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Commemorative exercises of the fortieth anniversary of the presidency of Jas. K. Patterson : Friday, June 1st, 1909 / biographical sketch by William B. Smith. University of Kentucky. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-151-29579487 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Commemorative exercises of the fortieth anniversary of the presidency of Jas. K. Patterson : Friday, June 1st, 1909 / biographical sketch by William B. Smith. University of Kentucky. s.n., [Lexington, Ky. : 1909] 130 p. : port. ; 22 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1994. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN03903.04 KUK) Printing Master B92-151. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Patterson, James Kennedy, 1833-1922.Smith, William Benjamin, 1850-1934. 42 ! tate Onibergttp of kentudkp hXnmemoratibr of tle 1ortifttb Znniberfiarp P o In t4p jrvr9ibvtc of........... W 3u hi-:K Re . pattrrfitnn t f i 3bap, 34wit l,4t, 1909 4iograpbitat Oketcb by lrofutsor William 'M. JriFth, 1r. B., EC. D. Mulant Wnibergitp, -QtW O)rleano This page in the original text is blank. Addresses delivered at exercises in commemora- tion of the forty years' service of President James Kennedy Patterson, as President of the State University of Kentucky, held on the University campus, on June 1st, 1909, from 4 p. m. to 7 p. m. o'clock. Judge James H. Mulligan presided at the exer- cises. Rev. David W. Moffatt, D. D., pastor Emeritus First Presbyterian Church, of Fort Wayne, Ind., opened the exercises by prayer. aVrogram JUDGE JAMES H. MULLIGAN, Presiding. UNIVERSITY GLEE CLUB. SPEAKERS GOVERNOR AUGUSTUS E. WILLSON, Frankfort, Ky. JUDGE HENRY S. BARKER, Of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, Louisville, Ky. HON. CASSIUS M. CLAY, Of the Board of Trustees, Paris, Ky. REV. DAVID WM. MOFFATT, D. D., Pastor Emeritus First Presbyterian Church, Fort Wayne, Ind. HON. JERRY SULLIVAN, Member of Board of Regents of Eastern Ky. Normal School, Richmond, Ky. REV. CHARLES LEE REYNOLDS, D. D., Pastor Second Presbyterian Church, Lexington, Ky. REV. JOSHUA B. GARRETT, Professor of Greek, Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. DEAN WILLIAM T. CAPERS, Christ Church Cathedral, Lexington, Ky. DR. ARTHUR YEAGER, President of Georgetown College, Georgetown, Ky. PROFESSOR HENRY H. CHERRY, President of the Western Ky. Normal School, Bowling Green, Ky. REV. RICHARD HENRY CROSSFIELD, D., D., President of Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky. REV. ISAAC J. SPENCER, D. D., Pastor of Central Christian Church, Lexington, Ky. DR. F. W. HINETT, President of Central University, Danville, Ky. REV. EDWIN MULLER, D. D., Pastor First Presbyterian Church, Lexington, Ky. PROFESSOR JOHN T. FAIG, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. VIRGIL Y. MOORE, University Student. ALPHA HUBBARD, University Student. PROFESSOR JAMES G. WHITE, State University, Lexington, Ky. RESPONSE PRESIDENT JAMES KENNEDY PATTERSON. PROFESSOR WILLIAM B. SMITH, PH. D., Of Tulane University, New Orleans, La. contents Address of Judge Mulligan ................. 9 Address of Governor Willson ................ 14 Address of Judge Barker ......... ......... 17 Address of Hon. C. M. Clay ................ 23 Address of Rev. D. W. Moffatt ............. 27 Address of Hon. Jerry Sullivan ............. 32 Address of Rev. C. L. Reynolds ............. 35 Address of Rev. J. B. Garrett ....... ....... 38 Address of Dean W. T. Capers ...... ....... 41 Address of Dr. Arthur Yager ............... 43 Address of Prof. H. H. Cherry ...... ....... 46 Address of Prof. J. T. Faig ................ 53 Address of Dr. Hinett ........... .......... 57 Address of Rev. Edwin Muller .............. 60 Address of Rev. I. J. Spencer ....... ....... 63 Remarks of Mr. V. P. Moore ............... 67 Address of Mr. Alpha Hubbard ............. 70 Remarks of Prof. Jas. G. White ...... ...... 73 President Patterson's Reply ....... ........ 76 An Appreciation-W. B. Smith, LvL. D ....... 83 abbrta of 3ubge fllufgan in 0ptning fttrctoto Our Honored Guest, Ladies and Gentlemen:- 3 N the course of a life time which is beginning to touch where the shadows fall, I have by chance unworthily been the recipient at times of honors far beyond my merit; but I wish to say as briefly as possible that never in my career have I been so keenly and sensibly touched as has been done in giving me the honor of pre- siding on this momentous occasion. Forty years is a long span in one's affairs. Forty years of continuous endeavor, of ceaseless labor and travail, forty years erowned at every step by the triumph of great things accomplished, is some- thing very unusual, At the outset I might say that when I secured by close competition the honor of presiding over this meeting it was with the distinct understanding that I should make no speech. Therefore, in view of the shortness of the time, while you will be beautifully and eloquently entertained-touchingly entertained, if you fail to hear what you consider a really great oration, lay it to the door of those who so restricted me on this occasion. This is a unique occasion, such an one, I dare say, as none present ever attended before-celebrating forty years of continuous service in a great and a noble work. Forty years marked at every step by 9 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. willing sacrifice, marvelous ability, and what is greater, forty years almost without friction, or without friction worthy of mention, and crowned at last by the great success which rests on the head of the guest of to-day. (Applause.) Surely a man must not only be a great man, but he must be better than that-he must have been a good man who could so follow the even tenor of his way, continually rising higher and higher with every step-and yet think of it! this man came from Indiana. He must be a very good man. He is unquestionably that, and it needs no words of mine to say that he is a very great man, to have accomplished that which President Patterson has accomplished. President Patterson did not of himself alone build the State University, but I speak the simple truth when I say that had it not been for President Patterson there would have been no State Universitv PresiderttPatterson is as much the maker of his college as is Mr. Carnegie of any of the great institutions which he ever endowed. During the forty years that he has been the in- cumbent of this office, I have watched its growth. I well remember when Governor Blackburn laid the corner-stone, and when two years later the brilliant Watterson made the dedicatory ad- dress, and so I have seen it under his fostering care, under the influence of his great common sense and his powerful intellect grow up to what it is now, and yet he is but looking forward to what it will be in the years to come. (Applause.) If there was ever a man who erected a noble monument by his life's work which entitles him to a lasting place in the hearts of his fellows, 10 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. surely it is the loyal man who has accomplished this great work. Great for you; great for the generation to come, and great for your children after you. For twenty-five long years of that forty he and I have been the closest neighbors. We have lived all through that span of life nearer to each other than either was to any other person. Here comes not only good men, but great men; here come men from Indiana, his boyhood friends, after the span of a life time-coming here to clasp his hand and to congratulate and to take part in honoring him here to-day. Surely a man must be a good man who can have his boy- hood friends to come such a distance at such a time to do honor to his theme. There was once a Kentuckian traveling in Indi- ana, and he fell into conversation with a gentleman who seemed to be in very sad health, and the Ken- tuckian let it be known, as Kentuckians are prone to do, that he was from Kentucky, and after a time he turned to his chance acquaintance and re- marked: "I suppose of course that you're an Indianian " "No," said the man, "I, too, am a Kentuckian, but then I have been sick for a long time." And so the tried friends of his youth, like him grown in strength and character and reputation-in everything showing ability, show- ing virtues, and showing all those marked quali- ties that make men conspicuous and great, they come from their distant homes to take their places by his side to give contradiction to those who say the friendships of our youth are but fleeting; and so we have with us to-day the friends of the morn- 11 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. ing of his life; and what stronger proof could be asked that he is a genuinely good man, as well as a very great one when these hale, learned and distinguished men-though Indianians they be gather around him to join those prominent in the life of our own immediate community and its citi- zenship to do honor to the guest of this occasion. Surely it is well worth a life-time of labor and sac- rifice to receive such an honor and distinction as this. (Applause.) (At this point the Glee Club of the College rendered a selection.) By reference to the programme it will be seen that it is extremely lengthy; there are twenty-two addresses to be made. Having myself taken up a good proportion of the time, I regard it as only modest that I should say to those who are to ad- dress you, that when there is so much they know how to say so well, that we will take the will for the deed; we ask the gentlemen to remem- ber that we know how beautifully and how well they all speak-and so a little of it for this occa- sion will suffice. This is said with a sense of jus- tice that all may to our advantage be heard- because this great audience is anxious to hear every gentleman whose name appears on the programme, and hence I venture to ask that you favor us with your shortest address. My remarks are directed mainly towards the first speaker-Governor Will- son-because he is apt to be- well, just a little long, sometimes. As we are unprovided with lighting facilities and cots, we greatly desire to conclude during the lingering day-light, and so I again renew the request. 12 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. The distinguished gentleman I have the honor first to present to you, needs no introduction-he is the first officer of the Commonwealth, and surely it is a proud day when the young man who came in the unaided days of his youth from our sister state of Indiana, and whose growth was by little and little through such arduous toil and endeavor, now comes at last in his mature manhood and fullness of reputation, to receive this ovation. as a fitting acknowledgment of his worth, that the best and greatest in position in the State gather to do him honor; the honored of the land are glad to honor him. I have the pleas- ure to present to you His Excellency, Augustus E. Willson, Governor of Kentucky. FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. Zbbrtgo of Oobtrnnr MiUion Ladies and Gentlemen, and our Honored Guest- ,1 HHAT would you do about it, if you were in my place Judge Mulligan an- nounced that he had accepted this nomi- nation as Chairman of this meeting with the un- derstanding that he would leave all the speaking to somebody else. Well, of course, people make promises of that kind to get office. (Laughter.) He has put more ginger and more fun and more eloquence and more picturesqueness into his talk than all the rest of us can do in the after- noon, and so I am not going to try. When the boys were singing that humming song I thought of what Mulligan said, that I must not speak more than two minutes. Now there was a little thing came to my mind; it is curious how a real flashy, brilliant orator sometimes puts his foot in it. There was just a little jealousy in Mulligan's talk about Indiana. The Governor of Kentucky was a resident of the State of Indiana from 1857 to 1878, but I never let it out before. It was a mean, unneighborly thing for Mulligan to say he was not going to speak, and then talk for a half hour and shut the rest of us out. My neighbors and friends, it is an honor to anybody to have an opportunity to pay this neigh- borly tribute and this human tribute of respect to a man whose noble life has been given to use- 14 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. fulness and to good works. I feel very deeply what Judge Mulligan said about the character of a man who to a ripe old age holds the friends of his boyhood, as this our friend has held his friends here. They honor us by showing their love to him by their presence here. I do not know in the history of the Commonwealth, and certainly I do not remember in my reading of the history of men, a single case that I could think of now as more striking in its record of a long tremendously hard-working life of usefulness than the life of our friend. I do not wish what I say to take on anything of the tone of a good-bye or a funeral. He is cheerful; he is bright; he is earnest; his eyes shine as clearly as they ever did; and if you think he has lost the facility for saying in a real strong way, with a strong clear head, you have not talked with him lately. I believe, to put it stronger, I am dead sure, that his determination was never so stout. It may be improper to use the word "stout" with reference to his determi- nation, but I do not know of any other word that will fit it so well. I say, he never was more earnest; he never was more useful; he never was more greatly beloved and admired and highly regarded in every way than he is today; and in the full strength of wisdom, great-hearted kind- ness, tremendous industry, his canny Scotch com- mon sense, and American common sense, he is at his greatest today. But it is not what we say today; of course, I cannot say it; but it is what is Fhown here, what each one feels today. I am only a short acquaintance of President Patterson's. Many of you are his old acquaintances; many of 15 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. you his students; but there is not a soul here today who does not have this feeling about this man that he is worthy of the love of his fellows; that lie is worthy the distinction of having a great multitude of honest, thoughtful, earnest, sensible people feel in their very heart the way you feel, and I feel, and everybody knows, of the usefulness of President Patterson, and you cannot Fay anything that adds to that; you cannot think of anything that adds to it. The greatest question in all life is, what shall be thought of us hereafter; what is the record where the accounts are finally kept But the next thing dearest to the human heart is, what do the people who know us think about us Do they think this man is earnest, honest, wise, faith- ful; his word ringing true every day They will forget his little combativeness; they will look upon it as an evidence of strength and not weakness; sometimes hard-headedness; but they won't forget his constant, sincere, honest effort. They like you and like you in every way. We are your friends; we honor the memory of your past work, and we honor you still while you are with us. PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. Jubgp Jarktro 0bbrtgo 3[ CCOULD well have wished that both the duty and the responsibility of speaking for the Trustees on this occasion had been com- mitted to abler hands than mine. But while not feeling at liberty to decline the compliment which the imposed duty brings, I find myself emrbar- rassed at the very threshold by my personal rela- tions to the distinguished subject of the honors we wish to bestow. 31y affection for President Patterson has been of such long standing and of so sincere a character that any eulogy I may be- stow upon him will almost assume the complexion of a compliment to myself. I met the President for the first time when I matriculated as a student in the A. M. College in 1870. From that time to this we have been friends. In looking back over this long period and fully realizing all that I owe to him, it is a great honor to me that during all this time I have had the right to call him friend. In 1870, the A. M. College occupied and owned that magnificent estate known as Ashland and Wood- land, on the opposite side of the city. The great Civil War had been closed but a few years, and the South was still prostrate from its ravages. In the general wreck of the great struggle there had gone down all, or nearly all, of her educational institutions. The result was that many of her young men had come up to the College, allured by 17 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. the hope of being able to labor during a part of each dav at such remuneration as would enable them to maintain themselves at school during the remainder. There was a very large part of the student body composed of these young men from the South. They hailed from the Carolinas to Texas; they were as fine and manly a set of young men as one could wish to meet. I mention this fact as introductory to a statement I wish to make concerning the relations between the students and the President. In all the time I was at the A. M. College I never heard a student speak disre- spectfully of the President; they all loved and admired him; and as I now remember the situa- tion, I do not believe they would have submitted to anything which savored of disrespect to him whom they loved so well and in whom they had such implicit confidence. The boys I knew here from '70 to '73 are now, if living, long past the heyday of life. They are scattered to the four winds of heaven. Occasionally it is my good for- tune to meet one of them, and always the first inquiry is for news of the President. During the period I was here, the A. M. College, although a State institution, was a part of Kentucky University, which was then, as now (though its name has been changed), under the auspices of the Christian Church. Shortly after I left school, under the influence of a disagree- ment between the University and the State, the union was dissolved and the State College was established as an independent institution, and was located upon its present site. The legislature of Kentucky granted the College a small and very 18 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. inadequate annual tax for its support. This was the occasion for the jealous animosity of every sectarian school in the State, and soon the young institution found itself an educational Ishmaelite against which the hand of every sectarian was raised in hate. It seemed to a mere spectator that the feeble bantling thus cast upon the rock of adversity must surely perish; and perish it would but for the loyal courage of one man-its Presi- dent. In the courts, in the halls of the General Assembly, in the columns of the press, and on the hustings, he met and vanquished all opposition. He literally lifted up the moribund institution which seemed about to expire from the anaemia of starvation, and, holding it close to his own great, loyal heart, warmed it back into vitality and life. When I look upon these beautiful grounds, nearly every tree of whose lawns he planted with his own hands; when I behold these buildings, every brick of which was cemented by his anxiety of heart, it seems to me as if the now .splendid institution should, in its gratitude, find a voice, and in the language of the great Scotch bard, say of its benefactor: "The bridegroom may forget the bride Was made his wedded wife yestreen; The Monarch may forget the crown That on his head an hour has been; The mother may forget the child That smiles sae sweetly on her knee; But I'll remember thee, Glencairn, And a' that thou hast done for me !" In the first law suit, instituted more than thirty years ago, for the purpose of obtaining a 19 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. judgment declaring the tax for the benefit of the A. M. College unconstitutional, I, then an un- fledged lawyer, had the honor, without fee or re- ward, to in part represent the interests of the school. The fight then begun lasted in the courts, in the General Assembly, in the Constitutional Convention, until within twelve months last past, it has been finally settled by the judgment of the court of last resort in the State that the Legisla- ture has the right to make any appropriation to the College it deems proper for its maintenance. I shall always remember with pride that I, who thus began my career as a lawyer trying to uphold the right of the legislature to support the State College, had the honor, as a Judge of the Court of Appeals of Kentucky, to aid in establishing by final adjudication the State's constitutional right to maintain this great institution for the educa- tion of its young men and women. It will always be a gratification to me to recall that during all of this "thirty years' war" between the forces of learning on the one hand, and the forces of igno- rance and its twin sister, prejudice against public education, on the other, that I have faithfully followed as an humble private in the footsteps of the great captain, to whom we owe the final vic- tory. For to him more than to any other man in the State we are indebted for the final public adoption of the statesman-like policy that the government owes it as a duty to its youth that they shall be educated, and for the legislative recognition of the economic principle that every dollar spent for education is more than equal in value to ten dollars laid out for the suppression 20 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. of pauperism and crime. President Patterson has all his life been an educator of youth; and in se- lecting this vocation he chose wisely and well. It seems to me that there can be no nobler secular calling than that of teacher: all others make most for the things of this world; but this makes for eternity as well. The teacher, who takes a human soul and inspires it with the divine thirst for knowledge, puts in motion an instrumentality for higher things whose usefulness will only have be- gun when the fountains of the sun have been quenched, and the stars have withered on the face of the firmament. As compared with knowledge, all other acquisitions seem base and sordid. The man who acquires money enriches only himself, and what he gets he deprives others from securing; the man who obtains office serves only his own ambition, and disappoints others who desired the same promotion; but the man who acquires knowl- edge takes nothing from his neighbor, but, on the other hand, adds to the common fountain from which all may draw who will. He enriches him- self, indeed, but he enriches as well all who come within the radius of his influence. Knowledge, like mercy, "is twice blessed: it blesseth him that gives and him that takes." In conclusion, it gives us pleasure to honor the President, who is just closing up a long and use- ful professional life. He has been faithful to all the obligations which come with the possession of splendid abilities. He has discharged to the full- est measure the great trust involved in his life's work. He has never faltered in or swerved from the path of rectitude, or "pattered with us in a 21 FoRTiETH ANNIVERSARY. double sense." Of him we may say, as Carlyle said of Cromwell, "He feared God, but he feared no one else." His whole life is a guaranty that his daily prayer has in spirit, at least, been that of the mariner of old, who, about to launch his frail bark upon the treacherous sea, cried out: "Oh, Neptune! I pray you to smile upon my voy- age; but whether you blow me fair, or whether you blow me foul, I will hold my rudder true." PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. Zb(ret ot 1on. C. JlR. Clap Ladies and Gentlemen and our Guest- [ WISH from the bottom of my heart that Judge Mulligan could make my speech, and that I did not have to make any. When I accepted this invitation, the only reason why I did so was because I felt so deeply interested in our President, and was willing to add whatever I could to this occasion in a few words. I am an evolutionist and consequently I am no hero-worshiper, but I cannot contemplate the history of this institution for the last forty years, its beginning in nothing, and its gradual expan- sion to its present harmonious development, and contemplate the obstacles that had to be over- come, both internal and external, but what I, an evolutionist, must acknowledge that its destinies have been directed and controlled by a master mind. In the beginning, this college received meagre endowment from the sale of public lands under the Morrill Act. President Patterson ap- preciated that unless State aid was given to higher education, this college would never amount to anything. At that period, you will recollect, those of you who are old enough, that there was no public sentiment to amount to anything in favor of State aid to higher education. President Patterson felt that the very existence of the Col- lege depended upon the creation of a public sen- timent in the State of Kentucky in favor of 23 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. highei education, and he immediately addressed himself with all of his great powers of mind and energy to create and educate such a public senti- mnent. He did this by addressing the taxpayers through the State, agricultural bodies through the press, and every session of the Legislature found him a constant attendant, urging and im- pressing upon the members of the Legislature the great necessity for their doing something for high- er education in the State of Kentucky through en- dowment and appropriations to the State College. He was opposed in this by the jealousies of the various denominational institutions of the State, as Judge Barker has said, some taking much more part than others; and then he was opposed by the conservative inertia of the Legislature, naturally economical, because composed always of a majority of farmers, who were naturally indisposed to in- crease taxation; and after a very strenuous fight he passed his first bill-appropriating one-half of one cent on every 100 of taxable property in this State for the benefit of this institution. This bill was followed by other appropriations, generally for the purpose of building certain buildings upon these grounds. In some cases not only had Presi- dent Patterson to address himself to the Legisla- ture on the question of public sentiment to get the Legislature to act in favor of the legislation, but he had to bring to bear upon the Governor every possible reason pressing for the bill. And then I have seen him have to fight for these bills both on the ground of policy and on the constitution- ality of the bills; and I myself have seen him pitted against one of the very ablest lawyers this 24 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. State has ever produced, and the universal opinion of the audience that heard that argument was that the lawyer had not gotten the better of it. So all along the line he has fought and educated and developed such public sentiment as was nec- essary for the maintenance of the institution, and regulated the internal growth of the institu- tion by his great sagacity, by his judgment, by his wide and accurate scholarship, his knowledge of the classics, philosophy and history, in such a manner as to give it the high standing which it has and deserves. Some one has said that the history of the laws of a country are a good summarized history of the nation-of the country. In the same way some one has said that even the dictionary of a country was a good summarized history of the country. In the same way, with emphasis, I may say that the history of this college for the last forty years is a good history in a brief summarized way of the public life and services of President Patterson. (Applause.) I have been associated with him in the Board of Trustees now for several years, and what I am about to say I can speak from personal knowledge. In all my little political life, which does not amount to much, I have been thrown with great and brilliant men. I was in the Legislature with Preston, Williams, BJlackburn and many others, and I want to say that I have never been thrown in association with a man that had better use of pure, direct English than President Patterson. He is always terse and direct in statement, but 25 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. whenever it was necessary he could always draw upon the whole realm of human knowledge in apt illustration. Ladies and gentlemen, I am no flatterer; I be- lieve in stating what I honestly believe; I believe that today-that this very day, considering both manner and matter-President Patterson is the best public speaker in Kentucky. Now, in conclusion, I want to express the pro- found hope and wish that many years of useful- ness and happiness may be extended to you, and that you may live to see this college-your child and offspring-although it is great now, expanded into a much more vigorous manhood, giving, through the support of Kentucky, still greater usefulness and education to our people. (Ap- plause.) PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. Zlbbut f f rb. 3abib in. Mloffatt, IDID Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen- , 0 borrow an Hibernianism if I had been born in my native country I should have been born in Indiana, but not being con- sulted over matters in those days I was born in New Jersey, and when I was less than a year old was carried by my parents to Madison, Ind. My earliest recollections are of my home on one of those stately hills and beautiful hills, which look down on the city, and ten miles of the Ohio River and of the Kentucky and Indiana hills and valleys. There I became well acquainted with and warmly attached to a Loy whom I called "Jimmie" and who 'called me "Davie," this latter fact testifying that we were then not big boys. Afterwards to- gether we used to go down that big hill every morning to school in the city, and every evening climb it again to sleep together not at the foot but at the top. I was not able to recollect just how many years ago that was, but I knew that whenever I met my life-long friend, Dr. James Kennedy Patterson, that he would remember, for as "Jimmie" he had a memory for everything. And last evening he gave me the exact dates. Still later we met at Hanover College as fellow stu- dents, not however as class-mates, because he was in advance of me, and between the time I got acquainted with him as "Jimmie," and the time he became "Patterson" in the college, I was informed 27 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. that he had memorized the spelling, pronunciation and definition of all the words in Webster's school dictionary. He did not tell me that, and I can not vouch for its truth, but I know that as "Jimmie" he had the pluck and persistence and the memory to do it; and besides I have always been reminded of it by his diction, and by the facility and ac- curacy with which he handles the English language in everything that comes from his pen. When I was invited to attend this celebration I had no thought but to come if it were possible. I immediately began to look up the way and never before did I so thoroughly realize how wide the Ohio River is. On my desk were folders contain- ing the time tables of all the principal railroad systems north of the river, and several of them had lines extending southward to the river; but there they stopped. No one of them gave me any information as to how to find any place south of the river. They told me how to reach any place north of it in the United States and Canada, but not how to come here. Consulting with the Pas- senger Agent of the Pennsylvania lines he after a careful and patient investigation of the matter told me how to come; and here I am, as I suppose, the first and solitary traveler by rail that ever traveled from my home in Fort Wayne, Ind., to Lexington, Ky. It seems as if there was more intercourse between Kentucky and Indiana in the day of General George Rogers Clark and of General Anthony Wayne than there is now. I want you students of this University, boys and girls when you go out into life, to do what you can to in- crease the trade and travel between these states- 28 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. increase the intercourse by marriage between the north and the south side of the Ohio River. From my experience of life-long friendships with native born Kentuckians, I believe it would do you good and the Indianians good to get better acquainted- and this notwithstanding the introductory remarks of the chairman. Living on different sides of that wide river, I believe that President Patterson and I have not met personally for about precisely the number of years that he has been President of this Institu- tion. Our days were not at our own command. When I invited him to come on a visit he could not come, and when he invited me I could not go. But I have kept informed of his work. I know something about the circumstances that have been alluded to here this afternoon; I know something about the hard-fought conflicts and the splendid victories by which my old friend saved the State College from wreck and ruin, and about the ca- pacity and energy he has exhibited in building it up to become the present great State University of Kentucky. (Applause.) It is not easy in these days, as I have found from some experience, to obtain a man suitable to be the President of a college or university. Men with the mantle of Thomas Arnold of Rugby, or of Mark Hopkins of Williams, upon their shoulders are not standing around waiting for a job; and it seems to me that the varied accomplishments exhibited by President Patterson in the past history of this Institution could scarcely have been found combined in an- other man if you had searched the world over for him. The legal and judicial talent and learning 29 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. and the statesmanlike qualities exhibited in his determination to have nothing but success were brought out by aiflmculties which arose incidentally while pursuing his chosen vocation of an educator. For that is what he chose to be, an educator. Any- body can hear recitations and mark the grades of the students according to his own sweet will, but educators are born not made. The forty years of Dr. Patterson's honored and successful-presidency of this institution show that to begin with he had the native gift, the bent, the mental furnishing and the educational preparation necessary to make a first-class president. And they show what is no less important that he did not lie down on his previous preparation, but that with an active mind which continued to grow in strength and compre- hension, he kept abreast of the progress which during the last forty years has been made in the ever-widening scope of knowledge in all the vari- ous departments with which this institution has had to do. To this may be attributed the fact that his later addresses have shown undiminished strength and vigor, and increasing fullness of thought. Notwithstanding the many times he has bent his bow it abides in strength and the last time you heard it twang it twanged as clearly and sharply and the arrow sped as swiftly and as surely to the mark as at any time in the years gone by. My dear old friend, Jimmie-(Applause)- it is with unmingled joy that I am privileged to rejoice with you on this occasion, when from the mount of triumph you can look back over the way in which you have come. The work of an educator 30 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. like that of a minister is not so spectacular as the work of some people, but it has its peculiar satisfactions. It is deep and lasting. It is a force which acting immediately upon those who have come under your instruction and personal influ- ence will through them go on multiplying itself in hundreds and thousands who never saw you-in this state, in other states and in other countries. So your work remains and shall remain. That river has separated us in body but not in affection; and while I am here to-day and remember about the number of those who started in life with you and me, it brings serious thoughts; and one of my dearest thoughts of that eternal heavenly land to which I trust you and I are traveling, is that there we shall have the time and opportunity for the personal fellowships which this busy world de- nied us. I trust that when we meet together over there, there will be no river between us, but that the friendship which began "auld lang syne," on the Madison hills, shall be renewed to continue forever and ever. God bless you. (Applause). FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. Ztbbrta of 3 gn. Jerry Oulliban Honored Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen:- T affords me great pleasure to be present 2J upon this occasion to add my testimonial to the esteem and regard with which the hon- ored President of this institution is held. Dr. Patterson has done for the State of Kentucky, and for the cause of education in general, a great work. It is a work which will continue to grow and ex- pand in the years that are to come. This insti- tution today is his monument. It will ever be so regarded. On this beautiful June afternoon, however, I do not believe that it would be inappropriate in me, even upon this occasion, to call attention to some facts which confront us as Kentuckians. Being a native born Kentuckian, I am proud of her history, and proud of her institutions, vet I cannot understand ivhv it is that, although in Vir- ginia, under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson, more than a century ago, they saw it was one of the duties of the State to furnish higher education for her people, that Kentucky neglected it so long. By the last Federal census, notwithstanding the great work that has been done by State Col- lege, and by the educational institutions of Ken- tucky, among all the states and territories of the Union, in proportion to population, there are fewer college educated young men and women and fewer college graduates than in any other state. 32 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. It is also true that in this great and glorious State of ours more than one-fifth of the white voters of the native white population are unable to read; it is also true that there are at least eight counties in which the per cent of illiteracy of the native white population is more than thirty per cent. In at least three counties in this great State there are thirty-five per cent of the native white voters who can neither read nor write. In other words, when these voters go to the ballot box to cast their suffrage in regard to the great questions which confront us as a State and as a Nation, in some of the counties one-fifth, in some of the coun- ties one-fourth, and in a few more than one-third, must determine their suffrage by the emblems upon the ballot. Our educational system has been disjointed and disconnected, and this great institution which Dr. Patterson has brought into existence, as it were, and due largely to his efforts, it is strange that it has grown as it has with the material from which it had to draw, because in Kentucky we have no high schools whose graduates could enter this in- stitution. It is unnecessary upon this occasion to enquire into the causes of this condition. We know that these are facts; and we know, too, as Kentuckians, that we are courageous enough to realize it, and that we have the power and the will to remedy them. We believe that with this institution as the crown jewel in the educational system of the State of Kentucky, that we will have county high schools in every county and in every neighborhood with rural schools, under the influence of this great in- 33 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. stitution, and wise laws will become what they should be; and the country boys and girls will be prepared to go to the county high schools, and these county high schools will send not only one thousand, but will send three, four or five thousand students to this institution to prepare for the life that is before them as citizens of this great Commonwealth. I am glad to be here upon this occasion to add my testimonial to this movement and to express my personal regard and appreciation of the work that Dr. Patterson has done. I do not believe it is inappropriate that we as Kentuckians should realize that we have educationally fallen short, and also to realize that there is enough manhood and womanhood in Kentucky to put her back where she was, and where she should be, in the front of the line. (Applause.) 34 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. Zbbrtos of Rtb. Cbarlet let Atpinolb M1r. Chairman:- HAVE been, while sitting here, thinking of the fortieth anniversary of Dr. Samuel J. Nichols as pastor of the Second Presbyte- rian Church, of St. Louis, Mo. During the week in which that anniversary was being celebrated, a stranger happened to go by the church. He was surprised to see the church illuminated dur- ing the week, so he stepped in and asked the reason for it. He said to the usher inside, "Who is that speaking " and the usher said, "That is Dr. Nichols, the pastor of the church." "Well," he said, "How long has he been speak- ing," and the usher, having his mind on the cele- bration and the anniversary, said, "Forty years." "Well," he said, "1 am going to see him through to the end." Now the point is, not that any man is going to speak this afternoon for forty years, but we hope we will all be allowed for a long time after these forty years, to see President Patter- son through to the end; and we are going to ask him to allow us to have that privilege. While other men have been speaking about Indiana this afternoon, I have been thinking of Scotland, and the debt that education and educa- tional institutions owe to old Scotland. Only last week, in the city of Washington, the capital of our nation, a monument was unveiled to the mem- ory of John Witherspoon, the first President of 35 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. Princeton University, who was a Scotsman; and one of the successors of Dr. Witherspoon was James McCosh, the great Scottish philosopher. And in this State of Kentucky one of the great- est professors of medicine, the man who performed first the operation known as ovariotomy, was Dr. McDowell, who was also a Scotsman. In fact, if vou were to take out of the history of education the Scots who have done so much for our insti- tutions of learning, you have not much left. A Scotchman and an Englishman were talking, and the Englishman was naming the great men of his country who had figured in the affairs of Eng- land, and in its history, and whenever a name was mentioned the Scotchman would say, "He was a Scot." The Englishman, somewhat provoked, said, "I believe you would claim even Shakes- peare." "Well," he said, "his abilities would justi- fy the inference." Now it is true that there may be Scottish blood, as Dr. Moffat remarked to you, in the great men of this country; and it is especially true among our educators, there- fore, this afternoon, as we honor this Scotchman for the forty years he has been President of this institution, we must give our expression of grati- tude to old Scotland; and we are glad that Scot- land has sent to us not only men who can accu- mulate gold and build libraries for us, but also teachers like President McCosh and Dr. Patterson. Sometimes we think that these Scots come to this countrv to make iron and steel for a living, but they come also to put iron into our blood, and to teach us how to be honest. They come to preach and to teach and train the brains of American 36 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. youth. The old Scotch eagerness to be a scholar of which Ian MacClaren, the great Scottish writer, has written in the "Bonnie Brier Bush," has been stimulated in the hearts of Amer- ican boys and girls by these professors from the old country. Little Scotland, we thank thee for thy great gifts; for these men that have been sent to us from this land of learning; and I be- lieve that Prof. White must have some Scottish blood in him; he must have had Scottish ancestors, because I know his value to the State of Kentucky in an educational way. (Applause.) We have to thank President Patterson this afternoon, not only for himself, and that is our great debt of grati- tude, but also for Prof. White and his forty years of service with President Patterson as one of his assistants; and if Prof. White did come from Scotland, and I think he must have come from that stock, we will have to thank Scotland for him, too. I am glad to be here to congratulate President Patterson and the State of Kentucky. If you only knew the odds against which he has had to fight; if you knew the greatness of the work of this State University compared with the little in- come that the State of Kentucky gives to this institution, your admiration would be increased an hundred fold. I believe Kentucky some time will awake, and then the name of James K. Patterson will be greater than it is today. (Applause.) FORTIrET ANNIVERSARY. Zlbbrezo of Aeb. 3unIua JR. arrett Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:- 8 I understand it, I owe the privilege and the happiness of being here on this occa- sion to the fact that I was associated with your friend, President Patterson, for a number of years in college. My first word is a word of con- gratulation. More than three-quarters of a cen- tury ago, in Scotland, there was born a lad, and while he wws yet very young his parents, by the good providence of God, brought him to Indiana; and there he remained for a while until he got started in his education, and then they permitted him to come to Kentucky. (Laughter.) I con- gratulate Kentucky upon having with them for these many years our dear friend and your friend, Dr. Patterson, to guide some of these educational affairs for your State, and to accomplish what he has accomplished in his work here. I desire to congratulate Dr. Patterson himself also on the good providence of God which has led him along in the path which he has followed so wonderfully and so successfully, and which has preserved his life and brought him to this point in his life's work and to reap these honors so full, so excel- lent, so closely upon his head. I think I may say that the year that Dr. Pat- terson graduated at Hanover College was the year in which I became a professor in that institution. I have been all my life long permitted to associ- 38 PRES. JAS. K PATr SON. ate with young people, in the earlier part of pro- fessional life with young men, later with young men and women; and I have found that the one thing which lies at the foundation of a successful life is on the part of a young man or woman to have a vision of something to accomplish in the world-an ideal placed before them. A young man may not or cannot go forward blindly, thoughtlessly, simply absorbing what is before him for a long time without losing a great deal of the power which comes from education. Now it seems to me that I can recall from the days that Dr. Patterson was in college the fact that the students as well as the teachers recognized this quality in his student life; that he was not satisfied merely with words, or with the acquisition of knowledge, without. an aim or end that he had placed before the ideal, and with the desire to reach in the best manner possible the ideal which was before him. I think of another thing which students in college or in the course of their education desire, and that is a fixed purpose in life. They may not have before them a clear perception of what they want to become-that is, whether they want to become a lawyer, or physician, or a minister, or to enter into the conflicts of political life, but they must have a fixed purpose to accomplish something useful and excellent in life if they are to meet the end for which they are selected by the providence of God, and permitted to engage in the work which lies before them as students. We recognized all through the long life of our President this fixed purpose; it became apparent among his fellow stu- 39 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. dents that his desire and design was in whatever place God should put him, to accomplish well in the best manner possible the work which was be- fore him. You have this afternoon had repeatedly brought before you another element which enters into the successful life of a young man in the prosecution of his work, and that is the courage to meet diffi- culties; courage to enter upon the work which is before him; courage to stand firm for that which he considers right, and that which he feels must be accomplished in the providence of God, and to work faithfully and earnestly for that purpose. You have had before you, now have before you, that which lies at the foundation of all success in this work of life, and that is the foundation of real character founded and laid upon the sure foundation of truth, of a belief in the truth, and right and lovely, and that which is acceptable in the sight of God, and for the good of men. I congratulate you, therefore, that you have had with you a man of this stamp for all these years; and that in the providence of God we are now permitted to meet today to do him honor. I pray that the Lord will watch over him and pre- serve his life, and make his latter days not only as useful as his preceding days, but glorious in the excellent work which still remains for him to do. (Applause.) 40 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. Remarko of Oran MWlm M. ECaptro Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:- ESTEEM my privilege great indeed to be counted as one, even of twenty speakers, who is to voice the prevailing sentiment of gratitude and love of a great Commonwealth towards the man who has made, possibly, the greatest single contribution for the success and glory of his State in the development of her Uni- versity. To President Patterson belongs the award, not of perishable laurels, nor of gifts of gold, but rather the imperishable love and grati- tude of fathers and mothers and the very manhood of our State for making it possible for them to realize the great ideal of the power of education, from base to capstone, within their own borders. The University idea is a just measure of the large- ness of our honored friend's mind and heart: in this University we can see him stretching some- what his length and breadth and depth and height; without fulsome praise, we can all exclaim, "See there the man !" (pointing to the outspread buildings of the University). And yet, my friends, no great man is adequately judged by his works alone; the personality of a man is greater far than he can put into concrete form. This truth finds beautiful illustration in our great Patterson: the sparkle of his mind and the warmth of his heart are only known by those who have been privileged to come into the inner life of his friendship. His 41 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. couraze, his faiih, his loyalty, these have all gone into the material structure of the University, but they are best appreciated, as exhibited in per- sional relationship with him. The light of his own soul is caught from his keen eye and the lo'. of his heart is best interpreted by the grip of his friendly hand and generous hospitality. Mr. President: Allow me here, in this solemn presence, to declare my unqualified affection and esteem for you and my deep sense of privilege in being here on this occasion. I shall always cherish it as being one of my very highest honors and dis- tinctions. I wish you "good luck in the name of the Lord." (Applause.) PRuS. JAS. K PATTERSON. Zbbrtc of Dr. Martyur Pager Mr. Chairman. President Patterson, Ladies and Gentlemen:- N introducing me as "Reverend" our chair- man has made a mistake. I am not more reverend than Dr. Patterson himself, but have been an educator for twenty-five years, and I have looked upon President Patterson from my home in Georgetown at close range, and with great interest. Therefore, as an educator I come here this afternoon simply to pay my respects to this veteran leader in the army of educators in Kentucky. I have been thinking as I sat here in the midst of these buildings, of the inscription which we all know, or know of, placed over the north door of St. Paul's cathedral in London to commemorate the architect, Sir Christopher Wren: Lector, si ritonumentum requiris cir- cumsptce. I believe I have never known an occasion where that familiar inscription could be more ap- propriately quoted than here and now. When Dr. Patterson came to this institution forty years ago, it was an empty field, and now it is strewn thick with ,plendid buildings. He came here when there was no college, no institution, and now there is a great State University with a numerous fac- ulty, with a great income, and with a great crowd of students; with a magnificent alumni, and a great army of loyal friends. It seems to me that 43 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. this is his monument, and that one looking upon it and seeing it in these days should not give him- self up entirely to lamenting the backwardness of Kentucky in education. When we feel inclined to disparage, and to criticise what has been done, sometimes I feel that we are not likely to do jus- tice to the leaders in educational work here who have fought in the past. However bad it may h)e for Kentucky now to be so low down on the list in illiteracy, if it had not been for the work of Dr. Patterson and other educators in Kentucky, it would be worse still. He has wrought nobly and well. He has done a great work, and as an ed- ucator I come here to honor him, and to offer him my tribute of praise. Many people seem to think that President Patterson, to use a slang phrase, has not been "on to his job." I sometimes wonder, I have often wondered, that these men who seem to know so well how to run colleges and to do everything else, never seem somehow to get themselves elected to these positions. This has been one of the sociological puzzles to me, that there is always on the outside of every enterprise a lot of folks who are ready for indiscriminate criticism. Now, gentlemen, I have been in the work of education in Kentucky for twenty-five or thirty years. President Patterson and I have seen presidents come and presidents go. But it is my belief that no man can sit upon the driver's seat of a great university for forty years without having the qualifications to make it go. (Ap- plause.) There is no harder team to drive on earth than a college faculty, and a great crowd of college students. (Applause.) And if President 44 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. Patterson had not known how to hold the reins he would have been kicked out of the box long ago. I believe that he has had just those qualities that the University of Kentucky needed during these forty years; that Scotch canniness which he has come by so honestlv; that far-sightedness; that courage and that aggressiveness. I know some men who are looking for a situation with large emphasis on the "sit." President Patterson does not belong to that type. I admire his resili- ency, his undiscourageability. I have seen him sat upon, but he always rose right up again. A friend of mine told me a story of a little boy who was taken by his uncle to a shop to see one of these stove-pipe hats that shut up like an accor- dian. His uncle took him there and showed him this tov as a curiosity. A few days later his uncle came around to his home wearing a handsome silk hat. The boy looked at it and examined it, and directlv he brought it to his uncle and said, "Un- cle, this one don't shut up; I have sat on it three times and it don't shut up." President Patter- son reminds me of that hat. He don't shut up. It is no easy task to found a university, and it is qTill a greater task to preoide over the destinies of a great college like this forty years. I want to give to President Patterson my sincere respect for his great performance, and my hope that he will live many years to show us young Kentuckians how it ought to be done. (Applause.) FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. Abbrtso of Croft. enrp a. Ctberrp Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:- [JR republic demands education and more Wok abundant education; ideas and more noble ideas; more government by the people and leas government by the politician; more govern- ment by the teacher and less government by the policeman; more government by the school house and less government by the military camp; more government by the university and less government bv brute force; more and better schools and fewer jails, penitentiaries and asylums; more scholars and fewer criminals; more freemen and fewer slaves; more life, more life, and more life. (Ap- plause.') Nature abhors a government by brute force. The best administered government is the one that seeks to govern the masses by aiding the individual in governing himself. The moral, in- tellectual, spiritual and physical health of the two and a half millions of people of Kentucky is re- garded by the progressive citizen as the most vital question now before the citizenship of our Com- monwcalth. The harmonious and universal vital- ization of human units will solve all questions. (Applause.) It will take the power to enforce in- dustrial tyranny from the heartless American To- bacco Trust and cause the dreaded night rider to vonish into the darkness from whence he came. If there is a peril which threatens Kentucky or ainy other State, it is the peril of superstition, in- 46 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. competency, penny ideas- the peril of ignorance. (Applause.) Ruskin said: "There is but one cure for public distress, and that is public educa- tion directed to make more men useful, thought- ful, sympathetic and just." Conscience charged with spiritual electricity is the ballast of a de- mocracy. It is the mission of the public school, high school, normal school, the university and all other educational institutions to generate this electricity. Lowell evidently considered the voice of conscience a leading factor in the solution of all problems. He said: "Our healing is not in the storm nor in the whirlwind. It is not in mon- archies nor aristocracies, but will be revealed by the still small voice that speaks to the heart and con- science prompting man to a wider and wiser hu- manity." No wonder Mr. Everett wrote: "What! Feed a child's bWdy and let his soul hunger; pam- per his limbs and starve his faculties" "What! Plant the earth, cover a thousand hills with your droves of cattle, pursue the fish to their hiding-place in the sea, and spread out your wheat fields across the plain, in order to supply the wants of that body, which will soon be as poor and senseless as the poorest clod, and let the pure, spiritual essence within you, with all its glorious capacities for improvement, languish and pine "What! Build factories, turn in rivers upon the waterwheels, unchain the imprisoned spirits of steam, to weave a garment for the body, and let the soul remain unadorned and naked" We believe with Mr. Everett that the training of citizens for life is the greatest work delegated to the hands of man. We may boast of our coun- 47 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. try and tell of its acres of land bursting with min- eral wealth; its lakes and ocean coasts; its reve- nues and rich treasures, its great cities and won- derful public buildings and strong fortifications; its railroads and commerce; its white warships and itq standing armies; but after all our government is a spiritual life. It is what is in the minds of 90,000,000 of people. It is a thought. This being true, I desire to say with emphasis that the vision of Kentucky boys and girls is our greatest asset. There is not a child in Lexington that is not worth more than all of the gold and silver in Kentucky. I speak not as a Pine Tree Tapper from Florida or as a Cotton Picker from the Lone Star State, or as a Hoosier from Indiana; but as a loyal Corn Cracker, who was born and reared in humble and obscure life among the sand hills of Kentucky. I love every inch of Kentucky soil and Kentucky life. We all know that the Ken- tucky people are a great people. Nature has been especially kind to us. I do not want to be narrow, but you will excuse me if I believe that if God has a favorite creation, it is the Kentucky child. I believe there are more great men and women to the square inch in Kentucky childhood than can be found among an equal number of children in any other Commonwealth. The name of Kentuckv's illustrious sons arc written upon almost every page of history that has been recorded since Daniel Boone first found his wav into the Kentucky wilderness. Kentucky gave to the countrv a Clay, whose logic and oratory in- structed and charmed the world. It gave to the country a Lincoln, whose power of mind and heart 48 PRES. JAS. E. PATTERSON. solved the dangerous question of African slavery. It produced a Foster, whose "Old Kentucky Home" is being sung around the world. It num- bers a Breckinridge, a Marshall, a Prentiss, a Crittenden, a Hardin, and many more of the most brilliant lights known in American history among her sons. She has furnished Governors, Congress- men, Judges and great men in all walks of life to other Staites; but where are our Clays, Lincolns, Prentisses, and Marshalls today Where are our future Governors, Supreme Courts and General Assemblies Where are the men who will in future years blaze the way to a higher civilization in all of the divisions of human activities. I believe I can tell where they are. They sleep in the bosom of Ken- tucky's noble childhood. They will rise in their glory and be the Greater Kentucky when the schools of our Commonwealth ring the rising bell in their souls. Childhood shows us the way to a greater democratic Commonwealth. Spirit is the endowment fund of a democracy. The soul is the energy that is behind commerce and every other great achievement that enlarges and ennobles life. It is the dynamo that turns the complex machinery of human action. It is the great central powerhouse somewhere in the cen- ter of the universe that turns the wheels of pro- gresss. In fact, nothing has ever been accomplish- ed bv human hands in the outward world that did not begin as a concept in the world of mind. Wherever our eves go they behold the product of spirit. Tobacco barns were burned and John Holloway was shot before the blaze was witnessed 49 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. by the physical eye and the report of the gun was heard by the physical ear. Captain Rankin was hanged before the rope was put around his neck. That riot appeared upon the fields of the soul before it appeared upon the streets of Springfield, Ill. T am trying to say that the Commonwealth's liwise will be in bad order until the soul's house is put into good order by Christian education. (Applause.) A great Commonwealth cannot be bestowed; it must be achieved through the devel- opment of the soul. Tile citizen of patriotic vision who plants a great university and gives to Christian education forty years of noble and efficient service is a no- bleman-a hero in the time of peace, who plants the American flag upon the heaven kissed hills of liberty. More than forty years ago the honored President of the State University heard democra- ey's call for men, and almost single handed and alone opened a relentless warfare on superstition, incompetency and ignorance. He has given the great Commonwealth of Kentucky a great life and a noble service. He stands alone today in one of the epochs of Kentuckv's educational history. No man in the State has done as much in aiding the individual to prepare for a larger life in the Commonwealth as President James K. Patterson. whose forty years of active service we have met to celebrate. I greatly value this opportunity to express my deep and sympathetic interest in the University, its officers and faculty, and my per- sornal esteem and regard for the life and work of its honored President. The regents, faculty, stu- dents and friends of the Western Kentucky State Normal join me in these greetings. (Applause.) so PRES. JAS. K. PATrERSON. Zbbresfi of Ritbarb henry Crozffietb Mr. Chairman, Honored President, Ladies and Gentlemen:- , HIS is, indeed, a most fitting time for con- gratulating President Patterson, the com- pletion of the fortieth year of his Pres- idency of the University of Kentucky. As I was listening to the addresses a moment ago, this thought came to my mind: The forty years of President Patterson's incumbency represent tran- sition, a period connecting the old with the new. When forty years ago President Patterson came to this community to take charge of this institu- tion, our educational interests in Kentucky were far from what they are today. At that time the old regime obtained. The one trustee system was in vogue in our public schools. This trustee was governed very largely in the determination of the teacher of the school of the district by the spirit of nepotism. There was, furthermore, at that time a great gulf fixed between the institutions of higher learn- ing and the elementary and secondary schools. It was thought that there was an irreconcilable conflict between the college and the high school, that if the high school and academy succeeded, many students would be lost to the college and the university. We have come to the time when we know that there is no such conflict. Every college of rank is now doing all that it can to 51 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. encourage the high school and to render it the more effective in preparing students for institu- tions of higher learning as well as for the duties of life. No man has been more diligently engaged in this laudable enterprise than President Pat- terson. All honor is due to the State University and its President for the results achieved so far. While it was pointed out recently that we had in the State of Kentucky more than 1,200 log school houses, that there were more than 2,200 school houses without proper seats for their stu- dents, that of the 25,000 trustees in the State 5,000 could neither read nor write, and that 10,000 of these had no adequate conception of the duties of their office, these conditions are rapidly disappearing; and the colleges of the State have made large contributions in this direction. I am glad to have the honor, Sir, to .bear to you the congratulations of Transylvania Univer- sity, its Board of Curators, its Executive Commit- tee; and in the name of this institution, I desire to wish you God speed, and that your days may be lengthened for the accomplishment of still greater things for our oid Kentucky home. PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. Zbbrreg of crof. Jobn M. _aiq Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:- HE work of eminent specialists in most pro- fessions may be tersely described so that t the man in the street may understand something, at least, of their ability and achieve- ments. The fame of great physicians, of astute lawyers, of eloquent and logical preachers, of cap- tains of industry with genius for organization, is of the sort that is easily understood. But these men work with things. How shall we measure the achievements of the teacher or college pro- fessor, whose work consists in stimulating and guiding the expanding minds of young men and young women His influence is enormous, yet his successes are confused by the very successes he helps others to attain. The reward of the teacher lies in the pleasure he finds in his work and in some scant opportunity, mayhap, to extend, if only slightly, the boundaries of the known body of knowledge. These remarks are pertinent to a discussion of the qualifications for college presidents, since they are nearly always chosen from the ranks of emi- nent professors. The college president is usually an eminent specialist, and more. He must necessarily be a man of broad culture; yet, to be successful, he must possess many other qualities, some of them almost antagonistic to the spirit of the class-room 53 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. and the laboratory. He must have a strong per- sonality and a natural talent for leadership. He must be an accurate judge of men, have a good knowledge of human nature and a well-developed sense of values. He must possess infinite tact and infinite patience. And he must be able to dis- cern the signs of the times, so that the institution whose destiny he is helping to shape, may train properly the young minds committed to its care, so that they may fit properly into the general scheme of things. The University of to-day must be fifteen or twenty years ahead of the times. To the layman, the life of a college president may seem to be cast in particularly pleasant places. But there are few so strenuous. As the responsible head, he must guide his board of trus- tees, his faculty and the student body. Any one of these is liable to be fractious and sometimes all three. He sees a glorious field of labor and finds the obstacles so numerous and vexing that they will discourage any but the stoutest heart. It must be a dim realization of their stupendous tasks that prompts even the citizens of ungrate- ful republics to honor those college presidents, who, through long and oftentimes tempestuous careers, behold some measure of success crowning their efforts. For twenty years I have been in close touch with the State University-for twelve years as student or instructor-and in that time its alumni have increased many fold and its activities have extended into many new fields. A number of new departments or colleges have been organized, in- 54 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. eluding Mechanical, Electrical and Mining Engi- neering, and Law, all of which have grown rapid- ly, and the old established colleges have shared in the progress. The standards of admission and collegiate work have been raised until the State University towers above all other institutions in the Commonwealth in power and prestige. Its growth has been steady and uniform-the laying of a solid foundation. Its graduates are to be found in the faculties of similar universities from Cornell to Leland Stanford and from Michigan and Wisconsin to Alabama. Its most notable prog- ress has been made in the past three years. In a decade the tide of public sentiment toward it has changed from toleration to enthusiastic support in the city, the county and the State. Our legisla- tures have been niggardly in the granting of appropriations for needed buildings and increas- ing the annual revenue for scholastic services. During the past few years some evidence has been given that this condition of things is to change and that Kentucky will not be put to shame, as she now is, by every state touching her border, in the matter of support for higher education. The rapid progress in primary and secondary educa- tion in Kentucky promises well for the future students of the University, and this is due, in some measure, to the consistent raising of her standards of admission and collegiate work. As the representative of the Alumni Association of the State University, I have the distinguished honor of offering to President Patterson their con- gratulations on the completion of forty years of honorable service for Kentucky. Many students 55 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. have been sent from the old college to take active part in the life of the State and there is no question of the confidence they feel in his ability and strength. They rejoice with him in the suc- cess of their Alma Mater and honor him for his share in her progress. President Patterson is known throughout this State and others as an able speaker and writer. Only those who have followed the career of the State University know how hard he has fought for it and how potent has been his strong personality in securing its present measure of efficiency and successs. PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. Zbbrtos of Rr. fnettt Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:- 3rT is a great privilege to me to bring to you the greeting of the trustees and faculty of Central University; accept our most cordial congratulations upon this day. Forty years of service and study is a great achievement. As I look over and think that it has been forty years it takes me back to my early days. President Pat- terson entered upon his work here as the Presi- dent of this great institution before I wore knee breeches. While to-day he has much to ponder in his mind, I would that when the time comes to us to look over forty years of work that we may have such memories as come to him this day. I have not long been in the State, but one of the first names that came to me as conspicuous in the life of Kentucky was that of President James K. Patterson, and all through the brief years that I have been privileged to work in this Common- wealth his name has stood high in my estimation. I feel that it has been a great privilege to be a co-laborer with him in this work of education in this Commonwealth. I have listened to-day with great interest, and some of these remarks have caused me to see ghosts; I saw the ghost of sectarianism. I do not like that word. We ought not to use it to-day. I thank God that I live in Kentucky and am privi- 57 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. leged to work in this Commonwealth when that word has been put aside. (Applause.) I know that in the development of this institu- tion President Patterson has only achieved a tithe of that which has been in his mind and in his heart. Much as he may rejoice over the University as it stands here to-day, yet to him it is incom- plete; he has projected himself into the future, and I venture the statement that he sees in his own mind at this time a vision of a university that he shall not be privileged to see in reality, but the vision is his; that which shall come in the days that are yet before us, that has already been realized in his thought and purpose. I desire to say here now just this word of con- clusion, that whatever has been in the past, that whatever dissensions there may have been in the educational life of this great Commonwealth, that the time of dissension has passed away; that no longer shall one institution array itself against an- other, and no longer shall one element of the edu- cational life of this State be alien to the other, but we shall realize that the educational life and prog- ress and prosperity of this great Commonwealth is the common cause of all. So in the future in the development of this University, I take great pride in saying for myself and for the colleges, and presidents of the other institutions of the State that we are cne in purpose; that this institu- tion shall go forward in its life and future of a great University representative of a great State without a single jealousy; without the possibility of contention, but one, with harmonious work on the part of the men who are to make the Kentucky 58 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. of the future in the development of the educational life of the State. (Applause.) Mr. President, accept our congratulations, our admiration, our love on this day that means so much to you. (Applause.) FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. 2bbrezz of Rtb. 1bbiin untr Mr. Chairman, Mr. President, Ladies and Gentle. men:- 39 am surprised in the description my friend has given of the church of which I have the honor to be the pastor, but he left out of it the most distinguished member; it has the honor of having among its membership our honored President. We read in the Old Book that is familiar to us under the name of Ecclesiastes that once upon a time there was a little city and in that city dwelt but few men, and a great king came against that city and laid siege to it and built mighty bulwarks against it; and in that city there was a poor wise man, and by his wisdom he delivered that city, but alas no man remembered that same wise man. When I was honored with an invitation to be pres- ent on this happy occasion and to add my little words to the words that would be spoken my mind for some reason reverted to that old story, and I could not help but draw a parallel somewhat like this: Once upon a time there was not a little city, but a little institution, so small and so weak and so few in it, but in that little institution there was a wise man-I know not how poor he was-but he was a wise man, and when there came against that institution great strong foes and laid siege to it and built their mighty bulwarks against it. that institu- tion was delivered by that same wise man, but I am 66: PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSOX thankful to say for the credit of all these whom I see here before me to-day that they have not for- gotten that same wise man. We remember him; we remember the work that he did; we remember the deliverance that he wrought; and we are con- scious to some degree at least of the splendid work that he has done, not only in delivering the institu- tion from its foes and in bringing it to this condi- tion that we see to-day, for as far as the eye can reach and whichever way we turn, we see the mag- nificent results of that great, heroic, unconscious, able service that he has rendered to this institu- tion. I can not but think when I remember these forty years-I can not but think of another great leader and deliverer, who led the chosen people from the bondage of Egypt through the weary wilderness to the promised land. Oh, who can ever measure the labor and the trials--yes, I might say the agony of the conflict in the service that the great leader rendered his people, to his God and to the world And after that forty years of service he brought them within view of the promised land, where we stand to-day in regard to this great insti- tution; not only in view of the promised land, but one as he looks about him and sees the effects of this service of leadership would be led to be- lieve that we have already crossed the Jordan and entered upon our inheritance. Forty years-long years, and when those years were ended Moses standing upon the border-land of that glorious inheritance saw before him what that people whom he had led were destined to inherit. Mr. President, you have brought us to the border-line; you have brought us to the banks of 61 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. this Jordan. You have been privileged to look across the river and to see the glory of the inherit- ance to which you lead us in your great work. But sir, it is my prayer to-day for Kentucky, for us all, and my wish in regard to you, sir, that our Moses whose forty years have ended-that our Moses may not die, but that he may be spared to us for possibly forty years longer. (Applause.) I trust, sir, that when you do lay down your great work, that there will be another Joshua, capa- ble of taking it up and carrying it on to comple- tion; and God grant that that other Joshua may have many more years to study and prepare him- self to take up this work as it falls from the hands of the Moses who laid it down, and lead the people on to greater things. May God bless you, and spare you, the Moses whom we honor and revere and thank to-day. (Applause.) PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. 2bbrtos of ieb. Joaac _. penrer RTY years is a long span when viewed ir from the beginning, but only a thread of space when crossed. We thought our fa- thers were old at forty but in those childhood years we looked upon the horizon as the border of the world. Experience has taught us to revise our judgment. To have spent forty years in strenuous, re- sponsible public service and to have filled them with wisdom and honor were worthy the ambition and perseverance even of our gifted and distin- guished Scotchman, the esteemed President of the Kentucky State University. He planted himself like a tree by the water- course, bringing forth fruit, and giving shelter and shade, through four decades to multitudinous students, seeing them grow into useful and patri- otie citizenship, and, in the face of many discour- agements, he making his own high ideals dominant in the realm of education. His success commands the gratitude, as it does the admiration, of all the loyal and wide-awake men and women in the Com- monwealth of Kentucky. Forty years of honest toil, with tides of ad- versity flowing in and tides of cheer flowing out- destiny-freighted years-years on which students built their eternities surely they demand this reverent pause and hearty greeting. Like "wine and milk" for the soul, in the golder chalice of education, has been your long 63 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. administration in this famous institution. So, honored President, as a representative of that re- ligion that carries the undying torch of truth and civilization, I salute you, congratulate you and wish for you continued strength and providential guidance. I love to think of life under the form of sym- bols. Each year is a book; each day is a page; every hour is a line and every waking moment a chosen word. Before such a library of sacred vol- umes we may stand with bowed heads and thank- ful hearts, as Agasiz stood among his students on the island of Penikese. What one has done, and been, and aspired to beqome, is written in those books to be opened in the great examination when teachers and pupils, alike, shall be tested and "pitched or passed." I love to think of life, also, as a grand orches- tra. Every year is an instrument discoursing music. All the instruments mingle their melodies into harmony, though sometimes in a minor strain, with their crescendos and diminuendos, but reach- ing at length a climax of rapturous sweetness and triumphant joy. The past calls us to remember. The future meets us with its message and its smile and bids us to labor in hope and in love. The past is a sea; the future is a shore; the present is a grain of sand washed by the wave and thrown back into the broad bosom of the deep. Or, to use another figure, the past is a sea; the future is the rising tide; and the present is the turn of the tide home- ward. Steele once wrote that "a healthy old fellow, 64 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. if not a fool, is the happiest man alive." In youth the green leaves of the forest shut out the light; but when the leaves fall the stars appear. Dr. Holland, in his essay on "How to Grow Old," says the way to keep young is to love. Love the young and keep in vital touch with them. Let the shuttle of youth throw its golden threads of sunshine into the dull, gray, warp of age. Love your wife, if you have one-and if not, get one if you can-love your fellows in their struggles and their sins; and' love God, your Guardian and Friend. Love is the great elixer of life. The man of vision and of love can never grow old in spirit even as the man of faith can never die. As the mountain among the hills; as the ocean among the seas; as the rose among the flowers; as the oak among the trees and as the sun among the stars, so is love among the rejuvenating virtues and graces. I sympathize with the sentiment of Oliver Wen- dell Holmes, when, at the age of three-score and ten, he went back to Harvard, his alma mater, and thus spoke to men who half a century before had been his classmates and his chums: "Has there any old fellow got mixed with 'the boys ' If there has, take him out without making a noise; Hang the catalogue's cheat and the almanac's spite, Old time is a liar; we're twenty to-night. "Yes, we're boys; always playing with tongue or with pen. 65 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. And I sometimes have asked, shall we ever be men Shall we always be laughing and happy and gay Till the last dear companion drops, smiling away "Then here's to our manhood, its gold and its gray, The frosts of its winter, the dews of its May. And, when we are done with our life-lasting toys, Dear Father, take care of Thy children-'The Boys!' 66 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. 11marks, Virgi[ I. lCoore, Ntpreznting tMt ltubmnt RobF 3r doubt not that many of you think me quite presumptuous to dare appear on the same platform with such notable speakers as have addressed you this afternoon. And, indeed, I am more than willing to admit that under ordinary circumstances I would hardly place myself in a position where the fullness of my inexperience could be so readily apprehended by the unpleasant but very human process of comparison. I believe, however, on this occasion I have a decided advantage over those who have preceded, me, in at least one particular, one which I hope will make up for my disadvantages in point of ability. For the past four years I have enjoyed the privilege of being under the care and guidance of him to whom we join in paying tribute this afternoon. You gentlemen have known him as a man among men, a scholar among scholars, a fighter among fighters. You have met him on the battlefield of life, most of you as followers and friends, some perhaps, at times, as foes. In either case, you can testify to his broad learning, his remarkable ability, his tireless energy and his heroic courage. You have seen him, armor on, sword drawn, the light of battle in his eye, ready and anxious to wage unceasing war for his glorious cause. 1, as one of the many for whom he has given 67 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. his life-work, have seen him when he had sheathed his sword, put away his armor, and with that serene peacefulness of the truly noble victor, sat by his own fireside, surrounded by his boys and girls, working for them, planning with them, en- couraging them in his own inimitable way. No sign of conflict there, no evidence that all we then enjoyed was the result of his sacrifices, no refer- ence to a life of never-ending endeavor for us; and yet, an atmosphere of quiet dignity and calm con- tent, which we instinctively knew could come only from a knowledge of obstacles, one by one, sur- mounted, and Herculean tasks surely and safely accomplished. President Patterson has ever been the friend and adviser of his students, guiding them in the safest paths, assisting them along the most needed lines, always ready to lend a helping hand to the deserving, and striving from the beginning to make his University, and I think I use the pro- noun advisedly, a school where rich and poor should meet on a common level. He knows no such thing as partiality, and his favors, numerous as they have been, are dispensed on the common ground of merit. A kind and generous protector, a helpful and understanding teacher, and still a strict and thor- ough disciplinarian-such has he been co us, and as we leave him we carry with us the memory of a man. Could we receive a richer endowment To pay the debt of gratitude owed by Ken- tucky's boys and girls for forty years of such mag- nificent service is a task too great for mere words; and to give even an idea of our appreciation is 68 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. more than I would attempt. But, on behalf of my eight hundred fellow students to whom he be- queaths this rich heritage, on behalf of hundreds who point to him as the author of their successes, on behalf of every man or woman, boy or girl, who has had the opportunity of knowing him as only his students ever know him, let me pay my tribute of admiration, affection and respect to the truest, noblest and best friend education ever had in Kentucky-President Patterson. FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. Zbbreiis of Alpia Jubbarb, mrmber of tie Qiato of 1910 XNE and thirty years ago, the Agricultural and Mechanical College, now the State University of Kentucky, after an appren- ticeship of thirteen years began to exist as a sepa- rate institution. To the casual observer no event could seem more insignificant. The recognized colleges and some of the ablest teachers in the Commonwealth scarcely deigned to notice it, but the act that freed thousands of African slaves in the State at the close of the War of the Rebellion was in a sense a mere trivial affair when compared with the emancipation of this institution from the mother University. Then began a long and dark struggle for the existence of the new college, but guided by the hand of her young captain whose armour was forged among the hills of his native Scotland, she triumphed over all. Then those who had refused to recognize her becoming afraid of her power joined their forces for her destruction. Again the battle ensued, and in the thickest of the fight her foster father and knightly champion could hear the faint cry of generations yet to be: "Watchman, what of the night " And from the depth of his heart came the strong reply: "The morning cometh," for as the lofty mountain peaks are first to catch the beams of the rising sun, he was first to predict the future greatness of the institution 70 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. that he had so successfully piloted. Not only has he combatted and vanquished every assailant, but through forty years of strenuous toil he has built up a University which bids fair to surpass any south of the Ohio. It is seldom that in the annals of history can be found a record parallel to his. What Ken- tuckian has made a greater sacrifice for the cause of education in his State than our noble Presi- dent Had he sought the field of politics, he doubtless would have found a- harvest ripe. Had he entered into the business world, his success would have been bounded only by human proba- bilities. But he has been content to give his whole life to the upbuilding of the State University of Kentucky, which will remain a monument to his memory as long as higher education shall be the watchword of the people, or until the nation shall cease to exist. And now, President Patterson, as a representa- tive from the student body of the State Uni- versity of Kentucky I bring to you a message: From the fathers and mothers from a thousand happy homes, the education of whose sons and daughters is entrusted to your care, from the mountains, the Blue Grass, the Pennyrile and the Purchase, from every county in the grand old Commonwealth, from the future manhood and womanhood of the State, her only hope, from the members of that society which you have so liber- ally endowed and which bears your revered name, from those who have had the marked privilege of being members of your own classes, from the hearts of a loyal and loving student body I bring 71 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. you this greeting. It is the wish of each and all that you continue in that office which you have so ably filled for forty years, until He to whom we must all give an account of our deeds done on earth says: "Well done, thou good and faithful servant: Thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things; enter thou into the joy of thy Lord." PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. Aemarkz of wrof. jameo 0. uite Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:- 3g F time permitted, I would be glad to tell you of some of the struggles that this old gentle- man, my personal friend, and I have to- gether passed through during the long years of our association. My first acquaintance with him was when I entered Kentucky (now Transylvania) University, forty-four years ago. Since that time there has been scarcely a day, when we were both in this city, that I have not seen more or less of him. Perhaps no man knows better than I the many perplexing questions he has met and the obstacles he has overcome in his long, able, and successful administration. Some of these have been known to the public, but only his most intimate associates have known of the many sleep- less nights and days of anxiety which he has ex- perienced. It is, however, growing late and I must not detain you, but I will ask your attention to the reading of two letters which have been re- ceived in the course of the preparation for this celebration. One of these is from President H. C. White of the University of Georgia, and reads as follows: University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. May 25, 1909. Director M. A. Scovell, Lexington, Ky. My Dear Director Scovell:- I have just returned home after an absence of ten 73 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. days-having attended the Lake Mohonk (N. Y.) Con- ference on International Arbitration-and as my mail was not forwarded I find your very kind favor on my return. I very much regret the delay in acknowledg- ment but have wired you at once. I am genuinely dis- tressed that I may not accept your very kind and flattering invitation. It would give me the utmost pleasure to be permitted to say a few words on the occasion of the completion of Doctor Patterson's forty- year term of useful and distinguished service. It is a noteworthy event in the history of American education. I should require no long time in preparation of what I would wish to say. Unfortunately I have accepted an invitation to deliver the Commencement Address at one of our Southern Colleges on June Ist, and there- fore I cannot be with you that day in Lexington. I am very, very sorry. Will you not do me the favor to express for me my very great interest in the event, my hearty appreciation of the valuable and historic services of President Patterson, my best wishes for his health, happiness and continuance in good works, and my sincere wishes for the continued prosperity of your great institution which has owed so much to President Patterson's fostering care. With thanks to your Board of Trustees and to you personally, I am, Very faithfully yours, H. C. WHITE The other is a letter from a gentleman known to many Lexington people, the Rev. Dr. Ethelbert Dudley Warfield, who was born and reared in this city and whose education, as you will find from this letter, began under the instruction and guid- ance of the learned scholar and able teacher in whose honor we are met this afternoon. Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania. EASTON, PENNSYLVANIA. My Dear Prof. White:- I greatly regret my inability to be present and par- 74 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. ticipate in person in the recognition that is being given to my beloved teacher, President Patterson. I was a student in the State College from 1877 to 1879 and during that time I enjoyed the private tuition of President Patterson in Latin and Greek. This brought me into very intimate relations with him, and I can never forget the delightful hours that I spent in his study and under the pine trees near his house at the Woodlands-the villa ad pinas-as I have been accus- tomed to call it during the years that have flown. Not only did President Patterson introduce me to the de- lightful atmosphere of Classical scholarship, but he awakened, especially in connection with Herodotus, a deep interest in history that has been one of the great inspirations of my life, which took me to Oxford to study under Professor Stubbs, and brought me to a professorship of history in due season. I also learned from him to appreciate the quaint humor and strong character of the Scotchman, an appreciation which was deepened by contact with those other great Scotch teachers who were in succession to be my preceptors, President James McCosh of Princeton, and Benjamin Jowett, the Master of Balliol, who was the Vice Chan- cellor of Oxford when I went thither. I rejoice that President Patterson has come to so ripe an age, to the full measure of recognition of his service as an edu- cator, and that he has seen the State College reach the natural development into the State University. I trust that he will find on this occasion the sincere regard of his many colleagues and students a more acceptable tribute than any praise that might be brought to crown his long period of service. I rejoice that I am per- mitted in this measure to contribute to the testimony of the occasion. ETHiELERT D. WAmwin, Pres. and Prof. of History Lafayette College. FORTIETJI ANNIVERSARY. Vrotbent Pattcroon'o Rtlp If I could persuade myself that I deserve half of what has been said concerning me this after- noon, I should have a much better opinion of myself than ever heretofore. I thank you, gentle- men and the institutions which same of vou represent, for the hearty and generous recogni- tion which you have accorded to my ability, my attainments and my work. The task of building up an institution of learning is always an arduous one. A college or university reverses the classical axiom, "A poet is born, not made." A university grows by development, by expansion, by accretion. Its growth is that of an organism. It does not come into existence a finished product. Those institutions are the best which setting out from small beginnings expand symmetrically. The old universities of Europe and the best universities of America have attained their present proportions through this law of development. Bonn and Goet- tingen in Germany, the Sorbonne in France, Sala- manca and Valladolid in Spain, Magdalen and Balliol and Christ Church in Oxford, King's and Trinity in Cambridge, Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland, Harvard and Yale in America, have centuries behind them. They are hoary with age and with honors. Their prestige and reputation could not be exchanged for endowments. The glory of their achievements are a halo forevermore. The State University of Kentucky, to which through me you have given your meed of generous 76 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. recognition, is the youngest of American universi- ties, and is just beginning the career of usefulness and honor which many of those on this platform and in this audience will, I have no doubt, live to see it attain. When listening to the eulogies on my relation to the growth of the State University of Kentucky, I could not help recalling the lines of Wordsworth: "Like winds that sweep the mountain summit, Like waves that own no guiding hand, How fast has brother followed brother From sunlight to the sunless land." Nearly all of those who opposed me thirty years ago, when the State College, now the State University, was passing through the crisis of its fate, and nearly all of the few who stood by me in the fierce struggle for existence which it en- countered, have gone. So true it is that "the places which know us now shall soon know us no more." The antagonisms and animosities engendered by the contest of thirty years ago have been molli- fied by time and are now practically extinguished. An era of good feeling has begun and all the insti- tutions represented here are co-operating loyally for the advancement of the common cause in which we are all interested. Now that we have entered upon the University stage in our educational progress, it behooves us to adjust ourselves to altered conditions and to en- deavor to realize for the Commonwealth the just expectations which the general public will doubt- less entertain. 77 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. The university of to-day, generally speaking, retains and must retain for some time to come under-graduate instruction in collegiate work in connection with advanced work in original investi- gation and research, which is, as I take it, the proper function of the university of to-day, and much more of the university of the future. We have already fallen into line with the work done by the average State University in America, and I am glad to say that in the Association of State Universities, we are received as members of this brotherhood of learning upon equal terms with the rest. What relation the university of the future must sustain to denominational education no one can foretell. If I may upon this occasion hazard a forecast and a hope, it would be something like the following: That the State University, amply endowed by the Commonwealth, should provide all that can be taught in secular education, in language, in literature, in science and in art, em- bracing the whole range of realized knowledge, past and present; everything indeed that can be taught within the ample scope and compass of the provision thus made by the State for advanced educational training; that the largest opportunity should be afforded to the student to appropriate and to assimilate what is already known and to prosecute original research in any depart- ment of scientific work, to which his inclination leads him to devote his energies; that the State should invite the existing denominational institu- tions, whose endowments do not warrant their undertaking anything beyond collegiate work, to 78 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. become affiliated institutions of the State Univer- sity, admitting their alumni ad eundum to any of the advanced courses of study and research for which they are prepared; that the State should still further invite each denomination within the Commonwealth, whether Jew or Gentile, Catholic or Protestant, to place its theological seminary within the ample precincts of the University grounds, and offer to their theological students the benefit of free tuition in any branch of secular learning with which they may desire to become familiar; that these denominations endow their respective seminaries as liberally as they may, pro- viding for everything that can be taught bearing directly or indirectly upon the widest theological training; that each control its endowment and its faculty and its course of instruction, without inter- ference from the State University; that reciprocal independence and co-ordination and good fellow- ship should be maintained, each seeking to co- operate with all the rest in the advancement and development of a scholarship secular and theo- logical commensurate with the necessities of the age. This relationship, I apprehend, would Chris- tianize secular education and liberalize theological culture and training. It is doubtless true that truth is one, but it is likewise true that the individual manifestations of truth are infinitely varied. No principle of science, I hold, can be in opposition to the fundamental principles upon which a rational system of the- ology must be built. Science and religion cannot be antagonistic, so long as each restricts itself within its own proper sphere. The principles of 79 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. science and the truths of religion interlace and are interwoven one with the other and what God has joined together man should not attempt to put asunder. Each, however, must learn to know its respective limitations. The limits of religious thought, on the one hand, have their counterpart in the limitations of secular knowledge upon the other. I do not anticipate that the time will ever come when the Decalogue or the Sermon on the Mount must be revised and recast to meet the de- mands of scientific truth. I am not greatly disturbed by the disquieting utterances of Ladd or Jordan, of Howison or Jastrow or Munsterburg, with all their ability. I do not apprehend a Renaissance led by them in the Twentieth Century. I do not anticipate any seri- ous disturbance of the existing ethical and re- ligious forces from any system of ethics having as its basis gravitation and the correlation of the physical forces. The telescope and the microscope and the spectroscope, electrons, atoms and mole- cules, stupendous facts in the physical universe, will, when reverently interpreted, conserve and strengthen, but will never provide either the ful- crum or the lever for the overthrow of the ethics or religion of the Old and New Testament. The incandescent light may, with its brilliancy, dazzle the inventor and his admirers, when they stand within the circumference illuminated by its glare. But it would be a grave mistake to suppose that one such light or a hundred million such lights can ever supersede the sun in the heavens. The greatness and the littleness of man are to us a perpetual wonder. "Oh, what a miracle to man 80 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. is man, a beam ethereal sullied and absorpt, though sullied and dishonored, still divine." Diderot and Helvetius, D'Alembert and Rous- seau had their day and disturbed the souls of men. as the vanguard of the new philosophies of our own day are doing now, but their crusade against Christianity has become a thing of the past, and not one in a thousand now knows that they lived and cast their pebble on the waters. The time will never come when a morality grounded upon the crass materialism of the gospel of mammon will ever supersede the deliverance made upon Mt. Sinai, or the still grander deliver- ance of the Sermon on the Mount. In the ages to come, whatever progress may be made, and we are moving forward by strides mighty and rapid. every year making the achievements already won the basis for the attainment of still higher and mightier conquests over nature, it will still be true that in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth; it will still be true that the chief end of man is to glorify God and to enjoy him forever; it will still be true that life and immor- tality have been brought to light through the Gospel of the Son of God; it will be true that "Only that which made us meant us to be mightier by and by, Set the sphere of all the boundless heaven within the human eve, Sent the shadow of himself, the boundless, through the human soul, Boundless, inward, in the atom, boundless, out- ward, in the whole." Above all, whatever others may do, the State 81 FORTIETH ANNIvERSARY. University of Kentucky must keep itself upon a high moral plane, dominated not necessarily by a dogmatic but by a religious sentiment, reflecting the religious convictions of the people of our Com- monwealth. Nothing must be taught from the ros- trum or in the recitation room which, either in- directlv or bv innuendo, should unsettle the faith of any. Our Commonwealth is Christian, our nation, the great American nation, is happily Christian. It recognizes its obligations to the past, that a free church in a free state are the inalienable inheritance of the imperial stock to which they belong, and that from the new religious enthusi- asm and hope and aspirations, infused into man- kind by the advent of the Savior, all that is worth anything in modern civilization is derived. "There is an old belief That on some distant shore, Beyond the sphere of grief, Dear friends shall meet once more. "Beyond the sphere of time And sin and fate's control, Serene in changeless prime Of body and of soul. "That creed I fain would keep, That hope I'll not forego. Eternal be my sleep, Unless I waken so." 82 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. ADDENDUM 3amrs lktnntbp atteroon Jaer itberksitatifs Adutkitnslo AN APPRECIATION BY WILLIAM BENJAMIN SMITH LL. D.. HEN we lay open side by side the map and the history of the earth, more especially the biographical history, we are struck by a remarkable unevenness in distri- bution. Great as is the inequality of fertility, ranging from tropical luxuriance to frozen wastes and burning saharas, we find it fully matched in the irregularity of the outcrop of distinguished humanity. For untold ages the history enacted over immense regions by innumerable throngs of human beings has remained wholly unhistorical. Like an endless crop of plants, even weeds, uncon- scious of the seasons, the undistinguished genera- tions have sprung up perpetually from the earth and just as perpetually have sunk back again to undistinguished rest in their native sod. A tre- mendous fact, before which the soul shrinks back in terror. Is then all history so futile, as aimless .ms the paleozoic ages, as monotonous and weary as the ocean's barren fields of wandering foam It is a great relief to turn from these desert tramts of time and space to certain favored re- gions, to certain garden-spots where man has sprouted up and grown aloft and widely, where history has enacted itself on a sublime and 8ig- FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. nificant scale, where the drama of life has unrolled itself in pomp and majesty, and where purpose and aim appear upon the stage and point towards eternal valuieii. Such in ancient days were in some measure the valley of the Nile and the Twin- River-Land of Mesopotamia and the rugged mountain district of Canaan; later the serrated shores and olive-clad hills of Hellas, the sunlit- summits and shady vales of Italy, later still the vallevs of the Po and the Arno, and all Northern Europe. But even here in these regions so fer- tile in greatness. the distinctions have been most notable. If you stain the map of France or of England or Germany, each region according to its fecundity in illustrious men. the map will be parti-colored in the extreme, showing side by side the faintest and the deepest dyes. A very coitspicuous and industrious school of thinkears would refer pretty nearly all of these differences to the influence of the environment, particularly the educational and social environ- ment. Such are bM. Odin and his distinguished disciple, Mr. ILter Frank Ward, of Washington. This is not the place to expose the fallacies that infect their reasoning. Suffice it to affirm that fallacies are fatally present therein, and that the far more potent factor of Heredity refuses to be overlooked. Of all the facts of life on this planet, the fact of Inheritance, of the transmission of qualities. physical and psychical, mental and moral, from parent to child immediately or me- diately, after intervals of generations, is by far the most impressive and most important. The 84 PRES. JAS. K. PArTrERSON. recent formal recognition of Genetics (at the University of Cambridge) is a landmark in the development of science. The career and the personality that we have before us for consideration not only illustrate, but very naturally provoke the foregoing reflections. James Kennedy Patterson was the son of Andrew Patterson and his wife, Janet Patterson (nee Ken- nedy), of Dumbartonshire, Scotland. This name is one to dwell on. Its classic form Caledonia, in its pentasyllabic fullness and resonance, seems better to befit the largeness and eminence with which this mountain region has bulked in history. A country in the highest degree picturesque, riotous in wild and ravishing beauty that passes over at everv turn into rugged majesty or stern, daring, and terrible sublimity, where nature al- ternately charms and stupefies, smiting with one hand and caressing with the other, Scotland has bred a people of the most marked variety, and has contributed far beyond the measure of her num- bers to the undying annals of our globe. The features that distinguish the Scot are too well known to call for minute statement. Above all else he is an accomplisher. Nature has indeed forced him from the start into a severe and pro- tracted struggle wherein only victory could secure life. A stern and relentless selection has molded the national character into features of strength, courage, endurance, hardihood, patience, persist- ence, and unweariable energy. Along with these go the sturdy virtues of honesty, integrity, self- sacrificing loyalty, and incorruptible faith. A character pre-eminently to admire and pre-emi- 85 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. nently fitted to succeed. It is said in London that if a Scot be admitted to any position, however humble, in a business enterprise, he will surely become the head of the firm. Here in the United States it is a familiar fact that the Scotch and the Scotch-Trish elements have distinguished them- selves beyond all others, except possibly the Hugue- notic, in the making of American history-here, where such ample opportunity has presented itself for the display of executive, aggressive, and ad- ministrative qualities. Of the men who find a place in Who's Who in America, 126 (relatively a very large number) were born in Scotland. But we also speak of a severe, rigorous, and inexor- able logic, and this power has characterized the Caledonian since remote antiquity. Two of the greatest, if not the two very greatest, logicians of the middle ages were Johannes Scotus Erigena and John Duns Scotus, the Doctor Subtilis. Emerson, whose mind refused to move from pre- miss to conclusion, but insisted on beholding all truth as self-revealed in instantaneous vision, Emerson speaks of the "insanity of dialectic" that possesses the soul of Scotland. But Caledonia is not only stern and wild. It is also sprinkled all over, lowland and highland, with spots of the tenderest beauty. So, too, the Caledonian character is not merely sinewy and strong, cannv and subtle, tough and resistant and all-subsiding; on occasion it can show itself gentle and sensitive, kind and affectionate, loving and passionate, as well as devoted and true. Jeanie Deans is no mere creature of the great Magician's 86 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. imagination, and even the light-hearted Burns, in the agony of his soul, pours out his most plaintiff wail to "Mary in Heaven." I have dwelt at such length on the Scottish character, because in so doing I have really been describing the subject of thia sketch, who is a Caledonian of the Caledonians. It is not often indeed that we find an indivadual so thoroughly typical. President Patterson is a Scot to the marrow of his bones. Dumbarton, the county of his parents, lies in a long crescent just northwest of Glasgow, the city of his birth. It is a lovely and romantic region. rich in antiquities, a land of mountains, shooting up into peaks 3,000 feet high; vocal with the commingled roar of a thou- sand cataracts, drenched with the vapors that rise forever from the Atlantic and struggle over the mountain tops, made almost an island by the river Leven and the convergence northward of Lochs Long and Lomond, the latter "the Queen of Scot- tish lakes"-a wild and beauteous land which the sturdy and sterling qualities of the inhabiters have developed into a region rich in herds and flocks, smiling with harvests, and resounding with the hem of varied industry. The lineage of James Kennedy Patterson is a good illustration of the homely adage that blood will tell, even as the invincible dominance in his- tory of certain national or racial strains of blood exemplifies the prepotence of Heredity over all and every int uence of environment. The name of Patterson (or Paterson) bulks largely in the chronicles of Britain. In the Dictionary of Na- 87 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. tional Biography it is 17 tinies entered, filling 30 columns. In Who's Who it is also 17 times repeated. The name of Kennedy ("the noble familv of Kennedy") is even more conspicuous. Thirty tim. it appears in the Dictionary of Na- tional Biography, filling fifty columns, and 22 times in Who's Who. All this stream of historic blood seems to have poured out from the same Scotch fountain, welling up in the glens near Glasgow. Here was born the subject of this sketch the 26th of March, 1833. It was in the first watch of the morning of the new modern day. The sun was not yet risen, but the whole sky was blush- ing with the splendid dawn. A new king and a new ministry in 1830-the tremendous struggle for Reform, running through more than a year, and ending with the final triumph of the People over the Lords in the Reform Act of 1832. Then followed in swift succession the abolition of slivery in the colonies (1833) and the poorlaw of 1834. No wonder that the King took fright and dismissed his ministry, calling on Sir Robert Peel (conservative till 18416) to form another. M eantime Science was putting on wings and In- ver-tion was harnessing all the powers of Nature to the ear of Progress. In 1830, the first pas- senger train was dragged forward by a locomotive. Already, in 1820, Ampere had founded electro- dvnamics in a series of researches, experimental and theoretical, of surpassing brilliance. In 1831 Faraday had discovred the induction of electric currents and opened the century of electricity in which we still move. In 18-5 and 1838 Morse and Steinheil, building on earlier labors, had in- 88 PiES. JAS. K PATTERSON. vented the system of electric telegraphy, whose wonders accumulate even unto this day. It is not unjustly then that we declare this decade to he the first in the great century of the Recent Age. The year 1832 also beheld the setting of the cen- tral sun of German literature, Johann Wolfgang von Gothe, as the year 1831 had already seen the sudden eclipse of Hegel. In Britain, too, the lights of the elder day were one by one extin- guisht, Scott and Lamb in 1832, Coleridge in 1834, the Ettrick Shepherd in 1835, which called forth from Wordsworth his exquisite and pathetic poem on the Passing of the Elder Bards. In every wav then it was a world reborn that the babe was ushered into that 26th of March, 1833, a world that had turned its back upon the past and with high-beating heart was starting upon paths hith- erto untrod. The atmosphere was tense and sur- charged with electricity. In such an atmosphere were spent the first nine vears of the child's life, nor can we suppose his high-strung nature to have been unthrilled by the great expectancy of the era, in politics and science, by the quickening breath of regeneration that was inspiring and en- ergizing all classes of men, nor again to have been unmoved by the power, the beauty and the majesty that dwelt in lake and in wood, in mountain and in valley, in river and in glen of that land of loveliness. However, the land of promise beck- oned across the seas, and in 1842 the boy accom- panied his parents to America, where. in 184:3 they found a home amid the forests of Indiana, forty miles from Madison, where was the nearest school. Here for six years he led a home life saueh 89 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. as the reader may perhaps imagine, if the swift development of the West has not already thrust 'svch primitive conditions unimaginably far away. Such a life would seem to involve a stagnation, if not a paralysis, of the mental powers, the child being cut off from nearly all intercourse with his fellows and apparently left without any stimulus to the higher life of the soul. So indeed it would for the majority. They would make bitter plaint of the environment as having repressed all their nobler aspirations and fastened them in- separably to the soil; and some poet would cele- brate them as gems of purest ray serene but hid in the depths of ocean, as radiant flowers but born to blush unseen-and some sociologist would echo the poet and predict that with only the opportu- nitv of education and association with the cul- tured. "genius" might be "generated" in every hundredth man and talents brought forth as plen- tiful as blackberries. It would indeed be over- daring to affirm with Galton that genius is irre- pressible; we may admit that circumstances may sometimes and even often be fatally unfriendly. Yet the conquering quality in real ability is one of its most notable marks and showed itself clearly in the case of young Patterson. Immersed in the forest-depths he did not go untaught nor uned- ucated. Well might he exclaim: "I care not, Fortune, what thou may deny, You cannot rob me of free Nature's grace." It was by virtue of Nature's grace so freely be- stowed on him, by virtue of the stalwart ancestral blood that flowed in hin delicate veins, that he 90 PRES. JAS. K. PATrERSON. learned, forty miles away from school, by the dim candles and the fireside glow of his pioneer homer, far more and far better things than are often taught in the palatial temples of education that adorn our modern cities. He had not indeed the endles. series of Readers, Arithmetics, and Geog- ranhies that now enrich the great publishing Heuses of America: he was never pampered on the thin spiritual gruel, the delicately flavored in- tellectual pap, on which the favored children of to-dav are fed. He learned nothing about the Child's History of Greece and Rome and Modern Europe; he made no Little Journeys and saw no TLittle Rivers and read no Jungle Books nor other books for Little People; in fact, he remained ig- norant of all recent devices to prolong the natural period of mental babyhood. But he did grow strong on the strong meat of the classic writers, he was happy in the companionship of Scott and Burns and other illustrious countrymen, he learned to know the voices of Milton and Shakespeare and the great choir of England, he drank from the elear-flowing fountains of Hunme and Macaulay, of Robertson and of Gibbon. How well such old- fashioned and obsolete training served its purpose may be inferred from the fact that after only two years' attendance at school in Madison, in 1S49 and 18.50. the bov of 17 was himself found fitted to assuine charge of a country school, which he succe.ssfully conducted till the next year, when he entered Hanover College. There he maintained himself at the head of his class till his graduation in 1856. at the age of 23, thus preparing for the refutation of another favorite fallacy, that the 91 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. leaders in school are seldom or never heard of afterwards. It is true that the dark side of in- distinction does indeed swallow up large numbers of first-honor men; but it is also true that it swallows up countless throngs of all other classes. The honor man's chance for distinction is not indeed good; but it is far better than the chance of any single one of his fellows. It is true that most of the eminent successes in life are scored, not by the honor men, but by others; but it is also true that most of the grass is eaten, not by the black sheep, but by the white, and for similar reasons. The old college curriculum was arict, formal, and straight-laced as a Puritan. It lacked the in- finite elasticity and flexibility of the modern elec- tive syvstem, with which indeed it compared much as Calvinism with Universalism. But, as every- thing has the defects of its qualities, so too it has the qualities of its defects, and it is ques- tionable whether the working of the old system, at reckoned in men, the only final units of value, was on the whole inferior to that of the new. This latter yields us specialists actually, while the former yielded them only potentially; but that there is great gain in such early specialization is not by any means sure. We have seen that young Patterson readily overcame the handicap of cir- cumstances, which at the most delayed his en- trance into life by three years. When he did come he came fit, not merely to do some one thing ex- ceding well-like the mere fractions of humanity that now swarm every June from the hives of specialization, but to (1o many things well, and 92 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. that particular thing exceeding well to which na- tive bent or the constraint of environment might incline him. Though not yet 24, he was chosen Principal of Greenville Presbyterial Academy. in Muhlenberg County. Ky., at any time a recognition, not merely of scholastic accomplishment, but also of adminis- trative ability, and under the circumstances of the ese particularly noteworthy. The duties of this position, often trying enough, he discharged effi- ciently for three years, until elected Principal of the Preparatory Department of Stewart College, since then developt into Southwestern University, Clarksville, Tennessee, where he was speedily ad- vanced to the chair of Latin and Greek. Here he remained but two years, 1859-61, being then called back to Kentucky to the position of Prin- cipal of the Transylvania High School, at Lex- ington. This post he filled with energy and 3uc- cess till 1865, when he was called to the chair of Latin and Civil History in the newly organized Kentucky University. The nine years that had passed since young Patterson's graduation had been years strenuous enough to suit the most fastidious; they had been occupied with multitudinous cares of administra- tion qs well as of teaching. When you meet the bright college graduate that for a decade has de- voted himself to "school work," to the incessant routine of reports, recitations, and general man- agement. it is almost certain that you will note with pain a distinct declension from the ideals, the aspirations, and even the knowledge of ten years before. He knows certainly much more of 93 FoRiTIETH ANNIVERSARY. the world, but he knows and thinks less of the spirit. He will confess that he is "rusty" in the languages and mathematics and perhaps even in the sciences., his vision of the great presiding geniuses of history has grown dim, and his glance hMs been turned away. He excuses himself on the juA ground that his time is taken up with his Board and his Teachers and his Committees. He has become but a small wheel or rather an uncon- scious cog in the huge and complicated machine of education. No one need wonder when such a fate overtakes a "Principal." But it did not over- take young Patterson. His personality proved strong and triumphant. In spite of the distrac- tions and consuming cares of his responsible posi- tions, he never lost touch with science and learn- ing, with research and scholarship. He still found time not merely for loving companionship with the masters of literature, both ancient and modern, but for minute and extended philological studies not unworthy of a linguistic specialist. So capacious was his intellect, so diversified his interests, so enlightened and catholic his sympa- thies that it is not easy to say what was his favor- ite, what would have been his specialty, had for- tune commanded or permitted him to specialize. To me, however, he seemed by nature rather a comparative philologist than aught else. He had acquired an easy familiarity with Hebrew, while Principal of the Transylvania High School, and he enjoys the distinction of being the first west of the Alleghanies to attempt to become a San- skrit scholar. No one that ever enjoyed the blessing of his instruction can forget the de- 94 PRES. JAS. K PATrERSON. light he appeared to find in Grimm's mys- terious Procession of the Mutes, as awe-inspir- ing as the Precession of the Equinoxes, nor the keener than bloodhound scent with which he would track down some vagrant word from Rome to Athens and to India, from the braes of Scotland or bogs of Ireland, through the fens and forests of Germany and the frozen wastes of Russia, to its home on the central plateau of Asia. Those were rare chases we made in those golden davs,instructive and enjoyable in the highest de- gree, with the master-huntsman hounding and cheering us on. A red fox chase sometimes, much fun and little fur, but none the less profitable, even when the trail proved false, for in earlier days, as in later, the philologists knew some things that were not do. But the most bootless investi- gation could not fail to be inspiring, and the spir- itual gain was never wanting. Of all the facts of human history the fact of Language is the most towering and conspicuous. Its origin and growth are beyond compare wonderful and significant, the laws of its structure and development are not less profound and subtile than the laws of planetary wheelings and stellar evolution. The attitude of awe and reverence before the Word is a college acquisition not to be lightly esteemed. The recog- nition that a certain fleeting or instantaneous posture of the vocal organs, the shape of a certain momentary pulse of air, has descended unchanged or changed in a prescribed and definite fashion through thousands of years, that it marks one's blood kinship with one's clan, from India to Cali- fornia, is amazing and awesome; it sobers the 95 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. spirit and gives ballast to the soul. More partic- ularlv, the habit of hunting up the affinities of words is invaluable to the effective wielder of hu- man speech. Especially is this true of the wielder of English, in which vocables tend to become pure aibitrarv symbols, as in Volapuk or the logistic of Peano, whereas in German one still feels the meaning of one's words. By the student trained in Prof. Patterson's class-room the Word was not merely perceived in itself and in its conventional meaning, it was apperceived in its history and kinship; it was seen. not in its bare and bald sig- nifieance, but wearing a bright aureole of sugges- tions and "full-charged with old-world wonders." In the days of his Principalship Prof. Patter- son had become a wide-ranging linguist, and the Curators made no mistake in calling him to the chair of Latin. It is only one feature of his oc- cupancy that has thus far been noted. Another was the stress that he laid upon Latin composition. Such an advanced and difficult work as Crombie's Gmynasium was carefully studied by his seniors, who were also drilled in turning Hume and Ma- caulav into Latin. In reading Latin they found one of his favorites in Lucretius, whom they read partly in class. partly as a parallel, the stately argumentation of the chief of Latin poets being an especially delicate morsel to the logic-loving Scotchman. As the very able adjutancy of Prof. Milligan relieved Prof. Patterson of the bulk of the Latin teaching, he found time for interesting courses in Metaphysics. It was in this department that he perhaps impressed himself most deeply upon the 96 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. minds of some students. The subject is difficult and repellent to the majority, but Prof. Patterson never failed to maintain the interest of his classes. As a genuine son of the heath, he was thoroughly loyal to the great Sir William Hamilton, but he never called for any narrow acquiescence in his master's dogmatisn. His own library was rich in philosophic works, both of the Scotch school and of others, which he delighted to incite his students to consult and which he was generous in putting at their service. In fact, it would seem that Prof. Patteison was almost as useful to his students in the direction of their reading as in his class-room instruction. For his own reading had taken the widest range, and he had a fine instinct for the best in literature as well as in science and history. Many were the books bought at his suggestion, sometimes numbers of copies of the same work by one class. The latest and most noteworthy pro- ducts of the British press rarely escaped his atten- tion- his judgment was sure and his taste dis- criminating. It was the day of the new birth of Zoology and Botany, or of their rebaptism under the auguster name of Biology. In 1859 Charles Robert Darwin had spoken his memorable oracle on "The Origin of Species by Natural Selection," and the whole air shook with its multiplied echoes and re-echoes. Prof. Patterson had not been swept off his feet bv the great wave of argument and authority. but he was an eager student of the subject and a diligent reader of Darwin and Spen- cer, of Huxley and Tyndall, of Murphy and of Mivart. Hardlv less was he interested in the doc- trine of the cell, as it grew up under the master- 97 FoRTIETH ANNIVERSARY. hand of Virchow, and even in the abiogenetic the- ories of Bastian. It was indeed a surprising sight to see a Professor of Iatin so deeply versed in the sciences both of matter and of mind, so closely in touch with the great scientific and philosophic movements of the day, and so fully au courant with the most recent developments in so many fields of research and discussion so diverse and so widely sundered. He himself found a lively plea. ure in placing the rich treasures of his varied knowledge at the service of his pupils, to whom his stimulation no less than his guidance was in- valuable. Even this was not all, however. Prof. Patter- son was almost equally helpful in Civil History. This, too, was a favorite study. He loved to dis- course on the great national or racial movements, the migrations of the peoples, the formation, dis- solution, and regeneration of governments and em- pires, just as his noble colleague, the leonine John Henrv Neville, loved to dwell on the supreme tragical moments of history, its sublime dramatic situations, its pivotal crises and catastrophic de- nouments. In fact, these two potent teachers 98 An amusing illustration of the native tendency of President Patterson to throw his arms round the earth is found in the following: A student, who has since made a name for himself as a lawyer, for some reason absented himself from an examination in history; after- wards he sought and received special examination, at which the first question, set in Civil History, read thus: "Give a brief account of the events preceding, succeed- ing and contemporaneous with the reign of Alfred the Treat." Inasmuch as a liberal construction of this ques- tion would extend its range over the whole of time and space, it is not strange that the examinee was rather appalled at the requisition. 98 PRES. JAs. K. PArtERSON. were in their methods, their ideals, their services, their scholarship, and even in their natures remark- ably complementary. If intensive was the dis- tinctive epithet for the latter, extensive was fully as applicable to the former, though neither was narrow and neither superficial. In their long as- wociation in collegiate work each seemed to round out the other, and no student could be other than fortunate who fell under heir concurrent influence. even tho he never felt any other. Such was Prof. Patterson, the teacher-a broad-diffused glow of intelligence, linguistic, phil- osophic, scientific and historical, clear, distinct, colorless. bright, illuminative-not like his great compeer, the fierce ardor of a seven-times heated furnace. Over the wide seas of knowledge we glided as in a pleasure-yacht, with sails obedient to the urgence of every breeze, touching at every inviting port and exploring at leisure every curious coast; whereas with the Greek professor we sped along as on some swift-keeled Mauretania throbbing with propulsive energy, furrowing a predestined path, and aimed at an appointed haven. The most solenin of all oaths of the ancient Pythagoreans was couched in these mysterious words: "Yea, by him that vouchsafed our soul Quaternion, a fountain having roots of everflowing nature." YU /A Tor a4WOU 62L wUAGWTG TerAw, wCyan The inspiration of Professor Patterson was spread over nearly the whole circle of knowledge, but his teaching proper reached only the four sub- jects of Linguistics, Literature, Metaphysics, and 99 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. Civil History, a Pythagorean quaternion, and for all that yielded to the spell of his instruction, a fountain with roots of nature everlasting. B-u it was not in teaching that Prof. Patter- son was destined to celebrate his highest triumph and attain his widest renown. The union in 1865 of Kentucky University with the State College established in conformity with the Morrill Act of 1862, one of the farthest-sighted pieces of legis- lation that have ever proceeded from Washington, had formed at Lexington an educational institu- tion of remarkable promise. The flood tide of its instant prosperity was reached in 1870, and for awhile it seemed as if Lexington were destined to bcome a great centre of education and learning, rivaling in a measure the older, more favored and famous foundations of the North and East. The man who had brought about this union was John B. Bowman, founder and for many years Regent of Kentuckv University, and particularly able as an organizer and promoter. His plans for the institution that had been his life-work were large and generous, and they were expanded and lib- eralized as it rose rapidly into national recognition and importance. But the widening horizon of his hopes soon passed beyond the denominational bor- ders of his earlier schemes, and he found that con- tinued progress would call for the desectarianiza- tion of the University. On the other hand, many of the most zealous and influential elements that formed the natural clientele of the University were distinctly, conscientiously, and unalterably op- posd to any such universalization. They held with a certain historic justice that the seminary was 100 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. originally conceived and founded as a Propaganda, with the express purpose of educating the youth of their own church along the lines of their own faith, that it was, in fact, intended to be a strictly denominational college, that as such it had solic- ited and accepted gifts, and that the secularization in progress or contemplated involved a perversion and a misappropriation. Here then was a contra- diction such as emerges regularly, in the course of development, between Progressives and Conserva- tives, between those that go on and those that stay rooted where they are. By far the most illustrious example in American history, and one of the most illustrious in the history of the world, was offered in our late Civil War, which resulted from the an- tagonism necessarily disclosed as the mind of the North moved irresistibly away from the standpoint of the Constitution and of 1783, while the mind of the South abode steadfastly thereby. In the case of Kentucky University, the struggle was long and bitter, and a portrayal of its features would not be edifYing. Let it suffice that victory re- mained with the strict constructionists. The broad-gauge plans of Mr. Bowman miscarried, and he himself finally yielded up his position as Re- gent. Therewith the future of the Kentucky Uni- versity was determined. Already in 1869 Prof. Patterson had been called to the office of President of the Agricultural and Mechanical College; as a Department of Ken- tucky University, an office which he administered ably till the year 1878. Then it was that the irre- pressiqe conflict already mentioned at last issued in legislation severing all relations between the lot FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. College and the University. Hereby the former was indeed freed from an entangling alliance that for several years had given little to hope and much to fear. but it was cast forth a homeless and al- inoet a helpless waif. At once President Patter- son set about to secure its retention in Lexington. In all such cases it is necessary to offer "induce- ments"; the fact that Lexington was incompar- ably the bezt place for the College would of itself count for little; the scale had to be weighted down in its favor with more material considerations. The City Council was persuaded to give the City Park as a new site for the College, and President Patterson secured from the City Council of Lex- ineton and the Fiscal Court of Fayette County the additional gift of 54,000 for the erection of buildings. In consideration of these favors the College was allowed to stay in Lexington, but its plight was really pitiable. By the Morrill Act of 1862 there had fallen to Kentucky as endowment of the' Agricultural and Mechanical College a princely domain of 330,000 acres of public lands. Properly located and judiciously managed, this would have yielded a sum adequate, if not to the development, at least to the support of its bene- ficiarv. However, it was sold at the rate of .50 cents per acre, for the sum of 165,000, which gave a net return of 9,900 interest per annum! Now began the battle for life, destined to drag its weary length through nearly a whole genera- tion. It was in this long warfare that the varied powers o f President Patterson were called into fullest requisition,, that he won for himself the highest distinction, and that he rendered to the 102 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. State of Kentucky, to the cause of education, and to the interests of civilization the most enduring and the most conspicuous service. Of course it was known of aii men that the income of 9,900 was a mere mockery, and President Patterson addressed himself to the arduous task of securing a legislative appropriation; arduous, because there was no lively sentiment in favor of higher educa- tion by the State, but much earnest and active sentiment against it, as the sequel distinctly re- vealed. At the next session of the General As- sembly, in 1880, he secured an appropriation by tax of one half-cent on every one hundred dollams of taxable valuation; in other words, a one-twen- tieth of a mill tax-very inconsiderable as we now reckon such taxes. Hereby the income of the State College (as it was henceforth called) was increased by 17,500 (the assessed valuation being about three hundred and fifty millions), and reached the munificent total of 27,400. Herewith the College entered upon its stormy career, having a faculty of only six, with 86 per cent of its few matriculates unable to do any college work and enrolled in the 8ub-freshman class. Surely such a beginning seemed in no way alarming, in mod- esty it was a perfect model. But it involved the most dangerous and deadly precedent of state aid to higher education, and there was no telling what terrible consequences such a precedent might pro- voke or protect. The one-twentieth might grow to one-tenth, one-eighth, or one-seventh, or even more, with nobody nigh to hinder. As the College sprinkled its Alumni thicker and thicker over the State, some would get into the Legislature, into 103 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. the public offices, on the bench-the youthful in- truder would gradually grow irresistibly strong, it would shoot up higher and higher, it would overtower and overshadow all the denominational schools in the State, and ultimately dwarf them into insignificance. All these sequels were clearly foreseen by the keen-eyed leaders of the denomi- nations, who determined that the young Hercules should be strangled in his cradle. Obsta prin- cipiis! was their motto. Accordingly six colleges joined forces in a holy league, and in 1882, at the next session of the General Assembly, they made a coneerted attack upon the State College by call- ing for the repeal of the tax and the confinement of the operations of the College within the limits of its original income of 9,900-a course which would have been equivalent to the dissolution of the College itself. This attack was directed against the public policy of state aid to higher education. It w-is contended that such aid is unwise, that such higher instruction should be left to the church and to private beneficence, that the many should not be taxed to educate the few ! As if the activities of the few, the learned, the men of science, were for themselves alone and not in far larger meas- ure for their fellows. As if surgical and medical science benefited only surgeons and physicians! Are ship-builders and bridge-builders the only ones to profit by fast ships and good bridges Does the light illuminate only the hand that bears it Such a fallacy seems too patent for exposure, yet it is very tough and hard to kill. Only a few years ago a verv able and distinguisht educator argued strenuously in favor of a certain benefaction's tak- ing the form of lower rather than higher education, 104 PRES. JAs. K. PATTrERSOM on the ground that it should benefit the people at large! Such pleadings were powerfully presented before the Legislature in 1882, and for three months th fate of the College wavered in the bal- ance. Better counsels prevailed, however, and in the end the bill repealing the tax was rejected. Hereby it seemed that the future of the College w .is in some measure asszured. The victory was a mo.t significant one, since defeat meant anni- hilation, and was won against such odds as made the friends of the College well-nigh despair. There is no surer measure of hope than financial credit. "Private credit is wealth; public honor is security," wrote Junius. The fluctuations of the Bourse tell with unerring precision how confidence in the Republic or the Empire is rising or falling in the minds of the best-informed. Judged in this way, the public confidence in the future of the State College seems at this time to have reached an absolute zero. For, as, already noted, the City of Lexington had given the site for the College, and along with Fayette County had added 154,000 for the erection of buildings, which were already aris- ing when the legislative battle began. Through some error in the estimate of the architect, the College building and a dormiory had been started on a plan to which the funds in sight were entirely inadequate, so that it became necessary either to abandon the construction or to borrow the monev requisite for the completion. The attempt was made to effect a loan, but this was found to be impossible. One bank after another declined to furni7h the funds, for the very excellent reason that the College could offer no security. It was generally believed that the state tax would be re- 105 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. scinded. that the College would then be suspended, that the grounds given by the city would thereupon revert to the city, that repayment of any money advanced would be out of the question. Such credit as the College had enjoyed for two years had now vanished completely. At this crisis in the affairs of the institution committed to his trust, President Paterson came forward like a veritable Dpus ex machina. The lad brought up amid the oaks and walnuts of Indiana, who taught a coun- try school at seventeen, had not inherited a for- tune; nor does the path of even the Principal, much less the Professor, often lead along the banks of the Pactolus. Nevertheless, the Scotch thrift that has always been no mean factor in national prosperity and national greatness, had not been wanting in this typical Scot. Heroically over- mastering adverse conditions, he had wrested a competency from grudging fortune, and now there fell to him such an opportunity for grand action as might gladden the heart of a knight. He offered his whole estate as security for the College. This eecurity was accepted by the Northern Bank, the money was advanced for the completion of the buildings. which went on uninterrupted in their construction. Here was an act of faith and of magnanimity that deserves to take rank in very high and select company. When we reflect that President Patterson was risking his all for a for- lorn hope, and that the confidently expected ad- verse vote in the General Assembly would have left him penniless and unemployed at the age of 49 years, it seems hard to overrate the moral cour- age and nobility of his deed and hard to find for 106 PRES. JAS. K. PATrERSON. it any parallel in the history of education in America. The relief from this financial embarrassment and the failure of the attempt to repeal the one- twentieth-mill tax might justly revive the droop- ing spirits of the State College authorities, but a severer and even more desperate battle was yet to be fought. While the legislative struggle was in progress, the enemies of the College made the startling discovery that the tax was unconstitu- tional! The provision of the Constitution seemed to them most express and admirable; for it de- clares, in section one of article eleven, that "The capital of the fund, called and known as the 'Common Schooi Fund,' consisting of 1,225,- 768.42, for which bonds have been executed by the State to the Board of Education and 73,500 of stock in the Bank of Kentucky; also the sum of ,51,223.29, balance of inerest on the school fund of the year 1848, unexpended, together with any sum which may be hereafter raised in the State, by taxation or otherwise, for purposes of education, shall be held inviolate for the purpose of sustaining a system of common schools. The interest and dividends of said funds, together with any sum which may be produced for that purpose, by taxation or otherwise, may be appropriated in aid of common schools, but for no other purpose." Such was the formidable constitutional rock that lay directly in the course of the luckless College, on which it seemed doomed to suffer utter and hopeless shipwreck. The hostile Colleges em- ployed one of the ablest constitutional lawyers, Judge William Lindsay, ex-Chief Justice of the Commonwealth, who made an elaborate argu- 107 ForxEETn ANNIVERSARY. ment on the subject before a joint committee of the Senate and House of Representatives of the General Assembly of Kentucky. The conten- tion of the great jurist was that in accordance with the plain provision of the Constitution of 1850, "No money could be raised by taxation or other- wise for purposes of education other than in the common schools." This was precisely what public policy also demanded, according to the denomina- tionalists! No more effective device could have been imagined for relegating the Commonwealth of Kentucky, not only to the rearmost position in the procession of Republics, but to a station be- hind every even half-progressive community on the face of the globe. In their mistaken zeal, the sectarian colleges demanded control, not only of all higher, but of all secondary instruction as well. Over the whole State of Kentucky they would draw the curtain of the Dark Ages. It was a tre- mendous moment big with fate, not only of the College, but also of the whole Commonwealth. The authorities of the unhappy institution had applied for legal help to the best lawyers in the State, especially to the distinguished John G. Car- li-le, afterwards so conspicuous in the Cabinet of Mr. Cleveland. But he, with others, declined to undertake a case that he regarded as foregone in its conclusion; it seemed to him that the provision of the Constitution was unequivocal, and that neither a lower nor a higher court would uphold the constitutionality of the tax in question. The case appeared altogether desperate, not even worth defending. The College was in the plight of Israel as dscribed bv the Psalmist: "They looked upon me, they shaked their heads." 108 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. Under these disheartening conditions, when all seemed iost and impossible of recovery, there was one who had no thought of surrender, and who, calin and serene as Addison's Angel, could ride on the whirlwind and direct the storm. President Patterson was no lawyer, he had never studied law. But he was a master of logic, an ac- complished linguist, skilled in the arts of inter- pretation, a subtle critic, a plausible leader, and a persuasive rhetorician. Above all he possessed a highly disciplined intelligence and a piercing in- sight that detected at once the vulnerable point in his opponent's armor. He asked and received permission to answer Judge Lindsay's argument in the hall of the House of Representatives, Mon- day evening, 3Sth of January, 1882. Seldom has there been a more extraordinary encounter, of an exnert jurist and a college professor, in the former's own field, and seldom has the result been more unexpected and decisive. When Judge Lind- say closed his argument the Wednesday before (25th of January), the universal opinion was that the six colleges had triumphed finally; when Presi- dent Patterson finished his rejoinder, the judgment was reversed, it was felt that the Judge had failed, that the constitutionality of the tax had been suc- cessfullv vindicated. Their unforeseen and surprising discomfiture before the General Assembly by no means dis- mayed the League of Six, who now determined to bring the case into court for final arbitrament. A certain Mrs. W. W. Hill, of Louisville, refused to pay the tax, doubtless merely with intent to test its constitutionality, and the case was brought -up in the Ohancellor's Court, whence of course it 109 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. passed to the Court of Appeals. The opposing colleges were represented by a bright array of legal talent, Judge Lindsay, Alexander P. Hum- plhrey, Bennett H. Young, and James Trabue. Where so much was at stake they would not fail to support their plea with all the best professional ability at their command. Againet so much learn- irig and acumen allied for the destruction of the State College, there appeared once more its doughty defender, President Patterson, whom both courts allowed to file, as a brief for the Col- lege, the argument already used so effectively be- fore the legislative joint committee. A long si- lence under arms then followed. The law's delays seldom advance, they too often hinder or even hopelessly thwart the progress of justice. In this case, however, the delay was extremely fortunate for more than one reason. The State College was grawing daily in favor, in importance, and in general recognition. The absurdity of the conten- tion put forward by the protestant colleges was gradually becoming clear to the public conscious- ness, and the enormity of the injury that would be inflicted on the people's interests by striking down the State', one seminary of higher learning grew daily more evident. Public sentiment, at first and for years so thoroughly in sympathy with the six colleges, was veering steadily towards the State College, and victory was already in the air when ip 1890 Judge Holt handed down his decision, the end of controversy. Of course, it upheld the con- stitutionality of the tax, and was written ad- mittedly and even avowedly along the lines laid down in the convincing argument of President Patterson. Herewith closed, as it should close, 110 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. one of the most remarkable, important, and in- teresting pieces of litigation in the history of ed- uc-tion. It was not so protracted nor so varied in its phases, nor so full of legal dexterities, nor so rich in devices of ingenuity as the famous process at law in which Richard Bentley, prince of English philologists, maintained himself for a whole generation and to the end of his life, at the head of Trinity College, Cambridge, in defi- ance of all decrees of court and of all the machinery of justice that could be brought to bear upon him by the whole church and judiciary of England. But while we cannot withhold the meed of admi- ration from the great scholar for his unwearying persistence, his (togged determination, and his in- exhaustible resonrcefulness, yet we can have little sympathy with his cause, nor can we feel very livelv interest in the issues involved. On the other hand, the cause championed by Patterson was a most righteous one. the interests at take were the very highest, being nothing less than the cul- tural rank, the educational position, and the in- tellectual dignity of a mighty Commonwealth, and the methods employed were the most upright and honorable. The great argument that saved the State College was indeed a model of fairness and straight-forwardness. Everything in fact hinged on the proper interpretation of the phrase "pur- poses of education." By a number of independent lines of reasoning, all converging upon one and the same conclusion, the President proved beyond any successful contradiction that by the term "ed- ucation" was meant common-school education, and this alone wes in the minds of the framers of the Constitution at that time (December, 1849), and ill FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. that any other interpretation led at once to ridic- ulous consequences. Whence it followed that col- legiate education as given by the State College and as contemplated and fostered by the tax-law in question fell within neither the purview nor the prohibition of the Constitution. The whole argument was in fact a just application of the sound principle laid down by Grotius in comment on I Cor. 13 :7: Solent voces universales re- strtngi ex materia sub jacente-general terms are to be restricted (in application) to the subject- matter under discussin. Judge Lindsay and the colleges held that the general term "education" was to be taken in its widest sense, as including all grades of discipline; President Patterson showed that only common school education was at the time in question under discussion or consideration. When one reads the argument now, it seems so obvious and unquestionable that one wonders how there could ever have been any doubt at all, which however merelv attests the perfection and lumi- nosity of the President's demonstration. It is th paradox of excellent artistry that it should seem easy and obvious; the perfect adjustment produces a certain effect of simplicity, natural- ness, inevitability. We lay down the skillfully wrought storv with the feeling that it could not have turned out otherwise; the student closes up such a work as the Anabasis with the remark that anybody could write like that. But the fact is that only the very few have been able to do it, and the interpretation that the President made so plain as to appear self-evident actually escaped the ob- servation of some of the keenest legal minds in the country. Such a capital brief would have 112 PRES. JAS. K PATTERSON. made a great reputation for any one engaged in active practice at the bar. Along with a number of addresses delivered by President Patterson, it should be published in a handsome volume. As a spcimen, not of rhetoric, but of logic, and be- cause of the extreme importance of the matter involved, it deserves a high and permanent place in the literature of Kentucky. This redemption and salvation of the State College of Kentucky, this successful defense of the principle of public support of the higher edu- cation, was the paramount single service rendered bv President Patterson to the Commonwealth whose servant he was. It is rare that any man has the offer of even a momentarv chance to be thus grandly useful to a whole people. It is the mark of a great man to rise at once to the bidding of emergenev. "For a brief span," says Pindar, "hath opportunity for man, but of him it is surely known when it cometh and he waiteth thereon, a servant but no slave." It was the good fortune of President Patterson that a signal occasion should present itself before him; that he mastered it per- fectly was his own signal merit. When we call the roll of the leading colleges and universities of the land and read the list of their presidents and the record of their achievements, we shall in- deed find it a bright scroll of honor, a chronicle of worthy deeds bearing witness to eminent abil- ities; but where shall we find any single aet of prowess to match this rescue of the State College of Kentucky from financial ruin and from legis- lative and judicial overthrow and extinction Meanwhile the exertions of the enemy to se- cure a repeal 3f the tax-act were continued with 113 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. unabated zeal and energy. At every session of the LegisIature the attempt was renewed. but uniform- ly without success. Not even the final decision of the Appellate Court itn 1890 could put a quietus on this periodic recrudescence of animosity. How- ever, the plea of unconstitutionality being forever annulled, the plea of public policy became daily more ludicrous. If State aid to higher education was a calamity in disguise, it could not be denied that the disguise was perfect. At length, in 1891, Article 184 of the new Constitution recognized and affirmed the validity of the half cent tax levied in 1880 and organized public opposition died what might be called a natural death, and the State Col- lege has had since then no open foes. Perhaps no other educational institution in the United States has ever encountered such implacable hostility or has ever sustained such a prolonged and at times apparently hopeless struggle against such superior odds. While the College has never been without able, faithful, and devoted friends, who have ren- dered it timely and efficient aid, yet there is no question anywhere but that its champion in this unique battle was its President, James Kennedy Patterson. Such service as we have been considering could of course not be duplicated, but there were many other good offices that he discharged, only less con- spicuous. Before the final triumph in the Appel- late Court, he had zealously urged the establish- ment of an Agricultural Experiment Station in connection with the College. and had thrown his influence in favor of the Hatch Act of 1887, by which such stations were endowed with a yearly 114 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. income of 15,000, to which by the Adams Act was added a further sum of 15,000 per annum. The year 1890 was rendered still more notable in the history of the State College by the Morrill Act, to the passage of which through Congress President Patterson lent powerful and effective aid, which appropriated 25,000 per annum to each of the Agricultural and Mechanical Colleges established on the basis of the land grant of 1862. Hereby the veteran statesman, Justin S. Morrill, placed a fitting capstone to the stately edifice erected by his wisdom nearly a generation before. The conditions of the Act called for the admission of colored students on terms of equality with the white, or else for the division of the appropriation in the ratio of the population. In Kentucky there could be no hesi- tancy before such an alternative: the State College received 851/2 per cent of the 25,000, the remain- ing 14 per cent (3,625) being applied to the support of the Colored School at Frankfort. By the Act of 1907 the appropriation of 1890 was doubled. upon precisely similar conditions, so that the total income of the College as derived from the United States was raised to 53.650-equivalent to an endowment of over 1,000,000. The extreme individualist might contend that such assistance from the far-off general govern- ment would tend to paralyze State action, by teaching to rely upon the invisibl e powers at Washington. However the facts in the case do not confirm such a forecast. A tonic may be a constructive and also an appetizer. In this in- stance the help extended seems to have acted as 115 FoRriETH ANNIERSARY. a stimulus. For in 1893 President Patterson se- cured from the Legislature an enactment whereby not only were tuition fees remitted to certain ap- pointees from the counties to the College, but also their traveling expenses for a single trip from home to the College and back home again were provided them. To some minds 'such a piece of legislation may sound queer and dangerously paternal; but the conditions in distant parts of the State seemed to justify and even demand it, while its great influence in ingratiating the College with crtain classes of the people cannot be questioned. In 1900 the General Assembly was persuaded to appropriate 30,000 for a gymnasium and 30,000 for a home for young women, and in 1902 it added ,30,000 for the latter. In recognition of the President's offices in all these matters, the last mentioned building has been appropriately named Patterson Hall (for young women), the efficient administration of which and of the gymnasium constitutes now one of the notable and admirable features of this hopeful and growing institution. Public support of higher education, like so many other public activities, is largely a matter of habit. To form such a habit may be difficult at first, tho it can hardly ever be painful; once formed. however, it is soon felt to be a natural function and is exercised with satisfaction. It is not strange then that President Patterson should secure in 1904 an additional yearly appropriation of 1r,000, and in 1908 a further increase of 20,000 per annum, besides 200,000 for build- ings, so that the total annual income from all sources reached the sum of 125,000. Herewith 116 PRES. JAs. K. PATTERSON. there had come such a widening of the activity of the College that it was felt that the name College was no longer appropriate. The State College had in fact developed insensibly into a State Univer- sity. Accordingly, President Patterson threw him- self into the movement to bring about this change of name, which change was consummated by the Act of the Legislature of 1908, whereby was born into the world the youngest of the Universities, the State University of Kentucky. Since this designation came into conflict with that of the Kentucky University aforementioned, the name of this latter was changed back to Transylvania Uni- versitv. an ancient and honorable and euphonious appellation. This inauguration of the State University of Kentucky, which set seal to the forty years of President Patterson's labor in behalf of the parent institution and marked the beginning of the reali- zation of his lofty ideals and wide-grasping con- ceptions, was also the signal for the renewal of the attacks for ten years intermitted. It was held by the Attorney General that the change of name from "College" to "University" seriously affected and perhaps destroyed the validity of appropria- tions made to the University; that the College as a corporation expired the moment its name was changed, and that appropriations made for the University might not be sheltered by the sanc- tions that guarded those made to the Agricultural and Mechanical College. Here indeed were raised scruples dark and nice! To resolve them Pres- ident Patterson appeared, 25th of December, 1908, before Circuit Judge Stout, holding court in 117 FoRTIETH ANNIVERSARY. Frankfort. and in a masterly argument demon- strated that the idea of a University already lay involved in the original provision of the constitu- tive Act of 1862; that the Agricultural and Me- chanical College, so far from being dead, was very much alive, in uncommonly good health and the best of spirits; that the discontinuity in the life of the seminary was purely imaginary. He furth- ermore proved that the still more delicate doubt, whether the last appropriation to the University was not inhibited bv Articles 49 and 50 of the Constitution, was void of all substance. Though the University was perhaps at no time in serious danger from these later technicalities and dubie- ties, vet it was a great relief to have them stilled by he craft of such a magician. Such is the outward and visible record of Pres- ident Patterson's achievements in the administra- tion of the trust he has held since 1869. It is the belief of the present writer that no record of the same class is more admirable or bears more unequivocal witness to unwavering fidelity and signal ability. In comparison with Harvard and Yale, and Columbia, and Cornell, and Michigan, and Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and California, and a score of others, the State University of Kentucky may seem insignificant in attendance and income. ae well as in the variety and exten- sitv of its educational and investigative energies. But if we consider the extremely unfavorable con- ditions of its genesis, and the unexampled oppo- sition that continually thro eighteen years threat- ened its very existence, we must regard its survi- 118 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. val as marvelous and its development as wonder- ful But this record, however bright, by no means tells the full tale of Professor Patterson's activi- ties. He hag represented his people and his State on several occasions of international importance, and always worthily. Thus, in 1875, he was the Delegate of Kentucky to the International Congress of Geographical Science, and in the same year to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, and was Delegate to the same Association in 1890. He was elected member of the Royal Historical Society of Great Britain in 18 9, and of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in 1880. He attended the International Congress of Geographical Sciences in Paris, in 1875, and his report of the meeting was so highly valued that the Legislature ordered 10,000 copies printed for distribution. President Patterson has always maintained a lively interest in European movements, both social and political. His wide, varied, and accurate his- torical studies had enlightened his understanding of such movements and weighted his judgments with the value of a professional publicist's. This fact was recognized in discerning circles and se- cured him the highly agreeable task of writing the editorials on foreign politics for the Courier- Journal from 1871 to 1875. Among these was one of very exceptional interest, inspired by the death of Napoleon III. His style of writing resembled very much his style of speech, being clear, crisp, precise, and strongly suggestive of reserved en- ergv. To the writer of these words there was 119 FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY. always something European, something that 4eemed to have come across the seas, in the ac- cent, the intonation, the structure of sentence, and the structure of thought that characterized President Patterson, though only recently has it come to my knowledge that he was actually born in Scotland. Many who have read that long series of editorials must have felt vaguely that they were in the presence of something not wholly American, a spirit not alien nor unkind, but yet not quite native to the skies that bend over America. It was not strange then that President Patter- son always remained in close touch with the great personalities and history-makers of Britain. He c.rresponded regularly with the Professor of Modern History at Oxford, the illustrious histo- rian of the Norman Conquest, Dr. Edward Au- gustus Freeman, and this frequent and elaborate correspondence, which entered into minute and thorough-going discussion of European politics and policies, was rich in pleasure and profit to both the participants. Another of his correspond- ents, and one whom he specially valued and ad- mired, was Professor John Tyndall, a name fa- miliar enough to many readers now, but which in those elder davs fairly filled the sounding trump of fame. President Patterson ranked Professor Tyndall especially high, not merely as a savant and lecturer and experimenter, but also as stylist and converser. I remember to have heard him say that Tyndall's English was the raciest he had ever heard spoken. This valued and valuable acjquaintance with the brilliant materialist was formed at High Elms, Kent, the country seat of 120 PRES. JAS. K PArrusoN. Sir John Lubbock, now Lord Avebury, the dis- tinauisht naturalist, archaeologiat, and historian of Primitive Civilization, who was entertaining President Patterson and who introduced him also to Dr. Spottiswoode, the celebrated mathematician, and to James Richard Green, too early reft from his illuminating historical studies. Among his other English friends or acquaintances was the Junior Lord of the Treasury in Mr. Disraeli's Ministry (1875), Sir James Horn Dalrymple El- phinstone, from whom he received most agreeable attentions in London, and in Paris M. Ferdinand Maury, Member of the Institute of France and librarian of the Imperial Library under the Sec- ond Empire, who also showed him distinguished courtesies. It was through such friendships and relations as these that President Patterson main- tained communion with the general mind to an extent and degree of intimacy rarely met with even among high-placed men of culture and travel. In conversation with him one could not fail to perceive and to feel that he spoke not the lan- guage of Kentucky, nor of America, but as it were of the whole Anglo-Saxon race, that he held the affairs of the United States and of Europe in juter perspective than did almost any of his compeers. To this result his foreign birth and lineage did undoubtedly in some measure con- tribute. It is to his honor that he never forgot his native land, that while he served so faithfully, courageously, and unweariedly hid adopted coun- try, the land of broad fertile fields and waving Woodlawns and majestic forests and sunlit surges of blue grass, his heart was never weaned away 121 ForaiiTH ANNIVESARY. from the stern mother that bore him and nur- tured him at her shaggy breast, the land of brown heath and soaring mountain-peak, of mist and fog and transient sunbeam, of brakes and braes and foaming cataracti, of long-armed friths and blue-eyed lochs and dells where the thistle blooms. This Caledonianism of President Patterson brought with it in some measure its own Nemesis. There may have been some who admired the scholar, the teacher, the administrator, the logi- cian, the writer, but who felt unable to get very near the man, who thought him cold, calculating, unsympathetic, and too wholly rational and pas- sionless. Such a judgment neglects what we might call the national equation; it fails to remember that President Patterson was a representative Scotchman in the finest fibres of his being, that his involuntary fidelity to his ancestry made it impossible for him to be aught but a foreign com- mander, serving with unshakable devotion in the army of a native prince. Always he walked about solitary among the native forces, among them, but not of them. Yet to the few who really came to know his Oaledonian heart, he showed that the fires burned beneath the snows, that in his bosom's core he was kind, tender, generous, compassionate, and full of affection. Like many prominent men of far less ability, President Patterson was called on to make many addresses. These were always well thought out and excellently worded, abundant in all sorts of exact knowledge, and particularly notable for ele- vation and range of view. Perhaps the most re- markable was the one entitled "Education and 122 PRES. JAs. K. PATTERSON. Empire," which was delivered in Washington City before the American Association of Agriculfture and Mlechanical Colleges, in the year of his pres- idency of that body, 1903. This address was by unanimous consent a production of surpasing merit. Recently I chanced to have a conversstion with an able and eminent official of the U. S. Government, in which the general attitude of President Patterson came up for consideration. I found him utterly unsympathetic and in fact sharply opposed to the President's policy, which seemed to him altogether too ambitious for an Agricultural and Mechanical College, laying alto- gether too much stress on general science and the humanities, and not nearly enough on agriculture proper. "Why," he said, "in his great presidential address in 1903, which every one admits was the ablest ever delivered before the Association, he did not give even one paragraph to the one main object of the foundation of such colleges." I have quoted this judgment from a most unfriend- ly critic, as having much mere significance than if it proceeded from a sympathetic source. It is a question of point of view. One may conceive narrowly or broadly humbly or grandly. Pres- ident Patterson chose the second alternative. Had there been already another State University in Kentucky, the stricture just quoted might have ben justified. In that case there might have been no good reason for duplicating the agencies of instruction. and the whole development of the Agricultural and Mechanical College might have been with propriety directed along the narrow lines of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. But such 123 FoRTIETH ANNIVERSARY. was not the case. There was no semblance of a State University in Kentucky, save in the State College, and it was the part of the highest wisdom to expand and develop the State College sym- metricallv in all directions until the citizenship should behold before them a university. strong, young, vigorous, triumphant over all its foes, both without and within, the pride, the boast, and the hope of the Commonwealth. In the noble address of n1903 President Patterson has set forth his great ideal with persuasive eloquence. It is a splendid plea for mind and the culture of mind as the indispensable agents in the organization and evolution of civilization particularly in its gov- ernmental and social aspects. It shows the largest comprehension of the problems that confront humanitv in the twentieth century and high ap- preciation of the role which the Anglo-Saxon race is called on to play in the solution of those prob- lems. Certainly no other people have addressed tbemselves with so much earnestness or with so much success to the great task of reconciling lib- erty with order, of substituting evolution for revolution, of exemplifying the conception of the social, civic, and political system as a tree rooted unshakably in the rich loam of bygone days, yet putting forth new nurture continually on the top- most boughs. Both this address and the still more learned address to the Law Classes on the History of Language show the strivings of a well-grounded racial and national pride and a keen sense of the superiority of Anglo-Saxon character and achieve- ments. The spectacle of British Empire is cer- tainly inspiring as perhaps naught else political 124 PRES. JAS. K. PATTERSON. or civil on the face of the earth. The Druid's prophecy to Boadicea: "Regions Caesar never knew, Thy posterity shall sway," has been fulfilled tenfold. When we add the Colossus of the North, the United States, it is seen that the Anglo-Saxon race easily dwarfs all others bh.th in performance and in promise, and it be- comes natural to think of it (with Rudyard Kip- ling) as the modern Israel, as the chosen people of the God of Civilization, and of all others as mere "Gentiles," "or lesser breeds without the Law." The German-Englishman, Houston Stew- art Chamberlain, would display a little more gen- erosity by including the English under the general designation of Germans! The enthusiasm and intense racial consciousness of the Briton may well be pardoned. The respect and even awe with which the name Englishman is mentioned on the continent of Europe is no undeserved tribute to the national character and accomplishments, and when any subtle dangers threaten to assail that character, it is well that science should arouse her- elf to meet and repel them. It is not then in correction, but rather in supplementation of the estimates of such glorifiers of the Anglo-Saxon thart one might observe that civilization is a highly complex product, and there seem to be certain very important elements that find their finest expres- sion nowhere in Anglo-Saxondom, but rather on the continent of Europe. The reader will at once think of art in its many forms, as sculpture and architecture and painting and music, to all of 125 FoRTirETH ANNIVERSARY. which the contributions even of the South Euro- pean, with his "ephemeral ideals". (to quote from Education and Empire) have been of supreme and matchless importance. But not to dwell on the obvious, it may be further affirmed that Science, Learning, and Philosophy have been conceived on the continent in a way sufficiently different from the Anglo-Saxon to justify its concurrent exist- ence. There is, in fact, heard distinctly on the continent a certain upper harmonic, a certain overtone that is not often recognized so clearly on the Islands. A few illustrations will make this plain. Newton and Leibnitz invented the In- finitesimal Calculus independently. With the former it was and remained till the last a mere instrument for the solution of mechanical prob- lems; as a self-contained mathematical doctrine it never came to birth in his thoughts, he divulged it onlv to a few intimate friends, in his great work Principia Philosophiap Natural i he studiously suppressed all allusion to his use of it, and not for many years did he discover his invention to the world. But Leibnitz from the first was con- cerned with the method as a method, as a doctrine of pure mathematics and full of philosophic im- port; he gave his thoughts freely to the world and set up a mathematical movement that speedily reached the most brilliant and extensive results. The point is that Newton's interest lay wholly in the applications, while Leibnitz was primarily inter- ested in the method itself. On the other hand, the Leibnitzian school far outstripped the Newtonian in the applications as well as in the theory of the Calculus. Consider also the case of David Hume. 126 PIES. JAS. K. PATrERSON. a metaphysician unsurpassed in subtlety and pro- fundity. At twenty-eight he produced his Treatise of Human Nature, an exhaustless well of the deep- est thought, from which the generations follow- ing have not yet ceased to drink. The work was unsuccessful, 'it fell dead born from the press." What did Hume do He practically abandoned philosophy! He wrote his far inferior "Philo- sophical Essays" (afterwards entitled An Inquiry Concerning 'the Human Understanding) an attempt to popularize the Treatise, and in the "Advertie- ment" thereto he even disclaimed his own great Treastise, desiring that the Essays "may alone be regarded as containing my sentiments and prin- ciples." He then turned his attention to History. Compare this want of high seriousness and of devo- tion to philosophy as philosophy with the life-long ardor and singleness of purpose of Descartes, Kant, Spinoza, and the other illustrious Continentals. Or set Bacon by the side of Galilei or Giordano Bruno, or Locke alongside of Leibnitz, and observe the proportions. Once more, the illustrious Scotch mathematician, Peter Guthrie Tait, says of his equally illustrious compatriot Maquorne Rankine, that he wasted some of his earlier years on the Theory of Numbers. But Gauss called the same theory the Queen of Mathematics and Mathematics the Queen of the Sciences, and the highest analytic powers of France and particularly of Germany have been devoted to its fruitful development. Such instances might be multiplied indefinitely, but enough. There is on the continent a certain idealism in culture that is not found elsewhere in equal degree. When Fourier reporting to the 127 FORTIETE ANNIVERSARY. Academy regretted that Jacobi had devoted his great powers to the Theory of Elliptic Functions rather than to the Theory of Heat, the latter re- plied in a letter to Legendre that a philosopher like Mr. F. "should have known that the sole end of Science is the honor of the human spirit, and that under this aspect a question of number counts for as much as a question of the system of the world." Such has been the distinctive attitude of the continental thinker, which it would be very disastrous for all men to assume, but might also prove unfortunate for all men to abandon Let then the Anglo-Saxon continue to play his leading part in the drama of Civilization, but let him not forget that other more airy roles are essential to the representation. The personal characteristics of President Patter- son are already well-known to many readers of this Appreciation. Throughout his long life he seems to have been remarkably at one with himself, un- shaken by such tempests as sometimes cleave our hearts asunder and enkindle war in our members. Smoothly, roundly, symmetrically his nature has gone on growing steadily. His virtues are mainly those that belong to the dominant class; the more preeminent lean decidedly toward the civic rather than the personal type, and in this as in every- thing else he is true to his race, to his stock, to his fatherland. When Antonius Pius, that prince among Em- perors, unsurpassed in mingled majesty and beauty of character, among the sons of men, lay at the half-opened doorway of another world, with all the terrors of the tremendous transit gathered about 128 PRES. JAS. K. PATrERSON. him, the captain of the guard came to ask for the day's watchword. AEquanimitas, replied the dying Emperor and turned his eyes away towards the slowly unfolding portals. If asked to name the central stem, the trunk-virtue in the character of President Patterson, one could hardly do better than to repeat the imperial watchword, equanimity. Like the great Governor General of India whose more excellent qualities he measurably reproduced he has never been disturbed in this noble even- mindedness by any extreme or caprice of fortune. Had anything been able to ruiffle this majestic calm, it would have been the untimely separation (in 1895) from his son. Wm. Andrew Patterson, a youth of extraordinary promise. The devotion of President Patterson to his brilliant boy went far beyond the wide limits within which even a father's affection is wont to move and was a lovely and beautiful thing to behold. Since that so pre- mature bereavement President Patterson has walked as beholding the invisible. But though a heavy and unlifting shadow has fallen on their path, yet neither he nor his most fit and admirable helpmeet has thereby been saddened into gloomk or moroseness. The ancestral religion not less than so many ancestral qualities of body and of mind, of intellect and of temperament, has de- scended upon President Patterson with the con- straining insistence of inheritance. Not all his wide wanderings in the realm of science both physical and metaphysical, both geological and biological, not all his rich gleanings in the fields of philology both ancient and modern, not all his deep researches in transmigration of peoples and 129 FotTrrTH ANNIVERSARY. the transformations of myths, rituals, and customs, though they have refined his tenets, broadened his sympathies, and enlightened his judgments, have ever availed to becloud the eye of his hereditary faith or to shake his loyality to the principles and practice of the historic Church of Scotland.-A clear-eyed, broad-browed, calm-visaged, keen- thoughted, large-minded, single-souled man; fer- tile in expedients, master of every situation, firm in resolution, tenacious of purpose, patient, un- wearied, always pressing onward; a spirit from afar, too deeply saturated with the hues of its own home to take on the c'olors of its new environment; kind-hearted, benevolent, beneficent, and capable of intense affection, yet too thoroughly devoted to great public interests to give more than occasional attention to merely personal relations and con- cerns-an evergreen pine born in Ben Nevis' top, rooted in the rocks, braving the tempest and the torrent and the thunderbolt, always the same whether sheltering the birds of spring or whisper- ing with the winds of summer or upbearing the snows of winter, immovable, immutable, alone- such seems the Father of the University of Ken- tucky. o well for him whose will is strong! He suffers, but he will not suffer long; He suffers, but he cannot suffer wrong: For him nor moves the loud world's random mock, Nor all Calamitys hugest waves confound, Who seems a promontory of rock, That, compassed round with turbulent sound, In middle ocean meets the surging shock, Tempest-buffeted, citadel-crowned. 130