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Tales of old Bardstown / compiled by Nora L. McGee. McGee, Nora Lee. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-159-29919409 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Tales of old Bardstown / compiled by Nora L. McGee. McGee, Nora Lee. Bardstown Woman's Club [Bardstown] : [19--]  p. : ill. ; 26 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1994. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN03346.05 KUK) Printing Master B92-159. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Bardstown (Ky.) History Anecdotes. Nelson County (Ky.) History. TaIes of ild Bardstown This page in the original text is blank. Tales of Old Bardstown I., 9..- I:- It. x T x I. 4. I I i-l + 1U t ... .9. T I.- .9. . . If I I I Printed and Published under the auspices of the BARDSTOWN WOMAN'S CLUB Compiled by Nora L. McGe, Historian. iv. - Hi..P - Z an- a i d Introduction f AM bringing -you this afternoon, a his- tory of Old Bardstown which is a comn- munity unusually rich in traditions. and a Mecca for tourists. These legends are gatherer he e and there fron many scuarces,-some are copied word for word from old clippings, others are tales which have been handed down through several generations and retold to me. They are only a few of the many that could bd told, -the fund seems inexhaustible,-and a complete history of romantic old Bards- town would fill a large volume. Each day discovers new data in my search, and I have had to discard much of the material gathered, for fear of making this paper too lengthy. One thing I wish tr make cica.,-, can not in all cases vouch for the ablsolute tiuth of the stcries. Legends and tradition3 will become distorted through much 'repeti- tion, and some of the accounts, I found to be conflicting. "I know not how the truth may be, I tell the tale as 'twas told to me"- and I have written them down as I rec!iv- ed them, hoping they will give you some of the pleasure they gave me. Subjects Earliest Settlers in the County and Fw)rts: Founding of Bardstown: Taverns: Old Beall Residence: Court House: Churches: St. Jo3eph's Catholic Church: St. Joseph's College: Nazareth: Gethsemani: Louis Phillipe: John Fitch: Historic Valley: Old Water-Mill: Potter Shop Hill: Ben Hardin: Federa'l Hill-"Old Kentucky Home": Early Settlers in Nelson County and Forts Nelson County was named, for Thomas Nelson, a signer of the Declaration of IndependEnce. It was formed in 1784 by the General Assembly of Virginia while Patrick Henry was Governor. The old records approving the act of the Assembly in fornring the Count-y are on file at the Court House-they are printed on rough paper. in plain type, and bean, the historic signature of Patrick Henry, and the Useal and motto of Virginia. The first settlements in the county were in 1775, when Co'. lsaac Cox settled on Cox's Creek, Jonah Heatcn on Pottinger's Creek, and John James Rogers in the Cedar COeek neighborhood. A band under the leadership of Col. Isaac Cox, early in 1775 floated down the Ohio to the mouth of the Kentucky, left their bests and pasa-cd into the wilderness. They did not follow the traces of former settle- ments but struck bravely into the unknown. They reached Cox's Creek, stopped here in the early summer of 1775 and. built the fort called Cox's Station, located where the residence of the late Mr. Barney King stands, just above the mouth of Caney Fork. When Col. Isaac Cox and his bands settle- ed on Cox's Creek, in 1775, they decided there was not enough seuitable land for all, so pa't of them under the leadership of Jonah Heaton started off toward the Rc11- ing Fork, pas3ed over the present site of Bardstown, crossed the Beech Fork, and struck the headwaters of Pottinger's Creek at Rohan's Knob. They called this "Big Lick Knob" on accmint of the Buffalo licks at its base. The fertile lani along the creek att acted them, but in a few weeks they returned to Cox's Station and the permanent Pottinger Creek settlement was not made until 1778 when Gol. Samuel Pottinger settled there. He built the first b ick house in the county in 1778 twenty miles sortheast of Goo'zwin's station. It still stands well preserved. .;n 1776 a brother of Isaac Cox, Proctor Ballard a brother of the famous scout Bland Ballard, John Simpzon and David Morrison settled in the vicinity of what is now Bardstown and called the place Salem or Salem Station. They were soon followed by Alexander McCown, Andrew Hy-ee3, James and Thomas Speed and others. Four mles southwest of Bardstown out the Boston pike and in the Cedar Creek neighborhood was located Roger's Fort, one of the oldzst settlements, founded by John James Rogers in. 1775. The Rogers preemption was a vast tract of land lying between Buffalo Creek, east, Cedar Creek, west, Shepherd3ville pike, north and Boston pike, south. This was owned by the Rogers till 1812, at which time deeds on file in the County Clerk's office show that the land was stud to Samuel Bealryear andc Wm. Baird. The old fort was built in 1775 and still stands in a fine state of preservation. In the f!ont room to the right may be found port holes, and a-ouni the premises the butts of cedar posits may be observed-re- mains of the old stockade set around the station foi protection. To the spring at the foot of the, hilt, the women would go for wate-' while the men protected them from the portho'es. The last Indian killed in the county was Nohot under a cedar tree nearby, which has since been destroyed during a storm. Back of the family burying ground are many circular depressions marking Indian graves. In 1785 twenty-five families from St. Mary's County, Maryland, floated drown the Ohio on flat boats to Maysville and inarch- ed inland to Boston, which was the nearest fortified post to Pottinger's Creek. 11:r" thl women and children stayed till the, cabins were built. The namErsi of this banft are not all certainly known, but Samuel Puottinger was one-also, Basil Haydecn, whose bond for his land is recolded in the Court House. Land along the Rolling and Beech Forks was very desirable and Samuel Gardiner settied what i, known as the old Bern Beeler place and built a fort in 1777. Cad- wallader Waughter settled on Beech Fork where Jolyn R. Nichols formerly lived. J-s- Davis settled Chaplin Hills. The Kincheloes settled on lower Simpson's Creek and built a fort between Spencer and Nelson Counties. There are a number of note-worthy old family burying grounds in the County where well known pioneers are buried. One of these is lHcated near where the old toll- gate stood on the Gilkey Run pike on the old Bryan Neal place. Here he and his wife are buried and others connected with the family; among them Wm. Heavenhill who was born in 1738 under a ledge of rock at the foot of Potter Shop Hill. The family had taken refuge there during an Indian raid. He died in 1870. In the old Presbyterian cemetery in the- west subu bs of town is a grave beneath a ma'ss of tangled vines and undergrowth where a broken headstone marks the rest- insg place of John Bosman, killed by Indians in 1785. According to tradition, Bosman, a native of Maryland, was one of the first pioneers to come to Nelson County and acted as guide to hundreds of settlers. He was a trail-blazer and scout, a born pioneer, restless; brave, resourceful, ad- venturous, true as steel,-all qualities for a frontiersman. The settlers looked upon him as a bulwark c'f safety and Every settler's cabin was his home. He came to this section in 1777 and wintered at Salem Station. One night while Bosman and a comrade were away seeing to the erection of some cabins on the Rvlling Fork, a party of Indians stole several horses from the settlement. The Indian band came upon the two while they were cooking their supper in camp, and during a parley one of the Indians shot Bosman, after which they made off with the horses and provisions. The other settler escaped, mnade his way back to the settlement. and a party re- turned for Bosman's body. The pioneer population was chiefly from Virginia and many were from Maryland and Pennsylvania. They were precisely of that character that was necessary to face savage red skins and wild beasts, which were compelled reluctantly to leave their favorite haunt. They were a set of bold adventurers, full of frolic and fun, real dare devils, who feared nothing. Many anecdotes have been handed down by tra- ditions, and many scattered graves over the county speak of bloody tragedies. In the old cenmeteies, the old Presbyterian, the old Catholic and the pioneer burying ground back of the jail, may be read the names of many brave pioneers. MAIN STREET LOOKING NORTH BARDSTOWN, KY. The Poundation of Bardstown Balidstown, September 1775, the second o'dest town in the state, was first settled in 1775 by the Baird family. Boonesboro Fort, 1775, is the oldest and Lexington, April 1779, and Harrodsburg, June 1774. first, are about the same atr. Some his- toriar.s claim that Springfiid and Shep- hErdsville are both older that Bardstown. But it is gen'erally accepted that Boones- boro For't, 1775, was first, Harrodsburg, first tcwn, and Bardstown, second. There was already a scattering settlement here known as Salem, but this was later changed to Baird'stown in honor of the Bairds, and in time became Bardstown, as 'some of the family insited upon B-a-r-d as the proper spelling. Wm. Bard, the fi 'st of the name here, was born June 7, 1738 and died at Bards- town, Ky., July 31,. 1802. I-e was reared in what is now Adam,3 County, Pennslyania, was a descendant of the Scotch Covenanters and a man of piety and learning. The story goes, that Wm. Bard first visited' Kentucky in 1768 as salt was scarce in Pitt3bburg and he with three other men went down the Ohio on a flatboat to Salt Licks, Ky. They were attacked by Indians. Bard and one other man escaped and retu:rn-d home, carryirn a small child as one of the men was married and he and his wife were both killed. Later Wm. Bard and his brother, Richa id, came to Kentucky and located first at Danvl le. Richard returned to Pennsylvania and William settled where Bardstown now stands, and located a land grant issu d by the Assembly of Virginia on 1;300 acres, including the settlement of Salem. He built a cabin four miles north of Bardstown and acquired a large tract of land -in Buffad'o Creek-part of the land till recent years was in the hands of descend- ants and an old burying-ground on the lace contains four generations of the family. (The Woodson Kurtz place.) A Colony of Germans had settled out on the Sheherdsville pike and planned to build a town called Germantown. Wm. Bard did not like the situation and selected the present 'site. This was a part of his original entry and contained 100 acres where Salem stood, which he had given to his son, David. This land was donated to the trustees for a county seat, the town laid off by Wm. Bard and named for his san, David Bard. The old records 'showing the initial steps toward the creation of Nelson County and the making of Salem or Bardstbwn into County seat are dated February 11, 1782 signed by Wm. Bard, and may be found at the Court House. The tcown was incorporat- ed December 2, 1788 by act of Virginia As-sembly. The Bards encouraged settlers by laying off lots which might be had at a small quit rent of 2 per year, no rent required while the Revolutionary War was going on. Sett'ers improving thelr land, clearing off underbrush and building a house at least 16 fE et 'square were considered to have a right to their lots. Bardstown grew rapidl'y and became the center of the lines of travel from the other settlements to the Falls of the Ohio. In ear ly day3s it was a town of considerable business importance', a number of manu- factories flourished here, and it became one of the most populous towns in Kentucky. :t has adways been famous as an educa- tional center, rnmny brilliant men having received their training here, and was noted throughout the South as a town of wealth, refinement and, beauty. Wm. Bard was a surveyor and made the first map of Louisville in 1779, the original was in the hands of Col. R. T. Durrett of Louisville. Wm. Bard married Mary Kincaid Brax- dale, daughter of Joseph Kincaid, and widow of John Braxdale, killed by Indians. She was born in Virginia October 12, 177.5 and died in Bard'3town, November 10, 1825. They had five sons. Taverns There were two stage coach lines from Louisville to Nashville and the one by Bardstown was the favorite route of travel, as all streams were bridged along this Dine. Bardstown was the noon-day stop on the way from Louisville, a change of horses was made here in fact, fresh horses were obtained at regular stops every ten or twelve miles,- and passengers had their dinner at the Bardstown taverns built by Jacob Yeiser on the corner of Second and Arch streets, opposite the present Metho- dist Church. It wa-s erected before 1790, the exact year is not known, and was called the "Old Stone Tavern." Another house which stood on the same lot deserves a place in the history of Bardstown. Although afterwa-i watlo weatherboarded and presenting a some- what modern appearance, it was one of the oldest houses in town and was built of yellow poplar logs. According to traditions this was where Louis Phillipe stayed while in Bardstown, and was located opposite the present Methodist, Church. There are many very old residences in Bard3town as records at the Court House will show and strangers visiting here in- variably comment upon the quaint ap- pearance and old style architecture in evi- dence. The custom of building homes di- rectly upon the streets and the colonial doorways excite special interest. The house where Mrs. Lizzie Powers Mattingly fives has an interesting history. Mrs. Mattingly'3 grandmother was brought to this community when a child of 8 years by relatives and they stayed at Speed's Fort now known as the Nichol' place just ourtside of town on the Bloornfield pike. here she stayed several years, till she married at fifteen, M ;'i. Mattingly's grand- father. The young couple came into the settlement and lived first in a log house where Mrs. Mary Agnes Mattingly Spal- ding now 'lives. Earl.y in their married life, the husband came home one day and an- nounced that he had bought another home for them,-several acres of land and a log cabin of two rooms on the street,-the p iesent home of Mrs. Mattingly. The young bride was heart-broken at leaving her first little home, but wives obeyed their husbands in those days, and the move was made. The house was weather-bearded, ad- ditional rooms built, and the grand- daughter of that pioneer couple, now an elderly woman. lives where her family have lived for well over a hundred years. Here her grandmother dispensed hospital- ity to the travelers, for it became a tavern, and here, it is -said; John Fitch stayed for awhile. till he removed to a small room ove- a grog' shop on the south-west corner of B tnadway and Main, where Haviland's Store stood, till recent years. Later he, went to live with the McCowns at the jail where he stayed till his death. Across the street on the north-west corner was a brick build- ing called the "Tavern of the Seven Stars," afterwards the "Gault House". The house now owned yy Mr. Will Hinkle and in the same block as Mrs. Mattingty, was sold by her grandfather to his brother l'or a bridle and saddle to induce him to locate here. The "Black's Tavern." The Old Beal Residence The home now owned by Henry Muir is one of the nost famous residences of old Bardstown and one of the first brick dwell- ings. It was bui t by Mr. Walter Beall and his son, Samuel, between 1790-1800, the brick being burned in a yard near at hand. Mr. Walter Beal was a merchant in Bardstown in 1788, while the State was still a part of Virginia, and was a man c great wealth, a large land-holder, and a figu;-e of importance in the local history of those times. In the earOy days many manufacturies were located, here and the place was the center of supplies for miles around. When this dwAlling was remodel- ed, an old blotter' was found recording 3 sale of dry goods amounting to pound; 3000 in one day, Mr. Samuel Beall, the son, was a con- tractor and wany specimens of his design- ing and aupervision may still be seen here, notably, St. Joseph's College. He con- ceived the idea of a large hotel on the cor- ner now occupied by Robert Crume's Drug Stoi'e extending back to Grigsby's ware- house and down Main street to Heyiman's,- the adi-s' entrance and parlor were to be where Dr. Grigsby is now located (notice tkj peculiar arched ceilings ir4 there sometimes.) But this fell into other hands and was converted into a business block. He, Mr. S. Beall, was one of the wealth- iest men in the State,-a1l one time owned the home of Ben Hardin,-and had many dreams which he never caitried out. One was to make Boston an important river port with great warehouses and extensive boat landings. His home, now the Muir place, was of unusua conmtruction, there being two octa- goni shaped rooms jutting out on either side of the front porch and these could be enter- ed only from this porch. Upon the roof was a fish pond, but as it was found impossible to prevent leakage, the water was drained off and the space msde into a flower gar- den. Being somewhat of a sportsman, Mr. Beall had a mile 2ace track constructed up- on his farm, one of the first in Kentucky, and many notable races were rurn here. Standing on the porch of the present resi- dence the depression in the ground can be seen and followed, as it encircles the rear of the home in an immense horseshoe. Mr. Beall had planned to erect a large cotton gin back on his premises, but loss of money prevented him carying out his design, and- in time he was compelled to give- up the possession of his home. It passed into the hands of the Wiclkiffes, and finally to the p-1sent Muir family. The house has been remodeled, modernized and still remains one of the handsomest homes of this section. The Beall family moved away, the descendants are scattered,-one street bearing the name, and old records tell thle td:e of their having lived here at one time. COURT HOUSE, BARDSTOWN, KY Erected in 1892 The first public buildings erected in Bardstown were of logs. The first Court House was built in 1785 of hemn logs, and measured 20x30 feet. Later a stone build- ing was erected whose classic walls echoed to the speeches of Henry Clay, ex-President Buchanan, ex-President Polk and ex-Persi- dent Hayes and other notables. This was torn down in 1891, and the present struc- ture which was comp eted in 1892, cost 33,000. The first court held in Nelson County was in 1785, by. mandamus, signed by Benjamin Pope. Patrick Henry was Gove-nor of Virginia at that time. On the Court Souse Squa Me once stood a Irg school house where many men, after- ward protminent, received their education. Dr. Priestly taught the school and it was known all over the country for the thoroughness and high standard of the training given. Bardstown in those days was an educational center and drew stu- dents ftiom all over the country. PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH Erected in 1827 Churches Many of the early Lettler3 were Presby- terians,-the Bairds were of that faith. Between 1790 and 1800 the Rev. Terah Templin, a home missionary, was -sent in- to this part of the wilderness in the in- terest of the Presbyterian church. He preached here, evidently with success, a3 that becairr the strongest denomination. While preaching here he was taken sick, died in 1819 and is buried in, the old Pres- byterian cemetery in the Northwest part of tqwn. in 1802 Joshua Wi son preached regular- ly, gatheed a congregation and the church was organized. He first preached at the Court Houise, then the old log church was built in the Presbyterian cemetery. This land was donated by William Beall to the German Reformed Church., who sold it to the Prva3hyterians. The old log church erect- ed was 25x3 or 35 feet of unplastered bare logs on the inside and would seat one' hung e-9 and fifty people. It was tornn down in 1818 and is long since forgotten, save here and there whe-e an occasional refer- ence is made to it. The early records of the church are lost, but we know that Father Wilson remained till 1808, and that he taught school in an old log school hoirse at the North end of Second street. Afte' his ministry the church was vacant two years, then the Rev. Joseph Lapsley was installed pastor. His residence was on the grounds now known as Nazareth. At this time, in 1810, the church had 30 members-in 1813, 49 members. Two eminent diviners of early days were Nathan Ha'l and Nathan L. Rice, who are remembered for their religious con- troversies. That seemed to be a favorite pastime then, and such controversies were of frequent occurance, when the whole town took sides and excitement ran high. There is some interesting history con- cerning the old brick church now used by the negro Baptists, preserved in old records. There once lived in' this town a man named Paul Jones, a member of no church and not considered pious. He died in 1812 and left a will in which he asked that out of the proceeds of his estate, a church should be built for the use of all dcqwomina- tions, white and colored. This house was built and considered very handsome for those days being of brick. Here the Pueg. byterians hed the Session in 1816" and used it thereafter two Sundays a month,- the Methodists used it once or twice a month, and the Baptists frequently,- neither the. Methodists or Baptists were very strong at that time in the community. Paul Jones is buried in the Southwest corner of the church lot. The venerable Bishop Kavanaugh was the father of the Methodist Churich here, assisted by the Rev. Jonathan Stamper. The great Methodist pulpit orator, John Newland Maffitt once occupied the pulpit six weeks. Old papers of 1823 tell of a band of Millerites, who visited he-re at that time and caused. great excitement. This religious sect remained a week and held a revival in a large tent, working upon the ncgroes and the superstitious. They preached that the end of the world was at hand and set a night for this to occur. Great crowds watch- ed and' prayed, but the Angel Gabriel fail- ed to appear at the appointed tim-e, ard the crestfallen Millerites folded theis tents and stole away by night. CEDAR CREEK BAPTIST-Cedar Creek Baptist Church is located about five miles southwest of Bardstown and is the second oldest Baptist Church in Kentucky. Severn's Valley Church at Elizabethtown is the oldest. Cedar Creek congregation was gathered together by Joseph Barnett, who was assist- ed in its constitution by John Gerrard, July 4, 1781 just 16 days after the organization of the Severn Valley Church. The first pastor was Joseph Barnett, who continued with them till 1785 or longer. The second was Joshua Morris, who filled the pulpit many years; he preached at Mill Creek, also, and at other churches. After the death of Mr. Morris, the church had fre- quent changes of pastors, other churches grew up around it and for years it has been a weak body. John Gerrard who assisted in constituting Cedar Creek Church was the' first pastor of the Severn's Valley Church. In the. spring' of 1782, he went hunting in the woods near his home and never returned-he was supporsed to have been murdered by Indians. Among the prominent citizens who were members in the earl-y days were James Rogers and Judge James Slaughter. In 1849, Nelson As-sociation was formed with eleven churches in the County; Cedar Creek was the oldest church in the Asso- ciation. COX'S CREEK BAPTIST-This Church is one of the o1dest in Kentuckq. and is lo- cated on Cox's Creek, 6 nroiles north of Bardstown. Wm. Taylor who settled in that vicinitv in 1784 began holding meetings in the cabins of the settlers, and in 1785 as- sisted by John Whittaker he constituted Cox's Creek Church with a membership of sixteen, which in a few months grew to twenty-six. This old Church has been fromf the first one cIE the strongest and most respected Churches. Such prominent names as King', Mays, Coxes, Wells, Crawfa-Yds, Formaus, Stones, etc., may be found on its member- ship list. Gen. Henry Crist and Gen. Joseph Lewis were among the early members. Among the early pastors were Moses Pierson, who succeeded William Taylor, Issac Taylor, who was a son of William Taylor, Smith Thomas, L. E. Kirtley' and Preston B. Samuels. Mr. Tyalor was the pastor till, hi's death in 1809. His early at- tempts at preaching were unpromising, but he developed into a good pastor who was alvorbed in his work, and he became an inspiration to the settlers. The anecdote is told of him, that one Sunday after service as he was riding along horseback, he was hailed about a mlie from the church by a settler in a cabin-"Where is your wife" He had to admit that ha had forgotten her, and upon turning back he found her fording the creek, her shoc3 and stockings in her hands. She took it as a joke and often! told it with much amuse- ment. St. Joseph's Catholic Church THE FIRST CATHEDRAL WEST OF THE ALLEGHANIES. The first Catholic Church in Bardlztown was a small log structure, located in the Catholic cemetery, back of the pressnt cemetery. Here lie many of the earlyresi- dents of Bardstown. The spot where the first church stood is marked by a marb e shaft surmounted by the Angel Gabritl, which was erected through the efforts of Father O'Connel. The present structuie is a most his- torical and beautiful building, noted for its splendid architecture and excellent pres- ervation. John Rogers of Baltimore, Md., was the architect, and it was built while Bishop Benedict Joseph Flaget was in charge of thi's diocese, at an original cost of 14,000. It is over 100 years old,-the corner stone was laid Ju y 16, 1816, and the church was consecd ated in 1819, three years later. The immense pillars iT3idc and across the front are solid logs cut from the surrounding wilderness wood and hewed by hand, hauled to the place by oxen. The bricks were burned in a yard nearby. Many valuable relics and paintings have found their way he-e, and the history of some of the most valuable, according to Father O'Connel who made a study of the subject is as folows: The painting ever thd altar, the "Cruci- fixoT' was painted by Van Brae in Ant- werp, 1821, and is valued at 100,000. This was the gift of Father Nerinckx, who was afterward the founder of Loretto. He seems to have been something of a collector for he brought other paintings f om abroad, one the Rubens at Nazareth. The following were the gifts of Louis Phillipe after his return to France. In the Santuary on eitherl side of the "Crucifixon' are two Van Dykes, the "Winged St. Mark" with the lion's head visible at the side, and "St. Peter"' in prison chains. The "Coronation" on the west wall is by Murrillo, and the "St. John" by Van Dyke. On the east wall hangs "The Flaying of St. Bartholomew" by Rubens,-this is the most valuable painting in the church being valued at 125,300. The bell, also, was the gift of Louis Phillipe. It was cast first by Leo Feres Jean at Lyons, France in 1773. It was 3 feet 6 inches in height and 3 feet 6 inches in diameter. It became cracked in some way since hanging in St. Jos-cph's and had top be recast. There are some lovely priests' robes which were presented by Louis Phillipe,- the embroidery is the work of the queen and her maids. This Church was the first Cathedral west of the Alleghenics,-Bishop Flaget re- moved the head of the See to Louisville. Father Robert Abell was the first priest, and his great niephew, Rev. J. J. Abell preached the fiftieth anniversary sermon in 1869 and delivered the oration on the centennial anniversary in 1919,-thus writing, through 100 years, one family with St. Joseph's anniversaries. St. Joseph's College St. Joseph's College was established in 1819 by Bishop Flaget and became known far and wide because of its superior faculty and great educational advantages. It was designed and constructed by Samuel Beall. From 1848 to 1861 it was under the control of the Jesuits, but owing to some misun- derstanding with Bishop Spalding, they left and established a school ferther west. Some of our greatest men owe their fanme largely to the training received at St. Josephs. A few of the many who attended therie and afterward gained prominence are Jefferson Davis, Augustus Garland, Zach Montgomery, Theodore O'Hara, who wrote the "Bivouac of the Dead." -N-14i 11 ;Z 0 0 ci, 8 : m 0 Q En 06 Nazareth Academy The history of Nazareth and of St. Thomas are closely associated. St. Thomas, one of the oldest churches in Kentucky, is four miles from Bardstown out the New Haven pike and was established in 1812. There was a church edifice and a rectory in which the priest lived,-Bishop Flaget once lived here. The foundation of the Sisters of Charity in Kentucky dates back to 1812, one and one-half years after the arrival of Bishop Flaget. The Theological Seminary was removed by Father David to St. Thomas, twelve months before the es- tablishment of the Sisters of Charity. The Superior of the Seminary, with the advice and consent of Bishop Flaget conceived the idea of founding a community of TRligious women to devote themselves to the service of God and the good of their neighbors. In November 1812, Sister Teresa Carrico and Miss Elizabeth Welsh came to live near the church in a small log house of two rooms one below and one above, with a little cabin adjoining which was used as kitchen. During the ensuing year several others joined the community, among them Sister' Catherine Spalding in 1813, who became their first Mother Superior. Year by year the order grew,-in 1815 they re- moved one-half mile from the church where they opened a girls' school. In time land was bought where Nazareth is now located two and oue-half miles north of Bardstown, and in 1822 the Con-munity was transferred. Here thrived one of the most prosperous schools in the south. Story Of A Rubens, "Adoration of the Magi." In 1824 when the first brick church was built at Nazareth, Bishop Flaget presented them with a Rubens. "The Adoration of the Magi,' which had been given to him by Father Nerinckx. Father Nerinckx up- (on his return in 1817 from a visit to Bl- guim, his native land, had brought with him a number of relics and paintings which he had solicited for the church here. The new church at Nazareth was conse- crated in 1854 and there seemed to be 1o suitable place to hang the painting, so it was laid aside finally misplaced and for- gotten. In time, while some -1epairs were being made, it was uncovered in a closet of kindling wood, and although dingy with dust and age, it was recognized by one of the Sisters. With Father Russell's help it was fastened together and hung for safe- keeping till an opportunity might offer to have it restored by competent hand-. One day, John Ward Dinsmore, a Cin- cinnati artist who was painting the por- traits of Mothers Frances, Columba and Helena was shown the old picture which he identified as a Rubens. He was allowed to clean it, and today the pietuiied group stands out in the colors of 300 years ago The picture represents the Virgin hold- ing the Child, St. Joseph in the back- ground, while the Magi and attendants stand about in adoration. It is painted on four thin boards of hardwood, glued to- gether and covered with a cement prepara- tion, and is set in a black frame with a narrow band of gold next to the painting. 0- Erl W U, 0 Window Gethsemani The founder of the original order of Monks was St. Benedict, a holy man of Italy in 480. But it was not until six cen- turies later that the first monastery was established. In time the order degenrat- ed till Abbott Rence in 1700 undertook a 2eformatiorr of La Trappe in France. This order spread all over France till an over- crowded condition existed, then two Monks, Father Paulin and Father Paul were sent to the New World in 1848 to locate a site for a new monastery. They visited Bishop Flaget then 86 years old, in Louisville, and he suggested that they consider Loretto. The Sisters there owned a tuact of land which they called Gethsemani, and after due consid -ration, 1,400 acres were pur- chased for 5,000. On October 28, 1848, forty Trappist Monks in charge of Father Eutropius left France for their new home in Kentucky. Geth'semani was established in 1848 by Father Eutropius, the founder, and was consecrated in NovEmber 1866. At that time there wenp 1,500 acres under cultiva- tion by the brotherhood, and two schools were being conducted one for boys, one for girls. The girl's school was taught by the Franciscan Sisters, the boy's by the Trappist Monks, this burned a number of years' ago. A most beautiful de.scription of the present Abbey may be found in the "White Cowl" by James Lane Allen. Louis Phillipe In 1796, Louis Phillipe, who afterward occupied the throne of France, and his two brothers landed in Philadelphia as exiles from their country during the Reign of Terror. They travelled westward, visiting the principal cities and in the course of their jou7neyings reached Bardstown. Louis decided to stay, while his two bro- thers continued their travd's. He went by the name of Snmith, set up a little shop and began work at the watchmaker's trade, and, also taught a class in French. The little house where he stayed while here has long snice been torn down, but stood on the spot now occupied by C. E. Norton's residence. He remained in Bardstown a year, possibly longer, befriended by Bishop Flaget, till conditions having be- came more settled in France, hd: returnEd to that country and was made king. To show his gratitude and appreciation of the kind treatment shown him by Bishop BTaget, he sent a number of valuable gifts to the Cathedral here. E. M. Russell, once a jeweler in Bards- town, had in his possession a silver watch, which was of a make 200 years old and, also, had the distinction of having been re- paired by Louis Phillippe. The watch ore a mark in it, showing that the later king of France, or "Smith", the watchmaker re- paired it in 1803. FITCH'S STEAMBOAT OF 1790 Carrying passengers for hire between Philadelphia and Burlington on the D)ela- wa-v, River, during the Summer of the same year. 11 was granted pate nt rights by the Congress of the United States, August 26, 1791, and no other s-teamboat patents we:'e granted until afts r Fitch's d'ath in 1798. John Fitch It is known that John Fitch lived in Bardstown a number of years, died here and his L'dy lies in the old cemetery back of the, jail in a grave, neg'eected and un- marked for years. Finally, from old records, the spot wsa located and a low slab of marble was erected by the John Fitch Chapter, D. A. R's. The story goes that John Fitch had expressed a wish to b2 buried "On the shores of the Ohio, where the song of the boatman would enliven the stillness of the resting-place, and the music of the steam boat would soothe the spirt." Poor John Fitch! No one cared enough at his 'death to see that this wish was carried out. Sometime ago there was talk of nemoving his body to South Winsor, Connecticut where he wa; born January 21, 1743, but this met with decided oppo- sition. He received no sympathy there while living and there is no reason for believing that he would care to sleep the last sleep there. His whole life was unhappy,-even as a child, he suffered harshness, neglect and ill-treatment, his marriage was unhappy,- and his later years were a sevies of disap- pointments,-.success eluded him (to the last. He left a journal which gives insight into his trials. a Lear While a boy, he was apprenticed to a watch-maker and spent a miserable two years bound to a disagreeable, exacting man. Early in life he showed a marked talent for mechanics,-and later qualified himself as a surveyor to which line of wo.k a great part of his life wat devoted. He surveyed the country west of the Alle- ghenies, including Ohio and Kentucky, then known as the northwest, made a map of this region and tried to raise funds for his experiments by the sale of it. He was during thq soldiers to Forge. a lieutenant and a gunsmith Revolution and was one of the endure the hardships of Valley He first conceived the idea of steamboat building in 1785, and his first successful trial was made in 1786 on the Delaware River,-20 years before Fulton launched the "Clermont" on the Hudson. In 1788 he completed his first passenger steamboat which ran from Philadelphia to Burling- ton. It is recorded that in October 1788 he carried 30 passengers from Philidelphia to Burlington in three hours and ten minutes at a rate of six miles per hour. But people ridiculed John Fitch, refused the financial aid necessary in his expEri- mvnts, and at last beroken down with con- tinued misfortune, but still with confi- dence in his invention, he turned his back orn coldnes3, jealousy and; lack of apprecia- tion and entered the wilderness of Ken- tucky for a life of see'usion. He located at Bardstown where he had bought land dur- ing a surveying tour, and while here he constructed a model steamboat which he floated on the town creek just below the bridge. Tradition says that there was once a lake where the Post Office, Dan Talbott'F and Wilson's Drug Stores and Mr. Charles Boones residence now stand, and extending halfway up the business block, and that here, too, he experimented with his models. On a hot summer day he ended his bitter- ly disillusioned life' in an old tavern at Bardstown, through the medium of a draught of poison. We are all familiar with the following extract from his journal: "I know of nothing so vexatious to a man of feelings, as a turbulent wife and steam- boat building. I experienced the former and quit in season and had I been in my right sense I should undobutedly have treated the latter in the sanie manner, but for one man to be teased with both, he mult be looked upon as the most unfortunate man of this world." Historic I/alleys One of the most picturesque as well as Most historic spots in this part of Ken- tucky is the valley lying east of Bards- town. Standing on the high west bluff which overlooks this valley and the winding road curving like an iminense horseshow, the view is impressive. The trees on one hill- side opposite shade "Wickland" the form- er home of E-Governor Beckham. Under these trees camped at different times the soldiers of both armies during the Cviii War. The trees on another hillsdie screew "Federal Hill", once the home of Judge John Rowan Sr., and the birthplace of "My Old Kentucky Home." The road winding between these two hills goes on to Springfield and was once the old wilderness way leading to Cunmberland Gap. It was one of the first constructed in the State and dates back to the R)'s. Over this road marched Bragg in 1862 to a memorable engagement at Perryville. In 1863 Sue Munday and his guerlla band galloped along this road one winter night, to the home of William R. Grigsby. Forcing an entrance while guests filled the house with mirth, they shot down three Federal officers, From the west bluff projects a flat rock known as "Lover's Leap", because, the story goes, an Indian princess leaped to her death from here, when abandoned by her lover. In the valley below a great war- rior whose name was a terror to the pio- neers lies buried, for this was an Indian b'-rying ground. Somewhere near, so tradi- tion says, a vast quantity of treasure i3 interred,-undiscovered to this day. In the old brick house, recently remodel- ed by Mr. Tom Moore lived the tanners and on the hillside below may still be seen the marks of the old tan yard vats. This was at one time an important industry but the Civil War put an end to it. Beside the "Town Creek" below stood the "Oldk Mill". Between the bridge and the site of the old mill is a wide deep pool once called the "baptising hole for here the negroes brought their converts. Here too, it is said John Fitch floated his steamboat models. Above, the bridge is a point of land on which a scaffo'd was built in May 1858 upon which were hung th-ee slaves, Ben, Jake and Cy for the murder of their mas- ter, James G. Maxwell, a prominent farmer of Bloomfield. This scaffold stood for years, a grim warning to wrong doers. Close by "Lover's Leap" may be seen the entrance to a cave which runs back unde- the town for a mile. In 1788, Raphael Lan- caster came with his family to Bardstown and until their cabin home was built, they lived in this cave. From this pioneer fam- ily sprang those of that name in th2 County. They owned a cow but no milk pans, so the good wife made use of some inaple sugar troughs in the cave. A never-faiing spring near furnished the early settlers of the town with clear, cold water and the cave was a refuge from the Indians. Old Water Mill The oldest mill south of the Ohio River has been torn down within the recollection of many residents in this community. It was situated on the outskirts east of Bards- town and was known far and wide as "Brown's Old Mill," as it did the grinding for a larire section of country. It was an old-fashioned water-mill with an overshot whee and was built in 1798 by Nehemah Wells, a pioneer millwright. For many 'Deads it did a p iospcrous business, much of its product being sent to the principal Southern markets by way of flat-boats. T new afro the mill became the property of Philip Doran. a Trappist Monk. After op- crating it a short time. he closed it up and retirrerd to Geth'seirani. n it; last days it was purchased by the city and used as an adjunct to the workhoilse. an extensive roek n-ar-r sn-rorntvin the old plant. D, rimre the Civil War a band of Federal FSfdi-_s was s-rprised i.n the old, mill biild- in' bv Gere'tal John H. Morgan anal a detachment of his troons. A sharp engage- ment. follnwtd which resulted in the cap- ture of the Unionists.--ne of Morgan's men wsa- killed, Alex Moody. and lics harried in a clump of trees not fa- distant. Manv bullitt marks were discernible in tho woolwork of the building, when it was finally scw'd and torn down for the iron work in its structure And the stone which was Vsed in other buildings. Thus perished one of Rardstown'c oli- est and most picturesque land marks. Story Told Of Old Water Mill The old mill was the scene of a horrible murder in the early dasys. At one time it was in the hands of a mix'-i named Silas Marsden, who lived with his wife and adopted son, Henry Winthrop, in a cabin near. At a short distance from the mill in a clump of cedars were three rude slabs of limestone marking the graves of these three who met tragic deaths. Near the threshold of the mill was a towering oak tree whose branches reached out over a broad flat rock, which bears dark dis- colorations that turn rzd after rain. Some say that these are bloodstains, for the mur- der was committed beneath the oak tree and the victims fell dying upon the rock. Henry Winthrop, the adopted son, grew up reckless and dissipated, giving his fos- ter parents much trouble. But Mrs. Mars- der was very ford of the boy and for her sake Marsdnn had been lenient with him. The young fellow went from bad ta worse and fitally was arrested far forgery; but through the efforts of his father, a pardon was granted hint on condition that he leave the country. Ma eden furrirshed him money and he disappeared. Sometime after this, Pompey, one of Marsden's trusted slaves, told his master that he had witnessed a meeting between Mr3. Mar,.den and a man during the hus- band's absence in Bardstown the night be- fore. Marsden was seized with a demon oi iealousy. and planned to watch his wife. He told her that urgent business called him away indefinitely,, and that night the half- erazed man stationed himself neat the mill and awaited developments. Soon a mran and a womian, whom he recognized as his wife, came out of the darkness and parsed upon the rack, conversing lovingly. Marsden leaped frosm his concealment and fired sev- eral shots at the couple and both fell fatally wounded. But as his wife breathed her 'last she pointed to the dead man and whispered, "Hcnry." Instantly a terrible light broke upon Marsden, who realized that it was his adopted son, returned secretly to vi'sit his foster mother of whom he was really fond. Marsden fled, the mill passed into other hands and the years went by. One morn- ing the miller found, upon the rock, the body of a man who had shot himself through the head,-it was Silas Marsden, the unhappy murderer. Potter Shop Hill Two miles east of Bardstown where the Loretto pike joins the Springfield, pik- is a steep hill known as "Potter Shon Hill". Rowan's creek flows south along the foot of the hill through a deep ravine bordered on either side by dark woods and cedar thickets. Shelving rocks extend out over the water and it would be hard to ;n!agine a wilder, more lonesome, rugged spot,--- a fitting scene for the gruesome murder commiltlil on an unusually high ledge about half a mile back from the pike. At the foot of Potter Shop Hill once stood a mill and nearby a large weather- boarded log house. The mill was owned by Jndge John Rowan and theres worked two young men, lovers of a girl named Nancy Hayes, whose family lived in the log house. Nancy's father ran a blacksmith shop near the large log house, which was afterwards sold and used as a Potter Shop. The Potter Shop was burned during the Civil War to prevent the Federals from using it as a small pox hospital. Nancy favored one of her lovers. Amos Molloy. the manager of the mill. while she disliked the other, Noah Matheny. One morning Nancy came to the mill and quar- reled with Amos,-in the afternoon she re- tuined and the two started for a walk down through the ravine. That night a man came dashing wildly into town, and told of finding Nancy"s body horribly mangled, the head severed, on the ledge of rock back in the; country. A party immediately formed, returned to the spot and found the story true. Noall Matheny was with them and he it was who discovered a bloody handkerchief with the letters "A. M." At once a search for Amos was started and he was found. disheveled and frantic at a neighboring cabin. When dragged to the scene of the murder with, a rope around his neck, he told a story of a man who attached him and Nancy, with an axe while they walked. He tried to res- cre the girl but was thrown over the ledge by the maddened assailant. This story was net believed by th mob, and he. was hung an a tree spreading out over the rock,- this was the first lynching in Nelson Countev. Noah Matheny soon, left for parts unknown. Years afterward, a minister of Bards- town was aroused one nights and asked to come to a doctor's office where a dying man wished to wake a confession. A storm was raging and the man told of having been thrown over the cliff with his horse while riding along the lonely road during the wind and rain. His over wrought imagina- tion caused him to believe that the spirits of Narcy Hayes and Amos Malloy in venr"Eance had dashed him to his death, for, drawn by a guilty con'zcience through the years, Noah Mhatheny had returned to the scene of his crimc. He, it was, who so brutally murdered Nar'v Hayes and was the cause of an innocen., man's death. Ben Hardin Among Kentucky's historic residences is the former home of Ben Hardin, one of Kentucky's greatest criminal lawyeis. Thus old homestead is situated in the southwest suburbs of Bardstown and is a large ir- regular brick structure. It was erectedi be- tween 1819-22 by Mr. Hardin on land that was contained in the original preemption of the Bards. Ben Hardin who erected and long oc- cupied this rEsidence was born in. Pennsyl- vania February 29, 1874 and at the age cf four years was brought to Kentucky by his parents who sett'ed in Nel'son Oounty. The Hardins were French Huguenots who fled to America after St. Bartholomews Eve. At an early age he was placed in the school of Dr. Priestly then thei ablest edu- cator in the west. At twenty he began the study of law under Felix Grundy, made rapid progress and was admitted to the Bardstown bar, where he became one of the most picturesque figures in a brilliant group. His first case was one in which a large tract of land was involved, and though alone on his side and opposed by some of the most distinguished lawyers, he won out, his fame was made and he never lacked for clients. He was prominent in politics and served iTr many a public office. He be- came famous for his numerous debates with Henry Clay and was one of the most successful attorneys that ever practiced his profession within the domains of this old Gommonwealth. All good stories and witticisms of the day were attributed Lo him. John Randolph said in a caustic speech, "Hardin is like a kitchen knife whetted on a brick; he cuts roughly, but he cuts deep." The name "Kitchen Knife" c'ung to Hardin till his death; also, the title, "Red Fox", given him by -some prom- inrent contemporary. In early life Mr. Hardin married Eliza- beth Barbour, daughter of Col. Ambrose Barbcur of Washingtonr County, one . f Kentucky s famous pioneers. Seven chil- dren were born to them.-three sons and four daughters-who in turn married peo- p!e of note. His home life was happy, his doors ware- always open and he dispensed lavish hospitality to many distinguished guests, among whom may be mentioned, Gen. Wim. Preston, ex-Sen. Garland, Bishop Kavanaugh, Judge John Rrowan, Governor Wm. Duvall, and others of national repu- tation. His wife was a Methodist and during his later years he joined that Church. Ben Hardin's death occurred in Septem- ber 1852 and was the Jesuit of a fall which he received while journeying horseback from Bardstown to Lebanon to attend Court. He was buried in an old. graveyard between Springfield and Lebanon, by the side of his mother, and his grave is marked by an unpretentious stone bearing the simple inscription, "Ben Hardin of Barxds- town." His wife died a month after he did, in August,-her death hastened by constant attendance upon her husband. She was buried in the pioneer cemetery here, and a defaced marble shaft marks the rest- ing place of "Elizabeth Barbour Hardin, wife of BEun Hardin." "Morton's Spring," celebrated in the early annals, as furnishing water to the Bards- town pioneers, is located on the old Hardin farm, and although it is a half mile from the house, Mr. Hardin would drink no other water while at homne. His law office was located in the large front yard. shaded by forest trees. but this snmall building was long ago demolished and much of the yard sold off into building lots. Another point of interest on the old farm is the ruins of an old water-mill which was situated at the foat of the famovs paved hill near the Beech Fork River. This was one of Ben Hardin's favorite haunts, also the dense woods which covered the land south of the residence at that time. The old mill was destroyed by, a flood, and the foundation stones were used in building the bridge which now spans the Beech Fork. The "Paved Hill," famous as being a por- tion of the old pioneer road that led. from the Ohio River south to Nashville ran through the Hardin farm. It is a master- piece of the art of road building in those davs, and is a marvel of durability and skill. Nea- the terminus of the "Paved Hill" and close to the Beech Fork, is a singular formation. It is a mound running parallel to the river, several hundred fect long, 60 or 70 feet in height, and its summit about 100 feet wide. A rock pro'montory or cliff at its upper end juts out a considjerable distance and makes a beautiful spectacle. In the spring it is thickly covered with Indian pinks and otheri wild flowers, which has given it the name of "Flower Mound." This curious formation is supposed to be the work of the mound builders. The old Hardin home was General Ijeon- idas Polk's headquarters during the occu- pation of Bardstown by Bragg's army. He was entertained by Judge Linthicum, then the occupant of the home. A portion of the Confederate forces were quartered near the house and to this day relices of the old encampment may b3 found. "Old Kentucky Home' Another of the famous residences in Kentucky is "Federal Hill,' the old Rowan homestead, about half a mile east of Bards- town near the Springfield pike. The dwell- ing is a massvie structure of brick, with heavy paneled doors, high ceilinged rooms and elaborately- carived mantelpieces. Thmugh its center runs a wide hall con- taining a colonial staircase. Within its walls are the accumulated treasurers of years, priceless heirlooms, and rare old portraits. The building is situated on an eminence amid old shade trees which almost hide it from the view of the passerby. The original Rowan in Kentucky was Wm. Rowan, a native of Pennsylvania. He came to Kentucky at the close of the Revo- lutionary War and settled near Louisville. later on Green River, and finally removed to Bardstown that his son, John, might have the superior educational advantages offered here by the renowned school of Dr. Priestly,-this was a log structure on the Court Square and many famous men re- ceived a classical education there. In 1795 John Rowan, the son, was ad- mitted to the Bardstown Bar, and at about this time he married, and erected the state- ly mansion known as "Federal Hill" 1795-87. his advancement in public life was remarkable, and he served his country in various posts of trust and honor until his death in Louisville, July 13, 1843. He was powerful in physique, aristocratic in bearing, and Old Ben. Hardin dubbed him the "Monarch," a highly appropriate title. While Judge John Rowan lived at 'Fed- eral Hill," many distinguished men were entertained there, such as Henry Clay, James Monroe, Governor Metcalfe. John Cwittenden, Ben Hardin, James Guthrie, Wm. Duvall, Governor Wickliffe, James K. Polk, Theo. O'Hara, Lafayette, Stephen Collins Fostex and others. In the yard between the residence and the Springfield pike are the ruins of an old stone springhouse which was once two stories high. Judge Rowan's law office was in the second story and here a number of well known lawyers began their legal educa- tions. Judge Rowan frequently entertained his friends in this spring house. He was the owner Vf a number of slaves and during a cholera epidemic in 1883, five members of the family and 23 negroes lay dead at one time. The family burying ground lies a short distance east of the house and here Judge Rowanr and manr of the family lie buried. He requested that no stone mark hil resting place, but in after yea--s the family erected a shaft topped by an urn. A strange thing is told, that the urn was thrown from its place again and again by the branches if a willow tree nearby tiW. finally it had to be removed permanently. At Judge Rowan's death the estate pass- ed into the hands of his son, John, who was, also, a man of prominence. Hemar- ried a Miss Rebecca Carnes, who was a beauty of Baltimore, Md. Their daughter, Mrs. Madge Rowan! Frost, has lately sold the cvld home to the State as a memorial to Stephen Collins Foster and his immortal songf "Old Kentucky Home," which was in. spired and written here. Foster wrote the song in late August or early September 1852. while he and his sister were visiting at "Federal Hill,"- Judge Rowan was his father's cousin. The story goes that he composed the words while at the oldd spring house,-upon com- ing up to the dwelling, he sat at a desk in the hall where he jotted them down on paper,- this identical desk is shown to visitors. In 1919, the late Mt. Baker Smith, a well-known resident of Bardstown, then in his 88th year remembered the first sing- ing of "My Old Kentucky Home." He re- called a house party of gay young folks, among them a girl with a beautiful voice. Foster coached her and she sang the song the wo-Kd has been singing ever since. Stephen Collins Foster was born near Pittsburg, Pa., July 4, 1826. Although he had a naturTl fondness for music he was educated for a business careez. This proved distasteful however, and he devoted him- self to music. He wrote 17 songs which at once. became popular and were translated into foreign languages. Over 300,000 copies of "Old Folks at Home" were sold. In nearly every case Foster wrote the music as well as the words of his songs, and kept :z :W ;: 0 Q : z T 0 p X 0 X 0X I 'gppp- I I' , 1 I11-... I 44 TV I " the air within the range of ordinary voicEs. Though his moodies are simple, they are graceful and refined, the result of study and appeal to the critical as well as the popular ear-they deal with universal sympathies. "Old Kentucky Home," "Massa'g in the Cold, Cold Ground," "Old Black Joe," "Old Uncle Ned," "04d Folks at otr4-' are a few of the many. Foster was a handsome man vZ culture and refinement, and was of a modest and 'etiring disposition. He married Miss Jane Denny McDowell, of Pittsburg, where he spent most of his life. He died in New York City, Janua-:y 13. 1864. 9y '-4 0s o 04 0 44 Xa wo w '40