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Address delivered before the Colonization society of Kentucky : at Frankfort, on the 6th day of January, 1831 / by Robert J. Breckinridge. Breckinridge, Robert J. (Robert Jefferson), 1800-1871. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-155-29772085 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Address delivered before the Colonization society of Kentucky : at Frankfort, on the 6th day of January, 1831 / by Robert J. Breckinridge. Breckinridge, Robert J. (Robert Jefferson), 1800-1871. A.G. Hodges, printer, Frankfort, Ky. : 1831. 24 p. ; 22 cm. Coleman Cover title. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1994. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN03988.09 KUK) Printing Master B92-155. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. African Americans Colonization Africa. AN DELIVERED BEFORE THE COLONIZATION SOCIETY OF KENTUCK1, On the 6th day of January, 1 1. BY ROBERT J. BRECKINRIDGE. Let the oppressed go free ........... ISAJAr, LVIl. 6. FRANKFORT. K. A. X. VIODGES, PRINTER, COMMENTATOR OFFICE. ................ 1831 At a meeting of the Kentucky Coloni'ation Society, Januaay Ot8 - e1831- Resolved, unanimously, That the thanks of the Society are due to Ro- bert J. Breckinridge, Esq. for the very able and eloquent address deliver-. .d by him, on this evening, and that Dr. Luke Munsell, John H. Hanna and James W. Denny, Esq'rs. be a committee to wait on him, and re- quest a copy Ibr publication. AlL H, WINGATE, Rec. Sec'y,. JANUARY 7th, 1831.. In answer to your note of yesterday, and in compliance witas the request of the Colonization Society of Kentucky, expressed in the res- olution accompanying it, you will receive herewith a copy of the address alluded to. Very respectfully, your ob't serv't, ROd J. BRECKINRIDGE. L. XMunsef, Jno. H. Hanna and Iam, W. Denny, Esfri. .1 DDRE M. WHEN the great Lawgiver of the Jews was perfecting that rer markable feature of his code, by which, at the end of every sev- en years, the debtor, the servant, an(l the oppressed, amiong the Hebrews, were to go out free among their brethren, he enforc- ed its observance by the most striking anti personal of all argu- ments: "Thou shalt remember that those vast a bondinan in the land of Egypt, and the Lord thy God re(leemed thee." Again, after the lapse of a thousand years, when Israel was shorn of all her temporal glories, and the feel)le remnant that gathered out of all the East around the sceptre of the house of David, was restored from a long and grievous captivity, it was among the first and most solemn exclamations of their gratitude: "We were bondmen, yet our God hath not forsaken us in our bondage." If there be any that now hear mny voice who have aided in working out the civil redemption of this large empire; if there be any whose kindred have poured out their blood in achieving the glories which have fallen upon us; if there be any who cher- ish the high exploits of our mighty ancestors, and cultivate an unquenching love for the free and noble institutions which have descended to us, I beseech them to couple with the lofty emo- tions belonging to such scenes, the solemin recollection, that "we were bondmen." If any who hear nle have been led, by the power of the everlasting God, into the liberty of his 6wn sons, an(l who rejoicing in the hope of eternal life, look back upon the bondage out of which their souls have been re(leelned, with un- utterable gratitude to [1im who gave himself for them, I pray them to bring to the discussion which lies before us, those feel- ings which are produced by the deep and sa4cred assurance, that "our God hath. not forsaken us it our l)ondage." And will He not remember others also We have his own assurance, that "Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God." Will his justice sleep for ever Will lie not "behold the tears of such as are oppressed" Will he not "judge the poor" Will he not "save the children of the needy " Will he not "break in pieces the oppressor' The forsaken, the afflict- ed, the smitten of men, will he also utterly cast off And who shall stand in the way of his righteous indignation I ho shall resist the stroke of his Almighty arm, or shiield us from his fierce and consuming wrath Alas! for that people, who resistinI all flie lessons of a wise experience, blind to tile unchaii-aing t;urse 4 of the providence of God, and (leaf to the continual admonitions of his eternal word, will madly elect to brave the fury of his just and full retribution! "Because I have called, and ye refus- ed; I have stretched out my hand, and 11o man regarded; but ye have set at nought all my counsel, and would none of my re- proof: I also will laugh at your calamity ; I will mock when your fear conteth; when your fear coulleth as desolation, and your destruction comneth as a whirlwind; when distress and an- giiish cometh upon you: Then shall they seek me, but shall not find me. " Stuth thoughts habitually crowd ulton me when I contem- plate those great pei sonal and national evils, from which the system of operations which I stand here to advocate, seems to offer us -some p)rospec't of deliverance. The scheme of African Colonization, as exhibited by our National Society and its va- rious auxilaries, is a most noble conception. It is a stupendous plan-spanning the Atlantic and encircling in its wide embrace a nation of slaves, and a continent of heathens. Africa is classed as one of the great divisions of the earth, and is a vast peninsular continent, extending from the 37th degree of north, to about the 34th degree of south latitude; and from the 17th degree of west, to the 51st degree of east longitude. Its greatest length is about five thousand miles, and its greatest breadth more than four thousand. Considering its peculiarly advantageous situation, it is surprising that, in all ages, it has been comparatively so little known )by the rest of the world; for standing, as it were, in a central position, between the other three quarters, it affords a much more ready communication with Europe, AMia and America, than they do with each other. It is opposite to Europe along the Mediterranean, whose shores were the nursery of our race, in a line froui east to west, for al- mnost a thousand miles, the distance being seldom one hundred miles, amid never that many leagues. It is over against Asia for a distance of owe thousand three hundred miles, tile whole length of the Red Sea, whose breadth sometimes does n ot ex- ceed fifteen miles, and seldom one bundred and fifty. Its coast, for two thousand miles, lies opl)osite to America, at a distance of from five hundred to seven hundred leagues, if we include the islands; whereas America is scarce any where nearer to Eu- rope than ofie thousand leagues, nor to Asia, except inl the in- hospitableclimtiate of Kainschatka, than two thousand five hun- dred leagues. At a period to which profane history does not reach, but on which the word of God shedls its holy light, Africa was planted by the descendants of Ham, the son of Noah. Cush settled in Lower Egypt, and from him were descended the ancient Xthio- pians, known to us as the Nubians and Abyssinians, and emnbrac- 5 ing, also, those unknown nations inhahitine the equatorial re- gions of that continent. lisrantim peopled what tvas known to the antients as the Tlhebais, 11ermnop)olis, Memphis, aril the Del- ta of the Nile-to us, as Upper and Lower Evlpt. From hild al;o were (lescende(l, amono- other people of Awrica, the itilhari- tants of Colchlis, the ancestors of the varlike Philistines, whose descendants, until this day, if learned men are to be cre(dited, have occupied so large a space on the page of history. Plint peopled Lybia and Mauiritania, emnbraving the kingdoin of Fez, the Deserts, Algiers, and other p)ortions. From these, with such additions as einigration anald frequent conquiiest have given, it is probable that all the nations of Africa, however divided, mixed, or dispersed, originally came. Agrenor, an Egyp)tian, founded the Plicenecian Commonwealtil and the Republic of ryre. Cad inus, the son of Aoenor, found-- ed the Republic of Thebes, and intro(luce(l the use of letters in- to Greece. Cecrops, at the head of all Egyptian colony, found- e(l the Athenian State, and gave laws to the barbarous hordes of Attica. If p)rofane tra(hition is to be creditedI, these and other colonies from Africa, were dIriveen out from their native regions bv the first of the Shepherd Kings, (who were themselves the Amelekites, descendants of Canaan, another son of Ham,) who devastated Egypt at the head of two hundred antd forty thotis- and warriors, and established at 'lanais, the seat of that empire, under whose iron sway the chuosen people of Gold groanre(, undier a (espotism so bitter ill its pro-aress, so awful in its overthrow. There are several reflections here which wonderfully illuastrate, Ul)OF this fated race, the vicisitudes whic h bel(ng to all that iV human. They who gave to our ancestors the first model of those institutions which d eserve to he called free, have the lolgl- est bowed down nuder insupportable oppression. They wno, gave to Europe the first knowle(dge of the arts, and of huinan let- ters, have been shrouded in the lo:nuest and the deepedt intel4m lectual darkness. They wvho. in the career of resistless victory, first established the principle of natioanal, perpetual andt heredi- tary slavery, have the sorest, and the inost uanpitied, wept mial- der that deep and unmnitigated curse. Certain lortions of Africa were, as early as amy other regions, erectedl into regliar (oknniuuities, after tile re-peojing tile earth by the descendants of Noith. That so ate of those coma- munities very early attaiiled to a high dep ree of cultivation, wealth and(l power, there is abundaiat evidence ill profane hiisto- ry, in the Holy Scriptures, and ill those extraordinary nionil- ments of taste and magalificence, xvlaich placed beyond the lar- thest verge of knowviedge, and ais it were, beside its regular cur- rent, yet remain thie wonder aral aitoni.- haae.AL of iaankind. That their progress iln illinmorality afnd UriHe. wa. equaal to their ad- 6 vance in civilization, there remains no room to doubt. He who has d(welt muc hi on such subjects, may consider this as in no way diflerent from the ordinary course of events, and as accounting well enough for many of thee calamities whi(h have befallen them in subsequent ages. I dispute not with philosophy; but there is another view of the imatter-and I would that philosophy were more frequently etiti(ed to such contemplations-which has appeared to tne zuost solemn andl striking. Egypt was the most powerful of the kingdoins of Africa for many ages. As it stood on tie threshhold of the only entrance to that continent accessible to the ancients, algal was itself the mediumn of all inte- rior communication with it; as its boundaries, if well defined at all, were not accuratelh knowni to the nations of Asia and Eu- rope; as their knowledge of her surrounding, tributary and al- lied states was still less accurate; as it was the uniform habit of all ancient conquerors, of whom Egypt produciCed many, to man- ifest the most extravagant pretensions to granideur and empire; in fine, from a variety of such considerations, it is mnanifrst to every scholar, that wvhen the ancients speak of Egypt, their meaning is inost generally to be understood as of a country vast- ly more extensive, than we, with our better knowledge, would attach to that ten in. If indce(l we should frequently understand themt as mearinig all Africa kitown to them, we should not, per- haps, be far from the correct view of the subjects At a period in her history scarcely less prosperous than any that had precetled it, and wvhen she stood forth famous in arts and arms, the queen of nations; when there appeared before- hand, no probability of great reverses, and the Prince who fil- led her throne, b)oasted, as we are informed by Herodotus, "that no God could deprive him of his kingdomn;" just then, when it would appear to human observation that the mercies of God were powred out profusely on Africa, his decree went forth a- gainst her: "Fromt the tower of Svene, even unto the border of Ethiopia," the curse of the Most -ligh clave unto the land. The seed of his chosen had been enticed and betrayed; they had re- posed upon her, and been pierced with many sorrows. "Thou art like a younl lion of the nations'"-"'I will spread my net o- ver thee"-"I vwill scatter the Egyptians among the nations"- "I will make manu people aiiiazed at thee"- Ashur is there and all her comupany"-"'T' here is Elati and all her multitudlc" -'There is Meshieck, Tubal, and all her intiltitude"-"'There is Edow, her kings, anti all her prinizes"-,Tbiere be the prin- ces of the North, all of them, and all the Zidonians"-"It shall be the basest of the kingrdoms; neither shall it exalt itself any more above the nations; for I will (iinunish them, that they shall no miore rule over the nations." For mnore than two thousand years the annals of every people attest the fulfilmelnt of this re' xhiar1iahle prophecy. Conquered by the Persians, tinder Camnhy ses, within fifty years after this prediction; conquered again by the Macedonians; subjugated and pillaged by the Roiuans, and made the theatre of many of their bloodiest wars; overwhelm- ed by the Saracens; suhbjigated, scourged and inade dessolate by the Mamelukes; devastated by the Turks; overrun by the French; for a hundred generations, made the battle field of na- tions, and tile constant victim of them all; and worse than all, her children, for centuries together, swept into distant and hope- less bondage-scattered and sifted throughout the universe, as it is this day. The discovery of America, which was destined to exert so exten- sive and so benign an influence upon the European race, the de- scendants of Japhet, adldled increased bitterness to the cup of afflic- tion which seemed already overflowing for the children of Ham. The first adventurers to the western continent and the islands a- long the atlantic coast, without the least remorse, red uced the sim- ple and ignorant aborigines to a servitude so Monstrous, that in the island of Hispaniola alone, from the year 1508 to 1517, the In- dians were reduced, by the the brutal oppression under which they groaned, from sixty thousand to fourteen thousand souls; and the extinction of this miserable remnant was hastened bv more aggravated calamities. You will observe that this whole- sale butchery was perpetrated tinder thessameexecrable pretence of political necessity, under which every public crime which has disgraced our race, has found its constant defence. It was sanctioned by a formal decree of the king of Spain, ",that the ser- vitude of the Indians was warranted by the laws both of God and man." I have no intention of entering into details which are not necessary to the complete understanding of the subject before me. And perhaps enough has been said to show how easy was the transition fromn Indian to Africani subjugation; from crime perpetrated on a feeble and nearly extinguished1 race, to similar crime inflicted on one mimore robust, inote (legrad(led. and therefore more suitable to the purposes of an insatiable rapaci- ty. Barthelemi de las Casas, Bishop of Chiapa, heading the little band of ecclesiastics who still recognized tile oblijoations of justice and humanity to the Indians, beset the Spaiiish throne with prayers in their behalf, until bv a fatality, singular and most unhappy, lie saw their chains, which it was the object of his life to break, rivited forever; and those whom lie had de- signated, in the madness of his zeal, as their substitutes in wretch- edness, become only their fellows in slavery. As early as 1503, a few negroes had been sent to the new world. In 1511 Ferdi- nand permitted their importation in large numbers. Charles the Fifth, on his accession to the throne, rejecting what was 'who and humane in the plans of Las Cauas, and adopting 60 8 wuch of them as was abhorrent to every virtuious feeling, grant- led an exclusive pTtewt to one of his Flemish havourites, to im- port four thousand negroes into America. The patent was sold to certain Genoese merchants for twenty five thousand ducats. The Portuguese had found the trade in slaves, which had been long aholished in Europe, one of the first advantages derived from the discoveries in Africa. The Genoese, under the patent of the Emperor, found no (liffic(lity in procuring the victims of their avarice, and "ere the first who brought into regular form that commerce in the souls and bodies of inen, between Africa ancl Amierica, whiili iiflicts, of all things else, the most inideli ble stain on the character of' mankind. The first settleineits which were made by the En glish on the continent of North Aneriva, were tindler the auspices of Corpo- rations, or individuals, to whomii extensive grants hadl been madhe b the English crown. 'I lie company that settled the colony of Virginia had monop11)olized its coultlerte up to the year 1620. In that vear,this nionopoly was given tup, an(l the tra(le opened. A DutAh vessel from the coast of Guinea, availing itself of the commercial liberty whiti prevailed, brought into James river twentv Atricans, who were immne(diately purchasel as slaves. An ordinance that all heathen persons might he held as slaves, an(1 that their descesidanits, although christians, might be con- tinnied in slavery, sealedl on this (ontinent the doomi of the wretched African. Such was the inception of slavery in the U- nited States. Such wva. the first settlement among IIs, of an op- pressed and suflering race, which has aui-mented by a very rap- id propagation, and continual importation, in soniewhat more than two centuries, frolik twentv ouls, to two millions. Vir- ginia, the most ancient of our commnornwealths, wats the first of them to lend hersell to the oj)j)ressioII of these unhappy mep. Holland, who had, withmin forty years, emancij)ate(h herself from a foreign despotism, lnse(l the large resources which grew up un- der the shade of her recovered liberty, to deliver over an Unof- fending people to hopeless bondage; and, that the climax of cu- pidity and turpitude might he aptly adjusted, the whole matter was concIuide(l in the name of Christianity. Men were not so slow in discovering the evils of the unnatur- al condition of society, whose origin amiong us I have been at- tempting to disclose. As early as 1698, a settleanent of Quakers near Germantown, iii Pennsylvaniia, publickly expressed their opinion of the unrighteonsness of human bonidage. And from that day till the present, there have flourished in our country, men of large and just views, who have not ceased to pour over this subject a stream of clear and noble truth, and to importune their (;ountry, by every motive of duty atd a(lvantage, to wipe from her escutcheon the staiun of humn teusrs. They have not 9 lived in vain. In better times their counsels will be heard. When the (lay comes, an(l come it smrely will, when, th ought out this broad empire, not an aspiration shall go upto thethrone of God, that does not emanate from a freeman's heart, they will live in story, the apostles of that hallowed reign of peace, fandl men will quote their names to adorn the hiohest lessons of wisdom, and enforce, by great examples, the practice of high and virtuous actions. With the increase of the number of slaves, became more ap- parent the injuries inflicted by slavery itself, upon every inter- est associated with it. The voice of reason and humanity be- gan to be listened to, when that of interest Uttered its sounds in unison. What in(livi(luals had long foreseen, some of our coin- munities began at length to apprehend and to lprovidle against. A duty on the importation of slaves was laid by New York, in 1753, by Pennsylvania, in 1762, and by New Jersey, in 1769. Virginia, the first to introduce them, was also the earliest in set- ting the example of their exclusion. In 1778, in the midst of civil war, she pult upon the pages of her history, an en during record of her respect for those rights of other men, for which she was freely pouring out her own blood, by probibiting the introduction of slaves into any of her ports. In 1780, Peninsvl- vania passed a law for the gradual abolition of slavery, which has the merit of being the earliest legislative proceeding of the kind in any country. All the states, north and east of Mary- land, have since passed similar laws. On the azdoption of the Federal Constitution, Congress was authorized to prohibit, at the end of twenty years, the importation of' negroes into any part of the United States; and the power was exercised at the amppointed time. No slaves have, therefore, been legally brought into this nation since the year 180S. After the close of our revolutionary war, many negroes who fled from their masters, and sought protection with the British armies (luring its progress, were scattered through the Bahama Islands, and Nova Scotia. Others had foundl their way to Ellg. land. In 1787, a private company in Enuland sent four hun- dlre(d of thein, with their own consent, to Sierra Leone, on the western coast of Africa. About five years afterwards, twelve hundred of those from Nova Scotia were transported to Sierra Leone, by the British government. The Maroons, from Jamai- ca, were remnovel thither in 1805. The hostility of the French, the opposition of the natives, the selection of a situation which proved to he unfortunate in many local particulars, and perhaps more than either, the heterogeneous materials of which that set- tlement was composed, for somne years, retarded its growth. All these difficulties, however, have been surmounted. Ihat colo- ny contains more than twenty thousand souls, of whow wore B 'than three fourths are re-captured Africans, whose rapacious owners had destined them for foreign bondage. Towns are, reared up, churches and schools established, agricldture has be- come a settled pursuit, and society has p)ut on a regular and sta- ble appearance. For some years anterior to 1816, the project of colonizing the free blacks of this country in Africa, had occupied the serious consideration of individuals in several parts of the union. The rapid accumulation of free negroes, who amoumtedi, at that pe- riod, to two hundred and ten thousand, to which number they had grown from sixty thousand, in twenty six years, become a subject of general anxiety; in somne of the states laws were p'.ss- ecl annexing the condition of banishment to emancipation. The idea of colonizing them was probably first suggested in this country from the success which attended the establishment at Sierra Leone. It was known, moreover, that the Portuguese, the French, the Danes, and the English, had establishe(l white settlements along the coast of Africa, from the Cape (le Verd to the Cape of Good Hope. More than a century ago the French had established a post on the Seniegal, four hiinidreil miles from its mouth. At Congo, the Portuguese had grown into a consid- erable colony. At the southern extremity of Africa, the Dutch anrd English had spread over a country larger than the southern peninsula of Europe. It was not then a question requiring se- rious debate, wvhether America could do what many nations had done before. In 1802, Mr. Jefferson, then President of the U- nited States, in compliance witch the request of the Virginia le- gislature, communicated by Governor M onroe, entered into ne- gotiations, wvhich proved unsuccessful, with the Sierra Leone company, and afterwards with Portugal, to proctire a situation for an American colony of blacks in Africa. The project con- tinued to gain strength, until, on the 21st day of December, 1816, the first public meeting to form a Colonization Society in this country, was held at Washington City; and shortly afterwards the American Society was established, under the patronage of many of the most distinguished citizens of this nation. Formed under such auspices, at such a crisis, and for such an object, this society has steadily pursued its onward course, the object of many a bitter sarcasm, of various and contradictory accusation, of flippant and mImost iml)ertinent contempt, and of grave and deep reproach. Full of the noble ardour which be- longs to generous enterprise, it has triumphed at every step), and ,won its way to the confidence anti applause of men. It numbers over one hundred and sixty auxiliary societies; eleven states have, by their legislatures, recommended it to the patronage of Con- gress; and all the leading sects of evangelical Christians in the fnited States, have, through their highest ecclesiastical tribu- 11 nals, testified their cordial approbation of its operations. The colony established at Liberia, under it auspices, occupies a fer- tile, and to the black constitution, a salubrious region, extend- in.g froml Gallinas river to the territory of Kroo Seltra, a dis- tance of two hundred an(l eighty miles along the western coast of Africa, and from twenty to thirty miles in the interior. A- bout one thousand eight hundled colonists, who, have been sent there from the United States, with about half as many more re- captured Africans, constitute an independent, republican, and christian community, in the miidst of that benighted land. The rights of our holy religion are regularly observed, and its pre- cepts as well obeyed as among ourselves. Schools are regular- ly condlul(ted for the education of the youth of the colony, and many children of the natives are also training in them. All the institutions of a young, though very flourishing, community are in successful operation, I have recently seen severalnumbers of a weekly newspaper, published by a free man of colour at Mon- rovia, containing notices of the various interests which indicate a well established and prosperous little state. Notices of popil- lar elections, of the condition of the military force and the pub- lic defence, of public roads opened and repaired, of the improve- ment and transfer of estates, of mercantile prosperity and com- mercial enterprise, of the little incidents of social life, and what is not less striking and indicative of the state of the people, lite- rary notices, and light efforts in the belles lettres, for the grati- fication of the popular taste. Such traits as these impress us, not less strongly with the existing condition of affairs at Liberia, than those interesting details of its growth, prosperity and gen- eral advancement, which are regularly given to the American public from authentic sources, and which I could not now re- capitulate, without an inexcusable trespass upon your patience. The result of the whole is full to the point, that one great object of the Colonization Society has been completely attained. A col- ony has been actually established, possessing all the elements of permanent and boundless prosperity. The germ of a great and cultivated nation has already taken root in the midst of Africa. The leaven of Christianity is already mixed up with the mass of her dark and absurd superstitions. How Much feebler was the origin of all those astonishing triumphs of civilization, by which the little states of Greece stamped her indelible name upon the very front of human glory! How small, compared with the ac- tual condition of Liberia, was the beginning of the Roman state -stern, wise, and unparalleled as she was-whose power over- shadowed the face of tile whole earth, and transmuted every thing into the likeness of itself! And who shall say that, when two celituries have passed away, the continent of Africa shall not behold millions of free and ckristian men, lifting up their hearts 12 in thanksgiving to the God of their fathers, and in grateful recobl lections of the pilgrims of Mesurado, in like manner as we cher- ish the recollection of the landing at Plymouth Rock. The American Colonization Society has 1)robablv succeeded to the extent of its original expectation. It proposed to estab- lish a colony of free blacks, from the United States, with their own consent, in Africa; an(l tilus to show hy the fact, the possi- bility of removing that population from the United States, it, such a manner as would decide(lly improve the condition of those unhappy persons, and greatly ameliorate the state of society a- mong ourselves. It was originally objected, that the plan would be rendered impracticable at its threshhold, by the impossibility of procuring emigrants. Experience has shown that many mnore were always desirous of emigrating than the society bad the means of removing. At this time not less than three thousand individuals would gladly remove to Liberia, if the necessary funds could be procured. It was also objected, that the expense of removal would be so great as to prevent its being carried to any useful extent. This was clearly absurd, unless it had been shown that it was necessarily more costly to remove a free-negro to Africa from America, than a slave to America from Africa; and that our national resources were smaller when our popula- tion was ten millions, than whmen it was three millions. The ex- periment has shown that emigrants may lie sent out for twenty dollars each; a sum equal in value to about three months labour of an adult male slave in most of the slave-holding states. It was farther objected, that the unhealthiness of tlie climate was an in- surmountable obstacle in the way of colonizing any part of Afri- 'ca. The facts stated in a former part of this address, the ac- counts of all travellers who have visited that continent-esp)e- cially of Mungo Park, who saw more of its interior than all oth- er Europeans-and the uniform experience of the American cob' ony, leave no room to doubt that the region of country owned bv it, is pleasant, and to the black constitution, extremely salu- brious. It was also asserted, that if all these obstacles were o- vercome, and i colony established, it would be unable to sup- port itself against the native tribes in its neighborhood. This .ieavil also has been answered by experience. In 1822, when the settlement was weak and tbut recently established, it was fully competent to carry on, and terminate with success, a war with the native tribes. The result of that war was so decidedly fa- vourable to the colony, that the colonial agent, Mr. Ashmumi, in his report for 18t5, says, "our influence over thein is unbound- ed, it is more extensive than I dare, at this early period, risque mv character for veracity by asserting. But I beg leave to refer, at least, to facts already communicated, to our military expedi- tiors into the heart of the country uninterrupted, to our jpur- 13 chase of the Saint Pauls, admission into the Grand Bassa, and acquisition of the Sesters. On severaVoccasions of alarm fronx the interior, the whole population of the country has been rea- dy to throw itself into our arms for protection." What adds greatly to the security of the colony, hoth froin internal and for- eign enemies, is the connexion of the agent of our government for recaaptured Africans, withlthe affairs of the establishment. That agent is also the society's colonial agent; the re-captured Africans of whloui he has the charge, by authority of an act of Congress, form a part of tAie coloyiv, anld their protection of ne- cessity involves its security. Mr. Stockton, of the United States' Navy, was one of the signers of the treaty, by which a part of the territory was ceded to the societv. Captain Sp'ence built a fort on the Cape, at the public expense, supplied it with guils, and the American flag was hoisted on its battlemients. Ile, also, left an armed schooner for the better protection of the colony. The agent for re-captured Africans, as already stated, is appoint- ed by the authority of our government, and is supported by it. We have then a practical illustration of the ratniier in which three liundre(l thousand free negroes inay be removed from a- mong us, anal planted in comfOrt andl security in the land of their ancestors. Almost the entire voice of the couLntry proclaims that object to be wvorthy of our highest efforts, whether we consider what is due from a christian nation to the victims of its own av- arice and oppression, or what is necessary in a wvise people to- wards providing for their own security, and' the peace of their offspring. If I were to attempt to draw a picture of the suffering and dleg- radation of this miultitude of beings, reduced to that condiition by our own policy and social state, I should only repeat in your hearing what has been often said. If I should set out to devel- ope the ample means, and competent legal authority residing in our different governments, state alld national, to redress evils which exceed by fir the most forcible descriptions of them which have fallen under my notice, I should have to recapitulate to you, those views and arguments which are already familiar to the public. On none of these points will I detain you; but leav- int them to rest on the able expositions fromn a great variety of sources, which are accessible to every one who desires such in- formation, I will pass on to other considerations, which grow out of the operations of the society. Although they may not have entered largely into its original design, seine of thein baVe a higher interest than the direct, primary object for which it was organized. He who has considered the removal of our free blacks to Africa, as the ultimate poirit of this noble enterprise, has taken a very in adequate view of a subject, of singular intur- est and almost unlimited extent. The blessings to Africa, to A- 14 merica, and to the whole world, which will follow the accom. plishment of the simple and practicable scheme of the society, cannot now be grasped by any human intelligence; but enouglh can he foreseen to (ominenld it to our earnest and zealous support. The first of what mav be called the collateral effects, attend- ing the fulfilment in somne good degree, of the national hopes, to which the successful operations of this society have given life and vigour, to which I will direct your notice, is the political and intellectual regeneration of Africa. One of the most uni- form and curious facts in the history of man, is his constant pro- pensity to migrate. Hardly one example can be found, of a na- tion locating the permanent seat of its empire in the native land of its inhabitants. Every people of which we have any account has been a nation of wanderers; some by peaceful acquisition of unoccil)ie(l regions, some by purchase, most by the power of their victorious bands. Driven out bv time wants of too dense a population; fleeing from the various calamities by which every region has at somree period been visited; persecuted children of God; oppressed disciples of liberty; incited by the love of gold, an(l the still more unappeasable lust of conquest; every nmotive, in short, has operated to make nmei wanderers, and all nations colonists. With the tribes that have gone out in all ages, have gone out also the manners, the social institutions, the tastes, the literature, and the knowledge of their country. Behold the o- verrulling providence of God! America, the freest, the wisest, the most practical of nations, is pouring back her streams of liberty and knowled(ge, upon the most degraded of them all. Behold the noble retribution! She received slaves-she returns freemen! They came savages-they return laden with the fruits of civili- zation. And though they earned in tears, and anguish the more intense that it found no utterance, every boon they can carry back to their afflicted country; yet, in the (lay of her regenera- tion, will Africa forget the wrongs inflictecd on her for centuries together, in gratitude for tie (istant, but sacred, recompense. We can look back through buried ages, to the monuments of her pow- er and grandeur, to the triumphs of her renowned captains, to the early cultivation of hier people, and the rich contributions of her sons to the stores of ancient knowledge in all its multipli- ed departments; an(l we can well imiagine the rapture with which her awakened sons will (Iwell on the tale of hier departed glories, anT( rekindle in her breast that sacred flame which ages of wo bad extinguished. We can look onward, as upon our own coun- trv, and see the lessons of wisdom, and liberty, and public strength, andI social order, speaking forth in the acts of iving men; an(l we can adequately conceive how confusion, and im- beAilitv, and civil darkness, will flee away from the land into which the knowledge and the practice of such institutioi 15 shall be transplanted. These things we can foresee. But we cannot tell how deeply the seed we are plantincg may shoot its roots into a kindly soil. We know not how lofty may be its trunk at the meredian of its perfect strength. We cannot tell how many children of affliction may gather round it, anid be se- cure. We see not how far its shadow may extend over nations that we now know of only by their crimnes. But we knowv that we are acting well, and that the issues are in the hands of Him who is mighty to redeem. I do not doubt that one of the surest, and certainly the most important, effects of the colonization of Africa, on the proposed plan, will be the conversion of its inhabitants to christianity. From the tropic of Cancer tothe Cape of Good Hope, that cou'n- try is possessed by Pagans. The Mahomedans occupy Ecrgypt and the Barbary coast. The people of Abyssinia, or Upper Ethio- pia, are called Christians, but they retain many Pagan and Jew- ish rites. In the north of Africa are a few Jews, who manage what trade that region is possessed of; and in the south of Afri- ca there is a small colony of French Huguenots, planted nearly a century and a half ago. There is a moral fitness in the thought, and it is deeply solemn also, that we, who have con- tributed so largely to the degradation of Africa, and aided so fully in heaping upon her sons the direst calamities to which flesh is heir, should also be the instruments of bestowing on her the costliest gifts and richest blessings our nature can receive. The christain public cannot fail to pCrceive, in all these opera- tions, the hand of that presiding Providence, which, having per- 2nitted the wretched African to be enslaved, that he might be Christianized, now demands his restoration that he may chris- tianize his brethlen. The time is fast approaching when the earth and all the fulness of it shall become the laroe inheri- tance of those, to whom it appertains by the promise of the eternal God. The reign of his own glorious kingdom is al- m gst at hand; and when his people saw, even afar, the approach of its hallowed dawn, a new spirit fell upon them. Tl hey have arisen to do their Mlaster's wore, and to possess what is their own. You see them in the islands of the most distant seas. Their feet are in the midst of the pathless wilderness. In the great city, armid the busy haunts of inen, and in the desolate abodes of wretchedness and squalid want, you behold the traces of their ardent labours. The Arab in the desert hears his unwritten di- alect made the vehicle of salvation. The wandering hordes, whose names civilization is not able to recount, find their tents become the abode of those who are worthy to have been the as- sociates of the Apostles. The Brahmin by the Ganges throws aside the chain of his accursed caste. The savage of our own wilderness forgets the wrongs which the fierce white man heaps .10 upon his smitten race, and listens to the still smiall voice, which directs him to a hi,her and surer hope. I he mariner, in his4 trackless wanderings, rears above his perilous hoine, the un- wonted banner, the emblem of his return to God. t he way of the Kings of the East is drying uip apace; and the scattered an(d aMicted seed of Abraham turn their longing hearts again to- war(ls the mount of Olivet and the city of the Great King. Nine millions of copies of the Hioly Scriptures have bee(l distril)uted through the worll, ill one hiiln(lred andl sixty languages and dia- lects, bv the instruinenitalitv of about four thousand five hundred organized societies. Forty five missionory presses have been estalblished; forty missionary colleges put in operation; and six hundred and fifty ordained missionaries, aide(ld l)y about three thousand assistants, are operating- throughout the world, at more than five huiI(lred and fortv foreign stations. There are three hund(redl thousand childrenu in the missionary schools. Fifty thousand persons converted froim Paganism, are mnembers of the Christian churches, and it is computed that more than five ttlous- and are annually converted to the service of the living God. Four hundred thousaiid heathen have renounced idolatry; and in tell vears the Gospel has been lpreachie(d, at the various inis- sions, to not less than four millions of adult persons. One hun- (lred and sixty millions of tracts have been thrown into circula- tion; andl there are over two millions of sabl'ath scholars under training thronuhout the world. It is an era of vast and nmaginif- ficent christian enterprise. Every engine which the most ardent aRl(l intrepid p)ietV coul( put in requisition, is wielzle(l against the kingdoin of darkness, and it already totters to its predesti- nated overthrow. Africa is partaking of this noble work; and sihe will partake still more largely. The little band at Liberia, who are spreading over the wilderness around thiem, a strange aspect of life and beauty, are in every sense a miissionary station. Every ship freighted from our shores with their suffering kin- dred, will be freighted also with the heralds of the cross. You will see the light breaking in upon one and another dark hahi- -tation of cruelty. The night of heathenism will depart. Otte tribe after another will come to the light of Zion, andl to the brightness of her rising. Ethiopia will awake, audl rise from the dlust, and look abroad on the the (lay, and stretch her hands out to God. The light will still spread, an(l kindle, an(l brig hten, till all the fifty millions of Africa are brought to the glorious liberty of the sons of God! The civil, intellectual and reliaious cultivation of a people, carries with it the possession of all the indispensable ingredients to high national happiness and virtue; and is scarcely consistent with the prevalence of those brutal and inhuman )ractices which exist among savage and heathen nationa. Amongst the present 17 efimes of Africa, there is one encouraged and shared by nations calling themselves civilize(l, so horrible and atrocious, that its certain exiirpation, by the means we have been noticing, would alone be sufficient to commensd the American Colonization bo- ciety to the support of every enlightened man. I have already presented you with a brief account of the origin of the slave trade, so far as it was connected with our subject. There are some crimes so revolting in their nature, that the just observance of the decencies of speech deprive us of the only epithets which arc capable of depicting their enormity. Evervy well regulated heart is smitten with horror at the bare idea of of their perpetration; and we are uncertain whether most to loathe at the claim of those vwho habitually commit theni to companionship with human na- ture, or to marvel that the unutterable wrath of heaven doth not scathe an(l blast them in the midst of their enormities. Let the father look upon the dawning intelligence of the boy that prattles aroun(l his knee, the pride of his found heart, and the hope and stay of his honest name; and then, if he can, let him picture him in distant bondage, the fountain of his affections dried tup, the light of knowledge extinguished in his mind, his mnanly and upright spirit brokemi lay oppression, and his free per- son and just proportions marred and lacerated by the incessant scourge. Let the husband look upon the object in whose sacred care lie has "garnered up his heart," and on the little innocent who draws the fountain of its life from her pure breast, recalling, as he gazes on one and the other, the freshness and the streiigth of his early and ardent love; anid then, if he be able, let him pic- ture those objects in comparison with which all that earth has to give is valueless in his eyes, torn from him by violence, basely exchanged for gold, like beasts at the shambles, bent down uhidler unpitied sorrows, their persons polluted, and their pure hearts corrupted-hopeless and unpitied slaves, to the rude ca- price and brutal passions of those we blush to call men. Let him turn from these spectacles, and look abroad oi the heritage where his lot has been cast, glad and smuiling under the profuse blessings which heaven has poured on it; let him look back on the even current of a life overflowing with countless enjoyments, and before him on a career full of anticipated triumphs, and light- ed by the effulgence of noble and virtuous deeds, the very close of which looks placid, under the weight of years made venerable by generous and useful actions, and covered by the gratitude and applause of admiring friends; let the mian-stealer conme upon him, and behold the wreck of desolation! Shamne, disgrace, infamy; the blighting of all hopes, the withering of all joys; long unno- ticed wo, untended poverty, a dishonoured name, an unwept death, a forgotten grave; all, and moore than all, are in these -words, he is a s!ave! Hu, who can preserve the even current or C his thoughts in the midst of such reflections, may have some faint conception of the miseries which the slave trace has inflict- ed on inan Ind. I am unable to state with accuracy, the number of the victims of this horrible traffic; hut if the least dependance can he placed on the statements of those persons, who have giv- en the most attention to the subject, withthe best means of in- formation, it unquestionably exceeds ten millions of human be- ing exported l)y violence and fraud from Africa. This appalling -mass of crime and suffering has every atom of it been heaped up before the presence of enlightened men, and in the face of a Ho- ly God, by nations boasting of their civjlization, and pretending to respect the dictates of christianity. The mind is overwhelm- ed at the magnitude of such atrocity, and the heart sickens at the contemplation of such an amount of human anguish and despair. TIhis trade has been abolished by the laws of every civilized nation, except Portugal and -Brazil. -Our own national act for that purpose, passed on the 2nd (lay of March, 1807, and pre- ce(ded by twenty three davs, a similar act by Great Britain, a- chieved by the friends of humanity in that realm, after a strug- gle of twenty years. Acts of mere prohibition, however, were found unequal to the suppression of crimes which had been maturing for more thanm three hundred years. After several amlen(dinents to the law of 1bU7, it was enacted on the 15th of' Nla, 1820, that every person proved to be engaged in the slave tradle, should be adjudged guilty of piracy, and punished with death. Here, also, our country was in the van of nations. The glory of vindicating the rights of man, on the broad prin- -cip]es of truth and nature, and of first assuming this noble stand against the long cherished and guilty customs of the whole world, is (lue to the Congress of tte United States. Nor should it be forgotten that the recommendation for the passage of this law, come from a conmmnittee acting on a memorial of the Amer- cami Colonization Society. Such acts unquestionably exercise a very salutary influence over those persons who might be dis- poued to engage in the slave trade; and are exceedingly valuable as high indications of m'ulic sentiment, anud as imperishable monuments. erei.te-J by tihe highest authorities among men, to clear and to'!le principles of right. But they cannot, of them- selves, effect their own benevolent .purposes. After the passage of the act of' 1820, it was stated on the floor of Congress by ge8lemeii representing several slave-holding states, that no few- er than thirteen thousand slaves were annually smntggled into the United States. And we have undoubted authority for be- lievilm, that at least sixty thousand negroes are yearly trans- portedl froin Africa, under circumstances of as great cruelty as have ever marked that traffic. The slave trade can be no oth- erwise effectually abolished than by shedding a stream of mor- 19 ,al light upon the-dark regions where it flourishes, so broad as to reveal it in its naked atrocity, to all its wretched victims. Nor are there any other apparent means by which this can be effect- ed, buit the full accomplishment of the plan of African Coloni- zation. It is generally known, that the original members of the Amer- ican Colonization Society anticipated, that at some future peri- od, the general government and some, if lot all of the state governments, woul(l co-operate in their exertions for the reino- val of an evil which was obviously national in all its aspects, and which no private exertions were adequate to extinguish. This just expectation was expressed on the face of their origin- al constitution, and has been cotistanitly mnaiiifest in all their pro- ceedings. I do not doubt that the general and state governments possess the constitutional power to make peciuiary contribu- tions in furtherance of the objects of the societv; and as it is a point heretofore very ably elucidlated, I will not, now tres- pass on your time by drawing it into discussion. Every rea- son which'coinmends the scheme to the support of the people of this nation, commends it also, to the patronage of all our governments. Every motive which operates on the minds of slave-holders, tending to make the colonization of the free blacks an object of interest to themin should operate in an equal decree to secure the hearty co-operation of the government of every slave-holding state. And I confess it is this view of the subject, which, as a slave-owner and a citizen of this Commonwealth, appears to me, to draw it so peculiarly up to the exigencies of our situation, and to lay open before us a political moral above all others clear and explicit. We say, we are the friends of African colonization; its lesson is already precisely taught. and it only remains for us to go whither the light of its example points us. It was never the intention of the society to-interfere with. the rights of the proprietorsof slaves; nor has it at any time done so. It took for granted the fact, that slavery was a great moral and political evil, and cherished the hope, and the belief also, that the successful prosecution of its objects would offer power- ful motives, and exert a persuasive influence in favour of erman- cipation. And it is from this indirect effect of the society, that the largest advantage is to result to America. It has shown us how we may be relieved of the curse of slavery, in a mannier cheap, certain, an(l advantageous to both the parties. I have already, briefly pointed to the orwigin of negro slavery in the new world. Throughout the Continents of North and South America, it is now tolerated only by the United States and Brazil. The wisest and most imbicile of all governments agree only in this, that oppression, injustice, and hereditary 20 wrong are sanctified by anv pretence of public necessity, let we shut our eves to the iniquity of such conduct, and solace our- selves with the reflection, that we would have been wiser and more virtuous than our fathers, and that no hope of gain could have reduced us into the violation of the plainest dictates of hu- manity. And how, I pray you, do we manifest the sincerity of such convictions Is it by professing to be the disciples of the living God, and wringing tears of anguish from our brethren in Christ Is it by being clamerous about our love of liberty, and exercising daily in private life a ferocious tyranny Is it by proclaiming the ardour of our sympathy for every l)eople strug- glingr against oppression, while grinding down two millions of human beings in hopeless bondiage Is it by denouncing the slave trader as a pirate, and punishing with death a crime whose horrid fruits are our daily care and enjoyment Alas! that man cannot act as wisely as he reasons; that he cannot be made to understand, that the union between virtue and happiness is in- dissoluble and eternal! Hereditary slavery is at war with the principles of every spe- cies of social svstenm Even the fierce an(d intolerable rile of a military despotism, has this to alleviate its sway, that it toler- ates no subsidiary tyranny. It is at wvar, also, with every law of nature, with every lesson of experience, and with every conclu- sion of reason. As it exists among us, it presents an aspect scarce- ly less singular, than it is indefensible. In those states where it is tolerated the organic law does not pretend to define it. Our own Constitution merely recognizes it as an existing condition, and then limits it in various particulars. M ho were to be slaves in(ler it, or how they became so originally, it presumes not to decide. The constitution of Virginia, un(der whose sway slaves were first introduced into this state, is profoundly silent on the subject. Could the ordinary powers of that government suffice to inflict hereditary slavery on any class of its people In the general statutes of England, at any time in force here, (lo we find this question settled In the common law of that realm, which abhorred slavery, shall we find the recorded doom of end- less and involuntary bonidage Alas! we find the record of our iational crimes written the plainest in their daily perpetration. The legislative acts, which, with a cool atrocity to be equalled only by the preposterous folly of the claims they set up over the persons of God's creatures, (looms to slavery the free Afri- can the moment his eyes are opened on the light of heaven. for no other offence than being the child of parents thus doomed before him, can in the judgment of truth and the estimation of a just posterity, be held inferior in heinousness, only to the first act of piracy which made them slaves. It is in vain that we cover up and avoid such reflections. They cling to us, and 21 eoarth cries shame-upon ns, that their voice has heen so'long titm hee(led. The free Lybian, in his scorching deserts, was as imuichl a slave when lie rushed, in the wild chase, upon the king of beasts, as is his unhappy offspring before our laws cleave to him. God creates no slaves. The laws of man (lo ofttines pervert the best gifts of nature, and wage an impious warfare against her decrees. But Yon can discover what is of the earth, and what is from above. You mav take man at his birth, and by an adequate system make him a slave, a brute, a (lemon. This is man's work. The light of reason, history and philosophy, the voice of nature and religion, the Spirit of God himself pro- claims, that the being he created in his own image, he must have created free. I am not putting forward any novel or extravagant opinions. All this, and more, wvas the fruit of our glorious revolution; and to establish it, was its costly blood poured out. It is assert- edl, as the very first self-evident principle, in the Declaration of our Independence, that all men are created free and equal; and the second is, that these rights are in their nature unalienable. These are the foundation principles of that immortal instru- ment. They are reiterated in express terms in nine of the A- merican Constitutions, and result ley the strongest implication out of them all. They are sentiments consecrated to our coun- trv, coeval with its national existence, and illustratedl and en- forced by the proudest monuments in its history, let there are not wanting those who assert that the Constitution of this Coin- monwealth is directly in corfli(t witlh thesesacredtruttls. This is not perhaps the proper occasion to enter into that discussion; and I the more willingly forbear to do so, as I have hereto- fore argued that question somewhat at large. It is clearly how- ever of the very essence of free government1 that it should possess the powers necessary to secure the prosperity of its peo- lle, to enforce their unalienable rights, and to provide for its own preservation. He who will show that this is not accom- plished by the Constitution of Kenturky, will cast a blot on that assemblage of great men, and on that era, which our citi- zens delight to contemplate as among the most illustrious in our annals. He will establish the unhappy fact, that our fathers, while they thought they were mitigating the rigors of slavery by A wise forecast and a vigilent humanity, were in truth ren- dering it hopeless and endless; and that instead of planting a deep foundation for the glory of this beautiful region, they were slooming it to be a prison-house forever, an(l ms, their chil- dren, to be its wretched keepers. And when he does all this, he will prove, at the same moment, that that instrument has assert. edl what is not true in fact, that it has upheld what is indefensible in reasoning, that it has established what is fatal in practice, and that it is wholly inadequate to the exigencies of society. 22 He who is created free, cannot, in the view of reason, even by his own voluntary act, bind himself to slavery; because no com- pensation can be equivalent to that from which he has parted- his liberty; and because whatever might be the consideration pretended to be given, it would pass through the slave to his -naster, who would thus enjoy both the thing bought and the price paid foe it. This is an absurdity too gross to be entertain- ed by any one with whom it would be worth the trouble of rea- sonling. Still less can a man barter away the rights of his un- born offsoring, except in a manner subject to their confirmation or rejection at the years of maturity. In this case, every reason ap- plies that does in the other, and these in addition, that here there could be no pretence of necessity over a being not yet created; and in any case, the parent could part with no greater right to control the child, than lie himself enjoyed, that iF, till the child was capa- ble in mind and bodv of controlling itself. Such are the plain dic- tates of common sense. Similar to them are the doctrines of all our constitutions on the subjects of citizenship and naturaliza- tion; andi that of Kentucky expressly provides for the voluntary expatriation of its citizens, andl guarantees that right, as one of "the general, great, and essential principles of liberty." But if it were otherwise, in stating the original principles of all ration- al law, we have a right to look beyond all human governments, and instead of being impeded by their dicta, to bring them to the same standard of judgnent, by which all things else should be measured. The law is to be obeyed, because it is the law; but it is to be commended only when it is wise and just. It can be no less incorrect to apply any arguments drawn from the right of conquest, or the lapse of time, as against the offspring of persons held to involuntary servitude. For neither force nor time has any meaning when applied to a nonentity. He cannot be said to be conquered, who never had the opportunity or means of Resistance; nor can timhe run against one unborn. Those who lean to a contrary doctrine, should well consider to what it leads them. For no rule of reason is better received, or clearer, than that force may be always resisted by force; and whatever is thus established, may, at any time, be lawfully overthrown. Or, on the other hand, if error is made sacred by its antiquity, there is no absurdity, or crime, which may not be dug up from its dis- honoured tomb, anti erected into an idol, around which its scat- tered votaries may re-assemble. Let it be admitted, for a moment, to be just for one race of men to hold another in perpetual and involuntary slavery; sup- pose it, farther, to be consistent with the clear and upright spir- it of Christianity. Is such a condition of things advantageous to a state Does it add any thing to its strength or riches There are in this commonwealth, not far from two hundred thousand slaves. 23 Now, whether is it better to have within out bosom two hundred thousadT free citizens, attached to our political institutions, and ready to contend un- to death in their defence, or an equal number of domestic foes-foes by birth, bv colour, by injuries, by cast, by every circumstance of life-ready to take advantage of every emergency of the state, to work our injuryf Whether is it better to have two hundred thousand labourers, in the most abject condition of ignorance, with no motive for toil but the rod, and no rule of conduct but the caprice of-a master, sometimes indeed humane and just, but often hardly more refined than themselves; or an equal number of hardy, happy and laborious yeomanry, such as the heart of a patriot would yearn ovet in the day of his country's prosperity, and repose on, as on a rock, in the hour of her need Vain and most futile is the philosophy which will allow a man to doubt, choosing between such alternatives. Whatever is contrary to the laws of nature or the rules ot'justice, must,' of necessity, be ultimately hurtful to every community which attempts to enforce it. For no human sagacity can fbresee all possible contingencies; jnor can any state of artificial preparation, however ample, encounter, at ev- ,ery point, the ceaseless activity of principles which belong to the very es- sence of things. This is most eminently true of the evils which result out of slavery. It feeds, as it were, upon itself, and reacts again in multi- plied forms of ill. The care which in other countries would be bestowed, in better living and more bountiful support, on the poorer classes of the whites, is in slave countries lavished on slaves, and they increase faster in proportion. Their increase again encourages the emigration from amongst us of the labouring whites, whose small places are bought up, to add to the extensive farms cultivated bv slaves. Then our laws of descent re- duce the children of the rich to moderate circumstances; who, rather than lose ideal rank, sell out and remove to some new country, where, in the gradual improvement of affairs, they hope to regain their former condition. We lose, in this manner, the bone and sinew of the state; but the slaves remain, and increase, to fill up the space thus created. While this destruc- tive operation is accomplishing, the slave owners themselves are only pro- crastinating a little the day of' their own trial. As the number of slaves increases, their value must diminish, with the diminishing value of the pro- ducts of their labour, in an increasing ratio. Then comes the competition with free labour from the adjacent states. This region of country is al- ready supplied to a great extent, with articles of the first necessity, from other states, which we ought to produce as cheap as any other people, an) some of which we formerly exported in immense quantities. Other arti cles which we still look upon as among our most valuable staple produc- tions, are brought into this state, and sold at a profit, by auction, in the streets of our villages. All this must produce a continual decline in the value of slaves, which will still decline further as they steadily grow up- on the whites, until they become themselves the chief article of export. Such is already the case in large portions of several of the slave-holding states. Thevalue of the staples of the southern states, would, for sa)me years, keep up the value of slaves. But when the progress of events shall produce the same condition of public necessity there, that is steadilv ad- vancing here, and they will no longer receive slaves as merchandise, it re- quires no gift of prophecy to foresee the calamitous condition that niust en .sue, over the whole slave-holding region. Never was there a more fal lacious idea, than that slavery contributed any thing towards the perma- nent resources of a state. It is an ulcer eating its way into the very heart of the state, and which, while it remains, cannot be mitigated 'v any change of constitution, but would work its effects with unerring certainty, under every possible condition of society. There is another aspect of this painful subject, which is full of deep anl 24 Aournful interest. len iwill not alwavs remain slaves. No kindness can soothe the spirit of a slave. No ignorance, however abject, can obliterate thee idelible stamp ofnature, whereby she decreed man free. No cruelty of bondage, however rigorous, can suppress, forever, the deep yearnings after freedom. No blighting ofedeferred and crushed hop, will so root them from ,thebeart, that when the sun shines and the showers fall, they will not rise up from their barren resting place, and flourish. -The stern Spartan took the dagger and the cord. With what avail The wiser Ro- man, as he freed his slave, against whom no barrier was raised in the dif- Aerence of complexion, allowed him to aspire to most of the rights and dig- nities of citizenship, and to all the privileges of private friendship. Yel, the annals of the empire show, that this was scarcely an alleviation Qf the calamity. The slaves of the Jews, the remnant of the conquered nations of the land, for a long course of ages, were by turns, their victorious inae- tpound;rs, and menial servants. Here is no doubtful experience. History sheds on this subject a broad and steady light, and sheds it -n one unchanging lesson. Domestic slavery cannot exist forever. It cannot exist long, quiet and unbroken, in any condition of society, or under any form of gov- ernment. It may terminate in various ways; but terminate it must. It may end in revolution; bear witness Saint Domingo. The Greek and the Egyptian took other methods, effectual each, if fully acted out, and differ- ing only in the manner ofatrocity. It may end in amalgamation; abase, spurious, degraded mixture, 'scarcely the least revolting method of the three. Or it may be brought to a close, by gradually supplanting the slaves with a free and more congenial race among ourselves; and restoring them to the rights of which they have been so long deprived, and to the land from which their fathers were so inhumanly transported. That would be a just recompense, for their longT71reditary sufferings. It would be a noble conclusion to a condition ofsociety, horrible in its inception, cruel and unjust in every stage of its continuace, and which without some such interference, must be utterly ruinous in all its results. The first part of such a scheme has been matured, and as far as seemed practicable with a degraded caste, executed in many of our most prosperous states. We see by their examples, that it is effectual; by their redundant prosperity, that it is full of wisdom. Of its humanity, let him speak, who living among freemen, owns and governs slaves. But its true and full completion will not come to gladden the hearts of men, until we shall have restored to Africa all the children of whom our avarice has robbed her; until 'we shall have paid her the vast debt, which en turies of patient suffering under our merciless grasp, give her the sacred and irresistible title to demand; until America, within all her borders, shall contain no slave; and Africa shall receive, in every recess of her dark empire, the light, the freedom, the pow- er of knowledge, and the consolations of eternal bope, which God has giv- en us, in trust for her redemption.