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School history of Kentucky, from the earliest discoveries and settlements to the end of the year 1888 / by Z.F. Smith ; prepared for use in the schools of the State. Smith, Z. F. (Zachariah Frederick), 1827-1911. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-152-29698781 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. School history of Kentucky, from the earliest discoveries and settlements to the end of the year 1888 / by Z.F. Smith ; prepared for use in the schools of the State. Smith, Z. F. (Zachariah Frederick), 1827-1911. The Courier-Journal Job Printing Company, Louisville, KY. : 1889. 240 p. : ill., fold. map, ports. ; 20 cm. Coleman Cover title: History of Kentucky. On spine: School edition. Includes index. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1994. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN03929.01 KUK) Printing Master B92-152. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Kentucky History. SCHOOL )'1I5ITORy OF fEJTdQ Y rROM THE EARLIEST DISCOVERIES AND SETTLEMXNTS TO TILE END OF THE YEAR 1888. By Z. F. S4iTH. PREPARED FOR USE IN THE SCHOOLS OF THE STATE. LOVISVILLE, KENTUCKV: THE COURIER-JOURNAL JOB PRINTING COMPANY. 1889. COPYRIGHTED 18S9. INTRODUCTORY. The offering of a Pupils' History of Kentucky as a text-book for the public and private schools of our Commonwealth is an enterprise boin of no sudden impulse. For years back, the author has been im- pressed that the course of study was seriously defective in our schools, without a study that would familiarly acquaint the children with the history of their own State and its people. He has often had occasion to give expression to that conviction. Of the many leading and vet- eran educators who have given an opinion on this subject, he can not recall a single one who has not expressed a like view, and with em- phasis. The uniform testimony of such witnesses but confirms the idea that such a text-book is urgently needed. The aiw in this work has been to bring the history within the compass and use of the text-book course; and yet to preserve, un- broken, the narrative of events in chronological order. While the multitude of details can not be admitted, yet the main events and episodes around which these cluster are given. Long have the children of our Commonwealth been taught to know of Greece and Rome, of England and France, and of the United States in general, in the course of study, but left to know little or nothing of the history of their own State. We would.not undervalue the former, but let us assert at least equal importance for the latter. What mere inspiring theme for the admiration and emulation of the youth of Kentucky, than the world-wide fame of heroism and adven- ture of their own ancestors Of the distinguished educators of our State, who have given utter- ance to their views on this subject, one writes: " A school history of Kentucky is needed. I can not assume to say how long I have en- tertained such opinion, or how often I have expressed it." Another says: " It is my opinion that an elementary history of Kentucky is a necessity." A third writes: "The more the personal history of the early settlers is included, the greater will be the good results of such a work. What we most need for the youth of this Commonwealth now is the heroic in morals, in patriotism and in self-sacrifice. There is no better field for this than in such a history of Kentucky." Many similar testimonials might be added to these. (3) STATE OAPSTOL AT FRANKFORT. TAKEN FROM THE ORIGINAL OESION OF THE ACHITECOT. TABLE OF CON TENTS PERIOD FIRST. PA 6 FS. CHAPTER T.-G eography of Kentucky-Sources of the seven rivers-Physi- cal map or Kentucky-Latitude and longitude-Importance of location-Origin of the name Kentucky-The wilderniessof Ken- tucky-Visits of Dr. Walker-Visits of Finley and Boone-Dispe.- sion of Boone s party-Boone's brother goes in search of him-The Long Hunters-The hunter's life and habits-No Indians dwelling in Kentucky-Prehistoric remains-Tribal conquests and succes- sions.. ... .. . .9-17 CHAPTER II.-Iroquois conquer the Shawanees-Blr.. khoof's visit to Ken- tuckv-Indian titles to Kentucky-Rest and preparation-Disaster to a first immnigrant party-Others visit Kentuckv in 1773-Adven- tures of Captain Thomas Bullitt-The McAfee party-jalies Doug- las a. Big Bone-Pre-historic animals of Kentucky-Other surveys and surveyors-Simon Kenton comes to Kentucky in 1773-First alventure of Harrod and party-Settlements and lottery cabins- Indian troubles overcloud all-Battle of Point Pleasant ..26 CHAPTER III -The wilderness deserted for a time-The Cherokees claim title to Kentucky-Transylvania Company formied-The treaty of Wataga-Boone's Trace into Kentucky-Indian ambush and at- tack-Construction of Fort Boonesborough-Description of the fort-Early life of Daniel Booue-Boyhood days-Boone moves to North Carolina-First excursions-An instrument of Providence- Great work of Boone and comrades-The founder of Tiansylvania Company-Office opened at Boonesborough - 27-- CHAPTER IV.-Return of Harrod's party in 1775-Harrodstown fortified- Settlement of St. Asaph-Simon Kenton returns to Kentucky- Other improvers and settlers-Arrival of the first women and chit- dren-Tratisylvaiiia Company and its troubles-The Trausylvania Convention-Laws enacted-A constitutional cornpact-Protest against Transylvania Company-Virginia asserts authority-A thrilling scene . -....-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-... 35-41 PERIOD SECOND. CHAPTER V.-Visit of George Rogers Clark-Clark's appearance and man- ners-Clark's jealousy of Transylvania Company-Wlar supplies asked for-Indians attack the convoy-Three girls captured y In- dians-The pursuit and rescue-An interval of quiet-Attack on McClellan's Fort-First divine services-Keiitucky County org An- ized--England instigates savage warfare-Attack near Harrods- town-General James Ray-Spies sent out-The fight before the fort-Dark days for Kentucky .-..........-.-.-.-.-.-... . 42-50 CUAPTER VI.-Formidable siege of Boonesborough-Fighting at Logan's Fort-The siege coutinues-Clark's spies to Illinois-Boone and the salt-makers captured-Boone a pet of the Indians-Life among the Indians-Boone's escape-Formidalile attack and siege-Strategy and failure-Clark's plans developed-Marches on Kaskaskia- Capture of Cahokia-Vincenines captured-An immense territory conquered-The bearings on Kentucky-Vincenues lost and capt- ted again . . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. 51-60 (5) 6 CONTENTS. PA(IrS. CHAPTER VTT.-Tmprovements at Louisville-Fort Nelson built-The corn- shelling party attacked-Adventure of Simon Keniton -Kenton's tortures--lnd of his captivity-Colonel John Bowman's defeat- The attack by Logan-The cuirrency aid the lands-The hard wil- ter-Settlemnent of Lexington-McAfee's station-Massacre on the Ohio. . a....... 61-67 C HAPTFR VI1IT-Fort Jefferson built-Chickasaw war-Formidable invasion in 78o-Barbarities practiced -;eneral Clark retaliates-1Incidents 0l 17S(-General Clark's naval defense-Adventures of Clark-De- ;igtns on Detroit-Massacre of Louighrey's men-Petty hostilities continued--Floyd's defeat-Importation of feniale-Primitive hab- its andcustoms.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. 68-74 'IiAPTFR TX.-Needs and supplies of the backwoodsmen-Civil events, i7Sr-S2-Disasters of 17S2-Alarm and pursuit-Battle of Little Mountain - Estill's heroic death -Adventure of Captain John Holder-Siege of Bryant's station-The Kentuckians taken by surprise-Siege and rc-en forcements-The women bring water- The fighting begins in earnest-The hasty pursuit-Battle of Blue Licks-After the battle-Logan arrives-Capture of Kincheloe's station-Revenge and retaliation-Other incidents of hostilities. . 75-86 PERIOD THIRD. CHAPTER X.-Peace with Erngland-Savage tribes quiet-Separate govern- ment wanted-Spanish intrigues-Kentucky a judicial district-In- dustry and prosperitv-First foreign gtxxl-Stationis around Shel- byville-Captain Blazid Ballard-Ambushes three Indians- Indians pit toflight-LoiigRuii fight-Ballard Sr., killed-Captain Ballard's later life-Battle of the RoardsThe wild cat and schoolmaster- Death roll of pioneers-Treaty delayed-Virgiiiia's generous gift- lniportant con feretice-First convention for separation-Massacre of Immigrants-Mrs. McClure's rescue .87-96 CHAPTER XI -Population of Kentucky in 178-Virginia's fears-UTnited States Constitution adopted-Washington was the first President- Indian raids renewed-A fruitless campaign-Colonel Logan de- tached by Clarke-The fourth convention-The first newspaper- Overtures by the Spaniard,-The conflict of opinion-The seventh convention-Indian outrages again-A brave woman-A desperate fight on a flatboat-Many other raids and massacres. g716 CHAPTER XIT.-State of affairs in r7go-The door opened at last-Indian raids and outrages-President Washington provides relief-Har- mer's defeat -Kentuckv protests-Desperate attempts on two boats -St. Clair's defeat-First State government-Massacre of Hardin and Trruman-Would not the Indians treat for peace-Wayne's great victory-Sympathy for the French-Governor Isaac Shelby- Nicojack Indians in Tennessee-The last Indian incursion into Ken- tucky-Big Joe Logston's fight-Rest for Kentucky homes. . . . 107117 CHAPTER XIII.-Courts and legislation-Tmportant treaties-New Spanish intrigues-Spain not yet satisfied-The second Governor of Ken- tuickv-The second President of the ITnited States-Land laws and land titles-Devouring land sharks-Alien and Sedition laws-Ap- iiig royalty-Protest against the Alien and Sedition laws-Kentucky boldly adopts-Last years of Daniel Boon-Of Geneial George Rogers Clark-Simon Kenton shared a fate like Boone's-The second Constitution for Kentucky-Troubles with France-Actual hostilities-African slavery.......... . . . . .. . . l8iT CONTUNTS. 7 PERIOD FOURTH. PAn:Es' CHAPTER XIV.-Nature and customs of the Indians-Gallantry and court- ship-Indian hospitalities-Feast or famine-Cunning devices and strategy-Indolence and sporting-Treatment of ch ildren-Religion of the Indians-Dances anid debauchery-Thepurchase of Louisiana by France-Rlection of SLate officers -Conspiracy of Aaton Burr- Henry Clay settles at Lexington -Clay's early promotion -Bad feel- ing between United States and 'England-Prosperity of Kentucky- Battle ot Tippecanoe-The great earthquake....... . .. . . 129,3S CHAPTER XV.-Second war with FEngland-Outrages upon the high seas- War spirit in Kentucky-H-ull's surrender-General Harrison takes command-Battle of Frenchtown -Massacre at Raisin-Cruelty to prisoners -War spirit in Kentucky-Dudley's defeat-The British abandoned the siege-Repulse at Fort Sandusky- Perry's victory on Lake Frie-Iuvasion into Canada-eud of the war in the North- west-Campaign at New Orleants-Defense of New Orleans-De- fenses continued-Battle of New Orleans-End ot the second war With Englad .......... -.. -. z3IRIS PERIOD FIFTH. CHAPTER XVI.-Thirty years Of pace-The Chickasaw purchase-Viist banking experiments-Reief arnd Anti-Relief issues-The Old Court and New Court contest-Increase of population-Other industries of Kentucky-Federal and SItate jurisdictions-National politics in Kentucky-The three orators of Kentucky- Internal improvements begun-Early religion in Kentucky-Pioneer Roman Catholics- Earliest Methodist ministers-The Presbyterian church-The Disci- ples church-The Cumberland Presbyterian church-Kentucky pol- itics and finance-National and State elections-Henry Clay again a candidate ......... ... - . 152-t62 -CHAPTER XVII.-Agitation of the slavery question-Agitation in Ken- tucky-A wat-cloud appears-Invasion of Mexico-Kentucky vol- unteers-Capture of Monterey-Battle of Buenn Vista-Conquest of Mexico-Treaty of peace-Politics in 194S-Changes by the new constitution -:64-x69 CHAPTFR XVII[.-The irrepressible conflict-The Know Nothing Party- Death of Henry Clay-Politics and parties-Pioneer schools in Ken- tuckv-Devices for learniing-Transylvania Sgeminary-Cointy sem- inal ifes-Ou common school ystem-Our common schools before the Civil war-Mineral resources-Stock-raising in Kentucky . . . 1--178 PERIOD SIXTH. CHAPTrF. XTX.-Vorebodings of war-The war inevitable-State politics in is6r-Position of neutrality-The Confederate ('.overnment-The first gun fired-Preparing for the issue of war-Military position of Kentucky -Battle of Manassas-Battle of Belmont-Roth armies occupy Kentucky-The horrors of war-Militarv anests and ban- ishmenits-Battle of Mill Spring-Battles of Forfs Henry aid Don elson-Capture of Nashville-President Lincoln's proposal-The battles in the South-Morgan's cavalry-Morgan's first raid .... 17gg9 CHAPTER XX.-Martial law- it 1862-Resignation of Governor Magoffin- Battle of Richmond-Bragg's invasion of Kentucky-Bragg's re- tleat and failure-Battle of Perrvville-Bragg's retreat from Ken- tucky-Canipaign outside of Xceitiucky-Morgan's brief raid-- lProclamation of freedomn-Skirmish battles in Kentucky-Morgan's 8 CONTENTS. PAGEr. campaign across the Ohio-Imprisonment and escape of Morgan- Morgan's career and death-Military changes in Kentucky-Guer- rilla bands-Another rcign of terror-The last of the camipaignsin Kentucky-The end of the war-Abolition in Kentucky-Compara- tive size of Kentuckians-Losses of men by the war .... . . . . 192205 CHAPTER XXI.-Assassination of President Lincoln-Politics and parties in Kentucky-Kentucky relieved ol military oppression-Kentucky saved from Carpet-bag rule-Civil order quickly restored-Political parties in 1867-Elections in 1867--Federal and State politics- Governor Stevenson's administration-Common school reform- Official changes-Unanimnous sentiment of Kentucky . . . . 2oii CHAPTER XXII.-Rights of citizenship to the colored people-Events un- der Leslie's administration, 1871-5-Great financial panic of 187,- Governor McCreary's administration, 1875-9-lmiportant legislative acts-State and national elections-Dr. Luke P. Blackburn Governor in 1879-The Superior Court established-Events in Blackburn's administration, 1879-83-Officials elect-Events in Governor Knott's administration, 1883-7-Presidential election in 184-ImporUant reform measures-Educational conventions-Seiitiment of social reform-Issues of interest in Kentucky-Increase of population- The quadrennial election of 1887-Result of the election-Revenue reforni-Railroad improvements-Common school system-Presi- denitial election of 8SS8-Our National Centennial-Kentucky now, and in the future....... . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . . . 212-227 APPENDIX .................................. . 228-2.6 8nHOOL HISTORY oF KENTUCKY. PERIOD FIRST. FROM THE FIRST DISCOVERIES TO THE. S1ETTLEM1ENTS AT BOONESBOROUGIH AND OTHER PLACES IN 1775. CHAPTER I. FROM THE EARLIEST TRADITIONS TO THE VISITS OF THE WHITE, HUNTERS IN 1771. 1. Geography of Kentucky.-Kentucky lies midlway in the tier of States bordered on the west by the Mississippi river, and nearly equi-distant from the great lakes on the north, and the Gulf of Mexico on the south. The Ohio river borders it on the north, and the Big Sandy in part on the east. It is territorially bounded on the north by the States of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois; on the east by Virginia and West Virginia; on the south by Tennessee, and on the west by Missouri. Its Virginia and Tennessee boundary lines meet at a point in the extreme south-eastern part of the State, where the Cumberland mountains reach a common alti- tude of sixteen huindred feet above the level of the Atlantic ocean. The two great river mains, the Ohio first and after- ward the Mississippi, receive from this territorial surface the waters of Big Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, Salt, Green, Cum- berland and Tennessee rivers, and bear them through their channels over a thousand miles away to the Gulf of Mexico. 9 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 2. Sources of the seven rivers.-From the lofty apex and slopes of this mountain range, which crosses south-eastern Kentucky from Virginia into Tennessee, begin the sources of these tributary rivers, which form the drainage system of the State. Flowing out north, south, and west from the region of their common origin, but each finding a north- westerly course, all finally empty into the gentle and beautiful Ohio, and are. borne southward by the channel of the great and turbid Mississippi. 3. The physical features of Kentucky.-These present to the eye a picture of rugged mountains in the east and south- east, gradually subsiding westward into hills and knobs, and these fading out, within one hundred miles, into the more level lands and plains of central and west Kentucky; and the latter skirted at last by the fertile valleys of the Missis- sippi and lower Ohio rivers, which lie at an altitude of but three hundred feet above the Gulf level. The average elevation above sea-level is near eight hundred feet. From the highest elevation of east Kentucky there is a steady decline of altitude, for more than four hundred miles to the lowest valleys on the extreme west, of over thirteen hundred feet. 4. Latitude and longitude.-Kentucky lies between 360 30' and 390 o6' north latitude, and 820 02' and 890 41' west longitude from Greenwich. The extreme length of the State is four hundred and fifty-nine miles, and its great- est breadth is one hundred and fifty-six. With unequal sides and irregular boundaries, it is difficult to reduce or define the contents of this area with accuracy. It embraces about forty-one- thousand two hundred and eighty-three square miles. It has that medium of climate which is mild and temperate, and usually healthy and invigorating. 5. Importance of location.-In its early history, when the title to the great Mississippi Valley was under question by TO SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Spain, France, and England, the position of Kentucky was important from the fact that its shores control the naviga- tion of the Mississippi river for over fifty miles, and the Ohio for seven hundred. The.se, and the seven other rivers named, give to Kentucky a navigable river frontage of ove; feur thousand miles-more than that of any other State. 6. Origin of the name Kentucky.-Through the midst cf the rich bluegrass region ran one of the rivers of which vec have spoken, which had cut its channel four hundred feet deep in the rocky bed over which it flowed. On either siOe, amid pastures of wild clover, bluegrass, and cane, game m:ot.s abounded; and here lay the favorite hunting-grounds of thv_- Red men. The Indians called this region, in their tongue, Kanfuckee-"At the head of a river;" and from this title the white man gave both to the river and country the name- Keutuckv. 7. The Wilderness of Kentucky.-This lay five hundred miles west of the colonies on the Atlantic slopes, and the great Allegheny range of mountains stretched across the conti- nent like rugged barriers midway between. From i654 to I750, it was viewed at tines by white men venturing down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and in rare visics of ex- plorers through the forest. In I75I, Captain Gist led an exploring party as far as the Kentucky river, and up the same on his way to North Carolina in the interest of the Ohio Land Company. From his report Lewis Evans, of Philadelphia, printed a map of middle North America, in 1755, including this territory. 8. Visits of Doctor Walker.-In 1750, Doctor Walker, of Virginia, in company with others, made a visit to Kentucky by way of Powell's Valley and a gap in Laurel mountain. To this mountain and the river on this side, the doctor gave the name Cumberland, for the Duke of Cumberland, which they yet bear. A second visit was made by the same party I I SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. in 1758; but they gained only a partial knowledge of the wilderness land. 9. Visits of Finley and Boone.-The truer aspects of Ken- tucky were viewed by John Finley and a party of comrades in 1767. Returning to North Carolina with wonder and delight at what they had seen of the country, they planned another visit in 1769. With Finley to pilot them, under the lead of the noted Daniel Boone, this party went out from the valley of the Yadkin river, North Carolina. These hunters reached the foot hills of the mountains in June, and built a cabin camp on Red river, near the junction of Estill, Clark, and Powell counties. From this camp they hunted and explored until December. 10. Dispersion of Boone's party.-Happy and contented, this party spent the summer and autumn, hunting and roving over the valleys of Elkhorn, the brakes of Dick's river, and the pasture grounds of Stoner and Licking. The country seemed a paradise for the hunters. But for a time, a startling event broke up this charmed life. Boone and John Stewart, while out hunting, were captured by a band of Indians. They were marched by day and watched by night until, on the seventh night after their capture, they made their escape. Making their way back to camp, they found it deserted; and no information of Finley and his comrades could they obtain. Boone and Stewart lived for months in the wilderness upon wild meat and fruits, and without bread or salt. I 1 Boone's brother goes in search of him.-Squire Boone, late in 1769, left home, in North Carolina, with one compan- ion, to find the party of his brother Daniel. Late in December the brothers met in the solitudes of the great wilderness, and gladly greeted each other. Squire Boone's companion returned home, and John Stewart was one day shot by the Indians. The two Boones were now alone in 12 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. the vast forests until May, 1770. Squire Boone then vent- ured home, to return again with ammunition and supplies, leaving Daniel alone in the forests for months. The two daring brothers hunted and explored the wilderness for many months before they returned to their homes, Daniel having been absent nearly two years. 12. The Long Hunters.-In I769, forty adventurous hunt- ers came into Kentucky from the valleys of the Holston, New and Clinch rivers, led by Colonel James Knox. Their first camp was made at Price' s Meadow, near a flowing spring, about six miles from Monticello, in Wayne county. Here they also made a dp6t for the supplies and skins, which they agreed to deposit every five weeks. They hunted out as far as the present counties of Green, Barren, and Hart, and on the waters of Dick's river. They built another camp and dp6t JIOHN FILSON. nine miles east of Greetns- THE FIRST HISTORIAN OF KENTUCKY. 17384. burg, near the site of Mount Gilead church. They were absent two years; so long that, on their return, they were called the "Long Hunters. " 13. The hunter's life and habits.-Boone's party and the Long Hunters did not meet, and neither knew of the presence of the other, being in different sections of the 1,3 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. country. The garb of these backwoodsmen was a loose frock, with cape made of deer skins dressed, called a hunt- ing-shirt; leggings of the same material covered the lower limbs, with moccasins for the feet. The cape, the coat, and the leggings were often adorned with fringes. The under- garments were of coarse cotton cloth. A leather belt encircled the body; on the right side hung the hatchet or tomahawk; on the left was the hunting-knife, the powder- horn, and bullet-pouch. Each man bore his trusty, flint-lock rifle, ever on the alert for deadly foes or welcome game. 14. No Indians dwelling in Kentucky.-It was notable that these hunting parties found Indians often, but no Indian villages, in Kentucky. The great tribal wars had driven the Shawanee Indians north of the Ohio to build their lodges on the Scioto, the Miami, and the Muskingumn rivers, and left Kentucky to become the common hunting ground of those tribes and the Wabash Indians on the north, and the Chickasaws, Cherokees, and Choctaws, of the Tennessee valley on the south. From these opposite abodes would often issue forth bands of savages going out for the hunt, yet always painted and armed to act the part of war- riors when those of hostile tribes met. While traversing .the forest and roving over the fertile lands of Kentucky, where the buffalo, the deer, the bear, and lesser game most abounded, these warriors would meet and re-enact the bloody tragedies for which Indian warfare has ever been noted. From these scenes of strife and its past traditions, Kentucky came to be known as the " Dark and Bloody Ground." 15. Pre-historic remains.-Only the Indian tribes are known to history to have dwelt in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. But ancient mounds, earthworks, and relics, found scattered over these valleys, give evidence that a much older race of people, and much farther advanced in the arts and in civilization, dwelt here centuries before the 14 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Indians. Many of these mounds and relics are found in Kentucky. Of the origin of this ancient and extinct people we know nothing except by fabled story, curious records, and antique remains. The Indians related to the pioneer whites a tradition which they said their fathers had handed down, that ages before such a people dwelt in these valleys, and that their tribes engaged them in war, and destroyed them in a great final battle at the Falls of Ohio. 16. Tribal conquests and successions.-The restless and roving habits of the Indians forbade that their tribes should grow large in numbers, while their cruel and warring spirit led to the frequent destruction or dispersion of other tribes; and hence, they often changed their places and conditions. The Shawanee Indians held their homes in Kentucky before the year 1700, and until 1753, but were often at war with tribes north and south of them. ';opsicai Qalpio a ub aeAgioV. CHAPTER I. 1. Geography of Kentucky.-What rivers and States bound Ken- tucky What mountains in the South-east What is their com- mon elevation above the sea What seven rivers drain Ken- tucky 2. Source of the seven rivers.-Where do these seven rivers head What courses do they flow What two rivers carry these waters to the Gulf of Mexico 3. Physical map of Kentucky.-What of the surface of East Kentucky Of Central and West Kentucky What elevation have the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers What is the common altitude of Kentucky What is the decline in elevation from east to west 4. Latitude and longitude.-In what latitude does Kentucky lie In what longitude What is the extreme length of Kentucky, 15 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. east and west Its extreme breadth north and south How many square miles does it embrace What of its climate 6. Importance of location.-To what countries was the location of Kentucky important What great navigable rivers did it contain What is the total navigable frontage, or shore lines, of Kentucky 6. Origin of the name Kentucky.-From what was Kentucky nanie(ld What of this river, and the country adjacent What attracted hunters there 7. The Wilderness of Kentucky.-How far was it from the colo- nies What mountains lay between When, and how, was it seen only by transient adventurers In what year did Gist ex- plore it What map of this country was soon after published 8. Visits of Dr. Walker.-Whlen was Walker's first visit made ) When the second To what objects (lid he give inames 9. Visits of Finley and Boone.-When was Finley's first visit When his second Who led the second party with Finley Where was the home of Daniel Boone Where did the Boole party build their camp How long did they hunlt from this camp 10. Dispersion of Boone's party.-Over what grounds did Bootle and comrades hunt Who were captured by the Indian's What became of the captives What became of their coin- rades What of the camp Boone's brother goes in search of him.-When did Squire Boone find his brother irow many other men were there with them What became of John Stewart What of Squire Boonle's companion What journey did Squire Boo;ne make What became of Daniel How long was lie absent on this adventure 12. The Long Hunters.-How many hunters were in this party From whence did they visit Kentucky In what year Where was their first camp How far out did they hunt Where was their second camp How long were they absent Who lead them 13. The hunter's life and habits.-What was the dress of the back. woodsmen Of what material was it made How were they armed and equipped What kind of guns were then used 14. No Indians dwelling in Kentucky.-Were Indian villages found in Kentucky in 1769 Why What great tribe was last t6 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. driven out Where did these locate What did Kentucky then become What opposing warriors met here How did they treat each other What name did this strife give Ken- tucky 16. Pre-historic remains.-ls there evidence that any other people lived here before the Indians What is this evidence Have we any history of them What do tradition and these curious remains say of their civilization 16. Tribal conquests and successions.-What effect do the habits of the Indians have on their tribal conditions When did the Sliawanees occupy Kentucky 2 17 CHAPTER II. - FROM THE VISITS OF THE WHITES, 1771, TO THE ENTRANCE OF THE SURVEYORS AND SETTLERS, 1774. 1. Mohawks conquer the Shawanees.-About i66o, the Menguys of the North-east, with fire-arms, came down the Ohio in large war parties, laid waste the country and con- quered the Shawanees whose weapons were yet but arrows and tomahawks. In 1700 they repeated this conquest; and so weakened this tribe that the Cherokees, Chickasaws, and Choctaws came in from the South and drove them north of the Ohio river. After this no Indian villages were known to exist between the Ohio and Cumberland rivers. 2. Blackhoof's visit to Ken- tucky.-In i8i6, Blackhoof, the great chief of the Shawa- flees, visited Kentucky, being then one hundred years of age. He stated that he was born at Indian Old Fields, in Clark county, which place has been known as the site of an Indian town. Blackhoof readily pointed opt and described other objects and things in that sec- tion, familiar to his boyhood days. BLAMC HOOF (CATANEOASSA). 3. Indian titles to Kentucky. SHWNECHIEF. BORN AT INDIAN OLD FIELDS T e Sx N tin li e IN CLARK COUNTY. DIED IN 831. The Six Nations claimed NEARLY I20YEARS OLD. title to Kentucky by right of conquest, and the English purchased this title of them at (i8) SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. the treaty of Fort Stanwix, in the State of New York, in October, 1768. Also, the Shawanees claimed title by virtue of former occupancy; and ceded their title to Governor Dunmore, of Virginia, at the treaty of Chillicothe, 1774. Finally, the following year, 1775, the Transylvania Com- pany, through Daniel Boone, purchased the main area of Kentucky of the Cherokees, at the council of Fort Wataga, held in what is now the territory of Tennessee. In spite of these treaties and transfers of titles by the Indians, the brave and daring pioneers were compelled to win their homes and purchase security of life and property by deeds of heroic valor, and with the friendly aid of their trusty rifles. 4. Rest and preparation.-The Boones, the Long Huinters and others seemed to have rested at their homes for two years after their return. Their stories of the wonderful land they had explored, and their adventures as hunters and rangers, fired the spirits and ambition of many to join them in the next expedition. So deeply in earnest were Daniel Boone and others, that they sold out their farms and fixtures to enter the wilderness, and to make it their final home. On September 25, 1773, Daniel Boone, with his own and five other families, left the Yadkin valley upon the journey toward Kentucky. In Powell's Valley, forty resolute men joined them and their fortunes. 5. Disaster to a first immigrant pafty.-Driving their cat- tle, and with bedding and baggage on pack-horses, the weak and frail on horseback and the more stalwart on foot, the long cavalcade pursued its way, in file, along the narrowe and winding paths through the forest, over mountains, across the valleys and streams, and amid the under-brush, until they neared Cumberland Gap. Suddenly, a party who had fallen in the rear was fired upon by Indians, and six killed before all could rally and drive off the enemy. Among the dead was a son of Daniel Boone, The disaster so saddened I9 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. all, that the party turned at once, and went back to their homes. 6. Others visit Kentucky in 1773.-Virginia now granted bounties in lands, to be located in the Ohio Valley, to her citizens who had served in the Canada war, against the French. This gave new impetus to explorers and land hunters. Washington's deputy came West as far as Bit; Sandy river and survcyed 2,084 acres of land at the present site of Louisa, in Lawrence county, in 1769, and carved his name on the beginning corner tree. In June, 1773, four parties from Virginia passed down the Ohio, led respectively by Captain Thomas Bullitt, James Harrod, James Douglas, and the McAfee brothers. 7 Adventures of Captain Thomas Bullitt.-After visiting Chillicothe and holding a council with the Shawanee In- dians, and tarrying with the others at Big Bone Lick, Captain Bullitt and party passed down to the Falls of Ohio, July 8th, and camped above the mouth of Beargrass creek. For six weeks they surveyed the lands over, and adjacent to, the site of Louisville, and southward as far as Salt river, ill Bullitt county. These were the first surveys ever known to have been made in this section. 8 The McAfee party.-Separating from the others at Big Bone Lick, and turning their light canoes into the mouth of Kentucky river and landing at Drennon's Lick, they beheld immense herds of buffalo, deer, and elk dispersed over the valley in quest of the salt and sulphur waters. After several days delay they continued their journey to Frankfort, the site of which they then surveyed. Passing on by Lillard's Spring, east of Lawrenceburg, they camped and surveyed lands on Salt river, a few miles below the site of Harrodsburg. In August they crossed Dick's river and returned to Virginia by the Forks of the Kentucky, after great privations in the mountains. 20 SCHOOL HISTORY OF RKNTUCKY. - 9. James Douglas at Big Bone Lick.-Douglas remained longer to examine and survey the new wonders which sur- prised the adventurers. Here, too, countless herds of buffalo, deer, elk, and other wild animals, passed to and fro along their beaten paths, which connected the salt and sulphur waters with the pastures of bluegrass and clover, and the brakes of cane, that lay in their courses. Over an area of ten acres around the lick was bare of trees and herbage, and beaten down and worn below the original surface, several feet. Within this space were vast numbers of the bones of the gigantic mastodon or mammoth, and of the arctic ele- phant. In the midst of this space ran the creek, on either side of which were never failing springs of salt water. From this lick diverged the beaten roads which led to the grazing lands of the bluegrass region. 10. Pre-historic animals of Kentucky.-From whenqwe came these gigantic mammoths, five times as large as the elephant Only tradition answers; and we are left to con- jecture. Possibly, they were here before any race of men occupied the country. Such huge, ponderous and awkward animals would fall an easy prey to the hunter's arts of any intrepid race. They were very powerful in strength, but too sluggish to defend themselves against the attacks of enemies. No doubt they were rapidly exterminated by the early people who found them here, both for food and to gratify the hunter's passion. The skeleton remains of these wonderful creatures were eagerly sought, and borne away to enrich the museums of Europe, as well as of America. 11. Other surveys and surveyors.-Kentucky was part of Fincastle county, Virginia, of which William Preston was surveyor. Hancock Taylor, James Douglas, and John Floyd, his deputies, were now in Kentucky surveying and locating choice lands for themselves, and capitalists attracted by the fame of the country. Colonel Floyd became famous among 21 - SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. the pioneers. He had three brothers and two brothers-in- law slain by the Indians, to whose vengeance he also fell a victim, in time. His parents settled early in Jefferson county, and died, aged ninety years. Colonel Floyd's ma- ternal grandmother was an Indian squaw, the niece of Powhatan, and cousin of Pocahontas. He was the wise counselor and active defender of the settlers, until his death. 12. Simon Kenton comes to Kentucky in 1773.-Simon Kenton, the famous comrade of Boone in hunting and fight- ing Indians, was born of Irish parents, in Fauquier county, Virginia, April I3, 1755. At sixteen, he fell madly in love with a pretty neighbor girl. Beaten in his wooing by another, he provoked a battle with his rival, and left him dead on the field of strife, as he supposed. Fleeingjustice as a man-slayer, lie sought refuge in the backwoods of Virginia, and at Fort Pitt, now Pittsburgh, changing his name to Simon Butler. From the latter place he ventured down the Ohio with George Yeager and John Strader, looking for the "Cane land, " of which the Indians and explorers had given glowing accounts. They hunted and trapped for furs from the Kanawha to the Kentucky rivers, until early in I773, when Yeager was killed by the Indians. Kenton and Stra- der escaped and returned. In the summer after, Kenton piloted a party down the Ohio, as far as the mouth of Big Miami river, and through the wilderness of Kentucky, back to Virginia. He became one of the heroes of our pioneer history, and rejoiced to learn, in after years, that his rival did not die of his injuries. 13. First adventure of Harrod and party.-Favorable was the spring of I774; gloomy was its autumn. In May, Captain James Harrod, with Abram Hite and the two San- duskys, led forty woodsmen from the Monongahela coun- try, Virginia, down the Ohio river, tarrying in camps at the mouth of Licking, and felling the first trees upon the site of .22 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Cincinnati. Embarking again, they next turned the prows of their little boats into the mouth of Kentucky river, and plied their oars until they reached the present Oregon Land- ing, in Mercer county. Landing there, they explored inland and built at the Big Spring on the present site of Harrods- burg. 14. Settlements and lottery cabins.-From Big Spring camp many dispersed to chosen spots near, to locate claims, and to build such improvements as would secure them. These improvements were known as "lottery cabins," as they were given out by lot. Thus, John Crow, James Brown, and others located near Danville; James Harrod and others, at Boiling Spring, six miles south of Big Spring; and James Wiley and neighbors, three miles east of same. Harrodstown was plotted and laid off at Big Spring near this spot; John Harman, this year, I774, planted and raised the first corn known to have grown at that place. 15. Indian troubles overcloud all.-A surveying party was attacked by Indians three miles below Big Spring, and Jared Cowan killed, and several others driven off to the Falls of Ohio. About this time, Hancock Taylor, at the head of a surveying party was killed in Carroll county, near the mouth of Kentucky river. At the same time, Daniel Boone and Michael Stoner reached Harrodstown with a mes- sage from Governor Dunmore, of Virginia, warning and ordering all persons in the Wilderness to return at once to Virginia. The Shawanee Indians and confederate tribes had planned a campaign into Virginia on a large scale. The lives of all backwoodsmen were endangered, and their return was needed to repel the invaders. Captain Harrod and all with him returned to Virginia at once. Governor Dunmore had ordered the enlistment of three thousand men to meet the invading foe. 2,3 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 16. Battle of Point Pleasant.-General Andrew Lewis, an old border leader, led the left wing of this army, crossing the mountains to the Kanawha river with eleven hundred veteran pioneers. He met the Indian army under the lead of the great chief, Corn Stalk, fifteen hundred strong, and engaged them in battle at Point Pleasant near the mouth oi Kanawha river. The contest was fierce, long, and bloody; but the savages were defeated and driven over the Ohio, back to their tribal homes. Governor Dunmore, with the right wing of the army at Pittsburgh, had moved down the Ohio. Learning of the victory, he crossed over, marched to Chillicothe, and dictated terms of peace with the vanquished savages, who ceded all title to Kentucky and pledged not to molest the white occupants again. The future for the bold and adventurous backwoodsmen now seemed again full of cheerful promise and hope ';opicacit dtfio OS u i. CHAPTER II.-1771-74. 1. Iroquois conquer the Shawanees.-When did the Menguys, or Six Nations, first conquer the Shawanees When a second time What advantage in arms had they What tribes afterward drove them north of the Ohio 2. Blackhoof's visit to Kentncky.-When was it Of what tribe was he a chief Where was he born And when J 7/6 3. Indian titles to Kentucky.-What of the claim of the Six Na- tions When was their title purchased By whom Whatwas the second Indian claim To whom was this ceded What was the third Indiani claim What company purchased this title Were these purchases and treaties respected by the Indians What did they compel the pioneers to do 24 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. i Ret and preparation.-How long did Boone an(l the Long Hunters tarry at home WVhat effect (lid their reports have What did Boone and his comrades (lo Who joined them in Powell's Valley 5. Disaster to a first immigrant party.- How did Boonetand his party begin their journey to Kentucky What disaster lbefel them What dlid they (10 afterward 6. Others visit Kentucky in 1773.-What act of Virginia favored immigration What survey did Wash ington make Who led exploring parties downt the Ohio in 1773 7. Adventures of Captain Thomas Bullitt.-What Indian town did he visit Where dlid lie tarry Where did he last canip Where did Bullitt survey 8. The XcAfee party.-Where did they separate What river did they enter What lick did they tarry at next Where did they go from Drennon's lick Where from Frankfort When did they start back to Virginia 9. James Douglas at Big Bone.-What game did he find there Where did the buffalo paths lead What impression did the buffalo make around the lick How dlid the springs appear 1o. Pre-historic animals of Kentucky.-What skeleton remains were fouiid at Big Bone When (lid these animals probably exist here What became of them finally Why were they easily slain by hunters What became of these skeleton remains H. Other surveys and surveyors.-Of what county was Kentucky a part Who were surveyors in this county What of Colonel Floyd's brothers His parents Who was his maternal grand- mother What of his character 12. Simon Kenton comes to Kentucky in 1773.-Where was his native place What incident drove him from home Where did he first go From Fort Pitt where did he go Who were his companions What became of Yeager Where did Ken- ton go in 1774 Did his rival die from his injuries 13. First adventure of Harrod and party.-From where and in what year did they come to Kentucky Where did they tarry Up what river did they come Where did they finally locate 14. Settlements and lottery cabins.-Why called lottery cabins What settlements were thus made What town was there laid off Who raised the first corn in Kentucky 25 26 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KRNTUCKY. 16. Indian troubles overcloud A1.-Who was killed near Big Spring Who near the mouth of Kentucky river What mes- sengers warned in Harrod's party Why did Governor Dun- more send them What did Harrod and party do What did Lord Dunmore do 16. Battle of Point Pleasant.-Who led the frontiermen in this campaign Near the mouth of what river was the battle fought What was the result After the victory, what did Dunmore do Where did he make a treaty with the defeated Indians CHAPTER III. FROM THE DUNMORE WAR, TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF BONES- BOROUGH AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE TRANSYL- VANIA LAND OFFICE-1774-75. 1. The Wilderness deserted for the time.-After the re- call of the explorers by Governor Dunmore the year before, Kentucky seemed deserted until the early spring of I775. Yet, the auspices were good. Harrod and his men had borne the news of their experiences back to the Virginia homes, and spread it among their comrades in the army of General Lewis. Dunmore's treaty gave assurance that the Northern Indians would no longer molest the settlers. The restless desire to seek homes, and fortunes, and adventures in the far off wilderness toward the sunset, possessed the hearts of many. 2. The Cherokees claim title to Kentucky.-The great Cherokee nation inhabiting the upper Tennessee valleys, asserted a third claim of title to the disputed wilderness land. The Revolutionary War for independence made the claim of England. to any territory in America doubtful. Virginia's title was disputed by these Indian claims, and might be made void by the war with the Mother Country. Taking advantage of these doubts and disputed titles, a great company was organized to purchase and occupy -the territory of Kentucky under this Cherokee claim, and thus lay the foundation for an independent State or Empire west of the mountains, to be governed by able and ambitious leaders. 3. Transylvania company formed.-In the spring of 1775, Richard Henderson, Nathaniel Hart, and six others, of Granville, North Carolina, formed themselves into a la-id and 27 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. improvement company, styled the " Transylvania Compiany, " for an enterprise on a gigantic scale in the great and expan- sive West. They commissioned Daniel Boone to visit the Cherokee nation and negotiate a treaty for the purchase of the territory of Kentucky under their title. 4. The treaty of Wataga.-By agreement with Boone a council was called to meet at Sycamore Shoals, on the Wataga, a tributary of Holston river. For ten thousand pounds, the tribe ceded to this company all the tract of land afterward called by the name of Transy/vania, and lying between the Ohio and Cumberland rivers, and West and South of the Kentucky river, stretching from the site of Nashville to the site of Louisville, an area equal to two- thirds of present Kentucky. 5. Boond's trace into Kentucky.-Daniel Boone was at once employed to open a path for men and pack-horses, from Holstou river, to the mouth of Otter creek, on Kentucky river, known after as " Boone's Trace." His party of thirty men was made up of Squire Boone, Richard Calloway, John Kennedv, William -Twetty, and others, who carved the trace, or path, with ax and tomahawk, which to-day forms a common thoroughfare through Richmond and Cumberland Gap, into Tennessee and Virginia. 6. Indian ambush and attack.-As Boone's party neared the site of Richmond. on the 2th of Marclh, just before the (lawil of (lay, they were fired into by In1dians, and three killed and wounded. Boone rallied his men and drove off the enemy. Two days after, the wary savages fired on a detachment of six of Boone's party, killing and wounding three more. Caring for the (lead and abounded, they moved on April ist on to the Kentucky river to the site selected to be fortified. 7. Construction of Fort Boonesborough.-On arrival there, Boone and his men began and erected two cabins, so connected 28 SCHOOL HISTORY OF RENTUCKY. with palisades as to make of the structure a stockade fort. Three weeks after, Colonel Henderson, President of Transyl- vania Company, re-enforced this advance party, swelling the garrison to sixty guns-in pioneer phrase. The site and plan of the fort were now fully laid out, and the work of construction rapidly carried to completion. 8. Description of the fort.-It wjas situated near the river batink, and ex-. tended back with -parallel sides. The length of the fort was albout two hun- dred and sixty feet, and the breadth, one Hunidred and fifty, in 'square. ThI.e houses o f hewn logs were placed in line:' The cabins were square in form and two stories in height. One of these cabins projected from each corner of the fort, the spaces between be ing occupied -with intervening cabins and palisades, thus guarding the four sides. The gates were on opposite sides, made of thick slabs of timber, and hung on wooden hinges. 29 30SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 9. Early life of Daniel Boone.-The brightest dream of ambitious hope was now realized to Daniel Boone. We pause awhile to dwell upon the incidents of his early life. Boone was born at Exeter, Pennsylvania, July r3, 1732. He was one of the eleven children of Squire and Sarah Boone. His home was upon a farm which lay on the right bank of the Delaware river, then surrounded by almost unbroken forest. Here Boone learned his first lessons, and acquired that passion for hunting and for the solitudes of the wilderness, which were the ruling impulses of his life. 10. Boyhood daysi-In his boyhood days he often roamed the woods in search of sport and game, with. an old flint: lock rifle for his companion. While yet a boy he remained in the woods for two days and nights on one of his hunting excursions. The alarmed family and neighbors joined in search of the lost one. By the smoke rising in the distance, they found him in a rude camp which he had built, seated upon the skin of a wild animal he had slain, while pieces of meat were roasting at the fire. 11. Boone moves to North Carolina.-The schooling of Boone was of the rudest sort in the rudest of log school houses. We only know that he learned to read and write imperfectly. In 1752 he moved with his father's family to North Carolina, and settled on Yadkin river, near Wilkesboro. In I755 Boone was married to Rebecca Bryan, a pretty rustic maiden of the country. To this wedlock were born five sons and four daughters. Of the sons, James -and Israel fell in battle with the Indians. 12. First excursions.-From his home on the Yadkin, Boone indulged his passion for hunting in long and distant excursions over the mountains of the West, and through the wilds of nature. In 176o he led accompany as far west- ward as Abingdon, Virginia, and there left them. Pursuing hris journey he penetrated still deeper into the mysteries of 30 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KJNTUCKY. the forest. On a beech tree near the stage road from Jones- boro to Blountsville, Tennessee, are yet to be seen these words, which he then carved:. "D. Boone CitEDA. BAR On Tree in ThEyEAR i760." 13. An instrnment of Providence.-Daniel Boone seems ever to have recognized himself as called in the providence of God for the mission of pioneering and subduing the wilderness for the habitation of civilized men. He says in Filson's autobiography: "My footsteps have often been marked with blood. Two darling sons and a brother have I lost by savage hands, which have also taken from me forty horses and an abundance of cattle. Manv dark and sleep- less nights have I been a companion for owls, and often scorched by the summer's sun and pinched by the winter's cold-an instrument ordained to settle tke wilderness." 14. Great work of Boone and comrades.-The lapse of a century but enables us to enlarge our views and estimates of the vastness and value of the services and sacrifices rendered by'Boone and his comrades to- the human family and to civilization. To appreciate their merits we must consider the obstacles to be overcome, as well as the ends and results to be attained. In the light of both these, we may justly rank Boone and his adventurous and heroic comrades, of whom this history makes mention, with Cecrops, the founder of Athens; or Cadmus, the founder of Baetia; or with Romu- lus and his hardy followers, who founded Rome. . The deeds of daring and of heroism of no. explorers and founders in ancient or modem history surpass, if they equal, those of the pioneers of Kentucky. 15. The founder of Transylvania Oompany.-Judge Rich- ard Henderson was born in Virginia, but moved with his parents to GranvilleNorth Carolina. Raised in poverty, his education was limited; yet by studious diligence and energy, he attained a high rank in the legal profession, and 31 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. was appointed Associate Chief-Justice. Amid the turbulent scenes of the Revolutionary War, just begun, Henderson and comrades embarked in the enterprise of founding an inde- pendent government out of the wilderness west of the mountains, in the name of the Transylvania Company. 16. Office opened at Boonesborough.-Colonel Henderson opened an office for the sale of lands in Transylvania soon after his arrival, in the spring Of 1775, and issued warrants for the same in the name of his Company. The price of lands was fixed for one year, at thirteen and one-third cents per acre, and half a cent per acre annual quit-rent, to begin in i-'8o, which released the purchaser from all other charges by the company. Any settler might enter six hundred and forty acres for UNCLE DICK HART, himself at these rates. The THE FIRST SLAVE AT BOONESBORO. 1775. effect of this apparent posses- sion and steady settlement of the country attracted many, and by December five hundred and sixty thousand acres were thus sold. 'Gopicaf l nafp ass- e "z4ios's-. CHAPTER III. I. The Wilderness deserted for the time.-What report did Har- roil's men ibear to their comrades in Virginia What assurance d'i'l ]iuiztiore's treaty give What effect had the information o0 the people 32 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KBNTUCKY. 2. The Cherokees claim title to Kentucky.-Where did the Cherokee Indians reside What claim did they set up What effect had the war of the Revolution on these claims What advantage did a great land company take of this dispute 8. Transylvania Company formed.-What company was formed When Who were the leaders Of what town and.State were they Who was their agent to buy of the Cherokees the land of Kentucky 4. The treaty of Wataga.-Where was the council with Indians held On what river What boundary of land was ceded in this treaty What price was paid How much of Kentucky territory did it embrace 6. Boone's Trace into Kentucky.-What road did Boone lay out What was it called What comrades were with him What road is on this route now 6. Indian ambush and attack.-Where was Boone's party attacked by Indians When With what result What did Boone do What happened two days after What did the party do on April ist 7. Construction of Fort Boonesborough.-What improvements were first made toward a fort Who came three weeks after What was the number of men after Did they aid and enlarge the work 8. Description of the fort.-What of its location What were the length and breadth of the fort How were the cabins placed What of the corner cabins What of the palisades, or palings, between the cabins What of the gates 9. Early life of Daniel Boone-When was Boone born Where Who were his parents On what river was his early home What were his early habits 10. Boyhood days.-What was Boone's boyhood sport What an- ecdote is given of his early passion for camp-life How was the lost boy found What -was he doing 11. Boone moves to North Carolina.-What schooling had he To what place did his father remove When Whom did he marry When How many children had he Whom of these were slain by Indians 12. First excursions.-What of the habits of the man Where did he lead a party in 1760 Where did he then go What di4 he write on a tree Where was the tree 33 34 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KBNTUCKY. 13. An instrument of Providence.-What reverent impression had he What did he say of this in his life written for him by Filson 14. Great work of Boone and comrades.-What must we now think of Boone's work Of that of his comrades With what ancient heroes may we compare them 15. The founder of Transylvania Company.-Who was he Where was he born Where did he live What of his life What great enterprise did he embark in What led him to this bold venture 16. OMoe opeaned at BoonesboroughL-For what did Henderson open this office When What rate per acre was the coni- pany's land sold at the first year At what quit-rent, begin- ning in 1780 How many acres could be allotted at these rates, to each settler What effect had this on immigration How many acres were sold that first year CHAPTER IV. PROM THE PERMANENT SETTLEMENT BY BOONE, HARROD, AND LOGAN, TO THE REMOVAL OF THE FIRST WOMEN AND CHILDREN TO KENTUCKY.-1775-6. 1. Return of Harrod's party in 1775.-Three weeks before Boone reached the mouth of Otter creek, Captain James Harrod had returned with his party of the year before to their lot-cabin settlements at Harrodstown and vicinity. The McAfee and other smaller parties, who followed him in, made the number of adventurers in this section then, about one hundred. Hearing of the Indian attacks on Boone's party as it came in, some forty of these detached newcomers with Harrod took the alarm and left for the old settlements again, by way of Boone's Trace. Colonel Henderson met them as he came in from Cumberland Ford to Crab Orchard, and persuaded some to turn back with him, which they readily did. 2. Harrodstown fortified.-Though Captain Harrod set- tled at Boiling Spring, six miles out on the road to Danville, he seems to have been the leader and ruling spirit of all interests in that section. Harrodstown was soon fortified. The stockade fort, much like that at Boonesborough, was located south of the old spring, and on the brow of the bill adjacent. It became the rallying point for McAfee station, Boiling Spring, the Danville settlements, and others within the cluster. Of the comrades of Harrod who were most active and noted in the events of backwoods life, we may mention the names of Slaughter, Chaplain, McBride, Ray, Harlan, and McGary, among others equally worthy. 3. Settlement of St. Asaph's.-The large flowing spring, one mile west of the present town of Stanford, was made the 35 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. site of a third important settlement during the spring of this year. Colonel Benjamin Logan was the founder of this set- tlement, which was more commonly known as Logan's Fort. Colonel Logan was born in Augusta county, Virginia, of Irish parents. At the age of fourteen, as eldest son, he undertook the support of his widowed mother and family, and faithfully devoted himself to this workl until they were comfortably settled. In I774, he was in the campaign with Governor Dunmore against the Indians. In 1775, he re- solved to come to Kentucky and make it his future home. CAP _ _in Selecting St. Asaph's Spring, he and his party built here a stockade fort and within it the serve otheir rude cabin homes. He in c yand William Galaspy, with several servants, raised small crops of corn and vegetables ears SIMO year. While the in their clearings this year, THEt COMP'ANI0ON D OONE. AND ONE OF TH MOST as did many settlers else- DARING AND SK(ILLFUL H4UNTERS AND IND.AN 110HTINS OF' KCENTUCAY. where. 4. Simon Kenton return to Kentucky.-Since i773, Ken- ton had spent his time in the hunter's camp and as a spy in the service of Lord Dunmore's army inI1774. In May, 1775, in company with Thomas Williams, he reached the 'mouth of Limestone creek, entered the forest and built a camp within a mile of Washington, Mason county. They cleared an acre of ground, planted it in corn and ate the roasting- ears that year. While the two were hunting near the Blue Licks, they fell in with Fitzpatrick and Hendricks, who seemed to have been lost in the forest. Hendricks joined their camp while they piloted Fitzpatrick to the Ohio river, on hiis way back to Virginia. On reaching their camp again, 36 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. they found the charred remains of Hendricks. The Indians had captured and burned him at the stake in their absence. 5. Other improvers and settlers.-There came this year, the Wells brothers and seven others, who camped on Lime- stone, in Mason county, and surveyed fifteen thousand acres of land; the McClellands, McConnells, Robert Patterson, and followers, who improved and fortified at Royal Spring, now Georgetown; Hinkson's party, who settled on South Lick- ing; Lindsey, Jordan, and comrades, who improved at Dren- non's Lick; Haggin, Williams, and others, who located Mar- tin's station, near Lair's dep6t. On the I9th of April, I775, the first battle of the Revolution was fought at Lexington, Massachusetts. Some weeks after, Lindsey, Jordan, and Vance, from Drennon's Lick; Lee and Shannon, from Royal Spring, and others, camped on the present site of Lexington, Kentucky. The news came that day that the Americans had beaten the British, and in honor of the victory these pioneer hunters gave the name Lexington to the spot, which it has ever since borne. 6. Arrival of. the first women and children.-This event of the year was hailed as one of the most auspicious and happy by the pioneers. It was Boone's suggestion. Reso- lute in the purpose to found his home for life in Kentucky, he set out with a small party to North Carolina to bring to his Eden wilds his wife and children. The trip resulted in the arrival at Boonesborough, September 26th, of the wives and families of Boone, Richard Callaway, William Poague, and John Stager; and at Harrodstown, those of Hugh McGary, Richard Hogan, and Thomas Denton. The little colonies now seemed more homelike, and with a new spirit of content society varied its charms. -7. Transylvania Company and its troubles.-There were about three hundred men in. the vicinity of Boonesborotigh, Harrodstown, Logan's Fort, and other points in Kentucky, 37 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. by June, 1775. The title to the country of the Transylvania Company was conceded by many who purchased lands from it. Others relied upon the title of Virginia and refused to recognize the claims of Henderson and party. The leaders of TransylVhania attempted to form a government and to es- tablish laws over the country and its people. They invited delegates from Harrodstown, Logan's Fort, and other points, to convene at Boonesborough. 8. The Transylvania convention.-From a copy of the original minutes we learn that this convention " begun on Tuesday, May 23d, in theyear of our Lord, 1775, and in the fifteent/k year of the reign of his Majesty, King of Great Brit- ain." The delegates present were: ForBoonesborough-Squire Boone, Daniel Boone, William Coke, Samuel Henderson, William Moore, and Richard Callaway. For Harrods/own- Thomas Slaughter, John Lythe, Valentine Harman, and James Douglas. For Boiling Spring-James Harrod, Nathan Hammond, Isaac Hite, and Azariah Davis. For St. Asaph- John Todd, Alex. Dandridge, John Floyd, and Samuel Wood. 9. Laws enacted.-After opening with prayer by Rev. John Lythe, the Assembly proceeded to enact the following laws: For establishing courts of judicature and regulating the practice therein; for regulating the militia; for the pun- ishment of criminals; to prevent profane swearing and Sab- bath breaking; for writs of attachment; fixing clerks' and sheriffs' fees; to preserve the range; for improving the stock of horses, and for preserving game. The convention then adjourned to meet again at Boonesborough in September following. 10. A constitutional compact.-A sort of constitutional compact was next drawn up and signed by Henderson, Hart, and Luttrell, on the part of the Transylvania Company, and Thomas Slaughter, chairman of a committee assuming to represent the convention and the people. . The articles thus 38 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. drafted and signed, eighteen in number, gave final disposal and kingly jurisdiction to the members of the company over the liberties and rights of the people. They were craftily drawn with the motive of assuming almost royal power over the government in contemplation. This was not so plainly seen at once, but the wiser and bolder men of the settlements soon understood the motives of this company and its leaders, and began active opposition to its claims soon after. 11. A protest against the Company.--This was hastened by an unwise attempt on the part of the managers to advance the price of lands and the fees of entry. It was signed by eighty-four of the better men among the settlers, some of whom had been delegates in the late convention. This pro- test was addressed to the government of Virginia, with pro- vision that it be laid before the Assembly of that State for action, and for disposal of the question, as to whether Virginia claimed Kentucky as yet a part of her territory, or yielded title to Great Britain. It will be seen at the sitting of the convention that Henderson and associates recognized the lawful reign of "His Majesty, King of Great Britain," which was a fact as yet. The company would be loyal to either. 12. Virginia asserts authority.-The people and the Com- pany urged opposing claims before the Assembly of Virginia, and that body took action in due time, declaring that the title and claim of Transylvania Company to Kentucky under the pretended Wataga purchase, was null and void. In con- sideration, however, of their trouble and outlay in settling the country, Virginia gave to the company two hundred thousand acres of land lying on both sides of Green river, and just above the mouth of same. As the Wataga pur- chase took in a large fraction of Tennessee now lying between Cumberland river and the Kentucky line, which was then the territory of North Carolina, the Assembly of that State took similar action to that of Virginia. Thus ended the dream -of empire to the rulers of Transylvania. 39 SCHOOL HISTORY OF K"NTUCKY. 13. A thrilling scene occurs.-In the proceedings of the council at Wataga, a chief of the Chickamaugas, Dragging Canoe, opposed the sale of Kentucky to the whites. In an impassioned speech he lifted his arm and pointed his finger to the north-west, and sternly said: " Bloody ground! " and then pausing a moment, stamped his foot and continued, "and dark and dif/icult to settle!" The squaw of the great chief, Oconistoto, aroused with suspicion, rushed forward with frantic and hysteric cries, and for a time stopped all negotiations. Order and confidence were finally restored, and the treaty signed. Then a chief who had signed came forward to Boone and taking him by the hand, said: "Brother, we have given you a fine land, but y'ou will have much trouble in settling it." From the utterances here by the Indians, it is plausibly believed the whites first began to style Ken- tucky "The Dark and Bloody Ground." CHAPTER IV. 1. Return of Harrod's party in 1775.-To what place did they return What other parties came out tlieii How many ad- venturers were in the Harrodstown vicinity early in 1775 What effect had the Indian attacks on Boone's party on these How many left to return honie What did Henderson do 2. Harrodstown fortified.-Where was the stockade fort located Of what places was it the rallying point Who were noted comrades with Harrod 3. Settlement of St. Asaph.-Near what present town was it Who was the founder and leader Where was Colonel Logan born What of his early life In what campaign was he in 1774 When did he come to Kentucky What did he and Galaspy do in 1775 40 SCHOOl4 HISTORY OF KiNTUCKY. 4. Simon Kenton returns to Kentucky.-How had he spent his time since 1773 Where did he settle in 1775 What planting did he and Williams do Whom did they find near Blue Licks Whatof Fitzpatrick Of Hendricks 5. Other improvers and settlers.-Who came near to Kenton's settlement in 1775 How many acres did they survey WVhere is Royal Spring Who improved there this year Who lo- cated on Licking Who, at Drennon Springs Who, at other points Why was Lexington so named 6. Arrival of the first women and children.-Who brought out the first women to Kentucky When Whose wives and children came first to Boonesborough Whose to Ilarrods- town 7. Transylvania Company and its troubles.-IHow many men were in Kentucky by June, 1775 Did all concede the title of lands to be in the Transylvania Company What other claim disputed this What did the company attempt to do by a convention 8. The Transylvania Convention.-When did it assemble From whence were the delegates Who were they 9. Laws enacted.-How was the convention opened How many laws were enacted eState some of them 10. A constitutional compact.-Who signed for the Company Who for the settlers How many articles were in the com- pact What was the nature of these How did the people afterward view them 11. Protest against Transylvania Company.-What excited op. position What did the people do How many signed this protest To whom was it addressed 12. Virginia asserts authority.-What did the Virginia Assembly do Did not this cause the purchasers to lose their lands What compensation did Virginia give the Company for its la- bors and expenses What did North Carolina do 13- A thrilling scene.-Occurred where Who was the speaker What did he say of Kentucky Whose squaw stopped the pro- ceedings What followed then What warning was given Boone by a chief What was Kentucky afterward called AI PERIOD SECOND-i 776-1783. FROM THE FIRST PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS IN KENTUCKY, I775, TO THE TREATY OF PEACE THAT ENDED THE WAR OFF THE REVOLUTION. CHAPTER V.-I776-7. FROM THE EARLIEST VISIT OF CLARK, TO THE FIRST ATTACK ON BOONESBOROUGH. 1. First visit of Clark.-Early in I775, George Rogers Clark made known his presence at Harrodstown suddenly, and without heraldry, a man yet to become the most impor- tant actor in the drama of destiny for Kentucky, and for the great North-West beyond the Ohio river, to the Mississippi and the Lakes. He was born in Albemar'e county,Virginia, November 19, 1752. At twenty-two years of age, we find him at the head of a company in the army of Dunmore and Lewis, repelling the great Indian invasion into Virginia, in 1774. He next declined a high commission in the British army, expecting soon to join the American troops in the threatened war of the Revolution. 2. Clark's personal appearance.-He impressed all who came into his presence. In person, six feet three inches in height, and of well-folmed body and shapely limbs, his im- posing dignity commanded deference from all. Yet so gentle and affable was he, that he won the confidence and friendship of those around him. It was thought by some that he came to Kentucky with private instructions from Patrick Henry, then Governor of Virginia. He was fairly educated for the (42) SCHOOT4 HISTORY Of K)CNTUCKY. times, and of thoughtful and observing mind; he devoted himself to the study of books, but much more to the study of men and things. He mixed freely with the settlers and informed himself of the geographic) civil and military rela- tions of the country, taking great interest in the future welfare of the infant colony. 3. Clark's jealousy of Tran- sylvania Company.-He seemed specially watchful of Colonel Henderson and the leaders of Transylvania Comi pany, and sought to acquaint himself fully with their plans and operations. It is plausi- bly thought by many that he was meditating the best means for defeating the purposes of this company, in concert with the government of Virginia. GENERAL GEORGE ROGERS CLARK, WHO CONQUERID THE wOeTH-WW COUN;TP In the autumn, Clark re- FROM THE bRITISH, DURING THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. 177S. turned to Virginia, spent some months, and then came back to Kentucky in the spring of 1776. On the sixth of June, a meeting for counsel at Harrodstown selected Clark and Gabriel Jones as delegates to the Assembly of Virginia, to represent their interest. On reaching the seat of government, Clark laid before the Governor and Assembly the condition and wants of Ken- tucky, Jones being absent. 4. War supplies asked for.-Clark applied for five hun- dred pounds of gunpowder for border defense. After some doubts and hesitation on the part of the Assembly, Clark boldly told them that, if Virginia refused aid, Kentucky would become independent of her, and assume her own de- finse. The powder was soon ordered shipped to Pittsburgh 43 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KUNTUCKY. and down the Ohio river, under guard. Indian spies learn- ing of the shipment, followed the little cargo into Kentucky. It was landed on the banks of Limestone creek in Mason county, and concealed in the woods. 5. Indians attack the convoy.-Captain John Todd, with ten men, undertook to carry the powder safely to the forts, Booliesborough and Harrodstown. The Indians attacked them near Blue Licks, killing and wounding several. Clark hastily led back a party from Harrodstown, and brought in the powder safely. During this year, 1776, the settlers were molested but little by the Indians, until July, and they im- proved their opportunities for building and clearing. 6. Three girls captured by the Indians.-On July 14th, a thrilling episode occurred. Elizabeth and Frances Callaway and Jemima Boone left the fort at Boonesborough for a boat ride upon the river. They innocently rowed to the opposite bank, and out of the reach of the guards on duty. Sud- denly a small band of ambushed Indians leaped into the water, seized the boat, and bore to the shore, the captive maidens. Elizabeth Callaway boldly struck and gashed an Indian's head to the bone with her paddle; but it availed nothing to avert their fate. They were hurried into the woods and out of sight from the fort. 7. The pursuit and rescue.-Boone, Callaway, Floyd, Samuel Henderson, John Holder, Flanders Callaway, the last three lovers of the maidens, and two other comrades, made up the pursuing party of eight. They swiftly trailed the Indians northward, by Winchester, North Middletown, and Carlisle, and until Tuesday, the third day after the capture. Near Blue Licks, forty miles away, they suddenly came upon the captors in camp, with the maiden captives sitting near, under guard. The white party quickly raised their deadly rifles and fired upon the savages. Luckily the five Indians were killed, wounded, or dispersed to the woods, 44 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. and the maidens unharmed were the next moment in the embraces of the rescuers. The lovers all afterward married. 8. An interval of quiet.-Until midsummer, 1776, -the settlers in Kentucky were but little disturbed. Settlements were made at Leestown, near Frankfort; at Kennedy's creek and Stoner's Fork, in Bourbon county; at Sandusky station in Washington county; and by William Whitley, two miles from Crab Orchard, in Lincoln county. Marauding bands of Indians suddenly appeared at different points early in July. Hinkson and other settlers on the Licking were attacked, and several killed. These important posts were soon deserted, some taking refuge at Boonesborough and Harrodstown, and others in McClelland's fort at Georgetown Spring. Colonel Floyd wrote that more than three hundred left the country this year, and that not many immigrants were coming in. 0 9. Attack on McClelland's fort.-Colonel Patterson, the leading spirit, with six others, left Royal Spring station, for Pittsburgh to obtain powder and other supplies. They were attacked by Indians on the Kanawha river while asleep in camp, and all killed or wounded but one. Patterson was laid up for twelve months with wounds. On December 29th. McClelland fort at Royal Spring, with its garrison of twenty men, was attacked by fifty Indians under the noted Mingo chief, Pluggy. McClelland and two of his men were killed and four wounded. Pluggy was slain among others of his warriors, when they were driven off. This station was soon after abandoned. 10. First divine services.-Rev. John Lythe, of the Church of England, conducted the first religious services which were known to be held at Boonesborough. The first preaching in Mercer county was at Big Spring, now within the limits of Harrodsburg, by Revs. Peter Tinsley and William Hickman, Baptist ministers, from the text, " Let 45 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. me die the death of the righteous; and let my last end be like his." The services were under the shade of a great elm tree, the stump and roots of which were remaining in i873. There may have been other religious services, and in other places, even earlier than these, of which history does not give account. And such were the feeble beginnings of the great work done by Chris- tianity for Kentucky. _ 1 1. Kentucky County organ- ized.-Hitherto Kentucky was but a district of Fincastle county, Virginia. The need of county officers and organi- zation was being felt. The1 Assembly of Virginia passed the act, December 6, 1776, to organize Kentucky county out of the territory, " lying south and west of a line beginning , , , REV. WILLIAMl HICXMAN. oln the Ohio, at the mouth of A BAPTIST MINISTER, ..O PfHIACMAED TN; 1lRSS Big Sandy, and running up KNOWN URMON IN KENTUCKY. 1778. the same, and the north-east branch thereof, to the great Laurel Ridge mountain, and with- that to the line of North Carolina." Then Kentucky chose her own magistrates and police, two representatives in the Virginia Assembly, and had her own military officers, sheriff, and other county officers. 12. England instigates savage warfare.-In 1777, the Revolutionary war had been in progress nearly two years. From the forts held by the British in the North-west, this cruel nation bribed and incited the savage tribes to wage a continuous war of murder and rapine upon the border set- tlers. This policy was then, and for twenty years after, 46 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. both in times of peace and war, repeatedly pursued by the officers and agents of this powerful empire. Such atrocious and cruel conduct planted the most intense hatred in the hearts of Kentuckians for two generations after. 13. Attack near Harrodstown.-James Ray, William Coomes, and Thomas Shores were clearing land at Shawanee Springs, three miles east of Harrodstown. A band of some forty Indians, passing a sugar camp near, came suddenly upon Ray and Shores and fired upon them, Coomes having concealed himself. Young Ray, known as the fleet-footed, outran all the Indians, and gave the alarm at the fort. Shores was captured and held several years among the savages. Captain McGary rallied thirty men and pursued the Indians, but failed to overtake them. A few days after, these Indians stealthily invested Harrodstown. The garri- son finding out their presence sallied forth and drove off the savages, with sharp loss 14. General James Ray.-This noted pioneer was an ad- -enturous youth in his day. A month or two after, he shot an Indian while hunting two miles out. Several savages sprang from cover and gave chasebut Ray outstripped them all. On reaching the fort, the gates were closed, and the Indians in sight behind. Ray threw himself behind a stump near the pickets for shelter. No one dared to go to his rescue, while the Indians were firing within range. In this dilemma he cried out, " For God's sake dig a hole under the picket and take me in !" This was promptly done. Young Ray's services were invaluable in supplying the garrison with game, even when the Indians infested the woods. 15. Spies sent out.-Under order of Colonel Clark, Ken- ton and Thomas Brooks, Samuel Moore and Bates Collier, and John Conrad and John Martin, were sent out as spies upon the borders of the Ohio and about the deserted stations. They went by twos in turn each week, looking for Indian 47 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. signs. Soon after a body of Indians suddenly assaulted Boonesborough. They pursued two hunters, and. toma- hawked one within gunshot of the fort gate. Kenton, stand- ing at the gate, shot the savage dead. Calling to the garrison for help, Kenton, with his spies, gave chase to the savages. 16. The fight before the fort.-Boone followed out with ten men. Indians from ambush gave battle. Kenton seeing an Indian sight his rifle at Boone, quickly shot him dead. A party of fourteen whites soon found themselves surrounded by a large body of the enemy. Boone, noting the danger, gave the order, "Right about, fire! charge! " and the men made a desperate effort to regain the fort. Half were wounded, Boone among them with a broken leg. An In- dian sprang to tomahawk him, when Kenton, with ever ready rifle, sent the fatal bullet through his heart; then lift- ing Boone in his arms, bore the veteran safely into the fort. When the gate was closed, Boone quietly said: "Well, Simon, you have behaved yourself like a man to-day; you are a fine fellow." The Indians finally retired to the woods. 17. Dark days for Kentucky.-Virginia, deeply involved in the Revolutionary war, could spare no aid for her distant colonists. Many weak settlements were broken up by fre- quent Indian raids, and large numbers of the settlers left in despair to return to Virginia and Carolina. In backwoods phrase, the garrison of Boonesborough was now reduced to tevnty-two guns; of Harrodstown, to sixty-live guns, and of Logan's Fort, to fifteen guns. CHAPTER V.-1776-7. 1. Visit of George Rogers Clark.-Where did he first appear in Kentucky What did he betome in Kentucky history Where 48 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 49 was he born And when What was his first military service What British offer did he decline 2. Clark's appearance and manners.-Describe them What impression did he make on men Under whose authority was it thought he came In what did he seem interested 8. Clark's jealousy of Transylvania Company.-What course did he pursue toward it What was his design When was his second visit to Kentucky Who was selected with him to visit the Assembly of Virginia 4. War supplies asked for.-For what did Clark ask of the Vir- ginia government What did he say on refusal to grant the request Was it granted How was the powder shipped What spies followed it Where was it landed 5 Indians attack the convoy.-Who went to convey the powder in What happened to Todd's party What did Clark do What was the condition of the settlers in 1776 6. Three girls captured by Indians.-Who were they Where were they captured How What did the Indians do with them What did Miss Callaway do 7. The pursuit and rescue.-What party pursued What were the relations of three of them to the maidens By what route did they trail the Indians Where did they overtake them What did the pursuers do 8. An interval of quiet.-What settlement was made near Frank- fort in 1776 In Bourbon county In Washington county In Lincoln county What stations did the Indians attack in July What was the effect What did Floyd write -'9. Attack on XcClelland's Fort.-What of Colonel Patterson's journey What befell McClelland's Fort Who led the In- dians What resulted from the attack 10. First divine services.-Who held the first at Boonesborough Who at Harrodstown What was the text of the latter Where were these services held L. Kentucky County organized.-When was this done Describe the boundaries What advantage was this to her people 12. England instigates savage warfare.-From what forts was this done Did they long continue this Who suffered from it 13. Attack near Harrodstown.-Where was this made Upon whom was it made By how many Indians What were the results Who rallied to their rescue What did these Indians 4 do a few days after 50 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 14. General James Ray.-What of his services What of his fleet- ness of foot What narrow escape did he make 15. Spies sent out.-Who sent them What were they ordered to do What incident happened at Boonesborough What did Kenton do 16. The fight before the forts-What did Boone do Who saved Boone's life How What happened to the party under Boone How did Kenton save his life the second time What (lid Boone say 17. Dark days for Kentucky.-Why could not Virginia aid Ken- tuckv What was the condition of the settlers in 1777 How many were in garrison at Boonesborough At Harrodstowu At Logan's Fort CHAPTER VI. FRoMf THE FIRST SIEGE OF BOONESBOROUGH, 1777, TO THE CAPTURE OF FORT VINCENNES, I779. 1. Formidable siege of Boonesborough.-On July 4, 1777, two hundred painted and armed warriors laid siege to Boonesborough, while detachments of others were deployed against Harrodstown and Logan's Fort to prevent re-enforce- ments being sent from these. For two days they boldly and vigorously attacked the garrison, but were defeated and baffled at every point, suffering heavy loss from the riflemen behind the wooden walls. In despair the savages withdrew and disappeared. 2. Fighting at Logan's Fort.-On the 20th of May before, one hundred Indians of this same body laid siege to St. Asaph's, or Logan's Fort. While the women were milking in the morning, and some men guarding, the savages fired on the latter from a cane-brake ambush. One man was killed and two wounded. There were but thirty-five in all in the fort, fifteen of whom were fighting men, now reduced to twelve. One of the wounded lay helpless between the fort and the Indians, his appeals for help being answered only by the cries of his frantic wife within. The heroic Logan moved with sympathy and daring, boldly rushed forward from the opened gate into what seemed the jaws of death, lifted the wounded man in his herculean arms, and amid a shower of bullets from the foe, bore him safely to the arms of his distressed wife. 3. The siege continues.-The powder and ball of the gar- rison were nearly exhausted under the siege of days. It must be replenished or all would be lost. There was none to be had nearer than Holston, over a hundred miles away. (5I) SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Logan with two picked men stole through the Indian lines, and set out over mountains and through forests, to secure the needed relief, leaving but nine guns to defend themselves and the women and children. His resolute will made his trip successful, and the crisis was passed. At length the long siege of weeks was ended by the sudden appearance of Colonel Bowman, from Virginia, at the head of one hundred men. A few days before, a re-enforcement of forty-five men reached Boonesborough. These reliefs alarmed the Indians who withdrew from the country. 4. Clark's spies to Illinois.-In April, Ben Linn and Samuel Moore were sent as spies to Illinois, in furtherance of the deep designs of Colonel Clark toward an aggressive move against the enemy. They embarked in a canoe or pirogue, upon the Cumberland river to its mouth, and entered the wilderness beyond, crossing the Ohio. The first court held in the new county, convened at Harrodstown on September 2d. At this date a census of the town was taken, showing a population of eighty-five men, twenty-four women, seventy children and nineteen slaves; total one hundred and ninety-eight. John Todd and Richard Cal- laway were elected the first members of the Virginia Assembly for Kentucky County, this year. 5. Boone and the salt makers captured.-In January, 1778, Boone led a party of thirty men to Blue Licks to make salt. A month after, while making the salt, the party were all captured except three, without firing a gun, under assurance to Boone by the Indians, that all should be spared and well treated. The prisoners were carried North; Boone and ten of his men being conducted to the British at Detroit. The Indians kept their pledges. Under Boone's arts and skillful management he acquired much influence over the savages, whose admiration and fondness for their veteran enemy became remarkable. The three men who escaped .52 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKV. returned to the Lick, secreted the kettles, and brought the salt they had made safely to Boonesborough on pack-horses. 6. Boone a pet of the Indians.-The savages would not part with Boone, though several Englishmen offered to ransom him at a liberal price. His captors bore him back to Chillicothe, their tribal town, and there adopted him into the tribe under the usual ceremonies. He was taken into a principal family as a son. Before this adoption, the hairs of the head and beard were plucked out, except a small tuft on the crown, which was tied and dressed up with trinkets and feathers. This was done by women, who then led him to the river and gave him a thorough washing. to take out all his white blood." He was then taken to the council-house, harangued by a chief, and his head and face painted in Indian style. 7. Life among the Indians.-Boone was wily enough to feign contentment, to adapt himself to the ways and humors of the savages, and to win their confidence. They soon allowed him to hunt, to engage in their sports and games, and to explore the woods. For months this life was con- tinued with seeming content to both parties. Yet Boone's heart was with his kindred people, and he only watched and waited for the opportunity to serve their interests before attempting his escape. 8. Boone's escape.-In the summer of 1778, Boone was surprised at the sudden gathering of four hundred warriors, painted and armed to march on Boonesborough. He re- solved at once to escape and bear the news to his people. This he safely did in a journey of one hundred and sixty miles, in five days, upon a single ration of venison which he had in his blanket, reaching Boonesborough June 20th. On account of Boone's escape the Indians delayed their march for some weeks. In the meantime, Boone led a scout of twenty men across the Ohio, to the Scioto. While reconnoi- 53 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTTCCKY. tering, Kenton, in advance, saw two Indians in great glee galloping a pony, one facing the horse's tail. As they came in range, he fired and shot both, and ended their sport. About thirty Indians suddenly dashed from the woods at Kenton, who dodged from tree to tree, until Boone's party came up and drove them off. 9. Formidable attack and siege.-Learning that the In- dian army was on the march,, Boone hastened back to the fort and prepared for defense. The next day over four hun- dred Indians, led by Captain Duquesne, of the English army, and several chiefs, the British flag flying, invested Boonesborough. The garrison of the fort numbered but fifty men. Duquesne sent in a summons to surrender. The answer was prompt: "We will defend the fort as long as there is a man of us alive." The enemy then requested a parley with nine of the principal men of the garrison, sacredly pledging them safety if they would come out. They agreed to meet the Indian chiefs at a point sixty yards from the fort gate. 10. Strategy and failure.-It was proposed to release the garrison without injury, if they would swear allegiance to the king of England. After the parley was over, the In- dians said it was their custom on such occasions, for two Indians to take each white man by the hand in friendly token of parting. The nine whites permitted this; but on the alert, and suspicious, they suddenly broke away and dashed forward for the fort, under a heavy fire from the treacherous savages. Only a few were wounded. The siege and battle now began in earnest, and waged for nine days. The enemy attempted to mine under the fort from the river bank. The garrison started a counter - mine, when the enemy abandoned theirs. All attacks and strategy failing, Duquesne drew off his forces and abandoned the siege. The loss of the Indians was heavy in killed and wounded, 54 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KtNTUCKY. as they were exposed to the fire of the veteran riflemen from the fort. That of the whites was but three or four men in all. 11. Clark's plans developed.-We have noted the fact of sending spies to Illinois by General George Rogers Clark. They returned with all the information needed. Clark at once went to Virginia and arranged with Governor Patrick Henry for aid and supplies for a campaign against the ' A THE FIRST STOCKADE CABINS AT FALLS OF OHIO ILOUSVILLE). BUILT BY GENERAL GEORGE ROGERS CLARK. IN 1778. British and Indians in the North-west. Late in the spring of 1778, his little fleet of flats and pirogues, well loaded, descended the Ohio from Pittsburgh, and landed on Corn Island, Falls of Ohio, May 27, 1778, and there built some cabin forts. This was the first improvement made at the present site of Louisville. Joined by volunteers from Ken- tucky, Clark left the women and children with a guard of men, and embarked with one hundred and thirty-five soldiers, down the Ohio. 12. Marches on Kaskaskia.-General Clark landed his little army at old Fort Massac, nearly opposite Paducah, and began his march across the woods and prairies of Illinois. 55 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Kaskaskia was a British fort, on the Mississippi, opposite St. Louis, and under command of M. Rocheblave, with a garrison of British soldiers.. The people of the town were nlainly/French,4 as this country, with Canada, had been surrendered by France to Great Britain, by the treaty of Paris, in 1763. 1 Without suspicion of danger, the fort was not vell guarded. I General Clark, with cautious strategy, invested the place with complete surprise, and captured the garrison and town without the loss of a man. 13. Capture of Cahokia.-Cahokia was another fortified British post, sixty miles north of Kaskaskia./ Major Bow- man was sent by General Clark, at the head of a body of troops to surprise and capture this place also, before they could learn the startling intelligence of an American army in the country, and of the capture of Kaskaskia./ Cahokia shared a like fate, and was taken without loss. Thus, by the bold sagacity and tact of General Clark, these frontier outposts fell under the authority of the Americans, and hence was lost to England all the territory now known as Illinois. There was yet one important post occupied by the British, whicA menaced Kentucky and threatened continued savage warfare, through its influence upon the Indian tribes around. This was Vincennes, on the Wabash river. 14. Vincennes captured.-General Clark was alive to the imperative need of seizing and holding this !itter post. The population of Vincennes was also French, who yet bore latent prejudices against their old enemy, the English. They had just heard of the treaty of alliance by which France pledged to aid the Americans in the war of the Revolution with her army and navy. The sympathy and friendship of these French people, who had been under English rule at Kaskaskia and Vincennes, turned at once in favor of Clark and his Kentuckians. Taking advantage of this when.the British garrison was very weak, by strategy, 56 SCHOOL HIS1ORY OP KENTUCKY. 57 and by enlisting the aid of the French citizens, he induced the surrender of Vincennes, and put the fort in charge of Captain Helm. 15. An immense territory conquered.-Thus w s won to the authority of Virginia by the aid of her Kentucky chil- dren, all that immense and valuable territory embracing the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, from the Ohio river to the Lakes. Otherwise, this empire of land, being held like Canada, under British rule, would have been given up to England in the treaty of peace at the close of the Revolutionary war, and thus restricted the future power and extent of the United States. 16. The bearings on Kentucky.-This conquest of the North-west was of great importance. The capture of these important outposts, and the change from British rule, had a decided effect upon the Indian tribes of this whole country. It was now, for the first time, an easy matter for General Clark to stipulate terms of treaty and peace with the savages, and thus to check for the time, those border hostilities, which were so injurious to the peace and prosperity of Ken- tucky. Indeed the Indians now sought to treat with the successful general for peace upon terms of his own dictation. From this time to the end of the Revolutionary war, the advantages of this remarkable campaign were felt among the settlers of the entire western border. 17. Vincennes lost and captured again.-Clark could spare but a few men to garrison Vincennes. Colonel Ham- ilton, learning this weakness, came down from Detroit with a British force, and recaptured the fort. General Clark, feeling the necessity of its possession, organized a force of nearly two hundred men at Kaskaskia, in the winter of 1778-9. On the seventh of February/ he set out upon a march against Vincennes, through the swampy prairies and over- flowed valleys, inundated bv recent heavy rains. Through SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCiv. the cold and storms from above and the widespread waters beneath, the heroic band were led forward to what seemed an impossible task. Wading the flat prairies, sometimes two feet deep in water, and sometimes covered with thin ice, plunging into the overflowed valleys with the water rising to their waists and arm pits, and crossing the swollen creeks and rivers upon rafts of logs, they found themselves finally in near vicinity to Vincennes. Colonel Hamilton and his garrison little dreamed of an enemy so near, until Fort Vin- cennes was invested. Clark laid siege for two days, so dis- posing and marching his men, as to make them appear a much larger force than it was; his riflemen, in the mean- while, picking off the garrison wherever one became visible. After two days' siege the British commander surrendered, and Clark became master of the situation again. V9pcate EltaNA.. agottim CHAPTER VI.-1777--9. 1. Formidable siege of Boonesborough.-What happened to Boonesborough July 4, 1777 What at Harrodstown and Lo- gan's Fort How long did the siege last What were the results to the Indians 2. Fighting at Logan's Fort.-What happened at Logan's Fort in May What were the women doing How many men were in the fort What gallant act did Logan perform 8. The siege continues. --What danger threatened the garrison What did Logan do Was he successful How were the Indians driven off What help came to Boonesborongh What did the Indians do 4. Clark's spies to Illinois.-Who were they Why were they sent How did they go When and where was the first court in the new county What population had Harrodstown now Who were first elected members of the Virginia Assembly 58 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KRNtIJCKY. so B. Boone and the salt makers captured.-What party went to make salt When and where What happened to them Did any escape What was done with the prisoners How did the Indians treat them What did the three do who escaped 6. Boone a pet of the Indians.-How did the Indians treat Boone Where did they take him from Detroit What did they do with him at Chillicothe What were the ceremonies of adop- tion Who performed them What was done last 7. Life among the Indians.-How did Boone act as an Indian What liberties were allowed to him How long did this last What was Boone's concealed wish 8. Boone's escape. -What alarmed Boone in the summer What did he resolve to do What journey did he make What effect on the Indians had his escape What scout did Boone make What incident of Kenton 9. Formidable attack and siege.-What did Boone learn What did he do What happened next day to the fort How many were in garrison What reply was given to the summons to surrender What did the enemy then do What was agreed to 10. Strategy and failure.-What did the enemy propose How did they offer to greet the nine whites How did the whites escape How did the savages then act How did they attempt to reach the fort How were they met How long did the siege last What were the final results II- Clark's plans developed.-What report from the Illinois spies What did Clark then do From whence did his party embark When did they land on Corn Island What was done here With how many men did he leave Corn Island 12. Marches on Kaskaskia.-Where did he land in Illinois On what British post did he march What was the result Of what nation were the Kaskaskians 13. Capture of Cahokia.-How far off was this fort Who was sent to capture it What success had Bowman What were the results of these conquests What other post did Clark plan to capture 14. Vincennes captured.-What were the prejudices of the people of Vincennes What new treaty inclined these people to favor the Kentuckians Who aided Clark in his designs on Vin- cennes Was this post captured - 6o SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. lr. An immense territory conquered.-What great territory was won to Virginia by capturing these three forts What would have otherwise become of it What bearing did it have upon the future of the United States 16. The bearings on Kentucky.-How did these conquests relieve Kentucky What did Clark now effect with the Indians How long did these advantages last 17. Vincennes lost and captured again.-Why was Vincennes recaptured by the British Under whose lead What did Clark do on learning the fact When did he march on Vin- cennes What were the difficulties of the campaign How did his men bear them Did they reach Vincennes How did he find the garrison What strategy did Clark employ What was the final result CHAPTER VII-x177880-. FROM THIS FIRST IMPROVEMENTS AT LOUISVILIE, 1778, To THE "HARD WINTER," 1779-80. 1. Improvements at Louisville.-As the term of enlistment of some of Clark's soldiers at Kaskaskia had expired, such as wished to return to Kentucky were put in charge of Captain Linn, with orders from Colonel Clark to strengthen the works of defense at Falls of Ohio. The improvements on Corn Island were abandoned, and a new stockade fort and cabins built, under Linn's direction, on the river shore at the foot of the present Twelfth street. Here, on Friday, Decem- ber 25, I ;;78, the first Christmas dinner and the first Christmas festivities, that were ever partaken of on the site of Louis- ville. were enjoyed in the cabin of Richard Chenoweth. 2. Fort Nelson built.-In 1782, a larger and stronger fort was built by troops of the regular army, between Seventh and Eighth streets, on the north side of Main, and called Fort Nelson. It occupied one acre of ground, and was surrounded by a ditch eight feet deep and ten feet wide, with a row of sharp pickets in the middle. In i832, in digging the cellar of Love's store, on Main street opposite the Louisville Hotel, some of the remains of this fort were dug up. Louisville was named for the French King, Louis XVI., who aided the Americans in the war for independence. 3. A Corn-shelling party attacked.-Thirty men went out from Harrodstown seven miles distant, to shell and bring in some corn to the fort. While engaged thus they were fired on by forty Indians, ambushed in a canebrake near, and seven killed and wounded. Colonel Bowman in command, rallied the men and drove back the Indians, dispatching to Har- (6i) SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. rodstown for re-enforcements. On the arrival of these, the enemy were put to flight. Other raids and rencounters with the Indians occurred this year at Harrodstown, at Danville, near Georgetown, and in other sections. 4. Adventure of Simon Kenton.-In the latter part of 1778, the restless spirit of Kenton led him to join a party to cross the Ohio and make reprisals for horses stolen by the Indians. In a sharp skirmish with a body of savages his companions were killed or dispersed, and himself captured. The hatred by the Indians of their veteran foe was intense, and they were now bent on vengeance. They began beating him without mercy, and upbraiding him as a " hoss steal." 5. Kenton's tortures.-They might have murdered him there, but thought it best to defer until they could accomplish this with slow and terrible tortures, in the presence of the whole tribe. To secure him for the night, they laid him on his back, lashed his feet to two saplings, tied his hands at the end of a pole stretched across his breast, and fastened his arms to the same. They then stretched back his head and tied him by his neck to a stake in the ground. Thus, in misery, he passed the night. The next morning they painted him black, a token of assurance that he would be burned at the stake. On the way to Chillicothe they bound him on an un- broken horse, and turned the latter loose to run wildly through the bushes and trees. 6. End of his captivity.-Arriving at Chillicothe, they compelled him to run the gauntlet under the clubs and switches of six hundred Indians placed in two opposite rows. They then tied him to the stake for twenty-four hours, but did not apply the torch. Thus, for weeks was he tormented, running the gauntlet eight times, led to the stake three times, and treated with every other horrible cruelty. He was at length moved to Sandusky, and was here saved from death by his old Pittsburgh friend, Simon Girty, now a renegade to 62 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. the Indians. He was next carried to Detroit, where he finally escaped through the aid of a Mrs. Harvey, who had conceived quite an interest in his fate. 7. Colonel John Bowman's defeat.-After the planting of their crops, in the spring of I 779, under command of Colonel John Bowman, the settlers were ordered to gather at the mouth of the Licking in May, for a march against Chillicothe. The divisions were under Captains Logan, Harrod, Holder, Bulger and Levi Todd-Logan being second in command. They reached and invested Chillicothe without alarm to the enemy. At an early hour in the night the attack was planned for daylight next morning. A part of the com- mand, under Colonel Logan in position, awaited the signal of assault from Colonel Bowman. By some miscarriage, no signal was given those waiting. The Indians were apprised of the enemy's presence by the barking of a dog, and soon became conscious of the ominous danger. -8. The attack by Logan.-The firing of a gun in the distance prompted Logan to attack at once. He led his division to the assault, and was driving the enemy before him, confident that comrades were supporting from the other side. In the very face of success, he was dismayed to receive an order from Colonel Bowman to retreat. Such an order he was compelled to obey. The Indians, surprised and encouraged by such a turn in affairs, sallied out in pursuit. Logan's men fell slowly back on Bowman's force. The Indians now attacked from all sides, and great confusion followed the unexpected tactics of the commander. By the coolness and bravery of Logan, the troops were rallied and the enemy repelled. This was repeated several times, until a panic was threatened. At this crisis, Logan with several brave leaders, charged the Indians on horseback, drove them from their covers, and checked their assault. Their chiefs in command, Blackfish and Red Hawk, having been slain here, the fight ended, with heaviest loss to the Indiaus. 63 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KUNTUCKY. 9. The currency and the lands.-Of gold and silver, there was little to circulate. The currency in use was the paper _ W rate an proise to ecoe wothlss. bygii therCned to her lands to replenish her treasures, and enacted the LandLaw, of May, 1779, with provisions that made her Kentucky lands available. This attracted many settlers from the old colonies, driven out by the contending armies of the Revolutionary war. The tide of immigration was greater than ever known before. In the spring of I178o, three hundred large family boats arrived at Louisville, and, daily, trains of wagons went out from there to interior settlements. 64 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 10. The hard winter.-The winter of I779-80 was un- precedented in severity. The rivers were frozen over, and all navigation suspended for three months. The price of corn ranged from fifty dollars per bushel in December, to one hundred and sixty-five, in January; and thirty dollars in May, in Continental money. 11. Settlement of Lex- ington.-In April, I779, Lexington was first per- manently improved and stockade cabins built. These extended from Levy's old corner to Mas- terson's, on Main stret Out of this little Xplan grew the beautiful city of the Bluegrass center, q Y under the enterprise of Colonel Robert Patterson and comrades. In this COLONEL ROBERT PATTERSON. year also, Bryan's station, A BRAVE PIONEER. THE FOUNDER OF LEXINGTON. KY., AND AFTERWARD OF LOSANTIVIL". five miles north-east of NOW CINCINNATI. OHIO. Lexington, was established. Martin's station and Hinkson's, north of Paris, were then restored; Pittman's station near Greensburg, and Squire Boone's, in Shelby county, were likewise added. 12. McAfee's station.-The McAfee brothers now re- turned to, and fortified, their old survey on Salt river. The young peach trees, which they had planted four years pre- viously, bloomed in the spring, and bore them a bounteous crop. They were subjected to Indian raids at times, in one of which McCoun, a promising lad, was captured, carried off, and burned at the stake. SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 13. Massacre on the Ohio.-Colonel David Rogers and Cjptain Robert Benham in charge of two keel boats loaded with military stores, manned by one hundred men, were attackedby a large body of Indians, near the mouth of the Little Miami river. The savages were on land and in boats. Colonel Rogers ordered his men to land, that he might meet the enemy at a better advantage. He was suddenly sur- rounded by five times his number, and cut to pieces; not more than nine or ten escaped. Among the latter was Cap- tain Benham, though badly wounded through the hips. By the friendly concealment of a fallen tree, he lay, after the enemy had disappeared, for two days. Falling in with a wounded comrade, they managed to survive in the woods for weeks. One was wounded in the lower limbs, and the other in both arms. The latter would stroll out in the woods and drive the turkeys, deer, and other game, within range, when the former would shoot them from his covert. Thus, the two arms of one man, and the two feet of another, were used to mutually sustain the lives of two men, who otherwise must have perished. They were finally rescued. CHAPTER VII.-1778-80. 1. Improvements at Louisville.-Whom did Clark send back to Louisville With what orders What changes did Linn make at Louisville When was the first Christmas dinner in Louisville In whose cabin 2. Fort Nelson built.-When By whom Near what streets What was its area What defenses were constructed around it What was found there in i8v2 For whom was Louisville named 8. The corn-shelling party attacked-How many were of this party Whither did they go How were they attacked Who 66 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 67 rallied the men What was the final result Where were other Indian raids this year 4. Adventure of Simon Kenton.-Into what adventure was Ken- ton led in 1778 What happened in an attack of the Indians How did they treat him as a captive What did they call him 6. Kenton's tortures.-Why did not his captors put him to death at once How was he confined at night What did the Indians do to him next morning What on the way to Chillicothe 6. Bnd of his captivity.-What punishment did they inflict at Chillicothe What did they next threaten to do How often were these cruelties inflicted Where was he next carried Who saved him here from the stake Where was he finally carried What became of him then 7. Colonel John Bowman's defeat.-What order did Colonel Bowman give in 1779 Who commanded under him What Indian town did they march upon Was the plan of attack successful Why not 8. The attack by Logan.-What did Logan do oq, the failure of assault What order checked him What effect had Logan's retreat on the Indians What did the savages do What was the effect of the fighting How was the army saved from dis- aster What Indian chiefs were slain 9. The currency and the lands.-What of gold and silver What of the paper money What resource for money did Virginia find What effect had the land law of 1779 on immigrants How many came out to Louisville in 1780 10. The hard winter.-When was it What were its effects on navigation What were the prices of corn in Continental money 11. Settlement of Lexington.-When was it What improvements were first made Under whose lead were they made What other station near Lexington was built What of Martin's and Hinkson's Of Pittman's Of Squire Boone's 12. cMcAfee's station.-What of the McAfee brothers this year How did they find their young peach trees What happened to McCoun at this station 18. Massacre on the Ohio.-How many men were in this massacre Who led them How did it occur At what river point What were the results of the disaster What happened to Captain Bedia How was Uis life saved CHAPTER VIII.-178o-8i. FROM THE CONSTRUCTION G FORT JEFFERSON TO THn LARGE MIGRATION OF FEMALES TO KENTUCKY. I78o-1781. 1. Fort Jefferson built.-Thomas Jefferson, Governor of Virginia, sent orders to General Clark to fortify a post on the Mississippi, to command the country above and below. Clark proceeded, with two hundred soldiers, to occupy a point called the Iron Banks, five miles below the Ohio, and to erect a fort of several block-houses, which he called Fort Jefferson. This fort was manned with artillery and small arms. It was well known that France and Spain opposed the extension of the Virginia boundary to the Mississippi river, and any control of the navigation of the Mississippi. Already their intrigues had begun to effect their jealous aims and policy. Of these we shall speak hereafter. 2. The Chickasaw war.-The Chickasaw nation held title to all the land between the Tennessee and Mississippi rivers, and protested against Clark's invading their territory and building a fort thereon. Under their chief, Colbert, they began a siege and attack, several hundred strong, upon the fort in 178i. The garrison of thirty men gallantly de- fended, inflicting heavy slaughter upon the enemy. At the end of five days Clark brought in a relief force, and the siege was abandoned. A treaty with the Chickasaws soon after adjusted all differences. 3. Formidable invasion in 1780.-The British, in retalia- tion for Clark's successes in the North-west, equipped and sent a formidable force of six hundred Canadians and In- dians under Colonel Byrd, of the English army, with several pieces of artillery, to invade and desolate Kentucky. This anmy came down the Miami and up Licking river, 9n boats, (68) SCHOOL4 HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. to a point where Falmouth now stands. Colonel Byrd thence marched on Ruddle's and Martin's stations, both of which fell an easy prey, under threats of cannonading and assaults. The garrisons were promised the protection of the English, in the parley; but the superior numbers of the savages led them, when the gates were opened, to rush in, and any warrior to seize a man, woman or child, as he might please for massacre, torture or captivity. 4. Barbarities practiced.-The cruelest atrocities were now visited upon the unfortunate prisoners, and neither age nor sex was spared. The helpless agonies of men, the dis- tracted throes of wives and mothers, and the piteous cries of children, torn asunder and brutally outraged in every possi- ble way, were the scenes enacted before the eyes of the commanding colonel. He was moved with compassion, but was unable to restrain the barbarians with his few Canadian allies. Each Indian captor refused to give up his captive, if he had spared the life of the same. So elated were the Indians by this success, that they demanded to march on Bryan's station, Lexington, and others, and assault and capture these in turn. Colonel Byrd stubbornly refused to go further, and at once returned across the Ohio river. He gave plausible reasons for this course; but he was, in truth, so shocked at the savage treatment of prisoners, that he resolved that no more should fall into their hands. 5. General Clark retaliates.-Clark now hastened from Vincennes to Louisville, with intent to strike a heavy blow against the enemy, in revenge for the capture of Ruddle's and Martin's stations. One thousand men were promptly rendezvoused at the mouth of Licking, and on the site of Cincinnati, opposite. The Indian towns of Chillicothe, Pickaway, and others, on the Scioto and Miami rivers, were captured and burned, and the fields of grain and Indian property adjacent were destroyed, leaving them without 69 SCHOOL HISTORY 0 KE4NTUCKY. homes or food supplies for the winter. Some were killed and captured, but the great masses fled in advance of Clark's army. The effect was such tha no great body of Indians entered Kentucky for two years after. 6. Incidents of 1780.-Many acidents and adventures, of which we have not space here to relate, occurred this year, from marauding bands of Indians dispersed throughout the country. The first settlements in Hardin county were made late in 1780, on the site of Elizabethtown and in its neigh- borhood. Stations were also built in Logan county, at Mauldings, at Russellville, and on Whippoorwill creek. This country was then almost a perfect prairie.. In November, the Virginia Assembly divided Kentucky into three coun- ties-Jefferson, Fayette, and Lincoln. Stephen Trigg and John Todd were elected members of the Legislature of Virginia, called the House of Burgesses then. 7. General Clark's naval defense.-General Clark adopted the novel plan of a naval defense against the Indians, by manning and arming a row-galley boat with breastworks on the sides, to patrol the Ohio river from Louisville to Licking river. For a time this seemed to dismay the Indians, but the backwoodsmen objected so strongly to the naval service, that this expedient was given up. The Indians afterward borrowed the idea, and gave great trouble and loss to the whites boating on the Ohio. r Adventures of Clark.- General Clark, Harlan, and Consilla left Fort Jefferson on the Mississippi for Harrods- town, three hundred miles on foot. Their journey was through the Chickasaw territory, and perilous. They painted and decked themselves like Indians. On reaching the Tennessee river the Indians on both shores discovered them, and pursued with war-whoops. They escaped through the forest growth until nightfall, tied up a log raft with grape vines, crossed over and pursued their journey. Once 70 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTTUCKY. or twice they narrowly escaped being shot for Indians, until they changed their disguise. They met a party of forty immigrants on Red river, Logan county, almost starved in the midst of abundant game, because they knew not the hunter's art of shooting buffalo. Clark and his companions, mounting horses, dashed upon a herd and killed fourteen before the chase ended. The immigrants, learning the vital spot at which to aim, had no farther trouble in killing buffalo. This country was prairie then. 9. Designs on Detroit.-Clark reached Harrodstown safely. He at once employed every art and force of avail to his mas- terly genius, to revive and carry out his cherished purpose of capturing Detroit. In December, 1780, in person he visited and urged the Governor of Virginia to aid him in equipping and supporting five hundred men to carry out his design. This aid was promised, but postponed on account of the invasion of a large British force into the heart of Virginia. When resumed, another disaster came to baffle and divert the main plans of the general. 10. Massacre of Loughrey's men.-Colonel Archie Lough- rey embarked one hundred and twenty Pennsylvania recruits at Fort Henry, now Wheeling, to join Clark at Louisville, in the campaign against Detroit. A large force of Indians collected below the mouth of Little Miami river, to intercept and destroy Loughrey, if possible, at a point opposite Belle- view landing, Kentucky, and some miles below Aurora. A part of Loughrey's men landed on the Kentucky shore. They were here suddenly assailed from ambush; a large body of savages now attacking from the Indiana shore also, by the advantage of the shallow water. The fight became a massacre, until nearly half of the entire force was killed, Loughrey among the number. The remainder surrendered and were carried into captivity by the barbarians. This was a heavy loss in men, arms,and supplies to General Clark. 71 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 11. Petty hostilities continued.-The stations on Bear- grass, and around Squire Boone's on Clear creek, were often harassed by raiding bands of Indians crossing at the Falls of Ohio. Several valuable lives were lost. Captain Whit- taker, with fifteen men, trailed one of these bands to the foot of the Falls. Pursuing in canoes, as he supposed, the Indians from ambush fired on his party from the Kentucky shore, killing and wounding nine. Captain Whittaker landed again, attacked the savages with a fierce vengeance and routed them, with a loss of over twenty of their number. For safety to their families, Squire Boone and neighbors abandoned their stations near the site of Shelbyville, to remove all to the stronger forts on Beargrass. On the route, near Long Run, the Indians assaulted the moving party, killing and wounding a number before they were driven off. 12. Floyd's defeat.-Hearing of the disaster, Colonel Floyd collected about thirty men and pursued the savages. He soon fell into an ambuscade of Indians, overpowering in numbers, whose galling fire, though bravely returned, compelled his retreat. During i781 over one hundred lives were sacrificed to savage cruelty, within thirty miles of Louisville. Massacres and outrages were perpetrated at Crab Orchard, in the vicinity of Bryan's station, at Mc- Afee's station, around the settlements in Hardin county, and in many other places too numerous for mention in the details of this work. 13. Importation of females.-Prior to 178i, in the immi- gration to Kentucky, the number of males was far in excess of that of females. Many men had built their cabins and laid the foundations of homes and fortunes, who needed the presence and companionship of the gentler sex to enhance their comfort and content. So manifest was this natural desire to add to the social element a greater number of females, that organized efforts were made to induce a large 72 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. immigration of women. For two or three years after 1780, large accessions of female colonists continued to supply the social and domestic wants of the country. 14. Primitive habits and customs.-The habits and cus- toms of our pioneer ancestors were very simple, free, and independent, which gave a charm to life not often enjoyed in the present day of fashion and form. A log cabin was their lot, and with it they were content. The young husband and wife were helpmates for each other, and lived and loved together, sharing alike their joys and burdens. What cared they if the meal was grated on a board or pounded in a mortar, so there was plenty of it The men cleared the woods, planted the fields and gardens, chopped and hauled the wood, boiled down the sugar and syrup at the maple camps, and did all rough work, while the women cooked, spun and wove, milked the cows, and did the house- work with cheerful happiness. The worries of complex changes which came with our civilization, they were free from. Posterity will be happier when it learns to simplify life again to its natural conditions and wants. Gopic-Le dC1"po o3Oetos CHAPTER VIII.-178o-81. 1. Fort Jefferson built.-What order came from Governor Jeffer- son What did Clark name this fort What nations desired to control the Mississippi river 2. Chickasaw war.-What Indian nation owned the site of this fort How did they regard Clark's intrusion Who was their chief What did they do How many garrisoned the fort What was the result of the fighting How was the trouble settled In what year was this 8. Formidable invasion in 1780.-By whom was it made Under whose command What new implement of war was used 73 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Where did Byrd invade Kentucky What stations did he capt- ure How did the Indians treat the prisoners 4. Barbarities practiced.-What were these What effect had they on Colonel Byrd Why did he not prevent the atrocities What did the Indians demand What did Byrd answer What did he finally do 5. General Clark retaliates.-What steps were taken now by Clark Where did he lead the army What were the results of the campaign How long did it check the savages 6. Incidents of 1780.-What of them What stations were built in 1780 What of the country around Logan county then How was Kentucky county next divided Who were elected legislators 7. General Clark's naval defense.-What was this device Where was this boat used Why was its use not continued What did the Indians do afterward 8. Adventures of Clark.-What was the first How did they travel How did they cross the Tennessee river What white party did they meet How did Clark and his comrades relieve them 9. Designs on Detroit.-Of whom did Clark ask aid When Was it promised Why was it not sent then 10. Xassacre of Loughrey's men.-How many were there Where did they embark For what purpose How were Loughrey's men attacked At what point What followed the attack How did this affect Clark's plans 11. Petty hostilities continued.-At what stations What incident of Captain Whittaker's gallantry at Falls of Ohio have we What was Squire Boone forced to do Where did the savages attack the movers 12. Floyd's defeat.-What did Colonel Floyd do on hearing of this disaster What befel his party How many were slain near Louisville in 1781, by the savages At what other points did the Indians attack 13. Importation of females.-What of the wants of male settlers to 1781 What was done to remedy this What success followed the efforts 14. Primitive habits and customs.-What was the character of these What houses had they to live in What did the men do What, the women What of this simple pioneer life 74 CHAP1TER IX.-1781-2. FROM THE BATTLE OP LITTLE MOUNTAIN (MOUNT STERLING), TO CLARK'S CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE SCIOTO TOWNS. 1. Needs and supplies of the backwoodsmen.-The skins of the deer, the bear, and the buffalo were invaluable; the former for the hunting shirt, the leggings, and' the moc- casins; while the latter furnished both bed and covering for the night. Thongs were cut and ropes were made from hides. Gourds for dipping and drinking water, and larger ones for storing articles, were in universal use. The tables and the stools were made of slabs set on wooden legs. The bed of stuffed feathers or straw was laid on slabs, resting on poles supported by upright pieces at one end, and the other end let in between the logs of the cabin. The baby was not forgotten, but was rocked to sleep in a sugar-trough cradle. The food was rich milk and butter, the juiciest of beef and pork, and the wild meats of the buffalo, bear, deer, turkey, and smaller game. Added to flour, corn meal, and hominy, roasting ears, pumpkins, potatoes, and beans were plentiful. The orchards, now bearing rich fruits, supplemented the nuts of the hickory and walnut trees, the wild grapes and plums, and the luscious pawpaw, the banana of Kentucky. 2. Civil events in 1781-82.-In 178i, a Virginia law fixed the value of continental money at one thousand dollars in paper, for one in silver or gold. It was made lawful to receive this money for taxes; and for public lands at five hundred dollars per hundred acres, which was only fifty cents in specie. The country was flooded with land war- rants, and out of this came the confusion and distress over land titles in after years. The first court organized in (75) SCHOOL HISTORV OF KENTUCKY. Lincoln county was at Harrodstown, January i6, I78i. "Thirteen gentlemen" were commissioned justices of the peace to hold the county court. Two were slain by the Indians before their commissions reached them, and three more fell victims the next year. 3. Disasters of 1782.-The annals show that the year 1782 was eventful in defeats and disasters to the pioneers of Kentucky. On March 19, 1782, Indian signs were discov- ered in the vicinity of Boonesborough, and around Estill's station, fifteen miles south of this place. Captain James Estill collected twenty-five men and started out to find the trail of the marauders. In his absence the Indians doubled in his rear, and suddenly appeared at daylight, on the 20th, before Estill's station. They killed and scalped Miss Jennie Gass, who was milking the cows, in sight of her mother, whose agonizing cries they mocked with derision. They captured Monk, a faithful slave of Captain Estill, who assured them that there were forty men in the fort, molding bullets and waiting for the Indians. There were really but four invalid men, beside the women and children. This ruse of Monk's saved all from a bloody massacre. 4. Alarm and pursuit.-The Indians retreated across the Kentucky river. Twb boys, Samuel South and Peter Hack- ett, were sent from the station upon the trail of Captain Estill, with news of what had occurred. They found the party on the Kentucky, below the mouth of Red river. Captain Estill gave immediate pursuit, and on the 22d, at Little mountain, just opposite the site of Mt. Sterling, came up with the Indians. They proved to be the Wyandottes, twenty-five in number-the same with the whites. 5. Battle of Little Mountain.-Though the Indians took advantage in position, and were a band of picked warriors, Captain Estill led his men to the attack, with the rallying order, "Every man to his man, and every man to his tree." 76 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Thus was begun and fought, almost man to man, by skilled veterans on both sides, one of the bloodiest and most des- perate battles of record in history. The Indian chief fell mortally wounded at the first fire, but, Spartan like, he bravely rallied his dismayed warriors, and gave the orders of battle to the end. The combatants fought at the distance of fifty yards. Five of Estill's men were left to guard the horses in the rear, but retreated. Thirteen others lay dead or wounded upon the field. 6. Estill's heroic death.-Estill was covered with blood from wounds re- ceived. Grappling with a powerful savage in personal and doubtful con- flict, a broken arm of Estill gave his enemy the advantage to draw his knife and bury it in the heart of the heroic pioneer. Almost at the same instant, Rev. Joseph Proctor, a Methodist min- ister who had performed many deeds of valor on the field, shot the slayer dead over the body of his victim. Thus ended this memorable battle, with but four men unhurt to bear off the wounded in retreat. It was told by the Indians after, that but one Wyandotte warrior returned unharmed from the contest. MONUMENT. ERECTED TO THE MtMORY oS Among the incidents of the battle, CAPTAIN JAMES ESTILL, NEAR RICHMOND. KY. Proctor saved the life of Colonel Will- iam Irvine, who was badly wounded, coming to his rescue. Proctor and Irvine held the pursuing Indians under cover with their rifles, until the wounded man could mount his hq=e and retreat. t a place of concealment. The negro 77 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. slave, Monk, was still held by his captors, at the onset of the fight. In the midst and confusion of battle his voice was heard to ring out through the forest, "Don't give way Massa Jim; you can whip the redskins!" At the close Monk escaped, and helped his old friends to bear off the wounded. He lived affectionately honored in the Estill family, and died at a venerable age. 7. Adventure of Captain John Holder.-About August ioth, a scout of Indians raided near Hoy's station, five miles south of Richmond, captured two boys, and recrossed the Kentucky river. Ca p tai n John Holder pursued with a hasty party of seventeen men, and came up with the savages at Upper Blue Licks. A skirmishing fight ensued, with a loss of several on each a side. Captain Holder then discreetly withdrew his little b force, fearing a flank move- ment in his rear. The In- 4dians did not follow him or his party. OOLOEL LUA IFMIE,8. Siege of Bryan's sta- A T49E 9rL OMAION ouon. t ionl.-On the night of August 4, 1782, Bryan's station was invested by an Indian army of over five hundred warriors, under the lead of the noted white renegade, Simon Girty. Years before, Girty, in revenge for some real or imagined injury from those of jhis own race and blood, had renounced all allegiance to civilized society, taken refuge among the Indians, and become adopted into one of their tribes. His hatred toward the whites was as intense as that of his redskin brethren, if not more so. His bold, fertile and superior mind gave, him the. power and prestige 78 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. of leadership among the ruder savages. Some unusual atrocities on the part of the Indians, and merciless retalia- tions on the part of the border men, inflamed the Shawanees and adjacent tribes, and enabled Girty to unite their warriors for this formidable invasion of Kentucky. The Cherokees, Wyandottes, Pottowattomies, and the Miami tribe, joined in this confederation. 9. The Kentuckians taken by surprise.-The descent of Girty's army took the Kentuckians by surprise. They came by Byrd's route to Falmouth; thence by Stoner's, Cooper's Run and North Elkliorn, to the point of attack. Not one within the fort knew of the enemy's presence until it was surrounded by nearly six hundred Indians. By rare good fortune, sixty veteran riflemen were in garrison, and every man ready for battle. They had been collected in, and were equipped to join Captain Holder in pursuit of the Indians toward Upper Blue Licks. Girty came at midnight, and while all was preparation within to start at next dawn of day. Rations were being cooked, bullets were moulded, and rifles put in order. Day-dawn came on, the gates were opened, and the pioneers started forth, to the surprise of Girty's army. The latter met them with a heavy fire, to the surprise of the Kentuckians. The latter sheltered instantly within their defenses, and all hope of advantage was lost by the Indian army. There was now no alternative left but assault and desperate fighting. .10. Siege and re-enforcements.-Messengers stole through the Indian lines at night and bore the news to Lexington, Boonesborough, HarrodstoWn and Logan's Fort. By night- fall the country was aflame with excitement, and re-enforce- ments rallied from every point. Boone, Trigg, Harlan, McBride, McGary, Todd and others were, a few hours after. on their way to rescue, with their clans of riflemen. In the meantime the siege went o4. IBy a rarw oversight 79 SCHOOL HISTORY OF K]ENTUCKY. the fort was built with the spring on the outside. In range of this a heavy force of Indians lay in ambush, knowing that those within must have water, and that the men would come in a body under guard for it. 11. The women bring the water.-The veterans within, with backwoodsmen's intuition, penetrated the designs of the enemy. Water they must have; but it seemed at the risk of almost certain slaughter. In the dilemma a wonderful device was hit upon. An appeal was made to the women to venture out in a body to the spring and bring in the water. The gentler sex doubted and hesitated. It was explained to them that the savages would not empty their guns and leave themselves exposed, with danger of a sally from the garrison, by firing at harmless women; that they were accus- tomed to bring the water, and the Indians would not suspect that their ambuscade was known to the whites. The women consented, and old and young, with buckets on their arms, marched demurely down to the spring, filled their vessels, and safely returned, under range of the guns of hundreds of murderous savages, tremulous as they entered the gates. 12. The fighting begins in earnest.-Girty was baffled and beaten in tactics. Several severe engagements took place, with heavy loss to the Indians and little to the whites. Re-enforcements began to arrive, and constant skirmishing and fighting occurred between these and the Indians on the second day. The garrison had now been much strengthened by accessions from without. Knowing that heavier re-eniforce- ments would soon be upon them, and beaten in strategy and battle thus far, Girty and his leaders sought the ruse of a parley. Girty offered liberal terms of surrender to the gar- rison; but these were rejected with derision and defiance. On the night of the 17th, leaving their camp fires burning, the Indian army silently retreated on the route toward their towns, beyond the Ohio. The next day one hundsed alit s0 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. eighty-one riflemen left Bryan's station in pursuit. Three hundred more were a day in the rear, under command of Colonel Logan. 13. The hasty pursuit.-Without waiting for Logan's re-enforcements, the advance body followed the course of the Indian army, by Martin's station, and what is now Millers- burg. On Monday, the i9th of August, they came to Lick- ing river, and gained the first sight of the enemy on the opposite bank. The pioneers here halted for a counsel of war. Boone, Todd, Trigg, Harlan, and other officers advised that the attack should not be made until Logan came up with his troops. In the midst of general approval of this policy, McGary, whose impetuous and violent temper knew no discretion, and defiant of all authority, of prudence, and of counsel from his superiors, turned his horse's head and dashed into the stream, calling on all who were not cowards to follow him! 14. Battle of Blue Licks.-The example of McGary was contagious. His hot words of challenge were not to be borne by Kentuckians, who did not yet know the decision of the superior officers. Some followed McGary, and finally all; and in much confusion Boone and other veterans restored order to some extent. The Indians had disappeared in the distance, and lay in ambuscade in the front and on either side. The whites -advanced prepared for battle, while the Indians in concealment waited until they were completely in the net. Suddenly the fighting began fiercely in front, and was con- tinued with deadly effect on either side. The left wing of the Indian army now attacked in flank and rear, and soon the Kentuckians were involved in conflict with three times their number. They fought bravely and stubbornly, neither ask- ing nor expecting quarter. Deeds of valor and heroism, singly and by squads, were frequent, but without avail to avert the bloody carnage of defeat, It was now the aimn and endeavor 6 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. of the brave veterans to retreat across Licking river, and to save themselves and as many of their comrades as possible. Over sixty of the whites lay dead upon the field of battle, and many Indian braves. The retreat became a rout; but the Jndians dared not follow. 15. After the battle.-Among the slain were Colonels Todd and Trigg, Majors Harlan and Bulger, Captains McBride, Gordon, Kincaid and Overton, Lieutenants Givens, Kennedy, Lindsay and Rogers, and others of the best blood and citi- zenship of Kentucky. No previous disaster brought so much of sorrow and mourning to the pioneer homes of Ken- tucky. It is a noticeable incident, and a stern lesson of his- tory, that this terrible disaster and slaughter of good men were the results of the blind rashness of one man, Major McGary, who would recklessly imperil the lives of his bosom friends and neighbors rather than control a rash and violent temper. 16. Logan arrives.-Had the Kentuckians waited until Logan's force arrived, as Daniel Boone advised, the defeat of the Indians would have been nearly certain. If they had retreated across the Ohio without giving battle, the invasion of Girty would have been a failure, with severe loss. Logan came upon the field of battle with three hundred men, two days after, and buried sixty of the dead pioneers, whose remains were much mutilated by the savages first, and by the wild beasts and vultures after. 'The Indians recrossed the Ohio to their villages northward, excepting one or two detachments which remained to maraud in Kentucky. 17. Capture of Kincheloe's station.- A detached body of Girty's Indians crossed the lower Kentucky river, and next appeared at Kincheloe's station, on Simpson's creek, in what is now known as Spencer county, which they surprised and captured. There were but six or seven families here, auid a weak defense of men. Nearly all were tomahawked 82 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. and scalped, or carried off into captivity. A number of the Indians were killed in the desperation of defense. Thomas Randolph sheltered his wife and two children, and killed and wounded a number of the savages in their assault upon them. At length his wife and an infant in her arms were murdered by his side. He instantly caught his living child under his arm, mounted to the loft, and thus escaped through the roof, cutting down two more Indians who barred his way. Some of these prisoners, women and children borne northward, were liberated and returned home the next year, after the treaty of peace with England. 18. Revenge and retaliation.-The military events of the season, the tragedy of Little Mountain, Holder's repulse, the siege of Bryan's station, the battle of Blue Licks, and the massacre at Kincheloe's, results in rapid succession of one formidable Indian invasion, threw a damp and gloom temporarily over the spirits of the Kentuckians. This was but transient. The elastic and combative spirits of the peo- ple soon reacted, and retaliation was the cry of unsatisfied revenge. General Clark, yet in chief command, called for volunteers to rally and rendezvous at Louisville and Licking river. A force of one thousand men was soon organized and equipped, to begin the march fromtsLosantiville, now Cincin- nati, against the Shawanee tribes and their confederates. The Indian strongholds and towns, Chillicothe, Pickaway, Willstown, and others, on the Scioto and Miami rivers, fell under the desolating campaign of the invaders. Villages were reduced to ashes, crops and fields laid waste, some of the enemy killed and wounded, and the remainder driven to the barren recesses of the wilderness. It was early autumn, and the savage tribes were unable to replant or restore the supplies of life for the winter, and the year following. So sadly did they feel this blow that no formidable invasion of Kentucky was ever afterward made by the warriors of these tribes. 83 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 19. Other incidents of hostilities.-The ravages of Indian warfare were felt elsewhere throughout Kentucky, at White Oak station, above Boonesborough, where the Duree settle- ment was broken up and ten or twelve persons murdered; near Boonesborough, where Captain Nat. Hart was slain; in Hardin county, where the veteran, Silas Hart, and his family were made captives; near Whitley's station, on the family of Samuel Davis; and on other settlements where the de- fenses were weak. Late this year, Thomas Marshall and John May arrived as surveyors for the new counties of Fayette and Jefferson, opening a land office, each, at Lexington and Cox's station, in Jefferson county. Soon after began that litigation over lands, which proved as great a scourge to our ancestors for two generations as pestilence or famine could have been. 'Gorkate dvta Olp tica. CHAPTER IX. 1. Needs and supplies of the backwoodsmen.-Of what use were the skins of animals What utensils and furniture had they What food What fruits 2. Civil events-1781-2.-What money was then in circulation Its relative value When was the first court in Lincoln county Who constituted the court 8. Disasters of 1782.-Where did Indian signs appear in March What did Estill do What befell the station next day Who was killed Who was captured How did Monk save the women and children 4. Alarm and pursuit.-Who bore the news to Estill What did he do Where did he overtake the Indians Of what tribe were they 6. Battle of Little Mountain.-Who attacked What was the order of Estill What befell the Indians What the white 84 SCHOOL HISTORY OP KENTUCKY. 6. Estill's heroic death-How did he die What became of his slayer How many whites were left unwounded How many savages How was Irvine saved What became of the cap- tive, Monk What did he call to Estill's men What of him, after his escape 7. Adventure of Captain John Holder.-What station was at- tacked in August Who pursued the Indians Where did a fight occur What was the result 8. Siege of Bryan's station.-When was it By whom Who was Simon Girty What were his feelings toward the whites What influence had he among the Indians What tribes fur- nished warriors to his army 9. The Kentuckians taken by surprise.-By what route did Girty come What garrison was in the fort How were they pre- pared for an attack How did the attack begin What did the men do when fired on 10. Siege and re-enforcements.-How was the news sent out What effect did it have What help came to the garrison Where was the spring How was the water supply cut off 11. The women bring water.-What ruse was proposed to obtain water What did the women first reply What did they finally do 12. The fighting begins in earnest.-With what results to the Indians What to the whites What strengthened the garri- son What did Girty now propose What reply was made him What did Girty next do How many whites pursued him 13. The hasty pursuit.-By what route was the retreat Where were the Indians overtaken Who advised to wait for Lo- gan's arrival How was this advice defeated 14. Battle of Blue Licks.-What effect had the example of MeGary How did the Indians meet the whites What was the charac- ter of the fighting How far did the Indians outnumber the whites What obstructed the retreat What was the loss on each side 15. After the battle.-Who were among the slain What effect had this disaster upon the settlers What caused the disaster 16. Logan arrives.-What forces had he When did he reach the battle-field What did he do there Where did the Indians go 85 86 SCHOOL HISTORY OF XZNTUCE:Y. 17- Capture of Kincheloe's station.-What Indians captured it Where was this station How many were captured How were they treated What defense did Randolph make How did he finally escape How long were the captives held 18. Revenge and retaliation.-How did the disasters of 1782 affect the people What did they determine on Where did Clark rally his men How many Where did they start from On what Indian towns did they march What injuries did they inflict What effect did this punishment have 19. Other incidents of hostilities.-What other places did the In- dians attack Who came out as surveyors this year Where did they locate offices What befell land owners about this time PERIOD THIRD.-I783-18oo. CHAPTER X.-I783-86. FROM THE TERMINATION OF THE WAR FOR INDEPUNDENCE TO THE FIRST MOVEMENTS IN KENTUCKY TOWARD INDEPENDENT STATEHOOD. 1. Peace with England.-The good angel of peace came at last, bringing joy to the hearts of all American citizens who were wearied with seven years of war. Articles of treaty were signed between our country and England on the 30th of November, I782; but the news was not received in Kentucky until nearly four months later. All rejoiced, for the independence of the United States was conceded. 2. Savage tribes quiet.-The savage tribes whom'Eng- land employed to wage war on the Western people, soon learned that their powerful ally had agreed to cease the war, and not again in future to aid or incite the Indians to hostile acts against the whites. The border settlers had rest from strife for a time, and gladly turned their attention to im- proving their homes and fortunes. This promise of peace brought out increased numbers from the old States to seek homes in the fertile soil of Kentucky. Prosperity and con- tent gladdened the hearts of all. 3. Separate government wanted.- As population and power increased, the settlers began to discuss among them- selves the question of a separate government. They felt that they were too far away, and too much cut off by mountain barriers, to be much longer dependent on the protection and help of Virginia. Many were dissatisfied at the neglect shown them from the Confederate Union. Others were disaffected by liberal promises from Spain and France, if they would set up a government independent of (87) SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKV. the United States. Mainly, the Kentuckians were loyal to their kindred; though it was seriously a question for years, whether it would be the better for Kentucky to become one of the States of the Union, or detach herself and set up an independent government. 4. Spanish intrigues.-Spain owned then all the country .west of the Mississippi river, and all eastof Southern Louisi- ana, to the ocean, thus controlling the navigation of this great river for several hundred miles above New Orleans. She wished Kentucky to wvithdraw from the Union, and offered the free navigation of the Mississippi river and other liberal advantages if the latter would do so. To further these ends she sent agents to intrigue with and bribe some noted men in Kentucky, and through these to seduce the people away from the United States. France actively aided Spain in these dangerous intrigues. 5. Kentucky a judicial district.-In March, by act of the Virginia Legislature, the three counties of Kentucky were made one judicial district. John Floyd and Samuel McDow- ell were made judges, and these appointed John May, clerk. Walker Daniel was commissioned the first attorney-general by the Governor of Virginia. A log house suitable for the sittings of the court was built on, or near, the site of Dan- ville by the settlers, and at no cost to the State. 6. Industry and prosperity.-Now the fields bore ample harvests; cattle and hogs multiplied and grew fat on the nutritious pastures and the rich nuts of the forest; while the industrious housewife plied the hand-cards, the spinning- wheel and the loom. Immigrants and traders brought in some money, which, with supplies from other sources, met the simple wants of the people. Mechanics, divines, and school-masters came in to fill up the needs of improving society. Products and industries began to be more varied. Wheat and rye were added to the grain supplies, while 88 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. mills and distilleries were erected to consume the surplus of the husbandman. 7. First foreign goods.-Daniel Broadhead, a citizen of Louisville, this year purchased and hauled in wagons from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, and by flatboats brought down the Ohio, a stock of merchandise, thus establishing the first store in Kentucky for the sale of foreign goods. For the first time, our grandmother belles adorned their persons in calico, and our grandfather beaux proudly donned their first wool hats. 8. Stations around Shelbyville.-Squire Boone, elected to the Virginia Legislature, gave over his station, two miles north of Shelbyville, to Col- onel Lynch, that he might place his family in greater safety in his absence. Cap- tain Tyler and Bland Ballard built a station on Lick creek, four miles east of Shelby- ville, known as Tyler's sta- tion. Owen's station was located near the site of Shel- byville, by Colonel Abraham Owen, who fell in the battle y of Tippecanoe. Sev e ralI other stations were erected in the vicinity, and many CAANBADBLAD settlers located near. A.O..ADNTDHNE N M.MFGTR 9. Captain Bland Ballard.-Among the early settlers, he became, as an Indian-fighter, as famed as Kenton. He was the son of the elder Ballard, of Tyler station. He was born at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 176i, and died in Shelby county in i 853, ninety-two years of age. He came to Kentucky when eighteen years old, and joined the 89 SHOOL HISTORY OF KUNTUCKY. militia. He served as soldier, scout, and spy, in Bow- man's expedition in 1779; in Clark's campaign against the Piqua towns in 1780 and in 1782, when a wound in the hip made him a cripple for life. He was famous for his daring personal adventures, and as a scout and spy, especially in the Wabash expeditions of Clark, Scott, and Wilkinson, and also with Wayne at the battle of " Fallen Timbers." 10. Ambushes three Indians, 1785.-Acting as spy from the mouth of Salt river to Westport, on one occasion when six or eight miles below the Falls, he discovered Indians near. Concealing himself in the bushes, he soon saw three Indians in a canoe, leave the Indiana for the Kentucky shore. As they neared in range, he fired and killed one; the others jumped overboard and tried to drag their canoe into deep water. But soon he killed the second, and finally the third, Indian. For this service General Clark gave him a linen shirf, which was the only one he had for years, except those made of buckskin. 11. Indians put to fight.-On a scout to Saline Lick, Illinois, with one companion, they came suddenly upon a large body of Indians in-the act of camping. Suddenly charging upon the savages, firing their guns and raising a yell, the Indians fled in a panic to the woods. Ballard and his companion at once mounted two of their best horses, and fled. For two days they were pursued, until they re- crossed the Ohio, leaving the Indians in view on the other shore. 12. Long Rum flght.--Captain Ballard was aiding the set- tlers at the stations around Shelbyville site to move to Beargrass, when they were attacked at Long Run, and so badly defeated. At the first fire of the Indians, in ambush, several women were thrown from their horses. Some he assisted to remount and escape, using his rifle with deadly effect in single-handed combats. Following to Floyd's 90 SCHOOL HISTORY Of KENTUCKY. Fork, he concealed himself in the bushes and shot another pursuing savage, upon whose horse he escaped. 13. Ballard, Sr., killed.-In 1788, the Indians attacked Tyler station, where the elder Ballard lived with his family. The latter had moved out near the sugar-camp. Ben Bal- lard, the captain's brother, while hauling in wood, was shot from ambush. This was the first they knew of the presence of Indians. Captain Ballard was at the fort with one old man. He hastened to protect his father whom the savages had assailed in his cabin. He used his rifle with deadly effect, but not in-time to prevent the massacre of the family. Besides the father and son, the Indians killed one full sister, one half-sister, the step-mother, and tomahawked the young- est sister, who recovered. There were fifteen Indians, of whom five or six were killed before they finished their bloody work. 14. Captain Ballard's later life.-Captain Ballard's pioneer life was full of such incidents of daring and peril. The massacre of his father's family led him to many revenges on the enemy. He was well known to many persons yet living. He was at times elected to the Legislature by the people of Shelby county. He led a company in the war of i812, and was twice wounded at the battle of the Raisin, where he was also among the prisoners so cruelly treated -by the Indians and British. 15. Battle of the Boards.-An amusing adventure is told of three men who left Harrod's station, in 1783, to hunt for some horses strayed in the woods. Indian signs were noted. At nightfall they sought shelter in a deserted cabin, and ascended to the loft and lay on the boards to be better concealed. Later in the night a party of six Indians entered the cabin to spend the night. For an hour or two the whites lay quiet and heard all that passed below. One of them then became restless, and tried to move so as to watch the 9I SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. savages through a crack in the boards. Suddenly the frail support gave way, and the entire loft, with the three men, fell with a loud clattering noise on the Indians below. The latter, in terrible fright at such a novel attack, crawled out and fled in dismay to the woods, leaving their guns. The badly scared whites soon did the same, taking the trophies, and the shortest route to the station. This was called "The Battle of the Boards." 16. Wild cat and schoolmaster.-A more serious adventure was that of Mr. McKinney, who was teaching in a log cabin in Lexington. Going early one morning to prepare for the school that day, a wild cat as large as a fox entered the open door and sprang on him while alone. A long and des- perate fight ensued. Mr. McKinney finally killed the cat by pressing the life out of it against a projecting bench, while its teeth and claws were fastened in his body. He soon after fainted from the many wounds the animal made in its fierce rage, but recovered. 17. Death roll of pioneers.-From 1780 to 1782 were years of blood and tears and sacrifice in Kentucky. This history recites but few of the tragedies that occurred. Captain Hart, in 1840, wrote: " I went with my mother, in 1783, to Logan's station, to prove the will of my father, who was slain in July before. Twenly-three widows were at the same court to obtain letters of administration on the estates of their husbands, who had been killed the past year." In 178i alone, over one hundred men, women and children were slain within half-a-day's ride of Louisville. Among the most lamented deaths about this time was that of Colonel John Floyd, shot from ambush while riding through the forest near home. 18. Treaty delayed.-The English and American agents were tardy, in not arranging the details of the treaty of peace for eighteen months. Indignantly Virginia refused ,92 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. to pass laws to permit Englishmen to collect debts in that State. England had refused yet to give up the forts, De- troit, Sandusky, Malden, and others, in the north-west. After I784, the Indians, incited by the English at these forts, began again to war on the white settlements. Hostile feelings re-kindled on all sides. Those forts were on the territory of Virginia. 19. Virginia's generous gift.-In 1784,Virginia gave away and ceded to the United States all this vast domain of land north of the Ohio river, to be formed into new territories and States for the Union, and protected and defended by the general government. The territory thus generously ceded embraced the present States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota east of the Mississippi, or one hundred and sixty-nine million acres, from which the government has received over one hundred millions of dollars from sales. Before this, the United States did not own territory enough for a single State. 20. Important conference.-Late in December, 1784, an informal meeting was called by Colonel Benjamin Logan, to consider the military and civil condition of the country, too much neglected now by the Federal and Virginia govern- ments, so far separated by the mountains. Of this meeting, Samuel McDowell was president, and Thomas Todd, clerk. The conclusions were that a separate State government was needed to meet the urgent wants of the people. In defer- ence to Virginia another convention was called to meet the next May, to act and petition the parent State for consent. 21. First convention for separation.-On May 23, 1785, the delegates elected met in the first formal convention, at Danville, to take steps for a government of their own. It was resolved, that a petition be presented to the Legislature of Virginia praying that the District of Kentucky be estab- lshed into a State, separate from that Commonwealth; and 93 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. that another convention be called to meet at Danville in August, which was done. Lengthy addresses were pre- pared-one to the people of Kentucky; the other to the Legislative Assembly, by the glowing pen of General James Wilkinson, who assumed much prominence in these pro- ceedings, while yet in active concert with the Spanish authorities -t New Orleans. The action of Virginia was kind and favorable in response, and her consent for a new separate government for Kentucky given, on certain formal and safe conditions. Thus Kentucky was the first to ask to enter the Union as a new State. 22. Massacre of immigrants.-In I784, Rev. Augustine Eastin led out a large party of immigrants, of whom were his family and a young lady, afterward Mrs. General James Taylor, of Newport. They were overtaken by another party, whom Mr. Eastin urged to camp with them, for greater safety. The latter refused, and passed by, camping a mile or two farther on without putting pickets on watch. At dead of night, this party was attacked by savages, and most of them, men, women, and children, ma.sacred. Next morn- ing Mr. Eastin's party witnessed the site of the tragedy. Long years after, they told of the mangled bodies, the scalps hung on the bushes, and other frightful evidences of bar- barity seen by them. A father, mother, and two children were attacked, and one child slain. The mother snatched the other, and fled to the darkness of the woods. The father fled also. Each thought the other dead, until they met by chance in Mr. Eastin's camp, two weeks after, and embraced. 23. Mrs. McClure's rescue.-In 1785, a party of immigrants under Mr. McClure were attacked in camp, near Skegg's creek, in Lincoln county, and six killed. Mrs. McClure fled to the brush with her four children. The Indians pursued and tomahawked the oldest, and captured her and the youngest. The news spread, and Colonel Whitley went in 94 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. pursuit with twenty-one men. Riding rapidly to reach first a pass he knew the Indians would aim to make, he posted his men in ambush. As the enemy approached, a deadly fire killed and wounded several of the savages, and dispersed the rest too suddenly for them to notice Mrs. McClure, her infant, and a colored woman captured with them. These were safely rescued. CHAPTER X.-1783-86. 1. Peace with lngland.-When were the articles first signed When did the news reach Kentucky How was it received 2. Savage tribes quiet.-What was the cause How long did this quiet last What did peace bring to Kentucky 8. Separate government wanted.-Who wanted it Why What foreign countries tempted the Kentuckians 4. Spanish intrigues.-What part of the country did Spain own What navigation did she control What did she offer the Ken- tuckians What else did she do to influence them What part did France take 5. Kentucky a judicial district.-How was it made so Who were the court officials Where did the court sit 6.- Industry and prosperity.-How was it brought about How were the simple wants supplied What classes came out What improvements were added to the country 7. First foreign goods.-Who brought them out In what way What new garments were worn at this time by the women What by the men 8. Stations around Shelbyville.-What of Squire Boone's sta- tion What did Boone do What of Tyler's station Of Owen's 9. Captain Bland Ballard.-What of him His birth and life In what campaigns did he serve For what was he famed 10. Ambushes three Indians.-How and where did Ballard do this What was the result What present did Clark make him 95 96 SCHOQL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 11. Indians put to flight.-Relate Ballard's adventure at Saline Lick How did they escape 12. Long Run fight.-What part did Ballard take in it How did he aid the women How did he escape 13. Ballard, Br., killed.-Where did this occur When What others of the family were killed What defense did Bland Bal- lard make 14. Captain Ballard's later life.-Its character What effect had the massacre of his kindred upon him What of his later lifee Where did he live and die 15. Battle of the Boards.-Who was in this adventure How did these three men lodge at night Who came upon them What caused the Indians a panic What did the men do 16. The wild cat and schoolmaster.-Name of the teacher Where was he teaching How was he attacked How did McKinney save himself 17. Death roll of pioneers.--What did Captain Hart report of murders from 1780 to I783 What of the massacres near Louis- ville in 1781 What distinguished leader was killed 18. Treaty delayed.-How did England delay the treaty What step did Virginia take What forts did England refuse to give up What did the Indians then do 19. Virginia's generous gift.-What territory did Virginia cede to the government What States does it now embrace How many million acres What territory had the United States before this 20. Important conference.-Who called this conference When For what purpose Who presided at this meeting What action was taken 21. First convention for separation.-When was it held Where For what purpose What action was taken Who was most prominent in the meeting What did Virginia respond 22. Xassacre of immigrants.-What party came out in 1784 What happened to another party following them What did Eastin's party witness What incident happened at the mas- sacre 23. Mrs. XcClure's rescue.-When was it Relate the facts Who rescued the captives What were the incidents Qf the revueq CHAPTER XI.-I 786-I 790. FROM THE ACT OF THE VIRGINIA ASSEMBLY, IN 1786, GRANTING SEPARATION, TO THE ACT OF THE OLD CONGRESS, POSTPONING IT TO THE NEW. 1. The population of Keitucky.-In 1786 this was thirty thousand. As they were able to defend and govern them- selves, rather than rely on the general government or Vir- ginia, they became impatient of delay in the measures for separation. In January, 1 786. the Virginia Legislature acted favorably on their petition, but required that delegates be elected the following August to serve one year, who should meet in convention before September, 1787, and accept the terms of separation; but provided that this action be valid and final on condition that Congress should agree to ratify and admit Kentucky to the Union prior to June I, I787. 2. Virginia's fear.-Kentucky might be persuaded into secession from the Union after her act of separation, by the promises of Spain; Virginia, therefore, required the assent of Congress first. The Kentuckians were greatly provoked at their neglect by the general government. Five years after the treaty of peace, England yet stubbornly refused to turn over the north-west forts to the Americans, as she had agreed, and continued to bribe the Indians to war on the settlers. From 1783 to 1790, fifteen hundred men, women, and children fell victims to savage barbarities in Kentucky. Intense hatred of the British, and bitter discontent at home, prepared them to listen to plans of secession. 3. United States Constitution adopted.-During the War for Independence, the thirteen colonies formed a league of - uion under the "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual 7 (97) SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Union," adopted by the Continental Congress, November 15, 1777. After the war, a constitution for the United States was agreed on in convention, to take effect when ratified by nine States. Virginia was the tenth to ratify, by a vote of eighty- eight to seventy-eight, June 26, 1788. Kentucky had eleven votes in the Virginia Assembly, eight of which were against ratification. The total majority was but ten. 4. The first administration.-Under the constitution of the United States the first Congress organized March 30, 1789; the first President, George Washington, was inaugurated April 30, I789. The new republic was a novel government of the kind. Many doubted its success, and it was for a time weak in its authority and powers. But its trusted leaders were among the wisest statesmen who ever lived; while Washington ruled with great prudence and skill, and gave confidence at home and abroad. Thus we grew to be a great nation. 5. Indian raids renewed.-By 1786, the Indians had fully renewed their predatory raids on the Kentucky settlers. Colonel William Christian, a prominent citizen, pursued a raiding band across the Ohio, with a party from Beargrass, overtook and defeated them twenty miles out, but himself was killed in the fight. His death was much lamented in Kentucky, and in Virginia also, where he had been an officer in the wars with England and the savages for many years. Higgin's block-house, about a mile above Cynthiana, wvas attacked and two men killed, McCombs and McFall. Will- iams safely passed out by the Indians and brought men to the rescue, and the savages were driven off. McKnitt was leading a large party of immigrants into Kentucky, mostly families of women and children. When near Laurel river they were surprised by an attack from a body of Indians, twenty killed and a number made captives. Captain William Hardin, a noted backwoods ranger, settled in what is now 98 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Breckinridge county; and led a force of eighty bold foresters against a band of hostiles who were founding a village beyond the Ohio, at Saline Lick, Illinois. Coming on their camp suddenly, but three Indians were found on watch, who were shot. The band was out on a short hunt. Colonel Hardin concealed his men and awaited their return. As the Indians, over one hundred in number, came in long range, one of Hardin's men fired too soon, and gave advantage to the savages. The battle was fierce. Colonel Hardin was badly wounded through both thighs. Yet he raised his body on a log and boldly gave orders and rallied his men, until the enemy was beaten off with a loss of over thirty. 6. A fruitless campaign.-Virginia now no longer waited on the general government to protect the border settlers. She therefore gave the Kentuckians full power to raise and equip men, and defend themselves. One thousand men were soon rallied, and rendezvoused at Louisville. With General George Rogers Clark at the head of the expedition, they marched for the Wabash villages above Vincennes, while the main army supplies were sent in boats down the Ohio and up the Wabash river. The soldiers soon found that the great and famous Clark had wrecked his mind by intemperance, and was no longer competent to command. Then the army became disorderly and unfit for duty, and hundreds openly returned home. The expedition was a fail- ure, and on the fatal account of whisky. 7. Another campaign.-Logan was detached by Clark to raise another body of Kentuckians to march against the Miami tribes. Several Shawanese towns were burned, much grain and provisions destroyed, and a number killed and made prisoners. Captain Christopher Irvine met a singular death here. A wounded Indian, crawling away through the brush, had killed two of his men who pursued him, from his hiding places, Irvine, excited, pursued next himself; though 99 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KUNTUCKY. warned not to do so, when the desperate savage ambushed, and fatally shot him also. The Indian was then killed. 8. The fourth convention.-This met in January, 1787, to consider the terms of Virginia's consent to separation. In the midst of the proceedings the news came that the Virginia Assembly had passed another act -annulling the first; giving as a reason that the delay of Kentucky to act made it too late to obtain the consent of Congress by June, as required. The new act postponed separation one year. There was some dis- content, but the conven- tion adjourned and the delegates went quietly home. Yet there w a s much chagrin and resent- ment among the people, at what they deemed neglect and trifling with them on the important matters of life and death, of property, and of domestic peace. Again through Sec- retary Jay's treaty, seven westSAenT L MODOWEary of the North States voted PRSDN FO THE CONVENTIONS HELD, 1784.02, to cede to Spain the navi- FORTH ADS ON f KENTUCKYth TO THE UNION. gation. of teMississippi river, the only outlet of Kentuckians for their produce. Thus the vote of one or two more States would have driven Kentucky to secede from the Union, to form a government independent of it, and to make the Allegheny mountains the western boundary of the United States. These States did not favor admitting Kentucky to the Union, and probably would uet have objected seriously to separation. Spaiu 100 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KRNTUCKY. openly held out the navigation of the Mississippi, trading rights at New Orleans, and other tempting inducements to the Western men if they would thus secede. 9. The first newspaper.-There appeared at Lexington, issued on the 28th of August, I787, the first newspaper ever printed west of the Alleghenies. It was the Kentucky Ga- zette, published by John Bradford, and soon became the medium for the discussion of all political questions and news of the day. Copies and files of this paper are preserved in the Lexington and other libraries, and the contents are very interesting. The people of Kentucky now thought their interests required it, and petitioned for one representative in Congress. This was granted, and John Brown, of Danville, was elected to serve them. 10. The temptations of the Spaniards.-In February, 1788, General Wilkinson returned from New Orleans, where he had carried a cargo of tobacco and other products, to find out what reception the Spanish commandant would give to Kentucky traders. General Miro, the commandant, was very generous, and not only allowed him to sell at high prices, but to deposit his tobacco in the King's store-rooms. These advantages he pictured to the Kentuckians in glowing terms. Spain would grant the free navigation of the Missis- sippi, and most liberal terms of trade to Kentucky as a sep- arate government, but not to the United States. On(fuly 29th) the sixth convention met to carry out measures to enter the Union as a State. A message caine soon after the opening, that Congress had decided not to admit Kentucky until the new government went into effect, and a President and new Congress were installed. This was another cruel blow to the people's hopes. Many openly urged secession and separate government for the great West, with a protect- ive league with Spain and France, or with England. But the convention agreed to order another election of delegates lot SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. to meet the following November, and to remain in office until January, I790, "to do whatever, on a view of the state of the distridt, ma;', in their opinion, promote its interest." The reasons of Congress were plausible, based entirely on the change of the government soon to occur; and when transmitted and read, satisfied many to await this important change. 11. The conflict of opinion.-Congressman Brown wrote to Judge Muter a letter, setting forth his opinion that the New England States would not consent to admit Kentucky into the Union, for fear of losing control of the government, urging that early steps be taken to separate, with or without the terms of Virginia's consent; that Don Gardoqui, the Spanish minister, had assured him that Spain was ready to concede all Kentucky would ask, if she would secede and form an independent government; that the treasury at Wash- ington was empty, and Indian hostilities probable. Judge Muter published a reply in the Gazette, warning that any act of separation without the consent of Virginia was against her laws, and the Federal Constitution, and would be trea- sonable; thus warning the public of supposed danger in the act of the last convention. In the excitement of the day, the people divided into the Country party), loyal to the Union, and the Cozert party, loyal to the Union, if all their rights and interests were secured, but ready to secede and treat with Spain, if not. 12. Seventh convention.-This met at Danville, November, 1788. Thomas Marshal, Newton, Crockett, Allen, and Ed- wards led the Country party, and Brown, Wilkinson, Sebas- tian, and Innis, the Court party, and the issues were of vital interest. A vote of thanks was tendered Wilkinson for an address read, setting forth the great advantages offered Ken- tucky in case Spain or England held New Orleans, and con- trolled the mouth of the Mississippi. The convention re- 102 SCHOOL HISTORY O KENTUCKY. solved on addresses-i-one to the United States Congress, one to the people of Kentucky, and a third to the Virginia As- sembly, setting forth in strong terms the grievances and wants of the District. The agents of Spain were actively intriguing then among the people. The temperate and dis- creet action shows a deep loyal attachment to the Union, and to their own kindred people. 1.3. Indian outrages again.-The house of widow Skegg, ,with two sons and four daughters, on Cooper's run, Bourbon county, was surprised by Indians at night. The elder daughter plunged a knife into the heart of a savage, when she and her youngest sister were fatally tomahawked by his comrades. The blazing cabins made it light as day. One son ran out bearing his mother, who died in his arms pierced with bullets, as he escaped to the woods. The other son defended a widowed sister and her babe until she escaped. Firing on the attacking Indians, he clubbed his rifle and fought like a lion, until slain in the combat. 14. A brave woman.-In the same year, 1787, John Merrill, of Nelson county, arose and opened his cabin door, aroused by some disturbance at night. Shots from Indian rifles broke his arm and leg. Mrs. Merrill, a muscular and daring woman, assisted him in, and barred the door. The Indians breached it with their tomahawks and tried to enter, one at a time. With ax in hand, the brave woman killed or disabled four in these attempts. Only three were left. Two of these tried to come in by the low, wide chimney top. Mrs. Merrill dragged out a feather bed, threw it on the fire, and brought them down suffocated. She dispatched them with the ax. The last Indian tried the door again, and received a deep cut in the cheek from the ax, which sent him off with a yell of pain. This novel and extraordinary portion of our history is given in full detail in Smith's larger History of Kentucky, and should be read by every Kentuckian. I03 SCHOOL HISTORY Or KENttCKYt. 15. A desperate fight.-This took place from a flatboat, passing from Louisville to the salt-works, near Bullitt's Lick, on Salt river, in May, 1788. The crew were twelve men and one woman, under the lead of Henry Crist and Christian Cripps. A sound like the gobbling of turkeys lured them ashore. Soon they found a large body of Indians, and ran back to the boat, and sheltered behind the iron kettles with which the boat was loaded, and ranged on each side. The Indians, over one hundred in number, rushed on to the rifles of the crew, and many fell by the deadly fire. The boat was chained to the shore, and thus they fought for an hour until freed, and able to float out into Salt river. The Indians crossed over and fired from both sides. Cripps and most of the crew were killed. Crist and two or three others es- caped, while the woman was made captive. Cripps left a widow and a son and a daughter. The latter afterward became the wife of Governor Charles A. Wickliffe and the mother of Hon. J. Cripps Wickliffe, United States Attorney for Kentucky, under President Cleveland. 16. Other raids and massacres.-Many are recorded about this time, at Crab. Orchard, Floyd's Fork, Drennon's Lick, Great Crossings, Blue Licks, Kenton's Station, Hardin's Settlemen9o and at other points. The Indians learned to man and fortify flatboats which they captured on the Ohio river, by which many lives and much property were lost. In 1788, the site of Cincinnati was surveyed for a city, and named Losantiville. Judge Symmes bought eight hundred acres opposite the mouth of Licking river for five hundred dol- lars, and resold two-thirds to John Filson and Colonel Robert Patterson. The surveys and settlements then began. This year the Legislature of Virginia created the counties of Woodford and Mason, and chartered the towns of Maysville, Danville, and Hopewell-now Paris. 164 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 'Gopfcot B And6 0""40no, CHAPTER XI.-1786-1790. I. Population of Kentucky in 17886.-What was it What did the people wish What did Virginia do When should the next convention meet What must Congress do 2. Virginia's fears.-What did Kentucky threaten What provoked the Kentuckians What injuries were they enduring How many fell victims from 1783 to 1790 3. United States Constitution adopted.-What was the compact of union for the Colonies first When adopted What was the second compact of union When did Virginia ratify it 4. Washington was the first- President.-When did the first new Congress meet What of the novelty of this government What of its statesmen Of its President 6. Indian raids renewed.-In what year What of Colonel Chris- tian's pursuit Whatbefell him What happened at Higgin's block-house Whatbefell McKnitt's party WheredidColonel Hardin attack the Indians What accident brought on the fight What was the result 6. A fruitless campaign.-What privilege was allowed Kentuck- ians How many men did Clarke raise Whither did he lead them How did this campaign result 7. Colonel Logan detached by Clarrke.-Against what towns did he proceed With what effect How was Irvine killed 8. The fourth convention.-When did it meet What news came during its sitting How was this message received What further provoked the Kentuckians How did the North-east States act toward Kentucky 9. The first newspaper.-Where was it published When What was its title By whom was it published What did the peo- ple ask of Congress Who was elected 10. Overtures by the Spaniards.-Who traded to New Orleans How did the Spanish commandant treat him What offers were made from Spain Whesn 4id the sixth convention meet What did Congress do How did the people receive this What action did the convention take 105 xo6 SCHOOL HISTRY OP KENTUCKY. 11. The conflict of opinion.-What did Congressman Brown write What did he urge What did t1e Spanish minister promise What reply did Judge Muter make Into what parties did the people divide 12. The seventh convention.-When did it meet Who were the party leaders To whom were addresses voted What did the agents of Spain do 13. Indian outrages again.-What of the attack on Mrs. Skegg's house Describe the scenes 14. A brave woman.-Wheu was the attack on Merrill's house Describe it Describe Mrs. Merrill's defense 15. A desperate fight on a flatboat.-When did it occur Where Who were the leaders How was the attack made Describe the defense What were the results of the fighting What of Cripps' widow and children 16. Many other raids and massacres.-Where did these occur What did the Indians do on the Ohio river When was Cin- cinnati laid off What name was given it then Who were its founders What counties and towns were created in 1788 CHAPTER XII.-I790oI795. FROM THE MEETING OF THE NINTH CONVENTION, TO THE TREATY WITH THE INDIAN TRIBES AT GREENVILLE. 1. State of affairs in 1790.-In four years since 1786, the population had increased from 30,000 to 74,677. Such was the balance of feeling from the supposed indifference of the general government, on the one hand, and the enticing offers of Spain on the other, that in the first Presidential election after the constitution, held January, 1789, no polls were opened in the District of Kentucky, and no vote was cast for Washington, who had no opponent. 2. The door opened at last.-Virginia passed a third act for the separation of Kentucky; but the conditions were un- just, and the eighth convention met and made known the objections. A fourth act of Virginia removed these, and on July 26, I790, the ninth convention met at Danville and accepted the modified act of the mother State. In February, 1791, Congress passed the act to admit Kentucky as one of the States of the Union, to have effect on June i, 1792. Delegates, elected in December, met in the tenth and last convention, at Danville, on the first Monday in April, 1792, to frame a constitution and form of State government for Kentucky. All conditions being met, Kentucky became a member of the Federal Union on June i, 1792. For eight long years, through the proceedings of ten meetings and conventions; tried in the tortures of Indian warfare; tempted by the glittering offers of foreign nations, the loyalty of Kentucky prevailed in the end. 3. Indian raids.-Outrages were reported in 1790, at Lee's creek; on Hanging Fork of Dick's river; on the Ohio (107) SCHOOL HISTORY OF K1N'TUCKY. river, killing all of the crew of John May's boat; on three boats at the mouth of the Scioto; on Beargrass; at Big Bone Lick, and at many other stations. These bold outrages called for bold action. General Scott, with over two hundred volunteers, joined General Harmer with one hundred regular troops of the United States army, who led this force against the Scioto towns. The Indians fled; but some of them were killed, and their property destroyed. 4. President Washington now turned his attention to the relief of the frontier settlers.-Seven years after the treaty of peace, which ended the war of the revolution, the British still refused to give up the forts in the north-west, as they promised to do. England held these posts garrisoned, and furnished the Indians with powder, lead, guns, and blankets, and bribed them to war on and kill the whites, and destroy their property. Washington tried by peaceful means to have carried out all the terms of the treaty, which, in time, was done, and the forts given up.' But Washington was aware that treaties with the Indians were worthless until they were subdued. This he would now try and do. 5. Harmer's defeat.-General Harmer, of the regular army, was placed in command of three hundred troops of the United States army, with orders to recruit more in west Pennsylvania and Virginia. The Kentucky volunteers joined them at Fort Washington, now Cincinnati, making the army fourteen hundred strong. It was marched in September, 1790, against the Miami towns, now the site of Fort Wayne, Indiana. General Harmer, like Braddock and most other regular army officers then, seems to have known little of the Indian methods of warfare. On the first advance of the army the savages burned their frail houses and retreated. Instead of following in main force and guarding against sur- prise, he sent forward Colonel Hardin, of Kentucky, with less than two hundred men, who were ambushed and beaten 3I08 SCHOOL HISTORY OF RUNTUCkY. back by six hundred Indians. Harmer again sent forward small detached bodies of his troops, which, after hard fight- ing, were beaten in detail. All this while, for over two days, General Harmer, with his main force, lay six miles in the rear, and did nothing to support the few men in battle. The loss of the whites was two hundred, while that of the Indians was severe. Harmer was compelled to retreat. 6. Kentucky's protest.-Protest was made to Washington against sending old officers of the regular army, only to lead men into defeat and slaughter. The District was subject to Virginia yet, and Virginia to the United States. Hence, Kentucky could not raise troops in her defense without con- sent of these. She was granted a Military Board, with power to call out the volunteers when needed, to remedy this. In June, I791, eight hundred mounted men were called out, and placed in command of Generals Wilkinson and Scott. They marched against the Wabash towns, about the present sites of Lafayette and Logansport. The savages were driven from village to village, several hundred killed and captured, and their grain fields and property destroyed. It was a heavy blow to them. ; 7. Desperate attacks.-Two boats coming down the Ohio, were assailed by one hundred Indians, in three large canoes, this same year. Captain Hubbell's crew were nine men, and eleven women and children. By desperate bravery and skill, the savages were beaten off with loss, and Captain Hubbell escaped to Maysville, with eight killed and wounded. The Indians, during the fight, attacked the boat of Captain Greathouse and crew, who made no resistance. The boat was captured, the men massacred, and the women and children made prisoners. Captain May, with his boat and crew, was decoyed and captured this year, and shared a sad fate. On river and land these raids and attacks, with varied results, were of frequent occurrence. One Hundred log SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Indians fell upon a settlement of a dozen families in Elkhorn bottom, four miles above Frankfort, and killed six persons. On Green river, in Ohio county; on Rolling Fork, in Nelson county, and at other points, murderous assaults were made. 8. St. Clair's defeat.-Orders were issued from the Secre- tary of War, at Washington, to enlist two thousand men for the regular army to chastise the Indians in the West. Gen- eral St. Clair, an old and gouty officer of the regular army, who had never shown much military skill, was placed in command. Kentucky was called on for one thousand vol- unteers; but such was the aversion to putting St. Clair in command, just after Harmer's disaster, that none responded to the call. A draft was then made on Kentucky for the one thousand men. Every general officer in the District refused to accept the command of these, until Colonel Oldham did so. The army of two thousand was marched against the tribes on the Maumee, in north Indiana. Gen- eral St. Clair mistook another river for the Maumee. On November 3, I79I, a large body of Indians made a surprise attack on an advance detachment, and threw it into a panic. A series of blunders and mishaps followed. The Indians pressed upon the white troops, some of whom stood and fought bravely. But the army did not recover its order, and the rout and slaughter were fearful. During the contest General St. Clair was lying helpless in his tent suffering with gout. He was placed on a pack-horse, with aids at his sides, and saved in the retreat. Eight hundred gallant Americans were lost, out of fourteen hundred, by the- in- competency of their officers. The Indian forces were led by the noted chiefs, Brant and Little Turtle. 9. First State government.-By terms of the constitution, Isaac Shelby, who had been elected Governor, and the Leg- islature, met at Lexington, June 4, 1792. A. S. Bullitt was Speaker of the Senate, and R. Breckinridge, of the House. 11IO SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. James Brown was made Secretary of State, and George Nicolas, Attorney-General. (John Brown and John Edwards were the first United States Senators. ' A heated contest soon sprang up in the Legislature as to the permanent location of the State capitol. Danville, Lexington, and Frankfort, each, had ardent advocates; but it was decided finally in favor of Frankfort. The members of the Legis- lature were paid one dollar per day, and twelve dollars extra at the end of the session. At this time beef was sold in the market at two cents a pound; buffalo meat, one and a half cents; turkeys, fifteen cents, each. 10. Deaths of Colonel John Hardin and Major Truman.- Their cruel massacre while on a peace mission to the Miami towns, created a deep feeling among their kindred and friends in Kentucky. It was done in cold blood by an escort of savages who were piloting them, alone, through the forests to the towns named, and while together in camp. The brutal treachery was condemned by many in the tribes, but the guilty were not punished. In the same year, I792, Major John Adair, with one hundred Kentuckians, engaged a body of Indians, under Little Turtle, near Fort St. Clair, and after a severe contest, with loss to both sides, the battle ended with victory to neither party. 11. Would the Indians make treaties of peace-Many persons east of the mountains thought they would, and that the whites were provoking incessant strife. This morbid senti- ment and sympathy for the savages, and against the border settlers, found active vent from the pulpit, by the press, and in Congress. To prove its injustice, President Washington sent commissioners to the leading tribes to offer just terms of treaty. But, elated over the defeats of Harmar and St. Clair, and incited by British bribes and aid, they refused to treat on any terms, I I I SCHOOL HISTORY OF KICNTUCKY. 12. Wayne's great victory.-General Anthony Wayne was ordered by the war department at Washington to gather an army of regulars and volunteers at Fort Washington, and march upon the Maumee towns again. The Kentuckians were even more bitterly opposed than before to being led against Indians by old army officers, and refused to enlist. One thousand citizens were then drafted, and ordered with Wayne's army to begin the march from the old site of Cin- cinnati, under General Scott, late in October, 1793. The lateness of the season and the heavy rains caused General Wayne to fortify for the winter in the enemy's country, and finish his campaign in the spring. The Kentucky troops were sent home, to return in time, but now delighted with "Mad Anthony," as Wayne was called. His brave and heroic conduct in the Revolutionary war, and his dash and daring, yet skillful display as a leader, had won their confi- dence. On the return next spring, sixteen hundred Ken- tuckians rallied to Wayne's command. Resuming his march in July, 1794, he came upon the army of the savages in large force, in order of battle, within a mile of a British post yet held contrary to treaty. The battle was promptly fought, the Indians defeated at every point, and, after great slaughter, put to general rout. They fled toward the fort, expecting the British troops to protect. Finding they dared not do so, no more resistance was offered. Their crops and property were destroyed over a large section. The victory of Wayne broke the spirit of the savages, and the chiefs met with white commissioners at Greenville and made a peace treaty, also ceding a large area of country to the United States. 13. Sympathy for the French.-Frenchmen who aided Americans in the war for independence went back to France burning with desire of liberty for their own country and people. They overthrew their king, set up a republic, and sou had all 1gurope in a b p of Incitement and fewr A I1I2 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 1793, a deep sympathy showed itself in America for the struggling French, upon whom England and other kingdoms warred. Nowhere was this feeling stronger than in Ken- tucky. Jacobin clubs were formed in this interest, in other States, and in Lexington, Georgetown, and Paris, in Ken- tucky. Some were in favor of declaring war with England, and becoming an ally of France. Washington's government was too prudent for this. French agents came to America to arouse the people to active alliance, chief of whom was Minister Genet. Four of these came to Kentucky and began to enlist an army of two thousand men, under command of General George Rogers Clark, to go down and capture New Orleans and Louisiana from the Spanish king. Washington interfered and ordered General Wayne, with the troops in the West, to stop the expedition, which was done. Our ancestors little thought then, of the wild anarchy and bloody orgies into which this French revolution was to plunge the mad people of France. Even Governor Shelby and other noted citizens and leaders shared in this sentiment, so great was the prejudice against the English, and their gratitude to their old French allies. 14. Isaac Shelby.-Governor Shelby reached the highest position in office of State, as he had won the highest esteem and confidence of the people. He was born in Maryland, and made North Carolina the State of his first adoption. In earliest manhood he was with the frontiersmen, defending against the savages. In the Revolutionary war, he was noted for the gallantry and skill with which he harassed and baf- fled the British in many campaigns. At Camden and King's Mountain, in North Carolina, his genius and energy did much to win the victories which drove the invading enemy from that section. He moved to Kentucky in I783, on the conclusion of peace with England, and at once took an active interest in the civil, military and sqia1 ioudition of 11 3 SCHOOIL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. the country. His counsel, his aid, his favor, became of value to all. We find him now the first governor of the young State; and in 18I2 he was re-elected by the people. 15. Nicojack townsr-The Indians in Tennessee had made several raids, and committed numerous outrages in the sec- tion south of Kentucky river. In July, 1794, Captain Whit- ley, of Lincoln county, raised a body of one hundred men to join Colonel Orr, of Tennes- see, with two hundred more AwV \ volunteers, to march against and chastise these savage out- laws. The command of the : \ \ whole was given to Captain Whitley. The towns were M\ l then surrounded and sur- - -1 prised and the Indians put OVERNO HEL Y. to flight after a loss of near GOVENOR SAOSHELBY.r ONE OF THE HIOES OF KING 8 MOUNTAIN, AND one hundred to them. Their FIRST GOVERNOROF KENTUCKY N 1792I houses, grain, and all their other property were destroyed. 1G. Indian incursions.-The last in Kentucky were in 1793. Seven miles from Mt. Sterling, Morgan's station was capt- ured by a marauding party of savages, with twenty-one prisoners, mostly women and children-the men being out at work. A number were tomahawked, and the remainder carried prisoners to the North-west and sold; but were set at liberty after the treaty of Greenville, in 1795. 17. Big Joe Logston's fight.-A young man of giant frame and strength, and of reckless daring and adventure, removed to Kentucky and lived with Andy Barnett, in Green county. In 1790, the Indians attacked the settlement and drove all into the stockade fort near. Joe Logston's restless spirit I114 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. longed for the woods, in spite of the dangerous foe. Vent- uring out on a hunt through the woods one day, heedless of warning, as he rode leisurely along a path, eating some grapes he had plucked, the ring of two rifles startled him and his horse. One bullet passed through the muscles of his breast, not disabling much. The other ball killed his horse under him. He was on his feet in a moment, with rifle ready for action. He was a swift runner, but had boasted that he had never turned his back on an enemy. One huge Indian sprang at him after the shots, tomahawk in hand. Joe's ready rifle drove him behind a tree. Just then he saw a smaller Indian behind another tree, re-loading his gun. A chance offered, and Joe fired and broke his protruding back. The big Indian now rushed forward to tomahawk him while his rifle was empty. The two giants met, and, alone in the forest, a desperate man to man battle for life and death took place. The struggle, long and exhausting, ended by Big Joe wrenching the knife of the savage from his hand, just as he had pulled it from his belt, and plunging it into the heart of the owner. Logston walked back to the fort pretty well satisfied to have come off so well. The dead Indians were found next day. 18. Rest for Kentucky.-Peace was now assured, so far as incursions and raids from the savages, North or South, were concerned. For twenty years, from I773, the year of the first organized adventures to Kentucky, to I 793, the year of the last incursions, there had been almost incessant strife, with murders, pillages, and arsons innumerable, on the field of the "Dark and Bloody Ground." The last dying struggles of the Red man were about over on this theater of war; and the white man had won from the Red his most prized hunting ground, to hold it for himself and his posterity ever after. I I5 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 'Gopicell dtlsaftpti Cede Ottte3ionco. CHAPTER XII.-1790-5. 1- State of affairs in 1790.-What was the increase of population in four years from 1786 What question divided the people When was the first Presidential election Why did Kentucky not vote 2. The door opened at last.-What did Virginia do What did the eighth convention do What the ninth When did Con- gress pass the act to admit Kentucky into the Union What final steps did Kentucky take When did she enter the Union 3. Indian raids and outrages.-Where were these committed in 1790 What step did General Scott take Who joined him from the United States army What Indian towns did they destroy 4. President Washington provides relieL-How long since the Revolutionary War What were the British and Irdians yet doing What course did Washington pursue 5. Harmer's defeat-What army did Harmer command Where did his campaign begin Against what tribes was it directed How was it conducted What disaster befell Harmer 6. Kentucky protests.-What were these Why did the Kentuck- ians want to defend themselves How many volunteers did Wilkinson and Scott raise Where did they lead them What was the result 7. Desperate attempts on two boats.-On whose boat was the first made What defense did Hubbell make Whose boat was next attacked What defense did Greathouse make What attack was made in Elkhorn bottom 8. St. Clair's defeat-Who was General St. Clair What did the Kentuckians think of him Why would they not volunteer under him What is a draft for soldiers Who commanded the drafted men On what campaign did they march What of St. Clair's generalship How did the Indians meet them What was the result of the fighting Who led the IudianuI I I6 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 9. First State government.-Who was elected Governor Where did the first Legislature meet What question arose about the capitol Where was it located 10. Xassacre of Hardin and Truiman.-On what mission were these sent Who murdered them For what What of Major Adair's fight with the Indians 11. Would not the Indians treat for peace -What people thought they would Why did they think so What test did Wash- ington make 12. Wayne's great victory.-Who was General Wayne Did the Kentuckians volunteer under him Why not How were tpoops raised Why did they have admiration for Wayne How many joined him the next spring Where did General Wayne attack the Indian army Near what place What was the result of the battle What treaty followed 13. Sympathy for the Prench.-What effect did Democracy have on the French people How did the Americans feel toward the French Where were Jacobin clubs formed For what purpose What did the French agents do How did our government check them 14. Governor Isaac Shelby.-What of his life Where was he born What military services did he first render What last To what office was he re-elected 16. Nicojack Indians in Tennessee.-What of their recent con- duct Who led a force against them Who joined Whitley in Tennessee What punishment was inflicted on these In- dians 16. The last Indian incursion into Kentucky.-When was this Against what station What became of these prisoners 17. Big Joe Logston's fight.-Where did it occur When How did Logston meet the Indians Describe the combat between them. What were the results 18. Rest for Kentucky homes.-How was it assured How long had Indian warfare raged in Kentucky What did the Ken- tuckians finally win ir7 CHAPTER XIII.-1795-I800. FROMI THE TREATIES WITH ENGLAND AND SPAIN, TO THE ADOPTION OF THE SECOND CONSTITUTION OF KENTUCKY. 1. Courts and Legislature.-By the legislation of 1795, six district courts were created, one each to sit at Paris, Lexing- ton, Frankfort, Danville, Bardstown, and Washington. These were held by two judges, each, and had much the same ex- tent of power as our circuit courts now have. A court of quarter-sessions was also appointed for each county, with three judges on the bench, to try inferior cases. The salary of the governor was now one thousand dollars; of the appel- late judges, six hundred and sixty-six; and of other officials in suitable proportions. The members of the Legislature were forty-two, as follows: Bourbon, five; Clark, two; Fayette, six; Green, one; Hardin, one; Harrison, one; Jef- ferson, two; Logan, one; Lincoln, three; Mercer, three; Madison, three; Mason, three; Nelson, three; Shelby, one; Scott, two; Washington, two, and Woodford, three. 2. Important treaties.-Such were made with England, in I794, and Spain, in 1795. By the former, England gave up the North-west forts, which was of chief interest to the Western people, as giving them assurance of peace. By the latter, Spain conceded to Americans the right of the naviga- tion of the Mississippi river to the sea, and also the right of deposit at New Orleans for their produce for three years. This was more than the people of Kentucky had hoped for, and did much to quiet all further discontent with Washing- ton's rule, as President; for much credit was due for his wise patience and prudence. (I I8) SCHOOL hISTORY OF KtNTUCEXY. 3. Spanish intrigues.-These were renewed in 1795, in the South-west, while the treaty was being made at Madrid, the capital of Spain. The Spanish governor, of New Orleans, sent Thomas Power on a secret mission, with large offers of money, to confer with General Wilkinson, now an officer in the United States army, and Judge Sebastian, of the Ken- tucky bench, chiefly, as to further plans and efforts to detach Kentucky and the entire West from the Union, and set up an independent government, closely allied by treaty with Spain. Judge Innis, Colonel Nicolas, and William Murray were invited to the private conferences, but did not approve the object or show any favor to the Spanish agent. It was clearly-shown after, that Judge Sebastian and General Wil- kinson received large bribes from the Spanish authorities. In the midst of these intrigues, the news came of the treaty between the two countries, giving the West all they wished. Power came to Louisville, two years after, in 1797, as agent of the Spanish commandant of Louisiana, to try again the powers of intrigue and bribery, but in vain. 4. James Garrard elected governor.-James Garrard was the choice of the people to succeed Isaac Shelbyas governor of Kentucky. There was much to be done to perfect the laws and policy of the infant Commonwealth, to which Gov- ernor Garrard gave attention. Of matters of public polity, the criminal code was defective, the revenue laws were inef- ficient, land titles were too much endangered, and the bound- aries between Virginia and Kentucky yet unsettled. Harry Toulmin, a learned and an able man, was appointed Sec- retary of State. The governor's message expressed grati- tude for the peace and prosperity of the new Common- wealth; the rapid increase of population and extension of settlements; the flourishing state of agriculture, of manufact- ures, and of improvements; and for the opening of the Mis- sissippi to the sea to our commerce. Thus Kentucky is shown to have been in a favored condition at this date, June, 1796. I19 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KINTUCKY. 5. The second President of the United States.-John Adams, was successively elected to take his seat on March 4, 1797. Washington had served two terms, or eight years, and in time issued his farewell address, saying he would not serve longer. The contest then came on between Adams, the candidate of the Federal party, and Jefferson, of the Demo- cratic party, both great leaders during the Revolutionary period and the formation of the new Union. The contest was as bitter as are presidential contests now, and as per- sonal. In no State was there felt more of party rancor than in Kentucky. On counting the electoral vote it was found that Adams had a plurality of three votes. Jefferson having the next highest number, by terms of the law then, was declared vice-president. 6. Land laws and titles.-Land claims began to bring dis- tress and ruin to many happy homes in the Commonwealth. The public lands were not surveyed by the government of Virginia into sections and townships, as they were afterward by the general government, when it came to own them. Those of Kentucky were never owned by the general gov- ernment, as they were not included in the cession of the territory north of the Ohio river by Virginia. The Virginia laws of patent and entry were various and confusing, and allowed of survey and location by private persons, and of uncertain record in the county offices. The results were that two and three surveys and entries would be made of the same tract; or that one survey would overlap an adjoin- ing one. The settlers were confiding and careless, and little thought of troubles ahead. Lands were cheap and plenty; and, as they thought, -enough to content all. 7. Land sharks.-After a period when lands became val- uable with the improvements put on them, and with the growth of the country, litigants began to search out defects in titles, and to sue the honest old settlers, to take from them, 120 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. by the arts and methods of the law, the homes they had built up for themselves and families. Thousands of the best citi- zens of the State were broken up and made poor and home- less again, by the cruel decisions of the courts. This kind of litigation was a withering blight to the State for fifty years, and caused many thousands of the best people to emigrate, and leave it forever. 8. The Alien and Sedition Laws.-In 1798, Congress en- acted what are famously known in our history as the Alien and Sedition Laws. The Alien law gave the President the power to order out of the United States all citizens of foreign countries visiting here, whom he might judge to be unsafe to the peace and good order of this country; and at his dis- cretion. Any alien, who should return after being thus ordered out, should be imprisoned as long as the President might think public safety required it. The Sedition law made any citizen subject to fine and imprisonment who might speak or print any falsehood, scandal, or malice against the government, the President, or the Congress of the United States, with intent to defame or excite the hatred of the people against either of them. If this law were in force now, it would subject many of the opposing party to fine and imprisonment for their criticisms of the party in power. It abridged the liberty of opinion and speech to an extent to alarm the people. 9. Aping royalty.-There was a sentiment strong in the Federal party that it was dangerous to allow so much power to the States and people, and to leave the Federal head so weak. The bloody riots and mob rule-the wild excesses and anarchies, into which the Jacobins had plunged the new Republic of France, since I793, and in the like names of Revolution and Liberty with our own Republic, made this feeling more intense. Similar laws had been adopted by the governments of Europe to protect against the spread of 121 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KUNTUCKY. the Jacobin politics of France. But when enacted by our Congress, the States and the people took alarm at this tres- pass on their rights. There was at this time, and after, a noisy Tory element, mainly in New England, known as the English party, who openly wished to return to allegiance to Great Britain, and avowed the intent to secede from the Union and do so, if possible. Out of these extremes in the politics of the day sprang the great and vital issue as to how much power, or sovereignty, was conferred on the Federal government by the Constitution of the United States, and how much was withheld to the States and people. Over this issue great national party lines have been often drawn, administrations built up or overthrown, and the greatest sectional war of all time fought. And yet parties and poli- ticians are divided on this issue to-day. 10. Opposition to the Alien and Sedition Laws.-This was widespread. But it was expressed nowhere so strongly as by Kentucky and Virginia. Two able leaders of the Demo- cratic party, Thomas Jefferson, the illustrious statesman of Virginia, and John Breckinridge, of Kentucky, conferred together as to the best method of combating the doctrines of these laws, so opposed to the spirit of our government. These two statesmen drafted a series of articles setting forth the contrary doctrines, and denying that Congress or the Federal government had any power beyond that given and named expressly in the words of the Constitution of the United States, and that no such power was given to enact the Alien and Sedition Laws, and others named. They fur- ther declared that the States reserved all power not so men- tioned in the constitution, and the right to judge and decide whether the laws of Congress and the acts of the general government were constitutional or not; and if not, to refuse to allow them to be executed within the State, they being null and void. This is the doctrine of Nullzfication, so many years a disturbing element in our political history. 122 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCBY. 11. Kentucky boldly adopts.-Introduced by John Breck- inridge, the Legislature of Kentucky, in I798 and I799, adopted these resolutions. The first series of I798 were sent, a copy each, to be presented before the Legislatures of the several States comprising the Union, with a respectful request that these would endorse them, and join in an effort to have Congress repeal them. The Legislatures of the North-west States sent answers condemning the resolutions, and some of them in very bitter terms. The Southern States were more favorable. Thus one extreme in political doc- trine begat another; and some of the advocates of nullifica- tion went so far as to contend that a State had a right to secede from the Union, if Congress enacted laws of this kind, or if unjust and injurious to the interests of a State. We shall see in future years, how Federal encroachments, on the one hand, and nullification and secession, on the other, came near wrecking the Union. 12. Last years of Daniel Boone.-By the bad land laws and litigation, the veteran pioneer lost all his fine lands in Kentucky, and came to such poverty as to lead him in one of his petitions to say, " Ihave not a spot of ground whereon to lay my bones." He left Kentucky, saying that he would never return to live in a country so ungrateful. About I796, he moved to Missouri and settled fifty miles west of St. Louis. Spain owned this territory then, and the Spanish governor gave him a liberal grant of land, and appointed him to an office. Around him his sons and daughters, and their families, settled. The broad forests were full of game, and here Boone again indulged his passion for the hunter's life. The old hero neglected to complete the title to his new land and home, and lost this also. Congress afterward made him a smaller grant. He died in Missouri on the 26th of September, i820, in the eighty-sixth year of his life, and these famous resolutions and historic details are given iu Smith's larger History of Kentucky in full. 123 SCHTOOL HISTORY OF KIENTUCKY. was buried by the side of his wife, in a coffin he had made for himself some years before. In i845, the Legislature of Kentucky had the remains of the pioneer and his wife re- moved and buried with honor in the cemetery at Frankfort. 13. General George Rogers Clark.-We have a sadder story to tell than even that of Boone's. Clark was the greatest military genius that figured in the early history of Kentucky. All his achievements were done before he was thirty years of age. He settled about eight miles above Louisville. He fell into habits of intemperance which unfitted him for public service. He was voted large land bounties by Virginia, as the only pay for the valuable services he had rendered; but these were for years withheld from him, thus leaving him helpless and poor upon the bounty of his kinsmen. At last when Virginia sent a messenger to present him a jeweled sword voted by her Assembly, he responded: " Young man, go tell Virginia, when she needed a sword, I found one. Now, I want bread! " The young man bearing back this message, Virginia too late made good her broken promises of land to Clark. But the worn-out old soldier lived only a little while longer; and in February, i8i8, died and was buried at Locust Grove. Now his remains rest beneath a plain headstone in Cave Hill Cemetery, at Louisville. 14. Simon Kenton shared a fate like Boone's.-Losing his lands, acre by acre, through the greed of the land sharks, and the tortuous ways of the laws and the courts, this simple- hearted old pioneer found himself penniless in the advance of life. As allowed by law then, his body was taken for debt, and he was cast into prison by his creditors upon the very spot on which he built his first cabin in 1775. In 1799, thus beggared, he moved into Ohio and settled near the site of Urbana. In 1813, he joined Governor Shelby's troops, and was with them in the battle of the Thames. In i820, he moved from Urbana to the site on the Scioto river, where the 124 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Indians, some years before, had tied him to a stake to be burned. This was his last home, and here he died on the 29th of April, i836, at the age of eighty-one years. A few years before his death he made a visit to Frankfort, Ken- tucky, in his pioneer garb, an unknown stranger for a time. He was finally recognized by an old comrade, and treated with marked respect. The Legislature promptly released to him some mountain lands, which had been sold for taxes; and some friends soon after obtained a pension of two hun- dred and forty dollars a year, through Congress. 15. A second constitution formed.-This was drafted by a convention called, and which met July 22, I799. The first, adopted seven years before, was found defective in some of its provisions. The main features of change were to have the governor and other officers chosen by the people, instead of by electors. This constitution went into effect June i, i8oo. 16. Troubles with France.-As hearty as the sympathy of the American people had been with France, the relations of the two countries now became quite strained. The late treaty with England was the cause of resentful feelings upon the part of the French people, and also of their friends in America. This country had refused to become an ally of France in her wars against England, as France had been an ally of ours in the Revolutionary war. This seemed like bad faith, and the French government refused to receive our minister. The two nations were now on the verge of declaring war, and actual hostilities occurred. France was at war with England, and her ships were seizing American vessels on pretext of their having on board British products, or of having sailed from British ports. Congress ordered our vessels to arm and resist these outrages. 17. Actual hostilities.-The friends of France in Ken- tucky boldly opposed war with the old ally, and expressed 4 125 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KANTUCKY. .hostile feeling to England. All that saved the two countries from general war was the wide Atlantic ocean between. On the high seas it began in earnest. The United States ship Constitution, of thirty-eight guns, fell in with a French ship of forty guns, and, after a hot fight of an hour, captured it. A short time after the same ship met the French vessel, La Vengeance, of fifty-four guns, and after an action of five hours, drove her off with heavy loss. Three hundred private American vessels had been armed for self-defense; but a change in the French government by Napoleon becoming first consul having occurred, a treaty of peace was made, and further hostilities ceased. 18. African slavery.-Slavery, introduced for gain, was now deeply rooted in the civil and social soil of Kentucky. Col- ored slaves formed a part of almost every important immi- grant household that came into Kentucky. Yet many thus early began to raise their voices against the institution of slavery and for the freedom of the bondsmen. Among these were the great orator and statesman, Henry Clay, Rev. David Rice, a Presbyterian minister, the Revs. Tarrent, Barrow, Sutton, and Holmes, ministers of the Baptist church, and other men of influence. 'Gopsfa eatlAer caseb a-"eiOn'. CHAPTER XIIL-I795-i8oo. 1. Courts and legislation.-What courts were created in 1795 With what courts compared Of quarter-session courts What was the salary of the Governor Of other officers How many legislators had each county How many in all 2. Important treaties.-With what countries were they made In what years What important provision was in the treaty with England What provisions in the Spanish treaty How did these affect the people of Kentucky 126 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 3. Mew Spanish intrigues.-Who was the Spanish agent With whom did Power negotiate in 1795 What did Spain offer What others were invited to the private conferences What were the final results How were these intrigues broken up When did Spain renew the intrigues Who commissioned Power again 4. James Garrard elected governor. -Who was the second governor of Kentucky To what did he give first attention What measures needed to be legislated on Who was made Secretary of State For what did the governor express grati- tude in his message 6. The second President of the United States.-Who was he When was he inaugurated What had Washington done Who opposed Adams What party supported Jefferson What office did he succeed to 6. Land laws and land titles.-What distress did these bring To whom did the Kentucky lands first belong To what State next How were they surveyed What con fusion followed 7. Land sharks.-Who were these despoilers What distress did they bring on the people What injury did this confusion of titles bring on Kentucky 8. The Alien and Sedition laws.-When were they enacted What was the Alien law What was the Sedition law What powers did they give the President 9. Aping royalty.-What sentiment inclined to this What en- couraged it Why did some favor a strong Federal govern- ment What of the Tory party What party favored more liberal States' Rights How long has the issue of Federal power and States' Rights divided national parties 10. Opposition to the Alien and Sedition laws.-Who drafted a protest against these What Legislature passed the first resolutions of protest What did the resolutions declare What is nullification 1L Kentucky resolutions.-Who introduced the resolutions of 1798 Where were copies sent How did the Legislatures of other States respond How did the Southern States respond What of the right of secession 12. Last years of Daniel Boone.-What misfortunes befell him What did he say. of these When did he go to Missouri Where did he locate What nation owned this country then 127 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. What did the Span ish governor do What life did Boone then lead Where did he die At what age How was he buried When were his remains removed to Kentucky 18. Of General George Rogers Clarke-What of his genius and works Where did he settle What habits ruined him How did Virginia reward him Relate the incident of the sword presentation. Where did he die Where was he buried 14. Simon Kenton shared a fate like Boone's.-What misfortunes befell him Why was he in prison Whither did he move in 1799 Where was he in 1813 What of him in 1820 When did he die At what age What of his visit to Frankfort, Kentucky What pension was given him finally 15. The second Constitution for Kentucky.-When did the Con- vention meet What change did it make in the Constitution When did it go into effect 16. Troubles with Prance.-What offended France What did she want America to do Did hostilities commence Was war declared What insults did she inflict 17. Actual hostilities.-What was the feeling in Kentucky for France What toward England What fighting took place on sea What second battle followed What caused hostili ties to cease 18. African slavery.-What of slavery in Kentucky What senti- ment opposed it What leading men urged the emancipation of slaves 128 PERIOD FOURTH-I800--1815. FROM THE ADOPTION OF THE SECOND CONSTITUTION OF KENTUCKY, TO THE CLOSE OF THE WAR OF I812-15 WITH ENGLAND. CHAPTER XIV.-Ioo-i812. FROM THE PURCHASE OF LOUISIANA BY FRANCE, TO THE EARTHQUAKE AT NEW MADRID AND HICKMAN. 1. Nature and customs of the Indians. The Indians are like all other rude and untutored races or tribes of people who have lapsed into the lower stages of barbarism-the creatures of passion and appetite; yet none of the barbarous races, red, white, or black, have a more marked and indi- vidual character, showing the possession of latent faculties of mind of a high order, of resolute will, and of rare quali- ties of physical action and endurance. We have described the ceremonies of adoption into the tribe, in the case of Daniel Boone. 2. Gallantry and courtship.-Gallantry among young braves, and coquetry on the part of the maidens, are not wanting in the social relations, however quaintly form and expression may be given to these. In the wild, rude dances, heads were often bent close together as opposite lines would meet, and soft whispers, covert glances, and gentle taps on the cheek were frequent indices that Indians are sensible to the charms and love signals, which are but human after all. But the courtship differs from that of the whites. With them, all the coyness, reserve, and pretty delays are confined 8 (I29) SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. to the male sex. The young squaws are bold, forward, and by no means delicate in urging their devotions, and a hand- some or bright young brave is often trapped in the toils of these female charmers. 3. Indian hospitalities.-It is the custom among Indians to invite every visitor to eat as soon as he enters the wigwam. The host is much offended if the visitor refuses to eat; while the guest is insulted if the food is not set before him, even though he may have partaken of a meal an hour before. This custom suited the Indian habits and digestion very well, but to the white man it imposed an etiquette which often brought much pain and annoyance for him to comply with. 4. Feast or famine.-Depending on hunting and trapping for wild meat, as the Indian did, there was usually a feast or a famine within. Sometimes the meat of game was all the food he had, and as long as this lasted the feast went on; the supply exhausted, there was a famine for days. The settled tribes raised corn and vegetables, but these lasted only for a part of the year. During the winter and early spring months the improvident savage lived as best he cpuld, mainly upon the wild meat of the woods. Only necessity drove the vagrant glutton from his wigwam, with his gun or bow and arrow, to supply the needs of hunger. When the squaws tilled the fields and gardens with their primitive wooden implements, in the harvest season, there was plenty to eat; but when the reliance was on the indolent bucks, there was often fast, and sometimes famine. 5. Cunning devices and strategy.-The devices adopted by the savages to allure and betray an enemy were often curious and wonderful. They would sometimes deceive by imitating the hoot of the owl, the human-like wail of the catamount, or the bark of the wolf, at night; or the call of the turkey, the bleat of the fawn, or the bark of the dog, by x30 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. day, and thus deceive the unsuspicious. Instances were known where they cut off the feet of buffalo and elk at tie ankle joint, and, fastening these hoofs to their own feet, would make tracks through the frequented forest, and near salt springs, and then place themselves in ambuscade, when they were conscious of an enemy in the vicinity.. The braves of an opposing tribe, falling upon these tracks of buffalo and elk, were almost sure to follow them and fali into the ami- buscade. On one occasion, a small party of Catawbas thus ambuscaded a more powerful body of Shawanees, but feeling unable to give them final battle, they placed in the path of retreat a number of slender reeds, sharpened at the end and dipped in rattlesnake poison. The Shawanees, in pursuit, were wounded by these concealed weapons, and fell by the wayside. The Catawbas turned upon and overpowered them. 6. Indolence and sporting.-When not upon the wvar-path the warriors are shiftless and indolent. Nothing arouses them but necessity or excitement. In the season when roasting-ears and vegetables were made plenty by the labor and industry of the squaws, the men lounged at home utterly inactive, except in their sports. Then they dance with fantastic motions, play at foot-ball, or gamble with dice, feasting in the meantime on the fruits of the field until all are consumed. The squaws are able to pack immense bur- dens upon theirchoulders, and to bear incredible hardships. The men are remarkable for their long endurance and swift- ness of fqkot, and for their stoic forbearance under suffering and hardship. 7. Treatment of children.-The savages are not very strict with their children. Bodily punishment is rare, and looked upon as degrading. Ducking in cold water is the more common punishment; hence the children are much better behaved in winter than in summer. Instead of a cradle for the infant, a board, shaven thin, is prepared. On this the 131 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKV. infant is placed, with its back to the board at a proper dis- tance. Near the lower end is a projecting piece of wood. This is covered with the softest moss, and the heels of the infant rest upon it. Over the head of the child there is a hoop, projecting four or five inches from its face. Two holes are bored on either side of the upper end of the board, for the passage of the deer skin strap. This rests on the forehead of the mother. The child is now bandaged to the board, from the feet to the shoulders, binding the arms and hands to the sides. With this contrivance she carries it on her shoulders, leans it against the tree, or lays it upon the ground. When of age sufficient, the board is removed, and the child taught to cling to its mother's shoulders, and otherwise to help itself. 8. Religion of the Indians.-The Indians are very super- stitious; yet their religion is more nearly a simple deism than that of most savage nations. One great spirit is uniformly worshiped among them, though different tribes give him different names. On the prairies of the West, he is termed Wrahcondah, or Master of Life; by the tribes on the Lakes, he was called Maniton, or the Spirit; and by the Miami tribes he was known by the title, Owaneeyo, or The Possessor of all Things. They believe in a future state, in which they shall be introduced to ample hunting grounds, and where their passion for hunting and sporting shall be indulged without limit. 9. Dances and debauchery.-The Indians are immoderately fond of whisky. But they prepare for a drunken debauch, in which the whole tribe joins, with more system and care than the whites. They put out of reach their tomahawks, knives, and dangerous weapons, and they appoint a few warriors to keep sober and preserve order. Both sexes then drink to ex- cess, and soon plunge into the wildest orgies of intoxication. The Indians paint in black and red for the war dance; in 132 SCHOOL HISTORY OF XMNTUCKY. green and white for the peace dance; in black, for dance.; over the dead, and in various other colors for the green-corn dance, the wabana, in honor of the devil, and others. In their war dances they repeat, in guttuxal tones, their deeds of murder, of scalping, of theft, and other cruelties, with fiendish boast and pride, to the applause of the barbarian audience. 10. The purchase of Louisiana from France.-In October of the year i8oo, by the secret treaty of Ildefonso, Spain sold and ceded to France the entire territory west of the Mississippi river, then known as Louisiana, with its capital at New Orleans. This becoming known, created intense excitement throughout the.United States, and an effort was made in Congress to instruct the President to seize New Orleans and hold possession of this country. Peaceful diplo- macy prevailed. Napoleon Bonaparte, then First Consul of France, fearing the English navy might capture New Orleans, and being in need of money for his military cam- paigns, was found willing to sell this province at a reason- able price. Our Minister at Paris, James Monroe, nego- tiated the purchase of Louisiana from Napoleon, for the sum of fifteen millions of dollars. 11. Election of Governor.-In i804, Christopher Greenup was elected Governor, and John Caldwell, Lieutenant-gov- ernor of Kentucky. John Rowan was made Secretary of State. This year Jefferson was re-elected President, and on forming a new cabinet, he appointed John Breckinridge, author of the resolutions of 1798, Attorney-general of the United States. The next year after, this distinguished Kentuckian died, in the prime of manhood, widely la- mented as a great personal and public loss. 12. Conspiracy of Aaron Burr.-In i805, Aaron Burr, re- cently Vice-president of the United States, visited Kentucky and began laying his plans for the great conspiracy for which he has become noted in history. His headquarters 133 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. were at blannerhassett's Island, in the Ohio river. His plans and designs were guarded in secret, and there has always been much mystery as to what these were. It is most probable that Burr dreamed of establishing a new em- pire of the South-west, with a capital at New Orleans. But if this proved impossible, then he would move all the forces he could organize as far westward as Texas, within the Spanish territory of Mexico, and found an empire there. In his schemes, he was baffled by the vigor with which he was prosecuted as a conspirator, until he was compelled to abandon all hope and effort of carrying them out. 1.3. Henry Clay settles at Iexington.-In 1798, in the twenty-first year of his age, Henry Clay, the greatest of American orators and statesmen, came to Kentucky and located at Lexington for the practice of law. He was born April i2, I777, in Hanover county! Virginia. His father, a Baptist clergyman, died in the fifth year of his son's age, leaving him to a mother's care. His boyhood and youth were spent in an experience of the toils and hardships of necessity; yet the diligent and' faithful devotion of young Clay in his duties, made this a discipline which brought out the great manhood of his after life. His talent in his chosen field of action soon brought him into prominence in the po- litical arena, and into lucrative practice in his profession. 14. Clay's early promotion.-At twenty-five years of age, he was elected to the State Legislature; at thirty, was a Senator of the United States. From this period on, with few brief intervals of exception, his long life was spent in the public service, and in the highest offices within the gift of the government or people, except that of the Presidency. Such were his talents and fame, that an elevation to the high office of Chief Magistrate of the nation could have added nothing of honor or renown to his name. 1,14 SCHOOL HISTORY OF K1RNTUCKY. 15. Bad feeling between the United States and England.- In i8o8, James Madison was elected to succeed Jefferson, as President. Charles Scott was elected Governor of Ken- tucky, and Gabriel Slaughter, Lieutenant-governor. Jesse Bledsoe was appointed Secretary of State. Great Britain and France, yet at war, had provoked a spirit of resentment and anger by their blockade decrees, embargoes, and other injuries to American commerce. About this time, the Eng- lish ship Leopard made an attack on the United States war vessel, Chesapeake. It was now felt that the issue of war was but a question of time, and not far off. 16. Prosperity of Kentucky.-The census of i8io showed Kentucky to be the seventh State in the Union, in popula- tion, which was four hundred and six thousand five hundred and eleven. Of these, there were over three hundred and twenty-four thousand whites, seventeen hundred and seven- teen free colored, and eighty thousand five hundred and sixty-one slaves. This was an increase in ten years of eighty-four per cent. The slaves had increased over ninety- nine per cent. 17. Battle of Tippecanoe.-General William H. Harrison was in command of the army of the North-west. Under the instigations of the British officers and agents, and under the leadership of the great Shawanee chief, Tecumseh, and his brother, the Prophet, the Indian tribes on the Miami and Wabash rivers, and on the Lakes, had been aroused again to hostilities, after years of comparative quiet. The allied Indian army, composed of the warriors of these tribes, and under the command of the Prophet, were met and attacked upon the field of Tippecanoe by General Harrison and his army, and disastrously defeated and routed. Among the fallen of the American army were two eminent Kentuckians, Colonels A braham Oweu and Joseph Hamilton Daviess. 135 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KRNTUCKY. 18. The great earthquake.-On December i6, iSii, was felt the first shock of the great earthquake on the Missis- sippi river and its shores, in the vicinity of Fulton county, Kentucky, and New Madrid, Missouri, the most terrible and extensive in its effects ever known upon this continent. Though it centered at this spot, its vibrations were felt at Pittsburgh, and on the Atlantic shores, and among the white settlers farthest west. N i i 2 X X It drove up-stream the waters of the Mississippi for several hours, by elevating its bed. .NB by g Forests sunk out of sight upon the shores, into deep chasms of the earth many THE PROPHET, ELS-KWAU-TA-WAW. miles long; and lakes, formed INDIAN CHIEF IN COMMAND AT THE BATTLE by these chasms, yet stand as OF TIPPECANOE. monuments of the awful com- motions and violence of the forces beneath the earth's crust. -6opicaf if 1, 0" apOho. CHAPTER XIV.-r8oo-12. 1. Nature and customs of the Indians.-What is common to all barbarians What was peculiar to the Indians What of the ceremony of adoption into their tribes 2. Gallantry and courtship.-Describe these among the Indians How does courtship among them differ from that of the whites What sex make the advances 3. Indian hospitalities.-In what way do they show these What of the host What of the guest 136 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 137 4. Feast or famine.-On what do the Indians depend for meat When the food is abundant how do the savages live How, when the supply is gone Who tilled the fields What did the men do 6. Cunning devices and strategy.-How did they deceive by im- itating sounds How by the tracks of wild animals Relate a device of the Catawbas 6. Indolence and sporting.-How do they indulge these What sports and games have they What of the labors of the squaws What of the endurance of the men 7. Treatment of children.-Are the savages strict with their chil- dren What do they substitute for whipping tow do they confine their infants How does the mother then carry her child How can the child then be placed 8. Religion of the Indians.-What is the nature of their religion IIn what Deity do they believe What is this god called by different tribes What by the Miami tribes What do they believe their future state will be 9. Dances and debauchery.-Of what are Indians fond I-ow do they prepare for a debauch What parties engage in the or- gies How do they paint in their different dances What do ----they chant in their war dances 10. The purchase of Louisiana by France.-When was it made Where How did this affect the Americans How was the excitement allayed From whom did we purchase Louisiana For what price Why was Napoleon anxious to sell 11. Election of Governor.-State who was elected in 1804 Who was elected President What Kentuckian did he appoint in his cabinet When did Breckinridge die 12. Conspiracy of Aaron Burr.- When was this Who was Aaron Burr Where were his headquarters What did he conspire to do How were his designs defeated 18. Henry Clay settles at Lexington.-When At what age When was he born Where What of his parents What was his early life and training What was his first success at Lexington 14. Clay's early promotion.-At what age was he a legislator At what, a United States senator What was his promotion after What of his fame SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 16. Bad feeling between United States and England.-Who was elected President in io8 Who, governor What foreign governments committed outrages on American commerce What was the first act of hostilities 16. Prosperity of Kentucky.-How was it shown in the census of i8io What was the population How divided What per cent. of increase was this 17; Battle of Tippecanoe.-Who commanded in the North-west" What great chiefs led the Indians What decisive battle was fought What was the result What noted Kentuckians were killed 18. The great earthquake.-When was it Where was it central flow far were its vibrations felt How did it affect the Missis- sippi river What were its effects on either shore Are these effects yet visible V: '138 CHAPTER XV.-1812-15. THE WAR OF 18I2-15. 1. Second war with England.-For the second time, Isaac Shelby was elected Governor of the Commonwealth, in I 8I 2, and Martin D. Hardin was made his Secretary of State. The public mind settled on this cherished son of Kentucky for Governor, in view of the now almost certain rupture with England, and consequent war between the two countries. Governor Shelby's age and experience made him wise and discreet in council, and efficient in meeting the military demands of the occasion. Since the war for independence, in which England lost the American colonies, chagrin and resentment seemed to possess the spirit of her people. Her policy toward this country was marked by injustice and insult, to which were gradually added wanton outrages up- on our national rights. From the frontier posts in Canada, her agents yet continued, by secret intrigues and bribes, to incite the savages to war and rapine upon the Western settlers. 2. Outrages on the high seas.-The United States was now, next to England, the greatest maritime power in the world. The contest upon the seas between France and England gave to American ships a safer carriage to and from all ports in the world. By orders in council and de- crees of both Great Britain and France, the ports of these kingdoms and all their provinces were declared in a state of blockade. Any American vessel sailing to or from a port of one of these kingdoms was liable to be captured and made a prize of by the other. These were blockades on paper, and not actually enforced. Under these orders and decrees, one (139) SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. thousand American vessels, trading at French ports, had been seized by armed ships of England, and confiscated, with their cargoes. Many American seamen thus captured had been impressed into the naval service of England. These outrages became intolerable, and war was declared against England in June, 1812. 3. War spirit in Kentucky.-Our government had pru- dently refused to be an ally of France against England, during the revolution and reign of the great Napoleon, in return for the aid of France in our war for independence. Now, events forced another alliance of the two against their old and common enemy. In Kentucky the war was popular, for her people had suffered the greatest of insults and in- juries from her Indian allies and instruments of revenge, and no people had a better reason for intense resentment against the English people and government. The President of the United States called for one hundred thousand militia, while the forces of the regular army were increased. The quota of Kentucky was fifty-five hundred men. Within a few weeks, in answer to the call, seven thousand volunteers were enrolled and organized into ten regiments. 4. Hull's surrender.-A brigade of four regiments, of two thousand men, under command of General John Payne, and Colonels Scott, Lewis, Allen, and Wells, rendezvoused at Cin- cinnati, on their way to join the army of General Hull, who had recently invaded Canada from his base, at Detroit. On crossing the Ohio river, the startling news came of the shameful surrender of General Hull and the army under his command, with the fort at Detroit, to General Brock, in command of a British force little more than one-half his own. The disgrace of this event was felt even more keenly than the disastrous loss. General James Taylor, of Ken- tucky, and other leading officers, indignantly refused to assist in drawing up the terms of surrender. But the war spirit burned even more fiercely than before the surrender. 140 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 5. General Harrison takes command.-General Harrison, in command of the North-west for several years, in the latter part of August, I812, began organizing and drilling a new army, at Fort Washington, to re-occupy the field recently lost by Hull's disaster. Here the Kentuckians joined him. Learning that the Indians had invested Fort Wayne, on the Maumee river, he marched for that post. The Indians raised the siege and dispersed, on his approach. Detachments sent out destroyed the towns and crops of the tribes in reach. Frequent skirmishes and light battles occurred during the autumn months, but without decisive results. The heavy rains now converted the country into swamps and mire, making the march of an army impossible. Though six thousand men were under arms, the plan of capturing Malden had to be postponed. 6. Battle of Frenchtown.- General Winchester was at Maumee Rapids, with fifteen hundred troops; and General Harrison, at Fort Sandusky, with twenty-five hundred. In January, i813, a force of about one thousand British and Indians invested, and threatened to destroy, the settlements around Frenchtown, on the Raisin, some forty miles from Maumee Rapids. Colonels Lewis and Allen were des- patched, with seven hundred men, to that point. The enemy were attacked by these Kentuckians, driven out of Frenchtown, and forced to retreat some two miles before nightfall. This news led General Winchester to march at once to the support of this detachment. Large re-enforce- ments of British and Indlians were sent also from Malden. 7. Massacre at Raisin.-On January 22d, early in the morning, the American troops were fired upon and charged by a body of British regulars, with Indians on the right and left of the attack. The surprise was complete, from the neg- lect of General Winchester to put out his pickets on the night before. His command on the right was overpowered 141 SCHOOL HISTORY O KXNTUCKY. and driven back; while Colonel Lewis, who had guarded his troops against surprise, repulsed the enemy with heavy loss, on the left and center. General Winchester made strenuous efforts to rally his men, but failed. Panic ensued, and the retreat became a rout. Winchester's command being entirely cut off from the left wing, in complete disorder and at the mercy of the Indians, one hundred were butchered within a space of one hundred yards square. This massacre continued wherever the savages could reach and strike a fatal blow. The remaining troops under Majors Graves and Madison, after gallantly fighting to the end of hope, were surrendered to the British commander. The Indians continued their cruel murders for two days after the battle, wherever the prisoners could be reached by them. The American killed and massacred were nearly three hundred men, and six hundred were made prisoners. The British loss was about two hundred killed and wounded: and that of the Indians heavy. 8. Cruelty to prisoners.-The conduct of Colonel Proctor and Major Elliot, in command of the British and Indians, was marked by inhuman treatment and broken faith. Prisoners were murdered under their eyes by the savages, without an effort by these officers in authority to prevent. The living were crowded into small muddy pens, in bleak winter weath- er, without tents or blankets, and with barely fire enough to keep them alive. The British offered to pay the Indians for all the scalps they would bring in. The Indians found that more money would be paid for ransoms of prisoners than for scalps. Hence, their cupidity caused them to spare the tom- ahawk and scalping knife, and to bring in some alive. Proc- tor, learning this, forbade the ransom of any more prisoners. 9. The war spirit in Kentucky.-The troops at Raisin were mainly Kentuckians, and the fatal results of the battle there spread gloom and sorrow throughout the State. This sor- 142 SCHOOL. HISTORY OF KENTVCK;'Y. 143 row was mingled with indignant revenge, when the bloody cruelties of the enemy were recited. On the i6th of Febru- ary, Governor Shelby called for three thousand men. These were organized into four regiments, under Colonels Boswell, Dudley, Cox, and Caldwell, and all placed under the com- mand of General Green Clay. They were marched at once to re-enforce the garrison at Fort Meigs, on the Maumee. Tecumseh having reached Malden with six hundred warri- ors, Colonel Proctor determined to march against Fort Meigs. On the 28th of April, 18I3, the British and Indian allies invested the fort. 10. Dudley's defeat.- Colonel Dudley being sent forward in advance to the relief of Fort Meigs, with eight hundred of General Clay's Kentuckians, was decoyed by the strat- egy and art of the enemy to attack an outpost across the river from the fort. The Indians, feigning defeat, drew Dud- ley's men out of reach of support. They then turned upon them from ambuscade in heavy force. The scenes of Raisin were here re-enacted, and nearly the whole command mas- sacred or made prisoners. Less than two hundred got safe- ly back to the fort. Similar cruelties and butcheries were perpetrated upon prisoners by the savages as at Raisin, and under the eye of Proctor. Tecumseh, the Indian chief, fin- ally came forward and compelled the warriors to desist. General Clay reached the fort with a body of his command by cutting his way through the resisting enemy. 11. The British abandon the siege.-A sortie from the fort on the 5th drove back the enemy with severe loss, and on the night of the 8th of May he abandoned his camp and retreated back to Malden. The loss of the Americans dur- ing the siege was near one thousand; that of the enemy five hundred. In July, Proctor again besieged Fort Meigs, with his combined British and Indian army, but was baffled and defeated in every move, and in a few days withdrew again to Malden. SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 12. Repulse at Fort 9andusky.-On the 2d of August, 1813, thirteen hundred British and Indians, under General Proctor, assaulted Fort Sandusky. Major Croghan, a young Kentuckian of twenty-one years, defended, with a garrison of one hundred and sixty men, and one cannon. The be- siegers were repulsed, and routed with a loss of one hundred and fifty. The loss of the garrison was but eight, killed and wounded. 13. Perry's victory on Lake Erie.-During the year i813, a fleet of ships was being built and equipped at Port Erie, to cope with the British naval force on the lake. Commo- dore Perry was put in command of this fleet, in August. A company of one hundred Kentucky riflemen was put on board, as marines and sharpshooters. The two fleets soon met; the American, composed of three brigs, of forty-three guns; five schooners, of twelve guns, and one sloop, of one gun-total, fifty-six guns. The British fleet, of two ships, of thirty-nine guns; one brig, of ten guns; two schooners, of seventeen guns, and one sloop, of three guns-total, sixty- nine guns. The battle raged fiercely for hours, and the afternoon of the same day, Commodore Perry sent the fol- lowing dispatch to GeneralfHarrison: UNITED STArES BRIG NIAGARA, September Io, i813. Dear General: We have met the enemy, and they are ours-two ships, two brigs, one schooner and a sloop. Yours, OLIVER HAZARD PERRY. 14. Invasion of Canada.-Colonel Richard M. Johnson, on his return from Congress, raised a regiment of twelve hun- dred Kentucky cavalry. They were really mounted infantry, as they were armed with muskets, and taught these evolu- tions in tactics, with the speed of cavalry. They were most efficiently drilled by James Johnson, a brother of the colonel, and second in command. His special art of instruction was 144 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KUENtUCEY. to drill the men and horses to charge through the lines of the enemy, form in their rear, and fire upon them in flank. On the 27th of September, the army embarked on the fleet of Perry, and was landed four miles below Malden, in battle array, to meet General Proctor's army of British and savage allies. Advancing on Malden, the Americans found it but a mass of smoking ruins, the enemy having retreated up the rivers Detroit and Thames. 15. Battle of the Thames.- General Harrison at once pur- sued, and on the morning of the 5th of October he over- took them at a point on the river Thames, near the Mora- KK\) vian town. He at once pre- pared to attack the British K and Indian line of battle. Colonel Richard M. Johnson's OOLONEL RIONHA M. JOHNSON, regiment of mounted infantry TSLAYER OF THE CHIEF TECUMSEH AT THE OATTLE OF THE THAMES. AND VICE- was ordered to lead in the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES AFTERW attack; one-half on the British regulars on the right, and the other half against the Indians on the left, under the celebrated chief, Tecumseh. At the order to charge, the cry was given among the Kentuckians: "Remember Raisin and revengeI" In rallyingechoes, it was repeated along thelines of cavalry: "Re- member Raisin and revenge! " The armed horsemen dashed through the lines of Proctor's regulars, halted in their rear, and turned and delivered a deadly fire into their broken ranks. The British bodily threw down their arms and sur- rendered, General Proctor escaping the avengers by flight on horseback. A like charge upon the left was made by the remaining cavalry, and the Indians defeated with great 10 145 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KUNTUCKY: slaughter, and driven from the field. Here the noted leader, Tecumseh, was slain by a pistol shot, at the hands of Colonel Richard M. Johnson. 16. End of the war in the North-west.-So gallant and so crushing was the charge of Johnson's mounted Kentuckians, that the battle was fought and won before the main lines of infantry could reach and engage in the scene of conflict. The British allied army was utterly destroyed, and the North-west recovered by the Americans. The Kentucky volunteers were discharged late in the autumn, and returned home. 17. Campaign at New Orleans.-Early in 1814, the suc- cesses of the powerful allied armies temporarily effected the downfall of Napoleon in Europe, and ended the strife be- tween England and her old enemy. The British forces, military and naval, were now free to be sent against Amer- ica. A large armament of ships of war, and thirteen thousand veteran troops, sailed for the Gulf of Mexico in September, I814, to engage in an attempt to capture New Orleans, and to occupy the south Mississippi country. Twenty-five hun- dred of the detached militia troops of Kentucky were ordered to join the recruits from Georgia and Tennessee, to re-enforce the army of General Jackson, for the defense of New Orleans. In one month after, these troops were embarked in flats, and descending the Mississippi. 18. Defenses of New Orleans.-General Jackson had just removed his headquarters from Mobile to New Orleans, and was rapidly concentrating all his troops there. He began the most active preparations for defense about the ist of De- cember, and continued them through that month. On the 12th of December, the fleet of the enemy made its appear- ance in the Gulf, and anchored at Ship Island, off the bay of St. Louis, to the number of forty sail. Their armed ships were engaged by five American gun-vessels, under command 146 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. of Lieutenant Jones, in an action of two hours. Several of the British vessels were sunk, and three hundred of the crews killed and wounded; but the superior force of the enemy finally overpowered and captured the little American fleet, on which the loss of life was smaller. 19. Defenses continued.-After this advantage, the enemy approached, in light vessels, nearer to the city, through the passes of Lake Borgne and Bayou Bienvenue. Here Gen- eral Jackson attacked them in force on the 23d of December, and a sharp and bloody engagement took place. A heavy fog and darkness falling upon the armies in the midst of battle, ended the contest without decisive results. The British loss was nearly seven hundred; that of the Ameri- cans less than three hundred. General Jackson now deter- mined to fortify his position, act on the defensive, and force the enemy to attack. On the 28th Sir Edward Packenham, the British commander, made a furious demonstration upon the American works, and finally drew off without a general -assault, but with some loss. This demonstration was re- peated on the ist day of January. During the following week General Jackson completed his defenses. 20. Battle of New Orleans.-The Kentucky troops, under the command of General Adair, were placed in line with the troops of Tennessee and others, behind the main breast- works, except two hundred, who were detailed to re-enforce the defenses on the opposite side of the river. At the dawn of day, on the morning of the 8th of January, I815, the glit- tering lines of the enemy were seen in full force and array, advancing to the assault, and to the final issue of the cam- paign. With crowded center, and wide extended right and left wings, the veteran soldiers of England, with their vet- eran leaders, who had so successfully fought Napoleon, bravely and with steady tread advanced upon the covert and silent riflewen of Tennessee, Kentucky, and other por- 147 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. tions of the West. They approached within easy range, when a storm of fire from the American artillery, and a sheet of flame from the rifles of the backwoodsmen swept down the columns of the enemy, and drove them back in dis- order. Again their officers rallied, and led them up to the slaughter, and again they were rppulsed. A third time 'this was repeated, and with such disastrous results that even the veteran soldiers of England could not again b-, led to the charge. Generals Packenhanm, Keene, and Gibbs, in highest command, had fallen upon the -eld, with tventy-two hundred others, officers and men, of the British army. The American loss here was but thirteen men. On the opposite side of the Mis- 'THE CELEATE FTHE AWAN sissippi were about one thousand OSI dLEBJRATED cHIEF OP H SAA INDIANS: KILLEO AT THE BATTLE OF THE men of the forces of Jackson. THAMES BY COLO-EL WICHAMO M. JOHNSON These were driven from their position with some loss, but the great battle was already decided by the general conflict between the two armies. 21. End of the second war with England.-At the final en- gagement at New Orleans, the English army was estimated at thirteen thousand men; that of General Jackson was composed of about eight thousand. So broken and shat- tered were the British forces, that the commanding officers withdrew and made good their retreat, and soon after em- barked upon their fleet. It is a notable fact that a treaty of peace, between the English and American governments, had been signed before the 8th of January, the date of this battle; but intelligence of the fact was months in reaching the belligerents. Could it 1have been 1lashed over the eletic 148 SCHOOL HISTORY OP XENTUCKY. wires, or swiftly brought across the ocean by steamship, all the terrible carnage and destruction of the occasion would have been prevented. Peace being restored again everywhere, the Kentucky troops returned to their homes and families, to enjoy a long interval of over thirty years before another war. CHAPTER XV.-I8i2-r5. 1. Second war with England.-Who was elected Governor in i812 Why was he chosen then With what country was war threatened 2. Outrages on the high seas.-From what nations did these occur What acts of these countries caused injury and insult What of the blockades by England and France What did the United States finally do 3. War spirit in Kentucky.-What nation became our ally again What was the war sentiment in Kentucky How many troops were called for What was the quota for Kentucky 4. Hull's surrender.-Who commanded the Kentucky volunteers Where did they rendezvous What news came to them at Cincinnati What was the feeling over Hull's conduct What did General Taylor refuse to do 6. General Harrison takes command.-What point did he march on from Cincinnati What checked the campaign What were the results of it How many men had Harrison under him 6. Battle of Frenchtown.-Who was in chief command at Mau- mee When did the British march on Frenchtown Who led in the battle there With what result What did General Winchester then do What troops came from Malden 7. Massacre at Raisin. -Who attacked General Winchester here How was he surprised What of Colonel Lewis in command What was the result of the attack on Winchester What was the result to his army How were the prisoners treated 149 SCHOOL MISTORY OF KBENTUCKY. 8. Cruelty to prisoners.-What of the conduct of Proctor and Elliott How did they treat the prisoners Who offered re- wards for American scalps Why did Proctor forbid the In- dians bringing in prisoners 9. The war spirit in Kentucky.-What feeling did the disaster at Raison produce in Kentucky What did Governor Shelby do Who commanded these Kentucky troops Where were they at once marched Who invested Fort Meigs 10. Dudley's defeat.-Where did it occur How was Dudley de- coyed by the enemy What disaster followed Who stopped the savage butcheries What did General Clay do 11. The British abandon the siege.-What caused this retreat To what place did the British retire How many Americans were lost at Fort Meigs How many of the British and their allies What of the second siege of Fort Meigs 12. Repulse at Fort Sandusky.-By whom was it attacked When Who defended the fort What were the results 13. Perry's victory on Lake Erie.-What force did Perry command Where were the ships built How many Kentucky riflemen were on board How many vessels and guns had Perry How many had the British What dispatch did Perry send to Harri- son 14. Invasion into Canada.-What troops did Colonel Johnson raise Who drilled them What was their efficiency Where did Perry's fleet land Harrison's army When What had Proc- tor done at Maldon 16. Battle of the Thames.-Whither did Harrison follow the enemy When did he overtake him What battle was fought What was the result What was the battle cry What became of Proctor What great Indian chief was killed By whom 16. End of the war in the North-west.-What became of the Brit- ish and Indian army What, of the Kentucky volunteers 1- Campaign at New Orleans.-What British troops were sent out What naval force came with them How many Ken- tucky troops were sent to join Jackson's army 18. Defense of New Orleans.-What had General Jackson just done When did he begin active defense Where did the British leet appear When How many vessels composed it What naval fight occurred What were the results 150 SCHOOL, HISTORY OF KN1TUCKY. I51 19. Defenses continued.-How did the enemy next approach When did a second battle occur What stopped the fighting Who commanded the British army 20. Battle of New Orleans.-Who commanded the Kentuckians Where was the main body placed On what day was the battle fought Who made the attack How often were the British repulsed What British commanders fell on the field What was the loss of the British What of the Americans 21. End of the second war with England.- -What were the relative numbers of the two armies at New Orleans What did the Eng- lish army do What treaty had been signed before this battle How long was the news coming What would a knowledge of this treaty have done PERIOD FIFTH-i8i6-i86o. FROM THE CLOSE OF THE SECOND WAR WITH ENGLAND, TO THE BEGINNING OF THE GREAT WAR OVER THE ISSUES OF SLAVERY AND STATE RIGHTS. CHAPTER XVI.-1810-1846. PEACCI'UL, POLITICAL, AND CIVIL EVENTS-PRESIDENTIAL AND STATE: ELECTIONS-FINANCE AND COMMERCE- INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS, ETC. 1. Thirty years of peace.-Kentucky had her trials and triumphs through successive wars for forty years, until I815. We are now introduced to an era of peace, and of political and material progress of thirty years' continuance, to the war with Mexico. Political, social, religious, and commer- cial questions now make up the events of history, in the main. Our Commonwealth had already produced her share of the great and useful inventors of note in industrial his- tory. ' Of these were John Fitch, who, in 1786, first success- fully applied steam as a motor to passenger boats; James Rumsey, who, the same year, propelled a boat on the Poto- mac with steam; Edward West, who, in I794, constructed and propelled, by steam, a model boat on Elkhorn, and who first invented the nail-cutting machine; Thomas H. Barlow, the inventor of the wonderful planetarium, imitating the precise movements of the planets; and William Kelley, who recently died a resident of Louisville, had discovered in 1846, the "Bessemer process for converting pig-iron into steel," which is now of world-wide fame and use. (152) SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 2. The Chiekasaw purchase.-In T8i6, George Madison was elected Governor, and Gabriel Slaughter,Lieutenant- governor, of the State. The former dying, the latter suc- ceeded to his vacancy. The Chickasaw Indians yet owned the territory west of Tennessee river, in both Kentucky and Tennessee, a body of seven million acres of fertile lands. In October, i8i8, the general government purchased the title of the Indians for twenty thousand dollars, to be paid in fif- teen annual installments. The portion that fell to Kentucky now embraces the counties of McCracken, Marshall, Hick- man, Ballard, Carlisle, Fulton, Graves, and Calloway, a section yet designated as " The Purchase." It was not until 1821, that the boundary line between Kentucky and Tenn- essee was settled. 3. First banking experiments.-The first bank of Ken- tucky was now in good credit. The long wars in Europe, and between England and America, had disturbed all rela- tions of finance and commerce. The sudden return of peace reversed the channels of trade and industry, as well as the uses and methods of finance. Bankruptcy, on an enormous scale, followed over the civilized world. The crisis was made worse in Kentucky by the charter of additional banks, with a total capital of ten millions. In a few months the State was flooded with their doubtful paper. Speculation sprang up, loans were rashly made, and bubbles of enter- prise set afloat in every direction. The crash suddenly came, and spread panic and ruin throughout the homes of Kentucky. 4. "1 Relief " and ",Anti-Relief" issues.-Now the pressure of insolvency was felt everywhere, and the Legislature of i819-20 extended the power to replevy for twelve months. The ilext summer a cry for further relief became overwhelm- ing. Governor Adair and the Legislature, elected in I820, were pledged to give the people more money, in answer to I5,1 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. this cry. In i820, the Bank of the Commonwealth was chartered. Specie not being obtainable, its paper was made redeemable in certain public lands, and receivable for public debts and taxes. The private creditor must receive it on tender or be replevied for two years. The paper depreciated one-half. Great was the outcry of creditors and capitalists. Greater was the distress of debtors. The measure for relief was the best that could be devised in the absence of a bankrupt law. The Federal courts had obstructed the operations of the State laws. Citizens were divested of their estates, and debtors suffered extremely for misfortunes, and not for crimes; being even placed within prison bounds. The Relief and Anti-Relief parties formed on the issue. The power to enact such a law being questioned, Judges Boyle, Owsley, and Mills decided it unconstitutional, as it interfered with the rights of contracts. 5. The Old Court and New Court contest.-An outcry of popular resistance was raised against this decision of the court. In i824, Joseph Desha and the Legislature were elected by the Relief party on pledges to abolish the court, and annul its decisions. The Legislature had a bare Relief majority, not enough to impeach the judges. It, therefore, repealed the law organizing the existing Appellate Court, and then passed an act organizing the court anew. Judges Barry, Trimble, Haggin, and Davidge were appointed the new Court of Appeals. The Old Court refused to regard the act of the Legislature as constitutional, and continued to sit. Frequent cases came up before these opposing tribunals, and the excitement between the parties grew more violent daily. In i826, an Anti-Relief Legislature was elected, which, on assembling, repealed the act creating the New Court, and left the Old Court in full jurisdiction again, thus ending the itrife. 154 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 6. Increase of population.-The census of i820 reported the population of Kentucky at five hundred and sixty-four thousand three hundred and seventeen, an increase of more than thirty-six per cent. over that of the former decade. This ranked Kentucky as the sixth State in the Union, as to population. The messages of Governors, and their records of the time, point almost uniformly to propitious seasons and abundant harvests, which rewarded the tillers of the soil, and gave general prosperity. 7. Other industries of Kentucky.-In I820, and after, many steamboats, owned by citizens of the State, navigated the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, fteighted with commerce, for the markets of the world. At this time there were some sixty factories in busy employ at Lexington, and as many at Louisville. Over two millions of dollars of capital were invested in each city in these factories, a large sum for that day. These cities were then industrial centers, and had an ascendancy west of the mountains for many years, but which has not been entirely maintained. 8. Federal and State jurisdictions.-Governor Joseph De- sha, in his message in i824, called attention to dangerous Federal innovations upon the rights of the State. Branches of the United States Bank were established within the Com- monwealth, and, when the Legislature imposed taxes on their property, the Federal courts issued their orders and re- strained the collection of the taxes. These banks had acquired property and power in the State, and yet were exempt from bearing their portion of the burdens of government. Gov- ernor Desha regretted that the late Court of Appeals of Ken- tucky had succumbed to this innovation. These banks contended that the State laws were not binding on the Fed- eral courts, and could affect no contract that could be sued on at these tribunals. The power thus assumed, the Gov- ernor viewed as little short of despotism. He further corn- 155 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KnNTUCKY. plained that the occupant laws and other State acts had been disregarded by the Federal courts sitting at Frankfort, and much distress brought upon citizens by their rulings. 9. National politics in Kentucky.-In z824, John Quincy Adams was elected President over General Jackson, by the votes of Henry Clay and his friends. This gave great um- brage to the friends of , Jackson in the West, and brought about an , intense excitement be- , , tween the two great Na- m tional parties. In x828, Jackson and Adams lwereagain the nominees GOVO Jof their respective " parties, for President. elee PMr. Clay supported Ad- amso and the party feel- ing in Kentucky was bitterly inflamed. In spite of Clay's influ- ence, Kentucky gave GOVRNOoJOEPHDESHn eight thousand majority AN ELARLY EXPONENT AND DEFNDER Of STATES SIGHTS 1 h NEA fTHE WAR OF 512. for J ackson,wh was elected President. In 1832, Mr. Clay was selected by the National Republican party as its candidate for President. General Jackson was again nominated by the Democrats, in opposition. After a national campaign of intense partisan crimination and bad feeling on both sides, Jackson was re- elected President, though Kentucky gave to her favorite son a handsome majority. 10. The three orators of Kentucky.-Though Henry Clay was conceded the most gifted orator of Kentucky, and, in- deed, of his era, yet there appeared upon Vie arena of the 156 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KITNUCKY. Commonwealth, in the decade of i830-4o, two persons whose genius, learning, and eloquence promised to rival the forensic powers of the Great Commoner. Thomas F. Mar- shall, of vast and varied learning, and rarely gifted with satire, logic, and eloquence, was one of these rivals. But habits of intemperance overcame him, and his life became obscured under the somber clouds of dissipation, and ended in lamentable death. Richard H. Menifee, of Bath county, was the other. He was called the young Patrick Henry of the West, on account of the fervor, passion, and magnetic power of his eloquence. Born and reared in poverty, by patient toil and laudable ambition he laid the foundation of fame and success in the early years of manhood, but death ended the career of this brilliant genius at the early age of iAn.D Ah Sta.n6 thirty-two. THIRTY-TWO w opAi OF AGE. 11. Internal improvements begun.-In 1830, were begun the first important internal improvements in the State. With aid from the State Treasury, the Maysville, Paris, and Lex. ington turnpike was built. With similar aid, several hun- dred miles more of macadamized roads were built, connect- ing Lexington, Danville, Louisville, Bardstown, Glasgow, Bowling Green, and other points in the State. Tn i833, began the important work of placing locks and dams in Green and Barren and Kentucky rivers. The State after- ward also aided in building the railroads connecting Louis- ville and Lexington. In all her internal improvements, the Comnmonwealtrlrexpended a total of seven millions of dollars 157 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. from I830 to 1845. The first railroad in Kentucky was built in i831-1835 from Lexington to Frankfort. 12. Early religion in Kentucky.-The Baptist church may justly claim to have been among the first whose pioneer min- isters ventured to Kentucky to preach the Gospel. In 1776, we have the first mention of Revs. Peter Tinsley and William Hickman. In I779, they were followed by Revs. John Taylor, Joseph Reding, Lewis Lunsford, and afterward by Revs. Lewis Craig, John Gano, Ambrose Dudley, and others. In 1785, this religious order organized three associations-Elk- horn, Salem, and South Kentucky. In I790, these reported a total of forty-two churches, and thirty-one hundred and five members. 13. Pioneer Roman Catholics.-From Maryland, mainly, there came to Kentucky several colonies of Roman Catho- lics. In the lead of these were Doctor Hart and William Coomes, who came early in 1775, tarried some weeks at Drennon Springs, and then removed to Harrod's station. Doctor Hart was the first physician, and Mrs. Coomes the first school-teacher, at Harrodstown, and perhaps in Ken- tucky. They afterward removed to Bardstown. Other colo- nies settled on Pottinger's creek, on Rolling Fork, and on Cox's creek, Nelson county. These were led by Messrs. Hayden, Lancaster, Spalding, Abel, Hill, and Miles. From these first settlements, the Catholic membership and churches have extended in many counties of the State, and especially in the cities. 14. Earliest Methodist ministers.-The Methodist Episco- pal church was itself in the pioneer stage of its great work and organization, in Kentucky, in 1783-6. Rev. James Harr and Benjamin Ogden were the first regular itinerant preach- ers who represented this church in Kentucky. Yet history makes casual mention of the coming of other ministers with- CQlt the appointment of coufiegren. Among these were Rev. I158 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Francis Clark and John Durham. In 1788, the Lexing- ton and Danville circuits were formed, and within these Revs. Poythress, Williamson, Massey, Snelling, Lee, and others preached with great ardor and success. At the close of the year 1788, the membership had increased to eight hundred and sixty-three. In o79o, Bishop Asbury visited Kentucky, accompanied by others, and the labors of these gave great impetus to the cause. The zeal and self-sacrificing labors of its ministry have made of this religious body one of the largest and most powerful in the State. 15. The Presbyterian church.-It was represented in early days. Rev. David Rice, an immigrant in 1783, may justly be named as the pioneer founder and promoter of this church in Kentucky. He organized the first congregations at Dan- ville, Cane Run, and the Forks of Dix river. Mr. Rice was followed by able associates in the ministry, among whom were Revs. Rankin, Crawford, Craighead, McClure, Templin, Campbell, Blythe, Cameron, and others. As early as 1786, the Presbytery of Transylvania, composed of twelve congre- gations, met in the court-house at Danville. The ministers of this church, from those early days to the present, have been noted for their learning and culture, and this has given great prominence and power to this religious body. 16. The Disciples church.-The first movement in Ken- tucky which gathered the elements and prepared the way for the establishment of the Disciples church in the Com- monwealth was begun about the year i8oo, by the preach- ing of Barton W. Stone and a few associates. Afterward, the preaching and writings of Alexander Campbell made many converts in Kentucky. In many essential points the doctrinal views of Stone and Campbell were found to agree. In I832, a union between the two bodies was effected by a conference of leading ministers. Since this union, the min- isters of the Disciples church have preached and labored 159 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. with great success; and now, the body ranks among the most numerous and influential in the State. 17. The Cumberland Presbyterian.-This church came of an independent movement within the Presbyterian church on the part of a number of ministers, who desired to release themselves from the discipline and restrictions of the synod. This movement was led by Revs. Samuel McAdoo, Finis Ewing, and Samuel King, who constituted a new and inde- pendent Presbytery on February 4, i8io, in the vicinity of Little Muddy, Gasper, and Red rivers, near the Tennessee State line. In Kentucky, this church has seven presby- teries under one synod, and fifteen thousand members. 18. Kentucky politics and flnance.i-In 1836 James Clark succeeded John Breathitt, as Governor of Kentucky; Charles A. Wickliffe succeeded James T. Morehead, as Lieutenant- governor, and James M. Bullock succeeded Lewis Sanders as Secretary of State. Clark dying in 1839, Wickliffe be- came Governor. From 1838 to i842, the country underwent a monetary panic which overwhelmed the people with finan- cial distress, greater even than that twenty years before. Depression and depreciation of values spread bankruptcy and ruin in every section. 19. National and State elections.-In 1840, General Harri- son, the commander of the North-west in the war of i8I2-15, was elected Pr'esident over Van Buren. This was known as the "Hard Cider" campaign, and was conducted with great ardor and enthusiasm. Kentucky gave to Harrison a majority of twenty-five thousand eight hundred and sev- enty-three, although a favorite son, Colonel Richard M. Johnson, was the Democratic candidate for Vice-president. Robert P. Letcher was this year made Governor; Manlius V. Thomson, Lieutenant-governor, and James Harlan, See- retary of State, it60 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 20. Henry Clay again a candidate for President.-In I844, the Whig party nominated Mr. Clay for the Piesidency. James K. Polk, of Tennessee, was nominated by the Demo- cratic party, in opposition. The American people were, at this time, greatly ex- cited over the question of the annexation of Texas, which had de- clared her independ- ence of Mexico, and asked admission as a State into the Union. Mexico still claimed Texas as her province, and threatened war if the United States re- ceived her into the Union. Mr. Clay was opposed to annexation, and Mr. Polk in favor of it. Mr. Polk was elected President uponHERCLY this issue, and Mr. Clay never again sought the office of the Chief Magistracy of the nation. CHAPTER XVI. I. Thirty years of peace.-How long was the first war period of Kentucky How long an era of peace followed What make up the history of this era What of Kentucky inventors - What of John Fitch Of James Rtumsey Of West Of Bar- low Of Kelly 11 x6ii SCHOOL HISTORY OF KUNTUCKY. 2. The Chickasaw purchase.-Who was elected Governor in i8I6 Who succeeded him What of the Chickasaw Indians Who purchased their lands When What portion fell to Ken- tucky What was this section called When was the boun- darv between Kentucky and Tennessee settled 3. First banking experiments.-What of the Bank of Kentucky What of the financial state of the country What caused gen- eral bankruptcy What did Kentuckydo What effect had the many banks throughout Kentucky 4. Relief and Anti-Relief issues.-What was done by the next Legislature What was the cry of the people for Whom did the Relief party elect What did the Legislature of 1820-21 do What was the result this act What two parties formed on this issue Who were the Judges of the Supreme court at this time How did these Appellate Judges decide this law 6. The Old Court and New Court contest.-How was the ruling of the court received What party succeeded in the next election How did the Legislature try to abolish the court Who were appointed a new Appellate Court What did the Old Court do What were the results What court prevailed finally 8. Increase of populationL-What was the population of Kentucky in i820 How did it rank with the other States What of her prosperity then 7. Other industries of Kentucky.-What new agent of commerce appeared What of the industries at Lexington At Louis- ville What of these cities then, and now 8. Federal and State jurisdictions.-What contest arose over these What of Governor -Desha's warning What did the Federal Courts assume What did the State Cuart concede What did the banks claim What of the occupant and other State laws 9. National politics in Kentucky.-Who was elected President in 1824 Who defeated How did this affect the West Who were candidates again in 1828 Who was elected Whom did Mr. Clay support Who were candidates in 1832 Who was elected 10. The three orators of Kentucky.-Who was the first Who was the second named Who was the third named Describe the qualities of each. i62 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KBNTUCKY. 11. Internal improvements begun.-At what period What was the first to receive State aid What next What rivers were improved What railroads How much did the State expend in fifteen years on these works When was the first railroad begun and completed in Kentucky 12. Early religion ini Kentucky.-What church was first among the pioneers Who were the first pioneer Baptist preachers When were their first Associations organized What were their statistics in 1790 18. Pioneer Roman Catholics.-Who came from Maryland Who led the first colonists Where did they locate What of Doc- tor Hart What of Mr. and Mrs. Coomes Where did other Catholic colonists settle Who were their leaders 14. Earliest Methodist ministers.-What of the Methodist church at this time Who were its first ministers in Kentucky What circuits were formed in I788 Who preached in themr What Bishop came out in 1790p What numbers had they then 15. The Presbyterian church.-What of David Rice, its pioneer minister Where did he plant the first churches Who fol- fowed him in this ministry What of the Presbytery in I786 What of the Presbyterian ministers 16. The Disciples church.'-Who first preached its doctrines in Kentucky In what year did they begin What of the ministry of Alexander Campbell -in this church When was a union effected between the Christian church and the church of Disci- ples What of this religious movement since 17. The Cumberland Presbyterian church.-From what did this body spring Who were its leaders When was it first organ- ized At what points What numbers in Kentucky 18. Kentucky politics and finance.-What State officers were elected in 1836 What disaster came upon the people in i838-42 19. National and State elections.-Who was elected President in i840 Who Governor What was the campaign called 20. Henry Clay again a candidate.-Who were candidates for President in I844 Who was elected What was the exciting question of the campaign What did Mexico threaten What was Mr. Clay's position on annexation i63 CHAPTER XVII.-I846-5o. THn WAR WIT I MEXICO-ITS CAUSES AND RESLTS. 1. Agitation of the slavery question.-In the decade from z840 to i850, the agitation of the slavery question became more violent than ever before. The Abolitionists, avowing a law of conscience higher than the civil laws, had grown to be an organized and active minority. They declared an unqualified war upon slavery in the Southern States; and by the use of money and of systematic agencies, they boldly, but secretly, entered the territory of the Southern States, and induced and aided many slaves to escape from their masters. These were piloted by certain routes and over secret ferries, across the Ohio ri-Ver, to the North. These routes of flight and refuge were termed " The Underground .Railway." The Republicans composed the law-abiding element of the anti-slavery party. They organized into a third national party, and opposed the extension of slavery beyond the boundaries of the States in which it already existed; and insisted that every new State admitted into the Union should be, in future, free soil. 2. Agitation in Kentucky.-There were many citizens of Kentucky dissatisfied with slavery. Cassius M. Clay was the bold and avowed leader of this anti-slavery sentiment. In June, i845, he published, at Lexington, a paper entitled the True American, which he edited with a boldness, reck- less of results. The sentiment and interests of the citizens were too powerful to tolerate such a dangerous instrument of disturbance in their midst. In August following, a corn mittee of sixty citizens was appointed, after formal open notice to Mr. Clay to cease the publication of a journal at (i64) SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. war with the peace and safety of society, to take possession of the press and printing apparatus, pack them up, and send them across the Ohio river. This was done, and a commit- tee of sixty were tried on a charge of riot, and a verdict rendered of "NzVot guily ! " 3. A war cloud appears.-Texas, in i844-5, was seeking admission into the Union against the protest of Mexico, who had not yet conceded her independence. All parties knew that Texas would come in as a slave State, if at all. The Democratic party almost solidly favored her admission, and some Whigs joined that party, in sympathy. The national election, of I 844, decided to admit Texas, at the risk of war. Mexico soon after declared war against the United States. Preparations were promptly made for the American army to invade the territory of Mexico, and General Zachary Taylor, a native of Kentucky, placed in chief command. The troops were landed at Corpus Christi, on the Texas coast. 4. Invasion of Mexico.-In March, i846, General Taylor led his command to Fort Brown, on the Rio Grande, oppo- site Matamoras. Early in May, he marched with two thou- sand three hundred men to open communication with Point Isabel, and was met at Palo Alto, on the 8th, by a force of six thousand Mexicans. A fierce battle ensued, in which the Mexicans lost six hundred killed and wounded, and the Americans forty-one. The -Mexicans fell back to Resaca de la Palma. Being re-enforced here by two thousand menj they were placed in line of battle to await the advance of General Taylor. A second fight of more stubbornness and carnage ensued. The American loss was one hundred and ten; that of the enemy over one thousand. On the i8th of May, the Mexican garrison abandoned Matamoras without resistance. 5. Kentucky volunteers.-Kentucky was called upon for twenty-four hundred volunteers to re-enforce General Tay- 165 SCHOOL HISTORY OF RtNTUCKY. lor's army. Ten thousand citizen-militia eagerly volun- teered. The first regiment received was the Louisville Legion, commanded by Colonel Ormsby. The second regi- ment of infantry, commanded by W. R. McKee, Colonel; Henry Clay, Jr., Lieutenant-colonel, and Cary H. Fry, Ma- jor; and a regiment of cavalry, Humphrey Marshall, Colo- nel; E. H. Field, Lieutenant-colonel, and John C. Gaines, Major, were next enrolled. Another company, under Cap- Z tain John S. Williams, was Mifinally accepted. These filled the quota of Kentucky. 6. (Ycapture of Monterey.- General Taylor followed the retreating Mexicans to the strongly fortified city of Monterey, which he invested with his army. In Septem- ber an assault was made, and the works of the enemy carried by sctor him. The n American loss was five hun- dred in killed and wounded ; that of the enemy much GENERAL ZACtaARY TAYl. greater, besides the sunrrn- 6E1ERAL IN THE WAM WITH MEXICO. AND ELECTED der of their army and all IREIETO THE UNITED STATES IN1840 A WITIEN OF .IFFENFON COUNTY. their military supplies in the KENTUCKY. FROM 3785 UN- UTIL HE ENTERIED THE city. Leaving a garrison at ARMY. Monterey, General Taylor advanced to Saltillo, while the Mexicans fell back upon San Luis Potosi. General Santa Anna was actively preparing an army of twenty thousand men, to march upon General Taylor and crush him with numbers. 7. Battle of Buena Vista.--General Taylor, advised of the approach of Santa Anna, led his army forward to a narrow 3166 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. pass in the mountains, called Buena Vista, and placed him- self in position to deliver battle there. On the 22d of Feb- ruary, the army of Santa Anna, twenty thousand strong, was reported advancing, in sight. After some skirmish fighting, late in the evening, the soldiers of both armies rested in battle array, until the morning of the 23d. The fighting began early and fiercely, and throughout the day it raged, the promise of victory sometimes being to one side, and sometimes to the other. Late in the afternoon, the Mexican forces, being baffled and beaten back in their as- saults, retired to their lines at nightfall. At daylight next morning, their camps w e re found deserted, and General Santa Anna in full retreat toward the capital. The American forces en- gaged in the battle were for- ty-eight hundred officers and men, of whom se-en hun- dred and fifty were killed and' wounded. The Mexican forces numbered fully twenty thousand m e n, o f w h o m GENERAL HUMPHREY MARSHALL. twenty-one hundred were killed and wounded. 8. Conquest of Mexico.-An army of ten thousand men, well equipped, under chief command of General Winfield Scott, was landed at Vera Cruz, on the coast of the Gulf, with orders to march to the City of Mexico. The company of Captain Williams' Kentucky volunteers was accepted in this command, and gallantly fought its way to the end. The sieges and captures of Cerro Gordo, of Contreras and Cheru- busco; the storming of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec; 167 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KXNTUCKY. the successful assaults upon San Cosme and Belon Gates, and the victorious entrance into the proud City of Mexico, followed each other in orderly succession. A peace was thus conquered within less than two years from the date of the declaration of war. 9. Treaty of peace.-Commissioners from the two govern- ments met at Guadalupe Hidalgo, in Mexico, and agreed upon terms of treaty and peace. The Rio Grande river was conceded as the boundary between Texas and Mexico. For the cession of all that part of Mexican territory lying north of a line from El Paso, due west, to the Pacific ocean, the United States agreed to pay Mexico fifteen million dollars. Thus we acquired, by the conquest and purchase, the coun- tries of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah and Colorado-in area, a mighty empire of itself, the im- portance of which we can not estimate. The mineral wealth, the agricultural and live-stock products, and other resources of these States and Territories, affect the markets of the world. 10. Politics in 1848.-So much a favorite had General Taylor become with the people, that he was nominated and elected President of the United States by the Whig party, in 1848. Dying July 9, I850, he was succeeded by Millard Fillmore, Vice-president. In the same year, 1848, John J. Crittenden and John L. Helm were elected Governor and Lieutenant-governor of Kentucky, upon the Whig ticket. At the same election, the poll for calling a convention to change the constitution of Kentucky, resulted in a large majority in favor of so doing. The election for delegates to this convention was held in 1849, and, on October first of that year, the members chosen met at Frankfort and drafted a form of constitution, to be submitted to a vote of the people for adoption. It was adopted in 1850, and is, at this date, the constitution of the State. Y68 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 11. Changes by the new constitution.-Hitherto all judges and county officials were appointed by the Governor, or some other authority. Nowv they were made elective. On May I2, x851, James Simpson, Thomas A. Marshall, B. Mills Cren- shaw and Elijah Hise were elected judges, and Philip Swigert, Clerk of the Court of Appeals. Twelve circuit judges, twelve Commonwealth's attorneys, and, in each county, a county judge, clerk, attorney, sheriff, jailer, assessor, coroner, surveyor, justices of the peace, and constables were, under the provi- sions of this instrument, THOMAS F. MARSHALL. elected by the people. OtOF KE.TUOKY'S GREAT ORATOOMU CHAPTER XVII.-1S46-.5o. 1.Agitation of the slavery question.-What of its temper at this period What did the Abolitionists do In what way did they aid fugitive slaves What of the Republican party What did it demand 2. Agitation in Kentucky.-What anti-slavery paper was pub- lished in Kentucky Who published it What did the citi- zens of Lexington do What was the result of their trial 8. A war-cloud appears.-What country threatened war For what cause What party favored the annexation of Texas i69 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Who was elected Did our government admit Texas to the Union What did Mexico then do Who led the army of invasion against Mexico Where did the army rendezvous 4. Invasion of Xexico.-To what point did General Taylor march When Where was the first battle fought What was the re- sult Where, the second battle When What was the re- sult When did the Mexican army retreat from Matamoras 6. Kentucky volunteers.-For how many was Kentucky called upon What regiment was first received Who commanded it What was the second Who commanded it What the third Who were its chief officers What separate company was received 6. Capture of Monterey.-To what place did the Mexican army retreat What did General Taylor then do What were the losses on each side To what place did Taylor next march Upon what place did the Mexicans fall back What was Santa Anna doing 7. Battle of Buena Vista.-What place did General Taylor select for battle When did the Mexican army attack him What was the result of the fighting at Buena Vista How many men had General Taylor How many Americans were killed and wounded How many Mexicans 8. Conquest of Xezico.-Who led the second army of invasion into Mexico At what point was it landed How many men composed it What sieges and battles occurred on the march to the City of Mexico What befell the Mexican capital 9. Treaty of peace-Who negotiated this Where did they meet What was made the boundary line of Texas What territory did the United States purchase from Mexico 10. Politics in 1848.-Who was elected President in i848 By what party When did Taylor die Who became President on the death of Taylor Who were elected chief officers of Kentucky When did the people vote to call a constitutional convention When did this convention meet Was a new constitution adopted When did it take effect 11. Changes by the now constitution.-What important change was made in the judiciary What in county officers When were these officials first elected by the people Who were elected to the Appellate bench What other officers were elected at that time rI70 CHAPTER XVIII.-I850o- FOiM THE CLOSE OF THE MEXICAN WAR TO THE BEGINNING OF THE GREAT SECTIONAL WAR. 1. The irrepressible conflict.-The slavery agitation was intensified in Kentucky, under the new constitution. The provisions therein, intended to prevent all anti-slavery en- croachments, did not repress opposing sen- timent and discussion. In I 85, an emancipa- tion ticket, of Cassius Mv. Clay for Governor, and George M. Blakey for Lieutenant-gover- nor, received three thousand six hundred and twenty-one votes. Lazarus W. Powell and John B. Thomp- son were elected over these, and also over the regular nominees, Archy Dixon and Robert M. Wickliffe. CAMsUS M. OLA. In 1o52, rzau.iiu THE CHAMPIO ADVOCATE APID LIADEN IN ICEITUCICY. Pierce, Democrat, was elected President over Winfield Scott, Whig. The relations of the political parties, national and State remained the same until about '1854--56. (171) SCHOOt HISTORV OP RUNtTCRY. 2. The Know Nothing party.-In 1854, a very singular phase was given to the politics of the country by the organ- ization of a secret party, based upon the prejudice of native- born citizens against foreigners and Roman Catholics. This outbreak of feeling swept over the country like a wave of fire, and involved Kentucky politics and parties in its agita- tion. In August, I855, Charles S. Morehead, the Know Nothing or American party candidate, was elected Governor over Beverly L. Clark, Democrat; and James G. Hardy over Beriah Magoffin, for Lieutenant -governor. So intensely bitter were the feelings of animosity aroused even in Ken- tucky. between the contending parties, that a terrible riot broke out in Louisville on the day of the election, which, for the violence of the mob spirit and the bloody results, caused that day to be known in our history as "Bloody Monday." Fearful scenes were enacted, mainly in the first and eighth wards. Houses were fired and burned, and shots and vol- leys were exchanged between combatants. Twenty-two persons were killed and many wounded during the day. The phenomenal party met a Waterloo defeat in Virginia, from which it never recovered. It lived over a year, when its organization was broken up, and it ceased to be known in the politics of the country thereafter. 3. Death of Henry Clay.-On June 29, i852, while a mem- ber of the Senate of the United States, Henry Clay sank under the ravages of disease and the burden of years, and died is the city of Washington. The event spread a pall of sadness over the entire country, with its deepest shadows upon the hearts of the people of Kentucky. Mr. Clay had been a great partisan leader, and as such -he was loved and admired by his friends, while his opponents were compelled to respect his matchless talents and manhood. None ques- tioned his patriotism. At different times of peril to the peace and harmony of the country, the patriot and states- man rose above the partisan, and Mr. Clay came forward 172 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. with measures of compromise and conciliation, to still the angry strife and give assurance of continued peace. Now, in his old age, youthful ambition and party passions had died away,. He could have no motive in his public life and services but again to serve his country through the great danger which threatened it. 4. Politics and parties.- John C. Breckinridge had risen to eminence, and af- ter the death of Mr. Clay he became the most promi- nent and favored of the public men of Kentucky. In 1856, he was nominated for Vice-president of the United States on the Demo- cratic ticket, with James Buchanan for President. - these were elected. Ken- tucky gave to the ticket a majority of over six thousand, although being GENERAL JOHN 0. WEOIisnt RIDOkn IE-PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES WITH BUCHANAN, hitherto a 'Whig State. In AND GENERAL IN THE CONFEDERATE ARMY. h859, a spirited contest for Governor finally tested the re- maining strength of the old Whig party, now soon to find its end in dissolution. Beriah Magoffin and Lynn tuoyd were the nominees of the Democratic party for Governor and Lieutenant-governor, and Joshua F. Bell and Alfred Allen, of the Whig party. After an able and thorough canvass of the- State, the Democratic ticket was elected by about nine thousand majority. 5. Primary schools in Kentucky.:-It is interesting to know how our ancestors, who were the pioneers, and the children of the pioneer settlers, were educated. The first schools were 'taught in the stockade forts. We read of one taught 1173 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. by Mrs. Wm. Coomes, in 1775, at Harrod's station; another at McAfee's station, in 1777, by John May, afterward killed by the Indians; and a third at Boonesborough, by Mr. Doni- phan, in 1779. Later, log cabin school-houses were occupied farther out in the settlements, for convenience. These were subject to Indian incursions, and instances are recorded of teachers being killed, or captured and carried off by the Indians. The school-boys were required to carry their guns with them to school to meet any emergency of danger. School-books were then rare and dear; and often manuscript copies of arithmetic and other text-books were used in the school, one copy serving for several pupils. 6. Devices for learning.-Often the pupils were furnished with a paddle, which had their A B Cs marked upon it. From the paddle they went into Dilworth's Speller. Dil- worth's Arithmetic was also used, as was Guthrie's Geog- raphy. After 1783, we find the Arithmetic of Wm. Horton and Murray's Grammar in the schools. In 1798, twvo school- books, the Kentucky Primer and Kentucky Speller, were printed at Washington, the old county-seat of Mason county; and Harrison's Grammar was printed at Frankfort in the same year. The printing of other text-books followed. 7. Transylvania Seminary.-It was an important move for education when Virginia, in 1783, endowed Transylvania Seminary, by giving it twenty thousand acres of land. The institution was first established near Danville, and con- tinued to be taught there until 1789, when it was removed to Lexington. From this Seminary enterprise grew Tran- sylvania University, which, in after years, under the Presi- dency of Dr. Holly, rivaled the fame and excellence of Harvard and Yale colleges. Dissension and strife befell its management, and its usefulness was destroyed. 8. County seminaries.-In 1798, the Legislature of Ken- tucky passed an act donating six thousand acres of land to 174 SCHOOL HISTORY OP KENTUCKY. each county, for the purpose of establishing seminaries of learning within the same. The original law guarded well the dispositions of tlhse lands, and the institutions of learn- ing reared under them did much for the education of the people, but subsequent acts vested the trustees with wide powers of disposing of these lands, and thus opened the door for the waste of this valuable endowment by unwise man- agement. 9. Our common school system.-Many of the States having received large appropriations of public lands for the benefit of common schools, other States demanded of the Federal government a distribution to them of public lands or money, to equalize the favors of the general government to all alike. An act of Congress was passed distributing a large sum of money to the respective States. Of this sum, Kentucky received one million four hundred and thirty-three thou- sand seven hundred and fifty-seven dollars (I,433,757.39). By an act of the General Assembly, February, i837, eight hundred and fifty thousand dollars (850,ooo.oo) of this amount were set apart as a school fund, forever dedicated to founding a system of public schools. In February, i838, the law passed to establish a system of common schools in Kentucky, drafted by Judge William F. Bullock, a devoted advocate of popular education. 10. Our common schools before the late war.-The efforts of the friends of education for years were feebly seconded by legislation, or by public sentiment, and consequently the system languished with uncertain fortunes. A tax of five cents on the one hundred dollars for common school pur- poses, materially increased the school fund in the treasury. Under the superintendency of Dr. Robert J. Breckinridge, 1847-52, the school bonds were restored, after having been burned and destroyed at the hands of an unfriendly admin- istration, the school system reconstructed, and the common I175 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. schools put upon a more efficient basis than hitherto. For fifteen years after, but little change was made in the manage- ment or fortunes of the system, save by the ravages of war. 11. Mineral resources of Kentucky.-The precious metals, such as gold and silver, are not found in the geological formations of Kentucky. But of more value than these, are the vast fields of coal and iron which are distributed in different parts of the State. The coal-bed area of eastern Kentucky covers about ten thousand square miles, or one- fourth of the State, comprising bituminous, cannel, and splint coals, the latter adapted to making iron and steel. The western coal measures embrace nearly four thousand square miles. The iron ore deposits are of good- quality, and the iron districts cover a total of twenty thousand square miles. These deposits of minerals are a source of future wealth to Kentucky, greater than the gold and silver mines of Cali- fornia. These minerals, the timber, the fertile soils, and the genial climate of Kentucky, make it one of the most attractive of the States of the Union. 12. Stock-raising in Kentucky.-Kentucky is prominent as a stock and cattle-producing State; the thoroughbred horses, beef, and milch cattle raised here are exported to all other parts of the United States and to Europe. Its mules supply the home and the distant markets; hogs and sheep are reared to some extent, but the latter industry is greatly obstructed by the large number of sheep killed by the dogs that infest the State, a destructive species of costly vermin. The famous bluegrass flourishes nowhere so well as in the pasture lands of our lower silurian limestone. And on no pasture lands is there found a better development of vegetable and animal growth. 1176 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 'Gopica incedaVtIv a nb OueX540". CHAPTER XVIII.-i85o-6o. 1. The irrepressible conflict.-How was the slavery sentiment af- fected by the new constitution Who were candidates for Governor in 1851 Who was elected Who were candidates for President in 1852 Who was elected 2. The Know Nothing party.-When did it spring up What was its spirit Whom did this party elect Governor in 1855 What terrible riot did it bring about on election day What is thatday called in our history Where was the party sig- nally defeated What then became of it 8. Death of Henry Clay.-When did it occur Where What office did he then hold How did his death affect the people What were some of his last patriotic deeds 4. Politics and parties.-Who became a prominent leader in Ken- tucky after Mr. Clay To what office was John C. Breckinridge elected in i856 Who was elected President Who led the contest for Governor in IS59 Who was elected 6. Pioneer schools in Kentucky.-Where were the first schools taught in Kentucky Who taught at Harrod's station At McAfee's At Boonesborough Where were schools next lo- cated What dangers attended these What did the boys do for protection What of school books then How were these used 6. Devices for learning.-How was the alphabet taught What books came next What text-books were used afterward When were the first text-books printed in Kentucky Where What text-book was printed at Frankfort 7. Transylvania Seminary.-When was it endowed By whom With what Where was it first located Where next 'When What great institution grew out of this What of it under Dr. Holly, its President What caused its decline 8. County seminaries.-How were these created How endowed When What became of this endowment 9. Our common school system.-What favors had many States re- ceived What favor did Congress grant Kentucky and other neglected States How much was appropriated for common I77 178 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. schools in Kentucky by Act of the General Assembly When When was the school system established 10. Our common schools before the late war.-What was their condition then What tax was voted for their benefit What of the labors of Dr. Breckinridge 1. Mineral resources.-Are gold and silver found in Kentucky What valuable minerals has the State What of the coal-beds in eastern Kentucky What kinds of coal are found there What of the western coal-beds What area of iron ore has Kentucky What makes ours an attractive State 12. Stock-raising in Kentucky.-What of this industry What of mules raised in Kentucky Of hogs and sheep Why are there not more sheep What of the bluegrass of Kentucky PERIOD SIXTH.-i 86o-i889. CHAPTER XIX.-I86Io-862. FRROM THE OPENING OF THE LATE WAR TO THE FIRST CAMPAIGN OF MORGAN'S CAVALRY INTO KENTUCKY. 1. Forebodings of fated war.-In i86o, the Republican party having rapidly increased in numbers and power in the Northern States, within the previous four years, nom- inated Abraham Lincoln and Hamilton Hamlin as i tsi Presidential t ic ke t. The Whig party nominated John Bell and Edward Everett, while the Democratic party, divided in twain, put for- whard as their candidates,b Stephen A. Douglas and Herschel V. Johnson, for the o one faction, and John C. Breakinridge and J Os e ph Lane for the opposition. The result was the election of the Republican candidate by ARHMLNON a purely sectional vote. The e." FERURY.. ,.0. IN WHAT WASTHI intensity and yiolence of the HARDIN C.OUNTY, XENTUCKY. anti-slavery party on the one hand, and the defiant protest and warning of he determined advocates and defenders of slavery on the otfier, had brought the agitation of the slavery issues to that state of resentful feeling which needed but a (179) SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. first open insult, or blow given, to precipitate the entire country into the horrors and carnage of a sectional war. 2. The war inevitable.-It was now certain that Lincoln and Hamlin would assume the Presidential offices on March 4, i86i, and inaugurate a Republican and sectional admin- istration, avowedly pledged to restrict the institution of slavery within existing limits. It was an open secret known to all men, that the anti-slavery sentiment was uncontrollably aggressive, and that it would advance its encroachments until nothing would satisfy its demands less than the total extinction and abolition of slavery. Whether right or wrong, all parties felt that this result would be attempted. The op- posing party, with its leadership and elements of strength, now mainly in the Southern States, believed that the final stand for the protection and perpetuation of their States' rights must be made now, or never, even at the hazard of a terrible war. 3. State politics in 1861.-At the date of the inauguration of the Republican administration, the State officials of Ken- tucky and the Legislature were Democratic. Thc latter body had recently elected John C. Breckinridge, United States Senator. It was a question yet in the scales of doubt, whether a majority of citizens were in favor of the Union or in sympathy with secession. Her pledges of political faith and duty were with the Union, but she knew there was doubt of sympathy or interests in common with the North. Her ties of kindred and institutions were with the Southern States, about to sever their relations with the old govern- ment. She felt that the strife was unnatural, and shrank from it with the dread of fratricide. 4. Position of neutrality.-Many leading statesmen of Ken- tucky counseled together, and determined that the State would neither secede with her sister States of the South, nor joid the Northern states in an attempt to coerce the oppos- 180 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. ing States of the South into armed submission to the au- thority of the United States government. She forbade either combatant, North or South, to invade her soil, under threat of armed resistance. If any of her own citizens wished to take up arms for the one side or the other, they must go beyond her borders, into the ranks of the army with which they might wish to cast their fortunes. In the meantime, Senator Crittenden on the floor of Congress, made every overture and effort to effect a peaceable compro- mise between the contending sectins, and to stay the car- nage and frin that threat- ened to follow in the track of war. 5. The Conf'ederate Govern- ment.-On the 4th of March, i86i, Lincoln and Hamlin were inaugurated President and Vice-president of the United States. South Caro- lina seceded December 20, POEOH WHFCNIKA1 STATE,. A861, and announced her Virginia. withdrawal from the Union. The States of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Florida, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas, Texas,. and Virginia followed her example. Delegates from these met in convention and formed a new constitution, under the style of the Confederate States. Jefferson Davis was elected President, and Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-president, of the same. The capital of this government was Montgomery, Alabama; afterward Richmond, Virginia. 6.- The first gun flred.-On the 12th of April, z86if, Gen- eral Beauregard ordered the Confederate batteries in front of SCHOOL HISTORV OF KENTUCKV. the city of Charleston to open fire on Fort Sumter. General Robert Anderson, of the United States army, was in com- mand of the fort, and did all that could be done for its defense. On the I3th, after thirty hours of fierce bom- bardment, the fort surrendered. The startling news flashed over the wvires to every part of the country, and aroused the spirit and passions of the belligerent sections beyond all con- trol. The storm of war swept like a devouring cyclone over all parts of the sundered Union. 7. Putting down the war.-President Lincoln at once called for seveuty-fi'-e thousand troops to put down the war of sections. He telegraphed the Governor of Kentucky to furnish four regiments. The reply was as follows: FRANMKFORT, KY., April 15, JS6t. Hon. Simnoi Cameron, Secre/ary of 11Yar: Your dispatch is received. In answer, I sav, emphatically, Ken- tucky will furnish no troops for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister Southern States. B. MAGOFFIN, Governor of Ken/ucky. A similar refusal was made on call of the Confederate States government for Kentucky troops. The most strenuous efforts were now made to preserve the neutral position of Kentucky, yet there were extremists on both sides who were ready to renounce neutrality. 8. Military position of Kentucky.-The militia who were called into service to preserve neutrality were armed and equipped, but divided into two classes-the State Guards, who at once went into camp service; and the Home Guards, who were held in reserve. It was an open secret that the former were in favor of the cause of the South, and the latter of the North. The first overt act of the violation of the neutrality of Kentucky occurred. General Nelson made a recruiting station at Camp Dick Robinson, in Garrard 182 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. county, enlisting volunteers from all parts of the country for the Union army. The authorities at Washington were found to approve, and to aid in the movement. The mask of neutrality proved but a thin disguise for a transient purpose. Faith could no longer be kept by the one party, when broken by the other. Both belligerents wished it broken. 9. Battle of Manassas.-On the 2ISt of July, the main armies of the North and South sections met in battle array on the plains of Manassas, in Virginia. The signal defeat, the total rout, and the wild, disorderly flight of the Union forces back toward Washington, was the result. The news electrified the country. Neither party could now recede or compromise. The North, humiliated with defeat, must re- trieve her honor and her fortunes; the South, flushed with victory, would listen to nothing but a severance pf the Union, which her enemy would never admit. The syinpa- thizers of either side itn Kentucky, now that neutrality was abandoned, were openly or secretly volunteering, and flocking to the camps of the respective armies by the hun- dreds and thousands. 10. Battle of Belmont.-Neutrality having been broken in Kentucky, steps were taken to augment and organize the Union forces at once. General Robert Anderson was called to take command of the Department of Kentucky. In Sep- tember, the Legislature directed the Governor to call out forty thousand Kentuckians to hold the State against the invasion of the Confederates. A large Confederate force, under General Polk, occupied and fortified Hickman and Columbus on the 3d of September, I861. Two days after, the Federal army in force occupied Paducah and other points in Kentucky. On the 6th of November General Grant with a land and naval force left Cairo to attack Gen- eral Pillow. A severe battle ensued at Belmont, nearly I83 SCHOOL HISTORY OP1 KENTUCKV. opposite Columbus, resulting in the repulse of the Federal forces, with a loss of one thousand men killed, wounded and jrisoners. The Confederate loss was six hundred and forty. M1. Both armies occupy Kentucky.-The main armies of ]loth comnibatants confronted each other in Kentucky. The Confederates, under the chief command of General Albert Sidney Johnston, held headquarters at Bowling Green, and detachments of troops at the fortified points of Hopkiusville, Fort Donelson, Fort Henry, and Columbus, on the west, and also at Cumberland Ford, on the east. General Buell was in chief command of the Federal army, now increased to seventy-five thousand men, and menacing the Southern army at every point. Each side was busied during the au- tumn months in recruiting men, and in supplying arms and munitions of war. Severe skirmish fighting took place at Wild Cat mountain, at Ivy mountain, at Hazel Green, and at other points. 12. The horrors of war.-The distresses and horrors of war were now widespread over the land. In the divisions of sentiment and feeling, households were sundered. Very often the father went one way, and the sons another; fami- lies, churches, friendships, kinships, all seemed -to have no influence on the way men went. Under military license, which showed little respect for civil or moral laws, the unbridled passions of bad men led to wanton murders, rob- beries, and outrages, which were not so much as thought of in times of peace. It was as if all the furies of malice, revenge, hatred, and violence were let loose upon our society at once. Much of this lawlessness came from the- Home Guards, a local sort of military police, armed at the same time with the State Guards, but kept at home around the towns and neighborhood centers. While there were many good men in these organizations, there were enough of the shiftless and lawless elements which infest every place, to 184 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. bring this class of the military arm into very bad repute. Out of their ranks came many characters, who were as great a terror to peaceful citizens as the wild guerrillas who after- ward came out of the Coufederate lines. 13. Military arrests and banishments,-Many leading citi- zens of the State, in sympathy with the Southern cause, but taking no active part, were arrested and sent off to prisons at different points in the Northern States, by the military authorities. On the i8th of November a convention of Southern Rights' citizens of Kentucky, within the military lines of General Johnston, met at Russellville, and organized a State government under the Confederate Constitution. George W. Johnson was made Governor. This was in ex- pectation that the entire State might, after a while, be occu- pied by the Confederate armies. 14. Battle of Mill Spring.-On the i9th of January, 1862, General George B. Crittenden, with the Confederate com- mand of four thousand men, engaged General George H. Thomas, in command of about the same number of Federal troops, in fierce battle, in Pulaski county, north of Mill Spring. General Zollicoffer, second in command of the Confederates, having been killed by a pistol shot from Colonel Speed S. Fry, and the Federals being heavily re-enforced, the Confederates were defeated and driven back upon their camp, retreating into Tennessee. The killed and wounded on each side were over three hundred. This was a severe blow to the Southern army, as it left General Johnston without support upon his right, from Bowling Green to Cumberland Gap. An inva- sion of Tennessee from this quarter was now practically open to the Federal army. 15. Battles of Forts Henry and Donelson.-General Buell had, in December, I86i, sixty thousand men under com- mand, holding in check the Confederate forces of General Johnston, at the several points of concentration. Besides 185 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. this formidable Union force, General Grant held sixteen thousand five hundred at Cairo, and General Smith nearly seven thousand at Paducah. Opposed to them, General Johnston had at command about forty thousand well armed troops, over half of whom were at Columbus, and Forts Don- elson and Henry. On the 6th of February, x862, the Fed- eral plan was made known by the assault upon, and capture of, Fort Henry, on the Tennessee river, after a terrific bom- bardment by seven gun-boats, with some fifteen thousand troops, under General Grant, borne up on transports. A third disaster was soon to follow. In less than one week, General Grant, in command of over thirty thousand men, supported by six gun-boats, passed up the Cumberland river to Fort Donelson, near the Tennessee line. This place was defended by fifteen thousand Confederate troops, under Generals Floyd, Pillow, and Buckner. For four days the fighting was heavy, and with severe losses to both sides. Unable to defend longer, Floyd and Pillow withdrew nearly two-thirds of the Confederate forces, and escaped at night. The remainder, of nearly six thousand men, were surrendered by General Buckner to General Grant, the next day. Thus was opened the gateways by the two rivers, an easy entrance of the Federal army into Tennessee and the South. 16. Capture of Nashville.-Nashville now lay open to the approach of the Federal army, by land and river; and over one hundred and twenty-six pieces of artillery were moved southward by General Buell. On- the 25th, they entered Nashville. On the 14th of February, Bowling Green had been evacuated, and on the 27th, the stronghold of Columbus was abandoned by General Polk, to the advance of the vic- tors. General Johnston, in retreat through the midwinter storm of wind and ice, passed through Nashville in advance of the Federals; and from thence to Murfreesboro, where he was joined by the forces of General Crittenden. Both armies z86 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTTUCKY. moved Southwaid again, to meet soon in the shock of battle on the plains of Shiloh. 17. President Lincoln's proposal.-On the 6th of March, i862, President Lincoln sent into Congress a special message asking the passage of an act: "That the United States ought to co-operate w it h any State which may adppt a gradual abol- ishment of slavery, w t yd giving to such State ec o money to be used to S pay for losses or in- juries from such a e y bm change of system." b No party or public man of Kentucky or k the South would ac- tr cept pay for slaves freed now-from pride, or principle, or other motive. The slave property x of Kentucky was val- 4 ued at one hundred millions of dollars; GENERAL. AIMERT SIDNEY .JCMNSTON. all this was lost within three years afterward, by the proc- lamation freeing the slaves, and the effects of war. 18. The battles in the South.-The two great armies moved in parallel lines southward through Tennessee, aiming at such strategic advantages as they might be able to employ. They met on the field of Shiloh, and one of the bloodiest contests of the war was there fought out and protracted for two days. On the first day, General Grant's army was de- feated by the Confederates, under General Johnston. Re- 187 SCHOOL HISTORY OF XVNtUCKY. enforced, at night, by twenty-five thousand men under General Buell, the Federals attacked again the next day, and compelled their enemy to retreat from the field. Heavy engagements followed after, at Corinth, at Vicksburg, at Baton Rouge, and other points, with frequent skirmish bat- tles in the South, until the return of the two armies into Kentucky, late in August, 1862. We can not follow the military operations and results into distant States, but must confine our narrative to Kentucky, and to the part played by her troops on either side, in the desolating war. In the campaigns and battles mentioned, many Kentucky troops fought and marched, on each side, with a gallantry worthy of the fame and deeds of their ancestry. 19. Morgan's cavalry.-An arm of service was now in train- ing, and soon was actively in the field, which became after- ward one of the most famous and effective, for its numbers, of any that took part in the war on either side. Late in I86i, the authorities in Kentucky ordered the State Guards, known to be in sympathy with the Southern cause, to dis- arm. Captain John H. Morgan, in command of a company well armed and drilled at Lexington, Kentucky, secretly moved out through the Federal lines to join the fortunes of the Southern army, at Bowling Green. Several other Ken- tucky companies united with Morgan's, forming what was first known as ' Morgan's Squadron." In scouting for in- formation, in gathering in horses, cattle, and army supplies, in baffling and annoying the enemy, in capturing outposts and supply-trains, this ever-busy force, under their bold and adroit commander, soon became famous. Following the fortunes of the Confederate army throughout the Southern campaign, Colonel Morgan's force was augmented and re- organized at Chattanooga in the summer of I862. 20. Morgan's first raid.-With a force of over eight hun- dred finely mounted and well armed men, and two howitzers, 188 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. General Morgan entered Kentucky early in July, 1862. De- feating Major Jordan, at Tompkinsville, he passed on through Glasgow, to Bear Wallow. Here the telegraph station was seized, and Ellsworth, an expert operator on Morgan's staff, tapped the line between Louisville and Nashville. This was repeated at several stations afterward, and the Federal au- thorities, along the lines andl at headquarters, were deceived and disconcerted as to his route and movements in Ken- hicky. The Federal garrison, at Lebanon, was next capt- ured. Morgan then moved on through Springfield, Har- rodsburg, Lawrenceburg, and Versailles, to Midway, with skirmishes and adventures along the route. The telegraph was seized and used again at Midway, with the same mnis- leading effects. The main body of the Confederate cavalry next captured Georgetown, and, after a feint on Lexington, marched upon Cynthiana, where a Federal force of several hundred men, under Colonel J. J. Landrum, was captured after a severe and bloody engagement. The Federal forces being gathered in hot pursuit. General Morgan rapidly moved out of the State through Paris, Winchester, Richmond, and Somerset PERIOD SIXTH.-0 8o60-889. Gopicat CdxAp4,, oubt Quezotio3 CHAPTER XIX.-1S60-62. 1. Forebodings of war.-Who were Presidential candidates of the Republican party in i86o Who, of the Whig party Who, of the two wings of the Democratic party What ticket was elected What was the feeling on the slave issue 2. The war inevitable.-What was now certain What was the administration pledged to do What was the temper of the Southern people What did they threaten to do I89 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 3. State politics in 1861.-What party was in power in Kentucky Who was elected United States Senator How did Kentucky stand on the war issue What was the feeling toward the South 4. Position of neutrality.-What did the leaders determine to do What was neutrality What did Senator Crittenden do 6. The Confederate Government.-When was Lincoln inaugu- rated What action did South Carolina take What States fol- lowed her example What did delegates from these do Who was elected President and Vice-president of the Confederacy Where was its first capital Where, the second 6. The first gun fired.-Where was this done When Who com- manded the Confederates Who, Fort Sumter What was the result of the bombardment What effect did the news have over the country 7. Preparing for the issue of war.-What did President Lincoln do How many troops did he call from Kentucky What did Governor Magoffin do How did he answer the Confeder- ate demand 8. Xilitary position of Kentucky.-What was done to protect her neutrality What bodies of troops were armed Which body favored the South Which the Union Which party first violated neutrality What recruiting camp was formed 9. Battle of Xanassas.-When was it fought Where By whom What was the result How did this affect the North How, the South What did the volunteers from Kentucky do 10. Battle of Belmont-Who was appointed commander in Ken- tucky How many Union troops were called out What Confederate force occupied Kentucky What force occupied Paducah What move did General Grant make When Where did he attack General Pillow What was the result 11. 3oth armies occupy Kentucky.-Who commanded the Confed- erate army Where were his headquarters Where were other Confederate troops stationed Who commanded the Federal army What were its numbers What skirmish bat- tles took place 12. The horrors of war.-How did war affect the people of the State Whom did it divide What outrages were suffered by the people From what source did these come in part What lawless men came from the Confederate ranks afterward Igo SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 13. Xilitary arrests and banishments.-Who suffered these To what prisons were they sent Where did the Kentucky Con- federates meet to form a State government When Who was made Governor With what view 14. Battle of Mill Spring.-When was it fought Who commanded the Confederates Who, the Federals What Confederate officer was killed upon the field By whom What were the results of the battle What advantage did the Federals gain lb. Battles of Forts Henry and Donelson.-What army had Buell in December How many Federals were at Cairo and Padu- cah What numbers had the Confederates By whom was Fort Henry attacked When With what forces What was the result Who led the attack on Fort Donelson With what forces What was the Confederate strength What Generals were in command How long did the fighting con- tinue Who retreated at night What did General Buckner do 16. Capture of Nashville.-What was the situation of Nashville then What army did General Buell lead against it When did he enter the city When did General Johnston retreat To what place When was Columbus abandoned What did both armies next do 17. President Lincoln's proposal.-What was this proposal When was it made How was it received What was the value of slave property in Kentucky 18. The battles in the South.-Where did the two armies next meet in battle What was the result of the first day's fighting What, the second day's What other battles followed What of the Kentuckians in those armies 19. IMorgan's cavalry.-What company did John H. Morgan lead out to the Confederates What were the State Guards ordered to do What of Morgan's squadron What services did it render Where were his forces re-organized When Morgan's first raid.-When did he first invade Kentucky With how many troops Whom did he first attack What route did he take What use was made of the telegraph Who were misled by these dispatches From Lebanon, what route did he take What did he do at Midway What route did he take from Midway What severe battle was fought Who commanded the Federals at Cyiithiana Where did Morgan go thence What hurried his retreat from the State 191 CHAPTER XX.-iS62-65. FROM THE INVASION Of KENTUCKY BY THE CONFEDERATU ARMY UNDER GENERAL BRAGG, TO THE CLOSE vF THE WAR. 1. Martial law in 1862.-General Jerry T. Boyle was made chief commandant in Kentucky, June I, i862, with head- quarters at Louisville. By orders from Mr. Stanton, Secre- tary of War at Washington, a more stringent and arbitrary policy was enforced in K entuck y. Recruits, with aid and comfort, were being secretly and actively supplied to the Southern arms from Kentucky, by the sym- tpathizers with the Southern Rgt'cSouthern cause. The Union authorities were put to the severest strain o f aggressive a nd de- fensive war. Union pro- vost-marshals were ap- GENERAL JERRY T. OMF pointed in every county. All who had given aid to the Confederates, or gone beyond the lines, were required to take the oath of allegiance and give bond. Any future violation was to be dealt with according to military law. If the property of loyal citizens should be taken or injured by raiding bands of Confederates, the Southern Rights' citizens should be assessed and made to pay the damages. Many were arrested and sent off to prison (192) SCHOOt HISTORY Of KVNTUCKY. under these ordes;, yet they were enforced, generally with .as much leniency as could be exercised by the higher official. In some instances lawless men took advantage of them to injure and annoy, and these brought into much bad repute, the entire cause and its authority. 2. Resignation of Governor Xagoin.-Governor Magoffin was not in sympathy with coercive war measures; and while conforming his acts to the constitution and laws, he felt compelled often to obstruct the will of the Union majority in the Legislature, and to weaken the military arm by refusal to co-operate. This made his position most unpleasant to both parties, and on the i8th of August, i862, he resigned his office. James F. Robinson was elected to fill his vacancy, a steady and consistent Union man; thus, the civil authorities of the State were put in complete accord with the military. 3. Battle of Richmond.-An army of forty-five thousand Confederates was organized for the invasion of Kentucky, with headquarters at Chattanooga, and under chief com- mand of General Bragg. General Kirby Smith in command of the east division of fifteen thousand troops, suddenly entered Kentucky through Big Creek Gap, leaving five thousand to guard the re-enforced Cumberland Gap; and by swift march through the mountains, attacked the Federal force of ten thousand men under the command of General Nelson, at Richmond, Kentucky. Heavy fighting, with severe carnage on both sides, ensued on the 30th day of August, 1862. The Federals were defeated and routed with a loss of over five thousand, including prisoners. The Con- federate loss was nearly eight hundred killed and wounded. The remaining Federal forces, east of Louisville, hastily retreated across the Ohio river and left the State almost entirely in the hands of the Confederates. .4. Brag invasion of Kentucky.-General Bragg moved out from Chattanooga with his main army of thirty thou- 193 . SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. sand men, and by a swift march through Sparta, Tennessee, attempted to prevent General Buell, yet in command of the Federal army in middle Tennessee, from falling back on his base of supplies at Louisville. About the 15th of Septem- ber, General Bragg reached Munfordville and captured the fortified heights of Green river, with the garrison of about four thousand troops. General Buell lay in his rear toward Bowling Green, with his passage to Louisville entirely obstructed. It was thought by the men of both parties, that General Buell would now be forced to battle under such disadvantages as would cause his defeat, and probably the capture of his army. It was a gloomy day for the Union cause. 5. Bragg's retreat and failure.-To the surprise of the public, General Bragg retreated from his position of advan- tage, toward Frankfort, Kentucky, and allowed Buell to march on to Louisville without firing a gun. At once the Federal authorities began to re-enforce General Buell's army to one hundred thousand men. The Federal commander now took the aggressive, and marched in the direction through Bardstown toward Springfield, to engage the Con- federate forces. General Bragg had effected a union with the divisions of Kirby Smith, swelling his total force to nearly fifty thousand men. Many skirmish battles took place between detachments of troops and scouting parties on either side; but none of importance to affect the strength of either army. Among these was a repulse of a body of Texas Rangers at Falmouth; some sharp fighting at Owens- boro and at Shepherdsville; the capture of one hundred and fifty Federals at New Castle; the engagement of General Duke at Augusta; the attack of the Confederates on Gen- eral Buell's army at Bardstown; the battle at Lawrenceburg between a Confederate regiment and a Federal regiment of cavalry; the capture of the 78th Indiana regiment near 194 SCHOOL IIISTORY OF KENTUCKY. Bardstown. On the 4th of October, the forms of inaug- urating Richard Hawes, governor of Kentucky, as a Con- federate State, were just concluded, as the rear guard of General Smith's army retired from the place, and in sight and hearing of General Dumont's Federal cannon. 6. Battle of Perryville.--Generals Bragg and Buell each seemed to be misled and confused as to the plans of cam- paign and movements of the other. While the main body of Bragg's army was held North of the Kentucky river, and the main body of the Federals were at Springfield and vicinity, the left wing of fifteen thousand Confederates pre- maturely engaged some advance corps and divisions of the Federal army, 6f twenty-five thousand men, at Perryville, Kentucky. Here for four hours was fought one of the fiercest and bloodiest battles of the war. The loss of the Federals was over forty-three hundred in killed and wounded; that of the Confederates, thirty-four hundred. The results were indecisive. 7. Bragg's retreat from Kentucky.-The next day, Gen- eral Bragg fell back ten miles to Harrodsburg, where General Smith joined him, making the concentrated Confederate army forty-five thousand strong. The remain- ing corps of General Buell's forces coming up, he led for- ward his combined army of fifty-four thousand Federals. The two armies thus confronted each other near Harrods- burg, but two miles apart. It was believed that a great battle was certain, but General Bragg again ordered retreat, and fell back on his base at Bryantsville, from whence he retreated into Tennessee. Kentucky was now, and for the future, left to Federal control. 8. Campaigns outside of Kentucky.-Over fifty thousand Kentuckians were enlisted in the Union army, and near twenty thousand in the cause of the Confederacy. These were now with the great armies, in their movements and cam- 195 SCHOOL HISTORY OF K]ENTUCKY. paigns over the Southern States. Old neighbors, kinsmen, and friends from childhood, confronted each other in the great battles of Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, Lookout mountain, Kenesaw mountain, Vicksburg, Franklin, Nash- ville, and on other fields in the march of Sherman to the sea. But few Kentuck- ians were with the armies on the Potomac, where the bloody battles of Get- tysburg, Bermuda Hun- dred, Drury's Bluff, the Wilderness, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Winchester, and Cedar Creek, marked the features of the deso- lating war. 9. Morgan's brief raid. -L at e i n December, 1862, General Morgan, at the head of three thou- GE4ERAL AWAU. PRESTON. sand mounted men, en- tered Kentucky. Passing through Glasgow and Elizabeth- town, and capturing the garrisons there, he pushed on to Muldraugh's Hill, where he burned the tressel and destroyed the track of the railroad, besides several important bridges, before returning to Tennessee. The Federals now began. to imitate the tactics of Morgan, and their. armed bodies of cavalry became very effective in their operations outside and within the Confederate lines, especially were the mounted Kentuckians on the Federal side campaigned under the leadership of officers such as Wolford, Smith, Hobson, Jacobs, and others. 10. Proclamation of freedom.-on the 1st of January, i863, President Lincoln issued a proclhmation declaring free i1)6 SCHOOL HISTORY Of KENTUCKY. all slaves in the seceded States, and ordering the military authorities to recognize and maintain their freedom. This measure was in form, worded only to affect the right of property in slaves in the eleven States in open resistance; yet its practical effects were plainly seen to be as destructive to the institution in Kentucky. This step on the part of the president, together with some extreme acts of military usurpation, gave great offense to a large portion of the Union party in the State, and led to open protest, and withdrawal of sup- port, by many. T h e military powers, however, were too strongly estab- lished for this opposition to avail much. 11. Skirmish battles in Kentucky.-In the spring of 1 863, bodies of Con- federate cavalry entered Kentucky and raided through the interior. In March, Colonel Cluke's GENERAL JOHN H. MORGAN. cavalry, a part of Morgan's command, defeated and captured five hundred Federals at Mt. Sterling, with a large amount of stores; three days after, General Pegram drove back Wolford's cavalry with some loss, and occupied Danville. Some fighting occurred between General Marshall's forces and General White's Federal troops, ten miles from Louisa; caus- ing the latter to fall back. On the 3oth of March, Colonel Walker's Kentucky cavalry defeated Colonel Cluke, near Mt. Sterling. On the same day, General Gilmore defeated Pegram's Confederate cavalry with severe loss. On May I Ith, the 9th Kentucky cavalry was defeated with some loss 197 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. by a part of Morgan's command, in Wayne county. Colonel Everett's Confederate cavalry, after several skirmishes in Mason and Fleming counties, was defeated near Morehead, by a mounted regiment of Kentucky troops, with a loss of forty men. 12. Morgan's campaign across the Ohio.-In the month of June, i863, General Morgan, with twenty-five hundred cav- alry, again invaded Kentucky. Crossing Cumberland river near Burkesville and defeating a body of Federal cavalry at Marrowbone, he moved on through Columbia, toward Leba- non. At Green river bridge, he was resisted by a Federal regiment under Colonel Moore, entrenched in the bend of the river. A stubborn fight ensued with a loss of nearly one hundred to the Confederates, among whom were Major Chenault and Colonel Brent, killed. Three Federal regi- ments were defeated and captured at Lebanon. Passing on through Nelson and Meade counties, Morgan crossed his entire force over the Ohio river at Brandenburg. His inva- sion and rapid movements through Indiana and Ohio, created the wildest excitement. His route was by Corydon, Salem, Vienna, Paris, Versailles, and Harrison, to the rear of Cincinnati. By this time the whole country adjacent was aroused, and thousand of Federal troops were in pursuit. Going on eastward, he passed Decatur, Piketon, and Jack- son, to Portland on the Ohio river. Unable to effect a cross- ing here, he moved up to Pomeroy, under continued fire and harassment, from his pursuers. The Federal gun-boats now coming up to defeat all hope of crossing the river, he was compelled to surrender. 13. Imprisonment and escape of Morgan.-General Morgan, Colonels Duke, Ward, Smith, Morgan, and Hoffman, Majors Elliot and Bullock, and Captains Hines, Thorpe, Sheldon, and others, were imprisoned in the penitentiary of Ohio, at Columbus. In November, a plan of escape was conceived T98 SCHOOL HIST1ORY OF RENTUCKY. and carried, out, under the lead of Captain Hines. A pas- sage way was dug through the floors and under the walls of the prison. On the 28th of November, General Morgan and Captains Hines, Bennett, Sheldon, Hockersmith, McGhee, and Taylor, crept safely through and made their escape. 14. Morgan's career and death.-General Morgan, having lost his army, was rather in disfavor at the Confederate capital afterward. He did not receive another command until the spring of i864. In June of that year he again invaded Kentucky through Pound Gap with twenty-five hundred men. He met with some successes in the capture of Mt. Sterling, Lexington, Georgetown, and Cynthiana. The Federals being heavily re-enforced, Morgan suffered severe losses, and was compelled to hastily retreat from Ken- tucky with the remnants of his army. Operating in east Tennessee in the vicinity of Greenville, he was, on the 3d of September, i864, betrayed by a female enemy to the Fed- erals from a motive unknown. At daylight the enemy entered the town, aroused him from his bed, and shot him to death on the premises where he was making his headquarters. 15; Military changes in Kentucky.-At the election in August, I863, polls were guarded by the soldiers, and the Union candidates were elected, with little contest. Thomas E. Bramlette was elected governor. General Boyle having resigned as commandant, the military control of the State fell into the hands of the class of officials, whose cruelties and corruptions established a reign of terror throughout the Commonwealth for the next two years. For the first time, orders were issued for the enlistment of colored troops in Kentucky. At first much opposition was made to this policy, but in vain; and all came to tolerate what they could not help. Heavy drafts of men were being made to recruit the Federal army, and many slaves were sold, to beconme sub- stitutes to men who were drafted, but did not wish to enter the service. I99 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KlENTJCIZV. 16. Guerrilla bands.-From out of the ranks of the Con- federate army, there were banded together some very lawless and desperate men, known as "Guerrillas;" who, defying all the rules of civilized warfare, gave themselves up to deeds of violence, to pillage, and to indiscriminate outrages. Banks, stores, residences, and persons were robbed with ruthless hands. Their violence and wanton deeds spread terror through the country, more than did the marching and countermarching of the great armies of both combatants over the territory of the State. The Confederate govern- ment felt itself called on to repudiate and condemn the acts of these outlaws, and to order them treated as common enemies of mankind. 17. Another reign of terror.-In i864, the deeds of cruelty and outrage on the part of some Federal officers, high in command in Kentucky, produced a terror among the people equal to that caused by the raiding guerrillas. Chief among the men who were guilty of these inhuman deeds were Gen- eral Burbridge in east Kentucky, and General Paine, at Pa- ducah, in west Kentucky. Under orders of these, many prisoners, without trial, were taken out of their prison- houses, led away and shot to death, by squads of soldiers. Many peaceful citizens were arrested, and cast into prison, and heavy sums of money were extorted from some of them under military duress. The pretexts for these acts were usually alleged to be retaliation for the outrages of the guerrillas. Often, the innocent suffered. 18. The last of the campaigns in Kentucky.-During 1864, General Forrest attacked the Federals fortified at Paducah. Though he inflicted considerable loss upon the enemy, he was compelled to retire, after an equal loss of his own men, killed and wounded. Late in the year, General Burbridge, in command of four thousand Union troops, marched into Virginia through Pound Gap, in the hope of capturing the 200 SCHOOL HISTORY OF[ RIVINTUCKy. important works at Saltville. This place was defended by two thousand Confederates, under General John S. Williams. The attack was made by the Federals; but after a hotly con- tested fight of some hours, the latter were defeated and com- pelled to retreat back into Kentucky, with a loss of several hundred men. 19. The end of the war.-The war was protracted in the earlier months of i865, in Virginia, Georgia, the Carolinas, and in the south-west; but the signs of exhaustion on the part of the Confederates were apparent. At last came tile news of the retreat from Richmond, the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, and the downfall of the Confederate govern- ment. To this, greatest of all modern wars, Kentucky con- tributed to the Union ranks seventy-six thousand three hun- dred and thirty-five volunteers: while thirty thousand of her sons are supposed to have entered, from first to last, the ranks of the Confederate army. The discharged Federals and the paroled Confederates returned together in peace to their homes, and again resumed their occupations and rela- tions as neighbors and citizens. All true soldiers joined in ridding the State of lawlessness and outrage, and restoring quiet and prosperity. 20. Abolition in Kentucky.-In February, the Thirteenth Amendment to the Federal constitution was before our Legis- lature for action. It provided for the abolition of slavery in all the States, without paying for those freed in the loyal States. A resolution to accept the amendment, provided the government would pay for the slaves freed, was defeated. The vote on the main question to reject the amendment was carried by a large majority. 21 Comparative size of Kentuckians.-Some curious facts were developed by the war. In the measurement of Den who were recruited from the different States during the war, statistics of whom were kept, it was shown that the soldiers 201 SCHOOL HISTORY OP KENTUCKY. from Kentucky and Tennessee were the largest and tallest men in the United States, and in the world. Their average height is nearly an inch greater than that of the New Eng- land troops; they exceed them equally in girth of chest, and circumference of head. In size, they come up to the standard of the picked regiments of the armies of Europe. 22. Losses of men by the war.-It is estimated that in the two regular armies, the State lost thirty-five thousand men by wounds in battle, and by diseases in hospitals and elsewhere, resulting directly from the war. To these may be added, several thousand whose lives were sacrificed within the State from irregular causes. There were one hundred and thirty-eight combats between the opposing forces on the soil of Kentucky, from the beginning in i86i to the close in i865. By the official reports, the known number of Federal troops, in the field and enlisted, from all the States, in i865, were one million five hundred and sixteen men. The Confederates surrendered, in all their military depart- ments, a total of two hundred and twenty thousand four hundred and twenty-nine men. Nearly three times these numbers were enlisted on either side, during the four years of hostilities. go'k'tf iapher avtb ue - o"6. CHAPTER XX.-i862-65. 1. Martial law in 1862.-Who was made chief commandant in June What were the orders of the Secretary of War What was being done for the Southern cause in Kentucky What was required of disloyal men . What indemnity was enforced for property taken What was done with leading sympa- thizers with the South 2. Resignation of Governor XtagoffIn.-How were the Governor's sympathies What did he obstruct What did this induce him to do Who succeeded him 202 SCHOOL HISTORY OF XENTUCKY. 8. Battle of Richmond.-What army threatened the invasion of Kentucky Under whose command What of Kirby Smith's command How did he advance into Kentucky Where did he attack the Federal army Under whose command When What was the result of the battle of Richmond What were the losses on each side Where did the Federals retreat 4L Bragg's invasion of Kentucky.-With what force did he in- vade What route did he march What Federal general did he intercept When did he reach Munfordville What did he capture there What was expected Bragg would then do 6 Bragg's retreat and failure.-Where did Bragg retreat What did Buell then do How was the Federal army re-enforced What movement did Buell then make What was the position of the Federal forces What skirmish battles were fought Who was made Confederate Governor of the State When 6. Battle of Perryville.-What of the tactics of the opposing Gen- erals Where was the main body of the Confederates Of the Federals Where was the left wing of the Confederate army Whom did they fight there Describe the battle. 7. Bragg's retreat from Kentucky.-Where did he fall back to Who confronted him at Harrodsburg What were the num- bers of each army What was expected What did Bragg next do 8. Campaigns outside of Kentucky.-How many Kentuckians were in each army What were their former relations In what future battles did they meet What of the battles in the east 9. Xorgan's brief raid.-When was it made With how many men What did it accomplish \That did the Federals learn from him 10. Proclamation of freedom.-By whomwas it issued When Against what States What was the effect on slavery in Ken- tucky How did it affect many Union men 11. Skirmish battles in Kentucky.-What of the battle of Mt. Sterling What of Pegram and Wolford What skirmish was had at Louisa Where and by whom was Colonel Cluke defeated Who defeated Pegram's cavalry What of the Ninth Kentucky cavalry Where was Everett defeated 12. Xorgan's campaign across the Ohio.-What route did he take across Kentucky When What of the fight at Marrowbone 203 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. At Green river bridge What capture was made at Lebanon Where did he cross the Ohio river What route did he take through Indiana What route from Cincinnati Where was he checked at the Ohio river What prevented the crossing What did he do 13. Imprisonment and escape of Morgan-Where was he im- prisoned What colonels were imprisoned with him What majors What captains Who planned an escape How was it executed Who escaped 14. Morgan's career and death.-When was he given another command How did he invade Kentucky again When What places did he capture What disasters befell him after Whither did he go in Tennessee How was he betrayed there When What was the result 15. Xilitary changes in Kentucky.-What of the elections in i863 Who was elected Governor What did General Boyle do What of his successors in office What troops were now first enlisted What use was made of some slaves, soon to be freed 16. Guerrilla bands.-Whence came these For what did they band together What crimes did they commit How were they regarded by both armies 17. Another reign of terror.-What officials became cruel and cor- rupt When Who were prominent among these Of what bloody cruelties were they guilty What extortions 18. The last of the campaigns in Kentucky.-When were these What point did General Forrest attack What was the result What campaign did Burbridge undertake With how many troops Who commanded the Confederates at Saltville What defeat was suffered 19. The end of the war.-Where was the war protracted To what time What news came from Richmond, Virginia What final news came How many Kentucky troops went to the Federal army How many to the Confederate With what feelings did they return home 20. Abolition in Kentucky.-What constitutional amendment was passed When did our Legislature act upon it What was the vote 21. Comparative size of Kentuckians-What of their height com- pared with the men of the North-east Of other States and countries What of their comparative size of chest Of head 204 SCHOOL HISTORY OP KENTUCKY. 22. Losses of men by the war.-How many Kentuckians were lost in both armies by the direct causes of war By the indirect causes How many Federal troops were in the field at the close of the war How many Confederates How many were enlisted on either side during the war CHAPTER XXI.-I865-I87I. FROM THE SURRENDERS OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMIES, To TAE CONCESSION OF CITIZENS' RIGHTS TO THE COLORED RACE. 1. Assassination of President Lincoln.-In the midst of the surrenders which gave token of early peace, and before the last flag was furled to rest, the rent and divided nation was shocked with the news of one of the most revolting tragedies that history of any age records. On the 14th day of April, I865, five days after the surrender of General Lee, President Lincoln was assassinated at Ford's theater, Wash- ington City, by a pistol shot in the head, at the hands of John Wilkes Booth) an actor. The murder thrilled every sec- tion of the country with dread and horror. The event was to be deplored by the people of the South at this crisis, as much as by the people of the North. Though Mr. Lincoln had been their enemy in war, he had often expressed his sorrow over the divided nation, and a desire for a return of peace and reunion. It was believed that on the submission of the South, President Lincoln would favor the return to the Union of the seceded States on generous and liberal terms. His tragic death was, therefore, deemed a great ca- lamity to the people of the South, who feared that their future fortunes might be placed in very unfriendly hands. 2. Politics and parties in Kentucky.-At the August elec- tion in 1865, the Southern rights citizens abstained from voting. The Union party had been divided by the extreme 205 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. war measures of the Federal administration, which many held to have overridden the civil authorities of the State, and, in bad faith, to have violated the early pledges made. The election resulted in a legislative majority for the con- servative Union, over the Radical, party. The conservative party was now in power in all three branches of the State government. Military law yet asserted its power in Ken- tucky, and in very many places the voting was obstructed by guards of soldiers. In some cases, the civil authorities arrested the officers who thus interfered with the rights of suffrage, and subjected them to trials and heavy fines. 3. Kentucky relieved of military oppression.-The tyrannies and cruelties of the last two years ceased with the removal of Burbridge and Paine from their commands. General Palmer succeeded Burbridge, as military commandant of Kentucky, early in i865. His authority in the State was brief, and was marked by no events of interest or import- ance, save a puerile and needless intermeddling with slaves in the State, who were already practically freed from bondage. Slavery was rapidly disappearing without the annoyance and officiousness of the military. In December, the Legislature repealed all the laws enacted against treason and the Con- federates during the war, and restored all alike to civil rights again. 4. Kentucky saved from carpet-bag rule.-There yet re- mained in Kentucky many of that venal and corrupt class, re-enforced by like adventurers from without, a sort of fungus element that grows up out of the chaos and violence of all great wars, who would, under continued military license, have subjected Kentucky to the same rule of usurpation, robbery, and outrage, as was imposed on the eleven seceded States. But the great body of citizens, in both the conserva- tive and radical wings of the Union party, were honest and patriotic men, and refused to favor or countenance any such 206 SCHOOL hISTORY OF KENTUCKY. policy. It is but justice to credit these elements of the Union party, with the rescue of Kentucky from the shameless ex- tortions and misrule of the carpet-baggers. Many of these latter moved on into the less fortunate States south; others remained in Kentucky to manage and organize the Freed- man's Bureau, which assumed to care for the freedmen so recently released from bondage. 5. Civil order quickly restored.-It was a happy incident for the Commonwealth that military rule was so quickly ended, and civil order so generally restored. This sentiment of profound regard for the civil authority, over the military, was manifest in Kentucky throughout the war. Her finan- ces were managed with the same honesty and integrity of purpose. Though the State borrowed over four millions of dollars, in addition to some other indebtedness, her credit never fell below par. This was in the face of the fact that, at the beginning of the war, the State was owing four mill- ion seven hundred and twenty-nine thousand two hundred and thirty-four dollars. No other State of the Union main- tained a better credit; and this, while the bonds of the Federal government were being sold very much below their par value. 6. Political parties in 1867.-Early in i867, all military restrictions were removed from Kentucky, and the right of suffrage extended to all white voters, only. The conserva- tive wing of the Union party now openly opposed the ex- treme measures of the Federal administration. There was, indeed, now but little difference upon the doctrine of States' and civil rights, and upon the policy of the reconstruction of the State governments, between this majority element of the Union party and the Southern rights' citizens of the State. The odious carpet-bag rule in the South was almost universally condemned in Kentucky. I 7. Elections in 1867.-In August, i867, the first election of State officers was held, since the war. The Democratic 207 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KIMNTUCKY. ticket was John L. Helm for Governor; John W. Stevenson for Lieutenant-governor; John Rodman for Attorney-general; D. Howard Smith for Auditor; J. W. Tate for Treasurer; J. A. Dawson for Register, and Z. F. Smith for Superintendent of Public Instruction. The Republican ticket opposed to this was S. M. Barnes, R. T. Baker, J. M. Brown, S. Adams, M. J. Roark, J. M. Fiddler, and D, Stevenson. The conser- vative Union party put forth a ticket, composed of W. B. Kinkaid, H. Taylor, J. M. Harlan, J. S. Hurt, A. Allen, J. J. Craddock, and B. M. Harney. It was soon manifest that there was no room for a third party in the State. The Democratic ticket was elected by nearly one hundred thou- sand majority. 8. Federal and State politics.-The elections of i867 fore- cast the relations of parties in Kentucky, to the present day. The war having ceased, the political issue brought out again, to full life and form, the old Democratic party, in opposition to the Radical or Republican party. There was no middle ground for a third conservative party to exist. The vote cast for the latter left it in a hopeless minority, and it failed to organize for any future effort. The old Southern rights' element and one-half of the Union party fused into one, and have since held the State government by large majorities. Governor Helm was inaugurated on the 3d of September, 1867, and died on the 8th. John W. Steven- son became governor until x871. 9. Governor Stevenson's administration, 1867-71.-The message of Governor Stevenson suggested the enactment of laws to facilitate the payment of the State debt; to snp- press the outrages of " Regulators," and other bands of lawless men-the refuse of the armies-who continued to depredate upon the people of the State; to reorganize and endow the common schools of the State, after the plan set forth by the Superintendent of Public Instruction; and to 208 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. enlarge and reform the State Prison to accommodate the great increase of convicts therein. It also deplored the policy of the Federal government toward the eleven States of the Union, which were now stripped of their sovereignty, their right of suffrage, and their right of representation in Congress; and from whom the bulwarks of personal free- dom, habeas corpus, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and trial by jury, had been ruthlessly taken away. 10. Common school reform in 1867-71.-In i867-69, a legis- lative measure submitting to the people a proposition to vote an increase of tax from five to twenty cents on the one hun- dred dollars of taxable property, for common school purposes, was adopted. The act was ratified by a majority of nearly twenty-five thousand, at the election in August, I869. The colored men, as yet, were not permitted by law to vote in Kentucky. This great increase of school revenues, and the enactment of a better school law at the session of i869-70, marked a new era of reform and advance in the common schools. The school term was extended from three to five months; teachers' wages were advanced three-fold, and new life and interest infused into education throughout the Com- monwealth. Since the impetus given then, our common school system has continued to command the confidence of the people, and to improve to the present day. Great credit is due for these results, to the able and faithful management of H. A. M. Henderson and Joseph Desha Pickett, who suc- ceeded to the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. 11. Official changes.-At the assembling of the legislative body, the Senate elected P. H. Leslie to preside over its deliberations, Lieutenant-governor Stevenson having left the office vacant by being made Governor. At the session, i869- 70, the Legislature elected Governor Stevenson United States Senator, from March, i871. Resigning office February 13, 1871, Preston H. Leslie succeeded him as Governor. In 14 200 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. August, i871, the Democratic party elected, upon their ticket, Preston H. Leslie, Governor; John G. Carlisle, Lieu- tenant-governor; D. Howard Smith, Auditor; James W. Tate, Treasurer; John Rodman, Attorney-general; H. A. M. Henderson, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Alex- ander Grant, Register of the Land Office. 12. Unanimous sentiment of Kentucky.-In the Republican State Convention, in 1871, a resolution was voted, declaring that: "We earnestly desire a restoration of friendly rela- tions with the people of our sister States lately in arms against our national authority, and earnestly wish for them all the blessings and prosperity to be enjoyed under a Repub- lican form of government. We are in favor of a complete amnesty to all of our fellow-citizens, of every State, who are laboring under disabilities by reason of any part taken in the late rebellion." The sentiment herein avowed showed that there was no party in Kentucky that approved of the cruel and unjust policy of reconstruction, enforced by the Federal government upon the Southern States which had laid down arms of war, upon the faith of-pledges made of being re- stored to the Union in peace. oopivccdf latc'ftpJi, cIlSV atLtehOi4i. CHAPTER XXI.-i865-71. 1. Assassination of President Lincoln.-By whom was Lincoln assassinated Where When How did the deed affect pub- lic feeling Why did the South regret it 2. Politics and parties in Kentucky.-What of the election in x865 What divided the Union party Which wing was suc- cessful How was voting suppressed in very many places 3. Kentucky relieved of military oppression.-What policy d0 the conservative Union party pursue Who was Burbridge' 210 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. military successor What of Palmer's conduct What legisla- tive relief was enacted 4. Kentucky saved from Carpet-bag rule.-What design had the carpet-baggers on Kentucky How were they thwarted Did all three parties in Kentucky desire peace and honest rule What of the Freedman's Bureau 6. Civil order quickly restored.-What sentiment forced this Did all desire civil authority restored over that of the military How much money did Kentucky borrow for war purposes WVhat of her credit What was her debt before the war 6. Political parties in 1867.-What restrictions on voting were then removed What position did the conservative party take Who combined with them i. EZi..4 Ions in 1867.-What three parties put forth candidates in -the State elections What party was successful Who were elected State officers By what majorities 8. Federal and State politics.-What two party elements made up the majority What, a hopeless minority When was -Helm inaugurated Governor When did he die Who then became Governor 9. Governor Stevenson's administration.-What were some of the recommendations in the Governor's message What did he say of the common schools Of State prison management What did he deplore in his message What rights had been taken from the Southern people 10. Common school reform.-What important measure did the Leg- islature act upon in i867-69 What increase of school tax was submitted Did the people ratify the measure What was the effect on the common schools How much was the school term increased What increase of teachers' wages What good effect has the measure had since To what officials were the improvements largely due - 11. Official changes.-Who was made United States Senator in 1869-70 Who succeeded Stevenson as Governor When was Leslie elected Governor What other State officers were then elected 12. Unanimous sentiment of Kentucky.-What resolution was passed by the Republican convention What amnesty did it recommend What did this action show What Federal policy did it condemn 21II CHAPTER XXII.-r87I-I889. PROM THIE BEGINNING OF GOVERNOR LESLIE'S ADMINISTRATION IN 1871, TO THAT OF GOVERNOR BUCKNER IN 1889. 1. Rights of citizenship to the colored people.-The Four- teenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States, conferring citizenship and citizens' rights upon the colored race, having both been ratified by 1870, the col- ored men exercised the right of suffrage at the election, August, I87I, and thus reduced the usual Democratic ma- jority in the State over forty thousand. There was still existing much prejudice against the exercise of the right to testify in the courts on the part of colored persons, but en- lightened public sentiment and sense of justice conceded this right. Some of the judges of the State courts had already ventured in advance to admit such testimony; and on January 8, i872, the Legislature made it lawful for them to testify in all the courts, and in all cases where they had evidence to give. On February 23, i874, an act was ap proved providing for a separate fund and separate schools for the colored children, for the first time. 2. Events under Leslie's administration 1871-1875.-In 1873, a law was enacted to establish a bureau to prosecute a thorough geological survey of the State. Under this act, Professor Shaler was appointed chief of the corps of survey; and, after some years of service, was succeeded by Professor- J. R. Procter, the present incumbent. The results of the work of this department have discovered untold wealth in the mineral resources, the forestry, and the soils of Kentucky. These results have been made known abroad, and have in- duced the movements of immigrants to settle in the State, (2I2) SCHOOL HISTORY OF EN'TUCYV. and the investment of much capital in new industries, which promise to add to our future wealth. Another important law was enacted, to suppress the terrorism and violence of secretly organized bodies, known as "Kuklux Klans," an- other remnant of the late war, become vicious by assuming license to commit lawless acts with good intentions. 3. Great financial panic of 1873.-In September, i873, the most violent financial panic ever known in our history befell the country. Ten years before, and in the middle of the period of the great war of the rebellion, an era of specu- lative venture, of prodigal waste, and of wild inflation, set in, and continued its onward flow toward high tide, until near the point of final issue. An inflation of values caused by the depreciation of the government bonds, and of the doubtful currency issued by the government as a war meas- ure, was the result throughout the country. In comparison with gold and silver, the bonds were much below par, while the paper currency was sold or exchanged, at three hundred to two hundred dollars, for one hundred dollars of gold or silver. Real estate and personal property were bought and sold at currency prices. As the greenback paper currency gradually approached the price of gold and silver, these inflated values of property lowered toward a specie-standard. This decline of values, with the great increase of debt from speculation, left the people of the country in a bad financial gondition, and unable to pay their debts. When the panic caifq, therefore, in 1873, there was general insolvency and bankruptcy throughout the country. Great depression in trade at finance ensued for five or six years afterward. 4. Govirnor McCreary's administration, 1875-9.-In i875, the Democratic State ticket was elected, composed of James B. McCreary, Governor; John C. Underwood, Lieutenant- governor; Thomas E. Moss, Attorney-general; D. Howard Smith, Auditor; H. A. M. Henderson, Superintendent of 213 SCHOOL HISTORY OF RUNTUCKY. Public Instruction; and Thomas D. Marcum, Register. Benjamin H. Bristow, a distinguished Kentuckian, was appointed Secretary of the Treasury in General Grant's cabinet, and Curtis F. Burnam, Assistant Secretary. In the message of Governor McCreary in December, I875, the bonded debt of the State is shown to have been only one hundred and eighty-four thousand three hundred and ninety- four dollars, with ample resources to pay off the whole, and to leave a balance in the treasury. 5. Important legislative acts.-The Legislature of i875-6 established a Bureau of Agriculture, with the appoint- ment of a commissioner, to gather information and sta- tistics upon agriculture, horticulture, and other industrial interests, and to make annual reports thereon. This Bureau is yet sustained, and has done much good for the soil and stock interests of the State. Provision was made at the same session to extend the geological survey; and also for the propagation and protection of food fishes in the waters of Kentucky. 6. State and national eleetions.-At the same legislative session, James B. Beck was elected United States Senator, to serve six years from the 4th of March, i877; and at the session in January, i878, John S. Williams was elected to serve six years from the 4th of March, i879. In Novem- ber, 1876, the Congressmen elected were Oscar Turner, James A. McKensie, John W. Caldwell, J. Proctor Knott, Albert S. Willis, John G. Carlisle, J. C. S. Blackburn, P. B. Thompson, Jr., G. M. Adams, and E. C. Phister. In i876, Tilden and Hendricks were the Democratic candidates for President and Vice-president; Hayes and Wheeler of the Republican party. The former had a popular majority of one hundred and fifty-seven thousand three hundred and ninety-four, and a majority of the electoral college; yet the Republican party in power, controlling the military and 214 SCH0OL HISTORY 0P RKNTUCk.t. civil forces of the country, through bold and able leaders, succeeded in setting aside the popular verdict and declaring the electoral count in favor of Hayes and Wheeler. Some of the ablest Democratic leaders in the disfranchised South- ern States, seeing that Tilden and his friends would passively submit to this usurpation, privately made terms of compro- mise with Hayes and his leading supporters, that they would not resist the plans and designs of the Republican party, if the party would remove the military, and the carpet-bag governments and officials from the South. President Hayes faithfully complied with this promise. 7. Dr. Luke P. Blackburn elected Governor in 1879.- In the State elections for i879, Luke P. Blackburn was elected Governor over Walter Evans, Republican, and C. W. Cook, National; James E. Cantrill, Lieutenant-governor; P. W. Hardin, Attorney-general; Fayette Hewitt, Auditor; James W. Tate, Treasurer; J. Desha Pickett, Superintend- ent of Public Instruction; Ralph Sheldon, Register. In September, 1878, William S. Pryor became Chief Justice of the State, on the retirement of Wm. Lindsay from the Appellate Bench; and Thomas H. Hines succeeded the lat- ter for the next eight years. In i88I, Jos. H. Lewis was elected to the vacancy of M. H. Cofer, deceased. 8. The Superior Court established.-At the session of i881-2, the General Assembly passed an act creating the Superior Court, of three judges, to relieve the Appellate Court of its overburdened docket. J. H. Bowden, A. E. Rich- ards, and Richard Reid were elected judges of this court. After the tragic death of Judge Reid, J. Q. A. Ward suc- ceeded to the vacancy; and Joseph M. Barb6ur succeeded A. E. Richards, retired. In the Presidential election of I88o, the Hancock and English Democratic ticket received a ma- jority of over forty thousand in Kentucky, over Garfield and Arthur, Republican; Weaver, the National candidate, ms5 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. received eleven thousand four hundred and ninety-nine votes. Garfield and Arthur were, however, elected, and inaugurated March 4, x88i. The tragic wounding of Presi- dent Garfield in July after, by a pistol shot from the hand of the assassin, Guiteau, and his painful suffering and final death, created profound emotion throughout tile land. 9. Events in Blackburn's administration, 1879-83.-Gov- ernor Blackburn's first message suggested reforms for the increase of the revenues of the State, to meet the deficits annually shown in official reports for fifteen years past; a change in the management of the penitentiary from the lessee plan, to the warden system; the creation of a commis- sion for the regulation of railroads; and the transfer of the State's interests in the improvements in the Kentucky river to the general government. Most of these suggestions were favorably met by acts of legislation. Governor Blackburn found nine hundred and sixty-nine convicts in the peniten- tiary, and but seven hundred and eighty cells to accommo- date them. To relieve the sickness and distress from this overcrowding, he pardoned many inmates and set them free. 10. Officials elect.-For Representatives in the Forty-eighth Congress, of Democrats, there were elected in I882, Oscar Turner, in the first district; James F. Clay, in the second; J. G. Halsell, in the third; T. A. Robinson, in the fourth; Albert S. Willis, in the fifth; John G. Carlisle, in the sixth; J. C. S. Blackburn, in the seventh; P. D3. Thompson, in the eighth; and Frank Wolford, in the eleventh. Of Republi- cans: W. W. Culbertson, in the ninth; and John D. White, in the tenth. In the State election in i883, the Democratic ticket received majorities of near forty-five thousand votes. For Governor, Thomas Z. Morrow was defeated by J. Proc- tor Knott; for Lieutenant-governor, Speed S. Fry, by J. R. Hindman; for Attorney-general, the Democrats elected P. W. Hardin; for Auditor, Fayette Hewitt; for Treasurer, 2I6 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 217 James W. Tate; for Superintendent of Public Instruction, J. Desha Pickett; for Register, J. G. Cecil. Other State officers, appointed, were James A. McKenzie, Secretary of State; H. M. McCarty, Assistant Secretary; John Davis, Commissioner of Agriculture; L. C. Norman, Insurance Co.amnissioner; and John R. Procter, State Geologist. 11 Events in Governor Knott's administration, 1883-7.- On the Appellate Bench in i884, were Chief-Justice T. F. Hargis, Thomas H. Hines, William S. Pryor and Joseph H. Lewis. In this year William H. Holt was elected to succeed Judge Hargis, retired. In i886, Caswell Bennett was elected to succeed Judge Hines, retired. For the United States Sen- ate, James B. Beck was elected to succeed himself, from March 4, i883; and afterward, J. C. S. Blackburn was elected to serve for six years, from March 4, i885. Elected Novem- ber, I884, to the Forty-ninth Congress, were W. J. Stone, Polk Laffoon, J. E. Halsell, Thomas A. Robinson, Albert S. Willis, John G. Carlisle, W. C. P. Breckinridge, James B. McCreary, Frank Wolford, W. P. Taulbee, Democrats, and W. H. Wadsworth, Republican. 12. Presidential election in 1884-In i884, Grover Cleve- land and Thomas A. Hendricks, Democrats, were elected President and Vice-president of the United States over James G. Blaine and John A. Logan, Republicans; B. F. Butler and A. M. West, Greenbackers X and J. P. St. John and William Daniel, Prohibitionists. On the-4th of March, i885, Cleveland and Hendricks were inaugurated-the first Democratic administration for twenty-four years. Vice- president Hendricks dying suddenly in office, on the 25th of November, x885, John Sherman, Republican, was elected to preside over the United States Senate, on its assembling in December. 13. Important reform measures.-In the first message of Governor Knott, he showed that behind the apparent healthy SCHOOL IRISTORY OF TF T1C1YV. financial condition of the State, there recurred again the annoying annual deficit, which on June 30, 1883, was four hundred and ninety-one thousand three hundred and seven- ty-five dollars. He attributes this deficit to a grossly defect- ive system of assessment, made still more inefficient by the loose and negligent manner in which the laws are executed. The last assessment made the taxable property of the State three hundred and seventy-four million five hundred thou- sand dollars. The Governor thought it was really worth double that sum. The Legislature of i885-6, at the instance of Auditor Hewitt, enacted a new assessment law to remedy this evil, which it was hoped would be more faithfully en- forced. In i883-4 the Legislature provided for the building of a second State prison at Eddyville, Lyon county, to ac- commodate the increase of convicts. 14. Educational conventions.-On April 5, 1883, a great State Educational Convention met at Frankfort to consider the situation, and devise and organize means for the practi- cal improvement of the common school system. A commit- tee was appointed to report to an adjourned meeting at Louisville in September. In September, 1883, during the Great Exposition at Louisville, an Interstate Educational Convention was held in that city. It was attended by many of the delegates appointed by Governors of the various States on invitation of Governor Blackburn. At this Con- vention several important educational subjects of a national bearing were presented, and intimately and intelligently dis- cussed. A number of the leading educators of the Union sure present. 15. Sentiment of social reform.-A temperance sentiment in the State has grown in strength, under the steady labors of its advocates. Already quite a number of counties, dis- tricts, and towns have voted to prohibit the trade in and use of intoxicating liquors, within their limits, and others will 2I8 SCHOOt HISTORY Of XVNTUCKY. most probably do the same. Another evidence of the growth of reform sentiment is the enactment, making gambling a felony to both the gamester and the keeper of the gambling house, or to any one in the employ of the latter. With such laws upon our statute books, together with our ample asy- lums for the insane, the feeble-minded, the deaf and dumb, the blind, and our improved school law, the Commonwealth of Kentucky may proudly be ranked with the governments foremost in civilization. 16. Issues of interest to Kentucky.-The questions of interest which now most affect us in State affairs are those of revenue reform; of corrections of abuses and frauds in expenses for criminal prosecutions in many of the counties; of the same in regard to idiots kept at the charge of the State; of working convict labor outside of the State prison; the completion of the geological survey, and the increase of immigration and industries; of a new constitution for the State; of the suppression of lawless and murderous violence in some of the counties; of the enforcement of law and order in every section, and of educational improvement. 17. Increase of population.-The statistics of the census of I88o throw much light upon the growth of population and wealth. When we consider the large emigration of na- tive Kentuckians, and the small additions coming from other States and foreign countries, the increase of the Kentuckians is remarkable, and not surpassed by any other people. Of one million six hundred and forty-eight thousand six hun- dred and ninety population, one million four hundred and two thousand six hundred and twelve are native to the State,, one hundred and eighty-six thousand five hundred and sixty-one are immigrants from other States, and fifty- nine thousand five hundred and seventeen, frtom foreign countries; or two hundred and forty-five thousand and seventy-ight immigrants in all. The total number of 219 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. persons born in Kentucky, and resident beyond the State, as shown by the census of i88o, amounted to about four hun- dred thousand. The following figures will show the steady and healthy increase of population each decade, since I790: The population was in- 1790.. . .. . .. . 73,677 1840 . .. . .. . . 779,828 ISOO........ . 222,955 I850 . ...... . 982,405 I8IO.. .. 406,571 1860. . .. .1,55,684 I820.. .. 564,135 I870 .1,,321,011 i830. .. . .. . 687,917 i88o . . . . . . . i,648,690 18. The quadrennial election of 1887. The regular quad- rennial election for State officers took place in i887, and four tickets were nominated in the conventions of the several parties contesting. The delegates of the Prohibition party met in Louisville, March 3d, and nominated, for Governor, Fontaine T. Fox; for Lieutenant-governor, W. L. Gordon; for Auditor, A. T. Henderson; for Treasurer, B. K. Dyer; for Register, James T. Barbee; for Attorney-general, J. W. Harris; for Superintendent of Public Instruction, D. W. Stevenson. The Democratic convention nominated: For Governor, Simon B. Buckner; for Lieutenant-governor, James W. Bryan; for Auditor, Fayette Hewitt; for Treas- urer, James W. Tate; for Attorney-general, P. W. Hardin; for Superintendent of Public Instruction, Joseph Desha Pickett; for Register, Thomas H. Corbett. The nominees of the Republican party were: For Governor, Wm. 0. Brad- ley; for Lieutenant-governor, Matt. O'Doherty; for Auditor, R. D. Davis; for Treasurer, J. R. Puryear; for Attorney- general, John W. Feland; for Superintendent of Public In- struction, W. H. Childers; for Register, T. J. Tinsley. The Union Labor convention nominated: For Governor, A. H. Cardin; for Lieutenant-governor, 0. N. Bradburn; for Au- ditor, John M. McMurtry; for Treasurer, George Smith; for Attorney-general, J. P. Newman; for Superintendent of Public Instruction, R. M. McBeath; for Register, Gano Henry. 220 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 19. Result of the election.-At the election, held on the first Monday in August, the Democratic candidate for Gov- ernor received one hundred and forty-three thousand two hundred and seventy votes, and the Republican candidate one hundred and twenty-six thousand four hundred and seventy-three, and the candidates for the other offices con- testing, varying but a few thousand, respectively. The tickets of the Prohibition and Union Labor parties received but a scattering vote. The Democrats elect- ed are the present incum- bents in office, with the exception of Treasurer, Stephen G. Sharp, appoint- ed by the Governor. At the same election, the ques- tion of calling a convention to prepare a new Constitu- tion for Kentucky was sub- GOVERNOR SIMON B. BUCKNER. mitted, and the vote in favor was one hundred and sixty-two thousand five hundred and fifty-seven, against sixty-five thousand nine hundred and fifty-six. 20. Revenue reform.-During this year the new revenue law, prepared by Auditor Hewitt and enacted by the pre- vious Legislature, went into effect. The total valuation of property for taxation under the same was four hundred and eighty-three million four hundred and ninety-seven thou- sand six hundred and ninety dollars, an increase over the preceding year, under the old law, of ninety-two million six hundred and sixty-nine thousand seven hundred and twenty-seven dollars. For i886, there was a deficiency of revenue to pay the State expenses, of two hundred and 221 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. ninety-three thousand one hundred and eighty-five dollars and fifty-two cents; the new revenue law added four hundred thousand dollars to the funds of the Treasury, and thus has enabled the State to meet all her obligations promptly, to the present date. Before the new law went into effect, much personal property could not be reached by the assessors, and thus evaded taxation. This is mainly remedied now. 21. Railroad improvements.-The period, from i885 to the present date, has been notable for the progress made in rail- road building, and in opening to the industries of the world the great wealth of coal, iron, timber, and other materials that enter so profitably into manufactures and trade. For i887, the railroad commissioners report two thousand three hundred and forty-one miles of railroad in operation in the State, the total cost of which was seventy-six million five hundred and thirteen thousand nine hundred and twenty 'dollars. These roads pay into the State treasury taxes on an aggregate assessed value of thirty-five million five hun- dred and seventy-one thousand six hundred and thirty-one dollars. Their gross earnings in i887 were twelve million three hundred and ninety-nine thousand seven hundred and twenty-four dollars, about two-thirds of which were paid out for operating expenses. By the end of i889, the mileage of railroads will be increased to three thousand, or over. 22. Common school system.-The reports of the Superin- tendent of Public Instruction for the last few years show most gratifying results in the progress and improvement of the public school system. Under the experienced and effi- cient management of the incumbent head, Joseph Desha Pickett, amendatory legislation, from session to session, has brought the school law to a standard of excellence equal to that of the most favored States of the Union. The improve- ment in the qualifications of the teachers, in the methods of 222 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. normal training, in the payment of teachers' wages, in the selection of text-books and courses of study, and in the in- crease in local taxation, are manifest evidences of a progres- sive and healthy growth. The increased revenues, through the amended revenue laws, have increased the State school fund, and advanced the per capita of distribution, to the great advantage of the present and the future of common school education. 23. National Presidential election of 1888.-On the first Tuesday in November, i888, the Presidential contest came off, resulting in the election of Benjamin Harrison, of Indian- apolis, President, and Levi P. Morton, Vice-president, of the United States, by the Republican party, over Grover Cleve- land and Allen G. Thurman, the nominees of the Democratic party. At the same time, W. J. Stone, of Eddyville; W. T. Ellis, of Owensboro; I. H. Goodnight, of Franklin; Alex B. Montgomery, of Elizabethtown; Asher G. Caruth, of Louis- ville; John G. Carlisle, of Covington; W. C. P. Breckin- ridge, of Lexington; Thomas H. Paynter, of Greenup; and James B. McCreary, of Richmond, of the Democratic party; and Frank Finley, of Williamsburg, and J. H. Wilson, of Barboursville, of the Republican party, were elected Repre- sentatives in Congress, to serve two years from the 4th of March, i889. The present Senators in Congress from Ken- tucky are James B. Beck and J. C. S. Blackburn. 24. Our National Centennial.-The year i889 is called the centennial year of our government, because the first Con- gress assembled and the first President was installed in office under the Constitution of the United States, one hun- dred years before. On the 30th day of April, 1789, Wash- ington, having been elected, was duly inaugurated the first Chief Magistrate of the Nation. On the 30th day of April, i889, this important event was duly celebrated in the city of New York. It was the largest assemblage of the people of 223 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. our country ever known in its history. Kentucky, with her sister Commonwealths, honored the occasion with the pres- ence of her Governor and his staff, of many patriotic citi- zens, and a portion of her military forces and equipment under the lead of their commanding-General, John B. Cas- tleman. In the centuries to follow, this anniversary day will be celebrated as one of the most cherished in the memo- ries and hearts of the American-people. 25. Kentucky now, and in the future.-x892 will be the centennial year of our Commonwealth. On the 4th day of June, I792, Isaac Shelby, the first Governor, and the first Legislature elect, assembled at Lexington to organize the first State government. Already some are looking forward. to the celebration of our one-hundredth anniversary, only three years after the national event. Will the aged and the youth of Kentucky be prepared to duly honor the great oc- casion Have they acquainted themselves with the dra- matic episodes and events of Kentucky history Have they grown familiar with the heroic lives and daring deeds of their ancestors No subject can ever be more inspiring and instructive to the citizenship reared upon our soil. One eminent in the affairs of State has well said: So fruitful is her natural and civil history, that our State may well engage our common admiration and inspire our common love. The fame of her soldiers and statesmen, her scholars, her men of science, and her teachers, her authors and artists, her editors and publishers, her merchants and manufact- urers, her inventors and mechanics, her farmers and finan- ciers, her river, railroad and stock men, her lawyers, her judges, her physicians and surgeons, her theologians and di- vines, has given her a name and established her reputation among the nations of the world. Let these excite the emula- tion of our youth, and impress them with the lesson of our history. If faithfully learned and applied, with her soil and 224 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. her climate, her genius and her wealth, her learning and her patriotism, her social, civil, and military reputation, her geo- graphical, commercial, and political position,with the prestige of her name and fame, we must not expect less of the youth of Kentucky than that she will, in the galaxy of the Union of States, assume the position of first among her peers. ;opFicazt d uffV,_ aMVX Gukanot. CHAPTER XXII.-IS7z-z88q. '. Rights of citizenship to the colored people.-What consti- tutional amendments had been ratified By what year What rightsdid theyconfer What reduced the Democratic majority When was the right to testify in the courts granted colored people When did the Legislature grant them separate com- mon schools 2. Events under Leslie's administration, 1871-5.-What impor- tant bureau was established Who was made chief of this Who succeeded Shaler What have been the benefits of the geological survey Whatother important law was passed 3. Great financial panic of 1873.-What caused this panic What inflated the values of property What was the relative value of paper currency to gold and silver during the war- What was the change of value after the war What is the relativevalue now Howdid this affect thevalues of property 4. Governor XcCreary's administration, 1875-9.-What State officers were elected in 1S75 By what party How were the State's finances then 6. Important legislative acts.-What State bureau was estab- lished For what purpose What was done for the geological survey 6. State and national elections.-Who were elected United States' Senators Who, Representatives in Congress Who were the Democratic candidates for President and Vice-president Who, the Republican What majority had Tilden and Hendricks How were Hayes and Wheeler inaugurated What bargain did Southern statesmuen make with Republican leaders 15 225 SCHOOL HISTORY OF KENTUCKY. 7. Dr. Luke P. Blackburn elected in 1879.-Who was his opponent What other State officers were elected Who became Chief Justice of Kentucky in 187S Who were elected Appellate Judges 8. The Superior Court established.-When Of how many judges Who were elected judges of this court Who was elected President in iSo Against what opponents What befell President Garfield 9. Events in Blackburn's administration, 1879-83.-What was recommended to remedy the deficit in the treasury What, concerning the State prison What, of a railroad commission What, of Kentucky-river improvements What was the condi- tion of the convicts in the State prison then How did Gov- ernor Blackburn relieve this evil 10. OfficialS elect.-What Democratic Congressmen were elected in 1882 What Republican Who was elected Governor in 1883 Who was his opponent What other State officers were elected What, appointed I. Events in Governor Knott's administration, 1883-7.-Who were Appellate Judges in 1884 Who retired from the bench Who succeeded him Who retired in x886 Who succeeded him Who was elected United States Senator from March, 1882 Who, from March, i885 Who were elected Represen. tatives iii Congress in 1884 12. Presidential election in 1884.-What ticket was elected Who were the opponents of Cleveland and Hendricks How long had the Democratic party been out of power When did Vice- President Hendricks die Who was made his successor How elected 13. Important reform measures.-What evil did Governor Knott complain of What was the treasury deficit June 3o, 1833 What mainly caused this deficit What remedy was applied- When did the Legislature vote to build a new State prison 14. Educational conventions.-Where was a State convention held When Where was a second held 15. Sentiment of social reform.-What of the temperance senti- ment in Kentucky What have many counties and districts done What of the law against gambling What of the State asylums How do these reflect on the Commonwealth 16. Issues 0f udtert in Kentucky.-Name some of them. 226 SCHOOL HISTORY OP K1NTUCKY. 17. Increase of population.-What population does the census of 188o give Kentucky How many are native to the State flow many from other States How many from foreign countries How many emigrants from Kentucky to other States WVhat was the population of Kentucky, 179o In each subsequent decade 18. The quadrennial election of 1887.-What election was held in 1887't What parties contested Who were the candidates of the Prohibition party Of the Democratic party Of the Republican party Of'the Union Labor party 19. Result of the election.-What party candidates were elected By what votes WVho afterward became Treasurer of State 20. Revenue reform.-What revenue reform took place What was the valuation of taxable property under it How did the increase affect the State credit 21. Railroad improvements.-What of railroad improvement What effect has it on our State resources How many miles of railroad in Kentucky in i887 At what value were the rail- roads assessed in i887 What is the probable increase to date 22. Common school system.-What of the improvements of our common schools What of the present school law In what are the improvements seen 23. National Presidential election of 1888.-Who were elected President and Vice-president in November, j888 Who were elected Congressmen by the Democrats Who, by the Repub- licans Who are now United States Senators for Kentucky 24. Our National Centennial.-What of the centennial year of our Federal government What day of the month is the anniver- sary of Washington's inauguration as the first President How was this day celebrated in 1889 What part (id Kentucky take Why was the celebration in New York City 26. Kentucky now, and in the future.-What year will be the cen- tennial of our Commonwealth What day of what month will be the one-hundredth anniversary What interest have the citizenship of our State in this notable event What effect must it have on the minds of our youth, in connection with Kentucky history What has an eminent citizen said of the natural and civil history of the State What of the virtues and fame of her great men How may these impress the young What may the educated youth do for the Commonwealth in the future 227 A P PEN D I X. LisT oF COUNTIES IN KENTUCKY. NA ME. Adair Allen . Anderson . . . Balla rd. Barren. Bath. Bell. Boone. Bourbon . Boyd. Boyle. Bracken . Breathitt . Breckinridge Bullitt. Butler. Caldwell . Calloway Campbell Carlisle . Carroll Carter Casey . Christian . Clark. Clay. Clinton. Critteuden Cumberland D)aviess . Edmonson Elliott. Estill. . Fayette . Fleming . Floyd. Franklin FOR WHOM NAMED. General John. Colonel John. ..... Richard C .. .. Captain Bland .... Barren of tLi ces. Bath Springs .... .. Joshua F.. .. ...... Daniel. . . Bou rbon s of Prance. Hou. Lynn . . Jul(lge John. William, pioneer. . ... Governor Johu .. .... John ............ Alexander Scott . . . ; General of Revolution . . General John. Colonel Richard..... Colonel John. John G. Charles .... . .... Colonel William G. . . . Colonel William ...... Colonel William .. ... General George Rogers. . . General Greeu. . ..... Governor of New York . John J. River of same . Colonel Joseph H...... Colonel John ........ Judge Johu M. Captain James ....... General La Fayette..... Colonel John. Colonel John. Benjamin. (228) COUNTY TOWN. Columbia. . . . . . Scottville.. .. . . Lawrenceburg . . . . Wickliffe ...... Glasgow . . Owiugsville. . .. . . Pineville. . .. . . . Burlington . .. . . . Paris . .. . .. . . Catlettsburg. Danville . . .. . . . Brooksville. . . Jackson . . . .. . . Hardinsburg. Shepherdsville .... Morgantowu .. .. Princeton ....... Murray ........ Newport. Bardwell . . ..... Carrollton....... Grayson . ....... Liberty . ...... Hopkinsville ..... Winchester .... Manchester ...... Albany. Marion ........ Burks-ville....... Owensboro. Brownsville...... Martinsbuig ..... Irvine ......... Iezington....... Flemingsburg. Prestousburg . Frankto....... F."Aw LISHED ihoi 1s15 1827 1842 1798 1861 VS67 J798 1785_ zS6o 1842 1796 1839 1799 1796 1809 1822 1794 1838 i8o6 1796 1792 i8o6 1835 1842 1798 1815 1825 1869 18,8 1780 1798 1799 17t APPENDIX. FOR WHOM NAMED. Robert ........... Albertb.e ......... Governor James. Samuel.. .. .... Captain Benjamin. Colonel William.. . ... General Nathaniel ..... Governor Christopher John Hancock. . .. .. Colonel John. Major Silas. Colonel Benjarnin . Captain Nathaniel. Colonel Richard. Patrick Henry ....... Captain Paschal ...... General Samuel ....... General Andrew. Thomasm. ......... Miss Douglass. massacred. Colonel Richard M.. . .. Captain Simon ....... Governor J. Proctor ..... General Henry ....... John, pioneer. ...... Laurel river. Captain James .... General Robert E. Governor Preston H . Governor Robert P ..... Captain Merriwethet .... General Benjamin ..... Robert R .......... General Benjamin ..... Chittenden ......... President James. Governor Beriah. General Francis ...... Chief-Justice John. Colonel John P. George ........... Captain Virgilg. ...... Judge Alney .. ..... Captain James. Richard H . General Hugh . Governor Thomas .... President James ...... COUNTY TOWN. Hickman ....... Warsaw........ Lancaster . Williamstown.... Mayfield ...... Leitchfield. Greensburg ...... Greenup ..... Hawesville. Elizabethtown .... Harlan C. H...... Cynthiana ...... Mufordsville . .... Henderson ...... New Castle. Clinton ....... Madisonville. McKee ........ Louisvilles. ..... Nicholasville. Paintsville ...... Covington. Hindman .... .. Barboui sville . Hodgensville ..... London ........ Louisai. ....... Beattyville ...... Hydend. ....... Whitesburg . ..... Vanceburg ...... Stanford ....... Smithland ...... Russellville . .... Fdd'-ville. Richmond ...... Salyersville... . . . Lebanon ....... Benton ........ Warfield ....... Maysville ....... Paducah ....... Calhoon. ...... Brandenbulrg ..... Frenchbitt g. .. . . Harrodshburg ..... F.lndmoxuton ...... Tompkinsville, . . . AM F. Fulton Gallatin Garrard Grant Graves Grayson Green Greenup Hancock Hardin Harlan Harrison Hart Henderson Henry Hickman - Hopkins Jackson Jefferson Jessamine Johnson Keuton. Knott Knox . Larne Laurel Lawrence Lee ... Leslie Letcher Lewis Lincoln Livingston Logan . . Lyon . . . Madison Magoffin. Marion . Marshall . Martin Mason McCracken McLean Meade Menifee Mercer Metcalfe Monroe ISTAB- LISHED. IS45 1798 1796 1820 1823 181o I792 I803 1829 1792 1819 1793 ]Sig 179S 179S 1821 I So6 1858 17SO 1798 1S43 1S40 1884 1799 1843 1825 1821 1870 1S79 1842 ic6 1780 179g 1792 1854 1785 186o 1834 1842 1S7,o 17S3 1824 1S54 1S23 S869 17S5 i86o 1820 229 APP19NDTX. FOR WHOM NAMED. r . General Richard ... General Daniel . ... General Peter . . . . Governor Thomas (Va.) Colonel George . Ohio river. . . . Colonel William , . . Colonel Abrahai. j Iudge William . . ... Fdmond (Va.) .... . . Com. Oliver Hazard . . General Zebulon M. . . Governor Lazarus W. ... Count Pulaski .... Chief-Justice George ... River ......... ... Judge John ...... .. . Colonel William. . . . . Governor Charles. . . Governor Isaac . Captain John . Captain Spear. General Zachary Colonel John. . . . Colonel Stephen . . Judge Robert. e... Sntiment t...... General Joseph. General George. . . General Anthony. .... Daniel . ........ Colonel William . . Nathaniel ....... General William. . . COUN;TT TOWN. Mt. Sterling West Liberty. .... Greenville ...... Bardstown ...... Carlisle ........ Hartford ....... Lagrange ....... ... Owenton ....... ... Booneville ...... F.. Yalmouth ....... Hazard ........ Pikeville ....... S.. Stanton ........ ... Somerset ....... Mt. Olivet ....... Mt. Vernon ...... Morehead ....... Jamestown ..... Georgetown Shelbyville ...... Franklin. Taylorsville ..... Campbellsville .... Flkton ........ Cadiz ......... Bedford ........ Morganfield...... Bowling Green . Springfield ...... Mouticello ...... Dixon ......... Williamsburg..... Compton ....... Versailles....... GOVERNMENT OF KENTUCKY BEFORE IT BECAME A STATE. Robert Dinwiddie called " Lieutenant-governor "-arrived in Vir- ginia from England early in 1752, and departed in January, 1758. His vacancy was filled for a short time by John Blair, President of the Council. The Earl of Loudoun was appointed by the King the successor of Dinwiddie, and came to Philadelphia, but uever to Virginia. 230 NA ME. Montgomery Morgan Muhlenberg Nelson Nicholas Ohio . Oldham Owen . Owsley. Pendleton Perry . Pike . Powell Pulaski Robertson Rockcastle Rowan. . Russell Scott Shelby Simpson Spencer Taylor Todd . ... Trigg. Trimble Union Warren . Washington Wayne Webster Whitley Volfe Woodford 88TAS- LISHED. 1 796 1822 1798 1784 1799 1798 I823 1819 1843 ,1798 1820 1821 1852 1798 1867 i856 1825 1792 1792 1819 1824 184S 1819 1820 1836 1811 1796 1792 ,Soo 150 ISIS i86o 178S Francis Fauquier was appointed Lieutenant-governor, and reached Virginia in 1758. He continued Governor until his death, early in 1768, when John Blair, who was still President of the Council, again acted as Governor. In November, i768, Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, arrived in Virginia as Governor-in-chief. " Solicitous to gratify the Virginians, Botetourt pledged his life and fortune to extend the boundary of Vir- ginia on the west to the Tennessee river, on the parallel of 360 3of. This boundary, Andrew Lewis and Dr. Thomas Walker wrote, would give some room to extend the settlements for ten or twelve years." Botetourt died October, 1770, after two years' service, in which he proved himself a friend of Virginia. The Colonial assembly erected a statue in honor of him, in front of William and Mary College, at Williamsburg, which was destroyed by some vandalism in the Federal army, about I864. In 1772, John Murray, Earl of Dunmore (generally called Governor Dunmore), was transferred from the Governorship of New York to that of Virginia. He was the last Colonial Governor. He sent out surveying parties iu 1773 and 1774 to survey, for himself, lands along and near the Ohio river. June 29, 1776, Patrick Henry, Jr., the great orator of the Revolu- tion, was elected the first Republican Governor of Virginia-receiving 6o votes, to 45 cast for Thomas Nelson, Sr., in the convention. The Governors of the State of Virginia, up to the time of the separation of Kentucky and its admission into the Union as a State, were: June 29, 1776. . Patrick Henry. December, 17S4. . Patrick Henry. June 1, 1779 . Thomas Jefferson. Deceiuber, 1786. . Edintild Randolph. June 12, 1781. . Thomas Nelson. December, 1788. . Beverly Randolph. Nov., 178i . . . Betj. Hat risoe. December, 1791. . Henry Lee. GOVERNORS, LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS, AND SECRETARIS OF THEI COMMONWVEALTH. I. Isaac Shelby, the first Governor, took the oath of office on the 4th of June, 1792, under the first Constitution; James Brown, Secretary of State. II. James Garrard took the oath of office June I, 1796. Harry Toulmin, Secretary, The present Constitution was formed 1799. "PPENDrX. 231 APPIENDIX. III. James Garrard, being eligible, was again elected Governor; Alex- ander S. Bullitt, Lieutenant-governor; Harry Toulmin, Secre- tary-i8oo. IV. Christopher Greenup, Governor; John Caldwell, Lieutenant- governor; John Rowan, Secretary-18o4. V. Charles Scott, Governor; Gabriel Slaughter, Lieutenant-gov- ernor; Jesse Bledsoe, Secretary-I8o8. VI. Isaac Shelby, Governor; Richard Hickman, Lieutenant-gov- ernor; Martin D. Hardin, Secretary-iSI2. VII. George Madison, Governor; Gabriel Slaughter, Lieutenant- governor; Charles S. Todd, Secretary -iSi6. Governor Mad- ison died at Paris. Kentucky, on the 14th of October, i 8i6, and on the 21st of the same month, Gabriel Slaughter, Lieutenant- governor, assumed the duties of executive. John Pope, aud after him, Oliver G. Waggoner, Secretary. VIII. John Adair, Governor; William T. Barry. Lieutenant-governor; Joseph Cabell Breckinridge, and after him, Thomas B. Monroe, Secretary-182o. IX. Joseph Desha, Governor; Robert B. McAfee, Lieutenant-gov- ernor; William T. Barry, succeeded by James C. Pickett, See- retary-x824. X. Thomas Metcalfe, Governor; John Breathitt, Lieutenant-gov- ernor; George Robertson, succeeded by Thomas T. Crittenden, Secretary-1828. XI. John Breathitt, Governor; James T. Morehead, Lieutenant- governor; Lewis Sanders, Jr., Secretary. Governor Breathitt died on the 21St of February, i834, and on the 22d of the same month, James T. Morehead, the Lieutenant-governor, took the oath of office as Governor of the State. John J. Critten- den, William Owsley and Austin P. Cox were, successively, Secretary-1832. XII. James Clark, Governor: Charles A. Wickliffe, Lieutenant-gov- ernor; James M. Bullock, Secretary. Governor Clark departed this life on the 27th September, 1839, and on the 5th of Octo- ber, Charles A. Wickliffe, Lieutenant-governor, assumed the duties of Goveruor-x836. XIII. Robert P. Letcher, Governor; Manlins V. Thomson, Lieuten- aut-governor; James Harlan, Secretary-xi84o, 232 XIV. William Owsley, Governor; Archibald Dixon, Lieutenant-gov- ernor; Benjamin Hardin, George B. Kinkead and William D. Reed, successively, Secretary-1844. XV. John J. Crittenden, Governor; John L. Helm, Lieutenant-gov- ernor; John W. Finnell, Secretary. Governor Critteinlen re- signed July 31, 1850, and John L. Helm became Governor,until the first Tuesday of September, 1851. i848-5i. XVI. Lazarus W. Powell, Governor; John B. Thompson, Lieutenant- governor; James P. Metcalfe, Secretary. i851-55. X VAl. Charles S. Morehead, Governor; James G. Hardy, Lieutenant- governor; Mason Brown, Secretary. 1855-59, XV111. Beriah Magoffin, Governor; Linn Boyd, Lieutenant-governor (died December 17, 1859) ; Thomas B. Monroe, Jr., Secretary. Governor Magoffiu resigned August iS, i862, and James F. Robinson, Speaker of the Senate, became Governor. 1859-63. XIX. Thomas E. Bramlette, Governor; Richard T. Jacob, Lieutenant- governor; E. L. Van Winkle (died May 23, i866), succeeded by John S. Van Winkle, Secretary. 1863-67. XX. John L. Helm, Governor; John W. Stevenson, Lieutenant- governor; Samuel B. Churchill, Secretary. Governor Helm died, September 8, 1867, and John W. Stevenson took the oath as Governor. In August, i868, he was elected Governor, serv- ing until February 13, 1871, when he resignedto take his seat in the United States Senate, and the Speaker of the State Sen- ate, Preston H. Leslie, became Governor. 1867-71. XXI Preston H. Leslie, Governor; John G. Carlisle, Lieutenant- governor; Andrew J. James, succeeded by George W. Crad- dock, Secretary of State. 1871-75. X II1. James B. McCreary, Governor; John C. Underwood, Lieuten- ant-governor; J. Stoddard Johnston, Secretary of State. 1875- I879. 1XIlL Luke P. Blackburn, Governor; James E. Cantrell, Lieutenant- governor; S.B. Churchill,J.S. Blackburn, Secretaries. 1879-83. XXIV. J. Proctor Knott, Governor; James R. Ilindman, Lieutenant- governor; James A. McKenzie. Secretary of State. T883-87. XXV. Simon B. Buckner, Governor; James W. Bryan, Lieutenant- governor; George M. Alams, Secretary of State. 1887-91. APPENDIX . 233 PARENT SETTLEMENTS IN VIRGINIA AND NORTH CAROLINA, VROM WHICH KENTUCKY REcEIVED ITS FIRST COLONISTS. In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh was authorized, by royal patent from Queen Elizabeth, to " discover and occupy such remote and heathen lands as might not be possessed by Christian people, as to him should seem good." Raleigh equipped and sent out upon this mission two commanders, Amadus and Barlow, who landed, in July, upon Roanoke Island, on the shore of North Carolina. Here the " Meteor Flag " of England, as an emblem of authority, was first raised upon the present territory of the United States. After taking formal possession, in the name of his Queen, Amadus returned to England bearing the welcome news of success. In the fullness of her heart, Queen Elizabeth gave to the country the name of Virgiia, in honor of herself, the virgin queen. Popular credulity was easily moved by the glowing descriptions of the loveliness of the scenery, the mildness of the climate, and the gentle hospitality of the natives of the new country; and in the fol- lowing April, 1585, a colony of over one hundred persons embarked in seven vessels, to plant their homes and fortunes there. They landed on Roanoke Island in July. After the trials of a single year, the adventure proved too discouraging, and the colonists returned to England. In 1587, Raleigh dispatched John White, commissioned as gov- ernor of the colony, with over one hundred others, who landed on the northern end of Roanoke Island, and began the foundations of "the City of Raleigh." White returned to England, and left the colonists in other care. Among these was Eleanor Dare, his mar- ried daughter, who gave birth to a female infant, the first child born of English parents in America. It was called, from the place of its birth, Virginia Dare. The liberal provisions of Raleigh, on this last colony, could not avert for it a fate less fortunate than that which befell the first. It was not until 1590, three years after he set sail, that White was able to return to its relief. On landing and searching Roanoke Island and vicinity, not a trace of the lost colonists could be found. Either they perished in some way; or else, in despair, they amalgamated with the Indians, as conjectured by Lawson, the first historian of Carolina. Raleigh now assigned to Thomas Smith and others the privileges of the trade of the Virginia coast, reserving for himself one-fifth of the gold and silver that might be discovered. 234 APPENDrX. In 1607, a fleet of three ships, with one hundred emigrants, under Captain Newport, sailed from England for the coasts of the new Vir- ginia; but distress of weather forced them to put in at Chesapeake Bay. The settlement of Jamestown was established] there, and fos- tered under the wise and energetic administration of Captain John Smith. It is believed that his genius and courage alone saved this settlement from the fate of the colonies of Roanoke. The settlement on the James flourished, and expanded its frontier to the Potomac river in the interior, and southward along the coast toward Albemarle Sound, for over half a century, before it again could awaken and arouse an interest strong enough to revive and plan the third and final experiment to establish an English colony on the Carolina coast. A nucleus of attraction had been formed. From time to time some Quakers, and other refugees from religious or political intoler- ance, settled about the Albemarle coasts, and cultivated friendly relations with the Indian tribes adjacent. In July, 1653, a colony from Virginia, led by Roger Green, settled on the banks of the Roa- noke, south of Chowan river. On the 24th of March, 1663, Charles II. granted to Edward, Earl of Clarendon; Sir John Colleton; Sir William Berkeley; Sir George Carteret, and others, all the country between latitudes 3r0 and 360, from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean, called Carolina, in honor of the royal donor. The same year, Sir William Berkeley, Governor of the Colony of Virginia, visited the province, and appointed William Drummond its Governor. Extensive as was the munificent grant made, it was enlarged in the proprietary interests of the same parties, in 1665, to include all the country between the Atlantic and Pa- cific oceans, from latitude 290 to 360 30'. Two colonies, Albemarle and Carteret, were established. The first Assembly that made laws for Carolina met in the autumn of 1669; though the "General Assembly of the County of Albemarle" had met two years before. The proceedings of the colonists of Virginia and North Carolina were of the maternal plants, from which sprang the imperishable germ of liberty, which, after the turbulent agitations of a century, accomplished destiny in the Declaration of Independence, in 1776, and gave to the oppressed of all nations an asylum for the free in the Republic of the United States. Among the powers conceded to the lord proprietors, were those of enacting laws and constitutions for the people, with their advice and consent, or that of their delegates assem- bled from time to time. No freer country was ever organized by man. "PPENDIX. 235 Freedom of conscience, and taxation only with their own consent, were first objects. Exemption from taxation for a year, non-recovery of debts, the cause of action of which arose out of the colony, within five years, a bounty of land to each settler, were provisions which suited the primitive people, who were as free as the air of the mount- ains, and as rough as the billowy ocean when oppressed. Their sense of manly independence could not brook the restraints of a gov- ernment imposed from abroad; yet the administration was firm, humane and tranquil, when left to govern themselves-a marked instance of the capacity of man for self-government. In 1671, Virginia numbered forty thousand souls; Albemarle, as North Carolina was then called, over fourteen hundred. Settlements gradually extended down the coasts, around Capes Fear and Carteret, Clarendon and Port Royal. The early colonists of Virginia and Carolina gave repeated evi- dences of their jealous love of liberty, and of their readiness to resist all forms of tyranny, for nearly one hundred years before the War of the Revolution. Not only were these sentiments expressed in frequent protests on occasions of abuse of power by those in authority, but in acts of resistance anti rebellion when the impositions became oppres- sive and flagrant. From such an ancestral origin remotely came, in the main, the daring and adventurous pioneers of Kentucky, of whose deeds of heroism and adventure their children of to-day love to read, and to hold in proud remembrance. 236 APPENDIX. GENERAL INDEX. PAGES. Adair, Major Johnx.1. Battle with Little Turtle .. . ii' At New Orleans .'... .. . 147 Elected governor.. . . .. . . 153 Alien and Sedition Laws .... . . .. 123 Anderson, General Robert, i86t . . i8z Commands in Kentucky. .. 82 Ballard, Captain Bland .... . . 89 Adventures of . . .. . . .. 90 His father killed. 9 Banking and finance .'... .. . 153 Baptists, pioneer... . .. . . .. s58 Battle of the Boards..... .. . 91 Belmont, battle of..... . .. . 183 Benham, Captain Robt., escape. 66 Big Bone Lick, visited 1773 . . . .20 Big Spring, Harrodstown . . . . . 23 Blackburn, Luke P., Governor . . . 215 Blackhoof . . . .. . . .. . . .. 18 Blue Licks, battle of....... . 8z Boiling Spring, cabins 1774 . . . . 23 Boonesborough, constitution . . . 29 Fight at; garrison.. . . 46 Besieged by Indians.... . . . 51 Attacked by Duquesne . . . . . 54 Boone, Daniel, visits Kentucky, 1769 12 Visit in '773; disaster . . . . . . I9 Mission to Kentucky, 1774 . . . 23 Wataga Council; Bootie's Trace 28 Indians; builds Boonesborough, 28 Early life and character . . . . 30 Capture and escape .52 At Blue Licks. . 8z Last years of.. . .. . .. . . 123 Boone, Squire, finds Daniel in Ky. . 12 Station in Shelby county . . .65 Disastrous retreat.. . . .. . 72 Elected legislator.. . .. . . 89 Bowman, Col. John, relieves Logan, 52 Repulse at Chillicothe . . . . . 63 Boyle, Gen. J. T., commands in Ky., 292 Bragg, General. invasion of Ky. by, 193 Breckinridge, Jno.,Resolutions 1798, 123 Attorney-General United States, 133 Breckinridge, Dr. Robert J., Super- intendent education . . . . . 175 Breckinridge, John C.,Vice-Pres. . . 173 United States Senatoc. o.... 180 Candidate for President . . . . 179 Brown, James, at Danville, 2774 . . 23 Secretary of State . . . . . . i. III Bryan's station built....... . 65 Besieged by Girty .78 Buckner, S. B., General .iS6 At Fort Donelson.. . . . . .. i86 PAGES. Buckner, S. B., Gen., elected gov'r 220 Bullock, W. F., school bill by. . . 275 Buell, General, commands in Ky. 184-6 Bulger, Captain, at Chillcothe . . . 63 Bullitt, Capt. Thomas, visit in 1773 20 Burr, Aaron, conspiracy .2... . . 133 Byrd, Colonel, invades Kentucky . 68 Cahokia, captured by Clark . . . . 56 Calloway, Richard . ..... .. . 28 Indians capture two daughters 44 Camip, Red river. 12 Price's Meadow .. . . .. . . 13 Cherokee Indians, title to Ken- tucky .27 Chillicothe, treaty 1774. 19 Visit of Capt. Bullitt, 1773 . . . 20 Chickasaw War .68 Purchase .... .. . . .. . . 53 Christian, Col. William, killed 98 Cincinnati, first trees felled . . 22 First nanie, Losantiville .... 204 Circuit Court organized .88 Clark, Gen. George Rogers, in Ken- tucky, 1775....... . . . . . 42 Returns to Virginia for aid . .43 Plans Illinois campaign . . . .55 Builds Fort Jefferson .68 Marches on Chlillicothe, etc. . . 69 Bold adventure. 7 Designs on Detroit .71 Expedition against the Indians 83 Wabash capaign, failure . . 99 Last years of.2... .. . .... 24 Clay, Cassius M., on Slavery. . . .64 Clay, Gen. Green, at Fort Meigs . 143 Clay, Henry, settles in Kentucky . 134 Presidential contests . . . . . 156 For President .... . .... . i6z Death of .1.. .. . . .. . . 172 Confederate Government . 1.8.. . x8x Constitution of 1850.. .. . .. . _69 Convention, first meeting .... . 93 Fourth and seventh . . . . Ioo, 102 Corn Island at Falls of Ohio . . . 55 Corn Stalk, chief, defeated . . . . 24 Counties, established (appendix) . 228 Cowan, Jared, killed, 2774 . . 23 Cripps and Crist, fight on Salt river 204 Crittenden, John J., Senator . . . i8i Crittenden, Gen. Geo. B ...... . 185 Croghan, Major, at Fort Sandusky 144 Cumberland river and mountain discovered and named. . . . iI Cumberland Presbyterians . . . .6o Daniel Walker, Attoiney-General . 88 (237) GENERAL INDEX. PAGES. Danville, First Lottery Cabins 1774 23 Court House built.... . . . 88 Chartered . .... . . . . . . xo4 Daviess, Colonel Joseph H., killed. 135 Davis, Jefferson, President C. S. . . x8x Desha, Joseph, Governor .... . . 154 Advocacy of States Rights . . 155 Disciples Church..... . .. . . x59 Dick's River. . .. . .. . . .. ..13 Douglas, James, visit 1773 .... . 20 Dragging Canoe (chief) scene . . 40 Drennon's Lick visited, 1773 . . . 20 Settled.... . . . . . ... . 37 Dudley, Colonel, defeat .1... . . 143 Dunmore, Lord war and treaty . . 24 Governor of Virginia . . . . . i9 Duree station massacre.... . . 84 Earthquake at New Madrid. . . . 136 Eastin, Rev., immigrant troubles . 94 Educational conventions . . . . . 218 Elections, State and National, 1876 214 State and National, 188o . . . . 2i5 State and National, 1884 . . . . 217 State election, x887.... . . . 221 National election, I888. . 223 Elizabethtown settled .70 Elk Horn massacre . I10 England war with .68 Troubles with .'35 Second war with.1.... . .. 139 Cruelty in war..43 Peace with.148 Estill, Captain James, defeat 76 Evans, Lewis, mapf iln '7iv ... . . I Exchanges in tr . .. .. 75 Falls of Ohio visited 1773. . 20 Clark's Expedition from . . '55 Fayette County created.... . . 70 Females, importation of .... . 72 Filson, John, founds Losantiville . 104 Fincastle County ..... . .. . 21 Finley, John,visits Ky.1767 and 1769 12 Fitch, John, great inventor. . . 152 Floyd, Col.John, in Kentucky 1773 21 Defeat ....... .. . .. . 72 Appointed Judge. . . . .. . . 88 Killed ...... . . . . . . . 92 Fort Me ts, siege of... 143 Fort Sandusky, defense of. . 44 Forts Donelson and Henry . . . . 186 Frankfort, Capitol located at . . . I French, syinpathy for. .... . . 112 Hostilities with..... . . . 125 Louisiana purchased of . . . . 133 Frenchtown, battle of..... . . 141 Fry, Col. Speed S., kills Zollicoffer . 185 Garrard, James, elected Governor. i19 Galaspy, William, at St. Asaph . 36 Gass, Miss Jennie, slain ..... . 76 Genet, French Agent . . . . .. . 113 Geology of Kentucky . ... .. . 176 Girty, Simon, at Bryan's Station . -78 At Blue Licks ... ...x. . . 81 Gist, Captain, visits Kentucky. . . xi Greenup, Christopher, Governor . 133 PAGES. Guerrillas in Kentucky .... . . 200 Habits and Customs .... .. . 73-75 Hardin, Captain William . . 98 Hardin, Colonel John, assassinated. Ill Harmer's Defeat ... ....... . 108 Hard Winter 1779-80.... .. . . 65 Harrod, James, visit, 1773 .. 20 Returns to Kentucky 1774. . . 22 Builds Harrodstown. . . . .. 35 At Bowman's Defeat .. .... 63 Harlan, Colonel Silas, killed. . . .82 Harrison, General, in North-west. 141 Elected President.6.o.... . i6o Hart, Nathaniel.... .. . 27 and 84 Hart, Uncle Dick (Colored)... . . 32 Harrodstown Lottery cabins. . . . 23 First Court...... . . . . . 76 Hawes, Richard, Confederate States Governor .1......... . I95 Helm, John L., Governor .. o.8.. 20 Henderson, H. A. M., Superinten- dent Public Instruction . . . 210 Henderson, Richard, founds Tran- sylvania, builds Boones- borough ...... .. . . . 27-32 Life of. .. . . .. . .. . . . 31 Hickman, Rev. Wm., first service . 45 Hinkson Station built..... . . 37 And restored.... . .. . . . 65 Hite, Abram, in Kentucky 1774 . . 22 Holder, Capt. Jno., rescues captives 44 At Chillicothe defeat .. .. . 63 Fight near Blue Licks. 78 Home Guards, t86t . ...... . h. 182 Hubbell, Captain, Desperate de- fense . .1...... . . . . l09 Hull's surrender, effects . . . . . . 240 Hunter's Life and Habits .13 Imxprovements, Internal .1... . . I57 Indians, no Villages in Kentucky, Shawanees,Cherokees,Chick- asaws, Choctaws .4..... . 14 Tribal Conquests and traditions I5 Outrages 1787-90.. . .. . .. 103 Indians, Defiant and Warlike . . . Ixx Last Incursions .1.1.4.... . 114 Nature and Customs of . . . . 129 Inventors, in Kentucky .1... . . I52 Irvine, Colonel William, rescue. 77 Captain Christopher, death. .99 Jackson, General, at New Orleans. 146 Jefferson County Established . . . 70 Jefferson, Fort, built..... .. . 68 Johnson, Colonel Richard Mf. . . 144 At Battle of the Thames . . . .145 Elected Vice-President. . . . . x6o Johnson, General A. S., in Ken- tuckly ..4....... . . . 1S4 Judicial Bodies 1795 .8....... I18 Strictures of Governor Desha. 155 Old and New Court Contest. .14 Judges Elected.. . . .. 169 Superior Court, x882. 25 Appellate Bench, z884 217 Kaskaskia, Clark captures 55 238 GENERAL INDEX. PAGES. Kennedy, John . . . .. . .. . . 28 Kenton Sunon, in Kentucky, 1773 22 Settes in Kentucky, x775 . . . 36 Daring adventures of . . . . . 62 Last years of ............... 124 Kentucky geography .9.............. Rivers, physical features, etc. . l0 Origin of of . .. . .. . . . n a2e " Dark and Bloody Ground" . . 14, 40 Mohawk title..... ... 8 Other explorers in 2773. 20 Part of Fincastle county.. . 21 Deserted, 2774..... . . . . 23 Kentucky county organized . . .....46 Separate government wanted . .........87 Death-roll, 2780.-S................ 92 Efforts at Statehood ................97 Becomes a State, 1792. 107 First State government ... . 210 Government in 795 . . . . .. ix8 Second Constitution. 1..... . 125 Prosperity of... . . .. . .. 135 War spirit in x812-S .. . 140 Geology and soils. . .. 176 Neutrality 186z.o...... . . z8o Battle ground, 1862....... . 185 C. S. Government organized. . x85 Confederates retreat from . . . 186 Martial law in..... . .. . 192 Invaded by C. S. Army. 2.... I93 Reign of Terror. . .. . . .. 200 Troops in the late war .... . 201 Civil and military condition . . 206 Condition and needs. .. . . . 218 Centennial year, 2892 ... ... 224 Governors of (appendix) . . . . 231 Counties of (appendix) ... . 228 Sources of colonization (ap.) . . 234 Kincheloe Station massacre . . . . 82 Knott, J. Proctor, Governor .... 216 Knox, Colonel John, in Ky., 1769-71 13 Know Nothing Party .... . . . 172 Land Law of 1779...... . . . . 64 Land surveys and litigation .... 84 Laws and litigation. .. . .. 120 Sharks .. .... . .. . . .. 120 Leestown Station (Frankfort) . . . 45 Legislature of 1795....... . . "B Leslie, Preston H., Governor . . . 209 Lewis, Col. Andrew, commands at Point Pleasant, 1774 . . . . . 24 Lexington, site named .... . . 37 First improved, 2779... . .. 6; Prosperity in x82o.. .. . .. 255 Lillard's Spnng, visited 1773 . . . 20 Limestone (M4aysville) settled . . . 37 Lincoln county created . . . . . . 7o Lincoln, Abraham, President . . . 379 Proposes to pay for freedmen .187 Emancipation Proclamation . g96 Assassination of ............205 Linn, Capt., improves at Louisville 6j Little Mountain, battle of .... . 76 Logan, Col. Benj., fortifies, 1775 . . 36 Heroic defense of fort. 5.2... 5z PAGUS. Logan, Cot. Benj., at Chillicothe. . 63 Re-enforcement for Blue Licks . t Miami campaign . . .. . .. 99 Logston, Joe, noted rencounter . . 114 Long Hunters in Kentucky, 1769-71 13 Loughrey, Col. Archy, massacre. . 71 Louisville, forts built, 1778-82 . . . 6z Prosperity in 1820.2..... . I55 Lynch, Capt., station..... . . 89 Lythe Rev. J at Boonesborough 45 Mago1in, B., Governor, war protest pound;82 Resigns, 1862 ......... . 193 Marshall, Gen. Humphrey ..... . 67 Marshall, Thomas F. 2... : : : 157 Martin's Station restored. 65 Captured by Col. Byrd. 69 Massac, old French fort .... . . 55 Maulding's Station Logan county 7o Maysville charteredw... . .. . . 104 May, John, Clerk of Court 88 May, Capt., captured.0.9.... . iog McAfee Bros., visit 1773 .... . . 20 McAfee Station improved .... . 65 McDowell, Sam'l, made Judge . . 88 McClelland station fort . . . . . . 45 McCreary, James B., Governor . . 213 McGary, Capt. Hugh, arrives . .37 At Blue Licks .. . .. . . .. 8i McKnitt's massacre .. . . .. . . 98 Menifee, Richard H ..2...... . 157 Merchandise and merchants . . . 89 Merrill Mrs, heroic defense . . . 203 Methodists, pioneer. .. . .. . . 159 Mexican war, Kentucky troops in. 265 Conquest by Scott.... . . . i67 Mexico, treaty with..... . . . x68 Mill Spring, battle of..... . . 185 Monk, Estill, slave, his gallantry, 76, 78 Morehead, James T., Lieut.-Gov. . 16o Morehead, Charles S., Governor . .72 Morgan, Gen. John H., cavalry raid in Kentucky .2....... . 188 Invades Kentucky again . . . 197 Crosses the Ohio.2..... . . t98 His death. ... .. ... .. x99 National Centennial, 1889 . . . . . 223 Naval defense, C-lark's..... . . 7o Nelson Fort at Louisville. 6 Neutraiity of Kentucky, x86t . . . 1i New Orleans battle ofi4. Newspaper, Arst . 24 Nicojack Indians, raid on 114 Nicholas, George, Attorney-General ziI Oconistoto (chief), at Wataga . . . 40 Ohio Land Company. .. . I Old court and New court.. . .54 Owen, Colonel Abraham, station . 89 Killed at Tippecanoe .... . 135 Paducah, attacked by Forest .. 20o Panic, financial, x g. 213 Paris, first charter Hopewell . . o Patterson, Robert, visits Kv., 1775 37 Trip to Virginia for supplies. . 45 Improves Lexington ...... 6S Founds Cincinnati. .. . . .. log 239 GENERAL INI)EX. PAGES. Perry, Commodore Oliver IT., vic- torv on Lake Erie.... . . . 44 Perryville, battle of.... . .. . 195 Pickett, J. Desha, Superintendent Public Instruction..... . 215 Progress under.. . . ... . . 222 Pittman's station built .... . . 65 Point Pleasant, battle 1774 .... . 24 Political parties, 1867 . . ..... 207 Poptulation by census notes . . . . 220 I'owell's Valley..... .x.. . . I Powell, Lazarus W., Governor 1. 71 Power, Thomas, Spanish agent . .i Pre-historic remains...... . . 21 Presbyterians, pioneer... .. . . 159 Preston, William, surveyor . . . . 21 Preston, General William. 6.... i96 Proctor, Rev. Joseph, bravery of. . 77 Raisin, battle and massacre . . . . 141 Randolph, Thomas, heroic defense 83 Ray, General William, escape . . 47 Reforms in legislation...... . 217 Reign of 'Berror in Kentucky, 1864 200 Resolutions of I798.... . . .. . 123 Relief and Anti-Relief parties . . . 153 Religion, early, in Kentucky . . . 158 Richmond, battle of.... .. . . . 93 Robinson, Camp Dick, I86x . . . . 182 Robinson, James F., Governor . . . 193 Rogers, Captain David, massacre . 66 Roman Catholics, pioneer.. . 158 Royal Spring Georgetown) fortified 37 Ruiddles Station captured .... . 69 Saltville, battle of....... . . 200 Sanduskys in Kentucky, 1774 . . . 22 Sandusky, Fort. .. . .. . . .. . 144 Station built...... . . . . 45 Schools in Kentucky.... .. . . 174 Transylvania founded .... . 174 County seminaries. . .. . . ..74 Common School System. . . . 175 Great Reforms..... . 209, 222 Scott, Gen. Chas.,Wabash expedit'n xo0 Elected Governor .... . . . 135 Sebastian, Judge, intrigue with Spain . . 119 Senators' first United States . . . . xxI Shellb, Isaac, first Governor . . . III Lfife and Services....... . 113 Again Governor .1.... . . . I39 Shiloh, battle of... .. . . .. . .87 Slavery, African.1..... . .. . . I26 Agitation of question. 1.... 164 Abolition in Kentucky .... . 201 Slaves, Lincol's proI oitil . . . 187 Smith, Z. F., elected Sul-prixnten- dent Public Instruction . . . 208 School reform .... .. . . . 209 Spanish intrigues.... . . .. . 88 Same renewed . . . . .. . . . ior Conflict of opinion.1...... x..02 Last intrigues. .. . .. . . . 19 Spies, for Kentucky.... . .. . 47 For Illinois..... . .. . . . 5- Stauwix, Furt, treaty of ..... . , 19 PAGES. St. Asaph, Poft, built, 1775 .... 35 Besieged .. . . .. . .. . . . 51 St. Clair, General, defeat . 1.1.0. . xio State Guards, i86x.1..... .. . 182 Centennial, 1892..... . . . 224 Stevenson, John W., Governor . . 208 StewartJohn, captured with Boone 12 Stoner, Michael, in Kentucky 1774 23 Suffrage to the Colored Citizens . . 212 Sumpter, Fort, fired on..... . 181 Taylor, Hancock, in Ky., 1773. . . 21 - Killed in 1774....... .. . 23 Taylor, Gen.Zachary, Mexican War 165 Battles of Monterey and Buena Vista.. . . .. . .. . . . 166 Elected President.... . . . 168 Tecumseh, Chief. at Malden. . . . 143 Killed by Colonel Johnson. . . 146 Thames, Battle of.... . . .. . 145 Tinsley, Rev. Peter, First Services . 45 Tippecanoe, Battle of.'..... . I35 Todd, Captain Ievi .... . .. . 63 Todd, Jno., Elected Representative 70 Killed at Blue Licks .... . . 82 Toulmin, Harry . . . . .. . .. . ili9 Transylvania Company, purchase Kentucky .2.8... ... .. . 28 Begin Work. Governments . . 38 Protest: Virginia Annuls . . . 39 Treaties; Fort Stanwix; Dun- more's: Wataga . . . . .. . 19 With England .87 Disregarded .97 Of Madrid .19 Trigg, Stephen, Elected Repre- sentative .70 Killed at Blue Licks .82 Truman, Major, Assassinated . . . iii Tyler's Station.. . . .. . . . 89 Vincen nes, Captured by Clark . .56 Lost, and Captured again . . . 57 Virginia's Gift of Territory . . .. 93 Adopts U. S. Constitution . . . 98 Walker, Dr., Visits Kentucky in 1750 II Wataga, Treaty of .... . .. . 19, 28 WVar Between North and South. . 18o Wayne, Genieral Anthony, Victory. 112 Whippoorwill Station, Logan County ...... . .. . . . 70 Whitley, Captain William. Station . 45 Rescue of Mrs. McClure . . . . 94 Raid on Nicojack Indians. . . 114 Whittaker, Captain, Severe Fight 72 W ickliffe, Charles A., Governor. .6o Wilderness Road, Boone's .. . 28 Wild Cat and Schoolmaster. . . 92 Wilkinson, General, Wabash Expe- dition .0.9. . . . .. . . 79 Intrigue with Spain .9... . . xig Williams, General John S .. . . . . 167 United States Senator .... . 214 Women, First White in Kentucky. 37 Strategy at Bryan's Station. . 8o Yadkin Rivei, North Carolina. . . 12 Zullicoffer, Gcueral, killed .. . i85 240