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Bowling Green and Warren County, Ky., immigration society : a condensed, accurate, and fair description of the resources and development of the city and county. Bowling Green and Warren County Immigration Society (Bowling Green, Ky.) 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-143-29441768 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Bowling Green and Warren County, Ky., immigration society : a condensed, accurate, and fair description of the resources and development of the city and county. Bowling Green and Warren County Immigration Society (Bowling Green, Ky.) Park City Daily Times Print, Bowling Green, Ky. : 1885. 54 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1993. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN03847.02 KUK) Printing Master B92-143. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Bowling Green (Ky.) Description and travel. Warren County (Ky.) Description and travel. THE BOVVLI NG G3REIN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., l 3oci ty. A CONDENSED, ACCURATE, AND FAIR DESCRIPTION OF THE RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CITY AND COUNTY. OOMPILED AND PUBLISHED FOR THE INFORMATION OF THE GENERAL PUBLIO. BOWLING GREEN, KY.: PARK CITY DAILY TXoxzs PRINT. 1886. fnpli ratios Bowfiq4 4reta AIl N UfarrQp Jout5y (KENT UCKY) I MMIGRATIONSOCIETY COXPOSED OF Citizens of the City and County. N ON -SELCTARIAN, NON- POLITICAL, BUT Purely and Strictly Business. For information concerning any or all subjects embraced In this Pamphlet, address or' BOWLING OREEN, Dr. W. H. BLAKELEY, Swertry,3 WARREN 00., KY. T H E E3OXVLI NG GREEN ANV WARREN COUNTY, MMIGRATION S OCIETY. A CONDENSED, ACCURATE, AND FAIR DESCRIPTION OF THE RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT OF' THE CITY AND COUNTY. Compiled and Published for the Information of the General Public. BOWLING GREEN, KY.: PARK CITY DAILY TIMES PRINT. 1885. KY., I ELECTROTYPED BY THE COURIER-JOURNAL JOB PRINTING COMPANY LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY. 3OGJAlP AND USJGIOUL As the fountain, which bubbles up from the earth and flows out to cheer and bless, or embitter and destroy, gets its sweetness or bitterness from the soil through which it percolates, so the society of any place is determined as to its character by the substratum of individual lives out of which it flows. We have in Bowling Green twenty-one resident minis- ters of the Gospel, thirty-two lawyers, seventeen physicians, and forty- three school teachers. None of these are in a starving condition, but are appreciated by the community and have full opportunity to give character to the stream of our social life. With such a large number of intelligent men and women to mold the character of our youth and public opinion, our city can not but rank high in all that makes a community intelligent, moral and social. We have among us, also, a large number of earnest, upright, and intelligent artisans representing the many callings found among men. On the principle that "water seeks its level " and " birds of a feather flock together," all men, of whatsoever vocation in life, can find a flock of congenial spirits here with which to identify themselves socially, a little Bethesda pool in which each can find his or her level and be at rest. Of course, every community is more or less disturbed by the presence of a "criminal class," and none can expect that our sun can be free from such spots. But we have a well-regulated police force, whose chief is a Christian man, a member of one of our churches. The force is free from corruption, and there is no terror by night or pestilence walking in darkness. Gambling and selling liquor to minors, in fact, all of the many means employed by evil-disposed persons to entice into ways of sin and ruin are well watched and rigidly punished. The judges of our courts are selected for their moral firmness as well as legal acumen. So, we feel that we can rather boast of the intelligence, morality, and general Christian conservatism of our community. As to our different social circles, it can only be said that here true merit finds its reward. There are no artificial lines drawn among us. In all our churches the poor and the rich, the Northerner and the South- erner, may be found sitting side by side. The entrie to our firesides is BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., not gained by a gold ring or goodly apparel, but by moral worth and congeniality of spirit. There is no turning of the cold shoulder to a man because he is poor or from the North. In fact, all our people, coming out of the " late unpleasantness" more or less impoverished, appreciate fully the struggles of those who, in the spirit of true man- hood, are seeking to get on in the world. The Southern heart cherishes no malice. It knows but one definition of manhood, and that applies to the inward rather than the outward. We welcome all who come to be one with us, to live with us, to work with us, to rejoice with us, to weep with us, to love us. To all such, we bid a social welcome and a God-speed, to eat our bread and marry our daughters, if they can woo them successfully. There are twelve churches in Bowling Green. Eight of these are for the use of the whites and such colored people as desire to worship with them. The remaining four have been built principally by the whites for the colored people, and are owned and entirely controlled by the latter. The detailed facts concerning each of these different denominations, which have been furnished by officers of the various churches, combine to show that, of whatever religious persuasion a person may be, he can find a spiritual home among us. The following is a list of the churches owned by the whites, accompanied by a brief description of the Christian facilities afforded by each: BAPTIST CHUCH. The Baptist Church of Bowling Green was organized in i8I8, and is one of the oldest church organizations in our city. It has had a career of great usefulness, along with its share of the various kinds of difficulties which impede the progress of the Lord's work. Her mem- bership, consisting of more than three hundred and fifty, includes persons from the various classes of society; lawyers, doctors, teachers, merchants, mechanics, and laborers. The church is well organized and growing in efficiency. It supports a pastor for all his time. Services are held twice on Lord's day at the usual hour. There is also a " young people's prayer-meeting" on Sunday afternoon. The regular church prayer-meeting is held on Wednesday evening. The regular business meeting of the church is on the first Wednesday evening in each month. There is also maintained an efficient Sabbath-school, which meets at nine A. M. every Sabbath. Besides its superintendent and other officers, it has eighteen teachers. The school numbers more than two hundred and fifty, with an average attendance of about two hundred. The financial ability of the church is fully equal to all its demands. The member- 4 IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. ship generally are in sympathy with the various missionary enterprises, and quite a large proportion contribute regularly to these objects with- out the visit of any missionary agent. The church owns a comfortable and convenient parsonage, located on one of our best streets, five squares from the church building. The church building is situated on the west side of Main street, one block from the Public Square. It has a basement, containing one large and two small rooms, used for prayer-meetings and Sabbath-school. The main audience room is approached by a flight of fifteen stone steps, and has a seating capacity for four hundred and fifty to six hun- dred people. There is a baptistry under an elevated platform in the rear of the pulpit supplied from the city water-works. The members of this church will welcome to a share in her privi- leges and blessings all who may seek to become one with them in the hope of the Gospel. CUK33NEELAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. The Cumberland Presbyterian Church was organized August I2, 1866, with twenty-four communicants. Soon after the organization the "little flock," under the leadership of Rev. Jesse Grider, erected a neat, commodious, brick house of worship. During the past nine- teen years peace, harmony, brotherly-love, and patient labors have characterized this humble band. Her register now shows a member- ship of one hundred and eighty-five, and among these are not a few of Bowling Green's best men and women. In addition to this congregation in the town there are five others in Warren county. With open hearts and extended hands they will welcome to their quiet family circle all lovers of their Heavenly Father. METHODIST-EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The Methodist-Episcopal Church South is one of the oldest churches in Bowling Green. The church edifice is centrally located, being on State street one- half square from the Park. It is an old building which has, from time to time, undergone the process of remodeling until it presents quite a handsome appearance. The church is known in the Conference as a station, and therefore commands the entire services of a pastor. The membership numbers three hundred and six, counting among them many of the best people of the community, both in point of 5 BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., social standing and religious influence. They have a large and flourish- ing Sunday-school, well officered and equipped. Their congregations are large; and in addition to their regular Sunday service they hold a weekly class meeting Sunday afternoon at three o'clock, a young peo- ple's Bible reading Sunday at four iP. x., general prayer-meeting Wednesday night, a young people's meeting Thursday at four P. M., and a meeting for the promotion of holiness Friday night. EPISCOPAL CHURCH. A parish of the Protestant Episcopal Church was organized in Bowl- ing Green about forty years ago. Christ Church, the edifice now used, was erected in I 868. It is a neat and substantial brick building, in the Gothic style, and has a seating capacity of about three hundred per- sons. In the parish there are about forty-five communicants. The present rector is Rev. V. 0. Gee. The church Sabbath-school is held every Sabbath at nine A. 'M. CHRISTIAN CHURCH. The Christian Church of Bowling Green was organized in 1846, and built a house of worship in 1847. The church at present has a membership of about one hundred and thirty, with a good Sunday- school of about one hundred pupils. They have preaching every Sab- bath, and prayer-meeting every Thursday evening. Their house of worship is a neat brick building, worth about 5,ooo. The church is situated on Court street, two squares from the Court-house and about the same distance from the Public Square, in a nice and pleasant part of the city. FIRST PRESBYTERI CHURC. The First Presbyterian Church is almost as old as the century in which we live. Its old house of worship has passed away, and the congregation now occupies a handsome Gothic church, built of brick, with white stone trimmings, and stained-glass windows. It is situated on the corner of State and Court streets, one square distant respect- ively from Fountain Park and the Court-house. It is heated by a fur- nace and lighted with gas. It has a handsome pipe organ, and its pews, which are comfortably cushioned, are free to all. The officers of this church consist of a pastor, seven ruling elders, and ten deacons. The ruling elders are co-pastors with the minister, and to the deacons are entrusted the financial affairs of the church. Its membership, which has been twice depleted by the historical Pres- 6 IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. byterian divisions of I838 and I868, now numbers two hundred and sixty-five. The Sabbath-school is held in rooms fitted up especially for that purpose in the basement of the church. Besides a large assembly room, there are two commodious rooms devoted respectively to the infant and Bible classes. It is a morning school. In addition to the church build- ing, this congregation also owns a small parsonage and a chapel. At- tached to the church are societies for the promotion of Christian activ- ity and development. The Foreign Mission Society is divided into three sections, the division being according to the ages of the members. The Home Mission Society devotes itself to the general work of evan- gelization and the particular work of the home church. The ecclesiastical connection of this church is with what is popu- larly known as the Southern Assembly; yet, it knows no North or South, East or West, but will welcome to its fellowship all who love the Lord Jesus and the faith handed down by the saints. SECOND PRESBYTERIAN. Though the youngest of our churches, having been organized in z868, this church has become an efficient worker in the Lord's vine- yard. It owns a neat and tasteful building, distant only two blocks, north, from the Square. It has a membership of about eighty, and a very flourishing Sabbath-school of one hundred and forty pupils. There are two societies in the church: The Ladies' Aid Society and the Young People's Society. This church is connected with the Northern Presbyterian Assembly. While denominational it is yet not sectarian in its character, but extends open hands and loving hearts to the stranger within its gates. ROXAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. The formation of St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church dates from the beginning of i859. The Rev. Jos. de Vries, who is still its pastor, commenced the erection of the church in that same year, but it was only completed in i862 in consequence of interruptions caused by the war. The congregation has kept pace with the growth of our young city, and soon the first church, no longer sufficiently capacious to hold its members, gave way to a new structure of greater capacity and ele- gance. The new church, built in the beautiful Romanesque style, has a dimension of 125x6o feet, and is ornamented with a graceful spire upwards of one hundred and forty feet in height. 7 BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., Connected with the church there was established in 1863 the St. Columbia's Academy, conducted by the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, which is one of the most flourishing branches of that widely-known community. The number of Catholics in Bowling Green is estimated at between five hundred and six hundred. Attached to the parish are various societies for mutual support and advancement, among which may be mentioned: The St. Joseph's Benevolent Society, The Catholic Knights of America, the Altar Society, and a flourishing young ladies' Sodality. COLORED CHURCH3S. FIRST COLORED BAPriST CHURCH.-This church was organized prior to emancipation, and is among one of the largest colored churches in the State. The present building was erected in 1873, the size of the building being 6oxioo feet. The present membership is seven hun- dred. The property of the church is valued at io,ooo. The church has preaching every Sunday, prayer-meeting every Tuesday and Thurs- day nights. The Sunday-school numbers two hundred scholars. The church is situated on State and Monroe streets. It is under the pastoral charge of Rev. Eugene Evans, and is out of debt. AFRICAN M. E. CHURCH.-This church was organized in 1870, and now numbers about two hundred and ten members. It is situated on Shelby, between Green and Summer streets, in a well-constructed brick building, 5ox9o feet, having an auditorium seating a congregation of six hundred persons. The property is valued at io,ooo. Regular services are held every Sabbath at the usual hour. Sunday-school at half-past nine in the morning. THE CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH was organized about the year 1872. The house now occupied is a handsome brick, 35x55 feet, situated on Summer street, one and one-half blocks from the Public Square, south.- There is a modest little parsonage on the lot, all of which is worth about 3,000. It now has a membership of one hun- dred and thirty, a Sabbath-school numbering sixty. Preaching and Sabbath-school every Sabbath, and prayer-meeting every Thursday evening. Gas lights to and in the church. Singing by a well-trained choir. Persons visiting the city will always find a welcome. The church is under the charge of Rev. H. A. Gibson. 8 IMMIG;RATION SOCIETY. CDLUGAPLfONAPL ]LDY.PJ72,PGs . The welfare of a city or community is indissolubly linked with its commercial and educational advantages. The time was, when educa- tional matters did not possess the importance in the South which now attaches to them. The lethargy which enthralled the public mind on this subject has given away to a full realization of its importance. Public-spirited enterprise has removed old barriers in the road of progress, and a new era dawns upon us, redolent with the brightest anticipations. The old regime has been buried in the same grave with political distinctions. Progress infuses zeal and enterprise, where lethargy for generations had placed its paralyzing hand. The spirit of intolerance has vanished with the dawn of a more progressive era, and we confidently look forward to the time when all barriers in the road of our material and educational prosperity will have been removed. To the parents who are about to seek new homes, a question for first consideration is, what are the educational facilities of a given place If these are inferior, it is generally the case that some other point is sought, even though it may be at decided disadvantages in other respects. And this is as it should be, for there is no question of more vital importance to parents than the one of the mental training of their children. It is this point which, in the vast majority of cases, decides their destiny. This is an age of education. An age that demands educated minds in all the departments of labor. That person who enters the arena of active life, uneducated, is placed at a very great disadvantage, whatever his vocation may be. It is the realization of the necessity of a liberal system of education that has inspired the citizens of Bowling Green to institute the system of education which she now possesses. This system is broad and com- prehensive, and reflects the highest honor upon the liberality and enterprise of her citizens. Our graded schools were organized in January, 1883. They have been successful in an eminent degree, and now stand foremost among our most cherished enterprises. They have been frequently visited by educators of distinction, and are pronounced the best system in the South, and the equal of the very best in the North. The teachers of the various departments are employed with a view to their peculiar . 9 BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., fitness tor the work; they receive liberal salaries, consequently our system of education is not permitted to languish by reason of the efforts to run it upon a false and dangerous idea of economy. One peculiar feature attaches to our schools, which is to make them a desirable place to be in. All things proper are done to draw the children to their work, and to inspire them with that love for it which is inseparable with their success. So successful have we been in this respect, that the percentage of absence has been extremely small, which is an excellent indication as to the healthful and satisfactory condition of the schools. OUR WHITR SCHOOL BUILDING Has a seating capacity of eight hundred, and is a model of architectural beauty and convenience. It has been constructed after the most approved plans, the comfort and health of pupils being paramount considerations. The heating and ventilation, points of such very great importance in public buildings, are as perfect as can be found in any building of its class. In fact, the entire arrangement and construction of the building is first-class in every regard, and is a just pride to our city. THE COLORED SCHOOL BUILDING, Situated in the eastern part of the city, has a seating capacity of four hundred. The building is a new and very substantial structure, and, in the matter of architectural arrangement and comfort, is the counter- part of the white school building. These buildings are both brick and were erected and furnished at a cost of 30, 000. The white and colored schools are under the same management, having the same course and methods of instruction. It is impossible for one to observe the facilities that are here offered for the education and elevation of the colored people, without admiring the liberality of those who were the instrumentalities in its accomplishment. It opens to the colored people a new era, replete with bright anticipations, and places before them possibilities for their race to which they have here- tofore been unknown. There has been prevalent throughout the North the opinion that there is a spirit of intolerance in the South which will not affiliate with those from the North, and which, if true, would necessarily seriously interfere with immigration from the Northern States. This is certainly an erroneous idea, and were it true of some parts of the South, it is IO IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. certainly not true of Bowling Green. The writer is a native of Ohio, and has been a resident of Kentucky for nine years. Her citizens are ever ready to extend the hand of friendship and of welcome to whom- soever may choose to cast their lots among them, the only require- ments being honest hearts and willing hands. The public schools, as the name implies, are free to all resident pupils, either white or colored. The course of instruction is thorough and comprises all the English branches, so that a pupil, who has finished the course of the public schools, has obtained an education without money and without price, save that of industry, fitting him for any station in life. From the graded schools we pass to the consideration of Ogden College, a liberally-endowed institution, which is also free to all resi- dent pupils. This institution was endowed by the late Robert Ogden, and it is through his liberality that the children of Bowling Green and Warren county are enabled to secure a thorough collegiate education without cost. The course of instruction is thorough, and the corps of professors is composed of men eminent in their respective departments. The college building is finely located, and the appointments of the institution are all that could be desired by the most exacting. The Board of Directors are men who have at heart the success of the col- lege, and their management of its interests is a sufficient guaranty that the Welfare and progress of pupils entrusted to their care will receive the most faithful consideration. Aside from these institutions, we have the Normal School and Bus- iness College, which is the largest and most flourishing institution of its class in the South. This institution was established in I875 by Professor A. W. Mell, and later Professor J. T. Williams became one of the proprietors, under whose control it is at the present time. During the ten years of its existence it has steadily increased in patronage and prosperity, and its enrollment for the present year is near five hundred. It has in its enrollment representatives from all the Southern States, and some from the North, and its reputation is in the ascendant, with exceedingly encouraging prospects for the future. The school embraces the following separate and distinct depart- ments, viz: Collegiate, including the department for the preparation of teachers, scientific, elocution, and classic courses. Business, includ- ing commercial, engineering, telegraphy, shorthand, type-writing, etc. The best talent is employed in the various departments, and the proficiency and thoroughness of the school are such that we can confi- I I BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., dently recommend it to the consideration of those who may wish for instruction in any of its various departments. The Catholic schools of this city are in a flourishing condition, the teachers able, the buildings commodious and comfortable, and an air of prosperity in their surroundings which argues well for their contin- ued success. The Bowling Green Institute, under the auspices of the Colored Presbyterian Church, and of which Rev. H. A. Gibson is President of the Board of Education, is in a flourishing and prosperous condition, it having been established a little over a year, and has over seventy-five students, with fine prospects of doubling the number at the coming session. Having thus passed in review the various educational institutions of our city, we think, in all candor, we can boast superior advantages, and we can not suppress the expression of a just pride in the excellence of our educational advantages. They are the outgrowth of a public sentiment and enterprise that are entitled to recognition. They are open for the inspection of the most scrutinizing. We invite you to share with us the beneficent influences which they are shedding upon our city, and share with us in the honor of their continuation and prosperity. MUSICAL ADVANTAGNB. Bowling Green, with its extraordinary educational facilities, has not failed in its encouragement of the study of music. In the midst of all the beauties with which the lavish hand of nature could surround an intelligent and sympathetic community, its citizens have responded heartily and generously to foster and encourage that art, which goes so far to make home happy, beautiful, and refined. Hence, almost every residence contains a piano, organ, or some other musical instrument; and no stranger can take a stroll through the city but his attention will be drawn to the harmonious strains of music, with which the air seems to be laden. Two factors have been silently but industriously at work to bring about this happy condition. Public opinion has set its seal of approval on anything that tends to enlarge this art of arts; and very many pri- vate citizens, whose culture and refinement shed a soft luster around our domestic and social circles, lend their encouragement not only, but their purse as well, to advance its study either as an accomplishment or an art. No wonder, then, that the lady or gentleman visitor, endowed with musical talent or accomplishment, is at once received in our best families as an honored and welcome guest. I 2 IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. 13 It is not strange, then, that under these conditions our facilities for an excellent musical education are unsurpassed. There are several excellent private music teachers; every school, and the public school is no exception to this, has its musical department; and a school of music, called the Conservatory of Music, has been established, and is in suc- cessful operation. Several teachers are employed in this institution, who, under the guidance of its director, employ their time and talents in teaching all the branches of vocal and instrumental music, as well as theory, harmony, counterpoint, and composition. The charges made by this institution, as well as those of the other schools and private teach- ers, will compare most favorably with those of the cities of the North and East, while they are much lower than those of any city south of the Ohio river. Another advantage Bowling Green possesses lies in the fact that this is the headquarters of the Third Regiment Band, Kentucky State Guard. No other city in the State of Kentucky can boast of such an honor, as no other regiment in the State has shown so much liberality or culture to organize and sustain a band. This band frequently gives open-air concerts in the park, to the enjoyment of all citizens. A tg PSCO 2CWI2 CA GAR'Ee Ky. iSETtNf.APA t O INIMIURATION SOCIETY. POW sfJ GPAJJSy. In ante-bellum days Warren county was a great stronghold of the old Whig party, and the principles advocated by Henry Clay had no more loyal adherents than the followers of the Great Commoner in this county. Educated and nurtured in the doctrines peculiar to the slave- holding States, and entertaining decided convictions concerning what was believed to be their constitutional rights, the people of this county, like those of every portion of the Commonwealth, were loyal to their convictions, and bravely contended for the rights which they had been educated to believe were guaranteed to them under the Federal Con- stitution. When the vexed question of slavery had baffled the minds of the leaders of the people, and the arbitrament of civil war was invoked to decide whether or not this Union of States was to remain one-half free and one-half slave, the cause of the Union and of freedom found no more ardent supporters than were numbered among the old Whigs of Warren county. What tended to swerve them finally into the ranks of their oppo- nents it is unnecessary here to state; but candor compels the statement that, in loyalty to the Union and submission to the results of the civil war that swept away at once their property and political institutions, there is no community within the confines of the nation that excels this people in their patriotic devotion to their country. As an index of the character of the men who molded public opin- ion and were leaders of thought in this section during the stormy days of slavery, it may be stated that Warren county furnished the only representative in the Unitpd States Congress from south of Mason and Dixon's line who voted for the famous Wilmot Proviso; Henry Grider was the representative of this people in the House of Representatives at the time the measure was being discussed, and of all his colleagues from the slave States he stood alone in its defense, and faithfully repre- sented his constituency. The same spirit that controlled Mr. Grider animated the leaders of thought in this section, and it has never ceased to be the controlling element in the politcs of this community. Probably, the greatest and most harmful drawback from which this favored section has suffered is the misrepresentations of partisan dem- is BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., agogues, and a sensational and unscrupulous partisan press of the political condition of all classes in the late slave-holding States. The public mind has been poisoned, and immigration, that otherwise would have sought our great natural advantages and flourished, has been turned from us, to its detriment and our loss. From the day that the lightning and thunder of a bloody war forever sealed the doctrines of secession and States' rights as enunciated by John C. Calhoun and his school of statesmen, there has not been an hour when all citizens of Warren county were not as free to exercise every right of citizenship as they would have been in the most favored locality in the Union. The writer of this is a Northern man, and entertains political con- victions directly opposed to those entertained by the dominant party in Kentucky politics, and after ten years' residence among these people, during which time he has taken an active part in three exciting presi- dential elections, truth compels the statement that political action is as free in Kentucky as he has ever seen it in his native State of Ohio. In political privileges and social intercourse, the writer can testify to the generosity of the people of Warren county, and what is his experience is also the experience of scores of other Northern men who have for years enjoyed the confidence and respect of the people here, although politically opposed to them in thought, speech, and action. It is true that here, as elsewhere, politics often assume a white heat in hotly-contested campaigns, and contending parties strain every nerve to avert defeat; but never within the knowledge of this writer has any man been deprived of perfect liberty in the exercise of his political rights. Political parties are essential to good government in every well-ordered republic, but they are the means, not the ends, by which the rights and liberties of the people are preserved, and an honest administration of public affairs guaranteed. While this continues a government of the people, by the people, and for the people, there will exist, at least,.two political parties enter- taining opposite views concerning questions of public policy, and in Kentucky, as elsewhere, will be found zealous adherents of each con- tending force. While the contest may be sharp, and often bitter, the character of the people is a guarantee that every man will receive the full protection of the law in the exercise of his rights, and the com- mendations of his neighbors for a rigid adherence to principle and con- victions of right. Perhaps the most fitting close for these declarations may be found in the words of a prominent Southern leader who, in a public address recently, said: i6 0 A N! M 4, w'i , ,v m i IIi liiV I 11 11 I im- - BOWVLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., "W N\ithout abating one jot or tittle of loyal devotion to the memory of our Confederate dead, we can here, in the presence of their graves, turn our eyes to heaven and exclaim: 'Thank God! slavery, that material curse and moral incubus, has been lifted from our land. Thank God ! that black cloud has vanished from our sky. Yes, even though it could spend its fury only in the lightning and thunder of war.' "No State will ever again resort to secession from the Union as a remedy for wrongs, present or prospective. That much is settled for- ever. .Mr. Webster's prayer is answered, for the sun will never again shine upon the broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious Union, upon States discordant, dissevered, belligerent." These thoughts represent truthfully the Southern mind, and it is to be hoped that ere long the passion and prejudices engendered by the half-century of strife, culminating in civil war, will be thoroughly and finally eradicated from the minds and hearts of the opposing sections, and the nation be what in truth it ought to be, a nation of prosperous, contented, and happy people, with a unity of purpose and at peace with all the world. Let not fears of political interference or social ostracism keep any man from seeking a home among the people who send out this pamphlet as an invitation to good citizens of every class to come and join hands in the development of the great resources of this favored section. Not only is perfect freedom guaranteed, but a hearty welcome is assured to all who are worthy. IS IMMIGRATION So)CI;1 Y. There is no agency (;f modern times that has done more for the upbuilding and general prosperity of the country at large than the press; therefore, in the preparation of a work of this kind, it is proper and right that something should be written on this subject. There is probably no place in the South where the press has made a greater effort to assist in the advancement and material prosperity of its section than have the papers of Bowling Green. They have liber- ally, sensibly, and earnestly advocated the establishment of manufact- uring enterprises, and have always shown a deep and commendable interest in the development of the resources of our city, our county, and our State. To their efforts is largely due the success of many enter- prises that have been carried to a successful termination; prominent among these may be mentioned the splendid system of turnpikes, per- meating every section of the county; the excellent system of public schools that adorn and ornament our city; the large and flourishing normal school; the splendid live-stock, mechanical, and agricultural fair, and other meritorious enterprises in which all of us take a just pride and feel a deep interest. The city, with a population of ten thousand inhabitants, and the county, with about thirty thousand, have three successful newspa- pers, one of which, a weekly, has been in successful operation for the past twenty years; one, a Sunday morning paper; and the other a daily, with a weekly edition also, which is counted as one of the en- terprises of the city, built up during the last three years. All these papers, which are read extensively throughout the southern portion of the State, are live and active, and potent factors in the matter of local concern, as well as of public interest, and will cheerfully and actively lend their aid to the successful advertisement and to the introduction to the people of any worthy enterprise that may find location in the city or county. BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., GlOSsOGGAL fOfMAZJON. Warren county lies in Southern Kentucky, about twenty miles from the Tennessee line; the thirty-seventh parallel of North latitude passes through Bowling Green, its county-seat. Its greatest length from east to west is thirty-five miles-breadth from north to south, thirty miles, an average of twenty-five miles square equals six hundred and twenty- five square miles, or about four hundred thousand acres. Its population in I88o was about thirty thousand, or one person for fourteen acres. It is somewhat smaller, but in many respects resem- bles the county of Derby, in England. The geological formation is about the same, and, of course, has the same kind of soil. But Derby has four hundred thousand inhabitants, or one person to every one and one-half acres; at this rate, Warren county would have two hundred thousand inhabitants. Warren county has two thousand five hundred and ninety-four farms with an average of one hundred and thirty-two acres. Derby has twenty thousand farms containing less than one acre. TOPOGRAPHY. The natural features are much diversified, the average elevation being about six hundred feet above sea level. Its southern and middle portions are level, or gently undulating-the northern part hilly and broken. It is drained by the Green river (which forms a part of its northern boundary) and its tributaries. Its principal branch, the Big Barren, divides the county almost equally, running through it in a western direction. It also contains Gasper river, Drak-'s creek, Tram- mel's fork, Bay's fork, Middle fork, Ray's branch, etc. In the southern and middle portions there are no surface streams less than fifty feet wide, the drainage being through underground chan- nels; the surface is covered with cup-shaped depressions called sink- holes which were once open; but many are now closed, forming beau- tiful lakes and ponds. CLIMATE. Lying as we do, neither North nor South, our climate is, of neces- sity, somewhat varied, to produce an active and hearty class of people, free from the disastrous effects of the enervating heat of the South and 20 IMI\ll ;It )N- S(lOCITY. 2 chilling blasts of the North and West, just in the geographical center of that region which the records of the late war have shown to produce the tallest and the stoutest men on the globe. From carefully-recorded observations it is found that the mean annual temperature is 5 7 ; rainfall, about 46 inches; prevailing winds, south and south-west. GEOLOGY. We have represented in this region only the subcarboniferous rocks or mountain limestone, in the following divisions: I Chester . . . 250 feet SUBCARBONIFEROUS .............. St. Louis.. 5oo feet Keokuk . Doubtful All the eastern and south-eastern part of the county is underlaid by St. Louis or cavernous limestone, a thick-bedded homogeneous stone with conchoidal fracture, in places very fossiliferous and sometimes earthy in appearance. Its massiveness and the thickness of its beds, sometimes as much as twenty-three feet, render possible such gigantic excavations as the Mammoth Cave, and innumerable caves found throughout its entire extent. It contains, besides marls, clays, and flag- ging, the finest building stone in the world. The soil and red clay subsoil, produced by its disintegration,are second to none on-the continent, in the variety and amount of their productions. The total thickness of this limestone (says Mr. Moore in his report upon the geology of Edmonson) has never been accurately determined in a boring of eight hundred and four feet-the last five hundred and thirty-four feet were supposed to be St. Louis, and a well five hundred and twenty feet in Bowling Green has failed to reach its base. The presence of this formation may always be recognized by the level lands or rounded hills and red clay soil, the presence of cedars on its exposed slopes, and, while not producing picturesque scenery, it is very pleasing to the eye, particularly to the eye of the farmer and stock-raiser. In the vicinity of Bowling Green, these beds of St. Louis limestone (so called because St. Louis is built on this formation) run from two hundred and fifty to three hundred feet above the city; and the distant hills, forming the background of the exquisite scenery surrounding the city, are capped with a hard and durable sandstone, which gives the sharp and distinct outline so characteristic of sandstone formations. The lower half of the St. Louis, which crosses much of the eastern and southern portions of the county, is characterized by much silicious rock, in the shape of buhr-stones, as the natives call it, principally of organic origin, composed of coral. There seems to have been, in geological 2 1 1;' ,wi,1N1, (HRELN AND WARREN' COUNTY, KX., mesmeM, an ancient coral reef extending over much of this portion of the country-when the sea was shallow, and clear. Most of the lime has leached out of this rock, leaving the silica; and it is well known that it forms, when the rocks are not too abundant, out of the he.t wheat lands, much of the silica being needed for the outside glaze, which supports the straw, thereby preventing the falling-which so often occurs on those lands that are deficient in the soluble silicates. These cheety rocks are so abundant in some sections as to be used for building stone fences; this is particularly the case in that region lying between Smith's Grove and Barren river. The country is usually more or less broken, with irregular, rounded hills, and cup-shaped de- pressions, though ponds are not so numerous, the porous nature of the soil and rock enabling the water to escape rapidly. In many places there are beds of light gray and dove-colored marls, containing the necessary composition for restoring worn-out limestone soil, for the marls are simply the sediment mud which was deposited by a perfectly calm, but muddy, sea. When the thin beds of limestone are exposed on the hillside and higher valleys, and wherever the black walnut grows, there bluegrass flourishes, and is but little inferior to that grown upon the best lower silurian limestone, which is the home of the bluegrass. CHESTER GROUP. Lying immediately above the St. Louis, we find a series of irregular sandstones, shales, limestones, and marls, varying greatly in thickness and structure-therefore, much subject to destructive erosion, giving rise to the hilly, broken country lying in the north and north-western portions of the county. This formation apparently marks a period of rapidly-changing geological conditions, altogether different from the calm and quiet that must have reigned over this part of the primeval world during the deposition of the St. Louis rocks. This was introductory to the coal measures, that time of shifting seas and sands; for several thin beds of coal are formed in the Chester. Of this group Dr. Owen says: "Descending from the conglomerate and millstone grit to the main body of the subcarboniferous limestone of the barrens of Kentucky, we pass alternation's of sandstone, lime- stone, and marly shales, forming what may be denominated a transition- series, marking the passage from the termination of this great calcare- ous formation to the sandstone of the millstone grit. During this in- terval the prevailing sediment was sand, with occasional intercollations of calcareous beds which, for the most part, are more or less earthy, cl, 1'()WLIN'; GREEN AN-) WARREN C(UNTY, KY., and marked by an interesting assembly of the fossil remains of ancient marine life, in which delicate, reticulated corniferous corals greatly predom nated." There also occurs in this group a great quantity of a soft gray, greenish, purple, and reddish shale or marl, known in the geological report as " Leitchfield marl," an analysis of which shows that it may prove very valuable as a fertilizer; it is also coming into notice in con- nection with the manufacture of Portland cement. Some of these marl beds are said to contain excellent potters' clay. A very pure form of silicate. of alumina has been found in the northern portion of this county, from which a superior quality of alum may be made. The broken part of the county, with its rugged hills, fertile valleys, clear streams of freestone wvater, its grassy slopes-just the place for sheep walks-its magnificent fruits, its building stone and flagging stones, both sand and lime, together with its timber, must, at no distant day, attract the eye of the stock-raiser, the grape-raiser and fruit- grower, and the architect and engineer. In speaking of the timber grown in this formation, on and near Green river, Professor Shaler says: " Again and again I have seen, in a few dozen acres of tobacco clearing, enough noble ship-timber going to utter waste, by fire or decay, to have built a dozen large merchant- men." There are thousands of acres of just such land in the county, which, he says, " are worth one hundred dollars per acre for their timber alone." He further says: "The hardwood timber of this section is a more immediate and satisfactory source of wealth than its coal or its iron. It takes less capital to develop an industry in it, and the competition will be far less considerable. At the same time, the class of population it attracts, and the variety of industry that it brings in its train, are superior to all other forms of manufacturing." Here we find among the hardwoods the white oak which attains an enormous size, especially along Green river and the small streams emptying into the same, also the burr oak, swamp oak, many of them eighty feet high and three feet through. Much of this timber has been used for years for making the French wine casks; for over thirty years it has been shipped to France via New Orleans. Such timber needs no recommendation. Spanish oak is also plentiful and is valuable for wagon hubs and-spoke and-other things,- being scarcely inferior to white oak; besides, its bark is extensively used in tanning. Chestnut oak is abundant also in this section, and in addition there are splendid groves of the most magnificent beech trees, in some cases running up to forty or fifty feet without a branch, and three feet in diameter, three feet from the ground. There are also hickory, 24 IMMIGRATION SOCIETY 2 white elm, mulberry, sassafras, chestnut, the last so valuable for fence- posts. Among the turning-woods we have elm (Ulnus Alota), a fine, white grained wood, the dogwood (Cornus Florida), buckeye, and some holly. The dogwood is especially abundant, and of good size; the wood is very hard and compact when seasoned, and useful for every kind of turned wood requiring fineness of grain and hardness. For work requiring soft, white wood, we have the elm, the holly, buckeye, and many others, such as white maple, linn, and all in considerable quantities. Warren county has between one hundred and fifty thousand and two hundred thousand acres of timber, containing some of the finest and most valuable timber knowvn; it has been said it will be found that the wealth of these forests, and the natural productions of the soil, will be a matter not insignificant even when compared with its mineral wealth. This timber is not to be regarded as treasured up wealth to be preserved and held sacred, and its removal to be deplored, but rather as wealth wasting as capital lying idle and unproductive. Trees have their period of life, their time of death. Go through the broad forests and see how the giants of vegetation are falling into decay; how, creaking and dismantled by the storm, they are moldering away prone upon the earth. When any tree is full grown it should be removed and place given to others striving to exist under its shade. A wise use of the woodman's ax is not to be deplored; it may be a saving, as well as a wasting, agent. BUILDING STONE. Toward the upper part of the St. Louis is found the oolitic, or fish-roe, limestone. In this county it is wonderfully developed, ex- tending along the line of the Louisville Nashville railroad for a distance of fifteen miles or more. within sight, and at no place more than five miles away. The quantity of material is practically inexhaustible, embracing an area fifteen miles long and averaging six miles wide, containing not less than ten thousand acres of workable stone, at least ten feet thick. The Portland quarries of England, one hundred in number, with the same class of stone, work two acres annually, or about twenty-five thousand cubic yards, worth at the quarry 7.00 per yard. Ours is worth 6.75 at the quarry. There are at present two quarries in operation, one five miles from the railroad, the other one and one-fourth miles; both have branch roads to them. Thus far, no effort has been made to advertise or introduce this stone into the trade, probably for the good and 2 5 6I:OWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNI'Y, KY., sufficient reason that the proprietors can readily dispose of all the stone they can handle. But it must be worked, it will come into notice, and the valUe and importance can not be concealed much longer. This oolitic building stone or marble, was noticed in the first Ken- tucky Report. Dr. Owen says: " It is capable of receiving a good polish and producing a white or cream-colored marble of considerable beauty." It also produces a remarkably white lime that commands ten cents per bushel roore than the lime from the association rock. The roe structured limestones seem to have been formed in eddies, when the water circled in spiral or funnel-shaped currents, which kept particles of fine sand revolving in such a manner that they acquired concentric coatings, until having attained the size of fish-roe, their gravity being sufficient to overcome the power of suspension of the rotary currents, they sunk to the bottom. The most substantial buildings in England to-day, those which have best resisted the eroding tooth of time, such as St. Paul's Cathedral, Goldsmith's Hall, Reform Club House, and various public buildings in London, and many buildings in Queen Anne's time, one hundred and eighty-five years ago, are made of a similar stone, known as the Port- land limestone, which comes from the south of England, where it has been worked for centuries. The thickest beds do not exceed six feet, while ours are twenty feet and over. The Island of Portland, or the peninsula forming a part of the county of Dorset, is one hundred and twenty miles south-west from London by rail and about three hundred and fifty miles by water. It contains about four square miles. The annual consumption of the whole of the quarries in 1875 was equal to an area of two acres of good workable stone, or about twenty-five thousand cubic yards; the entire area unworked is less than two thou- sand acres, and its famous quarries are about one hundred in number. They are crowned property, and except where stone is taken for Gov- ernment purposes they are leased to various firms who pay a royalty of so much per ton. This stone is worth about io.oo per cubic yard at the quarry, and 14.00 per yard in London. BUILDINGS OF POUTLAND LIMESTONE. St. Paul's Cathedral was finished in I700. The building generally is in good condition; the carvings of flowers and fruits are nearly as perfect as when first executed. Well's Cathedral and Chapter House (thirteenth century) are in excellent condition; Windoush church (fifteenth century) is splendidly preserved, exhibiting its original tool marks. 26 INEMIGRATIO'N SOCIFTV. 2 SOIL. It is well known that with a single exception all of our soils have their origin in the decay of rock, the quality of the rock determining the nature of the soil; limestone gives a calcareous or loamy soil, sandstone gives a sandy soil; hence, knowing the rock formation of a country and how the land lies, its climate and rainfall, a person can very correctly tell its agricultural value. By glancing at the rocks on the exposed hillsides at the end of winter, one will notice the rounded corners, the water-worn pebbles of our streams, the mass of splintered rock found at the foot of cliffs- all these things show the disintegrating action of the air and water. Geologists say that our hills are being carried to the valleys and ocean beds at the rate of about one foot for every six thousand years. Soils are constantly shifting, and it is a fact that our limestones have existed as rock many times before-have been ground up and reformed again as a sediment from the ocean. If such is not the case, how shall we account for the vast amount of red clay in our soil The lime- stone does not produce it, for itcontains a very small portion of clay, not more than three per cent. Hence, the clay must come from the old rocks. The soils of Warren county may Ltc naturally divided into three classes: First-Alluvial or river bottoms. Second-Calcareous, formed from disintegrating limestone. Third-Silicious, formed from disintegrating sandstone. Alluvial soil is found in the valleys and on the borders of rivers and creeks. It is formed of washing and waste from the hills, and its nature and value depend greatly upon the rock composing the high- lands. It is, in fact, the cream of the surrounding lands, and is always very productive, the thickness of the soil permitting the same crop to be raised for years in succession without a sensible diminution of fertility. Calareous soils constitute at least three-fourths of the county, and exist wherever limestones are found; they are the most fertile soils in the world, producing splendid crops of corn, wheat, oats, grass, and tobacco. They are second only to -the soils formed from the lower silurian or bluegrass limestones of Fayette and Bourbon counties, and are for some crops superior to these. Such soil is strong, fertile, dura- ble, and capable of self repair. It is warm, mellow, and easily cultivated. Much of this is due, says Dr. Sofford, to its being tem- pered with fine gravel and silicious grains of crumbling schist. This 2 7 28 VOWLIN( (GREEN AND WARREN COUNTV, KY., is particularly the case in the southern and eastern parts of the county, where this schist is very abundant, and goes by the name of buhr-stone, because in some places, where found in large masses, it has been used as buhr or millstones. When first broken this soil is brownish in color, but on exposure to the air it soon becomes red, owing to the oxidation of the iron present and from the' admixture of the red clay subsoil, which universally underlies it, resting immediately upon the limestone. Dr. Sofford says: " The rocks underlying the red clay soil belong to the St. Louis group. They are generally pale fossiliferous lime- stones containing schisty layers or nodules. By disintegration and decay these rocks supply, more or less abundantly, masses of leached, spongy schist (containing fossil corals) which are scattered over the sur- face and through the earthy matter below, becoming, indeed, everywhere characteristic of this soil area. The red color of the subsoil is due to the iron oxide liberated by the half-way decay of the schist layers or flints, which originally formed a part of the limestones and contained the iron. " These soils are characterized also by the hopper-shaped de- pressions known as sinkholes, which communicate with caverns below, thereby forming the natural drainagF of the region, for, as Professor Shaler has pointed out, there are no streams less than fifty feet wide on the surface, where these depressions are found. Dr. Owen, in his report, says: " In the early settlement of Kentucky the belt of coun- try over which the red clay soil extended was shunned, and stamped with the appellation of ' Barrens.' This arose partly from the numer- ous schisty masses which encumbered the ground in part, from the absence of timber over large tracts, and in consequence of the few trees which here and there sprung up, being altogether a stunted growth of black-jack, red and white oaks. The value of the red cal- careous soil of the ' barrens' in 1 856 began to be appreciated, so that lands, which for nearly - were hardly worth locating, in that year were held at from 25.00 to 30.00 per acre, and in the neighborhood of some towns as high as 50.oo; at the present time (1885) they are universally held at from so.oo, 75.00, to IOO.oo. The old inhabitants of the county all declare that when the county was first settled it was for the most part an open prairie district as far as the eye could reach, with hardly a stick sufficient to make a rail, where now exist magnificent trees obstructing the entire view." In consequence of the supposed worthlessness of these "barrens" the early settlers located among the hills where there were water and wood, the idea being that where trees would not grow the land was unproductive. Analysis: Red clay subsoil from a point near Woodburn; color of 28 IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. dry soil yellowish, with tinge of red; when dried at 3200 lost 2.8 per cent. of moisture. Composition of soil and subsoil: PER CENT. VER CENT. Organic and volatile matter...... . . . . . . . . . 5.1 7.02 Carbonateof InLe . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 0. 194 0.21 Carbonate of magnesia.0...... . . . ....... . 0.307 0.20 Carbonate of manganese ... . . .. ......... 0.235 0.13 Alumina oxide of iron and phosphates...... .. . . 6.510 21.04 Potash .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 0.131 0. 19 Soda . .0.0. .. .70 o.o6 Sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 87.47 71.13 100.00 100.00 The large proportion of per oxide of iron in the subsoil formed from the St. Louis limestone renders these lands emphatically red lands. This red subsoil lies often within a few inches of the surface, so that it is exposed to view in roads and plowed fields imparting to the soil nearly as deep a color as the red ocher used for paint. Dr. Owen says: "The condition of the per oxide of iron appears to have a decided effect, since deep subsoil plowing proves always beneficial on these lands. This change may be due to mechanical causes contributing to grain the soil of superfluous moisture; but its fertilizing properties are attributable in part to the power which the iron has of imbibing ammo- nia from the air and giving it out in time of rains to the plants, for it is found that these red soils, though nearly destitute of organic mat- ter, when treated with potash, give out ammonia, and in larger quan- tities than light-colored soils containing more organic matter; this is probably the reason why the red lands of Cheshire and Herefordshire, England, are among the most fertile soils especially adapted to graz- ing. The iron may possibly act in other ways beneficially to vegetation either as an oxydizing or neutralizing agent." Sandy Soils, or Chester soils, are found in the north and north- western portions of the county. All that section north of Barren river and west of the old Louisville pike consists of either sharp or flat-topped ridges, and tablelands, with thin layers of blue, gray, or white lime- stone; the valleys and hillsides are a combination or mixture of these rocks-hence are, as a rule, very productive. So are the ridges when properly cultivated and cared for, producing peaches, apples, and very superior grapes. This, as will be shown later on, is the ideal place for the fruit-grower, while the red clay is the place for cereals and tobacco. Dr. Owen says: "The schisty or knob sandstone produtces a soil composed of sand and clay very liable to wash, and therefore shallow and thin; the surface of the country, for the most part, is broken. It seldom, however, forms a purely characteristic soil, as it is commingled 29 :ONiANG (GREFIKN A\O) WVARREN COUNTY, KY., to a great extent with the 'white soil' derived more immediately from the underlying ash-colored shale so numerous in this formation, and which usually characterizes the slopes and narrow valleys hemmed in between knobs and occasionally intermixed with the debris from the thin capping of limestone." IRON. Within fifteen miles of Bowling Green very valuable iron ores are found, in conjunction with seams of coal four and five feet thick-the iron, in some places, as much as four feet thick. Within thirty miles there is iron enough to supply innumerable furnaces for centuries, with both coal and limestone lying alongside of it. Nature could have done no more than she has toward making Bowling Green an iron center with its railroads and water transportation, its mild climate, geographi- cal location, only a short distance from the center of population, and its proximity to the iron markets. Nothing but the inertness of its citizens can prevent its development. A railroad thirty miles long, costing ioo,ooo, will double its population in five years. Iron can be made here at a cost of 9.0o or less, per ton, and by recent improved pro- cesses this iron may be converted into steel at a cost of I. 50 to 6.oo per ton, thereby producing steel at something like say, 15.00 per ton. The iron of the future must come from the South-the eye of the capitalist is turning anxiously in this direction. The average haul of iron ore in Pennsylvania (the center of iron industry) is four hundred miles; actual cost of production about 20.00 per ton. In i88o Pa. produced 57 per cent. of the pig iron of the United States. Ky. '' 134 "' " " " Pa. " 46 "1 "1 rolled iron" 11 Ky. "1 3 as" 1 . .a '' Pa. " 34 ' A' iron rails 's IIKy. 4 " ' '' " Pa. " 30 " '' cut nails '' Ky. " 4 "' '' Kentucky, with its twelve thousand seven hundred square miles of coal and associated iron ores from three to five feet thick, all lying above the line of drainage, should be the Pennsylvania of the South, and Bowling Green, with its many advantages and proximity to the iron and coal fields, should be the Pittsburgh of Kentucky. COAL. Warren county is located on the extreme eastern border of the Western coal field; its neighbor, Edmonson county, contains inex- haustible supplies of both coal and iron. Some have said that the 30 BUSMESSXpound; ( 2,OLLEG --; 8t)lTHERN MAL SCH nL WLG FEN, Ky. LOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., coal of Edmonson would run a thousand furnaces one hundred years. This coal can be mined by drifting, and at a cost not exceeding seventy- five cents per ton, and then being situated on or very near Bear creek, Nolin and Green rivers will bring them very near the markets, should these rivers be improved. W. B. Caldwell, in his report, says: " With an unlimited supply of coal of excellent quality for iron- making, and as cheaply mined and handled as this may be, it only requires to prove the existence of abundant supplies of iron ore of sufficient richness and purity to show that this must inevitably be a great iron-producing region in the future." ROADS. Warren county has recently inaugurated a system of road building by which, in a few years, the county will be macadamized throughout the whole extent. The county takes i,ooo stock in each mile of turnpike, which shall be built according to certain plans and specifica- tions adopted by the county court, which also appoints an inspector, whose duty it is to superintend the construction of said roads, and they are received by the county upon his favorable report. During the past twelve months about fifteen miles of first-class macadamized road have been built in the county, at a cost of from 2,000 to 2,500 per mile, and work is now progressing on four roads. At the present rate, no county in the State will excel this in good, substantial, durable roads. There are at the present time about fifty miles of improved roads within the limits of the county, and, as investments, some of them pay as high as- per cent. annually. With a climate unsurpassed, mild winters, summers not intensely hot, a generous soil, capable of supplying all the products of the farm and garden, timber in great abundance, an unlimited supply of excel- lent water in the shape of cool springs, rivers, creeks, and ponds, with its unlimited supply of building stones, marls, and clays, its proximity to inexhaustible supplies of iron and coal, with its intelligent, hospita- ble, and thrifty people, anxious for a sturdy, honest, industrious class of immigrants to settle among them to assist in developing the hidden wealth of the county, Warren is certainly worthy of attention, and its advantages should be brought to the notice of capitalists and those persons interested in procuring homes for immigrants. Maps showing the agricultural and mineral resources of the county are being pre- pared, and will be ready for distribution about July Ist. Any one desiring one of these maps can be accommodated by addressing the Secretary of this Society. IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. The practical man, in seeking a location for agricultural purposes, will ask, first, as to fertility of soil, character of seasons, and health- fulness of locality. Secondly, the character of the home market, and the facilities for transportation to distant markets. Then would follow questions as to the important but less vital considerations of social and educational surroundings. As regards Warren county, favorable responses to all these inquiries may be truthfully made. A plain state- ment of facts, without exaggeration, is all that is necessary. Without attempting any geological or scientific terms, to do which, if the writer felt competent, would only be bewildering to the mass of readers for whom this is intended, it will be sufficient to say that with an underlying limestone basis the lands of Warren county are mainly embraced in two great classes, which may be designated as "river lands" and "barrens." Barren river passes through the country with a general north-west course, and the longest way. Being a very crooked stream, the several large bends almost encircling thousands of acres, it may be safely said, taking the meandering of the stream, one hundred miles of its course lies within the county. It has two large tributaries, Drake's creek and Gasper river, which also lie largely in Warren. Along the banks of Barren river and those tributaries lie tens of thousands of acres of the finest land for agricultural purposes to be found in this or any other country. This land was originally heavily timbered with beech, oak, walnut, hickory, sugar maple, ash, and other growth, and a considerable portion of it is in virgin forest. Much of the bottom land on these streams, where subject to overflow, has been cultivated for forty, fifty, and some of it sixty years without any apparent effect upon its productive capacity, being renewed by annual overflow and deposit of sediment, while the second bottoms, or land of the same character just above overflow, are almost as inex- haustible with anything like judicial treatment. The soil is a deep, sandy loam, rich from the deposits of forests for hundreds of years. This is superlatively our corn land, although producing anything that will mature in our climate. The other great body of land is known as " Barrens." Why it should have been so called is a mystery, for it is a decided misnomer if intended to mean unproductive. The land was originally prairie, 33 31OWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., with here and there an occasionally gnarled and knotted post oak dot- ting its surface, and in the damper localities fine groves of timber, which had escaped the ravages of fire from their peculiar location. Its value was underestimated by the first settlers of the county, who located upon the streams in preference. But practical tests soon proved the mistake of those who preferred river lands. The "barrens" were found to be as productive, as lasting, and, with the exception of not standing prolonged drouth, as valuable as the river lands. The soil is a clay loam, varying in depth from six inches to two feet, with a red clay subsoil which, by exposure to atmospheric influences, be- comes almost as productive as the upper soil, making all such soils easily restored after over-cropping. The "barrens " for wheat are considered better than river lands, and for the Green river type of tobacco are unsurpassed. Since the settlement of the county, and cessation of the annual fires which killed out the young growth, and kept the " barrens" treeless, the whole region has been covered with a growth of timber, mostly oak and hickory. Some of the oak is large enough for fencing material, while the hickory possesses especial value as material for ax and other handles, used in mechanical purposes, being peculiarly tough and heavy. Its value in this respect has attracted a large manufacture of these articles to our locality. It may be parenthetically added here, that the region of Southern Kentucky, known as "barrens," is the native habitation of the wild strawberry. Pioneers tell us that such was the abundance of fruit during the season, throughout this region, that horses' feet and fetlocks were stained strawberry color by riding through the prairie. It remains still a region especially adapted to the growth and perfection of the domesticated and now delicious and widely-popular fruit. It may be interjected here also that the second bottoms on our streams are especially adapted to truck farms. Being a soil in which sand pre- dominates it is easily brought into fine tilth, easily worked, standing drouth remarkably well, and from its warmer nature maturing crops early. It always gives satisfactory and often surprising results from the application of fertilizers. From our facilities for reaching distant mar- kets this branch of agriculture must, in the near future, occupy no small percentage of our rural population, to their advantage and profit. In addition to these two classes of land which constitute, perhaps, nine-tenths of the soil of our county, we have a comparatively small area known as knob land. This has been considered until recently worthless for anything save the timber with which it is densely covered. Recent experiments, however, have developed the fact that the table- 34 IMIMIGRATION SOCIE ITV. lands found upon the tops of these knobs are especially adapted to the growth of fruit. All fruit trees thrive and mature more perfectly there than upon our lower lands, besides being thought to be exempt, to a considerable extent, from the effects of late spring frosts. It will thus be seen that we have in Warren county a variety of soil, and persons desirous of following any branch of agriculture can be accommodated. The average rainfall is forty-six inches, well distributed throughout the year, making our growing season all that is to be desired, assuring us ample moisture, with rare exceptions, for the perfection and matur- ity of crops. The health of the county will compare favorably with any section North or South. Some persons might be apprehensive, from the large amount of river land in our county, that malarious diseases-chills and fever as one form-would be prevalent. But it is a remarkable fact which physicians corroborate, that families, living upon our water courses and exercising ordinary prudence, are as little liable to malarious diseases as those living on the higher barrens, and as the country is cleared and settled this class of disease becomes more rare in all sections. As regards markets: Bowling Green, our county-seat, is a thriving city of about ten thousand inhabitants, with turnpikes radiating in every direction for several miles, thus affording ample facilities at all seasons of the year for any citizen of the county to visit its capital with pleasure, in any vehicle, without the payment of a heavy percentage for repairs on his return. This constitutes our home market, and no insignificant one, for we have dealers in all classes of stock and prod- uce who are liberal and accommodating. Our facilities for reaching distant markets are equal to those of any county in the State, with the exception, perhaps, of Jefferson and Fay- ette, the Louisville, Nashville Great Southern railroad, with its vast system, forming a network of communication which enables us to reach any of the Southern States, or any leading city of those States, with our stock, grain, or other produce. Northward we have the same road to Louisville or Central Ken- tucky. We have also an outlet by Green and Barren rivers, by means of slack water, the year around, reaching the Ohio river ten miles above the thriving city of Evansville, Indiana, with communication thence to any part of the world. It will thus be seen that we have not only the variety and fertility of soil, favorable seasons and health to enable us to till our acres prop- erly, but we have exceptional facilities for selling our products by hav- ing easy access to home or distant markets. 35 36 O5)WLIN (;GREEN ANI) WARREN COUNTY, KY., But Warren county claims also to be in the front rank of Kentucky counties in her social, religious, and educational advantages. In these the land owner, the father of a family to be reared and educated, must of necessity feel deeply interested. As regards schools, in addition to our State common school system, held well in hand by an efficient county superintendent, we have in Bowling Green a collegiate institu- tion which, through the liberality of one of our deceased citizens, fur- nishes opportunities for a college course, tuition free. Or for the less ambitious we have a Normal School, which proposes to erect upon such a basis as can be acquired in our common schools a superstructure that will fit the student, male or female, for almost any kind of busi- ness within the period of a year. Well-attended churches are to be found in every neighborhood in the county, and of almost every denomination, and it is, perhaps, not too much to say that, as a consequence, our people are peaceable and law-abiding. In conclusion, we may say our people are cosmopolitan in their feelings, and the stranger coming among us to find a home, be he native or foreigner, from North or South, East or West, if by honest industry he professes to live, will be treated as a neighbor, and have the sympathy and aid of those around him. It is the opinion of many that lands in Warren county have never rated as high as their intrinsic value justified, taking into consideration the advantages of our surroundings. Be this as it may, to those seek- ing homes free from the annoyances, privations, and unsettled condi- tions of frontier States, we think our county offers superior induce- ments. A cordial invitation is, therefore, extended to all such to visit us and see for themselves. 36 PN al, 38BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., LJfYV 5OGK J sZ 33. As a stock-growing county, Warren is prominent among the counties in the southern section of Kentucky, and will compare favorably in many respects with the famous bluegrass counties. Owing to climatic and other advantages, we offer facilities for the rearing of stock by no means common. The grain and grass of the county can not be excelled. It produces bluegrass, orchard grass, timothy, clover, and like grazing products in abundance, there being no scarcity for man or beast. As a consequence, live stock is abundant, and the reputation of the State for plenty is thereby upheld here. Probably no county in the State has in the last ten years given more attention than has this to stock interests. In i870 there were only two breeders of shorthorn cattle, and not more than thirty head in either of these herds; to-day, we have in the county not less than four hundred pure herd-book animals of different strains. To these more are being continually added, about one hundred from the various herds in Central Kentucky having been brought here during the past year. In the year mentioned, I870, Jerseys were scarcely known here. Now, especially in the vicinity of the city of Bowling Green, they are almost as numerous as shorthorns. Other kinds of stock have in- creased in like proportion. Holsteins, Polled Angus, and other breeds are comparatively rare, but would prosper as well here as anywhere in the United States, no disease, such as is common in some sections, having appeared here. The central location of this immediate section renders it incom- parable as a breeding point for horses and mules for market. Only seventy-two miles from Nashville, easy access is had to all Southern trading centers. We can reach such markets from twelve to twenty- four hours sooner than can either Louisville or Lexington. Our medium horses are shipped South. The fancy saddle and harness animals going East and West, where they readily sell at prices ranging from 250 to 8oo. In i876, our stock men inaugurated a custom of having monthly sales of live stock, similar to those held in London, Madison county, Ohio. The system has been eminently successful, and Warren county, Kentucky, to-day ranks nearly, if not quite, with the county men- tioned. These sales call together not only the traders of Warren, but 38 IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. of adjoining counties. Markets are discussed, together with ways to reach them, and large numbers of all kinds of live stock change hands. From three thousand to five thousand mules are annually on the market here. The very best of saddle, harness, and coach horses are handled. From six thousand to ten thousand shipping and butcher cattle are fed and grazed annually. Sheep of the most improved breed abound, and command the highest prices. In hog-raising, Warren is the banner county of the State, the statistics showing more than forty-three thousand head. At the annual fair, held at the beautiful grounds just in the edge of Bowling Green, is to be found a verification of the highest praise accorded our stock interests. A fine trotting track offers inducements to rearers of blooded horses, and presents larger purses for trotters than can be found at any similar fair in Kentucky, famous through the State for horses. Competition, free, is offered to the world at the annual fair. All kinds of stock appear in great profusion-fair Cotswold and Southdown sheep, Berkshire hogs, and other fine breeds. Last year was shown a pair of mules each considerably over seventeen hands in height. All sorts of harness and saddle blooded horses, such as Lexingtons, Den- marks, Waxeys, and blooded stallions, jacks and jennets, runners and trotters appear. The next annual fair will take place September 2, 3, 4, and 5, 1885. We invite all to come and see for themselves. Every year the spirit of enterprise is more clearly exhibited in Warren county. The scrubs that once infested our section are nearly all driven out by sleek, beautiful animals, that are a pleasure to behold. The grade of stock continually improves, and inducements to Southern shippers increase. We want to build up our section until every farm- house shall be one of cheer, every farm full of unsurpassed grazing, and every pasture full of unsurpassed stock. We ask men interested in the subject to come and help us attain our desire. 39 BOWTING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., 14OI G L1Ls a . WARREN COUNTY'S ADAPTABILITY TO THE PRODUCTION OF SMA.LL FRUITS. Having been engaged in growing small fruits for upwards of twenty years, we feel warranted in saying that its adaptation to the production of strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries is unsurpassed. We are prompted to make this assertion after having noticed these fruits in many other States, having never seen the fruits of Warren county, and those adjacent, equaled in size and high quality as displayed on exhibi- tion tables at our annual fruit shows. A number of the prominent varieties of strawberries of the present day originated in this locality. The red raspberry is equally successful here except those varieties possessing more or less foreign blood. The black caps are not generally as salable as the red varieties. Our ship- ping facilities are good, being centrally located between the North and South, in reach of the most desirable markets in either direction. Small fruit culture is yet in its infancy and is susceptible of being made one of the great and profitable industries of the county. Upon examining the topography of Warren county it will be found that about one-half consists of level or gentle undulating surface with limestone basis and heavy clay loam soil. For general agricultural and gardening purposes it is not surpassed in the country. It is well adapted to the growth of small fruits, and is especially the home of the strawberry, apple, pear, peach. Other fruits are grown for home con- sumption with moderate success. But for profitable fruit growing we would call your attention to the highlands of the country. The most of them are west of the Louisville Nashville railroad, and extend from the northern to the southern extremity of the country. In going south on that line of road to Bowling Green the range of hills can be seen a short distance to the right all along, and the same is seen in passing south on the Memphis branch. Those hills have an elevation of from two hundred and fifty to three hundred feet; the base is limestone, near the summit is integrated sand, and on top of the hills are extensive plateaus growing some of the finest timber of the country. The soil is sandy loam and rather thin on a subsoil of light clay and sand. These lands have not until recently been thought to be of much 40 IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. value except for the timber. The prospect now is that they are to become of much value for their fruit, having altitude to protect against the blighting effects of spring frosts, and a soil adapted to the growth of good trees which ripens the fruit to perfection. The coloring of fruit grown on these lands is greatly superior to that of heavier soils, and, being attractive, will command a better price in the markets. The writer, a few years ago, had an experience in shipping several hundred boxes of peaches to the Cincinnati market, and the result was that twenty-five per cent. above the highest quotations for fancy fruit was obtained; these peaches were grown upon the hill lands. I don't know of any country that offers more inducements to the emigrant who is looking for a location to grow fruit. Many lands can be bought on liberal terms at the very low price of from five to fifteen dollars per acre, and that from three to eight miles from the city of Bowling Green, with the best kind of turnpike roads under construction by individual and county enterprise, radiating from that center where we have a good home market or facilities for shipping directly north or south on a great trunk line, giving the advantage of having early fruits in the markets of the Northern cities without competition from their home grown. Late fruits can be shipped directly South and meet an equally profitable market when their home fruits are all gone. The lands of the county are well adapted to pear raising. There are probably as many, if not more, pear trees growing in Warren county as in any one county in the State. Our rich, deep, open clay soils are well suited to the growth of this fruit. All varieties that will succeed in any part of the West and South-west thrive well here. Of course we have blight here, and where is it that they don't have it All varieties are grown here with over an average success, and are .regarded as the most profitable of all large-tree fruits. In this locality pears are a more certain crop than apples or peaches. Warren county can boast of many pear orchards numbering from one hundred to one thousand trees. We have reliaDle and cheap river transportation to the Ohio all the year around. The Warren County Horticultural Society is a live insti- tution, with its regular meetings held once a month in Bowling Green, besides exhibitions of fruits and vegetables in season. The discussions in the society are carried on in a free and easy conversational style which is both instructive and entertaining. This society will receive the emigrant with open arms, and do all it can to make his horticult- ural pursuits successful. Any letters of inquiry relating to horticulture received by the Emigration Bureau will be turned over to a committee of the Horticultural Society and be promptly attended to. 41 BOWLING 4iREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., 13dJNrf ]XDY(PJ7 G:3. Bowling Green is no mushroom town, nor one built on paper. It is a substantial little city containing ten thousand inhabitants according to the local census of I885. It is the capital of Warren, a county con- taining thirty thousand inhabitants and four hundred thousand acres of land, and is located on the banks of Barren river at the head of navi- gation, and on the line of the Louisville Nashville, and Louisville Memphis railways. It is one hundred and fourteen miles from Louis- ville, seventy-two miles from Nashville, two hundred and sixty-three from Memphis, and two hundred from Evansville, to which point navi- gation for steamers of two hundred tons burden is perfect and unin- terrupted all the year. It might, with interest, be here stated that we are only twenty-three miles from Mammoth Cave. It has an excellent system of water-works, located on a stream upon whose banks above the city there is not a town or village, slaughter- house or distillery, or anything to contaminate the absolute purity of the water. Its street squares, public buildings, and private houses are lighted with gas of the best quality. The streets are macadamized; the pavements are laid with brick, and are as beautiful and substantial as any town in Kentucky. Nestling right in the heart of the town is a little park luxuriant in trees and grasses, graced by flowers and fountain, at once a tribute to the culture of the town and a minister to the pleasure of the people. Bowling Green, with the co-operation of the county, sends out this little pamphlet, and invites the attentive consideration of all who desire either lands as agriculturists, location as capitalists, or houses as citizens retired from business. If the advantages she presents are not sufficient, coupled with intelligent and persevering activity, to insure business suc- cess to all who may locate here, she does not ask them to come. She desires to secure the location in her borders of men of enterprise and capital, to fully develop and utilize her resources, and active laborers to assist in their work. Elsewhere in the pamphlet will be found statements relative to finances, schools, churches, soil, timber, business advantages, county and city finances, educational advantages, religious and social, geology, roads, etc., water supply, agriculture, live stock, timber interest, press, and political advantages. 42 IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. The following are a few of the principal advantages afforded resi- dents of Bowling Green: First. Establishments securing comfortable homes or tenements for any number of operatives. Second. The most perfect attainable security from conflagration, owing to her water-works system; hence, insurance is light and easily obtained. Third. Free education of a high grade is furnished every citizen, no matter how humble or poor, and a collegiate education for boys is likewise free to every resident of Warren county, in an endowed and chartered college, conducted by a full corps of eminent professors. Fourth. Church facilities are as unlimited and varied as denomi- national differences. Fifth. Cost of living is as small, and the character of food as varied and abundant as can be found anywhere. Every species of fruit and vegetable, save the tropical products, is raised in profusion in all the surrounding country. Sixth. To every manufactory established in good faith, freedom from city and county taxation is guaranteed for a term of years. Seventh. With both railroads and river lines of transportation, freights can be secured as favorable as though this was a competing point. Eighth. Charters for all companies desiring to establish them- selves here will be secured and furnished free of cost, and with a most liberal grant of powers and privileges. The foregoing are some of the general advantages possessed by Bowling Green. Attention is now called to the special inducements offered, most of which will be found elaborated elsewhere in this pamphlet. First. For parties desiring to establish hub and spoke factories, chair factories, furniture factories, or any kind of factory for the manu- facture of wooden wares, timber of all varieties, and in the greatest abundance, can be found in the vicinity at almost nominal cost. Second. Bowling Green is situated in the heart of the tobacco- producing section, and there is no reason why portions, at least, of the immense crops should not be manufactured here where it is raised. Third. Kentucky has always been famous for its live stock, and no part of the State is richer in cattle of all kinds than Warren county. Sheep are raised in great numbers, and produce, annually, immense quantities of wool. There is a large woolen mill here in successful operation, and there is no reason why others can not be operated with equal profit. 43 BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., Fourth. Creameries and cheese factories established here would find themselves located in the midst of a splendid meadow land, fitted with the best grades of Durham and Jersey cattle. Fifth. Stretched along the Louisville Memphis railroad for miles, there are inexhaustible beds of white stone, which is being used from New York to Texas, and is unexcelled by any building stone in the world. (See Geological Report.) Two quarries are now making a fortune out of it, and there is no reason why a dozen more should not. Sixth. On the bank of Barren river there lie immense quantities of stone, capable of producing as fine lime as can be found in the world, and cement equal to the famous Portland cement. Seventh. Located within twenty miles of Bowling Green, and almost on the banks of Green river, abound countless fields of coal and iron ore, shown by the report of the geology of the State to be equal to any in the Commonwealth, and which are waiting only for capital to reach, and the hand of labor to develop. Eighth. A tannery established here would find right at its doors inexhaustible supplies of rawhides and tanbark. Ninth. All fruits and vegetables which this climate produces are raised in the greatest abundance, and could be canned here for export with large profit, and with little cost. It is confidently and sincerely believed by the people of Bowling Green that capital invested in any of the foregoing enterprises would yield to the investor a large and increasing profit, and would, in addi- tion, secure in our midst manufacturing establishments, fill the town with active, thrifty, and industrious operators, and secure to her not only a temporary, but an enduring, prosperity. Inspired by such a belief, Bowling Green sends this statement to the world, with the confidence that all who may come will find the advantages she possesses fully equal to her representations. To suim up the social, school, climatic, and business advantages, the following appear prominent: First. Bowling Green, and the country adjacent, are perfectly healthy. Second. The climate is not only healthy, but delightfully mild and genial, the winters are never rigorous, nor the summers enervating. Third. Real estate is cheap and rents low, so there can be no doubt as to the establishment of profitable manufactories. 44 BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., MAT2UrP1AGIlf ADYANUPLGVg. Owing to the great competition in almost al kinds of manufactured goods, capitalists are turning their attention from the old worn-out worked-over fields to new locations. We ask such to take a glance at our beautiful city and the surrounding country. Before the war, the South was almost entirely an agricultural country, receiving its manufactured goods from the North; since that time, and especially within the past five years, capitalists have been com- ing here, and many manufactories have sprung up, for the South offers advantages to those seeking homes and business locations that can not be surpassed. Many people of the North fear to come South; they fail to remember that the war of twenty years ago is over, not know- ing that the South is more than anxious to "Shake hands over the bloody chasm." The writer, who is a native of Massachusetts, came to Bowling Green about ten years ago, and, though differing with most of the Southern people politically, yet it has never interfered with his social relations, but he has been made to feel perfectly welcome and at home, and has never met kinder, more honest, and liberal-hearted people. They hate sham and hypocrisy; the best they have is at the command of any to whom they can show a kindness. Manufacturers hesitate about coming South, because they fear the labor is not reliable, and that they must import help. This is all a mistake, for when the laborers understand that it takes ten hours to make a day's work, and six days to make a week, they at once conform to the system and make excellent workmen. The negroes are first- class laborers for doing the rough and heavy work, but they are learn- ing to do a higher grade of work, and willsoon be able to do it rap- idly and well. The whites and blacks work together very harmoni- ously, side by side, day after day, each doing the work assigned to him quietly and willingly. One branch of business we would call especial attention to is the manufacture of hardwood into wagons, buggies, farming implements, handles of all kinds, staves, headings, etc. It is a well-known fact that the vast forests of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and other Northern States are rapidly disappearing, and soon will be entirely gone. Timber tracts of any extent must be found south of the Ohio river. 46 IMMIGRATION SOCIETY.47 Heretofore, manufacturers would ship this timber, in its raw state, hundreds of miles, and pay immense freights, when, after being man- ufactured, it would have to be reshipped to consumers. It can plainly be seen that the cheaper and better way would have been to have gone where the timber was, instead of taking the timber to them. Capital- ists are seeing the error of the past, and are changing their plans. Bowling Green has pikes and roads diverging in every direction. All along these roads, a mile from town, and out as far as any one may wish to go, say twenty miles, are forests of fine hardwood timber, viz: white, burr, chestnut, red, and black oak. Our white oak, especially, is of the very best quality, not great, over-grown brash trees, but of a medium size, thrifty, tough, and heavy, excellent for wagons, plows, and all kinds of farming implements, and can be had in inexhaustible quantities for staves and headings; abundance of other varieties of oak can be had very cheap, almost for the work of cutting and hauling. Then there are vast quantities of white and red beech growing everywhere, just the kind for plain stocks, chisels, handles, etc., an abundance of first and second-growth ash, suitable for carriages, bug- gies, and furniture, and plenty of sweet gum, which makes a very beautiful finish for office and all inside work. The latter is also very fine for furniture. The Indianapolis Wood- Worker, of May 15th, says: " It has been demonstrated that black gum and sweet gum are very much better adapted for staining in imitation of cherry, walnut, ash, mahogany, etc., than any other of our domestic woods; besides, when finished in natural color, it has a very pleasing effect. Much of it has mottled figures, suitable for panels, mantles, etc. For these valuable qualities it is destined to take important rank in the woods of the future." Hard and soft maple, elm, locust, and cedar, yellow or soft poplar, are also abundant everywhere, the trees growing very large, smooth, and straight. This poplar serves the purpose of pine. It is soft, easy to work, and light, does not split as easily, hence is better for many purposes, such as boxes of all kinds, especially wagon and buggy boxes, and is used for all kinds of building purposes. There is plenty of black and white walnut, and sycamore. We have also an abun- dance of chestnut and oak growing all through this county, which would furnish an inexhaustible supply of the finest tanbark, which would give a tanning establishment great advantages over their com- petitors, where this valuable tanbark is only gotten by paying high freights, etc. There are all kinds of hickory growing everywhere in great abun- 47 48 WI.IN-; GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., dance, suitable for handles of all kinds, and for wagon and buggy spokes, which hickory is of the very best quality that can be found anywhere. All of this timber is within easy access of Bowling Green, either by pikes, railroads, or water-course. The Louisville Nash- ville railroad, with its branches north, south, east, and west, offers every facility and inducement to manufacturers, making freights so low, that timber can be shipped for a hundred miles and laid down as cheap as it can be hauled ten miles. All along this railroad, river, and pikes are vast forests of the above-mentioned timber. Bowling Green is at the head of navigation on Barren river, which empties into Green river at Woodbury, a town about twenty-five miles north of Bowling Green. Bowling Green, by Green and Barren rivers, is two hundred miles from Evansville, where Green river empties into the Ohio. The navigation of these rivers is supported by a system of locks and dams, which are owned by the Green Barren River Navigation Company. Hence, by these locks and dams there is always a supply of water, and boats are in no danger of running aground, but are always on time, and make regular trips. On these rivers and tributaries is a portage of over six hundred miles, of which Bowling Green is the natural out- let. At almost any stage of water small boats can run forty miles on tipper Green river. The Navigation Company has boats and barges, by which timber can be freighted at very reasonable rates. All along these river banks, as far as one may wish to go, are vast tracts of timber lands, of the very choicest of all kinds of hardwood timber, owned mostly by the residents, in tracts from one hundred acres to five thousand. But there are some large tracts owned by non- residents, such as the coal-oil lands in Edmonson county, containing about thirty thousand acres. These people are anxious to sell, especially those who live on the land. Many of them make their living by sawlogging, cutting hoop-poles, staves, ax-handle timber, etc. As they do not see much money, a dollar looks like a large amount, and they will do more work for a dollar than any one. They are very anxious to cut the timber, and haul it to the nearest railroad station, or river bank, where it can be shipped. The scenery along the banks of these rivers is like the views of the kaleidoscope, ever changing, ever new. Grand and perpendicular cliffs rising hundreds of feet, and from these cliffs the land extends in rolling tablelands, dotted here and there with beautiful farms, or cov- ered with majestic forests, or it may be bottom lands, which are every year enriched by the overflows, almost surpassing in fertility and rich- ness the bottom lands of the Nile. These rivers are fed by springs of 48 IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. the purest water, everywhere gushing from the everlasting rocks and hills. In addition to forests that extend along the six hundred miles of water-front, there is coal that crops out along the bank; iron ore is also found in inexhaustible quantities. To the farmers of the cold and sterile hills of New England, who are looking, with longing eyes, to some promised land, we would say, come to the beautiful and fertile Green River valley! Here are farms for sale cheap, costing from 5. 00 to 1 o. oo per acre, with comfortable dwellings, plenty of timber, and finest springs of the purest water that ever ran out of the earth. They are of fertile bottom lands that never wear out, or rich hillsides covered with bluegrass for pasture. Such fruits as apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries, grapes, strawberries and raspberries, can be grown in great profusion, and blackberries grow wild everywhere. Fish is plentiful, the rivers abounding in cat, buffalo, trout, and perch. Game is also to be found in vast numbers, such as wild turkeys, partridges, squirrels, etc. Come where you are not frozen by the chilling blasts of the North, or scorched by the fierce heat of the South. There are many saw-mills scattered through the country, which find a ready market for their lumber, at this place, at I5.00 per thousand feet, for first-class poplar, oak, ash, and chestnut. Two saw-mills near town, on Barren river, with a capacity of about fifteen thousand feet per day, receive their logs from rafts. There are two machine-shops and foundries, which commenced running about ten years ago on a very small scale, that are now doing a good business, which is increasing all the time. The Kentucky Stave and Heading Factory, about seven years old, capacity twenty thousand staves and twelve hundred set of heading per day, using all kinds of oak, elm, ash, soft maple, hackberry, and poplar, employs forty persons in the woods, forty-five in the factory, and seven on its boat. The Bowling Green Planing Mill, started in i882, furnishes employ- ment for thirty-five to one hundred men, according to the season of the year. Last year (1884) the business amounted to 65,ooo. The Green River Handle Works, established in 1874, has a force of from seventy-five to one hundred men, and consumes fifteen cords of hickory timber per day. A six-ton ice factory, with hoop factory attached, is located here; also, one flouring mill of one hundred barrels capacity, roller system. Another mill, in process of erection, will be of one hundred and twenty- five barrels capacity. There is one tobacco-sternmery; it works from fifty to sixty hands. 4 49 5 OWLIN'G GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., We have one large woolen mill, whose specialty is Kentucky jeans. This product finds a ready market all through the South. We have shown some of the advantages of our city as a manu- facturing center; but we must not fail to remember that we have wood, coal, and iron at our very door, and cheap transportation by wagon, railroad, or water, that bring the raw material or take away the manu- factured goods. while the most reliable labor, both white and black, can be secured. For the farmer the lands are good, and there is an excellent market. WATER. As long ago as x868 the people of Bowling Green recognized the importance of procuring fresh and wholesome water. The underlying rocks which extend beneath the whole surface of the city rendered the sinking of wells a difficult and expensive operation. Fortunately, how- ever, the Big Barren river, a stream which heads in the mountains, and flows directly at the feet of our city, supplied the deficiency. The corporation undertook the construction of the water supply system itself instead of granting it to a private monopoly-a course the wisdom of which has been justified by events. The works were constructed at a cost of 90,000. The water is pumped from the river and forced into a reservoir on the most elevated position in the city, it being two hundred and thirty-seven feet above low water mark in the river. The Big Barren is a pellucid stream which finds its way between high, rocky banks, and whose waters flow over a bottom composed of sand and gravel. There are not known to be any swamps or lowlands on the entire course of the river above Bowling Green; consequently, the water is not poisoned by rank and decaying vegetation. It is drawn entirely from mountain springs and when it reaches this point is as pure as when it -left the place where it exudes from the hills. It is used by our citizens for all purposes, and has never, in any in- stance, been discovered to be in the least degree unwholesome. From the reservoir there is a pressure of from seventy-five to eighty pounds to the square inch, sufficient in case of fire to throw any given number of streams over the top of the highest building in the city. The pressure is also amply sufficient, with the aid of motors, to drive any and all kinds of light machinery, several firms now using it for that purpose. The reservoir has a capacity of one million gallons. The pump- ing engine is capable of supplying six hundred thousand gallons every twenty-four hours. The city has contracted for and now has in 5o INIMIGRATION SOCIETY. process of construction a new engine with a capacity of two million gallons per day. This will give an abundant water supply for all demands that can possibly be made. There are now in daily use something over ten miles of water mains, and new mains are being laid in all streets where there is a demand for them. The service pipes are laid from the street mains to the line of sidewalk curbing without cost to the consumer. The rates for the family use are as low as will be found in any other place of corresponding size. To all legitimate manufactories water is supplied at fifteen cents per one thousand gal- lons. When the consumption is over three thousand gallons per day the rate is ten cents per one thousand. The operating expenses are about 4,ooo a year, the service is 9,ooo. The surplus is used in ex- tending the system. It will be seen, when compared with those of other cities, these rates are exceedingly reasonable. The hydrants are placed about four hundred and fifty feet apart as a rule, but where prac- ticable they are placed near the manufactories in order to afford all protection possible. The fire department is supplied with one hook and ladder truck, and four reels furnished with twenty-three hundred feet of hose. STREETS. Bowling Green is noted far and near for the beauty and excellence of her streets. They are wide-flanked on each side with commodious sidewalks and, away from the business center, are shaded by numerous and handsome forest trees. Our city probably has more miles of paved streets than any other town of a like population in the country. The paving is made of limestone rock, and laid in accordance with what is known as the Macadam system of paving. They are built by the city in general, there being no direct tax upon adjacent property-owners for their construction. Rock gutters extend down each side with dressed stone crossings at convenient distances. There are about ten miles of paved thoroughfares in Bowling Green and these are being added to annually. The principal streets are lighted at night with gas. 5 I BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY., Gf ]3 AND GOaNZ3Y GOyrNMI. Before a citizen of another State can become a citizen of this State he must reside continuously in one county for one year, or within the State two years. In all elections, except for members of Congress, which is by ballot, the voting is viva voce. The name and vote are re- corded, and after the election is over the poll-books are filed in the county clerk's office, and are open for the inspection of any one. Fraudulent voting is of rare occurrence in viva voce elections. Conveyances of real estate may be acknowledged before the clerk of any county court, or may be proved by two subscribing witnesses, or one if the other be dead, but no conveyance of a married woman is valid unless acknowledged before the clerk of a county court, the acknowledgment to be made apart from the presence of her husband. A homestead of not more than one thousand dollars is exempt from levy and sale under execution or attachment; also, personal property of the value of seven hundred and fifty dollars. A mortgage to be valid against all persons must be executed with the same formalities required for a deed. Real estate descends (I) to children and their descendants, (2) to the father and mother, one-half to each, (3) to brothers and sisters, etc. Personal estate descends one-third to the wife, the remainder to chil- dren, if no children the wife inherits one-half; a husband inherits all of his wife's personal estate. A widow is entitled to dower in all of her husband's real estate. She can only be divested of her right to dower by privy acknowledgment; it is not barred by sale of husband's land under execution. Divorces are granted for abandonment for over one year, adultery, confirmed habit of drunkenness. The party instituting the proceed- ing must have had a continuous residence in the State for one year, and the cause of action must have occurred within the State, unless it was also a cause for divorce in the State or country where the act was done. The laws of the State give mechanics and material men a lien upon the improvements and the interest of the employer in the land for work done or material furnished, provided a lien is asserted by proper pro- cfeding in the county clerk's office within sixty days after the work is completed, or materials furnished. 52 IMMIGRATION SOCIETY. The statute of limitation bars a promissory note in fifteen years from maturity, an open account in five years, a merchant's account in two years. A new promise to pay will revive liability on a claim barred by limitation. The legal rate of interest is six per cent.; if a higher rate than that is contracted for the excess is void. A suit must be brought and process served ten days before court begins in order to obtain a judgment upon a claim; an execution will be issued ten days after judgment is obtained, and it binds all the property of the defendant in the county from the time it is received by the sheriff. A judgment or an execution may be stayed or replevied for three months by giving bond with good security. A mortgage or a sale by an insolvent debtor to a creditor, with the intention of preferring him to the exclusion of others, operates as an assignment of all the property of the debtor. All property (except stocks of merchandise) is listed for taxation as of the tenth day of January in each year, but the collection of taxes thereon does not begin until the first day of June thereafter. The sheriff is ex-ofticlo tax collector for State and county taxes. He is not compelled to make a final settlement of his collections until the first day of April in the following year, but he can enforce the payment of taxes at any time after the taxes are due, by levy and sale of personal estate, and if there be none in the county belonging to the tax-payer he can sell real estate. Owners of real estate sold for taxes may redeem same at any time within two years from date of sale, by paying the amount and a penalty of thirty per cent. The rate of taxation for State purposes is fixed by the Legislature. The Levy Court, composed of all the magistrates in the county, meet annually and make appropriations and levy the taxes for county purposes. City taxes are due the first of May, and must be paid by the first day of October thereafter, or a penalty of five per cent. is added. The Board of Councilmen of the city of Bowling Green is com- posed of the Mayor and four councilmen from each of the three wards into which the city is divided. The members of the Board of Council- men hold their offices for a term of two years, and are divided into two classes, so that six councilmen are elected every year. The charter vests plenary powers in this board for the regulation and government of municipal affairs. It meets in regular session on the first and third Mondays in each month, but may be called to meet in extra session at the pleasure of the mayor. 53 BOWLING GREEN AND WARREN COUNTY, KY. If the board is equally divided upon any question or election, the mayor gives the casting vote. The Board of Councilmen are forbidden by the charter from in- curring any liability that can not be discharged by the revenues of the current year, and may not impose a greater rate of taxation than one per cent. for all purposes, except public schools. The mayor has general supervisory control of all municipal affairs, and is ex-offio city treasurer. As the mayor and treasurer he is required to give bonds, the securities on which must own unencum- bered real estate in Warren county of the value of not less than sixty thousand dollars. The judge of the city court is elected every four years, and the city marshall every two years, by the qualified voters of the city. The city attorney, city clerk, chief of police, street inspector, city assessor, col- lector of revenue, health officer, and all other officers of the city, are elected every two years by the Board of Councilmen. Their duties and salaries are regulated and fixed in the charter and ordinances of the city. The water-works are governed by six commissioners, elected every two years by the Board of Councilmen; they select one of their num- ber as president, and also nominate to the Board of Councilmen a superintendent. The water commissioners have exclusive control of the manage- ment of the water-works, fix rates, etc. Their actions are subject to review by the Board of Councilmen. The charter requires that the treasurer of the city shall annually pay over to the sinking fund commissioners twenty-five hundred dollars, and this fund can only be used in paying off the bonded indebtedness of the city. Fairview Cemetery is managed by three trustees, elected by the Board of Councilmen. These trustees elect the sexton and other employes. 54