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Horse and hound / by Roger D. Williams. Williams, Roger D. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-147-29449968 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Horse and hound / by Roger D. Williams. Williams, Roger D. Williams, Lexington, Ky. : 1905. 223 p., 54 leaves of plates ill. ; 20 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1993. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN03851.03 KUK) Printing Master B92-147. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Fox hunting. Hunters (Horses) Hunting dogs. COL. ROGER D. WILLIAMS. M. F. H. Iroquois Hunt Club, Kentucky 4 j a HORSE AND HOUND. By Roger D. Williams. Master of Foxhounds, Iroquois Hunt Club. Keeper Foxhound Stud Book. Director National Foxhunters' Association Official Judge Brunswick Hunt Club. AUTHOR OF "The Greyhound." " Old Times in the Black Hills." - Wolf Coursing." - The Bloodhound." " Horse and Hound." LEXINGTON, KY., ROGER D. WILLIAMS. I905 COPYRIGHT, 1905, BY ROGER D. WILLIAMS. PREFACE. I Am aware that many ideas and views ad- vanced by me are at variance with those of other writers, especially from an English standpoint, but they are honestly given as seen, and practi- cally experienced in the field and saddle during a quarter of a century's riding to hounds. I have also availed myself of the opportunity to discuss many of the intricacies of the game through in- tercourse, correspondence, and association with some of the best known fox-hunters in the coun- try, so this book can hardly be called a one man's ideas. I make no pretense of being an authority or past grand master of the art, but merely give my observations, whether they coincide with those of others, or not. The indulgence of the reader is solicited for the crudeness of style, and plain method of writ- ing. No attempt having been made to make this a technical text-book, scientific or classical treat- ise, but to make it as clear to the novice and be- ginner as to the expert; I trust my efforts in this line may not cause the average reader to say that much more might have been entertainingly and instructively told in half as many pages. 3 This page in the original text is blank. CONTENTS. PAGE. I. HUNTING, 9 II. THE HUNTER, - - - - - 21 III. SCHOOLING OF HUNTERS, - - - 30 IV. CROSS-COUNTRY RIDING, - - - 42 V. FALLS, - - - - - - 53 VI. WOMEN IN THE FIELD, - - - 56 VII. THE HOUND, - - - 71 VIII. HISTORY AND ORIGIN AMERICAN HOUND, 89 IX. BREEDING AND RAISING HOUNDS, - - 101 X. TRAINING HOUNDS, - - - - I I I XI. THE KENNEL, - - - - - 119 XII. SCENT, - - - - - - 143 XIII. THE Fox, - - - - - - 152 XIV. TRICKS AND HABITS OF THE Fox, - i6o XV. IN THE FIELD, - - - - - i66 XVI. HUNT CLUBS, - - - - - 193 5 This page in the original text is blank. HORSE AND HOUND. This page in the original text is blank. P. F. COLLIER. M. F. H. Meadowbrook Hunt Club, New York. This page in the original text is blank. HUNTING. "Warnub by t4e strreamutt ltgt ansb uerry lark INrtli ruslrb tlte lolyg park; witt tuneful tlroats 9lrI rarar loub, anb in granb rlornu joinrb, Oalute tlt new-born bag." THE sport of hunting wild animals upon their native heath, whether with hound or gun, is the natural recreation of man. Love of hunting in its different phases is one of the strongest char- acteristics of the human race, the principles and methods of which were instilled into our remote ancestors and rightly inherited by us; and he who has once tasted the sweets of fox-hunting is its devotee for life, thus proving the old adage, "Once a fox-hunter, always a fox-hunter." The system once having absorbed the love of the chase, it can never be eradicated. Every man, however, who goes hunting is not neces- sarily a fox-hunting enthusiast, as is proven by those who return as soon as the fox is afoot and the social preliminaries are over-thinking doubt- less fox-hunting is a most fascinating and en- viable pursuit in the abstract. To real sportsmen the mere killing of the fox is no gratification. The excitement and pleasure of the chase and the health-giving exercise are 9 Horse and Hound. its chief attractions, besides there is no sweeter music on earth to the ear of the hunter than the harmony of the tuneful chorus of eager hounds in full cry, blending with the mellow horn. The following tribute to the good qualities of a fox-hunter, by "Martingale," I feel sure will not be out of place here: "It has frequently been remarked that the heart of a fox-hunter is invariably in its right place, that with him there is more ingenuousness, more candor, more generosity, more vigor in thought as well as in action, than can be found in men who are pent up in crowded cities. This peculiarity is easily explained. Although the fox- hunter may not be enabled, like the magician of old, to tell the footfall of Aladdin amid the tumul- tuous roars, the noisy life currents, or life streams of a dense community, he can do more on the score of perception and penetration than the dweller immured in the smoke of furnaces and steam engines and the roar of machinery, or those who are chained to the desk from morning till evening, or nailed to a counter like a bad penny. The laws of visible fact may be appreciated by men whose god is gain and whose worship is the jaggrandizement of self, according to the nicest calculation of fractions infinitesimal, but the fol- lower of hounds possesses that vigor of frame and vigor of action which have their invariable accompaniment in vigor of mind and vigor of 10 Hunting. II conception, one yielding to the promptings of the other and perfectly harmonizing in themselves." Fox-hunting is not only a recreation and amusement, but a science and an art in which but few ever obtain proficiency. It is one of the few sports that is not more or less tainted with pro- fessionalism. It eminently encourages compan- ionable qualities in man, is conducive to health and good fellowship, and is frequently the means of cementing strong, lifelong friendships. Courage, skill, and perseverance are all the outcome of excitement and ardor engendered by the chase, and are qualities that should be en- couraged and fostered in every man. As to its effect on the youth of the country, "Scrutator" wisely says: "Fox-hunting has been compared to warfare, and what better school could be found to prepare our youth for the battlefield It makes them good horsemen, teaches them to look danger boldly in the face, to disregard falls, hard knocks, and bruises, inures them to undergo fatigue with cheerfulness, wet and cold without flinching, and braces their hearts and nerves for bolder enter- prises. In a national point of view, therefore, as tending to the welfare of the State, fox-hunt- ing is entitled to much greater support than it meets with." As to its antiquity the fox appears to have been one of the very last victims of the chase, Horse and Hound. brought about, doubtless, by the lawless slaughter of the boar, wolf, and stag. Though the Rev. Wm. Chafin, in his "An- ecdotes Respecting Cranborn Chase," states that Thomas Hownes, of Steepleton, Dorsetshire, had a complete and celebrated pack of foxhounds in 1730. The earliest recognized pack of hounds maintained exclusively for fox-hunting that I can find any authentic record of, is the Belvoir, which can be traced back to I750; the Pytchley Hunt being organized about twenty-five years later. As to the extent of fox-hunting in Great Britain as a national sport, the following figures, while certainly startling in their magnitude, are vouched for by a most reliable English authority, and if they err at all, it is upon the side of mod- eration rather than exaggeration. There are in Great Britain and Ireland, ac- cording to the kennel lists, 360 packs of hounds (exclusive of Beagles). The total is made up as follows: Staghounds-England, I7; Ireland, 9-24. Foxhounds-England and Scotland, i66; Ireland, 23-i89. Harriers-England and Scotland, i i9; Ireland, 28-147. Total, 362. Now, assuming that these 360 packs have an average of moo supporters, owning three horses each, we have a national hunting stud of io8,ooo. The value of these horses, of course, varies hugely; the wealthy man of i8 stone considers 1 2 COL. H. C. TRIGG. M. F. H. Trigg Hounas. 12 Kentucky, This page in the original text is blank. hunting. t the hunter which can carry him well to hounds cheap at 1,750 or 2,ooo; while the lighter man, of shorter purse, thankfully mounts his i0 or II stone on a nag of one-sixth the price. The average value of these io8,ooo hunters is 400, which can not be considered extravagant, and thus we have a total sum invested in horseflesh of 43,- 200,000. These 36,ooo hunting men want some- thing in the way of clothing and saddlery, and it is not lavish to ascribe to each the possession of i50 worth of clothes and boots, and of I25 of saddlery and stable furniture; but even this modest allowance produces the handsome total of 9,goo,ooo invested in necessaries. Taking the value of each pack of hounds as 2,500, we get a total of 9oo,ooo; granting to each hunt i0 horses, at 250, for the servants, we get another 900,000; and putting the value of the hunt serv- ants' clothing and saddlery at 305 each hunt, we add to the foregoing items 99,ooo. Omit- ting the value of stable buildings and kennels, which is difficult to guess, we cast up the figures above given, and we find the gross total i,ooo short of 55,ooo,ooo. As to the size of individual packs, as hunted in England at the present time, the average is probably io couples, though the Belvoir has 66 couples, and the Duke of Beaufort 75 couples of hounds. As to the value of hounds in England, an idea may be formed when I state that Mr. Horse and Hound. Osbaldeston sold Lord Middleton IO couples for i,ooo guineas, and refused iooo guineas for 5 choice hounds, including the famous Furrier. In this country, the largest packs are the Orange County with 35, Meadowbrook 46, Rad- nor 48, and Eatontown Hunt with 50 couples of hounds. The average is about Io couples, but unfortunately there is no way of calculating the total number of packs in the United States. I am more familiar with the packs of Kentucky, and think ioo packs would be a conservative es- timate of the number in that State alone, being an average of less than one to the county, and I know of as many as a dozen in several different counties. In this country, since the earliest days of colonization, the sport of fox-hunting has thrived with unflagging, in fact, increasing enthusiasm. Our early ancestors, especially in Maryland, Vir- ginia, and Kentucky, were devotees of the sport, and every country gentleman owned his pack of hounds and stable of horses; but the first organ- ized hunt club, on the order of an English Hunt, was in i877, when ten couples of hounds were imported and drag runs were made on Long Island. They afforded probably more amuse- ment to outsiders than to the participants, who were caricatured and held up to ridicule by the press and illustrated papers. However, this sport found favor in the eyes and hearts of the riders 1s4 Hunting. of the East, and soon drag hunts were had near many of the Eastern cities. Thus a desire for cross-country riding was created which has de- veloped into the successful hunt clubs of the East. It has never been popular in any other section of the country, and is absolutely unknown in the South. A Southern hunter would as soon think of gratifying his sporting ambition by tossing up a dead bird bought in the market and shooting at it, as in running a drag, and the devotee of drag-hunting considers many of the fox-hunting customs of the South and West equally as absurd and amusing. Hunting in certain portions of New England is certainly unique. There is none of the form, ceremony, glamour, and glitter of the uniformed hunters, and sleek, beautifully caparisoned thor- oughbreds of the Eastern clubs, nor the reckless, dare-devil, noisy riding that characterizes the Kentucky and Southern hunter. Clubs are formed for the purpose of shooting foxes. They go to covert in large "barges," each hunter with his trusty shot-gun across his knees. They take posi- tions on a runway or stand, until the coverts resemble the business end of a battleship; the hounds are thrown in a swamp, and as they bring out Brer Fox a bombardment opens up resem- bling a Port Arthur attack and repulse. They are as proud of trophies obtained in this way as a schoolboy is of his first pair of red boots. It 15 Horse and Hound. being considered a distinction beyond compare to have one's name enrolled upon the official score board as having killed two or more foxes during a meet. South of the Mason and Dixon line it would be unhealthy for a man to indulge in this sport. They have an unwritten law in the South that would almost justify a man killing another man who even resembled such a hunter in personal appearance. The following hunting terms, used in the United States, should be thoroughly familiar to every one participating in a hunt, and as they are necessary to a proper understanding of the fol- lowing chapters, are given here at the outset: Stern, tail of a hound. Speaks, give voice on trail. Jumping powder, contents of drinking flask. Sinking, weakening before being overtaken. Ticklish scent, light uncertain trail. Break him, when fox is tossed to hounds to kill. Check, hounds stopped. Uses, where fox runs or stays. Pottering, wasting time on old trail. Drawing, working or hunting a covert. Cold trailing, working an old or cold trail. Feeling the line, trying to work out cold trail. Cropper, fall over head of horse. Sorry looking, ill-shapen, bad conformation. I 6 E. W. OVERBY. M. F. H. Virginia Carolina-Hunt, Virginia. II', This page in the original text is blank. Hunting. Gone to ground, entered a hole. Hitting it off, recovering the line after a loss or check. Mask, head of fox. Brush, tail of fox. Pad, foot of fox. Mute, running without giving tongue. Rioting, running wild and noisily. Tongue, voice of hound. Throwing tongue, giving voice. Lying, giving tongue when not on a trail. Lifting, taking hounds from where they are working and placing them on the line at another point. The line, the fox's trail. Blank, no game in covert. Breast high, scent strong enough to enable hounds to carry it with heads on a level with breast. Fox chunk, excrement of fox. Bristles up, carrying long hairs along spine erect. Eligible, three generations of pedigree. Breeder, party owning or leasing the dam at time of service. Barred, not allowed in the chase. Cunning, leaving the trail and cutting across to join the leading hounds. Burning scent, good, fresh trail. Hot trail, close upon fox. 2 1 7 Horse and Hound. Babbler, a noisy hound that gives tongue too freely. Cast, swinging to right or left in search of lost trail. Down wind, running with the wind. Challenged, gave tongue first. Up wind, running against the wind. Double, running to rear on same line. Throw it up, to quit. Skirter, running wide of pack. A loss, losing line or trail. Full-cry, when whole pack open up. Back tracking, running a trail backwards. A jump, raising the fox immediately in front of hounds without previous trailing. Thrown out, one or two hounds losing trail while others are running. Take off, finding trail after a loss or check. Coming in, returning to hunters. Go in, joining the other hounds while run- ning. Marked, penalized for faults. Chopped, killed the fox. Cover or covert, wood or place where foxes are located. Cub, young fox. Vixen, female fox. Dog fox, male fox. While many of the following terms are Hunting. strictly English, they are sometimes used in this country: Ware, cry to hound that is running or doing wrong. Hi-Hi-Hi, when overtaking fox. Crash, when all are giving tongue. Crop, hunting whip. Drag, scent left by fox on that morning. Dwelling, feeling a stale scent. Drafted, culled out. Earths are drawn, when vixen fox has drawn fresh earth-proof she intends to lay her cub there. Feathering, waving tail. Cover hoick, throwing hounds into covert. Eloo-in, into covert. Yoi over, over fence. Edawick-Edawick, to make hounds draw in cover. Yoi wind him, Yoi rouse him encourage hounds to draw. Yoi rouse him,) Hoick together, to get them together. Tally-O-Away, when a fox is viewed. Tally-O-Back, when a fox has returned to covert. Yo-hote-yo-hote, when "check" to make hounds hunt. Eloo-at-him, or, Tally-ho at him, when hounds near the fox. I9 20 Horse and Hound. Foil, used when a fox runs the ground over which he has been hunted before. Heel, when hounds run trail backward. Holding scent, when hounds can follow but not fast. Mainearths, large breeding burrows. Mobbing a fox, taking him at a disadvantage. Stained, ground passed over by sheep. Streaming, hounds running like flock of pigeons. Thong, lash of hunting crop. FCXHALL-KEENE. M. F. H. New York. 21) This page in the original text is blank. THE HUNTER. "A gooWb Serif to an antmal mtt4 wany goob, ftm nbtfffntnt. ab no bab points. WHEN a youngster, my idea of a horse was very similar to the average Kentuckian's idea of the different brands of whisky-"all good, but some better than others." Unfortunately, not- withstanding my love for the horse, close, per- sonal contact with some certain specimens has caused me to change my views very materially. This change of sentiment may have been brought about by the fact that I have probably owned more than my share of the really bad (vicious) ones. It got to be quite a saying at the thorough- bred training tracks in Kentucky, if a horse was a bolter, confirmed runaway, or too rattle-brained to stand training, "Sell him to Colonel Williams for a cross-country horse." I have probably bought dozens of such. Among the lot some turned out very well indeed, and only one, "Hick- ory Leaf," I failed to subdue enough to at least enter to hounds. The day before he was to have had his first run in company he ran away with a friend of mine and sent him to the hospital for 21 Horse and Hound. weeks, so he was consigned to the harness brig- ade, magnificent animal that he was. I have had more experience with thorough- bred horses as hunters than any other breed, and while for several years I considered them par ex- cellence the best horse for hunting, I have changed my mind, and now consider the half or three-quarter bred thoroughbred the best strain. The nervous system of a thoroughbred is too sen- sitive. They have too much imagination, and it responds entirely too freely when they draw upon it. We all know how unreliable they are when it comes to temperament and disposition. They may be the aristocrats of the equine race, but not one in a score has the disposition to make a hunter. I have known them to voluntarily obey every demand of their rider for weeks as though dis- cipline were their second nature, then upon the first opportunity presenting itself, upset all his calculations and theories in regard to horseflesh by perpetrating some devilish trick entirely un- worthy the esteem in which he was held. This would cause me to exclaim, with the old darkey whom the horse had thrown into the creek, "That 's what makes me 'spize a hoss !" It is not an easy matter to select a hunter for another, nor is it easy to even advise one intelli- gently how to select a suitable mount. A horse one man would think perfection another would not have. 22 L Typical Lady's Hunter. Heavy Weight Hunter. g M R This page in the original text is blank. The Hunter. Different riders demand horses especially adapted by nature, disposition, size, and confor- mation to their own peculiarities, therefore, in selecting a hunter I would, above all things, give preference to suitability. Then I would consider disposition, next breeding, and lastly looks. Un- fortunately, nine-tenths of the hunters seen in the field in this country exactly reverse this order of selection, laying more stress upon looks and breeding than all the other qualifications com- bined, forgetting for the time being that the pleasure and enjoyment of the hunt are largely dependent upon the horse you ride, and looks and pedigree may stretch you in the ditch or hang you upon the fence, while stamina, activity, and a level head will keep you on the firing line. Therefore, my advice is, pay less attention to the looks and breeding of your horse than you do to his qualities as a hunter, and never, under any circumstances, buy a hunter without giving him a thorough trial in the field; jumping him over an obstacle in a paddock as a trial is about on a par with trying the accuracy and penetra- tion of a rifle with a blank cartridge. While no animal is more susceptible to appro- bation and flattery than a horse, I am one of the few that believe horses as a rule are possessed of a low order of intelligence, have absolutely no courage, and naturally are the greatest fools. Always nervous and apprehensive, they never call 2 3 Horse and Hound. reason to their assistance. The noble traits of character possessed by horses sounds well and looks well upon paper, but . However, there is a great diversity of opinion as to the in- telligence and courage of the horse. They cer- tainly have mentality enough to appreciate kind- ness and any sympathy shown them by mankind. A few words as to the treatment of a horse in the field may not be amiss; though a man may be accustomed to driving horses all his life, and may occasionally amble through the park on a well-mannered one, he wvill find it an altogether different proposition upon a hunter in the field. Elsewhere, I have treated upon seat and hands (the vitality of hunting). Next to these, nerve is the most essential requisite to riding to hounds. Loss of nerve causes nine-tenths of the accidents in the field, and though the horse may not possess a very high order of intelligence, he quickly finds you out and never fails to take ad- vantage of his knowledge; thus the horse fre- quently knows the rider better than the rider knows the horse. If the rider is courageous he immediately recognizes it and the knowledge but adds to his own courage. Horses are interesting to handle and study, but difficult to thoroughly understand. How few men ever understand or really appreciate a horse! They do not go about it in the right way. The great secret in handling a horse successfully is 24 ADMIRAL JAMES JOUETT. First President National Fjx-hlart Associa-ior. This page in the original text is blank. The Hunter. to win his confidence, this once gained, retain it at any sacrifice. Viciousness and stubbornness can never be thrashed out of a horse; if you can not gain his confidence by kindness and sym- pathy, convince him by the Rarey or Gleason methods that you are his master and will be obeyed, and you wvill have no further trouble with him. Nothing develops the equine intellect more than close contact with men, therefore, make a companion and friend of your horse. Never treat your horse in an indifferent, me- chanical manner as though he wvere an "auto," if you expect him to be responsive and enter into your sport with life and zest. In the selection of a hunter, if a kicker and plunger or a stumbler, by all means choose the former. A horse may kick or throw you off, and as the old darkey said about being blown up on a train, "Dar you is ;" but if he stumbles and falls with you, it is as he said about being blown up on a steamer, "Whar is you" While risk and danger incurred are factors that add to the attractiveness of the sport, take my advice and do not seek them through the means of a stumbling horse. A horse that kicks at hounds (favorite pas- time of the thoroughbred) is an abomination in the eyes of all hunters, and if he can not be cured, which is quite difficult to do, he should be put to drawing an, omnibus-the sooner the better. 25 Horse and Hound. Stabling him with hounds will not effect a cure, for while behaving himself with the hounds he knows, he will let drive at the first "outsider" that comes within range. I know of no harder task than explaining to an owner how your horse happened to kick and cripple or kill his favorite hound. A hunter is in his prime between the ages of six and nine, and must be at least six years old before one can expect hard service of him, day in and day out, in the field. Have known of hunters twenty years old that could hold their own with a four-year-old in a long bruising run. The average life of usefulness in the field is six years, while some do not last the season out, bow- ing a tendon in a few runs. As to size, the extremely large hunters have never been popular with me. While the saying that a "good big horse is always better than a good little horse," carries weight with it, I am partial to a 15-2 or I5.3 horse, if he has bone, substance, and nerve force with it. Build and con- stitution certainly have more to do with weight- carrying ability than either avoirdupois or height; tall men look better on tall horses, and small men, vice versa. The average weight of a horse in hunting condition, capable of carrying a heavy weight, should be about 1,150 pounds, a middle weight, I,050, and a light weight, I,ooo pounds. Sev- 26 LightWeight Hunter. Medium Weight Hunter. This page in the original text is blank. The Hunter. eral things that I would impress upon my reader are, never condemn a hunter on his looks, re- member that a horse suitable to one kind of coun- try and hunting may not be adapted to another; that a horse's endurance is always limited by his weakest part; and that the power of a horse only increases with size, provided the relative propor- tion and general compactness are maintained. I lay but little stress upon looks in the field. However, it is a well-known fact that horses w: both jumnp and run in all shapes, as is evidenced by the performances of Decapod and Hats-Off, two ill-looking hunters I sold in the East at nom- inal sumis, which afterwards became famous hunters. The case of Badge is also remarkable. He was sold at auction and was such a "sorry," weedy looking specimen that he was bought for a song. His purchaser gave as his reason for buying him, that owning a race horse would en- title him to a free entrance badge to the races. lie was accordingly named "Badge," and proved to be one of the greatest horses of his class, win- ning a fortune which made his owner independent for life. Few American-bred hunters have ever been taken to England, but those which have, com- pared most favorably with the English-bred hunters, as have also the comparatively few American riders who have hunted in England, compared with the home talent. 27 Horse and Hound. In the selection or judging of a hunter the following points should be considered. If a horse has a small, lean, finely chiseled forehead, and rather wide nostrils, and small, thin, evenly shaped ears, it is an indication of high breeding, though a horse may show high breeding without possessing qualities one would naturally expect to be present, especially in a high- class hunter. The expression of the eye generally indicates the character of the horse. Narrow eyes, set far back in the sockets, and those exposing much white of eye frequently indicate vicious tempera- ment. A round, full, mild eye in a prominent socket indicates a tractable, bold, fearless dispo- sition, qualities much to be desired in a hunter. Neck should be long though strong, placed and carried more like the thoroughbred than the harness or saddle horse. This allows one to lean forward on the rise in jumping, so necessary to balance of both horse and rider, without risk of being struck in the face. It is absolutely necessary that a hunter have long and oblique shoulders, they reduce the con- cussion to both rider and horse, as do long, slant- ing pasterns, and add to the years of usefulness of a hunter afield. Feet should be straight, neither in nor out, and elbows placed to insure perfect freedom of movement. 28 FRANK SHERMAN PEER. New York. This page in the original text is blank. The Hunter. Withers should be high, giving a surer and firmer seat, and retaining saddle in place, yet not sharp or prominent enough to become saddle- bruised. Back should be broad across the loins, well ribbed up,-back is strongest when straight and short, weakest when long and hollow-should not be too long, yet a certain amount of length with extra strong loin is necessary to enable a horse to get his hind legs sufficiently well under him. Hind quarters as a whole should be deep, long, full, and round, the hind legs furnishing the chief power of propulsion. From rear, thighs should be long and well rounded. From hocks to fetlock parallel, and not inclined to "cow- hock." While sickle hocks are much decried, yet it is astonishing how many jumpers possess them. SCHOOLING OF HUNTERS. ALL quadrupeds in a wild state acquire a knowledge of jumping as a matter of necessity; the horse in its domestic state requires careful and intelligent training to enable him to properly clear obstacles with ease to himself and rider. A horse which can not by proper handling be taught to jump is deficient in either brains or nervous energy, as it is natural for a horse to answer to the demands of a stronger mind, es- pecially when exerted through kindly enforced discipline. It has generally been the practice, especially in Kentucky, to commence the schooling of a hunter in his two-year-old form, but my friend, Frank S. Peer, a most successful schooler of hunters, goes us one better and advises the com- mencement of the education of a hunter before he is foaled, and continued throughout his suckling age. Horses seldom, if ever, bring reason to their aid. Natural instinct, however, enables him to learn by association with reasoning beings (through absorption or close contact) things which otherwise could not be instilled into him. 30 Schooling of Hunters. With undoubted confidence in his rider, a horse can be induced to undertake most anything which otherwise any amount of force or abuse would not tempt him, under ordinary circum- stances, to essay. If one wishes to commence at the rudimen- tary principles of jumping, the horse should be turned loose in a small paddock with bars open- ing into another paddock. Put up the bottom bar (not to exceed 12 inches) and drive him in a walk over the bar. After having driven him (loose) back and forth several times, increase his pace until he has jumped it several times at a gallop, allowing him to catch his wind be- tween times, and do not excite him. Then halter and lead him over a few times, following this by leading him over by bridle. On the next day the bar should be raised to 24 inches and the same lesson repeated. At the third lesson he should be mounted and the bar dropped to I2 inches again. Alternate his pace between walk, trot, and canter. At the fourth lesson raise the bar to 24 inches and be very careful that he jumps only at the paces you desire, still alternating the walk, trot, and canter. Make these preliminary lessons short and do not allow him to become fretted. As soon as he performs well the slight tasks as above assigned, he can be taken from the pad- dock lessons. The bars or obstacles should then 31 32lorse and Hound. be placed against a wall or solid fence, one end touching same and the other end open, so that if disposed he can pass around rather than over the obstacle. I do not believe in teaching or schooling a horse intended for use in the field to jump in a chute or narrow lane. If merely intended for a high jumper at horse shows this chute plan is as good, if not better, than others, but it will not serve in training for the field. The height of the jumps should be advanced slowly and never during a lesson. It may seem folly to you to keep a horse jumping at two feet when you know full well that he can as easily clear three feet, and the temptation will be very great to increase the jump, especially if witnesses are present, but my word for it, there are more jumpers ruined by advancing too rapidly at this stage of the game than at any other. XVhen he jumps quietly, methodically, and just at the pace you desire, you can increase the height a little; however, at the first sign of "sour- ing" or "going stale," set him back in his les- sons, decreasing the jump at least a foot, and work up to it gradually again. Do not lose pa- tience with him or fight and punish him. He will naturally associate the punishment with the jump, and either become afraid or nervous when required to jump. A sharp rap with crop when he strikes timber, followed by a caress and en- 32 Schooling of Hunters. couragement when he next makes a clean jump, will be more effective than all the floggings you could give him. Forbearance and patience, combined with in- genuity, will frequently do more toward accom- plishing your end than all the punishment you can bestow upon him. Remember, a highly bred horse is constitutionally nervous, his greatest weakness is fear, which can be largely overcome or minimized by obtaining, and never abusing, his confidence. In earlier training have good stiff bars which will not yield upon contact, but which will hurt or throw a careless or indifferent jumper. Later on, in high jumps, lighter rails may be substi- tuted where there is actual danger from a fall, but even this is doubtful policy. Do not worry or fret him by too frequent repetitions at any one time, especially to the ex- tent of fatigue or soreness, for both quickly re suit when you have reached the point of high jumping. Should he become "bucked" stop all training until no soreness is apparent. Give him a little breathing spell between jumps and let him walk quietly up to and past the obstacle several times. The main thing one has to guard against is to prevent him from increasing his speed and rushing his jumps. He must be taught to shorten his stride the same as a man does in collecting 3 33 Horse and Hlound. himself to jump. This allows him a chance to get his hocks and hind legs, the powers of propulsion in a horse, well under him. The general impression is, a horse jumps bet- ter when allowed to go fast at his fences-the impetus thus gained will enable him to take a wider leap and he is really easier to sit and seems to take it with less effort, but the only safe and sure jumpers are those who check up and gather their legs under them by a few short, well-cal- culated steps (the same as a man does) before taking off. A horse in height jumping raises his fore- quarters, then suddenly straightens his hind limbs, using the ground for a fulcrum, thus propelling his body forward and upward. He should land upon his fore feet first, but not too perpendicu- larly, they receiving a part of the shock, the hind legs follow immediately and receive most of the shock and are in position to propel him on to his stride. Before going to the field he should be jumped over all kinds of obstacles, piles of dirt, stacks of lumber, ladders, chairs, all kinds and forms of fences, ditches, dikes, and streams, for one can never tell what one may encounter in a run across country. A picket fence is really less for- midable than it looks, though there are many horses which will take a five-foot rail fence that will refuse a four-foot picket. If approaching a 34 FRANK S. GIBSON. West Virginia. 34 This page in the original text is blank. Schooling of Hunters. picket fence from the stringer side, there is com- paratively little danger, as a light blow of either leg or hoof will knock off the picket; from the opposite direction the picket, protruding above the stringer about twelve inches, will break off close to the stringer. While it is not generally supposed to be so, it is a fact that fencing and timber are stiffer in America than in England. In England, the uncertainty of what lies beyond fences, ditches, and hedged water jumps, with yielding banks, makes them very hard to negotiate. It therefore requires both a better hunter and rider in Eng- land than in America to live in front. In America, the most dangerous thing to be encountered in the field is the wire-topped fence, whether of wood or of stone, and it is to be avoided, whenever possible. There is only one safe way to jump a wire fence and that is by placing one's coat along the top wire. This plan is much practiced by those who do not carry a pair of wire cutters in their pockets, the latter class, however, largely pre- dominate. Timidity, soreness, and temper are the main reasons why a hunter will refuse to jump. The two former combined are more easily overcome than the latter alone, but never forget that nine times out of ten the fault is really that of his rider or trainer, and that it is unfair and 35 6Horse and Hound. cowardly to punish a horse for some one else's fault. Kind, rational treatment, combined with pa- tience, will do more than harsh, unjust punish- ment, especially as the horse, not being a mind reader, seldom knows just what he is punished for, and his tendency is to associate the punish- ment with the very act you wish performed, rather than the mistake. Horses properly schooled and trained un- doubtedly enjoy hunting, but the same horses, if confined to hurdling and steeple-chasing, soon "sour." I attribute this more to the punishment they receive than to anything else, for horses un- doubtedly enjoy the excitement of the hounds and the chase. In high jumping, when approaching the ob- stacle the rider should resolutely, with firm seat and hand, give the horse the impression that a refusal is impossible. You can tell from his shortened step and extended neck just when he is going to take off, then lean slightly forward, allowing the hands to follow his head, and keep a light, steady feel of his mouth. Remember there is no such thing as "lifting" a horse. That is as impossible as lifting one's self by one's boot straps, and any interference with a horse's head in the act of jumping is a decided detriment rather than an assistance to him. If he makes a "bobble" in landing, he can be 36 Schooling of Hunters. very materially assisted by proper support on the bit, but just how much support can be safely given even then depends very largely upon the individual horse, his particular mouth, and its condition at the time. If it becomes necessary, one should not hesi- tate to clutch the mane, pommel, or cantle, but never pull or yank the reins. In the former case you alone may fall, but in the latter, both you and the horse are liable to come down with a crash. Remain firm and rigid below the waist line, above the waist flexible. Give way to the center of gravity by balancing; you will thus find your- self leaning forward during the rise, straight at the top, and backward during the descent. As soon as he lands, resume proper erect posi- tion in seat without assistance from reins, again feel of his mouth and do not allow him to increase his speed until he hAs gathered himself up prop- erly and is in his natural stride. Should you fail to perform your part as well as the horse does his, and you take a tumble, do not release the reins if you can possibly avoid it. It is decidedly better to take chances upon being trampled rather than dragged by the stirrup, for there is always a chance of this, notwithstanding the use of both safety bars and safety stirrups. As there are never two horses alike in their character, action, disposition, and method of fenc- 37 Horse and Hound. ing, in the field one can at least afford to allow his horse to have his own way, to a certain ex- tent, and to use his own "think tank" in jump- ing. Unless you are an expert he will know as much about the jump, and certainly more about his own individual powers as a timber topper, than you. Always bear in mind that a horse gets his courage, fear, and uncertainty as to jumping from his rider, and if your courage oozes out of the tips of your fingers at a critical place, you can as surely expect his courage to ooze from the tip of his tail. In the South and West, where one hunts through heavy woodlands, and through country cut up by coulees, ruts, and gullies, unless a horse has had special training, it would be almost im- possible to force him up and down the precipitous banks encountered, such sliding and scrambling requiring the surefootedness of a goat. Horse shows in the past decade have done much to foster and improve the hunter in this country. A resume of rules and classes at the last show of the National Horse Show Associa- tion will be found both useful and interesting to the admirer, breeder, and user of the hunter. HUNTER CLASSES. Horses which have been shown at any place of exhibition for a fixed compensation or guar- 38 'Ia: AD iT' Om 0 This page in the original text is blank. Schooling of Hunters. 39 antee shall not be eligible for entry as Qualified Hunters. They may, however, be entered where performances over fences only count. All exhibitors entering their horses in the Qualified Hunter Classes must furnish a certifi- cate from the Master of the Hounds with whom their horses have been hunted. Forms of certifi- cate will be furnished by this Association. Only men or boys over fourteen years of age will be allowed to ride in the Hunter or Jumping Classes. All horses, to win prizes in the Hunter Classes, must be pronounced practically sound by the Vet- erinarians of the Association, and must carry a minimum weight of I40 pounds. QUALIFIED HUNTERS Must have been kept for hunting purposes and have been regularly hunted with a recognized pack of hounds for one year, and within one year of date of entry. Horses entered as hunters can not be entered in classes for "Horses suitable to become hunters." Qualified hunters (heavy weight) up to car- rying over i9() pounds to hounds. Qualified hunters (middle weight) up to car- rying between i65 and i90 pounds to hounds. Qualified hunters (light weight) up to car- rying under i65 pcunds to hounds. Horse and Hound. Conformation and quality to count 50 per cent; performance over fences,.50 per cent. Ladies' qualified hunters must be up to car- rying i65 pounds to hounds. Conformation and quality to count 25 per cent; performance over fences, and manners, 75 per cent. For the best three qualified hunters from one Hunt, to be shown by the master, whips, or mem- bers of the Hunt in the Hunt uniform. Uniforms and appointments to count 25 per cent. CORINTHIAN CLASS. Open to qualified hunters only- Horses must be ridden by members of some recognized Hunt Club. Conformation and qual- ity to count 25 per cent; performance over fences, 75 per cent. JUMPING CLASSES. Jumping class, open to all- Performances over fences only to count. For the best performance of hunters or jump- ers over six fences, two at five feet, two at five feet six inches, and two at six feet, to carry a minimum weight of i40 pounds. High jump, open to all. For the first trial the bars will be placed at a height of five feet; they will then be raised to five feet six inches, to six feet, to six feet three 40 Schooling of Hunters. inches, and six feet six inches. Only three trials will be allowed each horse at the different heights. In the event of two or more horses clearing six feet six inches, the judges, in making their awards, will consider the form in which the horses have taken their jumps, and may, in their discretion, increase the height of the jump. In addition, classes are provided for thor- oughbred qualified hunters, and horses suitable to become hunters. The bright particular stars in the jumping classes during the past years have been Rose- berry, Ontario, Filemaker, Richmond, Rudolph, Tychobrache, Chappie, and Heatherbloom. Heatherbloom's record of eight feet two and one- half inches in the world's record, and will un- doubtedly long remain so. Chappie's record of clearing twenty-five feet over a five foot eight inch fence places him in a class by himself. 4I CROSS-COUNTRY RIDING. Increased interest in cross-country riding has grown with more rapidity in the past few years in the North and East than at any time in its history. This is evidenced by the increased num- ber and superior quality of the entries in the jumping classes in the horse shows and the or- ganization of new hunting clubs throughout the country. There are many works on the horse and rid- ing that enter into the smaller details of purely technical instruction, but while admitting that theoretical knowledge is of value in every sport, yet, in cross-country riding and hunting, prac- tice is more necessary than theory, so I shall con- fine myself to a few short practical words of ad- vice and instruction to riders in the field, trust- ing that they may be of assistance to them in working out their own salvation. Hunting involves riding over a great variety of country, and requires all the essential ele- ments of a good seat. The military seat, while advocated by many, is not adapted to cross-coun- try riding, though some extraordinary feats have 42 CD CD c- CD zrSW Ia0tSa' v Cm :Xa .CD1Weq V Cat tC iD ;, ! EF f 0 ' ; pCD 0 X I : :fD : :f 0 i0FF 0 f f 0 00 (DC : :af ! 0 :; t;. 1 OtXCDEf CD 4 0 42 This page in the original text is blank. Cross-Country Riding. been performed by soldiers of both the French and Italian armies, especially in the line of hill climbing and precipitous jumps. It takes considerable nerve (I have never been accused of a lack of it) to advance a theory in regard to riding directly in opposition to the well-known theories so long in practice in Eng- land, and I shall doubtless be hauled over the coals for doing it, but I want to go on record right here as opposing the grip seat in hunting and cross-country riding. I have tried both the grip, as used in England, and the balance seat, as used in America, and I am prepared to say that there is no earthly comparison either for the horse or for the rider when comfort and safety are considered. It would be a difficult task to convert our English cousins to this style, as they have in- herited it for ages from sire to son, but it was just as hard to convince them that the seat of our jockeys, so entirely different from their own, was the correct one. Though Sloan, Reiff, and other pioneer jockeys were severely criticised, they continued to win until now the English jockey seat is almost a duplicate of our own. While the English are undoubtedly slow and thoroughly hard to convince, they are neverthe- less genuine sportsmen, open to conviction, and I expect to live to see the day when they will ride in the hunting field by balance, although it is a 43 Horse and Hound. well-known fact that some sportsmen never out- grow favorite fancies, whether right or wrong. It is difficult to get an Englishman to try rid- ing by balance even on the flat, and as for timber topping with balance seat, such a suggestion would cause him to doubt your sanity, and this in view of the fact that none of the many Eng- lishmen who essayed riding Buffalo Bill's buck- ing bronchos succeeded, while the balance seat cowboys rode them with ease, rolling and light- ing cigarettes and fanning themselves through- out the pitching and bucking. I recall my own first experience in riding a bucking broncho. I had gone West upon a hunt- ing trip to Colorado when a youth of seventeen, and in selecting a horse from the band for my own use, I decided upon a sleek, round-looking "Cayuse" in preference to the many thin, wiry, run-down-looking ones in the band, not knowing at the time that his condition was positive evi- dence that he was a "bucker." Being asked if I had ever ridden a "bucker," I remarked that I had been raised on horseback in Kentucky and could ride anything that wore hair. In a few moments I regretted my remark, when 1 found myself piled up in a corner of the adobe wall sur- rounding the corral and the onlookers giving me the laugh. I had hardly seated myself when he commenced as fine an exhibition of bucking as ever was seen. Not having taken the precau- 44 f A S 0 a1 Correct Seat. Incorrect Seat. 4 This page in the original text is blank. Cross-Country Riding. tion to adjust the stirrup leathers I was unable to assume a balance seat, and the motion being an entirely new and novel one to me, I attempted to hold on by gripping the legs. This soon brought me to grief and to grass. Knowing that it would never do to give it up, I had the leathers adusted-quite a lengthy undertaking on a cow- boy's saddle-and by this time had recovered some of the wind that had just been knocked out of me. One of the ranchmen remarked, "Turn yourself loose in the saddle, Kentuck, and you will have him." This I rightly interpreted as meaning "Ride him by balance." I did so, and thus solved the mystery of riding a "bucker," and afterwards made quite a reputation as a "broncho buster." It is not generally known that President Roosevelt is a fox-hunter, but such is the fact. In this, as well as everything else he undertakes, he is an enthusiast and an expert. He thor- oughly understands and practices the balance seat which has enabled him and his horses to make record-breaking rides in the West, as well as to negotiate fences that men of his weight de- cline. The illustration shows him on his favor- ite hunter "Bleistein." Those who learn to ride late in life lean for- ward with uncertain seat, which necessarily means a heavy hand on the bit; they seldom ac- quire a good seat, and I can tell at a glance a 45 Horse and Hound. rider (more especially a woman) who acquired practical knowledge of riding when young. The easiest and surest way to learn to jump by balance is bareback, without reins or anything in the hands; in a few lessons one will acquire a correct, firm, close seat that it would take months to obtain in the ordinary way. By balance only can the center of gravity be maintained throughout a jump from the take off to the landing. In riding by grip the center of gravity can not be shifted and the weight of rider practically remains at the same point or level. The balance seat, aside from being the secur- est and easiest on horse and man, is the most natural, as is proved by bareback boy riders and Indians and cowboys, who are accounted among the best riders in the world. That riding by grip is much harder upon man than balance riding is evidenced by complaints of the former as to cramps and stiffness after eight or ten hours in the saddle. From all accounts of Tom Smith's riding and seat, he undoubtedly rode by balance and not by grip, and while he was much criticised by his English friends for his "loose seat and inelegant riding," his worst enemy could not but say a bet- ter rider in results never went across country, as his record of go foxes in 9i days' hunting has never been equaled. 46 Cross- Country Riding. Light hands are the most necessary and hard- est qualification for a rider to acquire. A light hand is one that feels a horse's mouth as deli- cately as a physician feels one's pulse, putting no more pressure upon it than is absolutely neces- sary. The necessity for, and importance of, this can not well be overestimated, as a horse's dis- position, action, and manners in the field are en- tirely governed and controlled by it. A good rider with good hands can rectify and cure many bad faults in a horse. The seat of the rider has more to do with the lightness and heaviness of a rider's hands than any other thing, the stability of seat exert- ing great influence upon the mouth. In other words, a rider with bad seat can never hope to acquire good hands. Never take it for granted that the groom has attended to all the details of arranging bits and curb, girths and stirrup bars-the fact that it is his duty to do so is very good reason why he has not done so-therefore never mount until you have verified all these details and know they have received proper attention; that is, if you respect your life and limb, as the possibility of an acci- dent is a feature of hunting we can not ignore, for there are times when neither nerve nor skill avail against it. In mounting, approach the horse's head on 47 Horse and Hound. the left side, speak to him, and pat him on the neck or crest. Take position opposite the near fore foot, facing quartering to the rear. Speak to the horse again, grasp the reins in the left hand with snaffle reins shortened, left hand on horse's neck near the withers. If a tall horse twist a lock of mane between thumb and forefinger. Place toe of foot in stirrup with right hand, only as far as ball of foot, seize cantle of saddle on right side with right hand, spring from right foot as- sisted by right hand only, throw right leg clear of cantle and ease down into seat by friction of right leg on saddle flap. Retain grip on mane until well into seat, being very careful not to ex- ert any pressure on the reins during process of mounting. If horse starts before well in the seat do not jerk, but speak to him and take light ten- sion on bit. If the horse and his habits are well known to you, and you can safely rely on his standing perfectly still and not moving or kick- ing while mounting, you can take position oppo- site stirrup leathers and face quartering to head, which is an easier way of mounting. The stirrup leathers should not be too long, as a military seat is not desirable, but just long enough to enable the rider to clear the pommel, when erect, and to obtain balance forward and backward when ris- ing and descending to a jump. This will place the leg from knee down perpendicular to the ground and parallel with the horse's front leg; the 48 Ccrrect Seat. Ircorrect Seat. This page in the original text is blank. Cross-Country Riding. elasticity of knee and ankle in this position will assist in taking off the jar of the horse's com- pact with the ground. In handling four reins in one hand, the left snaffle should be outside little finger, right snaffle between first and middle fingers, left curb be- tween little and third finger, and right curb be- tween middle and third fingers, the ends of all four drawn upward and between thumb and first finger, falling over the thumb-being pressed against first finger by thumb. The snaffle and curb reins may be taken up or relaxed quickly by the right hand without re- leasing hold or position of same with left hand, which would cause confusion. In jumping, it is well to reverse the relative position of the snaffle and curb reins, as the curb will seldom be brought into use and should be used sparingly. Remember the reins are the telephone wires that establish communication between horse and rider, and are not intended for punishment or torture. Cruel bits never cured a confirmed bolter or puller, and should be condemned. The elbows should be carried against side of body, hands low down close to body, knuckles out, wrists slightly bent. In jumping never throw up the arms. This is a fault I uncon- sciously possessed and never knew it until I no- ticed it in photos taken while fencing. Had any 4 49 Horse and Hound. one accused me of it I should have indignantly denied it. It had evidently become a fixed habit, as I found it quite difficult to break myself of it. As to saddles,-this largely depends upon the conformation of the man. Saddles that are thin and flat and fit close to the horse are the best for the average man and should cover as much of the horse as possible without being too large for the rider. I have probably tried every kind of saddle in use, and personally prefer the Whit- man field officer's military saddle with slightly elevated pommel and extension cantle. All hunting saddles should have the safety stirrup leather bars; these should be kept well oiled and frequently opened. I have lost both stirrup and leather upon several occasions in run- ning through thick, tangled woods, but have been more than repaid for their loss by being released at critical times. In addition to the safety bars, I also use a safety stirrup, this being an extra precaution sel- dom taken, but I believe in the old adage of an "ounce of prevention being worth a pound of cure." Martingales should never be used unless a horse absolutely demands them, and but few do. The stiff martingale should never be used. Too much care and attention can not be de- voted to properly bitting a hunter. Powerful, 50 Cross- Country Riding. cruel bits of variable intensity cause nervous horses to degenerate into plungers, bolters, and. pullers. While the Pelham, Chifney, and Whit- man bits are popular, the plain port curb and Bridoon (snaffle) is the most serviceable and humane, and is best for both horse and rider. The constant or too frequent use of spurs will deaden the sensibility of the horse; they should be almost entirely for ornament, and seldom, if ever, used. However, they are like the "pistol in Texas." If the horse is backing into another horse or into an obstacle and danger threatens which can be avoided by quick action, then they are ex- cusable, but never as a means of punishment or to rally a flagging horse, as long as the crop is at hand. If rowels are used, they should have the points filed off. Never ride with a slack rein-it makes a horse careless, lazy, and indifferent to his gaits and manners, and may be the means of "entering him" to prayer. A tight rein is equally as bad, as the steady constant pull makes pullers of horses that would otherwise have very "genteel mouths." In ascending hills and steep banks, take a winding, or zigzag, course; in descending go straight down-if the horse should slip he can 5 I 52 Horse and Hound. slide down on his haunches, but when going down sideways there is no chance of him recovering his balance. If you realize your horse is getting beyond your control, instantly begin sawing the reins through his mouth, especially the snaffle, followed with a quick succession of jerks and pulls. It is seldom that a runaway horse can be stopped by a dead pull; if you have strength to accomplish this, your strength will break the bit or bridle, before your object is accomplished. Correct Seat. Incorrect Seat. This page in the original text is blank. FALLS. THERE is about as much art in falling as in riding. Unfortunately, there is but one way of becoming an "adept," and that is by practice. But little advice can be given, some will say stick on to the last, others, clear yourself for action the moment you feel a fumble. If your stirrup safety bars are in good working condition and your horse makes a bungle of his jump or comes down upon his knees in landing, kick your feet loose from the stirrups, grasp him by the mane, give him his head, and scramble astride along with him, and when he rises you will be surprised to find how often you come up with him, probably not in the saddle, but on him somewhere from withers to croup. But should he unseat you, throwing you over his head, keep going, rolling or scrambling to keep ahead of him, for they fre- quently make the second stumble in gathering their hind legs under them. If you realize, how- ever, that you are out of the seat and have no chance to regain it, shrug the shoulders up close around the neck and tuck your head. Do not straighten or stiffen the body and limbs, but go all in a heap, the same as you have seen many 53 Horse and Hound. a drunken man fall on the street-they do not possess the charmed lives ascribed to them, their many wonderful escapes are due to the manner in which they fall, i. e., "all of a heap." If he falls or rolls upon you and you can grasp him around the neck as near the head as possible, do so, and hold him down until either assistance arrives or you are satisfied your feet are clear of the stirrups and no bones are broken, when you may release him. Some may smile at this ad- vice, thinking it impossible to thus hold a horse down. I know it is possible, for I have person- ally tried it successfully upon three occasions. Retain your hold upon the reins as long as possible; you will find them of great assistance in reaching "terra firma" with less momentum, and it may be the means of saving you a mad chase across the field after your horse, and a man un- doubtedly looks as big a fool as he feels in this interesting occupation. If one experiences immunity from falls, the constant dread of it will always be with him, but one or two harmless croppers will soon set him at ease, though no one will hardly assert that a cropper is an enjoyable addition to the day's sport. I would not, therefore, advise one to seek it, but let it find him ready when it does come. One can never be a really good cross-country rider until he has had a few falls; in fact, they add to rather than detract from the nerve and 54 courage necessary to face the perils encountered in a stiff country. If a man or woman, especially the latter, gets a fall, he should remount at once, if physically able, a loss of nerve at this stage is seldom re- gained, and there is no better way to avoid it than by resuming the saddle immediately. My wife received an ugly fall from a high- spirited horse and was so completely unnerved that, though completely uninjured, she could not be induced to remount. The consequence was she has never to this day regained nerve enough for the field; and while before she would keep her horse stabled for days to make him high spir- ited and restive, she now renounces all but an old family riding horse. I can not recall ever having heard any one describe the feelings experienced in their first cropper, but I shall never forget my own. I felt as though I were flying through space and would never reach the ground. My first thought on landing was, in fact I am not certain but that I audibly expressed it in the words, "Well, that wvas not so bad." Saddle courage should not be confounded with recklessness and dare-deviltry. They are as widely separated as the poles. The former is as much to be admired as the latter is to be con- demned. Fa /is. 55 WOMEN IN THE FIELD. It is fortunate, indeed, that fashion, pleasure, and health all combine to make the accomplish- ment of "riding to hounds" a most desirable one for women to acquire. In its acquirement it is unnecessary for a woman to learn the qualifications of a rough rider or horse breaker, nor is it yet sufficient that she be merely able to ride when a horse is brought around saddled and bridled, but should, like a man, know both her horse and trappings, and be able to control her horse with correctness and precision. It matters not how well a woman may ride in the park or school; unless she has discretion or judgment, combined with an abundance of nerve, pluck, and common "hoss" sense, she should not essay the hunting field. Loss of nerve is not un- common, and once lost is hard to recover. To obtain these highly necessary qualifica- tions, her entire nervous system needs education and special preparation, as the best of woman riders are born and not made. Elegance in riding is absolutely indispensable, 56 Women in the Field. or at least highly desirable. It is as easy to show gentle breeding in the field as in the drawing or ball room-probably easier; yet I have known women to give every evidence of it in the draw- ing-room who seemed unable to show it in the field. No matter whether in the park, school, or field, it is of the greatest importance for a woman to ride in good form. In fact, there is little or no excuse for a woman riding otherwise. Quiet, unobtrusive manners on horseback, will always attract attention and favorable comment. The rules, customs, and unwritten laws of the hunting field laid down for men, apply with equal force to women; they should bear in mind they have absolutely no privileges not accorded to men. This may sound harsh to the layman or novice (I hope this plain heart-to-heart talk with women will not be construed into a lack of gal- lantry upon my part), but I am sure will be fully understood and appreciated to the limit by any old hunter, either man or woman. In fact, no woman with the true spirit of a sportswoman within her wants to be a burden or care to a man under conditions existing in the field. She does not expect or care for attentions ordinarily extended, but wants to be treated as an equal, a companion in sport; in fact, a good fel- low, and can only enjoy herself under such con- ditions. Therefore, no special instruction or ad- 57 Horse and Hound. vice will be laid down here for the conduct of women in the field. They must early learn to trust to their own dexterity and judgment for their safety and posi- tion in the rim. Riding to hounds may seem easy to one while seated in a comfortable chair in a cozy corner of a drawing-room, but upon a cold, raw, wet, slip- pery day, on the back of a fretful, nervous horse, approaching a high fence with no idea of what is beyond, and doubtful if your horse has power enough left to carry you over or on top of the fence, it assumes an entirely different aspect. No woman should ride to hounds until she can manage all sorts and kinds of horses, mount and dismount unaided, jump fearlessly, and be capable of looking after both herself and her horse under any and all circumstances. It is hardly to be expected that a woman should hold her own in the first flight of hard riding men, yet I have seen them not only at- tempt it, but succeed, but only through a display of recklessness and dare-deviltry that had a man been guilty of it, he would undoubtedly have had every bone in his body broken. I never accord such riders a superabundance of either skill or pluck, but ascribe their per- formances to either ignorance of the dangers, or d foolishness upon their part. The after talk of "the ministering care of her guardian 58 Correct Seat and Hands. Incorrect Seat and Hands. This page in the original text is blank. Women in the Field. angel" and "the all-protecting influence of provi- dence over drunkards and fools" sounds very well, but some day she will be brought in from the field on a stretcher. As to the horse a woman should ride in the field, the most necessary qualifications are good mouth, level head, sure foot, both in jumps and on the field. He should have good withers, not too high and thin, as a sore back will follow, yet withers should not be lower than croup, as it will be almost impossible to hold the saddle in place; for the same reason a broad back is prefer- able to a narrow one. It is a mistake to have too small a horse for a woman, especially if she rides with side saddle; the same weight on a side saddle is much harder on a horse than a man's saddle. A five foot woman should use not less than a 15-I horse, irrespective of her weight. Few women are good judges of pace, or the amount of endurance a horse is capable of, and are inclined to regard them as a machine of un- limited power. They should early learn to gauge a horse's capacity, distressed breathing, and la- bored action are the most positive indications of distress. A game, ambitious hunter will go until he drops in his tracks. Aside from the cruelty of riding an overdone horse, it is exceedingly dan- gerous. A woman's horse should be broken for walls 59 Horse and Hound. before being sent to the field, a good timber top- per does not necessarily mean a stone fence or brook jumper. Many of the accidents encountered in the field occur in the break away, before the field becomes "istrung out," when the fox breaks covert, and the signal is given to "away." A woman should keep her wits about her, and take her time in get- ting position, allowing the madcaps and the hot- heads to have the first fence or gate to them- selves. It is seldom the first away are the first in at the death. If in doubt as to the landing side, do not hesitate to jog up to the fence and take a look, provided there is no one close be- hind you, turn and go back far enough to enable your horse to get well upon his stride before "put- ting him." Remember a careful, cautious rider is always more welcome in the field than a wild, in- competent one. Should your mount show the least inclination to rear, when refusing a jump, never mount him again. Of all vices, this is the most dangerous to women, and should never be tolerated. While a woman should not confine herself to any one horse, especially while a novice, she should never attempt a jump she is not certain her mount can negotiate. Many an ambitious, oversanguine young woman has come to grief over this, as have others in going at a jump in a half-hearted, irresolute manner. 60 Women in the Field. 6i While it is not an easy thing for a woman to open and close gates, it is an accomplishment they should possess and can only be acquired by con- stant practice, of both horse and rider. Every woman who rides anywhere, except possibly in a riding-school, should have a thor- oughly practical knowledge of bridling, saddling, and of the adjustment of bits and curbs, and yet it is astonishing how few men riders possess this knowledge. Too much is trusted to grooms. They, like all human beings, are not infallible; in fact, they are frequently careless and often criminally negligent. Always bear in mind that a run across country is an altogether different proposition from a ride through the parks or city; in fact, at any and all times, it is a serious matter as far as life and limb are concerned. A woman's hunting side saddle should be per- fectly plain, free of ornamentation, and with flat seat, no third pommel on the right side, and should be cut away above the withers, unless the horse's conformation demands it, there should be but little padding, the saddle fitting close to the horse. The stirrup leathers should come through opening in flap and not from between the seat and flap at their juncture. The cantle should extend about two inches beyond plumb line of spine, be flat and not turned or curved up. Horse and Hound. It is a mooted question whether the seat should be buck or pig skin; the former undoubt- edly gives greater resistance from friction. It is largely a matter of choice. The stirrup should be a high grade steel safety stirrup, opening only when pressure is brought to bear upon it from below. The plain and slipper stirrups are an abomination, and should never be used under any circumstances. I do not approve of a spur for side-saddle riding, and it is extremely questionable whether a woman should use one, even when riding astride. If it is absolutely necessary for a cer- tain horse, the spur should have the safety rowel. There are certain minutiae in regard to dress that no man can know of, or describe as well as a woman herself, but few women, however, until they have hunted several seasons, can bring them- selves to the point of sacrificing looks to comfort, safety, and durability. The habit should be sim- ple, well made, and well fitted, of the very best material, and always made with safety skirts. The latter are more or less awkward when one is dismounted, but this is more than offset by the feeling of security and safety it gives the wearer in the saddle. For winter hunting, the whipcords and dark rough materials are the best, though the khaki, or heavy duck habits, with. heavier underclothing, 62 GEO. J. GARRETT. Ge-o gia. 62 This page in the original text is blank. Women in the Field. can be used the greater part of the season, and have the advantage of being smarter in appear- ance, as well as cheaper. With the khaki, or duck habits, tan boots or putte leggins should be worn. The soles should be broad and quite heavy with low flat heels. Gloves should be large, of heavy material, with grip seams on palm and fingers, and strong clasps, well up on the wrists. A soft felt hat or a derby sufficiently large to set well and firmly on the head, should be secured by an elastic band-hat pins should never be worn in the field as they are exceedingly dangerous in case of an accident. A silk hat is bad enough on a man, but much worse upon a woman. I hardly think it necessary to mention lacing, a novice in the saddle never hunts or rides across country, and experience in learning to ride teaches one the saddle is no place for tight stays. I can not close the question of dress, how- ever, without suggesting that no matter how warm and pleasant the day may appear at the outset, provision should be made for an extra coat for use during a loss or check after a long run, or to be used in sudden changes of weather. A small, sleeveless chamois jacket, tightly rolled and tied to your saddle, later on may loom up into the proportions of a life-preserver. Never, never, mount for a run without know- 63 Horse and Hound. ing personally that your girths, saddle-cloths, and bits are all right. Nothing so thoroughly dis- gusts or angers a man as to be called upon in the field, especially during a run, to "please tighten my girths." Were a man engaged to a woman he would be justified in breaking the en- gagement under this great provocation. In mounting, hold your reins in right hand, grasping fixed pommel with same, turn your face and body slightly towards your horse, place your left hand on leaping horn, your left foot in hand of assistant about twelve inches from the ground, say "ready"-straightening the left leg at the same time-your assistant gives you a lift into the saddle sideways. Place the right knee over the fixed pommel, the left foot in the stirrup, lean back that he may pull your skirt forward and ad- just the straps; then lean forward with weight on stirrup that the habit may be pulled from be- neath you and straightened; test length of stir- rup; then transfer the reins to left hand and you are ready to ride. To dismount, take reins in right hand, re- lease habit straps with left, remove right knee from the fixed pommel; when skirts and straps are free place hands on pommels, turn sideways and spring clear of saddle and alight on balls of both feet. As with the man, the balance seat is the only 64 Women in the Field. one for a woman, and it should be thoroughly understood, both in theory and practice, as the most important and necessary thing to be re- membered and constantly borne in mind. Sit squarely upon the saddle, your shoulders at right angles with horse's spine, your own spine on a line with horse's, shoulders level-not one elevated above the other. Hollow of right knee should be pressed firmly against the fixed pom- mel with leg hanging down easily, enabling you to grip the fixed pommel with the upper part of calf of leg by drawing in the heel of right foot whenever necessary. The stirrup leather should be adjusted so that the loose pommel, or leaping horn, will touch the left leg about four inches above the knee cap when the ball of the foot is on bar of stirrup, the toe pointing up with the heel down. A shorter or longer stirrup leather is to be avoided. (See drawings, correct and incorrect.) Sit easily and comfortable erect, yet avoid ap- pearance of rigidity or stiffness, and bear in mind that a graceful and proper seat can only be ac- quired by balance, and not through pressure upon the pommels. The hip movement required in jumping and riding by balance can be readily un- derstood by riding a child's hobbyhorse. The labor of riding should be divided between the right and left legs, and not too much work or S 6,5 Horse and Hound. weight placed upon the left. This, however, can be accomplished only when riding by balance. The hands should be held hip high, wrists bent so knuckles point forward with thumbs up, with elbows close to the sides, wrists limber- never stiff; arms and hands never hanging at your side; reins to be held same as in instructions to man; crop in right hand. Light hands are a blessing enjoyed by few women, though as a rule they have better hands than men. It is lack of hands that produces rest- iveness and unruliness in horses. It is, therefore, requisite, in fact indispensable. to a woman wish- ing to ride with ease and safety, to have good hands. No matter how nervous or uncertain a woman may feel in the saddle, she should never allow her horse to find it out. You may admit this to every one in the field, but not to your horse. Horses are quick to "catch on" to this and quicker to take undue advantage of it, and should he even suspect you of these emotions, immediately con- vince him to the contrary, even if you have to "swallow your heart" to do so. The woman who clucks to her horse, the one who goes to the field with loose girths, and the one who asks questions of the master or hunts- man, should be coupled together and sentenced to pink teas on hunting days for the remainder of their natural lives. 66 Correct Seat. Incorrect Seat. Z - PR This page in the original text is blank. Women in the Field. Few women are capable of really controlling a vicious horse. Though they frequently believe their immunity from accidents is due to their skill, there will sooner or later come a time when they will have their eyes opened to the fact that luck has played equally as important a part as their skill and knowledge of horsemanship. Horses that can not be controlled by physical strength are frequently controlled by patience and knowledge, and it is wonderful the soothing effect a woman's voice has over some horses. Never, under any circumstances, release your hold upon the reins. If your horse bolts and you realize you have not the strength to hold him, draw the heel of the right foot in and up, thrust your left foot well into the stirrup and grip his side with left leg; sit close to the saddle, slightly incline forward, grasp the reins with both hands and steer him clear of all obstructions, and let him run. At the outset, saw the bit through his mouth, but do not jerk him sideways after he has attained his speed; you may only succeed in throwing him. A man can take this chance, but not a woman. When his first burst of speed and temper is over, try the effect of your voice with a steady pull of the bits through his mouth. Should he approach any hills or heavy plowed ground, pump him by giving him his head, and follow up with the voice and steady pulling as before. If in his flight he heads for house, fence, 67 Horse and Hound. or other obstructions he will not attempt to jump. Commence in time turning him to the right, so in case he gets you out of the saddle, you will go off to the left instead of the right. Your safety stirrup (without which no lady should ever get into the saddle) will release your foot, and your skirts come clear. Retain your grasp of the reins to the last, even when you have left the saddle; they will assist in letting you down easy. However, the main thing is not to let him get the start on you. If you suspect him of bolting, watch his ears closely; they are good indicators, and will generally give warning of his intention. Pull him up and face him the other way until his "spell" is over; then hold him dowvn to a mod- erate pace. The question of the cross saddle for women is now receiving much attention, many converts resulting. It is, however, but the revival of an ancient custom of the seventeenth century. It goes to prove there is "nothing new under the sun." Personally, I am a convert to the advisability of women riding astride, especially in the hunt- ing field. I believe it to be much safer, easier, and undoubtedly healthier, and while some think it ungraceful and undignified, I can not agree with them. Of course, a short limbed, fleshy woman mounted on a broad-backed horse would doubtless appear to disadvantage, but I am not 68 Women in the Field. certain she would not look equally as bad with the new style, short, close-fitting skirts on a side- saddle, especially from a rear view point. As to the question of hygiene, a member of my family consulted the eminent physician, Dr. Lewis Sayre, of New York, before deciding the question for her daughter, and he unhesitatingly indorsed the cross saddle as much the healthier of the two, and in consequence, her daughter adopted it, has never had cause to regret it, and is considered one of the best horsewomen in Ken- tucky to-day. With the new style divided skirt it is scarcely noticeable, and unless one's attention were called to it, few would detect the difference in a party of say six, half riding side and half cross saddles. You men who prate about the impropriety and immodesty of the style, try riding on a side-sad- dle for a few hours, or better still, do as I have done, try jumping a fence on one, and you will soon become a convert to the new style. Princess Victoria, granddaughter of King Edward, rides astride. Royal patronage in Eng- land implies much, and with the stamp of their approval it will soon become popular there. Its popularity, unfortunately, xvill not reach this country until several seasons later. Aside from its greater comfort to rider and horse, the question of safety should determine a woman's usng the cross saddle in the hunting 69 70 Horse and Hound. field. To-day horses have to be specially broken and trained for women in the field; when the cross saddle comes into universal use, which I hope to live long enough to see, a woman can ride, handle, and control any horse a man can ride. 10 CD 0 on CrD To '1 0 0 0q - n x c This page in the original text is blank. THE HOUND. "it ruasi-groun tatt o'er 4it brvab bark brnbs in an ampl4 arra-: an sa1ulbrrs ttan, wpright. anb ffirm, 4t stanbs ; ITia rounb rat foot, straighlt hams, anb wtubt afprtab tlig4si. anb Jim law-btrapptng rbrot, rontfros 4iti ogptb-(mntrot.) Tim character, sensibilities, and intellectual faculties of the foxhound are but little known; they are, unfortunately, considered rather stupid and uninteresting than otherwise by the majority of the people in this country, especially those un- acquainted with the mysteries of hound lore. In England, for hundreds of years, they have been held in the highest estimation for their splendid intelligence, their inexhaustible courage, and un- equaled endurance; qualities that are indispensa- ble in adding to the pleasure of her sportsmen, and there is no gainsaying the fact that the popu- larity of the hound has rapidly increased in this country during the past quarter of a century. The origin of the breed has been the subject of debate and deep research among sportsmen from time immemorial. However, it is generally con- ceded to be a judicious crossing between the bloodhound and the ancient greyhound. This is undoubtedly true, as a first cross of the same 71 Horse and Hound. breeds to-day will produce a hound with many of the characteristics and qualities of the foxhound; this I ascertained from the accidental service of one of my bloodhound bitches by a greyhound. Effingham Wilson, author of the Field Book, published in London in i835, writing of the stag- hound, says: "It seems extremely probable that this large, strong, and bony hound was the primeval stock from which all the collateral branches (fox- hounds included) of this race have descended, and all deviations from the original stem have been the result of crosses and improvements dur- ing many centuries by those skilled in rearing and breeding dogs of the chase, and varied in strength and size according to the particular sport for which they are intended." As to the antiquity of the foxhound, if the writings of Gervase Markham, in i63i, are to be relied upon, hounds were used in the chase of the fox as early as i630. The origin of the American foxhound has greatly exercised the speculative faculties of many writers, many of whom draw upon vague tradi- tion and conjecture to support their theories. (See chapter on History and Origin.) Our old-time native foxhounds were undoubt- edly degenerate bloodhounds, and to the infusion of English, Irish, and French blood are we in- debted for the vast improvement, especially in 72 2.J we ' ' , I'i 1, + Champion-BIG STRIVE. English-American cross owned by NORVIN T. HARRIS. M. F. H. Hurstbourne Hounds. This page in the original text is blank. The Hound. conformation, size, and some of the better qual- ities. The general average of excellence is much greater than it was even a decade ago. Within the past twenty years I have judged hound classes on the bench at such cities as Chicago, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Indianapolis. It has not been many years since I sent every hound from the ring in American hound classes, withholding all awards. I hardly think this could occur in the present day. The improvement in the class of hounds in the field trials is no less marked. A comparison of types. as advocated by that of Beckford, written over one hundred years ago, and the National Fox-hunters' Association, will prove interesting. The latter standard was for- mulated by the following committee: W. S. Wtalker, W. C. Goodman, A. C. Heffinger, Francis J. Hagan, William Wade, Colonel H. C. Trigg, and myself as chairman. It has been adopted by all the foxhound field trial associa- tions and bench shows as the standard for judg- ing American hounds. Beckford's description is: "There are necessary points in the shape of a hound which ought always to be attended to by a sportsman, for if he be not of perfect symmetry he will neither run fast nor bear much work. He has much to undergo and should have strength 73 Horse and Hound. proportioned to it. Let his legs be straight as arrows, his feet round and not too large, his breast rather wide than narrow, his chest deep, his back broad, his head small, his neck thin, his tail thick and bushy, and if he carry it well, so much the better. Such hounds as are out at the elbows and such as are weak from the knee to the foot, should never be taken into the pack. The color I think of little moment." Two very important things overlooked, how- ever, by Beckford, are the length of the thigh and the depth of the back ribs, both of vital im- portance. The American foxhound, while differing in some respects from the English, should be judged upon the same value of points. The American hound should be smaller and lighter in muscle and bone. Dogs should not be tinder 21 nor over 24 inches, nor weigh more than 6o pounds. Bitches should not be under 20 nor over 23 inches, nor weigh more than 53 pounds. The head (value I5) should be of medium size with muzzle in harmonious proportions. The skull should be rounded crosswise with slight peak-line of profile nearly straight-with suffi- cient stop to give symmetry to head. Ears me- dium, not long, thin, soft in coat, low set and closely pendant. Eyes soft, medium size, and varying shades of brown. Nostrils slightly ex- 74 6 II la I. Nose. 2. Flews or Chaps. 3. Nasal Bone. 4. Stop. 5 Skull. 6. Occiput. 7. Dewlap (where such ex- ists.) 8. Brisket. 14. Elbow. 9. Top of shoulder blades 15. Fore-arm. or " shoulder." 16. Knee. 10. Top of Hip-joint. 17. Stifle-joint. 1 1. Shoulder-bladeorscap- 18. Hocks. ula. 19. Stern. 12. Rump-bone. 20. Chest. 13. Arm. 21. Pasterns. 74 This page in the original text is blank. The Hound. panded. The head, as a whole, should denote hound "character." The neck (value 5) must be clean and of good length, slightly arched, strong where it springs from the shoulder, and gradually tapering to the head without trace of throatiness. The shoulders (value io) should be of suffi- cient length to give leverage and power-well sloped, muscular, but clean run and not too broad. Chest and back ribs (value io). The chest should be deep for lung space, narrower in pro- portion to depth than the English hound-28 inches in a 24-inch hound being good. Well- sprung ribs-back ribs should extend well back- a three-inch flank allowing springiness. The back and loin (value io) should be broad, short, and strong, slightly arched. The hindquarters and lower thighs (value io) must be well muscled and very strong. The stifles should be low set, not too much bent nor yet too straight-a happy medium. The elbows (value 5) should be set straight, neither in nor out. Legs and feet (value 2o) are of great im- portance. Legs should be straight and placed squarely under shoulder, having plenty of bone without clumsiness; strong pasterns well stood upon. Feet round, catlike, not too large, toes well knuckled, close and compact, strong nails, pad thick, tough, and indurated by use. 75 Horse and Hound. Color and coat (value 5). Black, white, and tan are preferable, though the solids and various pies are permissible; coat should be rough and coarse without being wiry or shaggy. Symmetry (value 5). The form of the hound should be harmonious throughout. He should show his blood quality and hound character in every aspect and movement. If he scores high in other properties, symmetry is bound to follow. The stern (value 5) must be strong in bone at the root, of medium length, carried like a saber on line with spine, and must have good brush-a docked stern should not disqualify, but simply handicap, according to extent of docking. SUMMARY. Head ...................... i5 Neck ..................... 5 Shoulders .................... IO Chest and back ribs ............ io Back and loin ................. IO Hindquarters and lower thighs ... IO Elbows ..................... 5 Legs and feet .................. 20 Color and coat ................. 5 Stern ................ ... 5 Symmetry ................... 5 Too 76 The Hound. FAULTS IN HOUND CONSTRUCTION. Head too short and thick. Neck short, throaty. Shoulders upright and loaded. Lack of muscle. Not straight below knee. Hind leg too straight. Long flat foot. Hock not close enough to ground. Slack loin, sway back. Shallow chest, flat side. A narrow chest. Head lacking hound quality. Crooked and light-boned legs. Improperly set or carried stern. Loose, flat feet. FAULTS IN FIELD. Too slow. Bad caster. Babbler. Potterer. Roader. Skirter. Rioter. The extraordinary scenting powers of a hound are as unlimited as they are unrivaled, and never cease to be a wonder to the novice. The instinct to pursue and kill is a second nature in the hound, and they seem to derive an insa- 77 Horse and Hound. tiable pleasure in indulging it. Nature has en- dowed them with an enduring patience and cour- age that enables them, hungry, fatigued, footsore, and exhausted, to continue the chase while every step is painful to a degree. Hounds have been known to run a fox or deer twenty-four hours continuously without food or rest. Bitches have been known to whelp while in a chase, and an authentic case is on record of a bitch whelping a pup and taking it up in her mouth and continuing the run. I shipped a bitch to the Brunswick Fur Trials in 1902 that had es- caped from the kennel the night before, and join- ing a running pack, had run for twelve hours in the rough, rocky cliffs of the Kentucky River. She reached Barre the day of the trials two days later, and her handler wired me for instructions, saying she had cut all the pads from her feet, and could hardly walk. I wired him to put collodion on her feet and start her anyhow, which he did. While not winning, she ran gamely throughout the trials, never faltering, and a hunter present, realizing her gameness, wired me for price on her. It is needless to add I refused to put a price on her. In England skirting is considered one of the most serious faults a hound can have. In view of the fact that they hunt "home-grown foxes," and know within a few hundred yards of where the fox will be jumped, this may well be classed 78 WILLFUL. English Foxhound imported by Foxhall Keene. This page in the original text is blank. The Hound. as a fault, but with us it is proof of sagacity in a hound and many a pack would be returned to the kennel after a day's blank drawing were it not for the skirters. I have also heard it asserted that if a hound were "too heely" (fast) for the pack, it would be considered a fault, and he would be disposed of, as would a hound with too much tongue. That they do not encourage these two quali- ties, I am inclined to believe, for I never saw an English hound with either surplus speed or tongue. I have always been partial to the medium size in hounds; the small hounds are usually very ac- tive and possess great powers of endurance, but are at a disadvantage when running through heavy weeds, bushes, and briers, and are handi- capped by tall fences. The large hounds can not stand the heat, and the constant pounding on rough, rocky ground soon puts them upon crutches. If hounds were required to take up a handicap or impost of I5 or 20 pounds weight, then the English type of hound would be strictly in it, but as nose, speed, and endurance are the qualities necessary to suc- cessfully cope with our red fox, I fail to appre- ciate this extra weight carrying capacity or see the necessity of having a hound whose weight of bone in fore leg and shoulder will outweigh all the bones in the frame of his quarry. 79 oHorse and Hound. The question whether bitches are better than dogs in the field is a mooted one. I am rather in- clined to think they are, though I know of many experienced hunters who hold to the other theory. In England the lady packs (bitches) are hunted separately, and they are considered both faster and quicker, but I am inclined to think this is be- cause they are smaller, and were the dogs the same size and build, I do not think the difference would be as apparent, though slightly in favor of the bitches. In this country, where less atten- tion is paid to appearance, size, and sortiness of a pack, dogs and bitches are hunted together, and as dogs are undoubtedly freer with their tongues, while bitches have more dash and vim, though are less steady, they undoubtedly make a strong com- bination in working together. It is a widely discussed question, and much has been written upon the relative merits of the American and English hounds. In touching upon this subject I shall attempt to give a fair and im- partial statement of the same as seen from my viewpoint. I have also advised with others whom I consider authorities upon the subject, being hunters of wide experience, who, like myself, have imported, bred, raised, and hunted English hounds of the very best strains to be had. In the matter of breeding true to a type, we must yield the palm to the English; in the art and science of breeding they are not only the 80 The Hound. peers, but the superiors, of all other nations, and this applies to all domestic animals as well as the horse and hound. As to hounds, they have established a high standard of excellence as to size, symmetry, con- formation, and beauty of form and style, and breed for these qualities to the detriment of nose, speed, endurance, and fox sense. While we must admit that an even, level, sorty-looking pack, well balanced in size, color, and markings, are pleas- ing to the eye, yet none of these qualities can compare with those of nose, speed, endurance, and fox sense when it comes to hunting foxes in America. We admit the English are far our superiors in breeding, and had they for the past two hundred years employed their ability and efforts to perfect hounds in the latter qualities, they would undoubtedly have produced a hound that could come to this country and eclipse any of our hounds in the field, instead of taking posi- tion as second-raters, as they invariably do. Admirers of English hounds excuse their many faults by stating they are well adapted for the work required of them in England. Grant- ing this, until it is proven that the American hound is their inferior on their own ground in England, I must take issue with them, for I am prepared to state emphatically from personal knowledge, that under the conditions obtaining in the greater hunting portions of America, the Eng- 6 81 Horse and Hound. lish hounds are far from being the equals of the natives as "all around" foxhounds. I have imported hounds from some of the best packs in England, Pychtly, Grafton, Quorn, Belvoir, and others, and have hunted with many imported by others, but have never hunted or seen one in the field that I considered a top notcher. There is no doubt but the English hound is more satisfactory to hunt clubs in the East, where the majority hunt to ride; they are better trained and broken, more evenly mated as to speed, not fast enough to get away from the riders, more sightly in appearance-if one can close his eyes to the "out at elbow" and 'toeing in" appearance that nine-tenths of them present. They generally are an even sorty lot, and frequently as much alike as two peas, which is all important with many, as was evidenced by the reply I received from a celebrated Eastern hunter who has famous jumping horses and a well-known pack of hounds. He wrote me to know if I could let him have a llound good enough to win in field trials about to be held. I answered in the affirmative, and stated I hadl one I knew could smother his crack win- ning hound-which, by the way, I had also bred. He seemed delighted at the prospect of securing such a good one, and I had the bitch shipped him, a big, fine, racy, symmetrical hound. He re- turned her with the statement that she had a 82 The Hound. white spot on one side of her head, and it was unnecessary to try her qualities in the field, as this would spoil the appearance of his pack! The hunting in England does not call for the possession of the same qualities in hounds as it does in America. There the climatic and atmos- pheric conditions are generally favorable, espe- cially in the moist grass countries, where trail- ing conditions are such that scent hangs breast high, and a hound with half a nose could run it at top speed. The coverts are convenient and small, the huntsman knows within a few hundred yards of where the fox "uses," and can lay his hounds on the line at any time. The foxes are fat, sleek, well fed, and in an untrained condition-a straight away run of eight or ten miles is un- common. The runs seldom exceed one and a half or two hours, once in a dozen chases. If a check or loss is made the hounds have the assistance of huntsmen, whippers in, earth stoppers, and the hunter in regaining the line. The problem that confronts the American hound is an altogether different proposition. Our coverts and forests are extremely large, the foxes remaining wild and timid, and seldom pass twen- ty-four hours without a run of from four to eight hours, the hounds frequently running them by themselves without hunters (unless the packs arc 83 4Horse and Hound. large they are not kenneled and generally run at large). One or two ambitious hounds will alone get up a fox at dusk, and as they circle through the neighborhood all the hounds in hearing "hark" to them until ten or a dozen couples are bustling him in full cry. Does the fox go to earth Not he, earth stoppers are unnecessary; he will lead them a merry chase as long as he can drag one foot behind the other, or until daylight warns him he had better "seek the seclusion that his burrow grants." I have, upon more than one occasion in the "Blue Grass Country," heard two and three different packs in the middle of the night, each one after a different fox, making music that would cause the blood to go galloping through one's veins like a race horse. Thus at any time his "foxship" is trained to the minute. The character of the country hunted over is frequently dry and rocky, many large plowed and cultivated fields with woodlands strewn with dry, parched leaves. It is not uncommon for hounds to hunt half a day before a trail is struck; it may then be an old, over-night trail that will require hours of persevering work before the fox is afoot. I am prepared to state that a hound that would be considered a wonder in the grass countries of England, if cast with a pack in America in our Southern States, where he would be expected to 84 BOURBON. Arnetican HOLinl Wi ham: Stiamn. This page in the original text is blank. The Hound. take a trail many hours old, in a dry, barren country, puzzle it out for several hours, make a jump and then run it from ten to twenty hours- a feat I have seen performed scores of times by American hounds-would find himself hopelessly out of a job. The English hounds have been packed to such an extent as to eradicate the independence and self-reliance so natural to the American hound; the latter hunts independently of hound or man, and seldom expects or receives any assistance from either. Mr. Mather, a most enthusiastic hunter and experienced breeder, who has experimented with the English, the American, and the cross-bred hounds, is one of the very few champions of the English hound. His opinion does not seem to be shared by a majority of the members of the Radnor Hunt. While master of the Radnor Hunt, he alternated the hounds, hunting a pack of the English hounds one day, and a pack of American hounds the next. It is a well-known fact that the majority of the hunters always turned out on the day the American pack was run. In his article on English hounds, in the American Sportsmen's Library (Sporting Dogs), he says that he would "no more breed to Shirley, an American hound, than he would send Hanover mares to a Hackney stallion." I bred Shirley (see picture). As to his field 85 Horse and Hound. qualities, he won first in speed and driving classes at the Brunswick Fur Club, and as to his confor- mation, quality, and symmetry, is a several times first prize winner on the bench, surely a good record. It is true, he is not as large as a yearling calf, and this is wherein he has doubtless of- fended. Reference to the earlier volumes of the Fox- hound Stud books, compiled and published by me, containing i,ooo pedigrees, will show that many American breeders crossed their bitches on the English hound but the last volume, now in press, shows this practice has been discon- tinued. I myself have imported hounds from the celebrated English packs, and crossed them on bitches that were undersized, merely to get bone and substance, but this was obtained only at the sacrifice of other qualities, possibly more desirable. The hound Banker, which won first prize at the show of the Brunswick Fur Club in 1903, for best stallion hound, was bred by me, and was the result of one of my experiments, as he was sired by Imp. Admiral, an English hound from the Quorn pack, and out of one of my native American bitches. Although entered in the field trials at Barre, he failed to get in the money, yet he had no trouble in disposing of the field trial winners who had beaten him, when he came into 86 BAN KER. Williams Strain This page in the original text is blank. The Hound. competition with them on the bench. (See por- trait.) I am not alone in my opinion of the relative merits of the English and American hounds. Mr. Harry W. Smith, master of the Grafton Hunt, who, like myself, has hunted both the American and English hounds in America, and the Eng- lish hounds in England, considers the English hound useless when it comes to individual work picking up cold scent, giving tongue to bring the other hounds to the trail, and running the trail five or six hours, under American conditions. Colonel H. C. Trigg, the "Nestor of the Hunt," one of the most thoroughly practical breeders and hunters of foxhounds in America; Mr. W. S. Walker, the present owner of the Walker hounds; Thomas Hitchcock, of the Aiken hounds, and many others who gave the English hounds a thorough test of several years' dura- tion, have all abandoned them for the American. This, however, merely proves that American hounds are superior to English hounds hunted in America. What an American pack could do in England remains to be seen. I have seen hounds in France (probably hounds of Gascogne or Normandie) which I am satisfied would cross well upon our smaller Amer- ican hounds. They were from 24 to 28 inches tall, of a tri-color, with very long, lean head, 87 88 Horse and Hound. prominent peak; ears long, thin, pendulous, and velvety; strong in body, though rather long in loin, but well arched, good powerful, compact feet. I did not hunt these hounds, but they seemed rather headstrong and hard to control. I am of the opinion that the early Maryland and Vir- ginia hounds contained some of this blood. I French Hound-present day. SC b go 7:;S\ \ i S U:SI:\ fS i ::ft = H -; t - I,-,- .FWWM This page in the original text is blank. HISTORY AND ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN HOUND. THE origin and early history of the American hound is clouded somewhat in mystery. It is generally understood they were imported from England, but exactly when, and by whom, we have no authentic record. While believing they are largely descended from the English hound, there is no doubt in my mind that the French hound plays equally as im- portant a part in their origin. Lafayette sent over a large pack of French hounds, this being really the first pack of hounds we have any record of as having been imported into the United States as a pack, though individual hounds had been previously imported from England. If we can rely upon shape, conformation, hound characteristics, and general appearance, then we are indebted more to the French than the English hound for our original stock. I have seen many packs of hounds in different parts of France that certainly resembled our old-time, na- tive black and tan, long eared, long headed, high peaked, deep mouthed hounds, much more than 89 Horse and Hound. the English hound, though the present American hound-judged by the National Fox-hunters' As- sociation standard-more closely resembles the English. As far back as the Revolutionary War, the chief sport and pastime of the South was fox- hunting, and while no regularly organized hunts were established, every Southern gentleman of means had his hounds and was as proud and jeal- ous of their reputation as of those of his horses and of his own family. While at this period no tabulated pedigrees were kept nor hounds regis- tered-no stud book having been established- each owner was as careful in the breeding of his hounds to good performers only, as he was of his racers. In the North, at this period, a few straggling individual hounds were owned, not to chase the fox, but to drive him and deer within range of a ten-bore gun waiting to perforate their pelts with buckshot. Among the earlier settlers of Maryland was Robert Brooke, a son of the Earl of Warwick, who brought over a pack of English hounds with him. The breeders and admirers of the Brooke strain of hounds, so well and favorably known in Maryland, claim they are the direct descendants of the hounds brought over by Robert Brooke. Allowing for the many outcrosses during all these go Typical Kentucky Hounds. flow This page in the original text is blank. History and Origin. years, there is still resemblance enough to justify these claims, though they have certainly deterio- rated in size and type if the accounts of Brooke's Barney were not overdrawn. The Brooke strain is one of the oldest we have record of in this country, and owners of them point with pride to their long unbroken line of an- cestry. Kentucky has always been noted for its beau- tiful women, fine horses, and good whisky. As horses and hounds always go together, it is not, therefore, surprising that the records both of the bench and hound field trials show conclusively that the very best foxhounds in America come from Kentucky. Several reasons are given why the horses and hounds of Kentucky are superior to those of all other States. Among them is the fact that the water contains a larger percentage of phosphate of lime than any other section, and the effect of this upon stamina, size, and bone is well known. It is not only apparent in the lower animals, in- cluding horses and hounds, but also in man, for the records of the Civil War show the men en- listed in Kentucky were both taller and heavier on an average than those from any other State. Kentucky, settled by Virginians and Mary- landers, from its earliest settlement was consid- ered the greatest hunting ground in this country, 9 I Horse and Hound. and the many wars waged by the Indians before they would surrender it, secured for it its name of Kentucky, meaning the dark and bloody ground. The immense bands of deer and elk that roamed the forest were the direct means of introducing the hound, and from that day to the present they have been bred with the sole idea to excel in hunting, trailing, and endurance. That they have succeeded is proven by the records of the foxhound field trials, which show that 8o per cent of the winners are Kentucky strain. The most famous strain of hounds, not only in Kentucky, but in the United States, to-day, is the Walker hound. Mr. John W. Walker, born in 1802 in Mad- ison County, Kentucky, and the father of Messrs. Edward, Steve (W. S.), and Arch Walker, who, although close to seventy years old, are to-day considered the best fox-hunters in America, bar none, obtained his first hounds from his uncle, Wim. Williams, who used them exclusively for deer. Thus it will be seen this strain of hounds has been in this family for over one hundred years. General G. W. Maupin, for whom the Mau- pin strain was named, was a neighbor of Mr. John Walker, a close personal friend, and brother huntsman. They continued to hunt the gray fox and deer until in the early fifties the red fox made his appearance in Kentucky, and they be- 92 History and Ortz'n. 93 gan to look around for a faster strain of hounds to cross upon their native hounds. They tried hounds from South Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland without success, and about 1856 they imported Rifler and Queen from the kennels of the Duke of Buccleuch. The Walkers admit that the cross of these English hounds was a distinct improvement, especially in size, conformation, and feet. General Maupin obtained a hound (named Lead), pedigree and breeding unknown, from the section of country where Kentucky, Tennes- see, and Virginia meet. He was a great all-round foxhound and was most successfully crossed on all the Maupin-Walker bitches, and to this day the best hounds of the Walker strain trace di- rectly back to Maupin's Lead. They bought a number of other hounds from the same section, said to be close relatives of Lead, but they all proved worthless, and were never used in the stud. About this time, Mr. B. F. Robinson, of Mt. Sterling, Kentucky, the originator of the Rob- inson strain, a most enthusiastic hunter and ac- complished horseman, brought a number of Irish hounds from Maryland and crossed them suc- cessfully upon his native pack. The most noted of these hounds were Whitey and Furey, who figure very extensively in the present stud books of the National Fox-hunters' Association. Messrs. Walker and Maupin also tried the ex- Horse and Hound. periment of an infusion of the Irish Maryland blood, but were not pleased with the results. Mr. W. S. Walker states that the best hounds they have ever owned contained one-eighth Eng- lish, one-eighth Lead, and six-eighths native Walker strain. The Byron hounds, of Virginia, at one time in the earlier history of fox-hunting, were con- sidered the bluest of blue bloods in the hound family. The original stock was owned and hunted by Colonel Tucker. His best stallion hound was Byron, from whom the strain took their name. Byron was sired by Rattler (the star of the Percival pack, I830); grandsire, For- rester; all of the Byron strain greatly resembled the Irish hounds of Maryland. After the war they were scattered all over the South and the purity of the blood, as a strain, lost. The Henry strain of hounds owe their name and existence to Dr. Thomas Henry, a Virginian, and a grandson of Patrick Henry, of Revolu- tionary fame. His stallion hound Captain was by Traveler, out of Sophy, both of whom were by Mountain, and out of Muse. Mountain and Muse were imported from Ireland in i812 by Mr. Bolton Jackson, of Sharpsburg, Maryland, and they transmitted the best qualities of the Irish hounds to their descendants. Mr. Geo. L. F. Birdsong, of Georgia, in the 94 A. B. WATKINS. Texas. This page in the original text is blank. History and Origin. early forties, used the Henry hound in crossing with his native pack of Redbones, the result be- ing the Birdsong; the latter being the foundation. or parent stock, of many of the modern strains of the present time. The July strain originated in Georgia, and derive their name from July, a hound that was procured from Mr. Nimrod Gosnell, of Mary- land, by Mr. Miles Harris, in i86o. It is claimed by many that July was a direct descendant of Mountain and Muse, but while he was undoubt- edly of the Irish strain, this could never be veri- fied. He wvas crossed quite treely upon the na- tive bitches, which had previously been known as Maryland hounds. This name was afterwards changed to the July, and is so known to the pres- ent time. They possess great homing instincts, are fast runners, of limited endurance as compared with other strains; they contain many outcrosses, and are of every color and size, evidently never hav- ing been bred to any certain type. It is a generally conceded fact that the July strain of the present day have quite a percentage of greyhound blood in them; in fact, it is appar- ent to any one who is a close observer of blood lines in breeding, and many characteristics of the greyhound crop out in them in their field work. It is a well-known fact that an infusion of 95 Horse and Hound. greyhound blood was used as late as i88o, in- creasing the speed to the detriment of other qual- ities equally as desirable in a hound. With probably the exception of the Walker strain the Trigg strain is the best known of the modern, up-to-date hounds. The master, Col- onel H. C. Trigg (Full-Cry), of Kentucky, has owned and hunted his pack continuously for over a half-century. Being a man of ample means, he has never spared expense in the improvement of his hounds, and he can well be proud of his success as a breeder, as the annals of the fox- hound trials show that his hounds are always in the awards. His original pack, used in i845, was the old- time, long-eared, rat-tail, deep-toned, black and tan, Southern hound. The first out-cross on these was the Birdsong strain, he having pur- chased Chase, Bee, George, Rip, and Fannie from Mr. Birdsong in the early sixties, paying what was at that time considered a fabulous price for them. Twenty years later he introduced the Walker-Maupin blood with signal success. He made but one attempt to introduce the English blood, through "Portland," from the Quorn ken- nels, but considered it a failure and soon weeded it out. Though a master for over fifty years, he is to-day as hard and straight a rider to hounds as one will find. A few years ago I followed him 96 Hislory and On gin. throughout a day's hard riding to hounds, he mounting after having received a shoulder dislo- cation that would have sent many a younger man to his bed. The Redbone is one of the old-time strains; confined exclusively to the Southern States. The "native" Birdsong, Georgia, Virginia, and Ken- tucky hounds were undoubtedly the Redbone strain before the introduction of the various crosses previously mentioned. They were a slow, painstaking hound, with superior nose and splen- did mouth, without speed. As foxhounds the strain has passed out of ex- istence, though in the South many pure bred specimens can still be found, they are known as the "nigger" dog, or American bloodhound, and are used almost exclusively either for man trail- inig or coon and opossum hunting. The Buckfield strain, or "Natives," as gen- erally called, are to be found only in New Eng- land, and are totally unlike any other strain of hounds in America. They were first heard of in the vicinity of Buckfield, Maine, and derived their name from this fact. They have been used chiefly in driving game through runways to be shot by hunters, and are said to be very proficient in their art, possessing keen noses, great judg- ment, and remarkable endurance. The Wild Goose strain of hounds of Tennes- see dates back to i835, and was originated by Mr. 7 97 Horse and Hound. C. S. Lewis, of Virginia, who removed to Ten- nessee, and Mr. John Fuquay, residing in same State. They crossed their packs and thus orig- inated the Wild Goose strain. They introduced also an infusion of Irish blood into the pack, and later a cross of the Eng- lish. In i872, Colonel J. W. Lewis, a son of Mr. C. S. Lewis, took charge of the pack and kept the strain pure. The Portsmouth strain, named in honor of Portsmouth, N. H., the home of Dr. Heffenger, who is largely responsible for it, is a mixture of Byron, Buckfield, Brooke, WVild Goose, Walker, Robinson, Maupin, Williams, July, and English, and as the best specimens of these famous strains were procured, it is not to be wondered at their giving a most excellent account of themselves, both on the bench and at the Brunswick field trials. The Cook strain, so extensively advertised and sold throughout the country a few years since, was but a new and revised edition of the old-time black and tan, long eared, deep mouthed, long switch tail, smooth coated, Southern hound, with Detroit as a setting. They were evenly bal- anced, bred to a type, and were very pretty to look upon, being considered wonders by the old- time hunters not yet accustomed to the new type of the present day. In fact, I have heard them 98 DAVID T. DANA. M. F. H. Berkshire Hunt, Massachusetts. This page in the original text is blank. History and Origin. 99 more universally admired at bench shows than any hounds I have ever seen on exhibition. Frequently, while judging hound classes at the larger shows, I have given the awards to hounds of the new type, more especially those handled by Ben Lewis, George Thomas, and other professional handlers, over the old-timers exhib- ited by their proud owners. I always realized that while not deserving it, I received their commis- eration for my ignorance of hounds; in fact, they seldom failed to let me know it. I recall one show in particular where I withheld all awards in American hound classes with seven entries in the ring; the result was a pretty mess, and the man- agement, after unsuccessfully insisting upon my rejudging the class and making awards, only sat- isfied them by dividing the money equally among the exhibitors. Upon my return home I sent one of their number a hound from my kennel, and in this manner only did I succeed in impressing upon them the true type of a modern, up-to-date hound. The "Arkansas Travelers," as the only sep- arate strain in that State is known, came from Missouri, as did the hounds in Louisiana. The Missouri hounds were originally pure-bred Ken- tucky hounds taken there by emigrants from the latter State. The original Pennsylvania hounds were of two general types and came from Maryland and 100 Horse and Hound. Virginia. One type, the long-legged, long-eared, black and tan, large hound, came from Virginia, and the other black and white, smaller and cleaner cut in appearance, and though shorter in leg, faster than the former, from Maryland. The present hound used by the hunt clubs is an English and Kentucky product, though occa- sionally the large, heavy, old-time black and tan is still to be found in certain sections, with hardly speed enough to keep his blood in circulation. There are many other strains of hounds throughout the country that have won both upon the bench and at field trials, such as the Good- man, Whitlock, Pooler, and my own strain- the Williams-but they are but descendants of the Robinson-Maupin-Walker strain, with but little, if any, crosses of outside blood in them. FAG. Eatly cross Blood and Greyhound. 100 I jI , Z I -1 - 2 , R5 I ;I I I This page in the original text is blank. BREEDING AND RAISING HOUNDS THt English are without question the most successful breeders in the world, and with the exception of the horse they have probably paid more attention to the breeding of the foxhound than any other animal, and have certainly paid more attention to the breeding of the hound than all other nations combined. It is unfortunate for us, however, their country and method of hunting require an altogether different hound than is called for in this country. With them, a hound is condemned for faults of construction, size, and even markings before he has even had a trial in the field, and after a trial in the field the hounds are again culled, or "drafted," as they call it, for faults that may in- terfere with their usefulness (from their view- point) in the future. Unfortunately for the looks, symmetry, and conformation of our hounds, this custom does not prevail to any great extent in this country and should be judiciously encour- aged. I am afraid we have adapted the "hand- some is as handsome does" policy too freely. In the earlier history of hunting by hounds, they had but the two classes-the gaze hound, 101 Horse and Hound. one that ran by sight, represented by the grey- hound, and the sleuth, or slow trailing hound, rep- resented by the bloodhound. The latter was noted for the melody of his deep-toned tongue and his acute power of puzzling out and sticking to a cold trail, but he was too slow for the red whirlwind, though he could potter all day on the track of a stag and finally bring him to "pot." His cousin, the greyhound, had speed to burn, b)ut in close cover and rough country he was all at sea, and once out of sight his quarry was safe, so it was the most natural thing in the world that the two should be crossed, and the result was the foxhound. The cut of Fag, taken from the Sporting Magazine, published in I796, shows the type re- sulting from the cross in its earlier stages. The efficiency of hounds depends entirely upon the breeding, and to maintain a pack or strain up to the required standard of excellence, continual selection of superior animals is neces- sary. One of the soundest principles of breeding is that the longer certain desirable qualities have been handed down from generation to genera- tion, the more certain you can count upon a con- tinuance of the same. Heredity is undoubtedly the strongest force in nature, but it does not con- trol the individual peculiarities of a sire or dam, but where these characteristics have existed for I02 Breeding and Raising Hounds. 103 several generations wve may expect many of them, and the further back they extend there will be a larger percentage, and they will also be more pro- nounced. The science of breeding is not by any means an accurate science, and Darwin, in the "Origin of Species," says: "The laws governing inherit- ance are for the most part unknown. No one can say why the same peculiarity in different indi- viduals of the same species is sometimes inherited and sometimes not." Inbreeding is a subject that has received more attention than any other one feature of breeding, affording constant matter for controversy. Stonehenge says inbreeding is not injurious to the dog, as has been proven both by theory and practice. On the other hand, Darwin says in- breeding diminishes vigor and fertility. Some claim that by inbreeding alone can one fix and perpetuate good qualities in succeeding generations. My experience is that inbreeding, when judi- ciously and not excessively practiced, is essential to type and many necessary qualities in the hound, but if carried to too great an extreme, it unques- tionably stunts growth and weakens both the con- stitution and the intelligence. I have had this more forcibly brought to my attention in the per- sonal breeding of bloodhounds and Irish wolf- hounds than in any other breed. Horse and Hound. The most glaring contradiction of this rule is in the case of game chickens, as those incestu- ously bred are gamer, stronger, and more ambi- tious than others. In inbreeding, the mating of sire and dam with daughter and son, is unquestionably prefer- able to mating brother and sister. Once crossing in and twice crossing out is an old rule and a most excellent one to observe in hound breeding; the antiquity of the hound with its long line of inbreeding make an absolute out- cross (such for instance as the greyhound), less dangerous than would be the case in many mod- ern breeds. The influence of such a cross on type would soon be entirely obliterated. No true type can be maintained by much out- cross breeding. True types have been made and maintained by strictly adhering to the best selec- tions of the same family, therefore rigidly adhere to one type, no matter how great the temptation may be to do otherwise, or the ultimate destruc- tion of type will follow. Due attention must be paid to the joint selec- tion of sire and dam, and the possibilities of a good cross or nick. If sire and dam have vigor, perfect health, and strength, it is fair to presume their offspring, with proper care and attention, will inherit these same qualities. 104 Imported English Bloodhound. ]III This page in the original text is blank. Breeding and Raising Hounds. I05 There is absolutely no question about the fact of hounds inheriting qualities of hunting more from dam than sire, while the qualities of shape, size, and conformation come from the sire. Many breeders consider pedigree the only consideration, paying but little attention to indi- vidual excellence or qualities. This is a mistake. Symmetry is never the result of chance or luck, but of careful forethought and good judgment, backed up by a practical knowledge of breeding. I am a great believer in breeding to a type (provided you can combine field qualities at the same time). My success as a breeder of winners on the bench in foxhound classes is sufficient proof of this fact, as the records of the American Kennel Club will show that I have bred 30 per cent of all the champions of record. It is a gross mistake to breed good and bad specimens together simply on account of their pedigrees. The result is anything but certain, as the bad qualities are as apt to crop out in the progeny as the good, if not in the first, then in some succeeding generation. A lIound with bad qualities is more apt to per- petuate them in his progeny than he is to throw back to better qualities possessed by his blue- blooded ancestors. Therefore, in breeding for any certain desirable quality, for instance color or tongue, do not fail to investigate fully all the oHorse and Hound. other qualities, good, bad, and indifferent, pos- sessed by the sire, as with the desired qualities you may get some very undesirable ones. Hound bitches generally come in season when eight or nine months old, especially those reach- ing this age in the spring months. They should never be bred until the second heat, which in this case would be in the fall. It is too great a tax on the energies and system of the bitch, and the pups are apt to be weak and puny, and the strain may affect the constitution of the bitch through life. If one expects strong, vigorous pups with stamina and constitution when they attain maturity, they should never breed to a bitch under eighteen months or over six years of age. Bitches generally come in heat every six or eight months, and on an average three times in two years. They should be separated from the dog at the very first signs of heat, which are gen- erally excessive spirits and playfulness, undue levity upon the part of a quiet, sedate, old lady being an infallible sign. The next stage is the swelling of the parts followed by the discharge. If it is a strange bitch, allow her to become accustomed to her new surroundings before serv- ice. Do not keep her near dogs, remember their remarkable noses are doubly keen under such cir- cumstances. Take the greatest possible precau- tions to isolate her, then double your precautions. There is not only a chance of her getting out, but I o6 Greyhound. 106 This page in the original text is blank. Breeding and Raising Hounds. I07 a greater one of dogs getting in to her. I have known of some remarkable feats by both, and have heard of some even more incredible ones. It is neither necessary or wise to serve a bitch as soon as she is willing to accept service, one week from first appearance of discharge is the proper time, and two services, forty-eight hours apart, are as good as a half-dozen. The period of actual heat is about ten days, though often exceeded or decreased in duration. There is but little truth in the saying of nine days coming in and nine days going out. The average length of service is fifteen min- utes, and the dog should be instantly removed, never being left with bitch after service. If a bitch forms a mesalliance, a prompt in- jection of a weak solution of bichloride of mer- cury will have the desired effect. Never take a bitch's word for it that her heat has passed, but keep her close for several days after she has denied the soft impeachment. Occasionally bitches, though fully in heat, re- fuse to accept service; in a case of this kind she should be muzzled and forced to accept, only, however, in positive and unmistakable cases. Excessively fat bitches show impaired powers of reproduction; frequently fail to breed, or will have small litters with sickly and puny pups. The best conformation for a brood bitch is one with wide and strong loins and good length Horse and Hound. of flank. Too much exercise can not be given during this period and hunting should be kept up at least four weeks after service. After the fourth week regular yard or road exercise should be given, though care should be exercised to prevent colds. From now on one can not be too careful in administering strong purgative medicines or applying any soaps, washes, or remedies for mange, or vermin. The period of gestation is sixty-three days, and seldom varies except through accident. It is safe to count from the first service, if performed in the latter, rather than the first, period of the heat. The bitch wNill have a capricious appetite at the time and should be well supplied with a variety of food. A bitch's disposition changes very materially as parturition approaches, and the quietest, gen- tlest of them may become restless, nervous, and irritable. After seeing that each puppy has suckled once do not intrude upon her, let her alone, she under- stands the necessities of the situation much better than you. Feed soft foods for a few days, but do not worry about the amount she eats, nature has attended to that, but always have plenty of cool, clean water within easy reach. Later on the enormous drain on her vitality can be met with generous and tempting food. io8 Breeding and Raising Hounds. i 0 If one should die or be crushed, remove the body at the first opportunity, as her inclination and instinct to eat it may lead to the eating of all. This also frequently happens when they are moved from place to place or disturbed or inter- fered with. A bitch in good condition, getting plenty of food and exercise, can raise eight pup- pies, though I had a bitch raise fifteen of her own whelping. If a foster mother is considered desirable, make the exchange gradually, one or two at a time, removing one of the foster mother's pups every time you add a strange one, and rub some of the foster mother's milk over the added pup. Their eyes will open in nine days and from three to four weeks old they will lap milk or soup; the former should always be boiled, thinned with water, and a little sugar added. Later bread crumbs and well-boiled meat may also be added. They should be given a simple remedy for worms at five to six weeks of age, as all pups, no matter how or where raised, are troubled with these pests of puppyhood. Puppies kept clean and dry more frequently escape the terrible ravages of distemper than others. Feed them three or four times daily until six months of age, when once daily (preferably at night) will suffice. Avoid giving medicine as much as possible; more hounds die from the improper and excess- 110 Horse and Hound. ive use of medicine than from the want of it. Give them access to grass land and they will find their own remedies. Never attempt to raise hound pups in a ken- nel; a kennel-raised pup is absolutely worthless. Adopt the English custom of farming them out, or as they express it, "put them out to walk." Unless the party taking them has had expe- rience in raising pups, it is safest to give them written instructions, especially as to feed, ver- min, worms, and distemper. TRAINING HOUNDS. As PROVICIENCY in other arts is only attained by close application, hard study, and constant practice, so the art-for surely it is an art-of breaking and training a foxhound requires not only these but a large fund of love for and mutual bond of sympathy and understanding between man and hound. The trainer having the requisite keenness and perseverance, combined with kind- ness and quick observance of the nature and dis- position of hounds, can produce surprising re- sults. The well-known weakness and propensity of a hound pup for appropriation and theft is well known to all, and is a constant source of trouble between him and the party to whom you have consigned him during his puppyhood, and the consequence is that he receives more kicks and cuffs than kind words, and when sent in to be entered to fox, he considers man as an instru- ment of torture rather than as a friend. Hounds, if properly treated, are really capa- ble of great attachment, seldom appreciated by man; most dog fanciers wasting their affection III Horse and Hound. upon other breeds on account of their handsomer and showier appearance. Therefore, the first thing is to gain a hound's confidence and never abuse it. I do not mean make a pet of him, far from it, for pets are al- ways upon a familiar footing, and "familiarity breeds contempt." It is taken for granted that your hounds are pure blooded and naturally inherit the instinct of hunting. The chances are that this instinct has already led them to hunt rabbits upon the farm where raised, if so, they should be broken of this at once. One or two good floggings adminis- tered while caught in the act will suffice. In breaking puppies it is absolutely necessary to have an old, tried, and true, steady-to-work hound, one that can not be persuaded to run a rabbit; in fact, one that both you and the puppies can rely upon to cry nothing but a fox track. Bad habits, such as rabbitting, babbling, back track- ing, and similar habits acquired at this stage are hard to eradicate and may affect the whole after life of a hound. If gray foxes, or cubs, can be found, it is better to commence work upon them, as an old red is discouraging to a young hound and be- sides he will take the old hound away from the pups and tlhey can not see how a loss is taken off or assist in recovering the line. It is a most I112 Training Hounds. serious mistake to allow pups or young hounds to follow a drag, whether it be a carcass or anise- seed drag, unless, of course, they are being trained for drag hunting. Never hurry or rush young hounds, allow them to take their time in hunting out a cold or puzzling trail. There is less danger of their be- coming "potterers" than of becoming "rioters." I have noticed that riotous, troublesome young hounds generally make the best ones in the long run. Use your voice sparingly, and when a check is made never go ahead and attempt to lay them on the line, if they can not "own it" by casting, it is better to take them back a piece rather than to push them forward, and never allow them to give up as long as one of them can speak the line, and never, never, leave them in the field, no mat- ter how cold, hungry, tired, or wet you may be. Let them learn to rely upon you, if left once or twice they become restless when out of your sight, and will always be on the lookout for you rather than for game. While one should do everything possible to encourage a young hound, they should never be interfered with while hunting, and the horn should be used very sparingly, as should the whip. Occasionally highly nervous or excitable pups need restraint or correction, but the voice, if prop- 8 I113 Horse and Hound. erly modulated, will generally have the desired effect. Hounds will not readily forget or forgive an unjust blow or lick. The worst habit a hound can acquire is sheep killing, once acquired no earthly power can break them of it. Young hounds should be coupled and frequently taken through sheep pastures, and if one shows any disposition to run or attack a sheep, ride him down, whip him thoroughly, and give him the impression that you intend to kill him then and there. Should he persist after sev- eral whippings, tie him with a short rope to a vicious old ram who will take pleasure in crack- ing a few ribs for him, and he will forever more lose his appetite for mutton. If once engaged in a sheep-killing scrape, it is too late to attempt any cure; either present him to a friend who does not live in a sheep country or present the hound with an ounce of lead. Once a sheep-killer they become very cunning and may behave themselves for months in day hunting, only to renew their murderous depredations at night. A hound's education is sadly neglected if he is not thoroughly broken to both horn and horse as well as to "homing." Instinct or second nature makes the latter an easy job. The hound is gregarious by nature, preferring to hunt in packs, but the undeviating persever- I 14 Training Hounds. II5 ance and high courage of the American hound makes it much easier to train him to hunt alone than is possible with the English hound, whose training is generally collectively in a pack rather than individually. The English hounds seem more susceptible to training or handling, as is evidenced by their behavior and good manners in the kennels and en route to and from covert. I recall having seen a large pack of hounds handled in a theater in London, taking a trail through the lobby, down the aisle-lined on either side with a screaming, yelling audience-through a pool of water and out the exit. I ascertained these to be a regularly hunted pack of hounds. While much credit for this was undoubtedly due the handler, I am sure no handler could so train a pack of American hounds. It is a good idea to hunt young hounds with light leather collars with you name plate on them; older hounds can be branded with any letter you may select, which will generally identify them, should any dispute arise as to their ownership. Some hounds have a predilection for running a dog's track. This is almost as bad a habit as the mutton habit, and calls for as equally prompt, heroic, and energetic treatment. Some hounds are extremely fond of the di- version to be found in rabbit-hunting, and are in- defatigable in pursuit of it. If there are so in- Horse and Hound. corrigible that you can not break them of the habit, dispose of them, remembering that "Evil communications corrupt good manners." Hounds while in training should be fed light and drawn fine the day they are expected to hunt; the venerable delusion that meat food affects the scenting powers of a hound has long since been exploded, but any animal's faculties are impaired by an overloaded stomach, but it is owing more to quantity than quality of food. A hound di- gests its food slowly, and to carry a stomach full of undigested food for hours with the body over- heated, will cause diarrhea. Unlike man, diges- tion in a hound ceases while taking violent exer- cise. This fact has been practically demonstrated -two hounds were fed at the same time, one was then immediately put into a chase lasting several hours, the other was chained up in his kennel. They were both given emetics, and it was found that the food of the running hound was in the same condition as when eaten, while the kenneled hound had digested his food. A hound requires more exercise than any other breed of dogs to keep them in a perfect de- gree of physical development, and if they can not be hunted regularly, should be allowed to follow a horse several miles a day. If you overfeed a hound he will surely become fat and lazy, and it is doubtful if you can get work enough out of him to maintain a standard i I6 Training Hounds. of health and muscular development necessary to keep him full of fox fire and ambition. A too sudden reduction in flesh from under- feeding may injure his vitality and impair his constitution, surplus flesh should be worked off by degrees. Feet and pads should be hardened in the same way-by degrees. Babbling, running mute, and "cutting" or running cunning, are unquestionably hereditary qualities, and in breeding great care should be exercised to see that these defects are not com- bined, as they will but be accentuated in the off- spring. Hounds should be broken to sights of city or village, accustomed to roading in "couples," and their minds disabused of the idea that they must make the acquaintance of every cur of high and low degree they meet on the road. If possible, hounds should not be kenneled, but allowed to run at large; this, of course, is im- possible in many localities. In the South on large plantations they are seldom kenneled, with the result that their noses are moister and colder, as can be demonstrated by placing the back of the hand against the same. This means increased power of scent, a hound's nose being a true index to its condition, and as trailing qualities depend exclusively upon a sensitive nose, the importance of keeping this organ in condition can not be overestimated. 11I7 I18 Horse and Hound. Manners in the kennel should receive almost as much attention as manners in the field. Every hound should have a name, preferably a short one, and should early be accustomed to its use. The cruel practice of chaining or clogging a hound should never be allowed; it has a tendency to make a hound unhealthy, unhappy, and in the long run vicious. If in particular cases it can not be dispensed with, dispose of the hound. L A Nt Plan of Kennels. 'IN This page in the original text is blank. KENNELS. THE question of kennels is a more important one than is generally supposed, and the venerable saying "anything is good enough for a dog," should be replaced by "nothing is too good for a dog." While it is unnecessary to invest large sums of money in kennels to insure comfort and health for the occupants, one should not go the other extreme of overcrowding hounds in unfitting quarters. Cramped quarters and foul surround- ings will do more to unfit hounds for field work than can be counteracted by all the skill of com- petent trainers and handlers. Supervise your kennels yourself if you want it well done, if you want it half done, relegate it to the best possible man you can employ, irre- spective of cost. The following plans not only insure an inex- pensive kennel, but also one best adapted for the hound's welfare, both in and out of season. If it is desired one can substitute brick and stone for the wooden structure, but the only advantage it will possess will be in looks and durability. The first and most important consideration I19 Horse and Hound. should be the location. Where possible it should be high and gently sloping in every direction, so that during the rainy season, pools and puddles can not form in the yards or runs, and in a down- pour the ground can be washed and the surface water drained off promptly-the soil should be dry and light, and free from clay. The plans illustrated provide kennels and grounds for twenty couples, the size of the runs, yards, and grounds can be regulated by the amount of land at one's disposal, the larger in area the better. The minimum should be one acre. The outer fencing should be of nine-inclh cedar posts, set three feet in the ground. A trench two feet deep should then be dug, and a twenty-four-inch heavy two-inch mesh galvan- ized wire netting stretched from post to post be- neath the surface. Fill the trench, tamping the dirt compactly. This will insure against any hounds digging out. Three inch strips, eight feet long, of rough oak fencing, securely nailed on the outside of the stringers, with two-inch spaces between, will forever prevent scaling or gnawing out. Should any portion of the outside fence lie upon or near a public passway, it should be boarded up solid with ordinary fencing plank, care being taken to stop up all cracks or knot-holes, all such being a fruitful source of noise in a kennel. The same instructions should be observed in erecting the I120 Kennels. division fences on the pack side of the kennels, except that the three-inch strips need only be five feet long, placed three inches apart, with a two-foot galvanized wire netting stretched along the top as well as beneath the surface. This will allow more sunlight and breeze. The division fences on the breeding, hospital, and puppy sides should all have solid fences four feet high with three-foot wire netting along the top, and two- foot wire in the trenches. Gateways throughout should have automatic catches in addition to a simple slide bar on each, and should be wide enough to admit a wheelbarrow. The dimensions given on the plan of kennels are the minimum and can be increased as desired, but should never be diminished. The foundation should be of brick and the floor at least thirty inches from the ground. The space beneath the floor can be partitioned off with plank the same as the floor plan, with a ten by twenty slide door, opening into each yard or run. A piece of carpet hanging over this opening, will admit the hounds, yet darken the place sufficiently to keep out the flies and heat. A twenty-four by twenty-four trap door on hinges should be placed in the floor of each compartment. This makes an admirable re- treat for the hounds from the heat and flies, the latter being the curse of all kenneled hounds. A light bed of pine shavings on the bare ground under the floor, with an occasional sprink- I 2 I Horse and Hound. ling of turpentine, will keep all flies and vermin away, and should not be overlooked, else the en- tire kennels will become infested with these pests. The flooring should be double, with a layer of good roofing paper between, the top floor being matched. Brick or asphalt floors should never be used; concrete is the best of such floors, but do not advise its use. It is more or less conducive to kennel lameness, which is simply a form of rheumatism. In mild climates the siding may be of boxing, well stripped, but in colder climates it should be plastered, or have the addition of a good building paper, or better still, some of the many eel grass papers that are both germ, fire, and weather proof. The roof should be covered with eel grass paper on the sheathing, then shingled. Under no circumstances should a metal roof be used. They are cold in winter, and in- tensely hot in summer, and have nothing but their price to recommend them. Each compartment should have a narrow door with latch on the outside, a sliding door twelve by eighteen, six inches from the floor, a sliding win- dow and wire screen opening into the rear com- partments, placed six feet from the floor; an ad- justable ventilator arranged to throw the draft against the ceiling when open. A portable sleeping bench, with twelve-inch solid back and four-inch rail around sides and front, with short legs six inches high which will 1 2 2 R. E. LEE. Alabarma. 1 22 This page in the original text is blank. Kennels. prevent crawling underneath. This style bench can be taken out, scrubbed, dried, and ventilated, a most important consideration. The cook room should have a small, upright, single flue, four-horse-power boiler for generat- ing steam, connected to a steam jacketed kettle holding sixty gallons. This is a far better way of cooking food that the direct-fire furnaces and kettle, the food can not be scorched, and can be more thoroughly, evenly, and quickly cooked. Many think that any kind of food is good enough for a hound; such men should never be blessed with the ownership of a hound. Nothing is too good for a hound, either in food, quarters, or treatment. A change of food is the founda- tion of health in hounds, and the sooner this fact is recognized by all successful managers of hounds, the better. I have owned a pack of hounds for a quarter of a century and have yet to feed them the car- cass of any animal. In winter they are fed one- third cornmeal (unbolted), one-third hog crack- lings, and one-third wheat bran. These are first thoroughly boiled in a steam kettle, then baked hard and brown in a regular brick oven. In sum- mer the cornmeal is too heating, and has a tend- ency to cause mange, blotch, and eczema, and oatmeal is substituted for the cornmeal, with a few tablespoonsful of hyposulphite of soda added for every fifteen couples. The food is baked as 12 3 124 Horse and Hound. hard as possible, thus forcing them to chew it up, thereby causing a flow from the salivary glands which aids digestion. The constant feeding of soft, sloppy, starchy foods, while fattening, leaves the hounds soft and flabby, and has a tendency to produce eczema and aggravate mange. By baking hard and brown, the hound can not bolt it, requiring crunching and necessarily better mastication. It also keeps the teeth clean and firm, a soft food-fed hound of two years frequently having the mouth and teeth of a four or five year old hound. The storeroom can be used for storage of raw and cooked food, straw, brooms, mops, shovels, etc., and should have a good-sized closet for the kennelman's individual use, as well as a well-arranged medicine chest. All four sides of the kennel should have a covered porch from four to six feet wide, upon which should be located the gates connecting the different yards, and upon which the hounds could lie during wet and rainy weather. If the weather is cold enough to require heat- ing the kennels, which is seldom, if ever, the case, a coil of steam pipe can be run through the com- partments, connected to and returning the con- densation to the boiler. Individual whelping boxes should be placed in the breeding yard. They should be thirty inches high at back, and forty-two inches in front, forty-eight by forty- KenneIs. eight in the clear, roof covered with water-proof paper, and hinged so as to lift entire roof easily, the hinges being in front. The opening in front, at either side, should be small, ten by eighteen, and closed by hanging carpet, ventilation being secured by raising the hinged roof the desired height from the floor. A shelf six inches wide, four inches from the floor, should extend all around four sides, thus preventing lying upon the pups when young, or crowding them into a corner, a practice very common with hound bitches, and the means of killing a large percentage of pups. These whelp- ing boxes should be made portable and raised six inches from the ground upon strong legs. The boxes should be placed far apart, and at some dis- tance from the kennels. Straw is the best bed- ding, and should be renewed as soon as sure the bitch is through whelping. A bitch that is known to be rough and care- less towards her pups should not be given a whelping box. A small house with a dry dirt floor is best. In this, hollow out a nest several days in advance that she may become accustomed to it. The circular form of nest will prevent her lying or stepping upon the pups as they will al- ways gravitate toward the center. The antiseptic qualities of the dry earth are too well known to need comment. 12 5 Horse and Hound. Boxes, similar to the whelping boxes, minus the shelf, can be used to great advantage in the puppy yard, and should be whitewashed inside and out every fortnight-the wash containing a powerful disinfectant. Urinal posts of four by four oak, set at intervals about the yards will be patronized to the extent of saving the white- washed fences. The habit can be cultivated by placing a few drops of oil of anise seed occa- sionally upon the posts. It is an excellent idea to have a hay rick frame containing straw placed in the larger yards. The hounds will enjoy it thoroughly if placed at a height they can jump upon and romp about on. On cold days they will lie upon it sunning them- selves, and in the hot weather will seek its shade. The straw will have to be renewed but seldom. If in a warm climate a trench three feet wide, taco feet deep, and ten feet long, boarded over, covere(l with dirt and left open at one end, will be much patronized and appreciated by hounds in the summer months. They should be closed in winter. Theoretical hunters and breeders may smile at the crudeness of the trench and straw-rick ar- rangements for the pleasure and comfort of the hounds, but if they will try them they will read- ily see the advantages they possess. Frequently a hound will be found in a kennel, that can not, through temper or other bad habits, 12 6 MIDDLETON OMALLEY KNOTT. M. F. H. Watchung Hunt Club. New Jersey. 1 2; This page in the original text is blank. Kennels. be allowed the liberty of the yards. Such hounds should never be chained, a wire stretched from posts, say a hundred feet apart, with ring and chain suspended from same, can be utilized. A small sleeping box can be arranged at the end of the run. In summer and warm weather no bedding is necessary, but in winter a liberal supply of straw should be furnished and changed twice a week. Neither shavings nor sawdust should be used, both being bad for the throat and lungs. The strictest attention to cleanliness and sani- tary conditions in a kennel alone will insure sound healthy animals, capable of sustaining the hard work hounds are called upon to perform during the hunting season. No matter how much confidence one has in the ability and faithfulness of an attendant, constant vigilance should never be relaxed by the master, in supervising these details. The constant use of powerful disinfectants is highly necessary in every kennel. Solutions of carbolic acid, bichloride of mercury, sulphate of copper, or chloride of lime can be had of any druggist; and walls, floors, and fencing should be sprayed or sprinkled twice a month in summer, and once a month in winter. Many disinfecting preparations on the market, are equally as effect- ive, and more convenient, on account of manner in which they are put up. I 2 7 Horse and Hound. If the yards and runs are small and over- crowded, twice a year the yards should be well sprinkled with lime and plowed up or spaded over, and where possible, covered to the depth of two inches with fresh earth or soil. Neglect of this precaution will cause sore and tender feet, and a master or huntsman well knows what this afflic- tion means in a pack. Where practicable, running water should be had in every yard, unfortunately, this is seldom the case. A most excellent water trough can be made from galvanized iron range boilers, by cut- tink a four by ten hole along the side, and bury- ing the boiler upon its side, allowing the hole to be flush with the surface of the ground. It can be filled either by hand or pipe connection. It will hold about thirty gallons of water, and the earth will keep it at a proper temperature, aud the small opening will prevent the hounds from soil- ing the water. By placing half of the boiler in either yard beneath the division fence and mak- ing an opening upon each side of the fence, the one trough will serve for both yards. Bins or boxes should be placed in each yard to receive the manure which should be collected daily. It is not generally known that this is a salable commodity, and when properly collected and disposed of to leather-dressers will almost pay the feed bill of the hounds. I have always found it a most excellent plan to make this one of the perquisites of the attendant, thus insur- 12 8 kennels. ing cleaner yards than could be had under the or- dinary conditions of having it hauled away. Hounds should seldom, except in the most in- clement weather, be allowed to occupy their sleep- ing quarters during the day, the doors remaining closed until sundown. Kennel-kept hounds have none of the pleas- ures and liberties of ordinary dogs, and the oc- casional change from one yard to another will do them good and relieve the monotony of kennel life to some extent. Kenneled hounds can never get too much ex- ercise, either during or out of season, no amount of feeding and attention can adequately supply the want of unlimited exercise. Regularity and system should prevail in the conduct of the kennel, having certain stated hours for feeding, exercise, and grooming. Hydrophobia is generally supposed to affect hounds more frequently than any other breed; this is not a fact. Hydrophobia is extremely rare in any breed, in fact reputable writers declare there is no such disease, claiming it to be one of imagination only. Occasionally a case may oc- cur in a hound, which will communicate it to a whole pack, all of whom may have to be de- stroyed, whereas a dog of another breed having it would be detected and destroyed before he would have an opportunity of communicating it to but few others. 9 1 29 Horse and Hound. XWhen hounds do have hydrophobia it is most frequently in the form of dumb rabies and not the violent maniacal form that causes them to "run amuck." Ashmout says: "The dumb, or sullen form of rabies is a peculiar type of hydrophobia without the violent or irritative stage. There is decidedly less ex- citation of the brain; the violent paroxysms, the constant motion, the disposition to bite, and the propensity to stray are all absent, or present in only a slight degree, and the animal is quiet, silent, and dejected. Paralysis of the muscles of the lower jaw is a characteristic symptom of this form of the malady, and manifests itself early in the attack. The jaw drops and the mouth re- mains constantly open. In rare cases a partial control of the muscles is retained for a time, suffi- cient to lift the jaw, and possibly allow the ani- mal to bite if sufficiently irritated. Rarely more than a few hours, possibly three or four, elapse before the disease manifests itself. Before this paralysis appears there is great difficulty in swal- lowing, and the poor dog will plunge his muzzle into water up to his very eyes, in order that he may get one drop of water into the back part of his mouth to cool his parched throat. In this form of rabies the flow of mucus and saliva is abundant, the same dripping from the open mouth. The voice, changed and of a hoarse tone, is seldom heard, and that peculiar combination of bark and I130 Kennels. howl, characteristic of the violent form of the dis- ease is entirely absent." I give this description of dumb rabies in full to enable the reader to detect the difference be- tween it and a peculiar disease that hounds, espe- cially in the South, are frequently afflicted with. Though I have read all the best works on the dis- eases of the dog, published both in this country and in England, I have never seen it mentioned. It does not seem to have come under the obser- vation of canine specialists. It is called "black tongue," is generally fatal, and is contagious. The symptoms are almost identical with those of dumb rabies, with the exception that the tongue turns black and the mucous membrane linings of the throat are sore and inflamed. It is only re- cently that a remedy has been found, all cases formerly resisting treatment and proving fatal. I have known whole packs to be killed with it. The remedy and treatment is as follows: Paint the inside of the lips and tongue with tinc- ture of bloodroot once a day, and give a tablet of one-fiftieth of a grain of bichloride of mer- cury three times a day. Keep the hound on a milk diet until cured, and on soft foods for some time, gradually returning to solids. If hound will not drink milk freely, add a little brandy and beaten eggs to milk, and pour a few spoonsful down the throat every few hours. I have yet to see the attendant who could 131 Horse and Hound. keep his kenneled pack free of mange and ver- min, without dipping. Where a pack consists of twenty or thirty couples, dipping, unless one is prepared for it, is quite an undertaking. The simplest apparatus to be used effectively, is made as follows: Construct a galvanized iron tank forty-two inches long, fifteen inches wide, and twenty-eight inches deep. Make a light slatted crate thirty-eight inches long, twelve inches wide, and twenty-six inches deep at one end and fifteen inches deep at the other, with a slatted top fitted with hinges, each end being solid. Fasten hinges at the lower end; at the upper end saw out a half round hole five inches in diameter, through which the hound can stick his head, while in a seated position. Fill the tank twenty inches deep with a solu-- tion of fifty parts tepid water to one part sheep dip, sanitas, phenyle, chloro-naptholeum, West's, or any of the many disinfecting fluids-not con- taining carbolic acid-which are commonly ad- vertised. After placing hound securely in crate, immerse him, all but head, for two minutes, being careful of eyes. Twenty couples can thus be dipped in a comparativly short time, without any struggling, splashing, or confusion. Dip them every fortnight and your pack will always be clear of mange, skin diseases, and vermin. Every hound should be carefully examined daily, by the hand as well as by the eye. The 132 Kennels. general condition of the body can be noted at a glance by one accustomed to it, but many minor troubles can be brought to sight by the hand. After each run, a careful examination should be made of every hound participating in the run. Holding hound with one hand by the muzzle, ex- amine eyes, feel ears, place back of hand to nose, run the hand down each leg, squeezing the foot, and examining pads and stoppers. Remove thorns or foreign substances which are likely to set up inflammation, and incapacitate hound from next hunt. Look for barb wire cuts, wood ticks, burs, and feel texture of coat and general condi- tion of body. In handling strange hounds, attract their at- tention, and look them straight in the eye. When irritated or angry, the pupil invariably dilates. Advance the back of the hand and let the hound smell of it before taking hold of him; do not either withdraw the hand or take hold of him suddenly. If he has a vicious or surly disposi- tion, remember kindness and consideration, by appealing to his sympathetic nature, will accom- plish more than force. If necessary to mark hounds for purposes of identification, I consider the best plan is to brand them. This should be done on the foreshoulder, the brand made of quarter-inch iron, the brand- ing surface dressed down to one-eighth. The letters should be two and a quarter inches long I 33 Horse and Hound. of corresponding width. The following letters make the plainest brand, X V U T 0 H J E S, and should be formed perfectly plain. It requires three persons to do the work quickly and cor- rectly, one to hold the head and fore legs, and one the hind quarters and body. Care should be taken not to draw the skin from its natural place. It is best to first remove the hair with shears. The third person handles the iron, which should be heated to a cherry red, and pressed until the flesh is scorched, the hound being released im- mediately. There is no danger of his biting any one after the brand has been applied. He will howl a few times, but the pain will be over in a few minutes. The place should be greased or oiled daily until well. Should the burn be too deep and fester, it should be washed with a soft sponge, removing the scab and applying carbolic vaseline. There is less cruelty in the operation than one would sup- pose, much less than in rounding the ears, or docking the tail. If one's hounds are well known in the com- munity, and good homers, it may not be neces- sary to brand them. When hunting with the pack in a strange country, they may be temporarily marked upon the sides with paint or dye, as in field trials. Occasionally a hound will be found that no amount of treatment, exercise, or food will put 1 34 COL. EDWARD MORRELL. M. F. H. Rose Tree Hunt Club. Pennsylvania. 134 This page in the original text is blank. Kennels. in good condition. If demonstrated by treatment that he is not suffering from tapeworm, he should be farmed out, sent to the country, where he may roam at will. A few weeks' recreation wvill make a new hound of him. If such is not the result, dispose of him. Preparing a hound for the bench show re- quires a lot of work and patience. It also re- quires a subject with good amiable disposition that does not object to handling. The points for judging a hound, given elsewhere, should be carefully studied before making selection from the pack. He should be well and carefully broken to the chain and collar, to lead lightly, and carry a gay stern, to stand in any position his legs may be placed, and to trot after his leader. While his exercise should not be cut down, he should be given more flesh than when in running condi- tion, yet at the same time, his muscles should be just as hard and firm. This can be accomplished by feeding lean meats, eggs, and milk, and by a prodigious amount of hand and brush rubbing, or massage. He should be accustomed to strangers and strange sights, and by the time you have him in condition to win, you will doubtless have ruined a good hound for field work. Individual hounds should be taken or sent to a bench show in a crate. This should have solid bottoms and ends, with hinged door. The sides and top should be slatted with good spaces between, I 35 Horse and Hound. as many dogs en route to the shows are annually smothered in hot express cars by having mer- chandise thrown upon and around the crate. The sides should be solid for a space of six inches at the bottom to prevent the straw from falling out. Never send hounds to a show without a hand- ler. The fair promises of the management to have your entries properly cared for, and exhib- ited, are forgotten as soon as the many duties of the show devolve upon them, and they are lucky indeed if taken from the bench, except while in the show ring. Unless preparing for bench shows, hounds should seldom, if ever, have a washing with soap, and then only in tepid, never in warm, water. A warm bath has sealed the doom of many a good hound. The ears should be washed as should their feet, but elbow grease and a brush for the body, will do more good than all the soaps and water combined. In hot climates like Cuba and the South, a good drenching about noon with the hose will do them good, though adding nothing to their appearance, for they are sure to wallow in the dirt immediately afterward. Hounds being kept in large numbers together are naturally greater sufferers from contagious diseases than other breeds of dogs, and mange is the curse of the majority of the packs. While true that mange is dependent upon contagion, there are several forms of this loathsome disease IT36 Kennels. that arise from the keep, lack of exercise, im- proper food, and bedding. Most of the patent preparations advertised will effect a cure, whether of sarcoptic or follicu- lar form, but they are generally expensive and hard to apply. The following remedy is a cer- tain cure, can be prepared by any attendant, and is inexpensive: One pound of slaked lime to two ounces of powdered sulphur in two gallons of water, boil down to one gallon, add enough water to this liquid to make five quarts, and rub the hound thoroughly with it twice, three days apart. If the case has advanced to the stage of a con- siderable loss of hair, also apply a dressing of fish oil and sulphur twice, three days apart, and the coat will be restored. A majority of the cases of mange can be cured with sulphur and fish oil alone, and should be tried before using the harsher remedies. This may seem a rather simple treatment for a disease which canine pathologists and veteri- narians exhaust volumes upon, but it is based entirely upon practice and not theory, and fully covers the subject as a trial will demonstrate. Eczema-frequently mistaken for mange-is however, entirely different from mange, and can cnly be cured by constitutional treatment requir- ing time and patience. For several years my dif- ferent kennelmen were constantly treating the hounds for mange, and only after employing the 137 Horse and Hound. best veterinary talent, did I discover the trouble vas eczema. It is non-contagious, is an indi- vidual disease, and is never transmitted. It is caused by lack of exercise, constipation, overfeed- ing, injurious foods, and indigestion, few packs being exempt from it. In a majority of cases of eczema in hounds it is caused from the continued use of starchy foods, w-hile mange is aggravated by feeding too much flesh. Therefore, in either case, the first step is to change the food. If this can not be accom- plished, add ten grains of hyposulphite of soda for each hound in the kennel, in cooking the food, elsewhere advocated. If for individual cases, Fowler's solution of arsenic xvill effect a cure, by giving six drops, twice a day, increasing the dose two drops daily until thirty drops are being given, then decrease the dose in same manner down to the original dose of six drops. The irritating ointments and mange cures should be avoided, entirely, being worse than useless. The following lotion is both cooling and healing, and should be applied twice daily: To the sore and inflamed parts, four drams Goulard's Extract Lead and four drams Laudanum to a pint of water. The earliest symptom of eczema is an itch- ing, the hound scratching himself upon every possible occasion. Upon examination a redness and thickness of the skin will be noticed, no sores are visible as in mange. The second stage can I138 W. J. MORTON Texas. 1 :, This page in the original text is blank. Kennels. not be mistaken. Small vesicles form, filled with pus, which, on breaking out, mat the hairs to- gether, causing it to fall out and leave a spot with a wet, inflamed, exuding surface. As compared with mange, eczema is a stub- born disease, hard to cure, and should never be neglected, but treated in its first stage. If unable to diagnose the two a powerful microscope will soon set your doubts at rest, as the parasite al- ways present in mange does not appear in eczema. Vermin often are very troublesome to hounds and whole packs of hounds are made miserable by the presence of these pests, through the ig- norance of the attendant in not knowing how to dispose of them. There is absolutely no excuse for this, the dipping of hounds, recommended, will kill all upon their bodies, and if the floors and walls of the kennels are sprinkled with a little turpentine, or what is left of the dip, it will be found sufficiently potent to exterminate or drive them away, and a flea will never be found on the premises. In cold weather, when not convenient to dip and to sprinkle the kennels, spirits of turpentine freely sprinkled around the kennels, and a little dry powdered camphor rubbed well into the coats of the hounds, will eradicate the nuisance. Medicine should be administered with great caution, and used sparingly. I139 Horse and Hound. Dogs are subject to almost every disease the human system is heir to. Hounds, from the amount of exercise they get, and their regular and simple habits, are immune from many of them, being singularly free from those of a cere- bral and spinal character, so common in other breeds, the most common hound ailment being distemper and skin diseases. Sore and tender feet are as great a source of annoyance to the master, as they are painful to the dog. It is astonishing how quickly a kenneled hound will acquire them when not regularly ex- ercised. Bathing them in a solution of white oak bark or painting the pads with a solution of sulphate of copper will strengthen and indurate the pads and stoppers. WVhen neglected too long they become sore, inflamed, and extremely sensi- tive around the roots of the nails. An applica- tion three times daily of two drams Ext. Lead. one-half ounce Tinct. Arnica, to one pint dis- tilled water, will be found very effective. If the pads become torn or cut while hunting, a few drops of collodion, slowly applied, will ren- der them insensible to pain, at least until the re- turn to the kennels. Hounds should never be fed to exceed once daily. Dogs, in a state of nature, are carnivo- rous, and, like wolves, forced to hunt their food, would probably feed every three or four days. Abstinence, therefore, of forty-eight hours, 140 Kennels. causes but little inconvenience. Overfeeding de- stroys activity and upsets the digestive apparatus; of the two evils, over or under feeding, the former is much the greater. The attendant should always remain in the yard while hounds are feeding, not only to pre- vent fighting and gorging to repletion, but also to familiarize himself with the individual appe- tites and manner of eating of his charges. When this is known, hounds should be separated at feeding time, the timid, shrinking, poor feeders in one pen, and the hustling bolters in another. When this can not be conveniently done, long, narrow, V-shaped oaken feeding troughs should be used. They prevent bolting of the food, and the greedy ones from getting more than their share. These troughs should be thoroughly cleaned and exposed to the sun, daily. When a hound refuses to eat, he should be thoroughly examined. If nose is dry or warm, his temperature should be taken. If registering above ioi-in the rectum (normal) he should be given a dose of castor oil, and watched carefully for a day or two, for other symptoms of sickness. An antidote for both arsenic and strychnine poisoning should always be kept in the kennels, and the huntsmen should not only carry a supply of it to the field, but should have a fairly good knowledge of poisons, and familiarize himself with the characteristic symptoms of each, espe- 141 Horse and Hound. cially if there has been any friction with the farmers of the neighborhood. The former is in- dicated by vomiting and swollen tongue, while the symptoms of the latter are twitching and jerking of the limbs and muscles. If either is indicated when an antidote is not to be had, an emetic of hot water and mustard, or tobacco, should be given immediately, and should be followed, after action, with a dose of lard. If administered in time the hound can be saved. Spaying and castrating are seldom practiced ili this country; the only advantage () to be gained is the transformation of a lathy, weedy hound into one of better form and conformation, but this is gained at the expense of energy, am- bition, and vim. One of the most stringent rules of the National Fox-hunters' Association is, that a castrated or spayed hound shall be ineligible to entry. I, as a member of the committee, formu- lating these rules, prepared and submitted this rule, which, I am pleased to say, met with the hearty and unanimous approval of the entire com- mittee as well as association. 142 SCENT. I APPROACH the subject of scent with dread and apprehension, for of all the incomprehensible, annoying, inconsistent, exasperating, unfathom- able things one encounters in the realm of sport, the nature and theory of scent is entitled to take precedence. The more one studies and investi- gates it, the less they seem to know of it. It is evidently too complex a problem for eminent scientists of the world to effectually solve. They seem to have left it to the practical, every-day man with little or no pretensions to scientific at- tainments to solve. I have found it impossible to learn anything from a scientific or medical standpoint, having been unable to find a single treatise or work touching upon it in the slightest degree. My observations, therefore, are purely practical, which, doubtless, in the long run, are better than theoretical ones. As every one who has hunted hounds has formulated in their own minds theories of scent, I have but little hopes of changing the minds of any such, and what I may say is solely for the benefit of those who have given the subject but little thought. My experiments have not been wholly con- 143 4Horse and Hound. fined to chasing the fox, for a number of years spent in the wilds of the Rocky Mountains hunt- ing bear, deer, wolves, and mountain lions with hounds gave me abundant opportunity to work out and familiarize myself with the many puz- zling features of scent problems. I have imported, owned, and bred blood- hounds for probably fifteen years, and have at present at least a score of these magnificent trail- ers, and have, in connection with them, as well as with foxhounds, made many and varied expe- riments in scent and trailing, and yet I must con- fess that I have much yet to learn, knowing only the rudiments of the science, never having been able to discover to my own satisfaction the laws upon which scent is constructed. Time and again have I worked out theories of scent to my own satisfaction, only to have them completely upset the very first time I at- tempted to apply them in practice, convincing me among other things that "scent is as variable as the weather." I therefore give my theory and opinion of scent for what they are worth, and leave the reader to form his own conclusions. It is a well-known fact that people bereft of one or more of the senses appear to have the others intensified. On this subject, however, my very good friend, Mr. William Wade, president of the National Fox-hunters' Association, says: "There is no higher development of the sense of 144 W. S. WALKER. K entucky. Iit This page in the original text is blank. smell in the deaf-blind, or in dogs distinguished for 'nose,' but that the ability of drawing fine dis- tinctions is higher, or what is probably the same thing, the power of concentration is greater." Mr. Wade has probably devoted more time and research to the problem of scent than any other man in this country, and says: "Mankind has as high an ability for recognition of various scents as any hound ever had, or ever will have, as the almost universal exhibition of this in those who are both deaf and blind demonstrates it. Katie M'Girr, a young woman of a class of twenty-four blind mutes, knows when a friend comes any- where near her, and I have been amused by her restlessness when I come near and her final in- quiring if I am not near by. Once I asked her who was in the room besides myself, and she im- mediately named the two parties, each of whom was at least ten feet distant. Linnie Haguewood went to the bath, taking her own towels with her; but when they were taken away by mistake, and she got the towels that were there before she came, she insisted that her towels be brought back to her (all the towels were identical). James Mitchell, the first deaf and blind person whose case was investigated by competent observers, knew all his friends by their smell, and even made his likes and dislikes on the basis of the smell of individuals." I have recently read an article by a French- 10 Scent. 145 Horse and Hound. man on the subject of scent, in which he advances the theory that scent is but a form of motion. While I am not a convert to this theory by any means, I must admit he presented his theory in a plausible and most convincing manner to the lay- man. The fox unquestionably has two kinds of scent, the "pad" scent, a scent that emanates from the "pad," or foot, of the fox, and which is com- municated by contact with the ground, and a body scent, which emanates from the body and the scent glands at the root of the tail. The power and strength of the pad scent depends, of course, more upon the scent-retaining qualities of the ground, and the body scent more upon the atmospheric and climatic conditions. It is generally conceded that the sense of smell leaves a stronger impression upon the brain than the other senses, and the scent of a fox seems to thrill the very nerves of a hound, they showing a fondness for the scent of a fox not evinced in running any other animal. The strong smell of a fox, while most disa- greeable to us, is evidently as agreeable to a hound's delicate organs as are the spices of Araby to man. There is no questioning the fact that freezing obliterates scent for the time being, and thaw- ing will renew it. This is fully and practically illustrated by the fact that hounds have been laid 146 in the early morning upon tracks of deer made in soft ground the night previous and afterwards freezing, and have utterly refused to "own the line," but later on in the day when the ground was thawed out by the sun, they had no trouble in holding the same line at top speed. I have often seen hounds run equally well on all kinds of ground, whether grass, stubble, plowed land, road; whether wet or dry. This, of course, is body scent, there being but little wind the effluvia from the fox's body is not dissi- pated, and the hounds could fairly revel in it and carry it breast high; again, I have, on "a cloudy day with a light southerly wind" and a fairly damp ground, seen hounds that should "burn up" a line, potter along with frequent checks and losses hardly able to speak it. Among the many peculiarities of scent may be mentioned the following, While atmospheric conditions undoubtedly have more to do with it than any other one thing, it is not controlled wholly by it. A fox in a quiet state gives but moderate scent; when in active motion and heated up, the exhalations, especially from the body and the scent glands, permeate the air, float upon it, and can be detected at quite a distance. In proof of this I have placed a bagged fox near the kennels to test noses of young hounds, and it is remark- able how close it can be placed without even the Scent. 147 Horse and Hound. older hounds noticing it. The same hounds would "cry" a running fox at three times the dis- tance. I have personally, upon several occasions winded a hunted fox several feet from the line, and at night it is easy for a hunter to tell by the scent if a running fox has passed a given point, especially if in a hollow. A flagging or worn out fox at the end of a run is supposed not to give as strong a scent as when hard pushed in the midst of a run, and a sleeping fox, or one lying quietly, will give but comparatively little scent. A high wind is particularly unfavorable and destructive of scent. Dry ground, leaves, and grass retain but little scent. A hot sun is also detrimental to scent. it has always been to me one of the mysteries of scent why freshly plowed ground should prove such a poor scent retainer, even when moist. I can cifly account for it upon the basis that fresh earth is a good disinfectant and kills scent, as is evidenced by the principle of the old-fashioned earth closet, though in plowed fields we have no stubble or grass to catch and retain the effluvia of the body scent or trees and brush to shield the line from wind and sun-both scent destroyers. I am more inclined to believe in these than in the theory of some who claim that the "pad" of the fox gets coated with the soft earth in crossing freshly plowed fields, and thus prevents the pad REDMOND C. STEWART. M. F. H. Green Spring Valley Hunt Club. Maryland. I IX4 ER 5N NR R This page in the original text is blank. scent from coming in contact with the ground, but this does not account for the absence of body scent. The faster and harder a fox is pushed the more body scent will he give off, and any expe- rienced hunter will tell you that he has frequently seen hounds under such circumstances running with nose breast high many feet away from the line. I have seen hounds enter a stream of swiftly running water and come out on the opposite shore exactly where the fox had left the water, showing conclusively that they were guided solely by body scent. Few fox-hunters will believe that water re- tains scent, and I for years thought so myself, in fact, it was only recently, while on a deer hunt- ing trip in the interior of Cuba, that I found the contrary to be true. The deer would invariably take to the lagoons and have to pass through low lands covered to a depth of several inches with clear, clean water, no bushes or vegetation were near enough to retain particles of scent, and enough wind was blowing to carry away any body scent before the hounds reached these points, but they never faltered, but owned the line as correctly as if on the Blue Grass fields of their native heath. I am supported in this state- ment that water will hold scent by Mr. Isaac Bell, M. F. H., County Galway Hounds, Ireland; and Scent. 149 Horse and Hound. Mr. W. S. Walker, of Kentucky. The latter I consider an authority upon any subject connected with fox-hunting. The fact that foxes have individual odors is well known to all hunters, also the fact that an old hound will not leave the line of a fox he is running for another crossing the same that may be both fresher and stronger, but this does not apply to young hounds. Who is there of us who has had experience in the West that can not recall the confidence and affection we had in our favorite hunting horse, who, time and again, saved us a night out on the plains, "lying upon our backs and covered with our bellies," by displaying his homing ability and going as straight to camp as the needle to the pole; that, too, when it was so dark one could hardly see enough to think This ability of horses to follow a trail, and not necessarily a back trail, is well known, espe- cially to any one who has spent much time on the illimitable plains of the West. This trailing in- stinct in the horse is entirely distinct from the "homing" instinct possessed in a greater or lesser degree by all horses, and from which upon sev- eral occasions I have been a sufferer. In horse "homing" there are many aids other than the power of scent, but in trailing other horses across rough and rugged country they have scent alone to guide them. 150 I recall an instance that happened to me in the early seventies. Traveling north from Ft. Laramie, in Wyoming, with a hunting party, one of my pack horses, a "cayuse," pulled his picket at night and could not be found next morning. We proceeded without him. At the end of the third day's ride, as we were about to pitch camp, up galloped the truant. It developed that he was found snubbed to a tree in a chapparel not far from our camp site. The day after our departure, upon being released by a party of hunters, he took our trail, twenty-four hours old, and fol- lowed it as faithfully as a hound for over a hun- dred miles with absolutely nothing to assist him but his unerring power of scent, as there were no roads, not even a bridle path or tepee trail, and probably no horse other than a Sioux pony had, at that time, ever been over this country. Scent. 15 I THE FOX. THt fox is well esteemed the most sagacious and crafty of all animals. His subtlety and dis- tinguished characteristics have won him a con- spicuous place in the folk-lore and myths of all nations where he has been known. In this coun- try, especially in the South, his praises are sung both in song and story. In Japan the natives be- lieve him to be animated by the devil himself, and their historical and religious writings are full of strange and weird accounts respecting him. In other lands poets have commemorated his deeds in romance and legend. He at all times and under all conditions leads a most strenuous life, and one can not help but admire him for his sagacity, adroitness, and craftiness. In fact, when I see one upon his na- tive heath, I always feel like uncovering to him. The fox is proverbial for his cunning and in- genuity in obtaining food and then outwitting and eluding his pursuers. His appearance is truly indicative of his char- acter, and he has long been the synonym of cun- ning and slyness. One of his most characteristic traits is the readiness with which he acquaints 152 Th e Fox. himself with anything of a conspicuous nature that threatens violence to him. If given half a chance for existence in a com- munity, his ability to circumvent his would-be destroyers, combined with his prolificness will al- ways maintain him, for there is no racial suicide in the fox family. His whole life is one sequence of crime and mischievous shedding and wasting of blood, and every man's hand is against him, and it is only the instinctive desire for self-pres- ervation possessed in common by all animals that enables him to hold his own in the struggle for existence. There are about twenty species of the fox, dis- tributed in every country except Australia and South America. While there are about half of this number found in America, among whom are the arctic, black, and silver fox, I shall confine myself to the wily red and his cowardly cousin, the gray. The red fox was unknown in America pre- vious to I760, at which time a number of them were imported from England and liberated on Long Island. They made their way to the main- land, and to-day are found from North Carolina and Tennessee to the whole northeastern part of the United States, as far west as Montana, and as far north as Alaska. The red fox is forty inches in length and will average about thirteen or fourteen inches in I53 Horse and Hound. height. He is a rusty red in color, with a grayish tinge on rump, belly, and flank, while the hairs along the spine and tail are black, the end of the tail being lighter in color and frequently, espe- cially in males, tipped with white. Legs are black, frequently white on the inside; feet black, breast white, and ears tipped with black. The red has greater shrewdness, cunning, and courage than the gray, and far surpasses him in speed and endurance. He is a sociable sort of a chap, seldom, if ever, found in the wilds and not infrequently will make raids upon the poultry yards of the residents of a city, and these expe- ditions are seldom fruitless. It is almost impossible to describe the extraor- dinary powers of this wonderful little animal. He is very deceptive in appearance, while seem- ingly fragile and delicate, no animal has more muscular development in proportion to its size. The gray fox is about thirty-eight inches long, gray in color, though darker along the back, and sometimes almost black along the spine. The sides of the neck, ears, and down the breast a rusty, dirty red; tips of ears black; feet and parts of legs and under surface of body, rusty red. Por- tion of the throat, breast, and inner side of the legs, white. Coarser hairs in tail than the red fox, but not soft under coat. The gray lives in hollow trees and stumps, and is naturally a better climber than the red. 15s4 J. W. CRANK. Misrouri. This page in the original text is blank. The Fox. It is remarkable the ability they can show in tree climbing when closely pressed by a pack of hounds. They prefer a warm climate and are generally found in all the Southern States. The red fox, when he made his advent into the South in the early fifties ran out the gray, but of late years the latter has returned and both can be found, though seldom "using" the same section. The gray has a thin, weak bark with much less volume than the red, the male of the latter, especially in the spring, having a full, wild bark, not unlike the coyote-though not so loud and deep. The gray never depends upon his legs to save his brush by eluding his pursuers, but doubles back and forth, circles, and twists, runs fences, logs, dodges and hides until the hounds are al- most upon him. These tactics avail him not, and with good conditions a pack of hounds should tree, hole, or "break him" in twenty minutes. The red, though a mile away when he first hears the "grand chorus," will at once check his baggage and start for foreign parts, and from the speed with which he takes his departure one would suppose his destination to be one of the poles, and he had but a few minutes in which to reach it. It is not until he finds them hanging on like grim death and that he has not distanced them, that he brings his cunning and ingenuity I5 5 Horse and Hound. into play-then he can give his cousin gray many points in the game. The kit fox's range is restricted to Colorado, Wyoming, and the Western Plains, and is much too small to afford any sport in the chase, being only twenty-five inches in length. He is a yel- low gray, darker on the back, especially along the line of the spine; the legs and under parts of the body are lighter in color; lie has a full, bushy tail with white tip and a black spot on each side of the muzzle. Foxes arrive at maturity at eighteen months, live to be ten or twelve years old, and are gen- erally free from fatal epidemics, though subject to a mild form of distemper and a violent, malig- nant form of mange. A fox in its naturally wild state seldom, if ever, contracts mange except from a captive fox that has been liberated, and one such fox will quickly infect all the foxes in a neighborhood. In captivity they have an unhealthy and un- happy look, especially the red fox, which never becomes tamed, being incapable of thorough do- mestication. It is sometimes playful when raised in captivity, but, like other savage animals, will bite upon the least offense, and always retains his suspicious disposition, languishing when deprived of his liberty. After being full grown, they seem to lack all sentiments resembling affection as illustrated in the dog; are extremely nervous, I156 lhie Fox. and are always easily frightened-if they once exhibit fear of an object or sound they never seem able to overcome it. They generally mate in the months of Janu- ary or February, breeding once a year, and have from four to eight whelps at a litter. When the maternal solicitude of the vixen is aroused noth- ings excels her courage in defending her young, and she seldom dies unavenged upon her enemies. The pupil of the eye is not circular like that of the dog, but oblique, indicating nocturnal ex- cellence but imperfect eyesight in the daytime. The individual odor of the fox is treated of under the heading of scent. He is endowed with great speed, unequaled agility, and most extraordinary powers of en- durance. His favorite haunts are, from our standpoint, but miserable selections, but there is generally method in his madness in providing himself with a country where he can retire from pressing dangers, either real or imaginary. Their sense of smell and hearing is aggravatingly acute, though in the daytime their eyesight is not what one would expect. The English claim greater endurance, more speed, and cunning for the English fox. Audu- bon, than whom there is no greater authority, says the red fox of America is the superior of his English cousin in every way. From what I know of the relative performances of English 157 Horse and Hound. hounds with each, I am prepared to adopt his views on the subject in preference to theirs, espe- cially in view of the fact that but comparatively few Englishmen have ever hunted the American fox upon his native heath. While the strategy and finesse constantly ex- hibited by the fox hold our admiration and prompt us to credit him with a high order of rea- soning and intelligence, I have always regarded "with a grain of salt" the story of the fox troubled with fleas, which slowly waded out into the water, gradually immersing all parts of his body until nothing but the tip of his tail remained above, to which point all the fleas had assembled, and then with a shake of his tail consigned them to a watery grave. Also the story of the fox that stole a hunter's decoy duck and used it in luring wild ducks to his meshes, I have always coupled with the other. They should justly be in a class to themselves. I have known hunters to credit foxes with avoiding corn fields and plowed ground on ac- count of the accumulated weight of mud on their drooping tails, and most any Southern darky who hunts will tell you, with a very straight face, that when a fox's tail gets so weighted he will at once swim a creek or river to wash it out, and that he will invariably swim a river full of alligators, knowing the fondness of the alligator for a hound will prevent the latter from following him. I 58 N S. DAUGHERTY. Louisiana. I is This page in the original text is blank. The Fox. There are many conflicting opinions on the subject of the chase. Some would have us be- lieve a hunted fox undergoes all the agonies of a schoolgirl in a room with a mouse. Many a hunter will tell you honestly and candidly that he believes a fox enjoys the chase as much as the hounds. I have seen them leisurely galloping along after having thrown the hounds off their trail by a master stroke of strategy, and they really seemed to be having their share of the fun. I knew of a litter of cubs that undoubtedly rev- eled in a chase. I would take several couples of young hounds after dark where the cubs "used," and for ten or fifteen minutes would have a fast run-the cubs circling in the neighborhood of their den and taking to earth upon finding the hounds gaining upon them. Calling the hounds off, in a half hour they would again be abroad and a repetition of the chase would occur, this being repeated several times in a single night. One night, desiring a longer chase, I sat down in front of the den with the intention of preventing the cub returning to the den. I did not succeed, for the cub literally jumped into my lap and then into the den. 1 59 TRICKS AND HABITS OF THE FOX. His Royal Redness is acknowledged to be the fleetest and most wary game chased, and is the embodiment of cunning and sly audacity. In spite of the prating of the mistaken phi- lanthropists upon the cruelty of the chase, I firmly believe, in a measure, they learn to enjoy it. He is not shot and wounded to drag himself off and die like many wild animals, but is given a fair sportsman's chance for his life. If he escapes, he quickly recovers from his bodily fatigue; if caught, his end is an instantaneous and honorable one and is as gallant as the race for life he has just put up. A hunting enthusiast who has spent years of his life in hunting, and thinks he has a practical intimate knowledge of their habits, is constantly being surprised at some new trick of boldness and audacity upon their part, and never tires of relating them to brother sportsmen. Were I to attempt to recount the many tricks, wiles, and habits he possesses, my book would contain noth- ing else. I shall mention but a few, those I think will be of assistance to would-be hunters. A dry bed with a southern exposure, shel- tered from the wind, is a great luxury to a fox i6o 7Tricks and Habits of the Fox. i6i taking a "siesta," and is much sought after, espe- cially in the early morning hours. Having lo- cated or suspected his napping place, it should be approached up wind. At the first sound of a hound's cry, softened by distance and borne on the wind, the fox, if he be resting or sleeping, will jump to his feet, and if in thick brush or cover, walk to a clearing. If the hounds are at quite a distance he will mount a stump or fence and remain listening until he satisfies himself the sound is approaching, this seldom takes but little timne as their sense of hear- ing is abnormally acute. If it is a dog fox, and especially one that has heard the grand chorus of a clamorous pack at his heels before, he waits not upon the order of his going, but takes a bee line for another section of country. If it is a vixen, especially one with cubs, her instinct tempts her to remain close by, and she will begin her run by making large circles, attempting to get in the rear of the hounds. After a few regularly executed preliminary maneuvers, and the fox has settled down to the business in hand, an experienced hunter can tell whether the quarry is a red or gray, male or fe- male (if the latter, whether in whelp or not), old or young, novice or old-timer, stiff-neck or loafer, and approximately what his tactics will be. The natural instinct and first inclination of the red fox (though not so with the gray) is to out- 11 Horse and Hound. distance his pursuers by speed. If he finds he is not doing this and the hounds are holding their own, then he resorts to his many tricks and cun- ning. His favorite practice is to make for a herd of cattle, band of horses, or flock of sheep, and will boldly seek a farm or stable yard in search of them. Another favorite "dodge" is roading. I have known them to run a road for miles, leaving it at approach of travelers and immediately returning after passing them. They instinctively appre- ciate the difficulty of hounds trailing them in the dust. They will also run a railroad, and their fondness for and ability to run any kind of fence is too well known to need mention. It is a well-known fact that a fox when hard pressed and beginning to fail will make for a cover where another fox is known "to use." By many it is believed that this unceremonious visit is not to exchange the compliments of the day, but to introduce and present the hounds to his acquaintance. Upon this point I "hae me doots." Admitting it to be so, it is not always a successful ruse, for old experienced hounds are chary about making new acquaintances, at least until they have shaken hands with the original. Young hounds are not so particular as "all scents smell alike to them." The only evidence of stupidity I have ever I62 Tricks and Habits of the Fox. i63 been able to credit a fox with is his propensity for regularly running the same line. I have known foxes to have a regular course as well laid out and adhered to as a steeplechase, and no mat- ter how often he might be run he would take the same identical course, even to jumping a fence or wall at a given point, and not varying it a single panel. Doubtless they realize the "ethics" of a sportsman will not allow him to take an undue advantage by putting in fresh hounds once the chase has begun. As before stated, Americans are more easily satisfied with a run without a kill than their Eng- lish cousins. If a stiff-neck red has given them a good run, they will often give him a new lease of life by whipping off the hounds when it is possible to do so, and it is an extremely rare occurrence for a fox once having reached his hole or treed to be routed out or killed. In fact, so few kills are made that the fox may well be said to take his own "lease of life." Strange as it may seem, foxes are more easily lost at the end of a run, when tired and ex- hausted, than when fresh. In the latter condi- tion they depend upon their heels saving their pelts, and it is only when wearied that they be- gin the maneuvers of cunning and sagacity for which they are famous. Some think a sinking fox gives less scent, but I have never been able to verify this. Horse and Hound. A tired fox jumping a fence from a woodland into an open will frequently skirt the fence for a few hundred yards and jump back into the wood, whereas if fresh he would take an air line across the open. Foxes in all countries are stronger, hardier, and give a much longer and better chase in every way during the months of December and January than in any other. This is especially true of the dog fox, who at this time is unusually bold and audacious. A gorged fox is as unfit to run as a darky after a visit to a watermelon patch; a red fox in this condition will often be mistaken for a gray fox from his unusual manner of conducting his campaign against the hounds. A fresh fox, pressed hard, will circle and pass close to his hole several times without entering. I have heard old hunters advance the theory that a fox when heated will avoid his hole as long as possible for fear of suffocation. I know nothing in contradiction of this and merely state the facts. If after a straight away run of several miles the line begins to twist and turn, and a complete loss is then made, do not attempt to get up an- other fox, but leisurely return to the jumping place, and the chances are you will find him there ahead of you and ready for another run. It is easy to tell from the appearance and ac- tion of sheep when a fox has passed through the i64 DR. A. C. HEFFENGER. M. F. H. Pcrtsrsuth Hunt Club. Near Hampshire. 141 This page in the original text is blank. Tricks and Habits of the Fox. i65 bunch, they invariably face in the direction he has gone, and a few young sheep will follow to the place in fence where the fox left the field. In stocking a section with foxes, all captive foxes should be carefully examined for mange before being planted or turned down, one mangy fox may contaminate every one in your section. If mange is detected, they should be "dipped" before being liberated, and well dusted with dry sulphur on being released. IN THE FIELD. "Wit. taske utolt rtor bown at Ay, Anb s1rrfs in tljt morn, 94gl 4iomtwb al lon in Oinm A eg. xrt euttman nutt ha Ii 4rn." HUNTING in moderation, as indulged in in this country, is a rational amusement and recrea- tion. In England this ancient sport has lost none of its prestige, for it is not uncommon for a man to hunt from four to six days a week. It even assumes the proportions of professionalism, and a man conditions and trains himself the same as horse and hound. Surely our cousin John Bull, when it comes to sustaining ancestral sportsmanship, never does things by halves, and fully upholds England's reputation as a nation of sport lovers. We are too apt to neglect the fundamental principles of hunting and riding in our greedy desire to become past grand masters in the art. For instance, how very few of us ever become judges of pace how few of us fully realize the great importance of giving the subject any thought and yet to one who desires to be known as a first flight man, one that can live in front, it is absolutely necessary. i66 In the Field. Hunting, unlike other sports, has no written rules for instruction of the novice, therefore necessary customs and observances can only be acquired by actual experience in the field. If you have neither the time nor inclination to make practical study of fox-hunting and wish to enjoy an occasional day's hunting without detracting from the pleasures of others afield, the adoption of the following "do n'ts," with a slight knowledge and experience of hounds and hunt- ing, and the ability to keep your mouth closed, your eyes and ears open, looking wise, will ma- terially assist you in fooling others into the be- lief that you are a "real blown in the bottle" fox- hunter. On your wlay to the "meet" avoid crossing or riding over country there is any possibility of be- ing hunted later on, especially if there are sev- eral in your party. Foxes that have been hunted before take their cue from your horse's footsteps and your own voice, and act accordingly. Do not fret and worry your horse en route by "larking" (jumping unnecessary fences), he will need every ounce of his reserve force later on. While it is unpardonable for any one to join the field without a thorough knowledge of at least the rudimentary rules of the game, a novice, es- pecially a woman, may offend the customs and observances of the field; do not swear at the man or scowl at the woman, no matter how strongly i67 6Horse and Hound. you may be tempted to do so, and do not waste your spleen upon your horse, who is no more re- sponsible for it than yourself. Upon reaching covert before hounds are cast, dismount, adjust saddle and girths, and if horse is heated, walk him quietly a few minutes, taking care that he does not step upon or kick any of the hounds. When hounds are cast off, remain perfectly quiet and keep your horse so; hounds are easily rattled at this stage, and too much enthusiasm upon your part may cause them to "run riot." Do your talking before hounds are cast off and never ask the master or huntsman any ques- tions as to why they did thus and so during a run. Later on when the run is finished you stand a better chance of getting a civil answer. If you see a fox break cover or cross a field, halloo "Tally-ho away," and point in the direc- tion, but do not start after him until the hounds either have a view or are placed on the line. Re- member you can not catch him without the hounds. During a check or loss do n't talk about your last partner at the cotillion, your run of luck the night before at bridge or where your favorite ball team will finish the season. Of all times this is when you should be quietest, and if you are a woman do not at this particular time, I beseech you, ask a man to hold your horse while you do I 68 JUDGE C. FLOYD HUFF. Arkansas. I'S This page in the original text is blank. In the Field. up your back hair. This seems to be a favorite time for this performance, and many a time have I groaned, yes, cussed, in spirit when this request has been made of me. This request and the in- quiry "are my girths loose " have more than once caused a chill to run up and down my spine, and naughty words to come up in my mouth. Do not understand me as objecting to women in the field, I much prefer them to addle-pated men, and, in fact, I have probably done as much hunting with wXomen as with men, and I am free to confess the women of Kentucky are equal, if not superior, to the men in the saddle. I am sure they are more reckless and take greater chances, and I know they have greater respect for both the written and unwritten laws of the hunt. Never leave your line to seek another jumping place unless you are sure no one else is within several hundred yards and making for the same objective point. If any one is fencing ahead of you, make certain he has made a clean "lep" and is out of the way. It is bad enough to "come a cropper" yourself, without having some one else jump on top of you. Never select as a pilot a man you do not know to be a fox-hunter in every sense of the word, and if you see a rider tearing across a distant field at your right or left, do not go to him unless you have something more tangible than his action to urge you, I 69 7Horse and Hound. Always be on the lookout for hounds, espe- cially in jumping. It is an easy matter to kill a good hound, but it is a very difficult one to re- place it. If you are a novice do not try to fool yourself into the belief that the art of riding well to hounds can be acquired by every one. Most any one can become a good rider on the flat, but it takes long years of experience and keen observation in the field to keep hounds in view; reserve your own and horse's strength, and be "in at the death." A good flat rider who finds himself for the first time following the hounds, may be timid at the first fence; after that fear disappears, and the wild exhilaration and excitement brings de- light known only to a cross-country rider. He scatters anxiety and fear to the winds, taking al- most impossible jumps with renewed courage and increasing confidence as he follows the vanishing pack. It is only when he finds himself embracing mother earth he realizes " 't is the pace that kills," and the coveted distinction of "living in front" is enjoyed by the careful, painstaking rider, and that breakneck riding and a corresponding disregard of consequences will often bring their own re- ward. One actual practical experience like this in the field is worth all the reading and theoretical knowledge one can gain of hunting in a lifetime. Never force or hurry hounds in puzzling out I170 In lMe Field. a cold scent, this is one of the most fruitful means of spoiling sport. If you feel restless and impa- tient, dismount and sit upon a fence or stump. If you and your horse are impatient it will surely be communicated to the hounds and a check will soon develop into a loss. Never get ahead of the hounds, remember, no matter how great the temptation to be seen "in front," you can not catch the fox yourself, but you can, and probably will, spoil a day's sport for a score of people by such tactics. To make and retain a reputation and charac- ter as a good hunter is a hard job, but in no way can one add to it more then by careful and judi- cious riding, relative to the hounds in the field. One should never ride in the proximity of hounds and not too far to right or left to inter- fere with a swing or cast they might chance to make. In passing hounds on the road or lane, halt your horse until all have passed. If listening for voice of hounds hold your horse's head up, never let him nibble grass, twigs, or bushes, or champ his bit-this is an abominable habit, and a horse should be broken of it. If one rides off from the crowd to listen to and locate the pack, do not follow or approach him. In a chase do not consider it necessary to tie your horse to the tail of the M. F. H. It is extremely annoying to him to be crowded. I 7I Horse and Hound. Never start on a thoroughly empty stomach, calculating that you will return in time for lunch or dinner; always put a cracker or biscuit in your pocket. Many a time have I had occasion to feel thankful when, utterly exhausted, I ran across such in a pocket, though they were several days old. Never mind what the other fellow does, at- tend to your own knitting, he will take care of himself, and there is no one to look after you but yourself. Do not boast of what phenomenal jumps you made in the run. If the field saw them that is all that is necessary; if they did not, they won't be- lieve you, so save your breath and reputation. Whenever you are thrown in contact with a conceited rider, you can rest assured that he ac- quired his education as a rider either at his club or from viewing hunters from a box at a horse show; there is nothing that takes conceit out of such a one as quickly as a few runs across a stiff country. Hard, level turf or sod is best ground for a take off as well as a landing. If possible, always avoid flat rock or loose stones in landing. In- variably put horse at middle of a panel rather than at either side; the reasons are too obvious to mention. If you have decided on a certain panel and have started for it, unless for very good reasons I 7 2 In the Field. do not change your mind, and if you find you have not time enough to change direction so that you may reach the new take off at right angles, do not attempt an oblique jump, but pull up and go back. When taking a stone wall where the landing can not be seen and is an unknown quantity, though the jump may not be high it is best to in- crease the speed, the momentum insuring a wider jump, thus clearing any loose stones or obstacles that may be close to the fence on the landing side, which is frequently the case where the top or cop- ing denotes a low place in the wall. If you are riding by balance and feel that you have lost your center of gravity in jumping, do not attempt to steady yourself with the reins, take hold of the mane, pommel, or cantle in prefer- ence. This may not look so well to the novice or green hunter who is watching you, but an old- timer will readily understand it, and give you credit for not yanking or jerking your horse from his stride or flight, and I am sure your horse will appreciate it. Unless thoroughly acquainted with your mount's methods in jumping, never try a fence or gap with boughs or branches overhead unless you want to be hooked under the chin, as some horses will go as high for a two as a four foot jump. In crossing a woodland or wooded pasture do not go under the trees if at high speed, as fallen limbs I 73 Horse and Hound. covered by tall grass and weeds are liable to cause you to "come a cropper." If at a stiff jump you realize your horse is off his stride, not well in hand, ungathered, and legs not well under him, it is better to pull up, and turning, make another go at it, than to take the chance of landing on the top rail. This may fret your horse and cause some of your "admirers" to smile, but take my word for it, it is a wise move. Watch your horse's ears and feel of his mouth, they are sure indicators of whether he is ready and willing, sour or sore, over the ap- proaching jump. If found ready and willing, with gentle pressure of knee and rein advise him that you are also ready, and indicate from your reso- lute, yet quiet manner, that you will expect him to do his part; do not hesitate, falter, or exhibit any indecision of manner unless you wish to com- municate the same to your mount. Under the heading of jumping I have given full instructions as to the relative speed for the different obstacles to be cleared. Always bear in mind that fences and walls do not require as much speed as ditches, brooks, and wide obstacles, where the momentum gained will be an advantage in clearing space. An experienced rider in approaching a fence will never look for the lowest place, but will rather look for the place with the best take off and 174 DR. J. H. PARKER. Newt York. 171 This page in the original text is blank. In the Field. landing; with these accessories a good hunter's powers for clean junmping are almost unlimited. I (1o not mean by this to counsel the selection of high jumps, but I do mean that a high jump with good take off and landing is much safer than a lower one with bad take off and landing. The rider who selects the high jumps irre- spective of other conditions, merely to show off his ability, or rather his lack of sense, is gen- erally properly classed by the genuine hunters afield. If hounds are fencing in advance of you, wait until you see them well beyond the fence; do not take it for granted that they will get out of your way. No man can estimate what a hound will do with any certainty under any circumstances. If you are not ambitious of becoming a "thruster" or first flight man, and are contented to let others "blaze the trail" for you, do not al- ways follow a leader or pilot; your horse may be- come so accustomed to it he may refuse to jump without one. A leader is generally an incentive to any horse to jump, as well as to refuse, should one in front of him set the example. The Walkers train their hunters to jump fences from a virtual standstill, and I have seen them take some remarkable jumps, especially when it is considered they weigh, on an average, 225 pounds and ride with very heavy saddles. Their horses average about I5-2; I can not re- 17 5 Horse and Hound. call ever seeing one of them on a i6-hand horse. More than once have I trailed behind one of them through thickets and brush almost impassable to ordinary horses, they blazing and opening the way at full speed. On more than one occasion have I seen Woods Walker in thick woodland put his horse at a fallen tree with boughs and leaves still on, measuring eight to ten feet high. Of course, he did not clear it, but went high enough to force the smaller limbs and boughs aside and let him through and over; showing the courage of, and the unbounded confidence the horse had in the rider. I never attempted to follow him but once, and then came to grief, landing with my horse on top of the fallen tree, much to my chagrin. Many a good run has been spoiled by not al- lowing the hounds to settle well on the line be- fore being crowded by hunters; many get excited and hardly know what they are doing. The practiced ear will readily distinguish a hound's tongue when out of sight. When you hear a hound open do not put spurs to your horse to get to him unless you recognize his voice and know the hound very well; he may fool you. If other hounds are in sight watch them closely, they will "heads up" at the sound and listen intently, and if not thoroughly satisfied, will again go to hunting. This may be repeated several times, then, without any apparent difference in tone or 1 76 An the Ade/d. sound, when another cry is heard, so similar you can not detect the difference, the hounds will "hark" to it, and with bristles up and sterns lash- ing, take fences in their mad flight as though they were but a foot high, in their eagerness to "get in." They know the characters of their hound friends better than you, and know when they are either bluffing, lying, or are in earnest. When casting never offer to assist as long as the hounds are diligently trying to strike it off, the less they are interfered with the better; they understand finding a fox better than you. While a good voice in a hunter is a most desirable qual- ity, it should be used sparingly and with judg- ment, the ear-piercing, soul-lacerating yells some- times encountered in the field only serve to excite the hounds and result in more harm than good. Hounds while fresh are very excitable, and unless you want them to overrun the line at the first turn and make a loss, do not press them too closely. This fault of the hunter is responsible for spoiling more good runs than all the bad soil, high winds, and climatic conditions combined. One should never forget that it is through the courtesy of the farmer that fox-hunting is made possible, and in crossing his land greatest care should be exercised in not injuring his crops, fencing, and stock. In Kentucky we are particularly handicapped in hunting. The two greatest products of the 12 17 7 Horse and Hound. State are hemp and tobacco, and a run of fox and hounds alone through the tobacco means a serious loss to the owner. Fields and woodlands not in cultivation contain hundreds of fine brood mares whose colts, either by their sides or in utero, are worth thousands of dollars, and noth- ing so excites thoroughbred mares as a pack of hounds. The talk about hunting being a source of rev- enue to the farmer may do in a small country like England; but in America hunters and grain may be raised three thousand miles away from where hunting is indulged in. Hunting in America requires an altogether different hound from England, conditions being very dissimilar. Here hounds require superior hunting ability, wide ranging, greater persever- ance and patience, and, above all, a much better nose to enable them to take an old and cold track, probably made the day before, and work it out inch by inch for six or eight hours if necessary. They get absolutely no assistance from the hunter and have no one to rely on but themselves. I have known instances where a single hound would slip away from home, travel eight or ten miles to where he had previously run a fox, find an old trail, and work it diligently for fifteen or twenty hours without ceasing. If there are any such hounds in England they have never been sent to this country. I178 t00:00000: :00t0:0000:::;000I,_:_ __000:0: fE\00V :000urn0E: MAJOR W. A. WADSWORTH. M. F. H. Geneseo Valley Hunt Club. New York. 1II This page in the original text is blank. In the Field. A habit I have that have never known another to possess, is carrying a few quinine pellets in my vest pocket. I have made this a practice for years. After a long hard run, even on chilly days or in a soaking rain, I have found myself wet with perspiration and a pellet of quinine taken during a check, has prevented a chill and cold. This habit of mine is so well known that I have had as many as half a dozen in a single day to apply to me for a pellet. Many interesting stories are told illustrative of "once a fox-hunter always a fox-hunter," and of the love of man and horse for the chase never deserting them. A custom much in vogue in England, but sel- dom practiced in this country, is braiding or tying a red ribbon to the tail of a kicking horse, and the same to the foretop of a biter. Thorough- breds are especially addicted to these habits, and it is almost impossible to break them. The habit of tying red ribbon to barbed wire in a fence as a warning, is also practiced in Eng- land, and is undoubtedly a wise precaution, but it would require the entire output of several trusts in red ribbon to supply the hunting districts here. Owing to the character of the country through wooded districts, it is frequently impossible to keep the hounds within either sight or hearing, then the craft of the hunter with an accurate knowledge of the habits of the game comes into 179 Horse and Hound. play. If sheep or cattle are in sight he can tell at a glance if they have passed in their vicinity, and, in fact, the very direction they took. Every flock of fowls, farm dog, or cur of low degree is an indicator. If a band of horses, he can tell whether the hounds were close upon or far be- hind the fox. If there is a crow or jay bird in the neighborhood, he can locate the fox as both are inveterate enemies of the fox, and will not only "peach" upon him, but do everything in their power to advise the world at large of the fox's presence. All of these signs would be as "Greek" to the novice. Every country has its own style of horn; the small straight copper horn with brass mouthpiece and leather case used in England, is well known to all. The French brass hunting horn, with its winding tubes and flaring base; the cornet or bugle of Italy and Spain are not so familiar. In this country the Eastern hunt clubs have adopted the English horn, the New England hunter uses the bugle, while the hunter of the South and West, where great stress is laid upon the tone and quality of the horn, uses the cow horn. Many hunters have horns that have been handed down in their families -or successive generations and prize them very highly, treasuring them as family heirlooms. In night hunting there is a peculiar charm, a mysterious sweetness about the tone of a good, well blown horn that no other musical I 8b In Ihe Field. instrument possesses. Its melody fills the heart of a hunter and quickens his hbnold as does the drum and bugle that of a soldier. It is remarkable how readily a hound learns the tone of his master's horn and never seems to forget it or confuse it with another. At hound trials of the National Fox-hunters' Association, when the hunt for the day had been "called off," I have known a score of owners to call in their scattered hounds, all winding their horns at the same time, and every hound would go to his own horn. I do not think this possible with any but the cow horn, as all brass and metal horns are more or less alike. Green was the original color worn in the hunt- ing field until succeeded by the showy scarlet in the time of George II. In England the pink coat, white hunting breeches, top boots, and silk hats are the proper dress for the field; they are seldom seen in America, except upon dress parade and at the hunt balls. The Eastern hunt clubs are conservative in their dress, not running to either extreme. I am sorry to say that with us in the South the majority do not pay enough attention to dress, seldom going beyond boots and riding breeches. A silk hat is a rarity, an "oiled slicker" being more common. In the South these men and women are, for the most part, those with a right to love any kind of blue-blooded sport. Some of them, indeed, may not have the blood of i8i Horse and Hound. great families, but they are born fox-hunters, and wearing the old slouch hat and the country jeans trousers, are the representatives of forefathers who hunted foxes in years gone by, over the same ground. The matter of dress, therefore, outside of the officers and assistants of regularly organized hunt clubs, is one largely of individual taste, and as fashions are continually changing, a consultation with a fashionable tailor would doubtless be more satisfactory than any advice I might give on the subject. FIELD DO N'TS. Do n't ride on the coat tails of the man you have selected as your pilot. Do n't press hounds on the road. Do n't leave gates open. Do n't fail to tie red ribbon on your horse's tail if a kicker, and on foretop if a biter. Do n't forget civility to natives. Do n't let your mount eat grass or champ bits when hounds are working. Do n't over or under dress. Do n't ask questions of M. F. H. Do n't ride over country to be hunted in go- ing to meet. Do n't blow your horse unnecessarily. Do n't ride over hounds either in field or road. I 82 In the Field. Do n't discuss hounds unless you are an ex- pert. Do n't offer suggestions to officers of the hunt. Do n't draw comparisons-they are fre- quently odious. Do n't lose your temper. Do n't tell about what your hounds and horse can, or did, do. Do n't rush your fences. Do n't abuse your mount. Do n't jump unnecessarily. Do n't spur or cluck. Do n't halloo-let the other fellow do it. Do n't stay mounted all the time, dismount whenever standing. Do n't pump your mount in plowed ground. Do n't cross grain fields-go around them. DRAG-HUNTING. There are two classes of sportsmen who in- dulge in drag-hunting. The business man who can spare but a few hours at a time from his office, and the man who having the time at his disposal, "hunts to ride," rather than "rides to hunt." Unfortunately they lose all the true sport de- rived from a knowledge of hounds and foxes, consequently knowing nothing of the finer points and many delicate intricacies of the game, so I83 Horse and Hound. thoroughly and keenly enjoyed by an enthusiastic and genuine fox-hunter. To my mind the fascinating uncertainty of success in hunting, is one of the greatest charms that appeals to the hunter and adds chiefest zest to the sport; in drag-hunting this is all missing. However, it is fortunate that we do not all feel and act alike, for if all the sportsmen in the world took to fox-hunting, what a strenuous life the fox would lead. A drag-hunter will enlarge upon the merits of his horse, of which he is generally a most excel- lent judge and admirer; tell you to an inch the height and number of fences he jumped, who took a cropper, what a glorious "run" he had, but never mention a hound or anything about their work; in fact, he regards horses and riding as the whole thing, and hounds as mere accessories. Not so with the fox-hunter, he jumps fences or knocks them down, it is immaterial to him which, so he is not delayed; is in the saddle ten or twelve hours, and incidentally in several coun- ties during the run; he reaches home probably at midnight in a drenching rain, cold, wet, and hungry, takes a night-cap and sleeps like a log. Blow your horn at his gate at daylight and in- form him you are off for a hunt and see if any power on earth can keep him from accompanying you. While en route to cover ask him about his run of the previous day, and he will go over every 184 `dM. WADE. Fennsylvania. I91 This page in the original text is blank. In the Field. foot of "the line," tell you every "loss" or "check," every "cast" made by each individual hound, which hound "struck it off," and every de- tail of the "running and trailing." Ask him about his mount, how the field rode, character of coun- try covered, and he will look at you in blank amazement-this, the fox-hunter. Drag-hunting, however, has its devotees who seem to extract much enjoyment out of it, and for a business man chained to his desk, who can only get away occasionally, and can not spare the time necessary to successful fox-hunting, it is doubtless an excellent substitute. Those who desire to try it will find the fol- lowing an excellent drag: One-half ounce oil anise seed, one-half ounce essential oil valerian, one and one-quarter ounce castor oil. Hounds must be broken to this scent, however. The bet- ter plan is to keep foxes in a zinc lined box or cage, save the urine and drag a sponge or rag well saturated with it. A sheepskin kept in same box can also be used as a drag; either of these are preferable to the anise-seed bag. Running a bag fox may be a harmless amuse- ment, but it is a poor substitute and a base imi- tation of genuine sport. I must plead guilty, however, to the charge of having indulged in it. A bag fox will not run like a wild fox, even though fresh and uninjured, they generally run down wind; and though hounds run them in only I 85 8Horse and Hound. a half-hearted way, I never knew one to get his "ticket of leave" before a pack of hounds when turned down under favorable conditions for trailing. If given twenty minutes' license they are gen- erally killed in less than the same amount of time after the hounds are laid on the line. I have known of several instances in which hounds ut- terly refused to run a bag fox; in fact, one of the best 'all-round" hounds I ever owned could never be induced to run a bag fox. One form of fox-hunting, as practiced in America, that is extremely popular, especially in the South, is "night hunting." It is regarded by Eastern and Northern hunters very much in the same light as drag-hunting is by Southerners. While I have indulged in it more or less all my life, I must say it has never been popular with me; I care more for one good daylight run than a month of night hunting. I can not account for its popularity or the strong hold it has obtained upon its devotees (who are legion) unless the fact that in the South one can hunt every night in the year, whereas, if they had to depend upon days with proper hunting conditions, the runs would be but few and far between. There are many hunting enthusiasts held in its bondage whose chiefest zest in the sport is derived from the melody of the deep- toned tongues of the clamorous pack in full mo- i86 In the Field. tion brought to them on the night's mild breezes. One of this class is quoted by John Fox in his ar- ticle on "Fox-hunting in Kentucky," as saying: "I never expect to hear sweeter music unless by the grace of heaven I hear some day the choiring of angels." In night hunting no attempt is made to "ride to hounds," but the hunters take advantage of the fact of a fox always running the same line, and by an easy hand gallop along the roads and lanes can always reach the crossings in time to see the screaming pack go by. If the night is too dark to distinguish the individual forms of the hounds, these grizzled old fox-hunters, who by birth, tra- dition, and practice combined, keep alive the in- herited hunting instinct, know the mouth, or tongue, of every hound in the pack, and can at the end of an all-night's run tell you the exact position of every hound throughout the run much better than you or I could relate of a run seen in the daytime. MASTER. In America (except with hunters) the posi- tion of master of hounds is but little understood and appreciated. Never make the mistake of be- coming "master" of a pack simply because you are rich and can afford it, and it is the swell thing to do. I know of no position of as great respon- sibility, requiring as many high-class qualifica- i87 Hlorse and Hound. tions in one man. He must have the patience of Job, a natural love of the sport combined with a thorough knowledge not only of the game in all its mystifying details, but of humanity as well. He must be sensible and good tempered, with tact and ability enough to be firm without being offensive. A M. F. H. is as much of a king (in the field) as an ordinary man ever gets to be. His word is law-even though that law be an unwritten one. No master can ever please an entire field, no matter What his ability or how hard he may try, therefore the master who hunts with the one idea of killing his fox in a workman and sportsman like manner, will be the one who is voted a suc- cess. He should jog quietly to the meet. If the field has not arrived at the appointed time, he should not wait over ten minutes. Hounds will get impatient and be liable to run riot if held in restraint longer. Those present will abuse him as roundly for the delay as those who are tardy will for not waiting for them. The position of master of a pack is an envia- ble one, invested with dignity and responsibility, and is, therefore, one of the most complimentary ones which gentlemen can tender a brother sports- man, and should not be accepted lightly or thoughtlessly. In a few of the Eastern hunt clubs the M. F. X 88 T. S. McRATH. M. F. H. Portan4 Hurlt Chlub. Oregon. .SS This page in the original text is blank. In the Field. H. has to employ the huntsman, whippers-in, and supply mounts for same and self; in a majority of them the expense of attendants and mounts is borne by the club. As in this country the master or owner (fre- quently one and the same) generally acts as huntsman, the following advice will apply to both. The man who hunts a pack should never get excited or lose his head. This is the most griev- ous fault one can possess, as it will be surely com- municated to one's hounds and horse. He should at any sacrifice acquire the habit of self-control and practice it religiously. If in doubt at any time as to what course you should pursue, do not consult your field, but act with decision and promptness. A vacillating mind will not only lose you much ground at a critical part of a run, but may lose you the confidence of your field. If you are in doubt keep the fact to yourself and trust to luck for turning out all right. A good voice is a rich inheritage for master or huntsman, but it must be used with discretion and judgment; remember a noisy hunter is even w orse than a babbling hound. A master or huntsman should never attempt to collect hounds by a false call. He may fool them a few times, but they will soon find him out and he will have cried wolf too often. In the field but one man should have charge of or hunt the hounds, and no one should so far I89 Horse and Hound. forget himself as to offer unsolicited assistance or suggestions. A successful huntsman should have intuitive knowledge bordering upon instinct, he should possess patience, perseverance, courage, and ac- tivity, and be a fearless rider with a good head upon his shoulders. In addition to the above he should have a thorough knowledge of the ways and habits of a fox and a well-defined idea based upon practical experience as to just what a fox is apt to do under various circumstances over which he (the fox) has no control. Knowledge of the country to be hunted is of essential service to a huntsman, especially in "striking off a loss" or making casts to counter- balance time lost in the earlier checks of a run. As to the qualifications necessary in a hunts- man in England, Beckford, than whom there is no better authority, says: "He should be young, strong, bold, and enter- prising, fond of the diversion, and indefatigable in the pursuit of it; he should be sensible and good tempered; he ought also to be sober; he should be a good horseman and a good groom; his voice should be strong and clear, and he should have an eye so quick as to perceive which of the hounds carries the scent when all are run- ning; and should have so excellent an ear as al- ways to distinguish the foremost hounds when Igo In the Field. he does not see them; he should be quiet, patient, and without conceit." That the office of huntsman in England is not a sinecure or a bed of roses, is proven by the record of Will Danby, a celebrated huntsman in 1830, as follows: Three thigh dislocations, all of his ribs laid bare on the right side up to breast bone, left arm broken once, right shoulder dislocated, collar bone broken twice, fracture of the skull above left eye, and innumerable flesh rents. Jim Treadwell, another celebrated huntsman who flourished in the early forties, while hardly the physical curiosity of Danby, must have been a very "busy" man, as he is credited with having "run into" (killed) 3,760 foxes during his career in the saddle. A whipper-in should be a good horseman, ca- pable of riding light, with knowledge of how to save his mount in case it should be wanted by the master or huntsman. He is, in fact, an understudy for the hunts- man, and must have enough practical knowledge of the game to assume the huntsman's r6le upon short notice. He should implicitly obey orders of the master or huntsman, whether he thinks them right or wrong, and should never criticise any act of either, and while he should refrain from offering I91 Horse and Hound. information he should always have a civil answer for any member of the field. He should be sparing of his lash, never hit a hound unnecessarily or in temper, and yet be con- stantly on the alert for breaches of discipline upon the part of the hounds. It is also his duty to see there is no straggling, that no hounds are left afield after the hunt, and that the field do not ride over or encroach upon the hounds at work or on the road. In the South a whip (not whipper-in) is sel- dom seen in the field upon hunting days. I have been master of the Iroquois Hunt for twenty years and master of the National Hounds ten years, and in all of their hunts have never seen a whip used a single time to enforce obedience, the hounds be- ing controlled solely by the voice after having once been broken and trained. The earth stopper is practically an unknown quantity in hunting in America. In England he is generally an old gamekeeper, retired huntsman, or crippled whipper-in, whose duty is to visit the earths (dens) of foxes the night before a hunt, and while the foxes are abroad to stop up their entrances with bundles of boughs or twigs bound together, and cover lightly with sod and earth thus preventing the occupant from going to earth (holing, (liuring a run. After the chase they are unstopped. 192 STEPHEN H. VELIE. M. F. H Kansas City Hunt C'ub Missotll i. 192 This page in the original text is blank. HUNT CLUBS. IN I894 the National Fox-hunters' Associa- tion was organized, with Admiral Jas. E. Jouett as president. As its name indicates it is national in character, and its membership extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans. This organiza- tion has done much to foster and improve hounds and hunting, both by field trials and the estab- lishment of a stud book for registering pedigrees. The annual trials of this association have been very successful, both in point of entries and num- ber of hunters participating, at one meeting there being several hundred hunters in the field. The running rules and regulations used in conducting the field trials of hounds follow: The stakes and the order of their running shall be as follows: The Derby for hounds under eighteen months of age. The winner of first will be awarded a silver cup; winner of second, a silver medal; win- ner of third, a bronze medal; and winner of fourth, a diploma. The All-age Stake for all ages.-The winner of first will be awarded a silver cup; winner of 193 13 Horse and Hound. second, a silver medal; winner of third, a bronze medal; winner of fourth, a diploma. The Champion Stake, eligible to hounds that have won first, second, or third prize at any field trials recognized by this association.-The win- ner of first will be awarded a silver cup, and the club to confer the title of Champion upon the winner. RULE i.-No nominations can be taken or en- tries made except by or through a subscriber who shall be a member of the Club, and thereby be- comes responsible for said entry. RULE 2.-The entrance money must in all cases accompany the nomination. No entry shall be valid until fee is paid in full. RULE 3.-The number of entries from any one kennel or pack shall be limited to four. The age of a dog shall be calculated up to and in- clusive of the first day of the hunt. RULE 4. (A)-Subscribers must file with the Secretary the names of hounds they intend start- ing on or before I2 o'clock M. of the day pre- ceding the trial. Every hound entered at any trial held under these rules must have been the bona fide property of the person making such entry ten days before closing the entries. The entries must clearly identify the dog by name, and if known, its date of birth, name of its sire and dam, and the name of its breeder; should any of these particulars be unknown to the subscriber, 194 Hunt Clubs. it must be so stated on the entry blank. Every hound entered must be registered or listed in the N. F. H. Association Stud Book. The pen- alty for non-registration or listing is disqualifi- cation and the forfeiture of entry fee and prizes won. Any subscriber taking an entry in a stake and not prefixing the word "names" to a hound which is not his own property, shall forfeit the hound's chance of the stake. He shall also de- liver in writing to the Secretary the name of the bona fide owner of the hound named by him. B ( i ) A hound to be eligible to registration must have a full pedigree for three generations, or in the absence of such pedigree must have been a first-prize winner at a foxhound field trial recog- nized by the National Fox-hunters' Association. If less than three generations only can be given, a hound can be "listed" in the Stud Book upon payment of 25 cents, and a certificate of same will be issued. Such listings will be published annually in the Stud Book. (2) No change in a hound's name shall be permitted after it has been published in the an- nual volume of the Stud Book. (3) A hound may be re-registered upon change of ownership, but a new number shall not be given. (4) The breed of a hound is the individual or partnership owning or leasing the dam at the time of her being bred. 195 Horse and Hound. RULE 5.-If any subscriber should enter a hound by a different name from that in which it last run in public, without also adding the late name of the hound, said hound shall be disqual- ified. A castrated dog or spayed bitch shall be barred. Any such running shall forfeit any and all prizes won. RULE 6.-Objections or protests to any hound must be made in writing to the Directors and ac- companied by a deposit of io, which shall be forfeited if the objection is not sustained by the Directors; should an objection be made which can not at the time be substantiated or disproved, the hound may be allowed to run under protest, the Club retaining his winnings until the objec- tion is either withdrawn or decided. Should he be disqualified, the others shall be placed the same as if he had not been in the stake. RULE 7.-The Directors may refuse any en- try they may think proper to exclude; and no person who has misconducted himself in any man- ner in connection with the N. F. H. A. shall be allowed to compete in any trials that may be held under the auspices of this Club. RULE 8.-No entry can be withdrawn with- out the consent of the Directors. Parties so of- fending may be debarred at future trials or pe- nalized, at the discretion of the Directors. RULE 9.-An owner, his handler, or his deputy, may hunt a hound, but it must be one i96 GENERAL HENRY T. ALLEN. M. F. H. Fort Riley Hunt Club I 9. 0 : F-- - _44I: This page in the original text is blank. Hunt Clubs. or the other. When the owner has deputed an- other person to handle for him he must not in- terfere in any manner, nor will he be allowed to ride to hounds. RULE io.-Riders to hounds shall be limited to the handlers with entries in that particular hunt, the judges, the M. F. H. flag steward, and members of the press who obtain such permission from the Directors. RULt i i.-The M. F. H. shall give the hand- lers any information they need as to direction to enable them to keep within reasonable distance of the hounds. He shall instruct handlers and out- siders not to converse with, or in the hearing of the judges, about the work done or merits or de- merits of any of the competing hounds. It shall be his duty to report any and all infringements of this rule to the Directors. The offender shall be subject to a fine or expulsion from the grounds, at the discretion of the Directors. He shall ride to the hounds, and shall direct the handlers and assist the Judges in every proper way possible. It shall be his duty to notify, by conspicuously posting in camp the night before, the hour and place of starting on the following day. He shall also call the hunt off. He shall carefully examine all hounds entered, and if any are affected with contagious diseases, or any bitches in season, he shall promptly report same in writing to the Di- I ectors, who shall officially notify owners of nom- I97 Horse and Hound. inators and bar same from the trial. He shall designate by what markings, device, or colors each entry shall be marked to aid the Judges in distinguishing them, and no dog shall be marked otherwise than as he directs. He shall furnish the Judges each day with a list of the dogs run- ning, their name, owner, and distinctive markings. RULE I2.-The Field Stewards, where prac- ticable, should be sworn in as deputy sheriffs. They shall be held responsible for the proper con- duct and behavior of spectators and participants, and will see that spectators are kept at a proper distance from and do not interfere with the hounds participating. They shall also see that there is no destruction of property. They shall report to the Directors or M. F. H. throughout the day for instructions. RULE 13.-The Flag Steward shall, if possi- ble, keep both hounds and spectators in view, and by a series of flag signals notify the Field Stew- ards of the general direction of the hounds. He shall act as assistant to M. F. H. in directing and calling off the handlers. RULE I4.-There shall not be less than three or more than five Judges, who shall be elected by the Directors of the Club. They must not be interested, directly or indirectly, in any of the hounds, and must be hunters of large fox-hunting experience, and capable of closely following the hounds. They shall be subject to the general I 98 Hunt Clubs. rules of the Club and report for duty each day to the Directors. They shall have the fullest dis- cretion, consistent with the rules, in determining the merits of the hounds, and in the field shall have the ordering off of the hunt. Should an appointed Judge be unable to fulfill his engage- ment or become disabled, the Directors shall have the power to fill the vacancy, or not, in such man- ner as they see fit. RULE I5.-Judges are requested to select a reserve award, in case one of the winners should be disqualified, that the prize may not fail of be- ing awarded. The Judges shall continue the run- ning during the day, and from day to day, until a majority of them are satisfied. RULE i6.-Their final decision shall be ren- dered in writing to the Directors; they can not recall or reverse them on any pretext whatever after being so given. If any person openly im- pugns the decision or actions of a Judge on the grounds or in the camp, he may be fined, in the discretion of the Directors, not more than 25 or less than 5. RULE I7.-No person shall attempt to in- fluence a Judge's decision, either before, during, or after a race. If a party so offending is a mem- ber, he shall be expelled from the Club; if other- wise, he shall be fined and sent from the meeting. RULE i8.-The handler hunting a dog may speak to and urge him on in a proper manner. I99 Horse and Hound. but he shall be cautioned twice by the Judges or M. F. H. for making unnecessary noise or dis- orderly conduct, and if after such a caution he continues to so offend, he may be ordered from the field. Should a handler ride over or pur- posely interfere with an opponent's hound, the owner of the hound so ridden over or interfered with shall have the privilege of saying which one of the offender's entries shall be barred, or shall have the option of selecting at the end of that particular hunt one of the offender's hounds, which will remain in the stake, and he shall be entitled to claim one-half of said hound's win- nings. if any. RuLE i9.-A hound that fails by action or note to work fairly on a trail, and runs "cunning" to get an advantage, shall be discounted, in the discretion of the Judges. RULE 20.-A hound left on a "jump" or thrown out "on a loss taken off," shall not be penalized if it works diligently to "get in" and succeeds in a reasonable time. RULE 2i.-A hound "thrown out" and "com- ing in" and refusing to hunt or "go in" to others in full cry, shall be marked and barred. RULE 22.-Should the pack become separated the Judges must divide and carefully note the work of each pack, and immediately upon re- assembling individually report work noted. RULE 23.-A hound lost during a run and 200 Hunt Clubs. not returning until the trials are partly or wholly finished, shall be given credit, provided the Judges are satisfied that he has been running; testimony of interested parties not to be taken on this point. RULt 24.-Any person allowing a hound to get loose and join in the chase, shall be fined not less than 5. If the loose hound belongs to an owner of one engaged in that particular chase, such owner shall be fined in the discretion of the Directors, unless he can prove to the satisfaction of the Directors that he had not been able to take up his hound after finishing his last chase. The fact, however, of other hounds joining in shall not necessarily end the chase. RULE 25.-No hounds shall be eligible to compete in trials that have been hunted or kept within a radius of fifteen miles of the meet within three months preceding the trials. RULE 26.-The entries in a stake shall be numbered and divided into packs, in the discre- tion of the Directors; said division shall be made by drawing lots under supervision of the Judges. When possible, a kennel or owner should not have more than one hound in each pack. After the first round the Judges will order such hounds as they elect to run in the following rounds. In the general average, the Judges shall make their decision upon the uniform principle that the hound showing the most aptitude and ability to find, trail, and catch a fox is the winner. The 201 Horse and Hound. principle is to be carried out by estimating the work done upon the following scale of points: Hunting .................. 20 Trailing ................... 20 Speed ....................... 20 Endurance ................... 20 Giving tongue ................. I0 Judgment and intelligence ....... o I 00 The Brunswick Hunt Club was organized in i889; holds annual field trials at Barre, Mass., and is composed of some of the best known fox- hunters and business men of the New England States. This organization has done much for the im- provement of the hound and hunting in New England. There are quite a number of Hunt Clubs in the South that hold field trials, making regular awards for the best hounds in the differ- ent classes. The only hound pack trials ever held in this country were at Westbury, Long Island, in the fall of I902. The five packs competing for the i,ooo prize were: Green Spring Valley Hunt, Redmond C. Stewart, M. F. H.; Meadowbrook Pack, John Leeper, Acting M. F. H.; Aiken Pack, Thomas Hitchcock, Jr., M. F. H.; two packs from Hickory Valley Hunt, J. M. Avent, 202 A. HENRY HIGGINSON. M. F. H. Mililesex Hunt Club. This page in the original text is blank. Hunt Clubs. M\1. F. H. Two packs were hunted at a time, one wearing red collars, with seven and one-half couples in each pack. After five days' hunting and work the judges decided that the Green Spring Valley and Aiken packs were so evenly matched in speed, endurance, driving, and pack work that they could not render a decision, and accordingly divided the i,ooo purse between them equally. The Meadowbrook Hunt Club is probably the best known of the Eastern Clubs. It was organ- ized in i88i, and its membership has steadily in- creased until now it numbers about I25. The fifty couples of hounds are divided into three packs, English, American, and Drag hounds. The foxhounds are hunted in the morning and the drag hounds in the afternoon. The favorite meets are at Jericho, Wheatly, Westbury, Pip- ing Rock, Lyosset, and Guinea. The season opens September Ist, and lasts until stopped by unseasonable weather, and in the spring from March Ist to April I5th. Wild red foxes are hunted with two or three drags hunts each week. Nassua, Queen's, and Suffolk Counties, Long Island, are hunted, the country being rolling, and the fencing, mostly timber, is not to stiff to be ridden straight. The present Master, Mr. Peter F. Collier, Mr. Foxhall Keene's successor, can be relied upon to furnish high-class sport. The average attendance is about fifty, seventy-five be- 203 Horse and Hound. ing a gala field, ten per cent of whom are ladies. Many high-type American hunters are ridden, a majority of them capable of going the line. Eng- lish and Irish hunters have been tried, and though game, good weight carriers, and speedy, do not take to the country as well as the native bred hunters. This is largely owing to the different style of obstacles encountered, the jumps here in- clining more to height than breadth. High jump- ing being one of the first requisites in a Meadow- brook hunter. The Aiken Hounds, Thomas Hitchcock, Jr., Master, is a private pack composed of thirty couples of Southern American hounds, selected more for their individual worth than for their bench show qualities. This is attested by the fact that they killed twenty-four foxes in I902, and thirty-three in I904. Mr. Hitchcock hunts near Aiken, S. C., in a timbered country, three days a week, from November ist to April ist. That he has confidence in his hounds, and it is not mis- placed, is proven by their winnings at the annual foxhound field trials. The Lima Hunt Club, organized in i885, composed of seventy-five members, hunts in Dela- ware County, Pa. Their pack of twenty couples of American hounds (subscription) is hunted, three fixtures and three byes a week, from No- vember to April I 5th. Chas. A. Dohan, the Mas- ter, hunts wild foxes over a hilly, rolling coun- 204 JOHN R. VALENTINE. M. F. H. Rainci Hunt Club, Penn sylvania 2/14 This page in the original text is blank. Hunt Clubs. try, with timber fenced fields, small enough to check the rush of a big field of hunters. The Club has fifteen lady members, with an average of five in the saddle, being twenty-five per cent of the total. The annual race meet of this club, held at Wilmington, Del., consists of mile races on the flat, and two and a half mile steeplechases across country. The events fill well and good sport is furnished the large fashionable crowds in attendance. Professionalism, so frequently in- festing similar meets, is conspicuous by its ab- sence. The Myopia Hunt Club, Boston, was founded in i879, though it was not until i88i they se- cured a regular pack which was brought from Montreal and hunted, with Mr. Hugh A. Allen as Master. While the club has a membership of over one hundred, the "fields" only average about twenty, a goodly percentage being ladies. When the conditions are considered, the small fields are not to be wondered at. The hunting is in Essex County, about an hour's train ride from Boston. It is, therefore, necessary for the horses and hounds to "lay out" over night preceding the "meets." In addition to the small inclosures and the natural rockiness of the country, there are many salt marshes, while directly through the center of the hunting ground is a river hedged by an extensive swamp, adjoining an almost im- penetrable scrub woodland. To add to the mis- 205 Horse and Hound. eries of the enthusiastic hunters, there is scarcely a field that is not wired or fenced with stone walls. The hounds are English, of the large type. The horses are highly bred, many of them being thoroughbreds. Three meets a week are held, from September ist until frost; no spring hunt- ing being indulged in. Mr. George S. Mandell, of Boston, has been the Master since i9oi. Another well-known club is in Fauquier County, Va., the Warrenton Hunt, which has been in existence since i889. Mr. John D. Hooe is the President, and Mr. U. D. Benner is the Master. The hunting season is an unusually long one of forty meets, and the twelve couples of American hounds are given a lot of work after the drag. The attendance averages twenty-five, a goodly percentage of whom are ladies. The Blue Ridge Hunt, of Virginia, with twenty odd members and ten couples of hounds, hunt in Clark County, a rolling, open country, with a great variety of fencing including stone walls. The Master, Mr. Edward Gay Butler, al- ternates the pack upon drag and wild foxes twice a week, with fifty per cent of the members in the saddle. The London Hunt Club (Canada), organized in i885, has a membership of I45, with sixteen couples of good English hounds. For the first ten years of its existence, wild foxes were hunted, but since then the wily anise-seed bag has been 206 HENRY G. VAUGHAN. M. F. H. Noifolk Hint Cl.'. Massachusetts. 210; This page in the original text is blank. Hunt Clubs. assiduously chased twice weekly during the months of September, October, and November. Mr. Adam Beck, the present Master, is consi(l- ered one of the best the club has ever had, anl furnishes the members, who average about twenty at each meet, with as much sport as can be had under the existing conditions. The Middlesex Hunt Club, of Massachusetts, with a membership of about fifty, musters an average attendance of fifteen in the saddle, in- cluding three or four ladies. It was founded in i899, and for the first year or two had only six or eight couples of hounds; of late years, how- ever, great pains have been taken in getting to- gether as good a pack of English hounds as pos- sible. Forty odd couples have been imported from the Essex Union and the Southdown Hunts in England, and they will be considerably strengthened during the present season by im- ports from the Belvoir, the Fitzwilliam, and the Duke of Beaufort's kennels. Mr. A. Henry Hig- ginson has been Master since the organization, sharing the honors in i900 with Mr. Howard Snelling, and in I904 with Mr. Julian Chamber- lain. Robert Cotesworth, late huntsman to the Earl of Bathurst, is the present huntsman, and under his able management the pack will show material improvement over past form. Consider- ing the class of country, many good runs and the occasional killing of a fox are had, the latter 207 Horse and Hound. being exceptional in this State. The country hunted lies in a radius of twenty-one miles of Lincoln, and varies from rough pasture to good grass fields with the typical New England stone walls varying from three feet to four and a half. The hounds are the property of the Master, Mr. Higginson, who hunts them himself, and are con- sidered fast. The Genesee Valley Hunt Club is the oldest hunt club in the United States, having been or- ganized as early as i876. Major W. A. Wads- worth, a prince of sportsmen, is the President and Master, and the pack, known as the Major Wadsworth Hounds, is composed largely of the American-English cross-bred hounds, containing at present but fourteen couples, being about one- half the usual number. The hunting is in the Genesee Valley, mostly in Livingstone County, and is an ideal fox-hunting country. During the months of October and November wild red foxes are run, and the average attendance for three days in the week is about fifty. The fencing is rail and board, not too stiff to be ridden straight, at least by the members who have the reputation of being hard, straight riders. The hunters are mostly three-quarter and full thoroughbreds, many of them being bred in Canada. It has al- ways been a fox-hunting community, the hard riders and superior jumping hunters being the result of the genuine, high-class sport given them 2o8 THOMAS HITCHCOCK, JR. M. F. H. Hitchcock Hounds. South Carclina. 20m This page in the original text is blank. Hunt Clubs. by Mr. Austin Wadsworth, who has been the Master twenty-odd years. The Westchester Club (Chester County Pa.), while a young one, having been organized in I902, is a flourishing one, with twenty couples of American hounds. Colonel A. M. Holding is President, Carrol Jacobs, Secretary, and J. C. Murtagh, Chas. F. Oat, P. S. Darlington, W. H. Cochran, and Herbert Carter are the Board of Governors. The Master, Mr. Jno. J. Gheen, has the hounds afield every day, weather permitting between December ist and April ist. It has a membership of fifty-five, with an average attend- ance of from ten to twenty, including two ladies. Red foxes are plentiful; the country is open and rolling, with post, rail, and worm fences, and no finer country for fox-hunting could be desired, the runs frequently being from three to six hours. In point of membership, the Green Spring Valley Hunt Club, of Maryland, organized in i892, is second only to the Deep Run and Elk- ridge Hunt Clubs, in active membership, hav- ing 200 members. Mr. Redmond C. Stew- art is not an idle Master, and hunts the thirty couples of American hounds every other day, weather permitting, from Octo- ber iSt to March 20th. The country hunted is the northwest section of Baltimore County, which is a farming community with an occasional strip of heavy woods, the stiff timber fences and many 14 209 Horse and Hound. ditches making interesting hunting for the half dozen ladies and score and a half men riders who turn out on hunting days. High-class hunters, wnith the necessary cross-country qualities, are ridden by the members. The Deep Run Hunt Club, of Richmond, Va., while having a very large membership (225), probably the largest active in this country, sends but a small percentage to the field, the average at- tendance in the saddle not exceeding fifteen, a third of which are ladies. This is doubtless ac- counted for by the fact that wild foxes are not to be had, having to content themselves with the drag and captive foxes. Were they as energetic as the members of the Myopia Club, most ex- cellent running could be had by going half the distance. Mr. C. C. Pinckney is President, and 1lr. H. C. Beattie the Master, who hunts eight couples of American hounds twice a week. Some fine hunters of thoroughbred strain are owned by the different members. The Onwentsia Hunt Club, of Chicago, is one of the few Western Clubs which is forced to use drag hounds. The pack is about evenly divided between English and American hounds. Its pres- ent membership is fifty, one-half of whom ride three times a week from September to April. Mr. W. Vernon Booth is the Master. Organized in i895 and incorporated in i90i, the Norfolk Hunt Club, of Medfield, Mass., has 21I0 Hunt Clubs. eighty-five members, Francis Peabody, Jr., being President. The Board of Governors is composed of the President, Secretary, Treasurer, and Mas- ter, and three Stewards. Mr. Henry G. Vaughn, the Master, hunts the twenty-five couples of American and English hounds. The drag hunt- ing in Norfolk and adjoining counties is done entirely with the English hounds from the be- ginning of the season in September until after Thanksgiving, when the ground becomes frozen, the meets are changed to Cape Cod and wild foxes are hunted with the American hounds until late in December, over a good, smooth country with the usual New England stone walls. Owing to the muddy and sandy soil, the going is heavy. The proportion of men and women is about six to one. The Cameron Hunt Club, with seventy-five members, thirteen couples of English hounds, es- tablished in i897, hold drag meets twice a week and holidays. Mr. Robert E. Lee, Jr., is Presi- dent, and Mr. Courtland H. Smith is Master. The country hunted is Alexandria and Fairfax Counties, Va., a good negotiable country for cross-country riding. The Chester Valley Club (Pennsylvania), R. Penn Smith, Master, organized in i897, has twenty couples of American hounds (subscrip- tion) which are hunted from November 22d to March U7th. The country is open, an abundance 211I 2Horse and Hound. of red foxes abound, requiring no artificial stock- ing, and good runs, with an occasional kill, are had. Out of a membership of sixty-two, one- half can generally be counted upon for an aver- age of twice a Nveek. Mr. Harry \W. Smith, Master of both the Grafton Hunt and the Smith Hounds, of fifteen couples each, hunts the country about Worcester, Mass. The former is a subscription pack of American hounds, and the latter the same num- ber of Southern hounds. Mr. Smith has a stable of good hunters, Rudolph being the star per- former. Mr. Smith's hounds are frequently seen upon the bench and entered at the hound trials. The Elkridge Hunt Club is not only one of the largest, but one of the oldest clubs. It was organized in i878, and at present has a member- ship of 250. Mr. E. A. Jackson, the Master, is also President of the Club, member of several im- portant committees, and to his skill and unflag- ging interest much of its success is due. The pack consists of thirty-odd couples of American and half English-American hounds, and is accounted a good one both for drag and wild-fox hunting. The hunting season is autumn and spring, in Baltimore County, Md. It is a good hunting country, being rolling and fairly open. The fenc- ing is varied, comprising plank, post, and rail and snake, requiring a good class of sure-footed hunters. Wild foxes are plentiful, and excellent 2 I 2 F. M. LOWRY. M. F. H. Pittsburg Hunt Club. Pennsylvania. This page in the original text is blank. Hujil Clubs. runs are generally had, the country carrying good scent. About fifteen men and two or three ladies turn out at each meet. The Harkaway Hunt, organized in I903, is a worthy successor to the Pittsburg Hunt, organ- ized in i899. Mr. Frank M. Lowry is the Mas- ter, and Hon. Walter Lyon the President. The fourteen couples contain American, English, and Irish hounds. Semi-weekly hunts, alternating drag and wild foxes, are held from September to May ist, in the vicinity of Donald, Pa. Mr. Edward Crozer, the Master of the Up- land Hunt Club, furnishes good sport to its sixty members, few of whom, however, avail them- selves of it, hunting eighteen couples of American hounds on native foxes, from October to March I st. Delaware County (Pa.), the hunting ground, is rather hilly and stiff, in which post and rail fences abound. The hunting fever reached the Pacific Coast in i900, at which time the Portland Hunt Club was organized. The drag pack of ten couples of American hounds are run under the Mastership of Mr. T. S. McRath. Fifty of the 125 members are generally in the saddle, and though the coun- try is brushy, the log and low rail fences make it an easy one for cross-country riding. Many ladies grace the occasion of each meet with their presence. The Orange County Hounds, owned and 2 I 3 Horse and Hound. hunted by Mr. John R. Townsend and Mr. E. H. Hamman in Orange and Fauquier Counties, Va., afford most excellent sport to their many friends every other day throughout the season. The pack is a good one of twelve couples American and twenty-six couples English; the foxes are red with straightaway inclinations. The English hounds are used in the drag. The Chevy Chase Club, of Washington, D. C., organized in i892, has a membership of 750. Mr. Clarence Moore has been the Master for the past seven years, and hunts twenty-two couples of English and twelve of American hounds in Mont- gomery County, Md., the country being a rolling, farming country and well adapted to the drag as well as fox hunts, which are held almost daily throughout a season, extending from November 15th to April I 5th. A larger percentage of ladies hunt in this club that in any other, at least one- fourth of the field being composed of ladies. The coverts are small and fences easy, showing op- portunities for good bursts of speed. The Essex Hunt.-Master, Charles Pfizer; Huntsman, Wm. Howard since i890; Whipper- in, Kennelman, all professionals, being subject to changes. Hounds, imported English, thirty-five couples, a draft being imported annually to main- tain a good average. Location of Kennels, Glad- stone, N. J. Telegraph office and railroad station, Gladstone, N. J. Post-office, Gladstone, N. J. 21I4 Hunt Clubs. Days of meeting, Wednesdays, Saturdays, and all holidays. Season, September iSt to December 3ist, and, on the average, six weeks in the spring. Country, hill and dale, principally pasture and hay and wheat fields in Somerset and Morris Counties. History of Hunt, originally Essex County Hunt, organized I877, at Orange, N. J., hunted in Essex and Union Counties until i890, since then it is a private pack, with subscription privileges, located at Morristown, i890-i893, since then permanent. It is a post and rail coun- try, mainly drag hunting, the riders average twenty men; very few ladies turn out, the country being too stiff and the coverts too thick and large to permit wild-fox hunting successfully, which sport is followed with varying success during the winter months, but it is not a regular fixture. Part of the pack is hunted annually at Southamp- ton, L. I., during September and October. The White Marsh Valley Hunt.-Master, Welsh Strawbridge. Officers: President, Edward D. Toland; Vice-President, William Disston; Secretary, Thomas Stokes; Treasurer, Russell H. Johnson, Jr.; Huntsman, Mr. J. Gerhard Leiper, Jr.; Whippers-in, Mr. Walter Stokes and Mr. Edw. N. Benson, Jr.; Kennelman, James Mc- Cuen. Hounds, American foxhounds, mostly tri- color; after much weeding out, have gathered to- gether a small pack of hounds that show good sport. Location of kennels, Erdenheim Stock 2 I5 2Horse and Hound. Farm, White Marsh Valley, Montgomery County, above Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia. Tele- graph office and railroad station, Philadelphia R. R. and Reading R. R. Terminals, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia. Post-office, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia. Days of meeting, Saturdays and legal holidays, with a bye day, mostly Wednes- day, in the middle of the week. Season, from Oc- tober ist to March Ist, or as much longer as the going permits. Country, White Marsh Valley mostly meadow land, post and rail fences. Out- side of the valley the country is rolling, fences generally well kept up, and farms prosperous. A good open country, very little rough going. Club organized in the fall of I903; has a full member- ship list of one hundred riding members, also a list of about thirty-five subscribing members. The hounds for the last two seasons have been run as a drag pack. The Patapsco Hunt.-Master, Dorsey M. Williams (P. 0. address, Ellicott City, Md.). Officers: President, Grosvenor Hanson; Vice- President, Colonel Chas. F. Macklin; Secretary, Rowland C. West (Cantonsville, Md.); Hunts- man, the Master hunts the hounds (the Master maintains a stable of about fifteen schooled hunt- ers, and always mounts guests of the hunt); \Whippers-in, first, N. Roger Williams; second, A. R. H. Ranson, Jr.; Kennelman, Joseph Harman. Hounds, about twenty couples of American 2Xi6 HARRY W. SMITH. M. F. H. Grafton Hunt Clu!. Massachusetts. This page in the original text is blank. Hunt Clubs. hounds. Location of kennels, Howard County. Maryland, about two miles from Elk Ridge, on B. 0. R. R. Days of meeting, Wednesday and Saturday, with bye days, as the Master sees fit. Season, cub hunting begins about the first of Sep- tember. The regular season begins October ist and closes April ist. Country, all of Howard County and the portion of Anne Arundle County adjacent thereto. The present club was organ- ized in September, i898, although fox-hunting has been pursued in Howard County since Colo- nial times. The Elkridge F. H. Club originated in this country. The present Master, Mr. Wil- liams, has carried the horn since the inception of the club. He is considered one of the best judges of the foxhound in America. Veterinary sur- geon, Dr. Adams, of Catonsville. Country is rolling, the fencing mostly snake and post and rail, with very little wire. Foxes are plentiful. Membership comprises most of the prominent farmers, and there is absolutely no opposition to the sport from that source. Hold a two-days' race meet at Pimlico every year on Labor Day and the Saturday previous. The Blue Ridge Hunt.-Master, Edward Gay Butler, Berryville, Va. Officers: Dr. Robert C. Randolph, President; Courtney B. Jones, Secre- tary; Edward G. Butler, Treasurer; Huntsman, Adam Hubbard; Whippers-in, George Page and Will Dearmont; Kennelman, Adam Hubbard. 21I7 Horse and Hound. Hounds, thoroughbred American foxhounds, ten couples. Location of kennels, "Annefield," the home of the Master. Telegraph office and rail- road station, Berryville, Va. Post-office, Mill- wood, Clark County, Va. Days of hunting, Wednesdays and Saturdays and all legal holidays. Season, October ist to April i5th, inclusive. Country, Clarke County, Virginia, between the Shenandoah River and the Opequan River. Es- tablished in i888, with American hounds, Dr. Gwynne Harrison as Master. Then English hounds, and after two seasons American hounds again. Veterinary surgeon, Dr. Cameron, Win- chester, Va. The country near the Shenandoah and Opequan Rivers abounds in red and gray foxes, but the great amount of barbed wire put up in the last few years has seriously affected the sport. The Brandywine Hounds.-Master, Charles E. Mather. Private pack. Huntsman, Percy Pic- ton; Whippers-in, Tom Parker, Delmont Broad- belt; Kennelman, Miles. Hounds, forty-two couples. Location of kennels, Brandywine Meadow Farm, West Chester, Pa. Days of meet- ing, every good hunting day from October ist to March I5th. Country, Chester and Delaware Counties, Pa. Hounds all bred on the farm from a draft obtained from the Belvoir Kennels, Eng- land, in i902. Hounds all of thoroughbred blood. The pack work as one and are hunted only on the 2I 8 Hunt Clubs. wild red fox and are required to find and run the fox, unaided, to earth or to the death every time they go out. The following is a list of the most famous hunt clubs in America: Lima Hunt Club, Chas. A. Dohan, M. F. H.. Lima, Pa. Norfolk Hunt Club, H. G. Vaughan, M. F. H., Chatham, Mass. Pittsburg Hunt Club, F. M. Lowry, M. F. H., Pittsburg, Pa. Morristown Hunt Club, Ben Nicall, M. F. H., Morristown, N. J. Upland Fox Hunt Club, Edw. Crozer, M. F. H., Chester, Pa. York City Hunt Club, Pennsylvania. Grafton County Club, Harry W. Smith, M. F. H., Worcester, Mass. Hamburg Hunt Club, W. R. Bunekely M. F. H., Hamburg, Ark. Suwanee Hunt Club, G. M. Taylor, M. F. H., White Sulphur Springs, Va. Blue Ridge Hunt Club, G. P. Harrison, M. F. H., Milwood, Va. Brandywine Hounds, Chas. E. Mathews, M. F. H., West Chester, Pa. Cameron Run Hunt Club, Cortland Smith M. F. H., Alexandria, Va. Chester Valley Hunt Club, R. Penn Smith, M. F. H., Berwyn, Pa. 21I9 Horse and Hound. Green Spring Valley Hunt Club, Redmond C. Stewart, M. F. H., Baltimore, Md. Watching Hunt Club, Dr. M. 0. Knott, M. F. H., Plainfield, N. J. Missouri Hunt Club, S. H. Velie, M. F. H., Kansas City, Mo. Berkshire Hunt Club, Clinton G. Gilmore, M. F. H., Lenox, Mass. London Hunt Club, David Stevenson, M. F. H., Leesburg, Va. White Marsh Valley Hunt, Welsh Straw- bridge, Philadelphia, Pa. National Fox-hunters' Association, National. Brunswick Fur Club, Maine. Keswick Hunt Club, H. E. Magruder, M. F. H., Virginia. South Shore Hunt Association, Massachu- setts. Interstate Fox-hunting Association, Missis- sippi and Tennessee. Strodes Valley Hunt Club, Kentucky. Buckfield Fur Club, Maine. Hamilton Hunt Club, Canada. Madison Hunt Club, Kentucky. Texas Fox-hunters' Association, Texas. La Salle County Hunt Club, Illinois. Booneville Hunt Club, Missouri. Elkton Hunt Club, Kentucky. London Hunt Club, Adam Beck, M. F. H., Canada. 220 Hunt Clubs. Mississippi Hunt Association, Mississippi. Green Springs Valley Hunt Club, Maryland. Dixie Red Fox Club, Texas. Goochland County Hunt Club, Virginia. Deep Run Hunt Club, Virginia. Interstate Fox-hunt Club, Missouri and Illi- nois. Western Massachusetts Fox-hunt Club, Mas- sachusetts. Lone Star Fox-hunt Club, Texas. Iroquois Hunt Club, Colonel Roger Williams, M. F. H., Lexington, Ky. Elkridge Fox-hunt Club, E. A. Jackson, M. F. H., Baltimore, Md. Keswick Hunt Club, Julian Morris, M. F. H., Keswick, Va. Hilton Hunt Club, Geo. H. Miller, M. F. H., Philadelphia, Pa. Rockaway Hunt Club, Cedarhurst, L. I. Waiontha Hunt Club, Richfield Springs. Duchess Hunt Club, Millerbrook, N. Y. Overhand Hunt Club. Richmond County Hunt Club, Middletown, N. Y. Worcester Fur Club, Worcester, Mass. Geneseo Valley Hunt Club, W. A. Wads- worth, M. F. H., New York. Piedmont Hunt Club, W. C. Eustis, M. F. H., Upperville, Va. Ballston Hunt Club, New York. 2 2 I Horse and Hound. Myopia Hunt Club, G. S. Mandell, M. F. H., Wenham Depot, Mass. Monmouth Hunt Club, P. F. Collier, M. F. H., Eatontown, N. J. Rose Tree Hunt Club, Ed. Morrell, M. F. H., Media, Pa. Chevy Chase Hunt Club, Clarence Moore, M. F. H., Washington, D. C. Aiken Hunt Club, Thomas Hitchcock, M. F. H., Aiken, S. C. Charlottesville Hunt Club, Toll M. Cochran, Sec., Virginia. Middlesex Hunt Club, A. H. Higginson, M. F. H., So. Lincoln, Mass. Hitchcock Hounds, Thos. Hitchcock, Jr., M. F. H., Aiken, S. C. Patapsco Hunt Club, Dorsey M. Williams, M. F. H., Elk Ridge, Md. Pine Hill Hunt Club, jas. D. Hall, M. F. H., Front Royal, Va. Radnor Hunt Club, Jno. R. Valentine, M. F. H., Bryn Mawr, Pa. Warrenton Hunt Club, U. D. Benner, M. F. H., Warrenton, Va. Westchester Hunt Club, Westchester, Pa. Westchester Hunt, L. Fitzgerald, Jr., M. F. H., Mamaroneck, N. Y. Portland Hunt Club, I. S. McRath, M. F. H.. Portland, Ore. Lakewood Hunt Club, New York. 222 Hunt Clubs. 2 23 Providence Fox Club, L. S. Knox, M. F. H., Mecklenburg, N. C. Orange County Hunt Club, Jno. R. Town- send, M. F. H., Goshen, N. Y. Bayside Hunt Club, Clarence H. Robbins, M. F. H. Douglaston, L. I. Essex Hounds, Chas. Plizer, M. F. H., East Hampton. Meadowbrook Hunt Club, P. F. Collier, M. F. H., New York, N. Y. Onwentsia Hunt, W. Vernon Booth, M. F. H., Lake Forest, Ill. Red Fox Association, Ripley, 0.