feared God, but obeyed no earthly king.' "They talked freely of the Declaration of Independence, as it had been announced at Mecklenburg, in North Carolina, by Patrick Henry and the Virginians, and by the Continental Congress just twelve months before. They did not think of giving notoriety out there to the Fourth of July; but they all heartily concurred in the renunciation of allegiance to the King of Great Britain, and in the resolution to make 'these States free and independent.' "28 In 1778, as we learn from Shelby's account, he was still engaged in the commissary department to provide supplies for the Continental Army, and also for a formidable expedi- tion by the way of Pittsburg against the Northwestern In- dians. This was the expedition of General McIntosh against the Ohio Indians. On Dec. 12, 1778, the Virginia Council issued instructions to John Montgomery "to put on Foot the recruiting of men to reinforce Colo. Clarke at the Illinois and to push it on with all possible expedition."29 George Rogers Clark was in desperate straits for men and supplies in view of the fact that General McIntosh's proposed expedition from Fort Pitt against Detroit had to be aban- doned. John Montgomery was given a very free hand in re- cruiting for Clark; and the following entry shows to what ex tent Isaac Shelby was relied upon to fit out with supplies various expeditions along the frontier: As soon as the state of Affairs in the recruiting business will per- mit you are to go to the Ilinols Country and join Colo Clarke. I need 28Hi8tory of Middle Tennessee, 617. 29Clark8 188., Va. State Archives. 132 ISAAC SHELBY not tell you how necessary the greatest possible dispatch is to the good of the service In which you are engaged Our party at Ilinois may be lost together with the present favorable disposition of the French Indians there unless every moment is Improved for their preservation no future oppertunity if the present is lost can ever be expected so favorable to the interest of the Commonwealth. I there- fore urge it on you to exert yourself to the utmost to lose not a moment to forward the great work you have in hand to conquer every difficulty in your way arising from inclement season, great distances, want of many necessaries, opposition from enemies others I cant enumerate but must confide in your virtue to guard against and surmount. Capt Isaac Shelby it is desired may purchase the boats but if he cant do it you must get some other person You receive 10000 pound; Cash for Col: Clarke's corps which you are to deliver him except 200 pound; for Capt Shelby to build the boats what other incidental expenses happen necessarily on your way which are to come out of that Sum. I am c. A. BLAmR C C30 In the beginning of the year 1779 Isaac Shelby was ap- pointed by Governor Henry of Virginia to furnish supplies for a strong campaign against the Chickamauga Indiana. Owing to the poverty of the treasury, not one cent could be advanced by the government and the whole expense of the supplies and the transportation was sustained by his own in- dividual credit. In the spring of that year he was elected a member of the Virginia Legislature from Washington County, for at that time it was supposed his residence was within the chartered limits of North Carolina. Following the Treaty of Long Island in 1777, already spoken of, it was apparent to the Commissioners from North Carolina that the settlements, having projected so far west- ward of the point to which the dividing line had been run, it was highly desirable that the line be extended. In a letter from Waightstill Avery and William Sharpe, to Governor Caswell, August 7, 1777, they express the conviction that "the extension of the line between the two States is now be- come an object worthy the immediate attention of govern- ment-it would be the means of preventing many great dis- 30Clark Paper8, 83. 133 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET putes."31 In 1778 the Assembly of Virginia and, a little later, the Assembly of North Carolina, passed similar acts for extending and marking the boundary. The acting Com- missioners for North Carolina were Col. Richard Henderson, his cousin, Col. John Williams, of Granville County, and Captain William Bailey Smith. The Commissioners repre- senting Virginia were Dr. Thomas Walker, who had made the remarkable exploration of Kentucky in 1750, and Daniel Smith, the map maker, who was afterwards promoted for his services along the Cumberland. The task of running the boundary line was regarded as a dangerous one, on account of the hostile intentions of the Indians; and each state com- missioned a detachment to guard the Commissioners while they were engaged in the arduous enterprise. The Virginia Commission was provided with a military escort of twenty- five men, under the command of Isaac Shelby, commissioned a Major for that purpose by Governor Jefferson.32 As the result of the extension of the boundary line, the county of Sullivan was erected, and Isaac Shelby, who had recently served in the Virginia Legislature and received a military commission from Governor Jefferson, was appointed Colonel Commandant of this new county of Sullivan. In 1779 a court of commissioners with plenary powers was created by the commonwealth of Virginia to adjudicate with- out appeal upon the incipient land titles of the country. Wil- liam Fleming, Edmund Lyne, James Barbour, and Stephen Trigg, citizens of Virginia but not of the county of Ken- tucky, were appointed as commissioners. This court had alternate sessions at St. Asaph, Harrodsburg, Boonesborough, the Falls of the Ohio, and Bryan's Station. The court was opened at St. Asaph on October 13, 1779; and at Harrods- burg on February 26, 1780, the court announced that its 3iState Records of North Carolina, vol. II, pp. 567-8. Cf. also Sum- mers S. W. Virginia, pp. 695-6. 32Cf. Journal of Daniel Smith, edited by St. George L. Sloussat, Ten- nessee Historical Magazine, March, 1915; Kentucky-Tennessee Bound- ary Line, by J. Stoddart Johnston, Register Ky. State Hist'l. Soc'y. Sept., 1908. 134 ISAAC SHELBY powers had elapsed and accordingly adjourned sine die. Thousands of claims, of various kinds, were granted by the court during its existence. It was quite fitting, and in itself an event worthy of commemoration, that the first claim pre- sented for adjudication was that of Isaac Shelby, among the first on the ground as surveyor under Henderson and Com- pany, and later to become the first governor of the Common- wealth of Kentucky. The entry was as follows: "Captain John Logan for and in behalf of Isaac Shelby this day produced a claim, and making a Crop of Corn for the same in the year 1776 Lying on a branch that heads at the Knob Lick about a mile and a half or two Miles from the said Lick a southeasterly course, proof being made satisfac- tory to the court they are of Opinion that the said Shelby has a right to a settlement Preemption according to law and that certificates issue for the same."33 The amount of land thus granted was fourteen hundred acres; prior to this time it would seem, Isaac Shelby had per- fected no claims for western lands. It is worthy of note that in his deposition before Edmund Randolph and Jo. Prentiss, on December 3, 1777, regarding the Transylvania lands, Isaac Shelby states he had "made several entries for lands in Mr. Henderson's office, but does not consider himself to be in any manner interested in the Event of the dispute, between the Commonwealth of Virginia and the said Henderson."34 This place, Knob Lick, in what is now Lincoln County, Ken- tucky, was settled in 1776 by Isaac Shelby while a surveyor under Henderson and Company. In the early spring of 1783, it may be remarked in passing, Shelby built his house upon the very spot where he had camped in 1776, on the tract of land he had preempted, and upon which he planted a crop of corn, which he left to be cultivated by a tenant, when he himself went to Williamsburg, then the Capital of Virginia, for his appointment by Governor Patrick Henry as a Captain 33For this copy I am indebted to Judge Samuel M. Wilson, of Lex- ington, Ky. 34Cal. Va. State Paper8, I, pp. 2967. 135 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET of the Provisional Army.35 Upon this preemption in August, 1786, Governor Shelby built the first stone house ever erected in Kentucky. This was the famous residence known as "Traveler's Rest." It is recorded that the late Col. Nathaniel Hart, of Woodford County, used to say that when it was re- ported that Col. Shelby had found stone suitable for building purposes, he received many letters from various portions of the United States inquiring if it could possibly be there; as well as many visits to verify the fact, some from as great a distance as Mason County. The real scarcity of stone then seems almost incredible now-in view of the unlimited supply visible on all sides; but was doubtless due to the luxurious growth of cane, and to the heavy foliage which so thoroughly covered the ground when it fell.36 During the summer of 1780, while he was locating and se- curing his claims made under the Transylvania Company, Shelby with his company spent some time among the North- western Indians-Piankeshaws, Pottawattamies, and Miamis. In his Memoir, George Rogers Clark makes the following amusing entry: "The ensuing summer (1780), Captain I. Shelby, with his own company only, lay for a considerable time in the heart of their (the Indians') country, and was treated in the most friendly manner by all the natives that he saw, and was frequently invited by them to join and plunder what was called 'the King's Pasture at Detroit.' What they meant was to go and steal horses from that settlement."37 What a lark that would have been for the staid and phleg- matic Shelby! While still in Kentucky, in the summer of 1780, Shelby received intelligence (June 16) of the surrender of Charles- ton and the loss of the army. He made haste to return home (the first part of July), as he himself says, "determined to enter the service of his country, until her independence was 35Draper's King8 Mountain, 412; Shelby's Autobiography. 36Collins' Hi8tory of Kentucky (1882), i, 514. 37English's Conquest of the Northwest, I, 549. 136 ISAAC SHELBY secured; for he could not remain a cool spectator of a con- quest in which his dearest rights and interests were at stake." The story of the events which immediately succeeded this de- termination is best told in his own words: "On his arrival in Sullivan he joined a requisition from General Charles McDowell, ordering him to furnish all the aid in his power, to assist in giving a check to the enemy, who had overrun the two Southern States and were then on the border of North Carolina. Col. Shelby assembled the Militia of his County, called upon them to volunteer their services for a short period on that interesting occasion, and marched in a very few days with near two hundred mounted riflemen across the Alleghany Mountain. "Shortly after his arrival at McDowell's camp the army moved to near the Cherokee Ford of Broad River, from whence Col. Shelby and Lieut. Col. Clark of Georgia were detached with five hundred mounted men38 to attack a British Fort, about twenty miles to the South, which was garrisoned principally by Loyalists. Col. Shelby left McDowell's camp late in the evening and arrived at the enemies Post just after daylight the next morning39 which he found to be enclosed by a strong Abbatus (abatis), and everything within, indicating resistance. He however made a peremptory demand of a sur- render, when Capt. Patrick Moor, who commanded returned for answer that he would defend the Post to the last extrem- ity.40 Our lines were then drawn to within a distance of about two hundred yards around the Garrison, with a determ- ination to storm it. He however sent a messenger a second time to demand a surrender before he would proceed to ex- tremities. To this the enemy agreed to give up the Post, on their being Paroled not to serve again during the war; or until they were regularly exchanged. In it were found ninety- 88Shelby's figures are never conspicuous for accuracy. The detach- ment in this instance consisted of some six hundred horsemen. 39Sunday, July 30. Cf. Allaire's Diary. 4OThe person sent in to demand the surrender of the post was Captain William Cocke, who made the daring ride for Col. Richard Henderson In April, 1775. 137 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET two Loyalists, with one British subbolten (subaltern) officer left there to discipline them, also two hundred and fifty stand of arms, well charged with ball and buckshot and well dis- posed of at the different port holes. This was a strong post built for defense in the Cherokee war of '76 and stood on a branch of a small river called Pacolet. "Shortly after this affair and his return to McDowell's camp Shelby and Clark were again detached with six hun- dred mounted men to watch the movements of the Enemy, and if possible to cut up his foraging parties. Ferguson who commanded the Enemy about two thousand five hundred strong,41 composed of British and Tories, with a small squad- ron of British Horse, was an officer of great enterprise and although only a Major in the British line, was a Brigadier General in the royal militia establishment made by the enemy after he had overrun South Carolina, and esteemed the most distinguished partisan officer belonging to the British army. He made several attempts to surprise Col. Shelby, but his de- signs were always baffled. On the first42 of August however, his advance, about six or seven hundred strong, came up with the American Commander at a place he had chosen to fight him, called Cedar Spring; when a sharp conflict ensued which lasted about half an hour; when Ferguson came up with his whole force. The Americans then retreated, carry- ing off the field of battle about twenty prisoners and two British Subalterns.43 Their killed was not ascertained. The Americans lost eight killed and upwards of thirty wounded, mostly with the sabre officers. The Enemy made great efforts for several miles to regain the prisoners, but by forming fre- quently on advantageous ground apparently to give them battle the enemy were retarded in their pursuit, so that the prisoners were pushed out of their reach. General McDowell 41Shelby's original statement in Haywood's Tenne88ee is that the enemy numbered about two thousand; it may have been as small a number as eighteen hundred. 42'rhe date is correctly given in Allaire's Diary as August eighth. 43In Todd's Memoir of Shelby the number of prisoners taken is increased from twenty to fifty. 138 ISAAC SHELBY having by some means got information that a party from four to six hundred Loyalists were encamped near Musgrove's Mill, on the South Side of the Enoree River, about forty miles distant; he again detached Col. Shelby, Williams and Clark with about seven hundred horsemen,44 to surprise and disperse them. Ferguson with his whole force was encamped at that time on their most direct route. The American com- manders took up their line of march from Smith's Ford on Broad river (where McDowell's army was then encamped) just at sundown on the evening of the 18th45 August 1780- marched through the woods till after dark, and then took a road leaving Ferguson's camp about three miles to the left. They rode very hard all night, the greatest part of the way in a fast travelling gait, and just at the dawn of day, about half a mile from the Enemy's camp, met a strong patrol party, a short skirmish ensued, and several of them were killed. At that juncture a countryman living immediately at the spot, came up and informed, that the enemy had been reinforced the evening before, with six hundred regular troops (the Queens American regiment from New York) under Col. Ennes, destined to reinforce Ferguson's army; and the cir- cumstances attending this information were so minute and particular, that no doubt was entertained of its truth although the man was a Tory.46 To march on and attack the enemy then seemed improper. To attempt an escape from the enemy in the rear appeared improbable, broke down as were the Americans and their horses; for it was well known to them that the enemy could mount six or seven hundred infantry with horses of the Loyalists. They instantly determined to 441t is probable that the American forces numbered only from two hundred and fifty to three hundred and fifty. Probably the British originally numbered approximately six hundred. 45The weight of authority favors the seventeenth, the battle occurr- ing on the eighteenth. 461t is probable that this statement with respect to the number of British was a considerable exaggeration. Gov. Abner Nash, writing Sept. 10, 1780, gives Williams' force as two hundred and the British as four hundred. The name of the commander of the British re- inforcement was Innes, not Ennes. -3 139 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET form a breastwork of old logs and brush near the spot, and make the best defense in their power; for by this time the drums and bugle horns of the enemy were distinctly heard in their camp on the high ground across the river, and soon in- dicated their movements. Captain Inman was sent with twenty-five men, to meet the enemy and skirmish with them, so soon as they crossed the Enoree River Capt. Inman was ordered to fire on them, and retreat according to his own dis- cretion. This strategem (which was the suggestion of the Capt. himself) drew the enemy forward in disorder, believing they had driven our whole party; and when they came up within seventy yards a most destructive fire commenced from our Riflemen who lay concealed behind their breastwork of pine logs and brush, which was near half a mile long.47 It was one whole hour before the enemy could force our Rifle- men from their slender breastwork. Just as they began to give way in some parts, Col. Ennes was badly wounded; and all the other British officers except one being previously killed or wounded; and Capt. Hawsey a considerable leader among the Loyalists being shot down; the whole of the enemy's line began to give way, the Americans pursued them close, and beat them across the river with slaughter.48 In this pursuit Capt. Inman was killed bravely fighting the enemy hand to hand. In this action Col. Shelby commanded the right wing, Clark the left and Williams the center. The Americans returned to their horses and mounted with a determination to be in Ninety-Six (at that time a weak British Post) before night; it being less than thirty miles distant according to in- formation then received. At that moment an express from Gen'l McDowell (one Francis Jones) came up in great haste with a short letter in his hand from Governor Caswell, dated on the battle ground near Camden apprising McDowell of 47The Americans had been cautioned to reserve their fire "till they could see the buttons on the enemies' clothes." 48William Smith of Watauga, whose bullet had struck down Innes, exultantly exclaimed: "I've killed their commander," whereupon Shelby "rallied his men who raised a regular frontier Indian yell and rushed furiously upon the enemy, who were gradually forced back before the exasperated riflemen." Cf. Draper's Kinge Mountain, 108. 140 ISAAC SHELBY the defeat of the American grand army under Gen'l Gates, on the 16th near that place, advising him to get out of the way, for that army would no doubt endeavor to improve their vic- tory to the greatest advantage by cutting up all the small corps of the American armnies within their reach. It was fortunate that Col. Shelby had some knowledge of Governor Caswell's handwriting and knew what reliance to place upon it; but how to avoid the enemy in his rear, broke down with fatigue as his men and horses were, with upwards of two hundred prisoners (mostly British) taken in the action-was a difficult task. The loss in killed of the enemy was not ascertained owing to the sudden manner in which the Americans were obliged to leave the battle ground, but must have been very great, from the incessant fire that was poured upon them by our Riflemen for considerably more than an hour. Our loss did not exceed nine or ten, as the enemy generally overshot the breast- work.49 The prisoners were distributed amongst the com- panies, so as to make about one to every three men, who car- ried them alternately on horseback directly towards the moun- tains. We continued our march all that day, the night follow- ing and the next day until late in the evening, without ever stopping to refresh.50 This long and rapid retreat saved the Americans, for it is a fact that, De Peyster second in com- mand of Ferguson's army, pursued them with seven hundred mounted men to the place where they had foraged and re- freshed themselves in the evening of the second day after the action; and having arrived there half an hour after our de- parture, at dusk, so broke down by excessive fatigue in hot weather, he gave up the chase.5' Having seen the party and 49Draper says: "four killed and eight or nine wounded." The British loss, according to the same authority, was eighty-three killed, about ninety wounded, and seventy prisoners-a total of two hundred and twenty-three out of between four hundred to five hundred-an unusually high percentage of loss. 5OThis is an admirable illustration of the indomitable persistence and strenuous energy of Shelby. 5lNote B at end of Shelby's Ms. is as follows: "This information Col. Shelby received from De Peyster himself after he was captured at Kings Mountain in October following." Draper pronounces this an error on the authority of Fanning, the Tory annalist, who asserts that on the night after the battle De Peyster accompanied him from Mus- grove's Mill to Ninety Six. 141 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET the prisoners out of all danger Col. Shelby retreated over the Western waters with his followers, and left the prisoners with Clark and Williams to carry them on to some place of safety in Virginia. So great was the panic after Gen'l Gates' de- feat, and Gen. Sumpter's disaster, that McDowell's whole army broke. Some retreated west of the mountains, and others went to the North. This action which lasted one hour and a half and fought so shortly after the defeat of our grand army, is scarcely known in the history of the Revolution.52 Fergu- son too, made a hard push with his main army to intercept and retake the prisoners before they could reach the moun- tains, but finding his efforts vain, he took post at a place called Gilbert Town." News of the disastrous reverse to General Gates and the American army at Camden, on August 16, 1780, and of the defeat of General Sumter which followed shortly afterwards, produced the immediate effect of spreading universal conster- nation and alarm. The various bodies of Whig Militia were forced to scatter in all directions. From his post at Gilbert Town, Ferguson paroled a prisoner, one Samuel Philips, a distant relation of Isaac Shelby's, and "instructed him to in- form the officers on the Western waters, that if they did not desist from their opposition to the British arms, and take pro- tection under his standard, he would march his army over the mountains, and lay their army waste with fire and sword."53 Immediately following the affair at Musgrove's Mill, Shelby, with the approbation of Major Robertson, had proposed that an army of volunteers be raised on both sides of the moun- tains for the purpose of resisting Ferguson's advance. At the time the consensus of opinion heartily favored Shelby's proposal. As soon as Shelby received Ferguson's threatening 52Shelby elsewhere describes the battle as "the hardest and best fought action he ever was in"-attributing this valor and persistency to "the great number of officers who were with him as volunteers." 53General Joseph Graham's account in General Joseph Graham and His Revolutionary Papers, by W. A. Graham, 1904. This account originally appeared in the Southern Literary Messenger, September, 1845. Compare, also, Draper's Kings Mountain, p. 169. 142 ISAAC SHELBY and insulting message, he set in train a course of events which were the reverse of the result aimed at by Ferguson. The letter instead of having a deterrent and intimidating effect upon Shelby, only fired to immediate execution the de- termination which he had already reached to arouse the fierce mountain men to action. Without delay, Shelby rode off about forty miles to see John Sevier, the efficient commander of the militia of Washington County, at his home near Jones- borough. Here, after his ride in feverish haste, he found Se- vier in the midst of great festivities-a horse race was in progress, and the people in crowds were in attendance at the barbecue. Angered by the insolent taunt of Ferguson, Shelby vehemently declared that this was a time, not for a frolic, but for a fight. Sevier, the daring and adventurous, eagerly seconded Shelby's proposal to arouse the mountain men, to cooperate with other forces that might be raised, and to make an effort to attack, by surprise, and to defeat Ferguson in his camp; if this were not practicable, to unite with any corps of patriots with which they might meet and wage war against the enemies of America; and in the event of failure, with the consequent desolation of their homes, to take water, float down the Holston, Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers and find a home with the Spaniards in Louisiana.54 For two days Shelby remained in consultation with Sevier; the Sycamore Shoals of the Watauga was agreed upon as the rendezvous for their forces, and the time of meeting the twenty-fifth of Sep- tember. A small force of one hundred and sixty men, under Colonel Charles McDowell and Colonel Andrew Hampton, driven before the enemy, had encamped at Watauga on Sep- tember 18th; and their "doleful tale," as Col. Arthur Camp- bell expressed it, still further "tended to excite the resentment of the western militia." Sevier undertook to bring this force into the movement; and Isaac Shelby sent his brother Moses, who held the rank of Captain, with a message to Colonel Wil- liam Campbell, of the neighboring county of Washington, 54Life of General John Sevier, by F. M. Turner; pp. 108-9. Draper's Kings Mountain, p. 170. 143 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET urgently requesting his cooperation. Campbell had other plans on foot; but upon the receipt of a second and more urgent message from Shelby, he acquiesced in the latter's plan for the attack on Ferguson. Shelby likewise despatched a messenger, a Mr. Adair, to the County Lieutenant of Wash- ington County, Colonel Arthur Campbell, the cousin and brother-in-law of William Campbell, requesting his coopera- tion. Arthur Campbell had just returned from a conference with Governor Jefferson, and was in a mood to act, as the Governor had pressed upon him the need for a more vigorous resistance to the enemy. Campbell sent word back that "if the western counties of North Carolina could raise a force to join Col. McDowell's men, that the officers of Washington County would cooperate."55 55Kingsi Mountain-A Fragment, by Col. Arthur Campbell. 144 145 The Old Cemetery, Charlotte, N. C. Some Unusual Notations Concerning this Ancient Burial Place, which Holds the Dust of Many Patriots of Fame in North Carolina By VIoLETr G. ALEXANDER. A complete record of this ancient burial ground is not ex- istant today, but it is known to be one of the oldest graveyards in North Carolina, guarding in its bosom the dust of many patriots, men and women, with their little children, once prominent in the life of the county and the State. It has been called "the graveyard of the Presbyterian church" (Hunter's Sketches of Western North Carolina. pages 50-59) and there is probably a reason for this title, for in the early days of this community, what is today the First Presbyterian Church was the only church in Charlotte, and was built for all denominations; but at that date the Presby- terian denomination was the only one in evidence, so after some years of so-called "general use" the Presbyterians paid a small debt of 1,500 and took over the church and beautiful oak grove occupying a city square. As was the custom in those early days, a graveyard was laid off adjacent to the church and was used as a common burying ground. This one lies im- mediately in the rear of the Presbyterian church occupying almost a city square and as it was laid off in connection with the church has frequently been called "the graveyard of the Presbyterian church." The "Old Cemetery," as it is now more generally called, was the first graveyard in Charlotte, the "Spratt Burying Ground" antedating it some years, was a private one outside the town limits in early days. The "Old Cemetery" was used as the "town" cemetery until a few years prior to the War Between the States, about 1854, the date of the first inter- ment in "Elmwood," the present large city cemetery, when, THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET on account of its small size and crowded condition, it was closed for burials, and "Elmwood" was opened. Interments "by special permit" to allow members of fam- ilies to be buried by those of their name, have taken place as late as during the '70s. One of the last was that of Mrs. Sophie Graham Witherspoon, widow of Dr. John Wither- spoon and daughter of General Joseph Graham, a beautiful, gifted, and beloved woman, worthy of her splendid ancestry, who today has a host of relatives in Charlotte to "rise up and call her blessed." No complete list of those who have been buried here is available, as no record was kept, and the tombs of many have disappeared from age or neglect, but a partial list has been gleaned from the tombstones still standing, which contains the names of the following well-known and honored families: Alexander, Davidson, Graham, Witherspoon, Polk, Irwin, Carson, Orr, Harty, Clayton, Houston, Berryhill, Blair, Cald- well, Dunlap, Watson, Lowrie, Wilson, Gillespie, Elms, Trotter, Ray, Woodruff, Britton, McLelland, Howell, Sloan, Morrow, Cook, Lemmuel, Badger, Sterling, Jones, Owens, Thomas, McRee, Tredinick, Kearney, Caruth, Asbury, Hos- kins, Boyd, Springs, Laurey, Meacham, Dixon, McCombs, Edwards, Howie, Wheeler, and Dinkins. This incomplete list is one of the "honor-rolls" of Mecklen- burg County, recording the fair names of some of her bravest sons and loveliest daughters, who in their brief day acted well their part and laid the safe foundation of Church and State which is today the goodly heritage of Charlotte. Lack of space prevents individual mention of many whose names and lives are indelibly linked with North Carolina's history nor are we permitted to quote the quaint epitaphs and inscrip- tions found on many of the tombstones. Three men of considerable fame and who stand large in North Carolina history are buried in the "Old Cemetery" and deserve a more extended notice: Governor Nathaniel Alexander, Colonel Thomas Polk, and General George Gra- ham. 146 THE OLD CEMETERY, CHAULOTTE, N. C. Governor Nathaniel Alexander is the only Governor Meck- lenburg County has ever had and his last resting place should be guarded with affection and pride, for he was honored and beloved by his contemporaries as is attested by the many positions of trust he filled. Foote, in his History of Western North Carolina, page 267, has the following: "Nathaniel Alexander, late Governor of North Carolina, was a native of Mecklenburg. He was a physician by profes- sion and was elected a member of the House of Commons from Mecklenburg in 1797, a member of the Senate in 1801, and reelected in 1802. In 1803-1805 he was a member of Congress, and in 1805 elected Governor of the State. He married a daughter of Colonel Thomas Polk. He left no children. He was a man of much personal worth and re- spectable talents. He died and lies buried in Charlotte." Governor Alexander was a son of Colonel Moses Alexander, a distinguished Revolutionary patriot, who also rendered large services to his country. Governor Alexander's wife (Margaret Polk), was also of patriotic blood, a woman of many fine traits and splendid characteristics, as is evidenced by the fact that she was one of that brilliant company of young ladies of Mecklenburg County who drew up and signed the famous patriotic Resolutions and sent them to Salisbury to the Committee in session there representing Rowan and iMlecklenburg counties on May 8, 1776. For a full account of this patriotic deed read Hunter's Sketches of Western North Carolina, pages 144-145. It would appear from this action of the women of Mecklenburg County in May, 1776-still some months prior to July 4, 1776-that they were fired with the same fearless patriotism which prompted the men of Mecklenburg County to draw up and sign the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence on the previous May 20, 1775!! Governor Alexander and his wife are buried in the "Old Cemetery" and we find the following inscriptions on their tombs. 147 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET Sacred To the Memory of Doc'r Nathaniel Alexander Late Governor of No. Carolina who departed this life on the 7th day of March 1808 in the 52nd year of his age. By his side lies buried his wife, with this inscription on her tomb: Sacred To the Memory of Margaret Alexander Wife of Doctor A lexander and daughter of Thomas and Susannah Polk who departed this life on the 12th day of Sept. 1806 in the 42nd year of her age. Turning now to Colonel Thomas Polk, we again quote from the historian, Foote, pages 5-10, who says: "Col. Thomas Polk and his wife Susanna Spratt Polk, lie buried in the graveyard of the village (Charlotte)." Colonel Polk was one of the ablest and most patriotic men Mecklenburg County- famous for her patriots-has ever borne. He was a member of the Colonial Assembly in 1771 and again in 1775. In 1775 he was Colonel of the Mecklenburg Militia and issued orders to the Captains of the several "beats," or districts, to send two (2) delegates each to the Convention held in Char- lotte on its regular day of meeting, May 19, 1775. It was on this day, while the Convention was in session, that the news of the Battle of Lexington (Mass.) reached Charlotte, and the citizens, already aggrieved and incensed, became so indignant that Resolutions were drawn up and signed on May 20, 1775, declaring independence of Great Britain. Colonel Polk was a delegate to the Convention and was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and had the honor by right of his official capacity as Colonel of the Militia, of reading the famous document publicly from the courthouse steps to the 148 THE OLD CEMETERY, CHARLOTTE, N. C. assembled citizens. Colonel Polk was appointed Colonel of the Fourth Regiment, Continental Troops by the Provincial Congress at Halifax, N. C., April 4, 1776. After the death of General William Lee Davidson at Cowan's Ford, he was appointed Brigadier-General in his stead. Mrs. Polk was a daughter of Thomas Spratt, one of the earliest settlers of western North Carolina, who was the first man to "cross the Yadkin River on wheels"-vehicles in those primitive days being rare; he was one of the wealthiest and most influential citizens of Mecklenburg and it was at his home where the first court was held prior to the building of the first court- house. Mrs. Polk's sister, Ann Spratt, was the first white child born in Western North Carolina, and her grave is in the old "Spratt burying ground." Colonel and Mrs. Polk had an interesting family, many of whose descendents are prominent in the life of the community today. Hunter's Sketches of Western North Carolina, page 55, tells us that "he (Colonel Polk) died in 1793, full of years and full of honors, and his mortal remains repose in the graveyard of the Presbyterian Church, in Charlotte." Their son, William Polk, also a distinguished patriot, erected a memorial marble over the last resting place of his parents as a tribute of filial love and esteem. On it we read this beautiful testimony: Here lies inter'd The Earthly remains of General Thomas Polk and his wife Susanna Polk who lived many years together justly beloved and respected for their many virtues And universally regretted by all who had the pleasure of their acquaintance. Their Son William Polk As a token of his filial regard hath caused this stone to be Erected to their Memory. 149 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET Some years ago it was the custom on each 20th of May for a "Special Committee" of citizens to visit the "Old Cemetery" and decorate Colonel Polk's grave with flags and flowers in loving memory of his patriotism as Signer and Public Reader of Mecklenburg's Declaration. Today this loyal tribute has fallen into disuse, but the writer hopes to see it revived and again become an annual custom. General George Graham is the third distinguished patriot buried in the "Old Cemetery" of whom we shall write. He was one of the most conspicuously brave and daring men North Carolina has ever produced, a man with a notable record for heroism as is strikingly recounted in the remarkable inscription on his tombstone. He was the son of Scotch-Irish parents, James and Mary Graham, and was born in Pennsyl- vania, December 5, 1752, moving to North Carolina with his widowed mother when about ten years of age. His mother was a woman of strong character and fine patriotism, aiding her countrymen in their struggle for freedom and giving to the cause two sons, General Joseph Graham and General George Graham. She is buried in the "Old Cemetery," near the grave of her son, George. He was one of the students of "Queen's Museum" (afterwards Liberty Hall) and was in Charlotte and present at the reading of the Mecklenburg Declaration, on May 20, 1775, as is attested by his affidavit given when he was 61 years of age. In May, 1775, when it was rumored that Captain James Jack, bearer of the Meck- lenburg Declaration to the Continental Congress in Philadel- phia, was about to be detained in Salisbury by two Tory law- yers, Dunn and Bootles, young George Graham, then about 23 years of age, "was one of the brave spirits who rode all night to Salisbury," seized the offenders and brought them both to Mecklenburg for trial. George Graham took an active part in the campaign against Cornwallis in 1780, and was one of the twelve (12) brave men who dared attack a foraging party of four hundred (400) British soldiers at McIntire's Branch on the Beattie's Ford road, seven miles from Charlotte, com- pelling them to retreat with a considerable loss of dead and two THE OLD CEMETERYY CHARLOTTE, N. C. wounded. Scarcely has a braver or more daring deed been written in the annals of American history! After the war George Graham was elected Major-General of the North Carolina Militia; for many years he was Clerk of the Court of Mecklenburg County and he was a member of the House of Representatives during 1793-94-95, and was a member of the State Senate during 1703-01-05-06-07-08-09- 10-11-12. Again we quote from Hunter's Sketches of West- ern North Carolina, page 99: "He (George Graham) lived more than half a century on his farm two miles from Charlotte. He died on the 29th of March, 1826, in the 68th year of his age, and is buried in the graveyard of the Presbyterian Church in Charlotte." A more extended and interesting account of George Graham may be found in that valuable contribution to history, the life of his brother Joseph, entitled General Joseph Graham and His Revolutionary Papers, written by General Joseph Gra- ham's distinguished grandson, Hon. Wm. A. Graham. The inscription on George Graham's tombstone is a grate- ful recognition by his fellow-countrymen of his splendid bravery in times of war and of his sterling qualities in times of peace, a most unusual and striking tribute! As we stand by his grave we read: Sacred to the Memory of Major-General George Graham who died on the 29th of March, 1826 in the 68th year of his age. He lived more than half a century in the vicinity of This place and was a zealous and active defender of his Country's Rights in the Revolutionary War and one of the Gallant Twelve who 151 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET dared to attack and actually drove 400 British troops at McIntire's 7 miles north of Charlotte on the 3rd of October, 1780. George Graham filled many high and responsible Public Trusts the duties of which he discharged with fidelity. He was the people's friend not their flatterer and uniformly engaged the Unlimited Confidence and respect of his Fellow Citizens. The site of the encounter with the British at McIntire's has been marked by a boulder and inscription as a memorial to George Graham and the "Gallant Twelve." In the north and east corner of the "Old Cemetery" a space was set apart for the burial of the slaves who died in the homes of their masters. Many faithful men and women, with their little children, found sepulture here, near the last resting place of those they had loved and faithfully served, and who in return were held in affection and esteem. No tombstones mark these graves and most of them have disap- peared from sight, so today only a rolling greensward greets the eye of the casual passerby, giving no intimation that be- neath its turf lie the dust of many of an alien race who had found home and friends in Charlotte. Strangers and visitors to Charlotte often visit the "Old Cemetery" to search for graves of relatives, or to copy inscrip- tions, or, from a reverent love of studying at first-hand a people's history, to stroll through its shady walks under its ancient oak trees and read the quaint epitaphs. Unfortun- ately this historic burial place has not been put in "Perpetual Care," and the city gives only a small appropriation for its upkeep. A fine hedge has been planted around it and a splendid rock wall built on the front side. At its entrance on West Fifth Street we find a beautiful old wrought-iron 152 THE OLD CEMETERY, CHARLOTTE, N. C. 153 gate of historic interest. The iron was mined by John Gra- ham, a son of General Joseph Graham, at one of the General's iron furnaces, "Rehoboth Furnace," in Lincoln County, and was made "by hand" by the slaves and is a beautiful specimen of their work. The gate was owned by various members of the family in succession and has been donated to the "Old Cemetery." This sacred "God's Acre" now lies close to the throbbing heart of the modern "Queen City," and is one of her priceless heritages from her early patriots, who bestowed on her her splendid history which is today her greatest treasure. THE NORTH CABOLINA BOOKLET The North Carolina Medical Society of 1799-1804 By MARSHALL DELANCEY HAYWOOD. Author of "Governor William Tryon and His Administration in the Province of North Carolina, 1765-1771," "Lives of the Bishops of North Carolina," "Ballads of Courageous Carolinians," etc. The present splendid organization, known as The Medical Society of the State of North Carolina, had its origin, as many know, in the year 1849; but the fact is known to very few that just half a century earlier a society of almost the same name THE NORTH CAROLINA MEDICAL SOCIETY- was projected in the city of Raleigh by leaders of the medical profession then residing in the Old North State. By perusing old files of the Raleigh Register, now pre- served in the North Carolina State Library, we are able to catch glimpses of the earlier organization and its promoters. In the issue of that paper of November 12, 1799, it is stated that "it is contemplated by several Gentlemen of the Faculty, in the State, to form themselves into a Medical Society, and that they intend to convene for that purpose in this city some time in the month of December." The editor adds: "Such an association of scientific men must be highly useful to them- selves and to the community." Commenting still further it is editorially stated that such a society could be made ex- tremely useful "by the interchange of sentiments which it would occasion; by the discussion of medical subjects, which would awaken the spirit of inquiry; by directing the pur- suits of the pupil; by giving sanction to the medical skill and ability of candidates for practice; by establishing among the Faculty a friendly intercourse; by enabling the community to distinguish the true Physician from the ignorant Pre- tender; and by discountenancing, and possibly suppressing the fatal and criminal practices of Quacks and Empyrics." 154 THE N. C. MEDICAL SOCIETY The term "Faculty," above mentioned, we may add in passing, is not used in the same sense as we now generally understand that word, but is an obsolete term to denote a learned profession or occupation. In the Raleigh Register of December 10, 1799, Dr. Calvin Jones, "Secretary of Correspondence," published notice that the Medical Society would hold its meeting in Raleigh on the 16th of the same month. It is briefly announced in the afore- mentioned newspaper of December 17th that the "Medical Society met this day [probably meaning the preceding day] when Dr. Hand was appointed to the chair, and the Society proceeded to business." The State Legislature convened in Raleigh about this time, and legally incorporated The North Carolina Medical So- ciety by Chapter 38 of the Private Laws of 1799. The list of officers was announced as follows in the Raleigh Register of December 24th: Richard Fenner, President; Nat Loomis and J. Clairborne, Vice-Presidents; Sterling Wheaton, James Webb, John J. Pasteur, and Jason Hand, Censors; Calvin Jones, Corresponding Secretary; William B. Hill, Recording Secretary; and Cargill Massenburg, Treas- urer. This meeting adjourned, with a resolution that the next annual convention should be held in Raleigh on Decem- ber 1, 1800. It met at the appointed time, and elected as new members Drs. John C. Osborne, Thomas Mitchel, John Sib- ley, Armistead, and French. A success- ful examination before the Censors was passed by Charles Smith. Quite a number of essays was read, and discussions were participated in by many of those present. The State was then divided by the Society into medical districts, and the physicians residing in these districts were urged to hold periodical meetings. Dr. James Webb, of Hillsborough, read a paper on the causes and prevention of gout and rheumatism. Prizes in money were offered by the Society for certain quan- tities of plants and medicinal articles produced in North Carolina, as follows: fox-glove, opium, rhubarb, castor oil, -4 155 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET and senna. Cholera infantum was fixed upon as the special subject of study for the succeeding annual meeting, and Drs. Pasteur, Wheaton, Loomis, and Hand were appointed essayists for the said forthcoming meeting, to be held in the year following, with liberty to choose the subjects of their dissertations. Before this meeting of 1800 adjourned, officers were elected as follows: John C. Osborne, President; Thomas Mitchel and Richard Fenner, Vice-Presidents; James Webb and John Sibley, Censors; Sterling Wheaton, Recording Sec- retary; Calvin Jones, Corresponding Secretary; and Cargill Massenburg, Treasurer. The next annual meeting duly convened in the city of Raleigh on Monday, December 1, 1801, and held a three-day session. The newspaper account says that "a considerable number of respectable Physicians from various parts of the State were present." The president, Dr. Osborne, delivered the opening address which was editorially described in the Raleigh Register as "a cursory narrative of the progress of the science of Medicine, from the earliest ages." An "in- genious practical treatise on General Dropsy" was read by Dr. Wheaton. A committee was appointed to take steps to- wards establishing a botanical garden, for the cultivation of medicinal plants, and it was also resolved to found a medical library. The officers of the preceding year were reelected, with the exception of the fact that Dr. Clairborne succeeded Dr. Sibley as a Censor. The subject of infantile diseases was designated as a special study for the next annual meeting. In the newspapers of November, 1802, a call for the Society to meet on December 1st, was issued by Dr. Calvin Jones, Corresponding Secretary; but, if the meeting took place, as it probably did, the present writer can find no record of its pro- ceedings. The annual meeting at Raleigh, on December 3, 1803, brought a new accession of members in the persons of Drs. Robert Williams (of Pitt), John McFarland, John McAden, Elias Hawes, Hugh McCullough, and Thomas Henderson. No change of officers was made except the election of Dr. 156 THE N. C. MEDICAL SOCIETY Williams as a Censor, vice Dr. Clairborne. The details of this meeting are not given in the newspaper report. The Society met in Raleigh on December 10, 1804, re- elected all officers of the preceding year, with the exception of Treasurer-Dr. Hawes succeeding Dr. Massenburg-and re- solved to hold its next meeting in the town of Chapel Hill, the seat of the University of North Carolina, on the 5th of July, 1805. Whether this meeting took place the present writer is unable to say, nor can he find any further record of proceedings of this Society in the old newspaper files or else- where. To illustrate how thoroughly abreast of their time these physicians in the North Carolina Medical Society were, it may be recalled that while Dr. Jenner's experiments, in Eng- land, on the subject of vaccination against smallpox were still in progress the North Carolina practitioners were making a study of his dissertations and applying the process to their patients. Jenner's first published treatise on the subject ap- peared in England in 1798, and his experiments were not completed till several years later. Yet as early as 1800 Dr. Calvin Jones published in the Raleigh Register an announce- ment that soon he hoped to begin the treatment in North Carolina. A long treatise on this subject, from the pen of Dr. Jones will be found in the Raleigh Register of April 14, 1801, in which he made reference to an announcement on the subject, by him, in the preceding year, but stated that he had decided to postpone the treatment until further experiments had been perfected in Europe and America. He says: "The public have been taught to expect, from my advertise- ments of last year, that I shall, in the ensuing month, com- mence inoculation for the Smallpox; but I am prevented from doing this by the consideration of what is due from me to those who would have been my patients, whose ease and safety my own inclinations and the honor of my profession bind me to consult." Further on in this communication Dr. Jones refers to emi- 157 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET nent practitioners in England, Scotland, Austria, and France, who had successfully used the treatment, and adds: "Dr. Mitchell, of New York, and Dr. Waterhouse, of New Hampshire, have both received the matter of the disease from England, and propose inoculating early in the present season, so that we may expect it will soon become common in the United States." The practice of vaccination, we may add, came into use in parts of North Carolina other than the vicinity of Raleigh about the time the above experiments were being made by Dr. Jones and his associates. The historical researches of Miss Adelaide L. Fries have recently brought to light the fact that in the old Moravian community of Salem, North Carolina, eighty persons (mostly children) were successfully treated in the Summer of 1802, by Dr. Samuel Vierling, the town phy- sician, for whose use the parents in that place ("house-fathers" and "house-mothers") had obtained, by a special messenger whom they had sent to "a certain doctor in Raleigh," speci- mens of the cow-pox virus, with instructions for its proper use. When Dr. Vierling undertook this work at Salem he refused to say what compensation he would demand, as he did not know what trouble and expense the process would entail. He did state, however, that he would do the work as cheaply as possible; and we must credit him with keeping this promise to the letter, as the record concludes with the remark that Dr. Vierling "declined to accept any pay for his services." Returning to the subject of the North Carolina Medical Society, little remains to be added. As already noted, we can find no record of its meetings after 1804. We may state in conclusion, however, that as the Society had made a collec- tion of natural history specimens, etc., and as Dr. Calvin Jones was its secretary; and furthermore, as Dr. Jones turned over a "museum of artificial and natural curiosities' to the University of North Carolina, about twenty years later, on the eve of his removal to Tennessee, this gift to the University was in all probability the last remaining possession of the de- funct North Carolina Medical Society. 158 159 Proceedings of the North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution Held in Edenton, October 24-26, 1916 At the annual meeting of the State Society D. R., held in Raleigh in 1915, on motion of the Vice-Regent, Mrs. Mar- shall Williams, it was voted to hold the annual meeting of 1916 in some of our historic old towns where the Society has a Chapter. So when Mrs. Patrick Matthew, Regent of the Penelope Barker Chapter, extended an invitation to the Daughters to visit Edenton, the invitation was accepted with delightful anticipation and without deliberation, for Edenton of all towns in the State is very near to the hearts of the Daughters of the Revolution. It was in studying the history of this Revolutionary hot-bed that they were inspired to commemorate the Edenton Tea Party of 1774 with a hand- some bronze tablet, which was placed in the rotunda of the State Capitol at Raleigh in October, 1908. In order to raise funds for that purpose the NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET was launched in May, 1901, at the suggestion of Miss Martha Helen Haywood, who, with Mrs. Hubert Haywood, was one of the first editors; and the Penelope Barker Chapter was the first Chapter organized by the North Carolina Daughters. The Twentieth Annual Meeting of the North Carolina So- ciety Daughters of the Revolution was held in the form of a pilgrimage to the historic "Borough Towne" of Edenton, variously called "ye Towne in Queen Anne's Creek," "ye Towne in Mattermacomock Creek," and "Port of Roanoke" in the oldest records. The Penelope Barker Chapter filled the role of hostess most charmingly October 24, 25 and 26. The delegates arrived at noon Tuesday, October 24, and were met at the station by members of the Chapter and Mr. Richard D. Dixon, representing his uncle, Dr. Richard Dil- lard (who was unavoidably absent) and driven to their desti- nations. That afternoon the gentlemen of the Historical Society gave a sail in honor of the visiting Daughters. The THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET weather was ideal and the famous Bay of Edenton, that has been so often compared to the Bay of Naples, never looked fairer than it did under the mellow rays of the radiant autumn sun, while Mattermacomock Creek was a veritable reproduc- tion of fairyland with the rich tints of the changing forests, the waving Spanish moss and the vivid reflections borne on the smooth surface of its limpid waters. The dying of a perfect day and the brilliant afterglow amid such surround- ings were watched intently by the guests, all of whom, save two, were enjoying the attractions of Edenton for the first time. On landing, the party strolled to the home of Mr. Frank Wood, where they were entertained at tea by Miss Caroline W. Coke, Vice-Regent of the Penelope Barker Chapter. In the grounds of Mr. Wood's home, facing the court house green, stood the residence of Mrs. Elizabeth King, where the Eden- ton Tea Party was held, October 25, 1774, the site of which has been marked by Mr. Frank Wood with a pedestal mounted with a bronze tea pot. China that was owned by the distin- guished President of the Tea Party, the stately Penelope Barker, was used, and delicious tea cakes, made from the recipe she had so frequently found useful, were served. On departing, each guest was presented with a typewritten recipe, rolled and tied with buff and blue ribbon, the Society's colors. The recipe is: PENELOPE BARKER TEA CAKES.-1 quart flour, 3/4 cup but- ter and lard, mixed; 2 large cups brown sugar, 3 eggs, 1 rounded teaspoonful soda. Beat eggs together well, adding sugar; next, soda, dissolved in 1 tablespoonful warm water (not hot). Flavor with vanilla. Lastly add quickly the flour, into which butter and lard have been well worked. Roll out as soft as possible and cut. Bake in a hot oven. The parlor was tastefully decorated with trailing vines and pink roses. Miss Tillie Bond, the nearest living relative of Penelope Barker, was a guest of honor. On Tuesday evening the Daughters met in the Colonial 160 PROCEEDINGS N. C. S0. D. fR. court house, which had been appropriately dressed with yellow flowers and banners, carrying out the colors of the Daughters of the Revolution, Dr. Dillard presiding. The address of welcome, was delivered by the Regent of the Penelope Barker Chapter: Mme. Regent, Daughters of the Revolution, Ladies and Gen- tlemen: The first page of American history was written when Columbus appealed to the Court of Spain for a fleet with which to set sail upon that long, perilous voyage which termi- nated in his planting the Cross upon the Island of San Salva- dor, 1492. From that time to the establishment of the Sir Walter Raleigh Colony on Roanoke Island to the settlement of the Chowan Precinct was but a short chain of events, but perfect in continuity. Here, where the giants of the forest stood deep-rooted on the shores of this grand body of water, which is now known as the Albemarle Sound, flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, con- necting the Old World with the New, was "Ye Little Towne on Queen Anne's Creek." With but a handful of people it set up its own government with its laws, court,. customs, church, and thus early laid the foundation for an important centre of trade. Surrounded by the Red Men, who soon became friends, they reduced to cultivation fertile fields which afforded the barter for the vessels which sailed into the harbor. Without recorded explanation the name was changed to "Port of Roanoke," and here increased high life of Church and State, industries grew, wise patriots became known abroad, the capital of the State was here located, laws made, and her fame spread like the branches of the grandeur of the forest primeval. Her commerce increased, ships multiplied in numbers, and the Old World wondered at her great possession. In 1722 Governor Charles Eden died, and from that date 161 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET the name of the town has been Edenton, thus convincing us that it was named in memory of that distinguished statesman. After years of servitude and discontent, with no represen- tation in parliament, the cries of resentment grew pitiful, but the determination of resistance came from the women of Edenton in that document, The Edenton Tea Party, which shook the foundation of British rule in America, and sounded the first alarm at the court of St. James. Women have always been powerful, but the mighty stroke of independence was wielded by the pens of the immortal fifty-one who signed their names to that document, which was the key-note of the War of the Revolution. So, Mme. Regent and Daughters of the Revolution, we bid you welcome to the home of our ancestors, the land of King Hoyle, the last sovereign ruler of the Choanokes, a man whose lovely character made the white people live in harmony with his tribe, and who gave his two sons to be taught to receive Christianity, for in his savage breast there beat a heart which knew that a greater God than their Great Spirit was Lord over the world and he wanted his sons to take up their cross and follow Him. With your advent in our midst you receive the freedom of Edenton, and to one and all we bid you come to our houses, partake of our bounty, welcome you to our firesides, make you our friends, for be it ever so lowly "There's no place like home." The following response was made by Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, the State Regent: Officers and Daughters of the Revolution: It is a pleasure inexpressible for the North Carolina So- ciety Daughters of the Revolution to assemble for the Twen- tieth Annual Meeting in this historic "Borough Town," variously referred to in the oldest records as the "Towne in Queen Anne's Creek," the "Towne in Mattermacomock Creek," "Port of Roanoke," and later permanently and so appropriately named Edenton, though it must be admitted 162 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. the serpent is conspicuous through absence. It is a joyous privilege indeed to acknowledge the gracious words of this very cordial welcome, and to you, Madam Regent, and the Penelope Barker Chapter, we extend our warmest expres- sions of appreciation and gratitude. Particularly dear to the hearts of the Daughters of the Revolution are Edenton and the Penelope Barker Chapter, for it was the noble history of this fair town which first in- spired this Society to commemorate the "Edenton Tea Party" by placing a handsome bronze tablet in the State Capitol at Raleigh, the first to adorn that stately edifice, and as a way to raise the means necessary the NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET was launched, May 10, 1901. In every important event in our past since then Edenton has been prominently represented, and some of the BOOKLET'S most valuable con- tributions have been from the pen of her versatile writers, even to the youngest generation. The Penelope Barker Chap- ter has been our heart's pride, because it was the first Chapter organized, and its record can only arouse interest and stimu- late ambition in historic research and patriotic achievements. It is an honor to have such a band of members respond to its roll call. As we gather here today, some visitors for the first time to this Revolutionary hot-bed and centre of culture and refine- ment, naturally our thoughts revert to those stirring times that shook a great kingdom and a vast continent to their very foundations. We feel the sacred presence of the famous statesmen and the brave, fascinating women who moved in that long ago, for here they lived, labored and won laurels for the Patriot Cause that can never fade. These beautiful, historic buildings of the Colonial period have been rendered more interesting from the fact that they have resounded with the echoes of their voices and the fall of their footsteps. They pass before us in mental review. Foremost in that distant throng are Judge James Iredell, who, by his letters, has be- queathed to posterity such vivid delineations of the social life, Colonial and Revolutionary, of Edenton; Governor Samuel 1 6 el THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET Johnston, the builder of "Hayes," and his sisters, Hannah and Isabella; Joseph Hewes; James Wilson, of Pennsylvania; Thomas Barker, and his fair spouse, the immortal Penelope, and that beauty and belle, Betsy Barker, whose likeness present-day iconoclasts wish to confound with that of her noted step-mother, but whose separate portraits exist in middle Carolina, one of the President of the Tea Party loaned to the Hall of History at Raleigh and the other in the home of a descendant at Ridgeway, painted, it seems, by the same artist, but showing not one trace of resemblance. Each of the fifty-one signers of the Tea Party stand forth as clearly as though the mist of intervening years had vanished. Many, many, many others pass in the distinguished assemb- lage. We offer our homage to their hallowed memories and imbibe inspiration to aspire to higher ideals and the perform- ance of deeds worth while. Of all the towns of North Carolina none have preserved that ideal, restful Colonial atmosphere, all too rare in this age of perpetual unrest and dangerous commercialism, as has this sweet haven of rest, and nowhere else can be brewed as delic- ious a cup of tea, which proves that the fifty-one ladies that met at Mrs. King's house on the Court House Green one hun- dred and forty-two years ago tomorrow, understood the full meaning of self-denial! To Edenton we come to receive fresh impetus to proceed with extensive plans for a future of rose- tinted promise. Six and a half years have passed since you entrusted to your Regent the highest office in the gift of the Society. It has been a pleasure to serve the order that is closest to her heart, even though in so doing she has been overworked with the requirements of the office, in addition to the demands of the BOOKLET, therefore she fully realizes her shortcomings and at all times, in glancing over the past, she trusts you will do so with kind indulgence. During that space of time five Chapters, the Bloomsbury at Raleigh, the Roanoke at Windsor, the General Francis Nash at Hillsboro, the Mary Slocumb at Faison, and the 164 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. Thomas Robeson at Red Springs, have been organized, and two Junior Chapters, the Virginia Dare and Ensinore, at Elizabeth City, have been formed. The set of one hundred and nine lantern slides, most of which are colored, and the lecture, "Stories from North Carolina History," have been made and presented in Raleigh, Elizabeth City, Washington, Edenton, Windsor, and Winston-Salem. Eight tablets have been erected by the Chapters. A room has been furnished by the Chapters in Elizabeth City, called the "Virginia Dare Room." The chart and key of St. Paul's Churchyard has been presented this historic church, the painstaking work of the Penelope Barker Chapter. Twenty gold medals have been presented in the public schools in towns in North Carolina. Miss Catherine Albertson's book, "In Ancient Albemarle," has been published by the Society. Every annual meeting of the General Society, save that at Brooklyn in 1915, has been attended by delegates from North Carolina. The BOOKLET has been published and some brilliant social functions are some of the matters that have engaged the hearts and hands of the North Carolina Daughters. Today the North Carolina Society is as loyal to the parent Society as she was in the pioneer days-aye, more so. We stand for the things she advocates and we are happy and con- tent in being under her fold. Loyalty is one of the noblest traits that has been implanted in the nature of man. Would we be worthy of the great heroes whose deeds we commem- orate were we untrue to the cause we have espoused Our ranks are constantly being strengthened by the best, and we rejoice that we can face the future with confidence and hope of greater achievement. To our beloved founder, Mrs. Fannie DeBerniere Hooper Whitaker, we turn in loving remembrance, and we feel North Carolina has been richer for the influence she wielded and her memory continues to exert. To the officers and members of the North Carolina Society your Regent extends her sincerest thanks for this list of good 165 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET works and for the whole-hearted support you have bestowed in times of labor and toil, in times of clouds and sunshine. Each of you has become dearer for the associations which shall be cherished always. An address, giving the historical facts of this building, around which has centered so much of the past of Edenton, from Dr. Dillard, was enjoyed by the audience. The interior is modeled after the ancient basilica, and here the House of Burgesses assembled and guided the affairs of the Colony of North Carolina. Mrs. E. E. Mofflitt, Honorary Regent of the North Carolina Society D. R., also talked on subjects of vital importance for the preservation of our State history. October 25th-the anniversary of the Tea Party-dawned bright and clear. In celebration of that event four tablets were unveiled by the Penelope Barker Chapter. By 10 o'clock the citizens of Edenton had gathered in St. Paul's Church, the school children had marched from the Academy, bearing the banners of the Chapter, which on entering were placed at the church door, and the Daughters of the Revolu- tion had taken the seats reserved for them along the main aisle, to take part in the impressive service that was con- ducted in the absence of the beloved Rector, Reverend Robert Brent Drane, D.D., by the Reverend B. F. Huske, Rector of Christ Church, New Bern, North Carolina. Here was un- veiled by Richard Norfleet Hines, Jr., the marble tablet in the rear of the church to the signers of the "Test," who com- posed the vestry of St. Paul's at that time, renouncing alle- giance to the crown. The text of the document and the names of the signers are engraved on the memorial in black letters. Mr. Huske's address was most interesting, and it is regretted by the Daughters that it was almost entirely extemporaneous. From the church the throng repaired to the home of Judge James Iredell, where the marble tablet in the great outside brick chimney, the gift through the Daughters of the Revolu- tion of the present owners and occupants, Mr. and Mrs. Wil- liam T. Gordon, was unveiled by William Elliott and Ethel 166 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. McMullan. Colonel J. Bryan Grimes, President of the North Carolina Society of the Sons of the Revolution, made the speech of presentation. He spoke of the man, his life and splendid services to the State and the Union, of his influence on the Supreme Court of the United States and the Constitu- tion. It was here that James Wilson, signer of the National Declaration of Independence from Pennsylvania, visited, and here he breathed his last. His remains were interred in the burying-ground at "Hayes" and later-several years ago- were removed to Philadelphia. Dr. Dillard accepted in his happiest manner for the town of Edenton: Ladies and Gentlemen: Prehistoric man built cairns or heaps of stone to commem- orate important events; the ancient Egyptians emblazoned in hieroglyphics the deeds of their illustrious Pharoahs upon the faces of the everlasting pyramids; the history of the ancient Aztecs is written amid the picturesque mines of Ilitla and Cholula, and Joshua set up twelve stones at Jordan, so that when the children should ask their fathers in times to come, "What mean ye by these stones ye shall answer them that the waters of Jordan were cut off before the ark of the covenant of the Lord." And so on through all the ages, man- kind has seen fit to mark in brass, or bronze, or graven stone, whatever was valuable for posterity-they are the hall-marks and symbols of immortality. We have had presented us today a tablet in honor of Edenton's most illustrious son; like Socra- tes he was "the perfection of earth's mental beauty, and the personification of all virtue"; the fairest star that glitters in the firmanent of our history! And now, in behalf of the citi- zens of Edenton, and the Sons and Daughters of the Revolu- tion, this tablet is most graciously accepted. Here let it stand, a perpetual inspiration to noble deeds, and virtuous actions! To the souls of fire let it give more fire, and to those who are slothful, let it give a might more than is man's! For who shall say that fame is but an empty name! 167 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET "In thinking of the honored dead The youth shall rise from slothful bed And now, with uplifted hand and heart, Like him to act a noble part." At the Academy a bronze tablet to the Founders of the original Academy, on the exterior, near the entrance of the stately, pillared new structure, is placed, which was unveiled by Caroline Privott, daughter of a trustee. Colonel J. Bryan Grimes presenting, and Mr. J. Norfleet Pruden accepting on behalf of the Board of Trustees. Colonel Olds also addressed the throng, speaking of the duty that rested upon the children, the future makers of Edenton and the keepers of her splendid past. To the court house the children marched, followed by the audience, to witness the presentation by Colonel C. S. Vann, who, in speaking, paid a high tribute to womanhood, and the acceptance of Mr. F. W. Hobbs, Clerk of the Court, of the bronze tablet, unveiled by daughters of county officers, Fran- ces Brownley Evans, Elsie Goodwin, Cornelia Harrell, and Sadie Hobbs, on the exterior of the edifice to the fifty-one signers of the Edenton Tea Party. Mr. Hobbs said: Ladies and Gentlemen: Although I am no speechmaker I wish to assure you that it affords me a peculiar pleasure to accept the tablet commem- orative of one of the most important historical events recorded upon the annals, embracing the history of our grand old town, county, and commonwealth. The Daughters of the Revolution deserve the highest com- mendation at our hands for the splendid work they have ac- complished in placing tablets here and there in our town, which Col. R. B. Creecy said was the most historical of all the towns in the State. These matters of history will always be recognized as most important, for frequently they are the source of inspiration to succeeding generations, and I believe to have them carved upon enduring metal, or other lasting 168 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. material, and placed where they can, on all public occasions, be seen, will have a tendency to elevate the ideals of our citi- zenship, make them more patriotic, and lovers of our grand old State and glorious Nation. I thank these ladies for their manifested interest in these matters, and again state with great pleasure I accept, on be- half of the Board of Commissioners and the citizenship of the County of Chowan, this splendid tablet which commemorates such glorious courage and patriotism of our women of the Revolutionary War. To read these resolutions is enough to make us proud of our women of this stirring period of our country's history, and to make us glad that we are to the man- ner born. We welcome to the county the North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution, and have placed at their dis- posal this court house, within whose walls have presided and pleaded statesmen and men who were giants in their profes- sion and times, honored and esteemed by their fellow country- men. The "Resolves" signed two hundred and forty-two years ago and the names of the patriotic signers are given thereon. On the conclusion of these instructive and enjoyable exer- cises the Daughters of the Revolution were cordially invited by Dr. Dillard to visit "Beverly Hall." Here amid the rare plants, flowers and ornamentation of his Italian garden, and in the library, where each recorded her name in the guest book, time flew, and soon the Daughters were rushed off to charming luncheons with Mrs. William D. Pruden and Miss Sophie Martin Wood, at historic "Hayes," conceded by Vir- ginia authorities to be the most interesting home in the South. The afternoon was devoted to the transaction of business in the court house, Miss Hinton presiding. Reports from the State officers and Chapter Regents were read and plans dis- cussed for entertaining the General Society in Raleigh in April, 1917. Twenty-five dollars for the publication of the minutes of this meeting in the BOOKLET were donated by the 169 THlE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET visiting delegates, and it was voted to have a handsome silk banner made this winter, such as the other State Societies possess. This will bear the State flag and will be adorned with the hornet's nest, emblems of the Edenton Tea Party, etc. Seventeen new members have joined during the year 1916, and thirty-two more are filling out their papers. Two new Chapters, the Mary Slocumb at Faison, of which Miss Geor- gia Hicks is Regent, and the Colonel Thomas Robeson, at Red Springs, have been organized, while another of young girls is being formed. A motion was carried that the Society request Colonel Charles Earle Johnson to reprint the "Life and Letters of James Iredell," by McRee, now out of print. This cast such light on the grave questions of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and post-Revolutionary periods and on the delightful social life of Edenton of Judge Iredell's day that it is needed in our public and private libraries. REPORT OF THE RECORDING SECRETARY-MRS. L. E. COVINGTON. The North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution have, during the year 1915-1916, done substantial, good work. The Society has maintained its high standard of patriotic zeal and worth-while accomplishments. Quite a number of energetic, ambitious members have been added and they are already taking up the work of the Society with vigor and zeal. It behooves those of us who have been members for some years not to lag behind these new members in zeal; and, in fact, we should endeavor to inspire and en- courage them to the most energetic service. Social, domestic, and often literary duties are pressing upon us and the tempta- tion is to leave the hardest work to the most willing ones; but, remembering that we are descended from the men who took upon themselves unselfish, faithful service to their country, we cannot be faithless to the trust of ours, to keep their mem- ory fresh and green, to erect from time to time tablets and memorials so that heroes and heroic deeds may not be forgot- 170 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. ten; and, above all, to inspire in the present generation a love for their country and their country's heroes. Perhaps the most important work that our North Carolina Society has done and is doing is the publication of the NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET, begun some years ago by Miss Martha Haywood and Mrs. Hubert Haywood and now continued by Miss Mary Hinton and Mrs. E. E. Moffitt. The most val- uable historical papers are, in the BOOKLET, collected in tangible, enduring form; well known authorities give accu- rate, carefully written articles; and, under Miss Hinton's wise editorship, the NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET has become a storehouse of information, and, to the BOOKLET, scholars, teachers, and students are constantly referring for facts of historical importance. The recent series of articles on the North Carolina Secretaries of the Navy have received more attention and have been most favorably reviewed by the press in different sections of the State. During the recent Convention of the General Society, held last May in New York, the North Carolina Society was repre- sented by Miss Hinton, Regent; Mrs. Paul Lee, Correspond- ing Secretary; Mrs. Marshall Williams, Vice-Regent, and Mrs. C. C. Phillips of New York. The invitation was ex- tended by the North Carolina Society through Miss Hinton to have the General Society hold its meeting in Raleigh in 1917. The invitation was accepted and Raleigh will be hostess some time next year, either in April or May, to a dis- tinguished gathering of women. There has been appointed by Miss Hinton a Ways and Means Committee to arrange for expenses incident to this meeting, and plans are being formu- lated as to the program of entertainment, etc. Mrs. Covington then quoted from The Patriot, a part of Miss Hinton's report, read at the New York Convention in April, 1916. The report from Mrs. Chas. Lee Smith, Treasurer, was read, showing receipts amounting to 164.33, and disburse- -5 171 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET ments amounting to 118.59, leaving a balance on hand of 45.74. It was moved and carried that this report be ac- cepted. Miss Hinton, Regent, and editor of the BOOKLET, reported for volumes XIII, XIV, XV, extending from July, 1913, to July, 1916. Moved and carried that this report be approved. The Registrar, Miss Sarah W. Ashe, reports these new members: Mrs. Fannie Yarborough Bickett, Louisburg, N. C. (wife of Attorney-General [now Governor] lion. Walter Bickett). Mrs. Mary Davis Holt, Burlington, N. C. (wife of Mr. Erwin Allen Holt). Miss Elizabeth Ireland, Faison, N. C. Mrs. Mary Lou Brown Hill, Warsaw, N. C. (wife of Mr. William L. Hill). Mrs. Annie H. Witherington, Faison, N. C. (wife of Mr. B. B. Witherington). Mrs. Nyda H. Weatherby, Faison, N. C. (wife of Mr. Carleton E. Weatherby). Miss Winifred Faison, Faison, N. C. Miss Georgia Hicks, Faison, N. C. Mrs. Janie Hicks Phillips, New York City (wife of Mr. C. C. Phillips). Miss Louise Phillips, New York City. Mrs. Lila H. Hines, Faison, N. C. (wife of C. Shaw Hines). Mrs. Mary Franklin Pass Fearington, Winston-Salem, N. C. (wife of Dr. J. P. Fearington). Miss Faith Fearington, Winston-Salem, N. C. Mrs. Elizabeth R. F. Croom, Wilmington, N. C. (wife of Mr. Avery Burr Croom). Miss Mary Perrett, Faison, N. C. Mrs. Ruth Huntington Moore, Raleigh, N. C. Mrs. Annie Ramsey, Raleigh, N. C. (wife of Dr. George J. Ramsey). Report from Mrs. Matthew, Regent of the Penelope Bar- 172 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. ker Chapter, which report, she said, was written on bronze and marble, the four tablets unveiled today bespeaking the work of this chapter. A fine work in necrology has also been done. It was moved and carried that this report be accepted. Report from Mrs. I. M. Meekins, Regent of the Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter: REPORT OF THE SIR WALTER RALEIGH CHAPTER, DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION. Miss Catherine Albertson, former Regent of the Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter D. R., resigned her office as Regent last October, as her duties as Principal of the High School prevent her from carrying on the work of the Chapter. Mrs. I. M. Meekins, Vice-President, then became Regent. The pupils of the High School manifested unusual interest in the competition for the medal offered by the State Society D. R. last spring. The subject chosen was "The Life of John Harvey," and the medal was won by Miss Ida Owens, a member of the Senior Class of '16. Miss Albertson presented the medal to Miss Owens on Thursday night, June 1st, during the graduating exercises of the High School Senior Class, and took occasion to make a short address to the audience, commemorating the services of John Harvey to the State of North Carolina. On June 11th, a meeting of the Sir Walter Raleigh, Ense- nore, and Virginia Dare Chapters was held at the residence of Mrs. I. M. Meekins, for the purpose of arranging for a D. R. float to take part in a parade on July 4th, in which the various civic and patriotic organizations of the town were asked to join. July Fourth a seven passenger automobile was decorated with the D. R. colors and filled with members of the Junior D. R., dressed in Colonial costumes. The three D. R. Chapters still hope to erect the memorial fountain to Virginia Dare, and as the Juniors grow to woman- hood to erect in our county the memorial tablets to preserve her history. 173 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET REPORT FROM THE BLOOMSBURY CHAPTER. The Bloomsbury Chapter D. R. was formed April 9, 1910. Although young in age it has, under the leadership of Mrs. Hubert Haywood, its Regent, marked several historical places. The first one being the site of the old town of Bloomsbury, or Wake Court House. The memorial was a bronze tablet placed on a natural boulder of Wake County granite, and located at the corner of Boylan Avenue and Morgan Street. The second: The Chapter presented to the City of Raleigh a beautiful bronze tablet to the memory of Col. Joel Lane. It was placed on the left hand side of the entrance to the City Municipal Building. In the near future the Chapter expects to mark Tryon's Road (Ramsgate Road). This road was used by Tryon on his march against the Regulators at Alamance. It is situated south of Raleigh. Nearly seventy dollars is in the treasury for this purpose. Several of the members have contributed to this cause, and forty-six dollars and thirty-five cents (46.35) were made from a moving picture benefit. The Chapter decided that it would take the noted women of North Carolina during the Revolutionary period as the topic for this year. In addition to the regular business meetings held during the year there were two especially enjoyable occasions. On New Year's day the Chapter met with Mrs. James E. Shepherd. After the business of the Chapter was dispatched several historical places and noted women of the Colonial period were discussed. During the afternoon Mrs. Shepherd served delightful refreshments typical of the New Year. Washington's birthday was celebrated this year at the home of Mrs. Geo. P. Pell. 174 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. B. The decorations of the house, the papers read and the songs sung were all suggestive of the occasion. Then followed delightful refreshments which carried out the patriotic idea. GRACE H. BATES, Sec'y Bloomsbury Chapter D. R. Report from the Gen. Francis Nash Chapter, Miss Rebecca Cameron, Regent, was read and approved. This Chapter has done no active work in the past year, but has maintained or- ganized membership. With infinite sorrow they report the death of one of their beloved members, Mrs. Annie Ruffin Collins (Mrs. George P. Collins). Miss Georgia Hicks, Regent of the Mary Slocumb Chap- ter, read the report from this Chapter: REPORT OF THE MARY SLOCUMB CHAPTER DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION, OCTOBER 25, 1916. The Mary Slocumb Chapter was organized March 20, 1916, in the home of Mrs. Marshall Williams, State Vice- Regent. Mrs. Williams presided and read the Constitution and By-laws, and object of the Society. Officers elected were: Regent, Miss Georgia Hicks; Vice-Regent, Mrs. W. L. Hill, Warsaw; Secretary, Miss Elizabeth Newton Ireland. The name of the Chapter, "Mary Slocumb," was selected by a unanimous vote. Fifteen ladies now constitute the member- ship and we will probably have more before very long. Mrs. Williams and Miss Hicks entertained the Chapter at the June meeting. Mrs. Williams gave a most interesting ac- count of her visit to New York as delegate to the National D. R. Convention. Miss Hicks read a sketch of Nathaniel Macon, and Mrs. Witherington an article on Colonial hospi- tality. This winter we will probably study Revolutionary history, beginning with sketches of the men and women of those times. As our Chapter is probably one of the most re- cently formed in the State it may not be amiss to give a little sketch of the heroine for whom it is named, "Mary Slocumb." Among the brave men who took part in the Battle of Moore's 175 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET Creek Bridge was Capt. Ezekiel Slocumb, of Wayne County, whose home was near the Neuse River. He left his home on Sunday, previous to the battle, in high spirits, with eighty men to join the forces under Col. Richard Caswell, and to do battle against the Tories. Mrs. Slocumb, the wife of the Captain, said she kept thinking about her husband all day, when he was going with his men, and the Tories they would meet, and though she worked hard all day the situation of Captain Slocumb and his men could not be banished from her mind. That night she had a "dream that was not all a dream." She saw distinctly a body wrapped in her husband's guard cloak, bloody and dead, and others dead and wounded on the ground. She felt she must go to her husband, and in a few minutes after awakening she saddled her horse and rode at full speed in the direction the men had taken. All night, with scarcely a break in the pace, she rode through Duplin and New Hanover counties, through the lone pine woods. About sunrise she passed groups of women and children on the road-side exhibiting equal anxiety to hear from the battle, but she paused not until, after riding 65 miles, she came into swampy ground and heard the thunder of the cannon. To use her words, she said, "I stopped still, the battle was fighting then. I could hear the muskets and the shouting. I spoke to my mare and dashed on in the direction of the firing." The shouts grew louder as she drew nearer, and she said, "I saw, a few yards away from the road, under a cluster of trees perhaps twenty men lying-they were wounded. I knew the spot as if I had seen it a thousand times, and the position of the men. I had seen it all night. In an instant my whole soul was centered on one spot, for there, wrapped in his bloody guard cloak, was my husband's body. How I passed the few yards from my saddle to the place I never knew. I remember uncovering his head and seeing a face clotted with blood from a dreadful wound across the temples. I put my hand on the bloody face, and an unknown voice begged for water-it was Frank Cogdell. Just then, I looked 176 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. 174 up and my husband, bloody as a butcher, and muddy as a ditcher, stood before me." Her husband was wounded, but not seriously. She spent the day in tenderly nursing the wounded and dying, then returned home. Captain Slocumb survived the varying fortunes of the Revolution, and he and his courageous and devoted wife lie buried beneath modest slabs on their old plantation home. Some of us have heard the story of this brave woman from our earliest years, and to this day, though we frequently pass the old burying ground, we always look for the white tomb- stones, and think of the heroism of Mary Slocumb. Respectfully submitted, GEORGIA HICKS. The Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Paul H. Lee, of Raleigh, gave an interesting report of the annual meeting of the General Society, held in New York last April: According to a pleasant custom the New York State So- ciety was hostess to the National Society Daughters of the Revolution for the Convention of 1916, at the Waldorf- Astoria, the Convention of this year commemorating the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Society. The Silver Jubilee being an occasion of great significance brought together rep- resentatives from all parts of the country. The formal opening of the Convention was on Tuesday morning, May 2d, at 11:30. A procession, led by juniors, with past and present officers and especially invited speakers, marched to the rostrum and took their places. Rev. Dr. Robert Clark, Chaplain of the New York Society, offered an invocation, then the salute and pledge to the flag was given by the gathering. The regular program was an address of wel- come by Miss Carville, Regent of the New York State Society, and was brim-full of hearty expressions of welcome, and was received with much applause. Mayor Mitchell was to have spoken the words of greeting from the city, but was unable to attend at the last moment, and was represented by Hon. Cabot Ward, Park Commissioner. Mir. Ward bade the dele- THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET gates a hearty welcome in the name of the Mayor and the City of New York. The President-General's address spoke for itself, ringing clear the keynote of patriotism. This was followed by the annual reports of the different officers. The afternoon session was given over to the report of the standing committees and reports of the State Regents. Break- ing the regular routine of the program for the afternoon the Convention was entertained by Madam Archtowska, an Amer- ican, whose husband, a native of Poland, made an address in behalf of the sufferers of Poland, and spoke of the appropri- ateness of an organization like the Daughters of the Revolu- tion, whose forefathers had fought beside Kosciusko and Pulaski, repaying the debt of gratitude by material help to the country from which these two men came to aid the Colon- ies in their time of need. "The Star Spangled Banner" was then sung with enthusiasm. The morning session of the second day of the Convention opened with the recital of the Lord's Prayer in unison. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. The Nominating Committee having been chosen on the prev- ious day the election of officers for the next two years was in order. There were two candidates for President-General: Mrs. Keay, from Pennsylvania, and Mrs. Raynor, of New York. A number of speeches were made setting forth the qualifications of each candidate. When the ballots were counted the Nominating Committee reported that Mrs. Ray- nor had received the majority vote and was therefore de- clared the President-General for the next two years. While the ballots were being counted reports were still being read from the State Chapters. Miss Hinton, Regent of the North Carolina Society, gave a very complete and gratifying report of the work done by the State Society. It was very pleasing that there was a good representation from the "Old North State." The opening feature of the afternoon session of May 3d was a telegram from West Virginia announcing a gift of 25 178 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. as a silver jubilee present. Two vocal solos were rendered; then several announcements were made, the most important being an invitation extended to the General Society by Miss Hinton, reading: "The North Carolina Society cordially in- vites the General Society Daughters of the Revolution to hold the annual meeting of 1917 in Raleigh, North Carolina." On motion of Miss Carville, of New York, seconded by Mrs. Berry, of Long Island, the invitation was accepted. The yearly volume of the NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET was pre- sented most graciously by the Vice-Regent, Mrs. Marshall Williams. The gift was acknowledged by the President- General. A very pleasant departure from business was a visit from Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., a member of the Woman's Sec- tion Committee of the Preparedness Parade, who came to extend an invitation to the Daughters to take part in the Pre- paredness Divisions of the patriotic Societies. Now we will turn to the numerous entertainments planned for the pleasure of the delegates. There was a reminder of New Amsterdam in the selection of the Holland House for the reception of welcome given by the New York State Society to officers, delegates, and visitors, from four to six o'clock on Monday afternoon, May 1st. A continuous procession passed down the line, headed by Miss Carville, Regent of New York, and the general officers. The Hospitality Committee looked after the serving of refreshments and making every one feel welcome. When the last strains of the orchestra died away one could feel "The End of a Perfect Day." On the following afternoon the Board of Managers of the General Society gave a tea in the East Room of the Waldorf in honor of those on roll of the first two hundred and fifty members of the Society. An invitation was extended to all delegates and visitors to pay their respects to these pioneer members. Conspicuous among the pioneer members present was Mrs. Joseph J. Casey, one of the incorporators and for nineteen years Registrar-General. 179 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET The principal social function this year was a luncheon, which was a reversion from the regular custom of a banquet. The business being over, every one was ready for the function, which meant a good time. The luncheon was served in the Astor gallery, the hall being resplendent with decorations of flags and flowers, amid its gorgeous hangings of gold. The menu, lists of guests of honor, and program of toasts were enclosed in a cover of buff, adorned with a water-color repro- duction of an old print of the inauguration of George Wash- ington, at Federal Hall, Wall Street, April 30, 1789. The guests were entertained by an address on Preparedness, from Major-General Leonard Wood, of U. S. A. Mrs. Chas. S. Whitman, the wife of the Governor of New York, was also a guest of honor. After a group of German songs, Mrs. Kent, the toastmis- tress, introduced the speakers, who were seated on a dias banked with flowers. Each toast given was a retrospect of the twenty-five full years of the Society. When Mrs. Bleakley, the retiring President-General, rose to give her parting word she was visibly affected. She spoke briefly of the activities of the past four years, and urged all to work for the Society under the new leadership. The three toasts that followed the President-General's were given by ex-Presidents-General, the toasts being as follows: "The Woman of the Past," by Mrs. D. Phoenix Ingraham; "The Woman of the Present," by Mrs. Adeline F. Fitz, and "The Woman of the Future," by Miss Adaline W. Sterling. The final toast was given by Mrs. Nathaniel S. Keay, Vice- President-General. At the close of the feast gifts were bestowed on each past and present President-General, in the order of her service, a beautiful pin of platinum and gold in the form of a friend- ship wreath, to which was attached the Society Ribbon, bear- ing in silver letters, "1891-1916," as an expression of love from the State Societies. This testimonial came as a com- plete surprise, all recipients were present and much appre- 180 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. ciation was shown by the past officers as evidence of the strong tie that binds the Daughters together. At the coffee stage of the luncheon two ushers passed from table to table, placing beside each guest a box tied with buff and blue ribbon, containing a souvenir in the form of a dainty silver teaspoon of Revolutionary pattern, inscribed "D. R., 1891-1916." Friday, May 5th, was set to show the visitors New York's wonderful park-way system. The weather did not smile upon us; instead showers and clouds fell, but a few glimpses of sunshine insured the excursion. Automobiles were found at the 34th street entrance of the Waldorf, and when the tourists had been placed the start began. The route led through Fifth Avenue, thence by Pelham to Travers Island, where the party was scheduled to lunch at the New York Athletic Club. The luncheon was served on the enclosed balcony of the Club, and was quite refreshing. After luncheon the Daughters re- turned to their respective vehicles and started for Yonkers, through parks along historic roads. Automobiles sped until we reached the doorway of the hospitable home of Mrs. Bleakley, who gave the delegates a cordial welcome; the re- freshments were as bountiful as the greeting was hearty. Reluctantly the visitors turned toward New York, carrying with them the memory of a charming day. On Saturday morning, May 6th, a pilgrimage was made around historic lower New York, winding up at Frances Tav- ern for refreshments and rest. A glorious May afternoon formed the beautiful setting for the last event of the Convention, when a large company as- sembled to attend the opening of Fort Independence Park, and to witness the unveiling of two bronze memorial tablets, the gift of the General Society Daughters of the Revolution. These tablets adorn the gate-posts that stand at the entrance of Fort Independence Park, which includes the exterior de- fences of the Revolutionary Fort. The erection of this splen- did memorial is due to the untiring efforts of Mrs. Raynor, the 181 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET newly-elected President-General. The retiring President- General made a stirring address, taking as her theme the dedication of the Park as an inspiration to the youth of our nation. When the last strains of "The Star Spangled Ban- ner" had died away, the last chapter of the Convention of 1916 had passed into history. Miss Georgia Hicks, of Faison, was elected Historian. There will be no change in the officers until the next annual meeting, which will be held in Raleigh, after the meeting of the General Society, the invitation extended by the Blooms- bury Chapter being accepted. In the absence of Mrs. L. E. Covington, Mrs. Charles P. Wales (Duncan Cameron Win- ston), formerly a Vice-Regent of the Society, acted as Re- cording Secretary. The evening of the 25th a tea party was given by the Re- gent of the Penelope Barker Chapter at her lovely Colonial home that dates back to 1722, which was the scene of beauty, wit, and chivalry. Flowers-golden blossoms predominat- ing-were banked here and there. The hostess, assisted by the Vice-Regent of the Chapter, Miss Caroline W. Coke, re- ceived the guests in the front drawing-room with charming grace. She wore a handsome creation of white chiffon, with train of black velvet, and trimmed with rare lace, an heirloom handed down in Mr. Matthew's family in Scotland for genera- tions, that had been the bridal veil of a relative in the long- ago-the Countess of Campbelldown. A feature of the even- ing was the tea party tableau-a table and several chairs of the Revolutionary period were arranged in the centre of the front drawing-room, around which sat and stood the members of the Penelope Barker Chapter, each in turn signing another document expressing the friendship and good-will of this province by the descendents of the Tea Party signers of the distant past. Mrs. Selby Harney, a descendant of Winifred Hoskins, acted as Secretary of the Tea Party of 1916. Telegrams of greeting, congratulations, and good wishes from Mrs. Cordelia Armstrong Raynor, President-General 182 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. Daughters of the Revolution; Mrs. Alfred Moore Waddell, President North Carolina Society of Colonial Dames; the North Carolina Society Sons of the Revolution, and Colonel and Mrs. Charles Earle Johnson, were read by Miss Hinton, as follows: NEW YORK, October 24, 1916. Mi88 Mary Hilliard Hinton: The President-General sends greetings to the North Carolina Society, Its Regent and members. Would like to be with the Pene- lope Barker Chapter. The report from North Carolina was inspiring last Monday. We are working for a great ideal: Liberty, Home, and Country. CORDELL A. RAYNOR. Mii8 M. H. Hinton, Regent of the North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution: WILMINGTON, N. C., October 24, 1916. The North Carolina Society Colonial Dames of America send greet- ing. May continued success attend your efforts to keep in remem- brance the glorious deeds of the past. G. WADDELL, President N. C. S. C. D. A. RALEIGH, N. C., October 24, 1916. Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, State Regent of the Daughters of the Rev- olution: The Society of Sons of the Revolution extends congratulations to the Daughters of the Revolution on this occasion of their annual meeting in the historic borough of Edenton, and wishes your organi- zation all the success which the patriotic labors of its members so richly deserve. MARSHALL DELANcY HAYWOOD, Sec'y. of the Sons of the Revolution. RALEIGH, N. C., October 24, 1916. Miss Hary Hilliard Hinton, State Regent D. R.: Mrs. Johnson and I wish to express to you, and through you to the Daughters of the Revolution, our appreciation of the noble work being done by your patriotic Society, and to voice our regret that we cannot be present with you today in person, as we are in spirit and in thought. CHAS. E. JOHNSON. The State Vice-Regent, Mrs. Marshall Williams, offered a resolution of thanks most gracefully expressed for the many courtesies extended by the local Chapter Daughters of the Revolution and citizens of Edenton: 183 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET "Scarcely had we arrived in historical Edenton before we realized that coupled with patriotism was unbounded hospi- tality. To the gentlemen of the Historical Society for the inter- esting and delightful boat ride, the joy experienced as we glided along that 'river of dreams,' reflecting and mirroring the beauties of lavish nature, is inexpressible. Then the cup of refreshing tea and delicious cakes served at the home of Mr. Frank Wood, Miss Carrie Coke, the Vice- Regent of the local Chapter being hostess, and allow us to re- peat our thanks for the recipe of the famous Penelope Barker tea cakes, useful souvenirs indeed. Welcome evening made us feel very much at home through the courtesy of your Regent, Mrs. Patrick Matthew, who greeted us in her own charming way and then a welcome from that prince of gentlemen, Dr. Dillard. Indeed we were en- tranced to feel ourselves seated in the House of Burgesses and hear the history of the famous judges who sojourned here. The exercises in St. Paul's Church were an inspiration, and we rejoice with the Edenton people in having Mr. Huske of New Berne to present the tablet. We were glad to see so many school children present to witness this eventful cere- mony. We enjoyed the address of Colonel Grimes when the Iredell tablet was unveiled and the acceptance by the silver tongued orator, Dr. Dillard. Of especial interest was our visit to the home of Mrs. Gordon. It was pleasant to visit the artistic and beautiful new Academy and again witness another tablet unveiled and ac- cepted by Mr. Pruden, Chairman of Trustees. Long to be remembered was the unveiling of the tablet at the court house to the women of the Edenton Tea Party, and Colonel Vann's tribute to womanhood and the acceptance by Mr. F. W. Hobbs, Clerk of the Court. The Society of the visiting Daughters is greatly indebted 184 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. to Mrs. Pruden and Mrs. John Wood for a real peep into the fireside and social life of the charming and cultured homes of Edenton-rich in rare and interesting relics. Our Society was honored by the presence of Colonel Olds, State Historian. Last, but by no means least, were our delightful moments spent in the Italian garden of the genial host, Dr. Dillard, where we walked with Milton in a Paradise and dreamed with Dante of Beatrice. All good things must end save one. Among the choice things of earth there is nothing so fair as memory; without it there would be no history, no friendship, no love of patriotic tradition. So we will take with us in memory's storehouse this de- lightful occasion, showered with intellectual gifts and gracious hospitality, and will count it another pearl in our rosary of grateful thoughts." Witty toasts by Mrs. Williams and Mrs. Matthew were given. Delicious refreshments in two courses with the cup of tea, brewed as nowhere else on this side of the Atlantic, were served. Miss iHinton and Mrs. Williams presided at the tea table. After reading a list of the achievements of the North Carolina Society Daughters of the Revolution, the Re- gent expressed, on behalf of the Society, appreciation of the cordiality and delightful hospitality of the Edentonians and good-nights were said. WHAT THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION HAS ACCOMPLISHED SINCE IT WAS FOUNDED, OCTOBER 19, 1896. Raised funds through the publication of the NORTH CARO- LINA BOOKLET to erect a bronze tablet, cast by Gorham and Company, to the memory of the fifty-one signers of the Eden- ton Tea Party, in the State Capitol at Raleigh, the first mem- morial to adorn that building, in October, 1908. Since May, 10, 1901, has published the NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET, an historical magazine, devoted to North Carolina 185 THE NORTIH CAROLINA BOOKLET History-"Great Events in North Carolina History." It has just entered upon the sixteenth volume. The editors and contributors have always served without remuneration. There is no capital stock, the periodical being run on faith, as it were, but more than five thousand dollars have been spent in publishing it and about a thousand dollars have been cleared, all made from the subscriptions and advertisements. More than three hundred articles have been contributed by one hundred and five writers, thirty-two of these being women. It goes to all the libraries of our greatest Universities and the great libraries of the country, and to many colleges. It has subscribers in twenty-eight States of the Union, Great Britain, and India. The site of the meeting of the Grand Albemarle Assembly, February 6, 1665, was located and marked by a handsome tablet, June 11, 1910, by the Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter of Elizabeth City. A marble tablet has been placed in the High School of Elizabeth City, containing a record of the great events in the history of Pasquotank County, the work of the Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter. A room bearing the name "Virginia Dare Room," in the hospital at Elizabeth City, has been furnished by the two Junior Chapters of that town-the Virginia Dare and Ensi- nore. On April 26, 1911, the Bloomsbury Chapter erected a tab- let and boulder to mark the location of the site of the old town of Bloomsbury, where our capital city now stands. On April 23, 1913, the Bloomsbury Chapter placed a bronze tablet on the City Municipal Building, to the memory of Colonel Joel Lane, who was instrumental in locating the capital at Raleigh. The set of one hundred and nine lantern slides, ninety-four of which are colored, and the lecture that accompanies them, "Stories From North Carolina History," is the work of the entire State Society. 186 PROCEEDINGS N. C. SO. D. R. The Penelope Barker Chapter, at Edenton, has erected the following tablets: A tablet on the exterior of St. Paul's Church. A tablet on the exterior of the court house. A bronze tablet on the east side of the court house, contain- ing the Tea Party Resolutions and the names of the fifty-one signers. A bronze tablet on the south side of the Edenton Academy, dedicated to its founders. A marble tablet in the interior of St. Paul's Church, dedi- cated to its vestrymen who signed the "Test" for American Independence. A marble tablet in the great brick chimney of Judge James Iredell's home. A complete map and key of St. Paul s churchyard have been made by the Penelope Barker Chapter and presented to the said Parish. Twenty-five gold medals have been presented in the public schools of North Carolina to pupils writing the best essays on some given historical subject, North Carolina history being selected. The North Carolina Society assisted in collecting, install- ing, taking care of, packing and recording the North Carolina Historical Exhibit at Jamestown Exposition in 1907. The Society has contributed liberally towards funds used in erecting monuments by the General Society at Valley Forge, Cambridge, Massachusetts, where General Washing- ton took command of the American Army under the historic elm on Cambridge Common, and the bronze tablet to the sea- men of the American Navy during the Revolution that was placed in Bancroft Hall, Annapolis, in May, 1910. Marking the grave of Sergeant Koen, of the Revolution, by the Sir Walter Raleigh Chapter. Placing a tombstone over the grave of General Isaac Greg- ory, in the Gregory burying ground at "Fairfax." -6 187 THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET Publishing the original historical papers of Miss Catherine Albertson, in a book entitled, "In Ancient Albemarle." The tablet erected by the Red Men, through the Penelope Barker Chapter, on the exterior of the court house, Eden- ton, N. C. Thursday morning was devoted to sight-seeing. The Cupola House, where Miss Bond requested the Daughters to register in the guest book that only contained the autographs of the Society of the Cincinnati when they visited this Colo- nial mansion, St. Paul's churchyard, and "Hayes" were visited. The grave of Penelope Barker, in the burying- ground at "hlayes," where she sleeps beside her husband, Thomas Barker, was strevwn with golden flowers by the Daughters. The delegates left at noon, oairying thb happiest recollec- tions of their Twentieth Annual Meeting, of the one-time cap- ital of North Carolina and h3r hospitable inhabitants, worthy inheritors of her glorious past and noble men and women. The officers of the Society are: Regent, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton; Vice-Regent, Mrs. Marshall Williams; Honorary Regents, Mrs. E. E. Moffitt and Mrs. T. K. Bruner; Record- ing Secretary, Mrs. L. E. Covington; Corresponding Secre- tary, Mrs. Paul H. Lee; Treasurer, Mrs. Charles Lee Smith; Registrar, Miss Sarah W. Ashe. 188 "Raleigh's Shopping Center" BOYLAN-PEARCE CO. RALEIGH'S LEADING DEPARTMENT STORE 30 COMPLETE STORES UNDER ONE ROOF 1111111111 SILKS, DRESS GOODS, DRY GOODS READY-TO-WEAR MILLINERY 1111111111 FLOOR COVERINGS 1111111111 RALEIGH. - - - NORTH CAROLINA BROCKWELL KEY COMPANY RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA We make all kinds of keys. Send sample by mail and we duplicate and return the same day. We are prepared to make any quantity--one o one thousand. Yale, Sargent, Cor-_ c bin, Lockwood, Norwalk, Rus- sell and Erwin, Branford, Eagle, Reading, Penn, and all other makes. A Big Factory for Makring and Duplicating Keys Right Here in North Carolina H. STEINMETZ, Florist RALEIGH, N. C. Beautiful Cut Flowers for all occasions. Exquisite Wedding Bouquets and Floral Designs. Palms, Ferns, and all other kinds of House and Out Door Bedding Plants. A large collection of HYACINTHS, TULIPS, DAFFODILS and Other Nice Bulbs for Fall Planting All orders given prompt and personal attention. Write for quotations "LINCOLN" By 0. W. BLACKNALL The members of Manly's Battery, Children of the Confederacy, in Raleigh, have in print another edition of the excellent pamphlet on "Lincoln," by 0. W. Blacknall. This work, contrasting the methods of the Union Armies in the South with those of the Germans in the present war, has received much praise from critics North and South on account of its historical and literary value, and should be read by every Southerner. Believing the information it contains much needed today, the mem- bers of the Battery offer this booklet for sale, at the lowest possible price-ten cents a copy-and ask that all persons interested in pre- serving and disseminating correct historical views will aid them by buying copies. Address, MANLY'S BATTERY, North Boylan Avenue, RALEIGH, N. C. RALEIGH'S LEADING AND LARGEST HOTEL 1111111111 EUROPEAN PLAN 111111111 Rooms 1.00 and 1.50 without bath; 1.50 to 3.00 with bath. Our Cafe is one of the best in the South. 1111111111 PRICES REASONABLE 1111111111 B. H. GRIFFIN HOTEL COMPANY, PEOPiEToBS We Furnish Your Home on Easy Payments 'You Take Our Goods-We Take Your Word" ROYALL BORDEN FURNITURE COMPANY 127 Fayetteville St. RALEIGH, N. C. Phone 266 RUBBER STAMPS A Necessity in Every Business. Write For Catalogue and Prices W. T. TERRY, The Stamp Man RALEIGH, N. C. BOX 132 WEATHERS RALEIGH. 121 E. FURNITURE N.C. Martin St. COMPANY "Everything for the Home' J. C. ELLINGTON Fine Pictures, Frames Art Novelties, Window Shades Embroidery Materials, Wools, Zephyr, Mirrors RALEIGH, N. C. WHERE TO GET BOOKS IN NORTH CAROLINA Alfred Williams Company RALEIGH, N. C. Supply whatever is to be had in Books ESTABLISHED 1867 Thos. H. Briggs Sons RALEIGH. N. C. 'Zhe J3ig Hardware Cen BUY KEEN KUTTER KNIVES Carolina Hardware Company RALEIGH, N. C. ' THE HOUSE OF QUALITY I LaFayette Cafe RALEIGH NORTH CAROLINA BRANTLEY'S DRUG STORE MASONIC TEMPLE BUILDING BEST ICE CREAM ,4gents for Whbiman's and Nords' Candies Thomas A. Parfin Company 131 Fayetteville Street RALEIGH, N. C Dry Goods, Ladies' Furn- ishinp and ACovelties Ladies' Tea Room Open September Ist to June Iet Established 1879 W. B. MANN CO. (INCORPORATED) GROCERIES No. 11 EAST HARG3ETT ST. RALEIGH. N. C. J. R. FERRALL CO. Groceries 222 FAYETTEVILLE ST. RALEIGH, N. C. I G ENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY, DAUGHTERS OF THE REVOLUTION Your Ancestry Can Be Carefully Traced The Colonial Records of North Carolina, Records of Different States and Counties, family papers, State histories and biographies, will be diligently examined for parties desiring to have their ancestry traced. Fee for Such Researches, 7.50 to 10.00 According to Difficulty of Research (Not less than 7.50 paid with order) Write for particulars, enclosing stamp for reply, to Miss SAhAH W. ASHE, Hillsboro St. MISS SOPHIE MANLY GBIMES, N. Wilmington St. (Genealogists for N. C. Society D. R.,) RALEIGH, N. C. COAT- OF-ARMS PAINTED Coats-of-Arms painted, decorated with helmet, lambre- quin, etc., and enclosed in passe partout, ranging from -------------------------------------------12.00 upwards Same style and size, but unframed, ranging from. --- 10.00 upwards A painted Coat-of-Arms, without helmet, lambrequin, etc., unframed, ranging from--------------------- 5.00 upwards India Ink drawing of Arms ___________-______-___-5 .00 Searches for Coats-of-Arms, including (if found) a small sketch of the arms------------------------- 8.00 Book plates designed. Write for particulars, enclosing stamp, Miss MLAY BILLIARD EINTON, "Midway Plantation," RALEIGH, NOBTH CAzorINA THE NORTH CAROLINA Historical Commission ESTABLISHED BY CHAPTER 767,PUBLIC LAWS OF 1903 AMENDED BY CHAPTER 714, PUBLIC LAWS OF 1907 PURPOSES (1) To collect, (2) to preserve, (3) to publish original sources of North Carolina History Your Co-operation Invited The Commission occupies the only modern, fireproof depository for historical records in North Carolina MEMBERS J. BRYAN GRIMES, Chairman-_RAxEIoH, N. C. W. J. PEELE- -------------RATEIGE, N. C. T. M. PITTMAN-----_--------HENDERSON, N. C. M. C. S. NOBLE-------------CHAPEL HiL, N. C. D. H. HILL - _----_----- RAuaIGH, N. C. SECRETARY R. D. W. CONNOR-------------- ------- RAT GH, N. C. Address all Communications to the Secretary DIAMONDS CLOCKS, SILVERWARE, CUT GLASS AND EVERYTHING PERTAINING TO JEWELRY SUITABLE FOR PRESENTS FOR ALL OCCASIONS. Jolly-Wynne Jewelry Company 128 FAyETTEIu SECT RALEIGH, N. C. King-Crowell Drug Company RALEIGH, N. C. Rexall Agency Huyler's Candy USE C1APDI E1 Sold 'most Everywhere For HEADACHES Also Good for Colds and Grippe It's Liquid--- Easy to Take-- Quick Relief IF YOU WILL SEND US A POSTAL and mention the North Carolina Booklet, we will send you Three Free Sample Copies of The Progressive Farmer The Progressive Farmer should be read by every North Carolina man or woman who owns or operates a farm, and every farm owner should see that all his tenants read it. "In increased production and valuation of farm and dock, the Progressive Farmer has made me THE PROGRESSIVE FARMER 1.00 to every Dollar I have paid for it, " says J RALEIGH, N. C. M. Parris, Jackson County. N. C. RLIH .C WATCHES Flowers To Suit You at All Times ROSES, CARNATIONS and all Seasonable Flowers 1111111111 Wedding and Funeral Flowers Orders Promptly Filled J. L. O'QUINN COMPANY FLORISTS RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA THE HUDSON-BELK CO. Raleigh's Only Big One Price Cash Store At all times has on display thousands of dollars worth of Bright New Dry Goods, Silks, Cotton Piece Goods, White Goods, Notions, Laces, Hosiery, Corsets, Ladies' Ready-to-Wear, consisting of Coat Suits, Coats, Dresses, Skirts, Shirt Waists, Muslin Underwear, Mil- linery, Mens' and Boys' Clothing, Shoes for Ladies, Men and Children, Mens' Furnishings, etc. You are always welcome to any of the Belk Stores, whether at Charlotte, Greensboro, Salisbury, Concord, Statesville, Gastonia, Waxhaw, Monroe, Rockingham, Sanford, Wilmington, Raleigh, N. C., or York, S. C. THE HUDSON-BELK COMPANY STORE IN COMMERCIAL BANK BUILDING PHONE 1166 DO NOT SEND ORDERS TO OTHER STATES-THE BEST CAN BE HAD IN RALEIGH Engraved Wedding Invitations Announcements Visiting Cards Correspondence Stationery Approved Styles-Finest Material The Only Completely Equipped Steel Die and Copperplate Engraving Plant in North Carolina. Special Attention Given Engraving of BOOK PLATES AND COATS OF ARMS Write for Samples and Prices Edwards Broughton Printing Company Printers, Publishers and Stationers Steel Die and Copperplate Engravers RALEIGH, N. C. Book Designers, Printers and Binders ALL DEPARTMENTS MANAGED BY ARTISTS IN THEIR LINE Booklets, Magazines Catalogues, Historical Pamphlets, etc. have uniform care Legible Type faces, Best Paper Stock, and Skilled Experience produce the best in Printing We can help you, and will be delighted to serve you Commercial Printing Company 115-117 South Salisbury St. RALEIGH, N. C.