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Church's mission to the mountaineers of the South / by Archdeacon Neve, of Virginia, Archdeacon Spurr, of West Virginia, Archdeacon Wentworth, diocese of Lexington, Reverend S.C. Hughson, O.H.C., of Sewanee, Tenn., Reverend E.N. Joyner, diocesocese of Asheville, and Reverend W.S. Claiborne ; compiled by the Rev. Walter Hughson of the district of Asheville.
Church's mission to the mountaineers of the South / by Archdeacon Neve, of Virginia, Archdeacon Spurr, of West Virginia, Archdeacon Wentworth, diocese of Lexington, Reverend S.C. Hughson, O.H.C., of Sewanee, Tenn., Reverend E.N. Joyner, diocesocese of Asheville, and Reverend W.S. Claiborne ; compiled by the Rev. Walter Hughson of the district of Asheville. Hughson, Walter. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-151-29579531 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Church's mission to the mountaineers of the South / by Archdeacon Neve, of Virginia, Archdeacon Spurr, of West Virginia, Archdeacon Wentworth, diocese of Lexington, Reverend S.C. Hughson, O.H.C., of Sewanee, Tenn., Reverend E.N. Joyner, diocesocese of Asheville, and Reverend W.S. Claiborne ; compiled by the Rev. Walter Hughson of the district of Asheville. Hughson, Walter. Church Missions Pub. Co., Hartford, Conn. : [c1908] 131 p.,  leaves of plates : ill., ports. ; 20 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1994. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN03903.08 KUK) Printing Master B92-151. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Missions Southern States. Episcopal Church Missions. The Church's Mission to the Mountaineers of the South: : : : : Compiled by Rev. Walter Ilughson This page in the original text is blank. This page in the original text is blank. This page in the original text is blank. The Church's Mission to the Mountaineers of the South SOLDIER AND SERVANT SERIES, JULY, I908 PUBLICATION No. 41 This page in the original text is blank. E 3 I X 0 Z o) _ en c ; la X "2 The Church's Mission to the Mountaineers of the South By ARCHDEACON NEvE of Virginia, ARCHDEACON SPURR, of West Virginia, ARCHDEACON WENTWORTH, Diocese of Lexington, REVEREND S. C. HUGHSON, 0. H. C., of Sewanee, Tenn., REVEREND E. N. JOYNER, Dio- cese of Asheville, and REVEREND W. S. CLAIBORNE. Compiled by the REV. WALTER HUGHSON of the District of Asheville Church Missions Publishing Company Auxiliary to the Board ot Missions 2 x State Street, Hartford, Conn. Copyright, 1908 By Church Missions Publishing Co. Contents PAGE Preface . . . . . . . vii Introduction . . . . . . I By the Reverend Walter Hughson The Church and the Mountain People 19 By the Rev. S. C. Hughson, 0. H. C. The Missions of the Blue Ridge . 29 By Archdeacon F. W. Neve Missionary Work in West Virginia 49 By Archdeacon B. M. Spurr Missions and Schools in the District of Asheville . . . . . . 72 By the Reverend Walter Hughson Statistical Table, District of Asheville 78 Comparative Expenses . . . 79 Valle Crucis Mission and School . . 80 By the Reverend E. N. Joyner Christ School, Arden N. C. . . . 103 The Work of the Church in the Moun- tains of Kentucky . . . . 105 By Archdeacon F. B. Wentworth iv CONTENTS The Work at Sewanee, Tennessee . . 114 By the Reverend W. S. Claiborne Sketches: A Postal Card and its Message I I 7 "Hit" 123 An Incident . 127 Easter in a Mill Mission . 130 Illustrations A Mountain Cabin . . Frontispiece Facing page A Glimpse of the Mountain Scenery vii Rev. Walter Hughson . . . A Mountain Home in Tennessee . . 4 A Mountain Flower Garden . . 8 The Squirrel Hunter . . . . I 2 An Improved Chapel in Tennessee .I6 St. Andrew's School, Sewanee . . 19 St. Mary's Girls, Sewanee. . . 20 St. Michael's Monastery, Tennessee . 24 Children Filling Shuttles in the Weaving Room, St. Mary's Training School . 26 Archdeacon F. W. Neve . . . 29 First School House, Simmon's Gap . 32 Whittle Memorial Chapel. . . 36 A Surgical Operation on a Mountain Boy 40 Home of the King of Muttin Hollow . 44 Beacon Hollow School Chapel . . 46 Rev. B. M. Spurr . . . . 49 The Reynolds Memorial Hospital . 59 ILLUSTRATIONS St. Andrews On-the-Mountains . . 6I The Sarah Sprague Upham Memorial House . . . . . . 62 The Lippitt Memorial Hall . 64 The Mission Home To-day, Asheville District . . . . . 72 Grace Hospital, Morgantown, N. C. . 75 Where a Mission Started. . . 76 The New Chapel . . . . . 78 Holy Cross School, Valle Crucis, N. C. 8o Where an Outdoor Service was Held . 86 Gathering the Hay . . . . 96 The Wagon Factory . . . 100 Group of Basket Workers . . . 105 Cooking Class . . . . . Io8 Cumberland Gap in the Distance I I I St. Mkary's on the Mountain, Tennessee 1 14 A Mission Service in the Mountains . 1 17 Quaker Meadows . . . 1 20 vi This page in the original text is blank. z- z z C12 0 k 1 ,, 141, R 1, I 11 w ", I r p 11 ir, - www aw -4 i I t I 11111, " ",I Preface For a long time there has been a demand for literature in regard to the work of the Church in the Mountains of the South. Small illustrated pamphlets have been dis- tributed by the local workers of different dioceses in their appeals for assistance, but never before, as far as I know, has there been any concerted effort towards presenta- tion of the different parts of the field in one publication. Again and again have we felt the necessity for it and when the offer came to publish a book the writer immediately conferred and communicated with his co- workers in other districts and dioceses. This book presents the work and needs of almost all the fields from their standpoint and with their local coloring. The men who have been the most prominent in this mountain work are the Archdeacons and PREFACE priests in charge of the missionary efforts, not because the Bishops were not interested, but because the mountains and the work in them were only a part of the whole work of the dioceses of Virginia, West Virginia, Ten- nessee, and Kentucky. The Missionary work of the District of Asheville is almost entirely given up to work amongst the moun- taineers. We have all found that the Church is particularly influential in education, both religious and secular. The work has almost always begun in that way, but in reading the records the readers will see how we have all taken up the hospital effort as a natural sequence when we saw the need of such means of amelioration amongst the people whom we have learned to love and with whom we sympathize. The deplorable lack of care in sickness, fully equalled in impor- tance the lack of education. Success has followed every effort where school and hos- pital have gone together. If the readers could see the changes that have come and the blessings that have followed our efforts .iid PREPACE the whole Church would rise up and help us. The middle-west and the southern moun- tains have been woefully neglected by the Church during the past century. In the marvellous development of her work in great cities and in foreign parts, that in small towns and little settlements, particularly amongst what might be called the native born American population has been for- gotten. In fact we have failed to be the "American's Church." A striking illustration came to our atten- tion this year. A family, which had moved from Western North Carolina, the father and mother both strong members of the Church, had raised a family of thirteen children, all of whom were lost to the Church save one, because when they became scattered they found no services of the Church in the small towns where they went to live. Archdeacons Spurr, Neve, Wentworth and Father Hughson and Claiborne, have given their lives to these people, with what success these pages will tell. 1iC X PREFACE Hoping that the immensity of this prob- lem will appeal to the reader and student of missionary efforts, we again leave it all to your prayers and generosity and to the blessings of the Heavenly Father which have been granted to us so abundantly in the past. Faithfully yours, WALTUR HUGHSON. Whitsun-tide, 1908. Waynesville, N. C. I beg to acknowledge our great indebted- ness to Rev'd. Dr. Samuel Tyndale Wilson's book "The Southern Mountaineers," from which we have quoted many facts.-W. H. This page in the original text is blank. REWV. WALTER HUGHSON t In MEemoriam Walter Bugbton, priest t855O1908 A little less than two years ago the Rev. Walter Hugh- son, sometime Archdeacon of Asheville, projected this book. Little did we who were called upon to co-operate with him think, when we felt the thrill and pulse of his great enthusiasm for God's poor, that he would not be spared to see his work come from the press. But God willed it so. On September 4, 1908, at the Morganton Hospital, which he had founded, the end came after an illness of only a few hours. Walter Hughson was born in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., fifty-three years ago. He was trained for a business life, but from his youth his first interests were always those of the Church, and in the midst of absorbing busi- ness cares he found time for regular and aggressive mis- sion work, wherever the services of a layman were needed. In 1885, he was ordained to the perpetual diaconate by the late Bishop Starkey of Newark, and five years later he removed to Spokane, where he was an energetic pioneer for the Church in that rough western country. In 1895 there came to him the call to abandon his business life, and give himself wholly to the ministry of the Church. Accordingly he returned to New York City, and entered upon work at Calvary Church, under the rectorate of the late Bishop of Washington, preparing himself in the meantime for the priesthood. In 1897 he was called to Holy Trinity Church, Detroit, and was there priested by Bishop Davies. His four years' ministry in Detroit was greatly blessed, but it was not until in 1901, when he entered upon the mountain work in the District of Ashe- ville, that he came to the task for which God had been all the time preparing him. The undeveloped possibili- ties of the Southern mountaineers fascinated him, and he threw himself heart and soul into the work of bringing to them the religious and educational advantages which for generations had been denied them. Succeed- ing the late Rev. Churchill Satterlee as rector at Morgan- ton, he carried on to splendid results the work that had been begun so ably by his predecessor. In the pages of this book he has himself told much of the story of this work. Those who were privileged to be with him won- dered at the ceaseless energy and enthusiasm which marked all that he undertook. Although for years a sufferer from the disease which at last proved fatal, he excused himself from nothing because of it. Always in and out among his people, travelling great distances over the roughest mountain trails and by the most primitive modes of conveyance, sharing the hard- ships of the cabin life, by the force of the love that they saw he bore to them, he won his way into the hearts of the mountaineers as few missionaries have done. Mis- sion after mission was established and strengthened, schools and hospitals were built, and the contagion of his enthusiasm brought into the work helpers who caught from him the vision of what the love of God could do in the hearts of these long neglected people. In 1907 he was transferred to Waynesville, N. C., where the same devoted course was pursued, and where men were made to feel as they looked into his eyes and heard his words, that here was one indeed who longed to spend and be spent for the love of the Master. In July last, worn with his many labors, he consented to take his first vacation since entering the field, and spent some weeks on the North Carolina coast recuperat- ing. On his return he stopped for a few days at the Morganton Hospital, which perhaps more than any other work will be the monument to his loving energy. He had been used to say that he hoped the last days of his life might be spent in the care of this work, and God in His tender Providence willed it so. In the midst of his working and planning, he was suddenly stricken, and fortified by the Sacrament of the Church, he passed to the reward that is prepared for the faithful laborers in the vineyard of the Lord. His body was laid to rest in a quiet corner of the grounds of the Hospital he loved so much. i I This page in the original text is blank. Introduction BY THE REVEREND WALTER HUGHSON In June, 1907, President Roosevelt said in a public address: "In the South there is President Roosevelt a population peculiarly fitted to profit by on the schools, a population which has been gen- Mountain- eers erally referred to as 'poor white,' a popula- tion of splendid capacities and almost purely of the old native stock, which simply lacks the opportunity to develop a degree of industrial efficiency unsurpassed elsewhere on this continent. It is a matter for con- gratulation that there is such a steady in- crease of interest in the Southern states in everything pertaining to children. This has already markedly shown itself and I hope will still more show itself in the future. " I do not know of any better description of these people of whom we are writing than 9 The Mountaineers ,"The that which is found in Mr. Winston Church- Crossing" ill's book, "The Crossing," and Mr. Fox's book, "The Little Shepherd of Kingdom "Little Come." In these books we are much im- Shepherd pressed with the sterling quality of the peo- of ple of the mountains of Western North Car- Kingdom Come" olina and in the other parts of the Appalach- ian country. What the President speaks of and what Mr. Churchill and Mr. Fox describe is the Church's opportunity. The Primitive but sturdy pioneers' descend- Pioneers ants, few of them having had any of the opportunities of their co-pioneer brethren, are the people in whom we are interested. The Appalachian hills have been a stone wall of hindrance to thousands of people. In Stone Wall past generations, either because men and of women were satisfied with the everlasting Hindrance hills, or because they were discouraged in their efforts to cross them, hundreds of fam- ilies remained and endeavored to work out their temporal salvation in the mountains, and the coves and valleys between them. of the South Slavery, perhaps, was well enough from a business standpoint for the flat country and that warmer lowland where cotton and to- bacco could be raised; but up in the moun- tains it was not in anyway feasible. Conse- quently the planter of the lowland grew rich and important, while his neighbor, "the High- lander," grew poor and ignorant. There grew up also, perhaps on account of the con- trasting conditions, a great repugnance to the negro on the part of the mountaineer. There are places, and in some localities whole counties, where no negro can go. The mountaineer did not like the negro for many reasons. The slave labor, to him, was un- fair competition. The negro knew "quality," but he failed to appreciate the nobility of the man who against conditions was able to live and rear a family in a poor country and in a state of loneliness. Anyone who knows the real mountaineer realizes that he has come from good, sturdy, brave, self-denying stock, stock that availed itself of the little opportunity offered. For generations they .3 The Mountaineers fought it out alone. They were little thought of. The men in the mountains were as foreigners to the people who had estates. They were not even in demand to care for farms until the time after the war. They were isolated in more senses than one. They had taken up little farms on the hillsides, planted corn and a few fruit trees. One of them here and there got a mule and perhaps a cow. They cut down the trees and made Settling log-houses, cabins, often of but one room. In homes These sufficed for the family comfort for generations. They raised what was neces- sary for bare existence. They spun and wove to make their own clothing. The mountains are fine places to raise apples, pears, potatoes, and cabbage. They made their own wagons and in the fall went further south with a load of produce which could not be raised in the low country. With the proceeds of this annual expedition they bought what was necessary, and existed for Liquor another year. They made their own liquor for generations, because they knew how, 4 PJ2 w z z 04 INI'll 11 A I I , f I 41 I 'Mr r, 1-4,, A W- It 4' This page in the original text is blank. of the South and their "still" was their equivalent to the sideboard of many of our ancestors. They were absolutely independent and "knew no king." This, undoubtedly, is one of the reasons why the mountaineers have been considered generally lawless and why they naturally persisted in continuing their dis- tilling. The civil war made a great change. Many of them went to fight, as their ances- tors had done in Revolutionary and even earlier times. They were good fighters; Good perhaps too independent to be of the high- Fighters est quality of soldiers in the ranks, but in- dividually the bravest of the brave. Their isolation and the indifference of their neighbors caused them to become very illiterate. Ten years ago there were settle- ments where three-fourths of the people could not read nor write. In i9oo the census gave the following statistics in the Appala- chian region as to illiteracy amongst the white voters: West Virginia, io.68 per cent. illiterate Illiteracy Virginia, I5.94 ,P 5 The Mountaineers Kentucky, 21.65 per cent. illiterate North Carolina, 19.83 East Tennessee, i8.34 South Carolina, 13.37 Georgia, 17.72 Average, I 6.34 "Figures for illiteracy may not be very accurate, but, where sixteen per cent. of the white voters report themselves to the census as illiterate, it means that at least fifty per cent. of the white population over ten years of age is wholly without letters." Not to be able to read seems to the writer to be the nearest thing to the "blackness of darkness" spoken of by' the prophet. No knowledge of the world except by the means of conver- sation with a more or less educated man, not able even to read the Holy Scriptures, was sufficient excuse for many of the failings of this otherwise wonderful people. Conditions The conditions have improved greatly Improved within the past few years. Intelligent in- fluence from the religious side has been a great inspiration for better and higher things. 6 The State has been aroused to the condition, and the "free" school has been greatly im- proved. I believe that in the next census Next no part of the country will show greater im- Census provement, comparatively, than these same states. The great lumbering interests in the mount- ains, and the development of the coal and labor iron mines in Tennessee and Virginia, and the cotton mills in the Carolinas, have brought about a demand for labor. Six years ago a woman would work for twenty-five cents a day. The little farms have been deserted, that is many of them, and the whole family has been brought to the towns which have become the centres of trade and manufac- turing. Under the influence of the larger com- munity life there has been greater opportun- ity. Schools, state and Church, have had an influence for good on the children who are to-day the first of many generations of in- habitants to havethis opportunity. The states have done excellent work, especially since of the South 7 The Mountaineers i900, in the way of education; but secular ed- ucation is by no means the only thing to bring to these people. They must have also a proper religious influence. In 1776 of the twenty-one men from the Southern States,who signed the Declaration of Independence nineteen were Churchmen. Those from New England were all from without the Church. To-day there is one communicant in one hundred and fifty of the population in North Carolina, while to-day in Connecti- cut the proportion is about one in twenty. The Church lagged in the South in the days after the Revolution and in many places it became the religious home of the better class only. The new religious movements were very strongly developed in the South. Emo- tionalism appealed to the people and soon made hosts of converts. In some of the mountain places to-day the scenes during religious excitement are almost beyond de- scription. Emotionalism grew to such an extent that religion, teaching them to dis- criminate between right and wrong, almost 8 A MOUNTAIN FLOWEiIt GARDEN This page in the original text is blank. of the South stopped. Even now "to get religion" amongst these people is to get into a frenzy of excitement; whole communities are sometimes "converted", and then the whole community often has a relapse where the last state is far worse than the first. The ten commandments became practically a dead letter. Education was really decried, and ignorance was exalted and put on a pedestal. The mountain preacher became a class by himself. He often could not read or write, and yet he was supposed to be a teacher of righteousness. When the Church came back to this part of North Carolina in the latter part of the i9th Century there were many places where the ten command- ments had never been heard of. In looking over this region, the Church and some other religious bodies saw the ne- Relous cessity of education with a proper religious Education instruction. This effort has brought about a remarkable change of conditions. The good stock responds to the opportunity offered and to-day education is sought after. 9 The Mountaineers The barn of a school-house with its compara- tively ignorant teacher is fast disappearing. Here and there, following the example of the Church schools, good buildings are being erected. The school terms are very short, but they are growing longer from year to year. The Church school has its own follow- ing and to-day is also supplemental to the "free" school. From i9oi to i907 we looked on a transformation that was brought about by the splendid sac ifice of scores of educated and refined men ard women, who had "come here" to help. There are two hundred and twenty-six counties that may be said to make up the Southern Appalachian region. In the census of i goo the population was found to be 3,92I,555 people-more people than the com- bined population of the ten states of Montana, Oregon, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, Idaho, Washington and California; in which states the Church now has thirteen Missionary Dioceses and Districts and as many Bishops. The People and Land 10 The people are a composite race, the prin- cipal element being Scotch-Irish. There are also people of Huguenot, English, and German origin. The latter probably came here by way of Pennsylvania. A letter re- ceived from one who is greatly interested tells us that most of the English settlers in this part of the country came from the par- ishes of Stepney, Stoke-Newington, and White-chapel of two hundred years ago. The mountaineers are divided into three Clses of classes: Mountain- (i). The valley dwellers, so called, who eers have built up the centres and cities, stand for the best of the four millions. (2). The class that we have already spoken of, living nearer the hills and having some of the opportunities of the first, but having all that attractive ruggedness that we find in those who live far back from all participation with the world. (3). This "class consists of the drift, the flotsam and jetsam that are cast up here and there among the mountains. There are the I I of the South The Mountaineers shiftless and ambitionless such as are found wherever men are found. Usually they own little or no land and eke out a precarious existence, as only a beneficent Providence that cares for the birds and other denizens of the forest can explain." Of this class we get the majority of the people who are com- ing to the mill settlements and are being im- proved by their contact and opportunity in the world-a very little world, but one which they have never before seen. War The war record of all the mountaineers is Record long, inspiring, and splendid. From the times before the Revolution, when they de- fended their own homes, to the battles of the Revolu- Revolution where they took distinguished tionarY part. When the battle of "King's Mountain" War came, when Washington said, "I have al- most ceased to hope," the little band that was mustered in Wautauga County, not far from the present Valle Crucis, went forth on September twenty-fifth, 1780, and a few days later surrounded the English forces. "That glorious victory" said Jefferson, 12 THE SQUIRREL HUNTER-A TENNESSEE TYPE This page in the original text is blank. of the South "was the glorious annunciation of that turn in the tide of success which terminated the Revolutionary War with the seal of inde- pendence." In the Mexican War and the Mexican War of i 812 they were ever in the place of War danger and always brave. The Civil War Civil War found them on both sides, and many men of the mountains now receive pensions from the government for the valor they showed on the federal side. The Spanish War ap- Spanish pealed to many of the young men of the present generation. It is said that the mountaineers have furnished to the armies of the United States more men in proportion than any other people in the whole land. These people are not only native and Amer- ican stock by name, but they have done American their duty to their country as none others Stock have done it. With those who live in com- munities where there is a cosmopolitan popu- lation it is almost impossible to understand what a strictly native population is. "In the mountain regions in West Virginia there are five mountain counties that have an 13 The Mountaineers average of less than seven persons of foreign birth to each county. Kentucky has one county with no foreigner, and thirteen coun- ties with only from one to seven of foreign birth. Virginia has thirteen counties with eight or less. Tennessee has twelve counties with seven or less. North Carolina has six counties, containing altogether but eleven foreigners. Georgia has seven counties with eight or less. Alabama has three counties with a grand total of fifty one." In this land we seem to have the faculty, which is a remarkable one, of assimilation, and the making of a citizen in a generation or less. So far we have failed to realize our White responsibility to our brethren of long stand- Problem ing. This is certainly the "white problem." These people have always had the repu- Intem- tation of being very intemperate. In a meas- perac ure this is true. All Southerners who drink, drink whiskey, and most of them drink nothing else. The use of light wines and beers is almost unknown. As an illustra- tion, at Christmas they think it is their 14 of the South bounden duty to drink heavily. Those who Christmas never get drunk at any other time have done Drinking so regularly Mat this sacred season. A few years ago, at the close of a Christmas service and celebration at one of our missions, two men were engaged in a fight just outside of the chapel. The person who had accompanied me in my buggy was a very small man and was of little service in such an emergency, and so I was forced to "go it" alone. I sep- arated the men and told them to go home and apologize to the teacher in charge with- in twenty-four hours. They made their Effect of apology as required as they were afraid we Preaching temper- would have "the law on them" and, as the ance law in North Carolina is very strict in regard to the disturbance of public worship, they respect it. At the first opportunity I preached on the proper observance of Christ- mas day, and told them that on that day, above all others, they must keep their bodies clean and pure. Two years afterward one of the older men came to me after service and said, "Preacher, I always used to drink 15 The Mountaineers corn liquor on Christmas day because I thought I had to, but since I heard you preach about our Lord being born on that day I have never let a drop touch my lips Encour- on that day." This was enough encourage- agement ment for a whole year's work. During the past few years a great wave of temperance has passed over this portion of the South. I think it is safe to make the assertion that a majority of the mountain counties have no saloons in them. Illicit distilling, though carried on to a limited extent in some places, has been mostly done away. Last summer the writer had been making a speech at a temperance meeting in the "South Moun- tain" district, and after the meeting one of the men came up and said, "Preacher, you couldn't have made that speech here ten years ago. This country was full of whiskey then." The men in that district, with one exception, signed the petition to take liquor out of the country. The city of Asheville in I907 by a vote of three to one put the saloons out. 16 7i2 z - -I This page in the original text is blank. We have often wondered how many fam- Original ilies were in the original mountain settle- families ments. Beginning two hundred years ago with a few hundred they could easily have become the present four millions. Moun- tain fecundity has been the only cause of the Mountain great population of to-day. They have Fecundity certainly obeyed the command, "Be fruit- ful and multiply." We often find families of from twelve to fifteen. The children marry very young. In many places there has been an inter-marrying that has not been IEvl t good for the race. The results of this have marriage been particularly impressed upon us since we opened the hospitals. The reader will appreciate, by this very short account of the striking characteristics of these people with whom we labor, how wonderfully attractive is the work amongst them. Archdeacon Neve has graphically Archdea- described the manner of organization of a con Neves mission settlement and the gradual building up of the work. It is by becoming one of them in their life, in its pleasure and in its of the South 17 18 The Mountaineers trials that the worker makes a success and an impression. The mission house centre or the rectory centre have been the most successful plan. From this, naturally, come first the visiting nurse, and then the dispen- sary, and after that the hospital with all its tremendous field of usefulness and relief.. A careful reading of the different articles by the contributors from the various centres will, I am sure, be of very great interest to all. And when all is read we hope your in- terest will be made manifest in your gifts and prayers. This page in the original text is blank. z A .4 0 0 z of the South The Church and the Mountain People BY TH1a Rav. SHIRLEY C HUGHSON, 0. H. C., of St. Andrew's School, Sewanee, Tenn. When one speaks of the adaptability of the Church to a people, the expression demands explanation. The Holy Catholic Church is, of necessity, perfectly adapted to all men, whether we regard them as individuals, na- tions, or races. "He who knew what was in man," founded it in such fashion that it would be suited in the most perfect way possible, to the needs of every soul made in the Divine Image. But sin has entered in, and those who should recognize the Church as their true home have had their spiritual vision so warped that they regard her, whom God ordained to be "the mother of us all", as an alien. So when we speak of her adaptability, to one or another people, we 19 The Mountaineers are rather describing the people than the Church; and to say that she is especially adapted to our American Highlanders is to say that these people, whatever may be their characteristics or failings, have maintained those traits which enable them to appreciate more readily than many others, the truth, and strength, and joy, which can be supplied to men only by this living organism which "is the pillar and ground of the truth." We are dealing with facts and experiences rather than with theories; and from them we are convinced that God has preserved our mountain people in all their ways, so that they are able, as many others are not, to recognize the truth; and that, untouched by the spirit of modem materialism, they have a clear vision of eternal verities; and grasp them with a faith, as strong as it is simple, whenever they are presented. The first consideration to which we would invite attention is that the mountain people have a firm grasp on spiritual realities. With the majority of people with whom we 20 -I T- In This page in the original text is blank. of the South come in contact to-day religion, in a large Receptive- measure, is a vague system of thought or ness philosophy, rather than a revelation of super- natural mysteries, applicable to the practical affairs of life though not to be measured by human ken. There is no skepticism, no indifference to the supernatural among the mountaineers; and reliance on the work of higher agencies comes as easily to them as does a belief that the sun and rain help their meagre crops. In short when the Church comes to them she finds a people prepared. We do not have to argue them into a belief in God or in the Scriptures. We have only to show them what the revelation of God really is; they have only to grasp the fact that the Church is the living voice of God, the interpreter of His truth, and no people are more ready to receive it. Along with this strong belief in the super- natural, there is everywhere among them a desire to know more about God and His revelation. They are conscious of their limitations, and as one begins to talk to 21 The Mountaineers Faith them about God there is in their faces a wist- ful expectation which is touching and in- spiring. I shall never forget the first mountain con- gregation I ever met. It was at a little road-side church far back in the Virginia mountains. Only a few hours' notice of the service had been given but the church was crowded to the doors, and more than half of the congregation were men. Many of them had walked many miles to be there, com- ing in the overalls in which they had been working in the lumber camp all day. I read them St. Matthew's account of the Passion and from the way they listened I am sure many of them had never heard it before. They pressed forward over the backs of the benches, gazing over the shoulders of those in front with that eager, rapt attention that one sees in children who are being told some wonderful story. They were hungry for the Gospel and when one began to speak to them of sin, and how our Lord's sufferings were the result of sin, giving them just the direct 99 simple story of the Cross, one could see big, brawny fellows winking back the tears. There was not the least excitement. It was only that the wondrous story had gone deep into their simple hearts which had long been hungry for love such as God alone can give. There are three millions such hearts, in these Southern Mountains, longing for the truth they have never heard with an un- conscious soul-hunger that constitutes a splendid opportunity for the Church, if she will, in the power of the Holy Spirit, lay hold of it. As might be surmised from what has been said, there is among them a total absence of moral cowardice in regard to religion. It would never occur to any one, young or old, to cast ridicule upon another who had publicly confessed Christ. Many may not make that confession for themselves but they regard it as the proper and natural course for one who desires to do what is right. In these days of self-consciousness it is refreshing to find young men who will talk 23 of the South The Mountaineers of spiritual things, and of their own especial needs, without the least suggestion of em- barrassment; and who would not understand what you meant should you suggest the thought of fear as to what their companions would think or say should they abandon a course of sin and indifference for the purer life of God's Church. The Church was founded by our Lord as a missionary organization, and there is no question about the missionary spirit of these people when they are brought to realize the blessings of the Church's Faith. Two notable instances of this have come to our attention. Not long since the rector of Sewanee baptized a man living near the remote mission station, "Jump Off." It seemed a case of real con- version. The man realized what had been given him in that Sacrament, and how much it was to mean in his life. The next time the rector visited this station, this man had gathered about twenty men whom he had brought in from the country around, that they might learn about the Church and Her Missionary Spirit 24 9 w "I m 4 z :R 23 4 E4 X This page in the original text is blank. of the South Sacraments. The other case was that of a young girl at the Sisters' School, who, on re- turning home, did not rest until she had brought fifteen of her adult kinsfolk to Baptism. There is a seriousness in the character of the Highland people that gives a splendid of basis upon which to erect the religious and Character moral superstructure for which we are hop- ing and praying. There is no flippant strain in them. What they do they do with all their might. There is a vigor in their very vices which marks strong character and when it is turned in the direction of God and His Church, it will mean great achieve- ments for the Kingdom of Heaven. This strength of character is beautifully set forth in the winsome gentleness that marks their life and manners in a surprising degree. True gentleness and refinement are always the product of strength. The very tone of their voices, and the simple dignity of their carriage, marks a refinement that is often at startling variance with the super- ficial rudeness of their life. 25 The Mountaineers The Church needs such character in Her people if She is to fulfil Her purposes. Why should there not go forth from these mount- ains an influence which might be felt in every part of our land It has been so in the civil and military spheres. The fine rugged stock of these regions has supplied not a few of the makers of the Republic. Why should it not be so in the building up of the Kingdom of God in our country Their loyalty, too, is one that endures. Given one glimpse of the . vision and their hearts hold it in perpetual remembrance. Some years ago in a remote corner of the Virginia mountains I found an old man who fifty years before had been one of the Valle Crucians in North Carolina. For forty years he had been entirely cut off from the Church, but no sooner was a mission station estab- lished in his valley than he entered into its work with a spirit which showed that his love for the old Faith had never been quenched through all those years of spiritual destitution. 26 SAINT MARY'S TRAINING SCHOOL FOR MOUNTAIN GIRLS, SEWANEE Children filling shuttles in the weaving room This page in the original text is blank. of the South The Church has not yet touched the fringe of this vast undertaking because sufficient faith has not been placed in the Holy Spirit. He is offering a splendid opportunity for Her activities; He has prepared a harvest for Her reaping, a people peculiarly suited to Her The Call genius; but we have not heard the call as we ought because His voice has been drowned in the babel of human suggestion. If we wait until schemes have been devised for the removal of every apparent obstacle, the op- portunity will be lost and the work will never be done. If we push forward with a firm faith that God will take care of all difficulties as they arise, ere this generation pass away, these people, with a genius for the Catholic Religion such as few people have ever had, will be secured for the Church. We have no one plan to propose in regard to this great work. An undertaking so pregnant with eternal issues cannot be bound down to any pre-concerted line of human action. This would be to limit the Holy Spirit to a man-made method, instead of abandoning 27 28 The Mountaineers ourselves generously into His hands to direct our efforts as He wills. But the knowledge of facts and conditions is always indispens- able to the prosecution of a work and the time has come for the Church, without delay, to deal with this problem in an intelligent manner. Men, money, and interest are of needed, but above all the fervent prayers of the faithful. We can lay up a great treasure of strength by lifting up holy hands to God on behalf of these people of our own blood, now unshepherded and untaught, but whom God will yet make His own. Happy shall we be if He allow us, even in the humblest way, to share in the work of their salvation! This page in the original text is blank. ARCHDEACON F. W. NEVE of the South The Missions of the Blue Ridge, Dio- cese of Virginia BY THE VENERABLE FREDERICK W. NEVE. ARCHDEACON When I first came to Virginia in i888, my attention was soon directed to the condition Mountains of the people living in the Ragged Mountains of Albemarle County. These mountains are spurs of the main Blue Ridge. The con- dition of these people was such as to call for attention and earnest effort on the part of the Church and, as the two parishes to which I had been called were only a few miles dis- tant, the duty of caring for these neglected The people seemed imperative. Beginning My predecessor at St. Paul's, Ivy, had been in the habit of holding a service for them in a school-house for some years, and it was through taking up the work which he had left behind him that I first became acquainted 29 The Mountaineers with the needs of the district. To accom- plish any permanent results it seemed neces- sary to establish a church and build up a regular Church membership; and after about a year and a half this was accomplished and the Church of St. John Baptist was built and consecrated. Soon after the Mission Hall was also built, close beside the church, for the various meetings and classes which were soon organized and worked by faithful members of St. Paul's Church in Ivy, some six miles distant. For some years our mountain mission was Blue confined to this one centre, but the success Ridge attending the first enterprise suggested to my mind the desirability of extending the work to the main Blue Ridge, where I knew the conditions were similar, if not worse, than those which had prevailed in the Ragged Mountains. It was not till i900 that this new venture was made but by that time, in spite of the fact that there were no means at my disposal for carrying on the work, the call to go forward had become so clear that it 30 of the South seemed best to make a beginning and trust to the Good Shepherd, whose lost sheep we were seeking, to raise up friends and helpers. A teacher was found who was willing to go up into the heart of the mountains far from SGapon s civilization and from the society of her own class, and do what she could for the poor chil- dren, who were growing up there almost as ignorant and wild as the children in some heathen country. Simmon's Gap in Greene County was the place chosen for the first school; and the teacher, the daughter of a clergyman, commenced her work without even a school-house and with no boarding Fit place available, except a small log cabin with School many cracks and holes in the walls through which the wind blew without let or hindrance. A place to teach in was soon found through a mountaineer placing an empty dwelling house at our disposal, rent free. The man did more than this. Every morning he would go down to the house, cut the wood, and light the fire. After some months a gentleman who owned a grazing farm in that 31 The Mountaineers neighborhood was led to build a school- house for us, thus in a wonderful manner the way was made smooth. By the following spring the call seemed to come to extend the work by opening another Lost school on a mountain some three miles away, Mountain called the Lost Mountain. Quite a thickly settled community live upon the north side of the Lost Mountain, which was the side ly- ing immediately facing Simmon's Gap, the deep valley called Shiflett's Hollow lying be- tween. One morning while staying in a cabin near Simmon's Gap, I awoke very early and saw The through the small window a very beautiful Vision sight. It was the Lost Mountain glorified by the rosy light of the dawn. Across the deep valley the mountain stood out in clear outline against the sky but the first rays of the rising sun had produced atmospheric effects, which made the mountain seem like a vision of the new Jerusalem. The thought which came into my mind, as I saw the moun- tain thus glorified, was why should not the 32 C-, 0 E-, 0 Co1 CO 0 20 Q CO This page in the original text is blank. of the South Sun of Righteousness also rise upon the poor Lost Mountain This thought soon became a settled purpose and plans were formed for opening a school there the following fall. During the summer the work was very much strengthened and ex- tended by the coming of a young man into the work, who in time came to exert a very re- markable influence over the minds and hearts of the people throughout that whole section. He was a mere boy of seventeen, when he went up there in the summer of i goi, and the people were at first inclined to despise his youth; but before the summer was over he had won the hearts of all, and, not only at Simmon's Gap, but on the Lost Mountain and at still another point, large congregations were Out Door gathered Sunday after Sunday. The people Service sat on logs and rocks under the trees on the mountain side where the services were held, for at the two latter places no chapels or school-houses were then in existence. But, in spite of the primitive nature of these serv- ices, this youthful servant of Christ made a 33 The Mountaineers deep and lasting impression on the people. The following summer he continued his work there at the Lost Mountain alone, and I baptized thirty-three and the Bishop con- firmed twenty-two as a result of his two summer's labors. By this time, that is the fall of 1902, three school-houses or school chapels were built in that section, and the work was becoming well established. It was just at this juncture that another under young man was given by God to the work, the Rev. Gco. Rev. George P. Mayo, who, combining spirit- P. Mayo ual earnestness with executive ability, has de- veloped the missions in that section up to a very remarkable state of efficiency. At the time of his coming we were con- fronted with a serious problem,-that of providing better and healthier quarters for our workers, especially the ladies. Our first The Work teacher seriously injured her health by the Enlarged hardships she had to endure; and it became necessary to do something to provide our workers with proper homes; for it was im- possible for them to do effective work when 34 of the South their health was suffering. So the idea of Homes for workers was suggested, and be- fore long a site was chosen so centrally lo- cated that several communities were within easy reach. About this time the Woman's Auxiliary of the Diocese of Virginia, being anxious to erect a memorial chapel to the late Bishop Whittle, decided to give it to the mountain mission work. Whilst this question was dis- cussed by the various branches of the Woman's Auxiliaries, a Richmond lady offered to build the first Mission House, or Home for Homes for Workers, as a memorial to her husband, and, Workers as he had been a great friend of Bishop Whittle, she expressed a wish that the mis- sion house should be built near the Whittle Memorial Chapel. This wish was gratified and the first Home for Workers, the Whittle Memorial Chapel, a school-house, postoffice and other buildings, form a settlement station which is a centre of great activity and use- fulness, and which is gradually elevating the 35 The Mountaineers moral and spiritual tone of the whole dis- trict. Centr' 11 The Rev. George P. Mayo, who has charge Mission of this district, lives at this mission home House which has a matron, two deaconesses, and a teacher as its regular inmates, whilst in the summer the staff is augmented by other temporary workers; a deacon from the Vir- ginia Seminary has recently been sent up there by the Bishop as an assistant to the Rev. Mr. Mayo. Six other missions are grouped around this central mission station at four of which we have Church schools. The teachers at these schools, though not residing at the mis- sion house, use it as a rest house and source of supplies. In addition to its ordinary de- Schools partments of work and service, it has a dis- pensary and a clothing bureau which are both of great service to the community. There is also a bell-tower close to the Mission Home, from which the bell rings twice a day to let the neighborhood people know the time. Whilst this particular mission centre 36 -4 0 c: I 4 C) .a 4 ;; -4a :: I 4 A ;-, - To :, This page in the original text is blank. was developing, the Mission House idea had been applied to other parts of the Arch- deaconry, for in I904 the whole line of the Blue Ridge from one end of the Diocese to the other had been formed into an Arch- deaconry by the Bishop with the consent of the Diocesan Council. Out of this Arch- deaconry four districts were formed, which comprise, however, only that part of it, where work is being actually carried on. The history and developement of one dis- trict, that of Mr. Mayo, has already been described. We come now to a large district adjoin- ing Mr. Mayo's, taking in almost the whole of Greene County. This was placed in charge of the Rev. Robb. White, Jr., a young Work deacon from the seminary, who, although under Rev. Robb. entirely without experience, succeeded in White, Jr. meeting the needs of the situation in a very remarkable manner. The condition in which he found the mountain people, when he was sent there was very deplorable. In some of the mountain hollows, into 37 of the South The Mountaineers which he penetrated, he went at the risk of his life. Criminals went unpunished, and the ordinary laws of morality were entirely dis- regarded. At the very outset he saw the ne- cessity of breaking up a gang of evildoers, who were terrorizing not only the mountains but also the neighborhood of the county-seat it- self. To bring about a restoration of law and order he formed a Law and Order League, of which he was the first President. He at once set to work to bring the offenders to justice, with the result that the ringleaders were placed in the penitentiary, illicit stills closed, and the way prepared for the work of build- ing up a new and better social order. Two school-houses were soon erected, one of them close to a hollow where the people seemed to be in a more degraded and hopeless condition than any that we had so far come across. At this school the teacher, a cour- ageous young man, was obliged to employ a stalwart youth belonging to the neighbor- hood to keep order at the lower end of the room, and pass up to the front those who 38 were desirous of securing an education. The worst characters, men and women, would congregate at the door of the school-house, where dog fights would be arranged, followed by man fights, all of which, distracting as they were to the teacher and pupils, had to be endured. Before long the school-houses were sup- More plemented by two Mission Homes, similar Mission to the one in Mr. Mayo's district though not so large. One of these Mission Homes, the larger of the two, is situated at Lydia in Swift's Run Gap. It was built by a lady in Brooklyn who was moved to this act of gen- erosity by the sight of some pictures of the Mission Home in Shifietts Hollow. In connection with this mission, and stand- ing side by side with the Home for workers, is a small cottage hospital. This was Mr. Robb. White's idea, and was suggested to his mind by the ignorance of the mountain people with regard to nursing and the use of medi- cine. He had found by experience that it was practically useless to leave medicine at of the South 39 The Mountaineers the house or cabin of a sick person, no matter how clear and definite the instructions given. They could not read anything writ- ten upon the bottle, and oral instructions were either forgotten or they were so afraid of giving the medicine too often or not often enough that they would probably not give it at all; or, perhaps, they would pour some out of the bottle to make believe that it had been given to the patient. Then, too, the chances in favor of a person seriously ill The with such a disease as pneumonia or typhoid Hospital fever are slight indeed, on account of -the unsanitary conditions of the cabins and hovels in which the people live and also from the fact that these hovels which consist often of one room down stairs and a loft above, are crowded with large families of children. This of course means that still- ness and quiet are out of the question. Many of the people, moreover, have much more faith in charms and incantations than in genuine medical treatment. On one oc- casion Mr. Robb. White discovered a young 40 -4 4 u :4 Z E- 4 ;D 0 ;z" z :4 ;4 2.1 O 4 4 "A z 4 :D .1.1 4 2; :3 :1. 4 z :4 n:J -11 This page in the original text is blank. of the South man suffering from frozen feet. His friends had applied the following strange remedies- the feet had been wrapped in the skins of rabbits killed during the dark of the moon and, to add to the efficacy of the treatment, a crooked penny had been buried at the north east corner of the cabin on the outside just where the water drops from the eaves. This and many similar experiences im- pressed Mr. White with the urgent need for a hospital and, by laying the matter before his relatives and personal friends, he suc- ceeded in raising the money but was unfor- tunately obliged to leave the field and take up work elsewhere before the hospital was completed. It stands, however, now com- plete as one of the lasting monuments of his self-sacrificing work in this section. At the Lydia settlement, a deaconess is in charge of the Mission House, with a trained nurse for the hospital, one teacher for the mission school not far off, and other tempor- ary workers help out from time to time. At the other and smaller mission house in this 41 The Mountaineers same district two sisters live and work, one teaches in the school adjoining, the other does the visiting and other general mis- sion work. This point, Pocosan, is one of the hardest places in the whole Archdeaconry, but these two ladies have held their ground, at this lonely and remote outpost of the Church, with great courage and persever- The ance. Western We will leave now the eastern side of the Side Blue Ridge, where most of the development has so far taken place, and come to the large district on the western side of the Ridge which Rev. J. R.- is in charge of the Rev. J. R. Ellis. This Ellis district is fifty miles long, and extends the en- tire length of the counties of Rockingham and Page. The various mission points are however rendered more accessible from the fact that on this side of the Blue Ridge the railroad skirts the base of the mountains. Yet in spite of the fact that the mountain hollows run down in many cases to the rail- road, the people who live in them are little, if at all, in advance of the mountaineers in 42 of the South the eastern side of the Ridge, where the rail- road is far distant. There is the same need for the various agencies for enlightenment which the Church can bring to them. The Rev. Mr. Ellis, who has his headquar- Schols ters at Elkton, has come into the field within and the last three years after having proved his Chapels capacity as a spiritual leader in another part of the Diocese. He has already opened one school which has as its teacher a great-grand- daughter of Bishop Meade. The school has grown so much that it will be necessary to employ two teachers this fall; and, in addi- tion, Mr. Ellis hopes to open several new schools in the near future. Five churches and chapels are scattered throughout his field and plans are made to build one more very soon. The growth and importance of the work in this district has led the Bishop to give Mr. Ellis one of the recently ordained deacons as an assistant, and the prospects are bright for a rapid extension of the Church's influence in this large field. It is necessary now to return to the point 43 The Mountaineers from which we started at the beginning Ragged of this chapter, viz., to the part of the Mountain field where the work first began. I have Missions kept the Ragged Mountain missions under my own immediate supervision. Although only one mission in the Ragged Mountains has so far been mentioned, still, while the other three districts have grown and de- veloped, this, the original district, has been growing too. There are now three churches in the Ragged Mountains proper, with a small mission house attached to one of them in which a lady mission worker resides. There is also a chapel at Crozet on the railroad, a small town at the base of the Blue Ridge, and in addition two missions have been formed at important soap-stone quarries to which several hundred workmen have been attracted by a higher rate of wages. Many of these work people have come from the Ragged Mountains. At one of these soap- stone quarries we have a mission house con- sisting of a chapel on the ground floor and 44 -0 - 1 zo z This page in the original text is blank. of the South living rooms for the workers on the floor above. At the other and larger of the quar- ries, where eight hundred men are at work and where a large plant has been established, we have succeeded in building a stone church capable of holding from two to three hundred people. At this point we have a Sunday School with one hundred scholars in regular attendance. Mr. Irving Batchellor of the University of Virginia has done a very com- mendable work here and the success attained is in a great measure due to his efforts, to the cooperation and backing of the president of the soap-stone comipany and to his family, who were principally instrumental in the building of the church. My headquarters are at Ivy, where I still serve as rector of the parish church, but my connection with the Mission Church of St. John Baptist, which was the starting point of the whole work, is still as close as ever and I have had the satisfaction of seeing a new gen- eration of people grow up, who have been taught and trained from childhood at this 45 The Mountaineers mission. For the last four years I have been greatly assisted here by a resident worker, Miss Smart, who has given herself to the Mission and who receives no remuneration for her services. It will thus be seen from the description which has been given of the development of the work, that it had a very small begin- ning; but that, through the blessing of Al- mighty God, it has grown to large propor- tions which comprise the greater part of four counties within its borders; and yet there is plenty of room for further development. The Archdeaconry is, as has been said, divided into four large districts, each of which when properly manned should have two or more The Needs clergy resident and at work within its borders. The number of schools at present is eight, while several more are already planned. Between thirty and forty missions, mostly organized, are being provided for and over twenty clerical and lay missionaries are at work. Owing to the rapid growth of the work and 46 BEACON HOLLOW SCHOOL CHAPEL This page in the original text is blank. of the South the number of difficult problems that present themselves, especially in regard to the finan- cial support of our various undertakings, the New Diocesan Council in I9o6 consented to the Methods appointment of an advisory board to assist in the supervision of the work and to share in the responsibilities connected with it. This board consists of four clergymen and five laymen, who reside in or near the Arch- deaconry, and it has been of great assistance to me, in giving valuable advice and council, and in relieving me of the burden of financial responsibility which was rapidly becoming too heavy to be borne. For up to the time of the appointment of this board the Arch- deacon was himself personally responsible for the support of most of the work, and, if he were unsuccessful in raising the money required, he had to borrow money, in his own name and on his own credit, to meet the de- ficiency. The creation of the advisory board has, however, brought this condition of things to an end. In the immediate future a new and larger venture of faith is to be made in 47 The Mountaineers the shape of a large industrial school, for the conviction has been growing in our minds that it is along industrial lines that the ulti- mate solution of the problem will be found. This does not mean, however, that the work will cease to be developed along other lines, or that religion will no longer be the most important factor in the work. But it means that the young people will be taught and trained to make a better use of what gifts and talents they possess, and to turn to better account the opportunities which lie ready for them in the communities in which they live. It means that there will be better and more comfortable homes; that there will be happier lives, because more full of varied interests; that there will be more prosperous communities; and that there will be a higher and better standard of living, physically, morally, and spiritually. 48 This page in the original text is blank. --> REV. B. M. SPURR of the South Missionary Work in West Virginia BY ARCHDEACON B. M. SPURR It was when doing chaplain's work in the The Call State Penitentiary at Moundsville, W. Va., to the Work that the Missionary discovered that, while most of the white convicts came from the districts of the Blue Ridge and the Alle- ghenies and were men. often eager to be taught the Way of Life, they had had neither the home training, the necessary schooling nor the service of the Church among the mountains and valleys from which they came. The The Church here at Moundsville was small, Situation paying a salary of 400.oo a year, for nigh twenty-eight years. One of the parishioners said that it took one month at the beginning of the year to get the subscription list and three months at the end of the year with a horse and buggy to collect the same. How 49 The Mountaineers then was it possible that any work, outside of the regular parish life should be carried on Another thing troubled one, the town was sup- supposed to be "prohibition," and yet by ac- tual count fourteen "speak-easies" or what are in other places called "blind-tigers" were do- ing a profitable but destructive business. The About this time the Missionary received Beginning an invitation to address a congregation in Ascension Church, New York, where the needs of the work and the ardent prayers of the speaker for his people moved at least one friend to determine to help him carry out his plans. This friend Mrs. asked the speaker to lunch and then demanded,-" How much can you raise towards this new build- ing" The answer came promptly, "3,000." "Then 'raise it,' and I will furnish the rest," which proved afterwards to be about i8,ooo. What this building was will be shown by an incident which occurred as follows: As the building was nearing completion the Missionary was accosted by one of the poor white men with these queries: 50 of the South "Say, Rector, is that (pointing to the new building) going to be a Church building" "Surely. " "Air you going to have a bowling alley" "Yes, two." "And a pool room and gymnasium" "Yes! Indeed. " "And baths and a place where you can borrow books" "Surely." "Then they tell me, yer are going to have The a place to eat and sleep the people in, air "Church ye" "Well not exactly as you say 'eat and Hotel" sleep 'em,' but we are going to serve meals and have rooms to rent like the regular hotel. " "Then air you going to have a place for the women of the Church to sew and do other things in" "We could not get along with- out that." "Then they tell me you are going to have a 'kitternergarten' in that Church Hotel, are ye" "Well we hope so." Then said the man with emphasis "Yer cracked all around." It has been a common thing for the Rector 51 The Mountaineers in school days, after uttering unusual things, to hear some one say, "Why man you are cracked," but to be "cracked all around" was a new view, and the listener did not know but what the man spoke the truth; for both the venture and the idea were new in the town where the scheme was to be tried. But why should a business venture under the auspices of a church be counted a thing increditable. The building was finally finished, and a call came from New York to meet the lady by whose command it had been begun. The Missionary remembers quite well how brightly the sun shone as he made his way up Fifth Avenue and how his heart danced for joy as he thought of the burden of debt soon to be removed. He had exceeded by far what the lady had expected and raised 8,ooo instead of 3,ooo and now he was to receive a check for 13,ooo and thus clear off the debt. But the crape on the door sent a chill of fear to the Missionary's heart, and the burden became almost unendurable as 52 of the South the man who answered the door said, "I am sorry, Sir, the Mistress died suddenly last night without speaking a word." There had been no time for a will and no provision had been made by the dead friend for the debt contracted in putting up the new building. The Missionary's condition on hearing these words was the same that morning as on another morning later, when it had been his work to minister to a con- demned man on the scaffold in a prison death-house where after having said the prayer, he saw the victim of the law drop through the trap from time into eternity and coming down the scaffold steps was greeted by the Warden with the words, "Why Rector! you look as though you had been hung." And that was almost true for the dead had ceased to feel pain while for nights the horror of that scene, likened to many another in the same place, was in every dream or sleeping hour. So the Mis- sionary started his Missionary work with the handicap of that debt and has only re- 53 The Mountaineers ceived one gift of 3,ooo toward its reduc- tion. The remainder of the debt has been paid off by the natural earnings of the hotel and amusement part of the building. The Trinity Institute is, at this date, owned by the Diocese of West Virginia. Magnitude There are a vast number of interesting and incidents which might readily be told, but ShecWsorkf the command was "limit this article" to so many words. So it is almost sufficient to say, that this building was a thorough suc- cess both in its hotel, amusement, library, and school part; there being an average of attendance in the latter of 104 children, whilst over 400 men and women constituted the membership of the Institute. What we aimed to do was to aid each man, and woman, and child to help him or herself and, when they gave evidence of trying to do this, to give the help they were unable to provide. The In the Kindergarten we accepted a limited Kinder- number of the children of the best families garten in the town and these coming in contact, in all the school hours as well as very often in 54 of the South the street, with the poorest possible kind of children gave to the latter the contrast and impulse needed to aid them in their struggle for cleanliness and betterment of manners. It would be well if we could remember that children, without reference to grade or rank, are more sensitive to their surroundings than grown-ups; but this fact is very largely overlooked and forgotten in child-training. So the ills and woes of childhood, whilst real and potent and giving either the greatest joy or the keenest pain, are looked upon by many as simply indications of the child and not the real feelings of a human being. The school rooms were opened but, look- ing at those who had gathered within their walls, one was struck, at once, with the fact that the very poorest children, for whom the work had really been begun, were repre- sented only by a minority; hence it was neces- sary to go out and compel them to come in. Knocking at one of the doors of a poor shanty, in a street not far away, the Mission- ary asked a woman, who answered the knock, 55 The Mountaineers for two of her children-she had five "Molly, I want May and Clara to put them in school." "What for, the Kitternergarden" "Yes. " "Nuh! ye can't have em." "But look here Molly, you cannot keep them clean and clothe them, at least you don't; let me have them and I will care for them." "What! Ye'll give them shoes and stock- ings" "Yes, indeed." "And a dress and coat" "Surely." "And a hood" "Yes." "Then you can take the whole lot of 'em." May and Clara were taken to the school and received at the hands of the matron their first real bath. When properly dressed and brought back to the missionary he recognized instantly, that had he not known that the two children had gone out and that they were to come back, he would not have been able to tell that the two youngsters, cleansed and happy, were the ones he had brought to the matron. Taking the younger by the hand he went back to the mother's .56 of the South cabin, the child dancing along in perfect glee and joy; she now had real new things, not "hand-me-downs," for the first time. The mother came to the door and said, "Why, sir! the children have not come back." And then the "we un" who had stood behind the Missionary came out and set up a chirp- ing, chuckling laugh. The mother, greatly astonished, said, "Why, May, is that you" But that was really nothing. Clinging to the mother's dress was the dirtiest kind of a Home child about two years old. The mother Reform looked at the clean child, and then at the dirty one, and again at the clean child, then picking up the bottom part of her dress put it in her mouth and streaked the dirtiest spots off the youngest child's face. That was the beginning of civilization, if cleanli- ness means civilization. Every day when the clean children came home from the kindergarten, and stood by the side of the dirty ones, Molly realized how very dirty the latter were. The clothes and shoes had been given to the children with the distinct 57 The Mountaineers understanding that they were to be kept and worn by the children only so long as the mother kept them clean and presentable; and whilst Molly didn't like the cleaning process in any stage, neither did she like the idea of giving up the clothes, and, as she didn't want to enable Mrs. Adam to get ahead of her, she reluctantly did her best to keep the children presentable. It is not to be understood from this, that they were as clean as they might be or as desirable; but they were a good deal better than they had been, and this by a natural process which continued from day to day. All the children of the school were given at Eastertide pots of plants and were instructed in their proper care. Further they were told to bring these plants back at a certain time of the year when the care and attention given to them were rewarded by prizes. This, of course, gave great delight to the children, but that was only part of the work of the plants, for the children had been told that unless windows be properly cleansed .58 This page in the original text is blank. 3 tI4 z 1. 0 w z4 of the South plants cannot live and flourish. Cleaning the windows revealed dusty and dirty places in the floor, shelves, window-frames, nooks, and crannies; and this revelation led, in the majority of cases, to the scouring of the houses and thus again were the children helped toward a betterment of life. Visiting among these poor people who lived in shacks, cabins, old houses, and in boats on the banks of the river one saw great distress and misery. Typhoid fever, malaria, and various other diseases caused much suf- fering. There was no provision either by hospital or infirmary for the care of the poor, while the sick ex-convicts, and outcast women in the time of their need had no proper place to go. This led to the establishment at Glendale of what was called "God's Provi- dence Home," recalling to mind the old text graven in the oak on the house in Chester, England, "God's Providence is mine Inherit- ance." Without regard to race or religion, simply because of their need, all who asked help were given it promptly at this refuge. Beginnings of Hospital Work 59 The Mountaineers Reynolds Then the need became greater, and a friend Memorial and her daughter in New York gave the Hospital means for establishing Reynolds Memorial Hospital, where those who are sick and with- out means are daily cared for "In His Name;" that men may understand that the Christ is not dead, but ever lives; that we are not to look for His coming again as a thing of the fu- ture, but rather that He daily comes in every act of kindness or gracious word spoken; and that His raising the dead, healing the sick, and giving sight to the blind is a matter of hourly incident where His work is done in a hospital, or in a prison, or in any place where human need is apparent, and is relieved. In this hospital between five and six hun- dred patients are taken care of every year, of whom not less than fifty per cent. are cared for free of charge. From twelve to sixteen young women are being educated in the Training School for the career of nurses. Four of these graduate each year. These undergraduate nurses are housed in the northern wing of the hospital which was 60 This page in the original text is blank. z ;z ri of the South erected in I902, while the main building was completed in i899. On the grounds of the hospital are raised all the vegetables needed for the inmates. A well equipped dairy provides milk for the sick, and both dairy and garden also earn a considerable sum of money each year from the sale of the surplus produce. When Henry Drummond was leaving Japan, he promised the Japanese more men for the mission work in that country, and one replied to him, "Send us no more men of doctrine. We want 'the cup of cold water man.' We understand him." So in all this work, while people may not understand much of what we say in the pulpit or its practical direction, they can never misunderstand the effort to bless and save the sick, or fail to know that this is what the Master would have us do. In the eastern end of the Diocese, on the Blue Ridge Mountains five miles from Charleston and across the Shenadoah River, we have St. Andrew's Mission. In the midst 61 The Mountaineers of twenty acres of beautiful land "The Sarah Upham Upham Sprague Memorial House," given by Sprague Mrs. Walter Baylies of Boston, stands- Memorial practically the Settlement House for twenty House miles of territory. Within its walls dwell the teachers of the school, the district nurse, and the clergyman who ministers at this point and at Christ Church twelve miles away. The nurse has a regular line of drugs and does the work of a doctor as well as a nurse. The physician lives miles away, so the nurse visiting the sick, reports symptoms to the doctor who prescribes over the 'phone; the nurse compounds the prescription and sees to its being administered to the sick patient. What this work of the district nurse means only those can understand who have visited the mountain cabins, or know from experience the unspeakable poverty and need of those to whom she ministers. Not only does the nurse minister to the sick but by actual work shows the necessity of a clean home, clean bed linen, and clean personal appear- ance, and thus aids the progress expected by 62 I., D c; A: -e L- .tJ This page in the original text is blank. of the South all who have the work at heart. The gospel of soap and water and properly prepared food and the Gospel of Christ go hand in hand, and who shall deny their power The missionary remembers well his first service in this church. The women occupied one side of the house and the men the other; st. An- the women with children occupied the two drew's first seats, and the children of these same Church women occupied the floor of the chancel. That service was a game of hide and seek as far as the officiating minister was concerned; and the condition of his garments afterward gave emphasis to the fact that he knew ex- actly what a Turkish bath could be without entering a bath house. Right in the middle of the service another incident, amusing and perplexing, occurred. A man, bucket in hand, went from seat to seat and ladled out to the thirsty such water as he deemed necessary, but all with the air of "this is the proper thing." This was quite startling and thoroughly disconcerting to the un- initiated and in utter contrast to the orderly 6 33 The Mountaineers and reverent conduct of the congregation which now assemble from week to week in that same church. The Lippitt Memorial Hall is the great Llppltt Memorial place of our activities; within its walls are Hall found the various instrumentalities for giving the children an excellent education, fitting them for entrance into the high school, teaching them carpentry, millinery, dress- making, basket work, in fact every thing that will conduce to more habitable dwelling, palatable eating, and sanitary conditions of living. There is not a cabin on the moun- tains for miles around but what bears abun- dant evidence of the practical value and power of this work. The young children will walk from five to eight miles to school almost regardless of the condition of the weather; men from twenty-five to sixty-two years of age will hasten four or five miles to night school, although during the day some of them have labored hard in the quarries and have walked to and from their work, twelve miles at least, to learn the three R's and 64 54 pi m: This page in the original text is blank. of the South manual work in our Industrial Hall; these things should be abundant evidence not only of the need of the work, but also of the eager desire of the mountaineers to receive what is offered. The next school on our list is at Ansted on Ansted the Allegheny Mountains. Here we have a School day school where the children receive instruc- tion in regular school work, while in addition a regular course of training in the industrial branches is given by the teachers in charge. It is not only that the school work is more efficient but it means the difference between a three months term and a nine months term, and thus enables the children to make a steady progress quite different from what they would obtain in a district school, and they have the added advantage of a Christian training. In this building we have also the reading room, library, billiards and pool tables, for the men who take eager advantage of the provisions thus made. In this part of the work, the cry is not, "Don't go to the saloon," but rather, "Come 65 The Mountaineers hither for the best that can be provided of diversion and amusement." The county of Fayette in which this school is located is one of the smallest in the state. There are 56 counties in the state, and from these we have 834 prisoners, of which number 136 come from the county of Fayette. This ought to speak volumes as to the need of the work. The Missionary in charge at this point has sixteen other places in which he holds services. Sheltering The Sheltering Arms Hospital began its Arms work eighteen years ago. It provides for Hospital the care of the miners and railroad men who are brought to its doors almost every day crushed, bleeding, and mangled. That it has enough to do is abundantly evidenced by the fact that every room and ward within the building is crowded, and that even the hallways have to be occupied by those who need the care of nurses and physicians. It is not only the mine and railroad that pro- vide patients, but the unsanitary condition of thousands of the houses provides a great 66 number of patients suffering from typhoid and other diseases. Sometimes we are asked, " But does not the State provide for such cases" and readily comes the answer, "Absolutely no." If a man be injured in a mine or on the railroad he can go to the State Hospital, seventy miles away, and be taken care of, but should he be suffering from typhoid, or any other disease, the state makes no provision for him. Only a man- gled, crushed, or burnt body opens the doors of the State Hospital. Every one experienced in hospital work will bear witness that the greater number of patients is found among the women, and the least number among the children, though the latter need occasional aid. But the fact that you are not a man, hurt in the mine or on the railroad, is the only reason why the state makes no provision for you. "Women and children have no votes." The maimed man is provided for by the state, but the maimed or sick woman or child have no pro- vision made for them whatever. 67 of the South The Mountaineers Growth of Eighteen years ago Bishop Peterkin started Hospital this work in an old house. From year to year additions have been made, until the last addition that can be has been added, and still there is not room to contain the number that comes. Sixty to sixty-five patients are crowded into a building which has only fair provision for forty. And every day bears witness that something must be done to increase the accommodations. So the Missionary drew plans and then, with the Bishop as partner, went through the coal fields and mountain districts of the southern part of the state and earnestly pleaded, with those who had means to give help, in the endeavor for the new building. Courteously they were listened to, and ap- parently gladly helped. They received from the people, subscribing i.oo and upwards, 25,000 towards the erection of the new Sheltering Arms. With this fact for a basis of a plea the Missionary went to the North and received from his many friends there inore than mere encouragement. 68 of the South The two new buildings will cost 70,000. They are located in the midst of thirteen acres of ground. At one end of the ground is the old hospital. At the other end the church and rectory; the new building stands midway between. It is in this field of labor that the woman missionary, provided by The Board of Mis- sions, is located and has done a most efficient work. Last year the old hospital took care of 648 patients, of whom practically all were free. Whilst the Training School for Nurses, which is run in connection with this Hospital, sent out six graduate nurses in i906. In these various works we have three clergymen, one, the Archdeacon, being with- oTftheSpe out any cost whatever to the Church, either Work in the shape of salary or traveling expenses. Besides these three there are twenty-six nurses in the Training School for Nurses and four district nurses who do regular work out- side among the poor. Twelve hundred patients are cared for yearly by the two 69 The Mountaineers hospitals, and nearly i,300 emergency cases are cared for by the district nurses. In the schools 200 children are educated, many of whom have to be clothed and shod. An average of 40 discharged prisoners are helped annually, while I ,248 convicts in prison are ministered to constantly by personal visits and gifts of magazines, pictures, books and Bibles. To carry on this work costs 38,ooo each year, of which sum we earn and raise within the diocese 23,000. So that it is evident to all that every effort must be put forth by us before we ask any one else to lend us aid. Of course this 23,ooo has no reference whatever to the new buildings which from pendltuEres time to time must be erected, but only means the account for daily bread and housing of those who work and those who are ministered unto. Except for the old Sheltering Arms Hospital and large help given by the Rev. Mr. Lewis for Ansted, the rest of the build- ings have been put up and the work sup- ported by the friends of the Missionary, out- 70 of the South side and within the diocese. All these properties, together with the new building now being erected, are valued conservatively at 239,000 with a possible debt of 25,000 which we are perfectly sure will exist but for a short space of time. Making a plea for this work always commands a ready response and an abundant provision to carry it on. Any sum of money is earnestly asked to aid the discharged prisoner, and outcast woman, or to meet the incidental expenses of the Hospitals, Schools and Churches, thus to keep the Missionary from those worries which hamper and burden, far more than all the work put together. We need the prayers of all those who love the Lord, and who show that love by their love and tenderness to humanity; praying that our hands may be strengthened, our souls blessed, and that without pride, but with all vigor and assurance, we may do the work of Him who died to save. "Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God." The Appeal 71 The Mountaineers Missions and Schools in the District of Asheville. BY THE REV. WALTER HUGHSON The mission and school work in Western North Carolina began with the efforts of Bishop Ives at Valle Crucis in the forties. An account of this is given on another page. The Reverend John A. Deal, in Macon and Besnneingle Clay counties, established an extensive work District before the making of this new missionary district. In I894 the Reverend Churchill Satterlee came to Morganton. Shortly after his coming he found the need of schools and he established five of them at various points around the town. They were successful and when he left in igoo his successor, the writer, found them in a flourishing condition. During the six years of the latter's charge of this work the five schools grew to eight and a mission was started at each place. He has 72 A 45 A 45 a To E. w a- z to d :9 Fe X 4) cS 3, This page in the original text is blank. been over all the western part of the state and he is prepared to say without hesitancy that he found more poverty, illiteracy, and need in Burke County than in any other place that he has ever visited. But the work made tremendous changes, and wherever the Church went there came a transformation within three years. The missions were started where there was great need for edu- cation, and as soon as success was apparent, a "free" school was often built, not always with the best motives but often from a standpoint of jealous competition. The free school-house and meeting house often went hand in hand. The Church painted its buildings, and then the neighboring chap- els and school-houses, many of them never painted before, began to clean and paint up. The Church in every way has been a tremen- dous example for good. During the past few years the mill work has Work been strongly developed. The poorest moun- the m taineer and his family have been brought People down from the far away mountain, cove or of the South 7:3 The Mountaineers valley and put in the "mill row. " Our efforts with these people have been most successful. They responded quickly to appeal, and at the Morganton mill the owners became greatly in- terested and built a good school-house which is also used for a chapel. The same thing was done at High Shoals. The greatest oppor- tunity for this mill work is in Gastonia in Gas- ton County, where there are between forty and fifty mills. Up to this time nothing has been done there, solely from the lack of funds. The Reverend W. H. Hardin is anxiously waiting for the opportunity. He is in charge of the work in this county and one of the most -consecrated and energetic men in the district. Every year the needs press upon us, peo- ple are continually coming to us and repeat- ing the old cry, "Come over and help us." After the burning of the old rectory at Morganton in I902, a large and substantial Rectory rectory and mission house was built, by the and Mission assistance of our friends all over the country, House as and made the centre of the work there. The Centre teachers, who worked in the town, lived at 74 This page in the original text is blank. z 4: 4: Q 4: 0 Nz Ti Ed A: of the South the rectory; the clothing bureau had a special room in the house; in a corner of the same room a dispensary was started. In 1904 the Visiting Nurse came and took up her part of the work, and lived at the rectory. The nurs- ing work developed so rapidly that an appeal was made for a hospital. The response came quickly. A lot across from the rectory was purchased and a beautiful hospital was built and fully equipped. It has done great serv- Clothing Bureau and ice for the past year. The hospital has saved Hospital at least twenty lives. It is by far the most successful work that has been started in the District. From the Morganton rectory there radiate roads to every point in the compass, leading to a mission and school. The results of the past six years are an illustration of what has been accomplished elsewhere. In round numbers: Baptisms ................... 375 Confirmations ......... ...... 175 School children .............. 400 Members of Sunday schools ... 700 75 The Mountaineers A rectory, three school houses, one mission station and a hospital have been built. Hender- At Hendersonville, the Reverend R. N. sonvllle, Willcox has in successful operation three etc. schools and missions, all started in the past three years. At Lincolnton, there are three schools, and near the city of Asheville in the district called the Ravenscroft Associate Mission, there are four schools and two more at Biltmore. At Tryon and Saluda, under the direction of the Reverend E. N. Joyner, a successful educational work is carried on. The Waynesville group has three schools with two more to be started at once. A most beau- tiful chapel has just been built at Balsam. The plan in this District is to have a town parish as a centre where an associate priest, when possible, and the teachers and workers make up the Associate Mission. The plan Associate has worked well with the exception of mak- Mission ing a parish the centre; the interests of parish Plan and missions are so different, in this partic- ular field, that in some ways it has its serious draw-backs. 76 E. P.. A.. A 0 pa 94 w 0 AB 2 u ;D 0n IY 4 z This page in the original text is blank. of the South 77 The industrial school for boys, founded by the Reverend T. C. Wetmore, one of the most brilliant young men in this mission field who died in i906, is called Christ School and is located at Arden. It is continued by Mrs. Wetmore who is a fitting successor to her husband, consecrated to the work amongst Chrisl the boys and young men of the mountains. Arden The following table shows the extent of the work in the District of Asheville. It is thoroughly and well organized with as faith- ful a corps of clergymen, men and women workers as is to be found anywhere. 78 The Mountaineers Statistical Table DISTRICT OF ASHEVILLE No. of No. of SCHOOL Teach- Value of Schol- ers Property ars '07 Arden, Christ School, (Industrial) ... 6 11,000 125 Balsam, Holy Communion School.... 2 700 104 Bat Cave, Transfiguration School ..... 1 500 45 Bell, Haw Creek, Trinity School ........ 2 400 81 Biltmore, All Souls School .................. 5 20,000 112 Edneyville, St. Paul's School ... ........ 2 200 76 Franklin, St. Cyprian's School ............ 1 2,500 45 High Shoals, St. John's School.... 2 ........... 33 Lenior, St. James' School ..........1....... I ........ 25 Lincolnton, St. Luke's School 1........... I . 1 . 30 Lincoln Co.,Ch. of Our Saviour ....1.... I ..... .. 1 25 Micadale, St. Mary's School .... ......... 2 1,800 50 Morganton, Good Shepherd School.. 2 450 57 St. George's School ......... 1 600 33 St. Mary's School .... .... . 1 350 28 St. Margaret's School 1.... 1,000 82 St. Michael's School .... .. 1 400 30 St. Paul's School ............ 1 600 40 Rutherfordton, St. Francis School 1 .. ...... 15 Saluda, Transfiguration School .. 2 ........... 81 Tryon, Holy Cross School 1... ............ 12 Upward, St. John Baptist School.....1 500 49 Valle Crucis, Holy Cross (Indust.).. 3 525,000 60 I- t; 04 z This page in the original text is blank. of the South 79 Comparative Expenses of Mission and City Church Work 1901 Confir- Expen- Baptisms mations ditures Waynesville Missions and Schools .... 75 50 S 2,500 Lincointon ........................... 26 21 2,150 M organton ............. .... ........................ 79 52 3,500 Totals for three Asheville groups.. 180 123 8,150 St. George's, New York ................ ... 181 204 74,683 St. Bartholomew's, New York ........ 62 121 147,445 Holy Trinity, Philadelphia ........ ....... 34 90 40,626 The Saviour, Philadelphia ................. 53 45 16,821 Emmanuel, Boston ........................... 33 27 23,838 Holy Trinity, Brooklyn ......... .......... 24 29 39,509 Comparative cost of Missionary Work in the District of Asheville with that of typical parishes doing aggressive work in large cities. The Asheville expenditures include all money used for improvements as well as for actual cur- rent expenses. The Mountaineers The Valle Crucis Mission and School BY THE REV. E. N. JOYNER OF THE DISTRICT OF ASHEVILLE The discovery of the "Vale of the Cross," with its regions round about, is due to science, that noble twin brother of true religion. Their union for truth seeking and world en- lightenment, of which this is an impressive illustration, has been manifested often enough to declare them offsprings of Jehovah. "The works of God above, below, Within us, and around, Are pages in His book to show Where God Himself is found." Thus said George Herbert; and sufficiently large minded was he to know that the rever- ent seeker after knowledge, among the things that are made, is ever a worthy co-laborer with the devout believer in the invisible 0 -4 0 A: 0 94 0 04 0 06 This page in the original text is blank. of the South things of creation, even His eternal powei and Godhead. This long remote, almost inaccessible region of the Wautauga valley, lying between the Blue Ridge and Allegheny ranges of mountains, was, to the world at large, a terra Discovery incognita until the year i840. It was then that an enthusiastic botanist, from New York, after exploring the eastern districts of North Carolina, had the hardihood to penetrate this part of the "land of the sky" for the purpose of studying its plant life. Hap- pily, this botanist was no less profound in his love of that branch of science, in his skill and industry in its pursuit, than in his faith in its Divine Creator. Many revelations awaited him. The varied and luxuriant flora, the water courses, so multiplied in number and fascinating in character, the transcendent beauty and grandeur of the scenery, the heights and depths of mountain and valley, the angry storms and tender skies, were thrilling and exalting to mind and soul. What a revelation all this was to the im- 81 The Mountaineers pressionable student. Yet there were in- sights hitherto hidden, apparently, from mor- tal vision. It was into the human aspect that the scientific journeyman looked. He saw things which stirred his soul within him. As he wandered to and fro, in and out of this wilderness of nature, he was struck also with the wildness, the isolation, and desolateness of the children of men. It was thinly settled. Here and there, at usually long distances, was a cabin household, the character of the household of a piece with that of the cabin. There was no want of welcome, and hospital- ity was by no means lacking of such sort as the semi-benighted dwellers could afford. This pronounced virtue with other encour- aging characteristics did but intensify the pathos of the situation. Here were people bound to an enforced state of ignorance, often living in squalor, hemmed in by environ- ments forbidding but controlling. For the men there was little of productive industry in reach, whatever their inclination; they were confined to hunting and fishing, 82 of the South whiskey making, or desultory trading, chiefly a stagnating species of barter; the women with no outlook of hope, stolidly drudging in the work of the household, tilling the little opening on the stubborn mountain side, tend- ing the cow, the chickens, and the pigs; the young men and women approaching maturity without the moral sense of self-restraint or discretion; the children-(and, oh, the awful pity) the children let loose like little an- imals, stunted, rather than increasing in stature with the days and years, dwarfed and deformed from the image of their maker. It was a scholarly layman into whose soul all this found its way, and filled him with the spirit of missions. When this explorer returned to civiliza- tion he had two quite distinct reports to ren- der. To the society of the scientific he could give enthusiastic testimony to the wealth of this region, as he had witnessed and thor- oughly investigated its marvellous maga- zine of nature product. But to another order of society he had also an account to give, the 83 The Mountaineers spiritual, whose power and responsibility it was to carry the Word of Redemption to the men, women, and children confined to this wild locality. Bishop Ives was then the loyal and beloved head of the Church in North Carolina. And lie was by both nature and grace enthusiastic in good works. To him the returning bota- nist related his observations of the moun- tain folk. The heart and soul of the Bishop were moved mightily and, like a true servant of the Son of Man, he prepared to carry suc- cour to those scant-lived dwellers in the wil- derness. Upon his visitation to the western portions of his vast episcopal estate that year, he resolved to push through this un- known territory. On July 20th, 1842 he held the first service in the Wautauga Valley. Let him speak, through his convention ad- dress of that year, of his impressions and resolutions. "While my sympathies were deeply ex- cited in view of that great spiritual destitu- tion, my admiration was at the same time Start Uender Bishop Ives 84 of the South awakened by the simplicity of their charac- ter, and the deep earnestness of their petition for instruction. I addressed a few of them on their wants, and promised to send, the moment it should be in my power, a mission- ary who should teach them the rudiments of knowledge and preach to them the Word of God." The Bishop set about promptly the ful- filment of that promise. It was as soon as the December following that the Reverend Henry H. Prout was sent to be the mission- ary herald to this simple folk. Thence for- ward the story of the Valle Crucis Mission is a romance. If tragedy lends unction to the interest of the so-called novel, the reader may find it in the pages of Valle Crucis, not alone the living sacrifices of men and women but the keener kind which over- shadows the battle ground of the soul. Mr. Prout was a peculiarly single hearted man. He at once plunged into the work for Work of which he was sent. The people were scat- Mr. Prout tered and the problem was how to get them 85 The Mountaineers together. The tale is told in a little book, "William West Skiles, a Sketch of Mission- ary Life at Valle Crucis in Western North Carolina, I842-I862." One extract here telling of Mr. Prout's procedure in getting the people together depicts more than that mere occurrence. "The nearest cabins were scattered about, within the distance of a dozen miles, along the banks of the streams on the mountain sides, or in the forest glens. The first of these parochial visits was characteristic of First many others. Following the bank of the Services stream, climbing over fallen timber, or creep- ing under the great moss covered fallen trunks, the Missionary came at last to a solitary cabin. It appeared desolate and deserted. At first he thought it uninhabited, but as he drew near he discovered smoke rising from the low chimney and perceived the smell of beef boiling. He knocked. The door opened and a wild looking woman ap- Edited by Susan Fenimore Cooper, James Pott Co., Publishers, 1890. 86 Where an outdoor service was held "Never saw a preacher in robes before" This page in the original text is blank. of the South peared, amazed and bewildered by this civil- ized visitor. She gave him the usual back- woods salutation, 'What mout your name be' 'What mout your business be' He was invited in, however, and made welcome after a rude fashion. A small rough table stood on the earthern floor; opposite the great yawning chimney stood a bench against the wall; these, with the iron pot on the crane, were the chief furniture of this mountain cabin. The Missionary explained his errand, which excited a sort of dull wonder. The Gospel message was respectfully received, however, and the good man passed on to an- other cabin, by like rough paths. Thus the week was spent, and the blessed Lord's Day came around. The service was held in a cabin at the 'lower settlement.' It was well attended. Men and women came strag- gling in, many on foot, some on horse-back, the wife, in sunbonnet and straight narrow gown, riding behind her husband. Here and there a woman was seen, mounted on a steer, while her husband walking beside 87 The Mountaineers them, goad in hand, guided the animal over the rough path. The women all wore sun- bonnets, or handkerchiefs tied over their heads. Some were bare footed. There were more feet than shoes in the congregation. This was no doubt the first service of our Church held in that region. It was declared to be the first religious service of any kind held in the valley for seven years. The sim- ple folk showed themselves interested and grateful. Regular services followed, and as a consequence of the naturally civilizing effect of a reverent and dignified worship, the people began, of their own accord, to wash and mend their clothing more care- fully, to aim at a more respectable appear- ance in public worship for themselves and their children. The cabin in which the serv- ices were held soon became too small. The school began. A school house of logs, large enough for the Sunday services, was built. New improvements appeared, and at the end of several months, a visitor who had known the hamlet earlier, declared-so cheering the The Results 488 the Missionary's heart-that he could not have believed that so great a change for the better could have taken place in so short a time. Those wild pupils became very dear to the servant of God. They tried very hard to learn their lessons well. Occasion- ally some of the parents would come in and pore intently over the spelling books. All did their best. Every now and then the lessons ceased and a simple hymn was sung, in which all joined, feeling that it was a grand thing to sing the Lord's praise. The verse that was most frequently heard was the doxology." The results in the early labors in Ashe County, now Wautauga County, reported by the missionary in i843, were as follows: "Baptisms, one; Marriages, three; Burials, four; Confirmations, one." During the past year about fifty children have been instructed in the catechism. Twenty-five Prayer Books have been distributed. A catechetical li- brary of one hundred volumes, furnished by the Bishop, has been in general circulation. 99 of the South The Mountaineers Still one more quotation "In the month of August, i843, Bishop Ives again visited this valley. He became so much charmed with the country, and so much interested in the people, that he proposed making this ground the site of important missionary work for the Diocese. He took the first step toward or- ganizing the mission by purchasing a tract of land. The little valley itself contained one hundred and twenty-five acres of level land, one-third of which was under culti- vation. This was purchased for I ,500. Later additions, adapted to grazing, or val- uable for timber, amounted in all to two thousand acres. The Bishop proposed to place in this valley a training school for the ministry, a missionary station, and a classical and agricultural school for the boys. In August, i844, contracts were made for clear- ing the land and putting up the necessary buildings, which included a saw mill, a log kitchen, a dining room of adobe, a dwelling house of four rooms of hewn logs, and a frame building of boarded walls, con- The Pro- posal of Bishop Ives and its Ful- fliment 90 of the South taining a school-room on the ground floor, beneath which a basement, walled and floored with brick, was afterward excavated the whole length of the building, through a cut in the hillside, that was used for the chapel. To these buildings others were added. A house of adobe two stories high with a cellar below, a large frame barn with a brick base- ment for the stables, a blacksmith shop, and several log cabins for laborers. These were scattered about in pleasing positions near each other." The origin of the name is a matter of inter- Origin of est, since it has become a Carolina classic. the name To quote from the same book: "The valley, entirely shut in by forest clad mountains, is watered by three limpid streams, two of them leaping down the hillsides in foaming cas- cades; the principal stream formed by the junction, after a short course of about two miles, passes through a narrow gorge, and throws itself into the Wautauga. The waters rush over the rocky bed of the stream, and the many lesser brooks leap down the moun- 91 The Mountaineers tain side, and fill the air with an unceasing murmur, now loud and full, and again more gentle and subdued. It is this secluded val- ley which, from the cross-like form of the three streams at their junction, was now to re- ceive the name, 'Valle Crucis.' The visitor to this valley, let it be said, will find himself disappointed if he expects to see from the main building or the roadway along past it the cross-vale clearly defined. One must find the vision from certain mountain side elevations, whence the stream-sketched sign of our redemption is distinctly revealed." The Scope The Mission was expected to cover a cir- Msohisn cuit of thirty-five miles in the adjoining mountain region. The school, the first year, was not alto- gether a success. It was looked upon by some of the people as a reformatory, and the bad conduct of some of the boys was used as an argument against Church teaching. But improvement was at hand. Mr. Jarvis Buxton, a candidate for Holy Orders, took charge. The theological stu- 92 of the South 93' dents pursued their studies with courage and devotion, and the missionary work was car- ried on by Reverend Mr. Prout. William West Skiles, a middle aged man, came to Valle Crucis from Eastern Carolina in i844. At first he did all kinds of work in the different departments. In a year, under the influence of his surroundings, he became a candidate for deacon's orders. He was then thirty-eight years old. He was general superintendent, and prepared himself at the same time for the ministry. An interesting event in i846 was the bap- tism, of a young man, by immersion, at the junction of the three streams that form the cross. Mr. Skiles was ordained deacon in I847. In this year the work at Valle Crucis became strictly religious. It included the divinity school and the missions. The services, it is Said, were beautifully rendered, and speaking of the people "it seemed as if Christ was in- deed their life." In this same year Bishop Ives organized "The Order of The Holy The Work of Wm. West Skiles The Mountaineers Cross." The Reverend William French was appointed Superior of the new order. No member of the Order ever left the Church. Mr. French's brother, who was a student at Valle Crucis at the time, is now in charge of a parish in Connecticut. Its lIpor- The Committee on the "State of the tanee Church" reported to the convention of I848 as follows: "The importance of this insti- tution to the diocese is immense as the nur- sery of a future ministry. It appears to possess peculiar advantages for this work, not only from the retirement, for the time being, of its students from the distractions of society, and the hardy and useful disci- pline to which they are inured, but also in the great economy with which it can be con- ducted, your committee being informed that fifty dollars a piece, per annum, may be made to cover all necessary expenses, except those for clothing. It has been placed under the charge of a highly capable presbyter, and is supported by the self-denying labors of a body of young men who have literally left 94 all for Christ. Still it needs the fostering care of the members of the Church." The trials and privations became very great, but the mission work prospered and at that time there was also a colored congre- gation, holding a service every Sunday even- ing. Among the theological students there was for some time a colored man. The place was indeed very inaccessible. Mr. Skiles wrote that it took him three weeks to make the journey from Central Carolina. The possible defection of the Bishop created a great trouble in the diocese, but the mission work was carried on with uninterrupted success, until in I850, the "Order of the Holy Cross" was given up. By I852 the divinity students had all been ordained and gone into other fields, and there were but two men re- maining, Mr. Prout and Mr. Skiles. In September, i852, Bishop Ives left the diocese, and in December following went over to the Roman Church, after an episcopate that had lasted more than twenty years. No one followed him. During the few years prior to The Break- up of the First Mis- sion 95 of the South The Mountaineers his defection he was in poor health, mentally and physically. If Bishop Ives had remained in the Church, Valle Crucis would probably have been the Nashotah of the South. Bishop Atkinson visited Valle Crucis in 1854, soon after his consecration. The mis- sion and school were continued until the death of Mr. Skiles in I862. After that the work was continued as a mission until Bishop Cheshire was made the ecclesiastical head of the diocese. Bishop Upon Bishop Cheshire's succession he rec- Cheshire's ognized the opportunity presented here, and VWgorkus promptly resumed its furtherance. All the land had been lost to the Church, the build- ings had gone into decay, most of them into utter ruin. The Bishop vigorously pursued the task of restoring the work to order and prosperity, until the District of Asheville was established in i 895, and he was no longer in charge of this portion of the State. Work The present Bishop of Asheville came to the under District in I898, seeing the opportunity, Homer appreciated it as a land of promise for the 9 6 r- 4 . -.4 rg w . ; A .,d: E-4 :3 0la z a 04 2 4 . = C. H -14 -6 :D - This page in the original text is blank. Church. The history of the Mission, its vicissitudes, the sacrifices associated with it, but chiefly the conviction of its strategic situation for fruitful operations under the missionary genius of the Church, inspired him, as it had done Bishop Ives and his band, and those who followed him in the episcopate. The Bishop took measures, as soon as it be- came practicable, for the thorough re-estab- lishment and enlargement of this work. Filled with the sense of accountability to the people of this remote region,he has done all that he could in its development. Growth The region has become far more accessi- Against ble. In the days of Bishop Ives and Atkin- Obstacles son there were trails for roads, a scant popu- lation, and cabins for dwelling places. Grad- ually, the population has vastly increased, not only in numbers, but in intelligence, and loftier ideals, and a more varied industry for enterprise and occupation. The in- creased aggressiveness and wider compre- hension of some of our brethren of other re- ligious bodies we must recognize. But of the South 97 The Mountaineers there has been no room to doubt the Church's tenacity. Her refusal to give up even when failure and ruin seemed inevitable her sta- tions for missions which have since grown from this spot to Lenoir, to Morganton, even as far as to Asheville are proofs of this. The high example and thorough teaching of so many of those who, like their Master, went about doing good, Prout, Thurston, Bux- ton, Bland, Barber, Skiles, and many others have reflected the heart, mind, and soul of the Church of our Lord, and have wrought mightily in that land among the people. Railroads have approached much nearer, one within sixteen miles. The cabins have in many instances grown into houses. The teaching of cleanliness and cookery have made health conditions better. People of larger ideas have moved in; there has been a general looking upward, socially, indus- trially, and religiously. Toward all this the Church first saw and hewed the way. The vision of this way was vouchsafed to men of understanding, from Betterinent of Condi- tions. New Beginnings 98 of the South the learned layman who first prophesied to those of all orders in the Church. When the time came for new beginnings the present Bishop was not lacking in that power of vision; he has had the foresight to take the tide at the flood. The restoration and de- velopment of this mission has been a vast outlay, in money, time, and anxiety. It ought to signify much, that the concurrent judgment of so many of the Church have emphasized this vantage ground. A large central school building has been The New erected, the grounds fenced, and an apple School orchard planted with some sixteen hundred trees; it is hoped that this orchard will soon be a means of revenue. A factory for wagon building has just been completed. This whole plant is worth more than twenty-five thousand dollars. The purchase of the land, which is a part of the original tract bought by Bishop Ives, was made possible by the gift of the Woman's Auxiliary, from the United Offering of i9oi. The imprint of the influence of these peo- 99 The Mountaineers ple, first made sixty years and more ago, is seen in the conditions of to-day. It is hoped that with wise management the new school will soon be full of pupils and will be a cen- tre in Western North Carolina, in the District of Asheville, for the education of the youth of the land. Our presbyterian brethren, with that wisdom and foresight for which they are always to be credited, have estab- lished some twelve miles away from Valle Crucis two splendid schools for boys and girls which have a large attendance. We can do nothing better than follow their example although we started the work fifty years before them. The There is at present a strong mission centre Present at Valle Crucis. More than a hundred Valle members belong to the mission, with about Crucis a hundred children in the Sunday School and sixty in the day-school. Twenty baptisms and eighteen confirmations were reported in 1907. Five or six dependent mission stations radiate from it, and there is an equipment steadily strengthening; vast 1()0 F,, rid V. A 0 b C a- I This page in the original text is blank. of the South promise for the future, and all with a strong following. This Associate Mission is in i908 under the Valle Crucis care of the Reverend William R. Savage, Associate priest, conscientious in his duties. The Rev. Mission William H. Hardin was, until recently, the 1908 local missionary. For two years he stood steadfastly here, abundant in labors, the re- sult of which was a credit to him and the Church. The Reverend Hugh A. Dobbin, is now in local charge. A Mountaineer, he knows the people, and is making good head- way. The Reverend J. Norton Atkins also assists in the work of this group of missions. On Trinity Sunday, May 26, 1907, the last one of the members upon whom Bishop Ives laid hands, entered into the rest of Par- adise. This was Mrs. Polly Townsend, who had reached the ripe age of ninety-four. Her eldest son, now past seventy-five and living three miles from the chapel, never misses a service. He has given his time faithfully as sexton for many years, and all this not- 101 102 The Mountaineers withstanding the fact that he is a mail carrier and has to arise at three o'clock in the morn- ing for his duties in that business. To those who, for self indulgence or spiritual torpor, fail in their fidelity, this should be a rebuke; to these who seek but do not find at once, let it be an inspiration. Good brother Town- send has sought with all his heart, and in the services of the Church, and in his services to Her has found rest for his soul. The perpetuation of Valle Crucis depends not only on the wisdom of administration but on the genorosity of the people of the Church all over the land. of the South Christ School, Arden, North Carolina, in the District of Asheville This is an industrial and academic school, founded by the late Reverend Thomas C. Wetmore in i900. It is located one and a half miles east of Arden and ten miles south of Asheville near the Asheville and Spartan- burg Railroad. The object of the school is to help our young men and women to help themselves and to promote the spread of practical Chris- tianity. The school is supported almost entirely by friends outside of the State. The tuition is nearly always paid in work, which of course does not pay teachers' sal- aries. The board is given at actual cost, 6.oo per month. With a purpose to place the school within the reach of all whoprove themselves worthy, 103 The Mountaineers the school desires only young men and women who are earnestly striving to improve them- selves. No effort do we consider too great when helping those who are striving to help themselves. The dormitories accommodate thirty-five boys. From the educational standpoint Christ School certificats admit graduates to the State University. During the year 1907 there were 125 pupils, including both board- ers and day scholars. Great attention is given to industrial training, cooking, sewing, printing, telegraphy, and carpentering. All the teaching is thoroughly practical. The pupils range from nine to forty years of age. The Rev. Thomas C. Wetmore gave the last six years of his life to the work and left his unfinished task as a precious legacy to his widow. Since his death Mrs. Wetmore has carried on the school. 104 This page in the original text is blank. REV. FRANK B. WENTWORTH, ARCHDEACON OF THE DIOCESE OF LEXINGTON. KY. of the South Work of the Church in the Moun- tains of Kentucky BY THE VENERABLE F. B. WENTWORTH, ARCHDEACON, DIOCESE OF LEXINGTON, Ky. The Kentucky mountaineers have gained, Mountain- through the public press of this country, a eers of reputation for being a lawless and blood- Kentucky thirsty people, and all because a few of them have been involved in "Feuds" and the un- lawful business of making "moonshine" whiskey. It is not generally known, there- fore, that the great body of these mountain people are honest, self-respecting, and law- abiding citizens, and that the worst that can be said of them is that they are uneducated Character- and poor. Both of which are lamentable itics of but not disgraceful, and are the results of the people lack of facilities and opportunities. They are not moral degenerates or heathen; though 105 The Mountaineers less conventional as to the observance of the ordinary standards of morals and religion, as one would naturally expect from their isolated condition. It is often charged that the Kentucky Mountaineer is mentally de- ficient. On the contrary, he is more than ordinarily apt and intelligent. The unani- mous testimony of our teachers, who have had experience in some of our most impor- tant cities in this country, is to the effect that the Kentucky mountain children are the equal in natural mental capacity to any that have come under their care. Let me instance a few examples of the native strength of character and superior intellectual force of Men our mountain people. We refer to the Honorable George W. Macafee of Knox County, a mountain boy, who was for many years circuit court judge, afterwards ap- pointed minister to the Republic of Texas; the Honorable James Love, several times elected member of Congress and who be- came one of the most distinguished generals of the Confederate army; the Honorable 106 This page in the original text is blank. z 0 0 z4 z wi 0 0. of the South William Pitt Ballinger, recognized as one of the most profound lawyers that the state has produced, who afterward became one of the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States; the Honorable Green Adams, six years circuit judge, twice a member of Congress, four years one of the auditors of the United States Treasury during President Lincoln's administration; Judge Samuel F. Miller, appointed by President Lincoln one of the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States; and the Honorable Silas Wood- son, one of Kentucky's best orators, who was a member of the Constitutional Conven- tion, and afterward Governor of the State of Missouri. These are but a few instances that might be mentioned of mountain men who have been honored by the State and the Na- tion for their intellectual force and the bril- liancy of their utterances. If under all the disadvantages such men as these are produced from the mountain character, who will say that they are not naturally the equal of the people of any section of the country So 10)7 The Mountaineers much for the material. Now, a few words with reference to our efforts to reach and mould it. That which religion has not been able to Growth accomplish in the past, owing to the in- accessibility of these districts, business enter- prise has made possible by opening up the country. In many of the larger towns, quite com- modious chapels, as mountain chapels go, have been erected; and services are held by ministers at least once a month; missionaries, representing all of the prominent religious societies, are plodding through these valleys, and over the rugged mountains, carrying the Gospel of peace, love, and hope. Missionary schools, which usually have chapels and Sunday Schools connected with them, are sowing also the seeds of truth and righteous- ness, where once were ignorance and super- stition. In the strictly mountain districts we have seven organized missions and twenty-six mission stations. Of all these missions, but 108 C.) H E. z T4 0 0 0 C., on z v :r' 0 C. To This page in the original text is blank. of the South five have buildings that could be called church edifices. At the remainder we hold services in private houses, school-rooms or chapels belonging to our denominational brethren. Three clergymen are all the Bishop can Limltatlions afford to provide for all these points. Ef- forts are being made, however, to place four more missionaries in these districts. But in order to do so we shall need some gener- ous gifts. The Diocese cannot do this work alone. Notwithstanding our lack of funds, we have pushed forward our advance guards to the front; we have lengthened the cords and are now trying to strengthen our stakes. At Beattyville, Lee County, we have an Beattyville established mission, with a stone church, largely the gift of the late Bishop Dudley. The church is picturesquely situated upon the side of a foot hill of the mountain. Above it a large frame school building, and near by also a commodious rectory. Here we have thirty-seven communicants, a Sunday School and a parochial school. Reverend Alexan- 109 The Mountaineers der Patterson, one of our most faithful and efficient missionaries, has charge of this established mission and of twenty mission stations. Among them is Proctor, Lee County, where we have, in one respect and perhaps the best, the most promising out- look of all our missions. Here Mr. Patter- son has gathered together a Sunday School of seventy-five scholars. What a splendid foundation for a future parish. The school and Church services are held in an old building, once a tavern. The school building burned down in 1907 and the citizens have made a proposal to Bishop Burton to assist him in rebuilding the struc- ture. This the diocese was unable to do at that time but hopes to secure the money as soon as possible. It was, however, estimated that with a suitable building an attendance of at least a hundred pupils was assured, and it was determined to open a temporary school. A mountain girl, a graduate of Wesleyan Col- lege, was appointed assistant principal. It is called the Bishop Dudley Collegiate Institute. 1 10 This page in the original text is blank. I "CUMBERLAND GAP" IN THE DISTANCE of the South At Middlesboro, a beautiful little moun- tain town, nestling between the rugged peaks of the Cumberland range, at the mouth of the Cumberland Gap, we are maintaining a strong mission. Its property is very largely an inheritance from a cultured thrifty colony of English people, who located there some years ago. It is situated upon the side of a hill, in the middle of the town. Every- thing about it, the architecture, the grounds, and appointments, evidence the knowledge, taste, and love of Churchmen. We are conducting in the central part of the Diocese between forty and fifty mission stations, organized missions and parishes, and all of the last named except five require assistance. As already mentioned, we have at Beatty- ville a school named after its lamented founder, the late Bishop Dudley. After its separation from the Diocese of Kentucky, the Diocese of Lexington began at Corbin, all things considered, its most im- portant mountain work. Here is located Middles- boro Fducation- al Work III The Mountaineers St. John's Academy. The campus contains five acres of land upon which is erected Thomas Hall, a large building, capable of accommodating one hundred pupils. One thousand dollars of the money to build this hall was the gift of that noble, devoted Churchman, Mr. George C. Thomas of Phila- delphia. Hancock Hall was the former public school building, and was purchased with the land. In it are culinary, printing, and store depart- ments. Near by we have one room of a frame cottage, which has been built for the caretaker of the property, in which to con- duct our manual training department. These buildings and the new and pretty chapel constitute our structural equipment, for the important and growing educational work in the mountains. Surely the Church will not be satisfied until it has placed its representative educa- tional plant in the mountains of Kentucky upon an equal footing with those of the lead- ing denominational societies of the land. 112 This page in the original text is blank. w :F- w Iz Ct U, of the South 113 How happy we should be if, in the Divine Providence of God, some great-hearted Chris- tians were moved-as many are among our spiritual neighbors-to place beyond anxiety the future of St. John's Academy. My brethren, this is the King's business. Will you join hands with us in the doing of it "And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk." The Mountaineers The Work at Sewanee, Tennessee UNDER THE CHARGE OF REV. W. S. CLAIBORNE Since our missions were organized in 1900, and the Bishop put me in charge of all this work, six hundred and ninety seven souls have been baptized and two hundred and twenty three confirmed. The communicant list, at that time was ninety three; to-day it numbers three hundred and nineteen. We have built three churches and two mission houses; also St. Andrew's school, and in- dustrial institution, which cost us about 12,000. We have also built an addition to St. Mary's Industrial school, for girls, which cost us 3,000. The schools and missions are in good condition, but our crying need is for men, with the grace of common sense as well as orders, to do the work. The value of all our Church property, parish and mission, is in round numbers 52,000. 14 z D 0 xo E- This page in the original text is blank. Sketches DMl- z 0 5 HD , 0 0 w s = 0 GoC ZL. O A: 0 C10 A Postal Card and Its Message An Actual Experience of a Missionary in the North Carolina Mountains BY THE REV. WALTER HUGHSON My morning mail one day last March con- tained a postal card addressed to "Mister Preacher Hughson, Morganton, N. C." Turn- ing it over I read: "Please to come to see me at once. I anm very sick, I am dying." Mrs. The place of her dwelling was added, but I was ill myself and could not go. When I showed it to my assistant, he said: "I was going to Asheville to-day, but I will give it up and go to see the poor woman." In a short time he took the train to a little station some ten miles distant. The day was wet and the soft clay slippery, and he found the trail over The Mountaineers the mountain for two miles rather difficult. When he arrived at the cabin he found no one but a sick woman lying on the rough bed. A little pig ran around the room, which was perhaps sixteen feet square. There were no windows; the door was open, although it was a cold wet day in March. A little wood fire in a great fireplace somewhat relieved the barren appearance. The priest entered. He told her he had come in my place. She said she had wanted to see me, but she was glad he had come. And then she told him of her life; how she had sinned, fallen again and again; how the chil- dren, who had run away to hide in the woods when the "preacher" had come, from the world's standpoint had no father. She said she had told it all to God, and had asked Him to forgive her, but she wanted to tell the "preacher." And then again she asked God's forgiveness and the priest baptized her. Later, when the Bishop came to visit us I took him to see the woman. We found her alone with the pig. The Bishop con- 118 of the South firmed her and a few days after she received the Holy Communion. Not long after, my wife and I were driving out much farther into the country, but as we came to the rough road which led to the cabin I could not go by, and I said, "We must go to see how Mrs. is." When I came to the cabin I knew at once that something had happened. The room was full of women, seated and standing in a semicircle. They were all very still. I looked at the bed, the body was covered, the soul had gone to para- dise. The mountain women told me of her passing away. The children had fled in every direction when the end had come. As we left the cabin we met a man from town and I sent word to my assistant and the next morning he came out with the coffin and drove on further for some ten miles and there they buried her in the desolate burying ground with her ancestors of many gener- ations. But the touching part of my story has not yet been told. One day I went to see her, 119 The Mountaineers perhaps a week before sale died. After she had received the Holy Communion, she asked, "Did you get the postal card " When I said "'Yes," she at once answered, "Wasn't it written beautiful" It was not, but she thought so, and I asked her if she wrote it. "No," she said, "I can't write; my father and my mother couldn't write and my grand- parents couldn't write and I never knew any one in our family who could write." I asked her who did write it and she answered: "John wrote it." "And who is John" I inquired. She replied, "Don't you know John Why, he is holding your horse"; and added, "Don't you remember John He went to the school at the Crossing the first winter yon was here, and he learned to read and write that winter." She thought a minute and said again and again, "Wasn't it written beautiful " I told her then without any hesitancy that it certainly was. Looking up into my eyes she said, "I am so glad John went to school that winter. If he hadn't learned to read and write hecouldn't I120( C 1 0: EC This page in the original text is blank. of the South have written that postal card, and if he hadn't you never would have known about me, and I never would have been baptized, and I wouldn't have been confirmed, and I wouldn't 'a' had the Holy Communion," and with the tears streaming down her face in joy she added, "and perhaps I never would 'a' been a member of the Kingdom. Oh, wasn't it written beautiful !" The memory of the crudely written card came back to me and the letters now seemed to me as beautiful as they were to her. John's postal card had brought peace and joy, and a soul had been prepared for the Kingdom be- cause John had learned to write at our little Church mission school at the Crossing. Will any one ever say to me again, "Does it pay, this educational work of the Church in Western North Carolina" It only cost io to teach John to read and write; and we have a thousand more we are trying to pre- pare for their work and opportunity in the world. All the money that has been spent in this district is nothing in comparison to 121 122 The Mountaineers the good brought to this poor woman.- Reprinted from The Spirit of Missions, March 1 905g. of the South "'Hit'' By THz REVEREND WALTER HUGHSON, OF THF D1hSTRICr OF ASHEVILLE One of the first visits I made when I came into this field, the District of Asheville in western North Carolina, three years ago, was upon the mother of a girl who attended one of our mission schools. The girl, like some other girls, had been behaving badly and I desired to have a serious talk with her parents. Instead of calling her by her Christian name, the mother continually re- ferred to her as "hit." My sense of the humorous was so affected by this word that I soon forgot my message of censure. "Hit" was a good girl and "hit" studied its lessons and "hit" "loved its teacher." It was my first introduction to the pronoun "hit," so I looked it up in the dictionary and there it was " pronoun-obsolete. " 123 The Mountaineers I was not surprised afterward to hear other very old English words used by my friends in the mountains. Some of them are Chau- cerian. I very often hear the word "beastie" for beasts and "thickety" for a great under- growth. The most peculiar use perhaps is the word "common." A teacher came to me not long ago and said that she had a com- pliment for me. Mrs. H. - had told her that I was "the commonest preacher" she had ever known. I was not pleased. What preacher would be But the teacher explained that it was used in the sense of "Common Prayer" and meant for all people, without any discrimination. Afterward, when a great tall mountaineer had asked me for advice and I had walked with him to where his mules were tied, he had put his hand on my shoulder and with tears in his eyes said, "You are the commonest preacher I ever saw," I was much gratified, because he felt that I had a heart for him as well as any one else. But "Hit" is my subject. Ever since I 124 first heard the word used, all the boys and girls have been "Hits" for me. One "Hit" told me that he walked ten miles a day in his journey to and from school, and he was the most regular boy in that par- ticular school. He lives in a one-room cabin with a dozen others in the family. All sleep in the same room. It is their one bedroom, their one dining-room, and their one parlor. Over the cracks in the side made by the un- evenness of the logs I have seen the picture papers the Church Periodical Club sends nie, all pasted down tight for decoration and for warmth. The cooking is done at an open fireplace and the big pot, with its peas and pork, simmers there all day long. "Hit" gets up before the break of day and after a very scanty meal trudges with his sister across rough fields and through dark woods and along muddy roads until they come to the wide, and often swollen, stream. Then "Hit" takes his sister on his back and through the stream they go until they reach the other side. 125 of the South The Mountaineers So you see I have learned to love and ad- mire a great many of these boys and girls whom I think of as "Hit" struggling hard to get an education, where their fathers and mothers have never had a chance to get any, and with no father or mother to help with the hard sums and reading and spelling. All by themselves, often by the light of the pine torch for a time in the evening, they labor alone to prepare the lessons of another day. When my "Hit" of to-day becomes a mani, he will know a great deal more than his father or grandfather knew; and he will go out into the world ready to take up his work. And his education has been given him by the kind men, women and children of the Church. "Hit" has been baptized and confirmed, and has become a communicant. The first thing I will hear of him after he goes away from his old mountain home, is that he is very active in helping on the Church some- where else; that he is married and has brought the babies to be baptized.-Reprinted from The Spirit of Missions February 1904. 126( of the South An Incident The day that this little sketch was written, the writer, accompanied by his wife, left for the country to make a visit that had long been promised. The distance was only six miles, but over the foot-hills with their continual ups and downs it seemed far more. As we turned from the "big" road into the woods we seemed to get into impassable thickets. The track was almost obliterated. We left the wagon and started out to re- connoiter, as often it is almost impossible to turn about unless one comes to a clearing. A walk of only a few rods brought such a place into view. On it was a cabin, not the customary log structure but a modern frame building. It was unfinished-as it has been for years-and unusually untidy. Six chil- dren were standing around the doorway, all 127 The Mountaineers barefooted and with no hats. Their hair was faded from exposure to the sun. The house consisted of one big room and con- tained a fireplace, a table and four beds. The aged woman, seventy-five years old, lay on a bed in one corner. The shingles were full of holes and a space above the siding, at least a foot wide, was open to the weather. It was a cold morning too. The object of our visit was this old aunt who had been confirmed fifty years before. She had a sweet, strong face. It was the first time slie had seen a clergyman in years, as we had known of her existence for only a short time. We had read of the crude features of the camps of 1776 and of the primitive usages of the pioneer. This day's experience brought all this clearly into our thoughts. A small soap box on an old broken chair was our al- tar. But when it was covered with the fair linen and the vessels with the elements placed on it, the priest could say "Therefore with angels and archangels," with as much joy as when he said it before an altar of marble 12IS of the South 129 surrounded by stained glass windows and tessellated pavement. Here was the yearn- ing, hungry soul in bed with age and afflic- tion. In the background a young mother was seated on the floor surrounded by her children, all so still and quiet during the service. When we went away from all this crudeness and incongruity, one thought and only one was uppermost in our minds and that was "peace be to this house." Should it be a plain Gospel to all people, or a Gospel with magnificent surroundings for only a few-Reprinted from "Some of the People in Western North Carolina. The Mountaineers Easter in a Mill Mission The following extract is from a letter dated Easter Sunday, 1906, written by a lady then in the mountains of North Carolina: "We have missed our home Church sadly, and I feared the children would not feel the Spirit of Easter with no building of our own open for service. But after all we have had a full day, and in helping Dorothy with her mission have been very happy. First, at 9:30, we went to Grace Church Sunday School and I played the Easter Hymns on the organ. At I0:30 we went down to the Mill School. The room looked like a beautiful little chapel. A small altar with a brass cross and candles on it was on the platform, back of it, hiding the blackboard, hung a soft curtain of white cheesecloth. A pretty border at the top was formed of a feathery green vine and long sprays of pale purple clusters of wistaria hung like a purple fringe. I have never seen 1 :1( of the South it used in Church decorations before and never saw anything more beautiful. A border a foot deep along the bottom was of white dogwood. The school children marched in carrying a great cross formed of purple and white wistaria, and it was stood on a white base of blossoms on the edge of the platform. Dorothy, "brave girl", read the Easter lessons and the prayers, and then told the story of the Resurrection so sweetly and earnestly that I thought it a touching sight for any one to see her standing there- such a girl, and so utterly unconscious of self, talking to a room full of at least 75 or 8o mill hands; and they were absorbingly attentive I can tell you. We had all the Easter hymns and chants and when it was all over, I found I did not feel as if we had had no Easter by any means and I am sure my little girls felt the spirit of it too. Adelaide stood by the piano and sang with all her heart. . . It was such an unusual Easter for us, I wanted to tell you of it, just as it looked to me." 1.31 ERRATA Opposite pages 19 and 24, Illustrations add to title ("The Order of the Holy Cross".) Page 46 line 11 for "comprise" read "comprising." Page 47 line 11 for "council" read "counsel." Page 114 line 9 note that St. Andrew's School "was erected by the Order of the Holy Cross" and line 12 that the Sisters of St. Mary erected the addition to St. Mary's School. Opposite page 114 add to title ("The Sisters of St. Mary.") Add to Illustrations: Rev. Frank B. Wentworth, facing page 105. St. John's Collegiate Academy, Corbin, Ky., facing page 113. Cburcb Missions publishing Co., Auxiliary to the Board of Missions. 211 state Street, 1arttorD, Conti. ROUND ROBIN, PUBLISHED QUARTERLY SERIES FIRST The Mission Field 1 INDIAN MISSIONS, Part I, by the REV. ANTHON T. GESNER. 2. WESTERN MISSIONS, by the REV. ANTHON T. GESANER. 4. CHINA, by the RT. REV. S. C. PARTRIDOE and others. 6. 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