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Address to the people of Kentucky on the subject of emancipation 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-161-29919585 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Address to the people of Kentucky on the subject of emancipation s.n., [Kentucky : 184-] 12 p. ; 24 cm. Coleman Caption title. Names at end of tract: Reuben Dawson, James Speed, William E. Glover, Wm. P. Boon, and Bland Ballard. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1994. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOLMN03348.06 KUK) Printing Master B92-161. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Slavery United States Controversial literature.Dawson, Reuben. Speed, James, 1812-1887. Glover, William E. Boon, William P. Ballard, Bland, 1761-1853. A D D R E s s TO THE PEOPLE OF KENTUCKY, ON THE SUBJECT OF EMANCIPATION. FELLOrW-CITIZENS: In August next the duty I of selecting delegates to the Convention called to remodel the Constitution of ourbeloved Corn- monwealth, will devolve on you. You have already been frequently addressed by those in favor of certain proposed reforms, who have not seen fit to urge on your attention the necessity of reform in relation to the greatest evil under w hich we labor. We regard slavery as by far the greatest of all the evils now afflicting the peopleof this State, and are deeply solieitousX that some steps shall be taken toward its gradu- al removal from among us. It is our present purpose to urge you to cooperate with us in the great and good work of Emancipation. We beg you to give us3 your attention while we proceed to enumerate some of the evils which slavery in- flcts onus, and to point out some ofthe many benefits which would result from its removal. I had control, by his will. In a letter to Genele8 Lafayette he said: "The benevolence of YOUr heart, my dcear Marquis, isso conspicuouson alloccasion;, that I never wonder at fresh proof-s of it; but your late purchase of an estate in the colony of Cay- enne, with a view of emancipating the slaves, is a genewous and noble proof of your humanil) . Would to God, a like spirit might diffitse itself generally into the minds of the people of this country! But I despair of seeing it. Some pe- titions were presented to the Assembly at its lasJ isession, for the abolition of slavery; but the' could scarcely obtain a hearing." In another letter addressed to John F. Mercer, he said: "1 never mean, unless some particlIlar cirt- cumstances should compel me to it, to possess another slave by purchase; it being among ma first wishes to see some plan adopted by mrhich sic- very in this anvrtry may be abolished Iy low." Mr. Jeffeison's abhorianie of slavery was of- When we examine American slavery by the teIm V pilms a. Allt LIiV 0r16--lp'- light of history, we find it condemned by large clarasion of Independence, he expressed the and respectable meetings of the citizens in the greatest indignation towards the British King slave States before the Revolution. We find the for capturing and bringing to the colonies I'a di deliberate opinions of such men as Washingtonant people who had never ofended him." In a Jefferson, Madison, Henry and Franklin record- letter to Mr. Warville, he gives the following ed against it. Commencing at the Revolution melancholy and yet trutlhful picture of slavery: and cominng down to our own day, we find a very "The whale commerce between master and large proportion of our own wisest legislators Slave is a peTpetu31 exercise of the most hoister. and statesmen testifying to its blighting and os passions; the most unremitting despotism nd s non the one part an'! degrading S 01' withering influence. In our own State. and in the other. Our children see this and larn tO the halls Of our own Legislature, it has frequent- imitate it; folrnman is an imitative animal. The ly been characterized as an institution weighing parent storms, the child looks on, catches the _o11th Poseit O t tae lineaments of wrath, puts on the same airs in down the prosperity of the State. the circle of smaler slaves, gives loose to his We venerate the memories of these men-the worst passions, and thus nursem, educated and lessons of political and moralwiadom'heytaught daily exercised in tyranny, cannot but be stain- ed by it with odious peculiarities. The man us we hope ever to cherish. Their opinions must be a prodigy who can retain his manners upon the great question of slavery must com- and morals undepraved by such circumstances, mand high respect from every well constituted And with what execration should the statesman mind, beloaded, who rermitting one-half the citizens Washingtnn, it is well known, provided for1 thus to trample on the rights of the other, trans Washington, it iq well known, provided fioT forms those into despots, and these into ene the emancipation of all slaves over whom he mies, destroys the morals of the one part. av4_ 2 the amor patri ot the other. For if the slave can have a country in this world, it must be any other in preference to that in which he is born to live and labor for another-in which he must lock up the faculties of hib nature, contribute as far as depends on his individual endeavors to the evanishment of the human race, or entail his own miserable condition on the endless genera- tions proceeding from him. With the morals of the people, their industry is also destroyed. For in a warm climate no man will labor for him- self who can make another labor for him. This is so true, that of the proprietors of slaves, a very small proportion indeed are ever seen to labor. And can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the peo- ple that these liberties are of the gift of God- That they are not to be violated but with his -ach Tn1 -1 I t.amhl. far -- -rnn4yw -h.en If we cannot reduce this wished for reformation to practice, let-us treat the unhappy victims with lenity. It is the furthermost advance we can make towards justice, it is a Debt we owe to the purity of our religion, to show that it is at vari- ance with that law which warrants slavery. I know not where to stop. I could say many things on the subject; a serious view of which gives a gloomy perspective to future time." Again, in the debates in the Virginia Conven- tion, he declared: "I repeat it again, that it would rejoice my very soul that every one of my fellow beings was emancipated. As we ought with gratitude to admire that decree of Heaven, which has numbered us among the free, we ought to lament and deplore the necessity of holding our fellow- men in bondage." I reflect that God is just; that his justice cannot late ex-President Monroe, in a speech in :sleep forever; that, considering numbers, nature, the Virginia Convention, said: and natural means only, a revolution of the "We have found that thia evil has preyed ,,eheel of fortune, an exchange of situatio1l is "ehv on htti vlhspee whee ofotnnechneostato isupon the very vitals of the Union; and haa been a mong possible events-that it may become pro- prejudicial to all the States in which it has een- bahle by supernatural interference! The Al prjdc mighty has no attribute which can take sides 1t." with us in such a contest. Another distinguished Virginian says: "What an incomprehensible machine is man! "7The existence of tLat scourge of a guilty Who can endure toil, famine, stripes, imprison- world, Slavery, is the true, the real, the undeni- ment, and death itself, in vindication of his'own able source, whence springs all the ignorance liberty, and the next moment be deaf to all those and much of the vice and immorality which now motives whose power supported him through his unhappily afflict the State. trial, and inflict on his fellow.men a bondage, You may sketch out the most admirable plan one hour of which is fraught with more misery for educating the poor children, ever devised by than ages of that which he rose in rebellion to the wit of man, but you can never reduce it to oppose. But we must wait with patience the practice with the least prospect of success, as working of an overruling Providence, and hope long as we cultivate our lands with slaves, and that that is preparing the deliverance of these bring them up to trades, (which ought to be con- our suffering brethren. When the measure of fined exclusively to white citizens) thus compell- their tears shall be full-when their tears shall ing our people to leave the State, and seek em- have involved Heaven itself in darkness-doubt- plnyment elsewhere, Or remain here and endure less a God of justice will awaken to their dig- the alternative, so mortifying and repugnant to tress, and by diffusing a light and liberality the feelings of freemen, of being compelled to among their oppressors, or at length by his ei- labor side by side, with the slave, and to have terminating thunder manifest his attention to their services estimated by those of the slave.- things of this world, and that they are not left Thousands of our young mechanics, Carpenters, to the guidance of blind fatality. Blacksmiths, Bricklayers, c., "the bone and "I am very sensible of the honor you propose sinew' of the land, from this cause alone, annu- to me, of becoming a member of the society for ally leave Virginia and go to some of the free the abolition of the slave trade. You know that States of the West. Go to any county in the nobody wishes more ardently to see an abolition, State, particulaTly in Eastern Virginia, and you not only of the trade but of the condition of sla- will find na arly all the land, worth cultivating, very; and certainly nobody will be more willing in possession of the "slaveholdingaristocTacy," toencountereveysacrificeforthatobject. But and almost every man has his own Carpenter, the influence and information of the friends to Blacksmith, tc., from among his own negroes. this proposition in France will be far above the Tne poor boys, if they are brought up to some need of my association." hard working and respectablecalling, mUst leave the State to find employment; they cannot af- Tbat immortal orator and great and good- ford to stay here and work as cheap as theslave, man, Patrick Henry, in a lefter to Rob't Pleas. who fares in the coarsest manner and is com- ants, referring to slavery, says: pelled to toil in the most arouous and incesant ants, referring to slavery, says: manner, under penalty of the lash, to be inflict. "Ibelieve a time will come, when an opportuni ed at the discretion of his master. Thousands ty till be ofered toabolish this lamentablet el.- of poor families leave Virginia every year, prin. Everything we can do is to improve it, if it hap- cipally from the causes which I have mentioned, pens in our day; if not, let us transmit to dsr and those who stay behind, are so scattered and lescendants, together with our slaves, a pity for separated, that it is next to an impossibility, to their unhappy lot, and ourabhorenceforslavery. reach them by any system of Education, that I 3 can be adopted, however wise and liberal ln its atitution soobnioxiouaasslaver) Shallour ow n features. We have accounts of great public experience, and the opinions of the wisest and meetings held to promote the cause of education, I est men of the present and pa generations be but nothing will be done, because nothing can o be availably done, until ourpeople see a disposi- entirely disregarded in the settlement of this tion manifested to get rid of the slaves which question, or shall we fold our arms in quiet in- have the effect, like a deadly pestilence, of driv- difference and permit the great question of the ing the people as far off' as they can possibly ae o rsiguo sfrdlbrto n get." age, now pressing upon us for deliberation anal John H. Pleasants, also a distinguished Vir- decision, togo by default Fellow-citizens,these ginian, thus writes: are important questions which force themselves "Nocommunity can greatly flourish and pros- upon our attention attthe present juncture, and per where its youth are brought up in idleness, which in one way or the other WE MUST ANSAVES1. and to regard manual labor and the mechanic Webelieve that slavery is a positive evil view- trades as dishonorable, because slaves axe em- ployed todo the manual labor of the community: ed in all its aspects, and we feel it due to those This is the great and clinging curse of slavery! who differ from us on this question to enumerate It enervates and effeminates the youth of the the facts upon which this belief is based. We Republic: It causes them to rely at every turn, desire to win over to our views those who honest- even to the bringing of a pitcher of water from the well, or brushing their shoes, upon a negro, ly and sincerely differ from us, and we therefore instead of upon themselves: The grow up worth. ask a candid examination of the facts and sta- less in energy, and helpless, and when their tistics we are about to offer. patrimony is squandered, as it is almost sure to Increase of population in a State depends be, from the habits of idleness and extravagance engendered by the existence of slavery, they be- upon increase in the means of living; and is, come drones here, or emigrate to the West to therefore, the most certain measure of public seek the fortune they rarely or never find, and and private prosperity. Whenever the three great neverdeserve to find." branches of productive industry, agriculture, Judge Robertson in a speech which he deliver- manufactures and commerce, or any of them, ed in the last Legislature of Ky., says: continue to yield increasing products, the popu- "Slavery in Kentucky is a social and moral lation will increase at the same rate; because evil." Mr. Clay, in his late letter to R. P!ndell, says: then industry produces a surplus beyond the "Kentucky enjoys high respect and honorable present wants of the people, and more families consideration throughout the Union and through- can be supported. This is the general rule-the out the civilized world; but, in my humble opin- exceptions to it can only be temporary in their ion, no title which she has to the esteem and ad- miration of mankind, no deeds of her former occurrence. glory, would equal, in greatness and grandeur, In this country, where emigration to new that of being the pioneer State in removing from countries is so easy, whenever the means of liv- her soil every trace of human slavery, and in es- ing fail in their native place, the people are sure tablishing the descendants of Africa, within her t jurisdiction, in the native land of their forefath- to relieve themselves by emigration. Without ers." some pressure of the sort, attachment to their These, fellow-citizens, are, for the most part, native land is ordinarily sufficient to prevent the opinions of our conscript fathers-as such men from emigrating; indeed, it is a maxim with they commend themselves to our approval. We all political writers that if the wages of labor in believe them correct. And now, after fifty \ ears any coun-ry be such as to enable the poor experience of the evils of slavery, when we are classes of people to live with tolerable comfor about framing a new organic law, under which they Wvil not emigrate. the interests of all the citizens of the State are We may therefore lay it down as a general to be protected, should we be acting wisely, by rule, that the quantity of emigration from a deliberately using our influence to perpetuate a State is a pretty accurate index of its compara- known evil We are now acting for future gen- tive prosperity. If few leave it, we may justly erations-we are to promulgate the oiganic law infer that its industry is thriving-sufficientlyso under which ourchildren and our children's chil- to support the natural increase of its population, dren are to live and act Should we then be and to make nearly all contented at home. But faithful to ourselves or to them, or should we be if a large and perpetual stream of emigrants is acting faithfully toward our beloved Common- pouring out of it in search of better fbrtune else- wealth., in deliberately engrafting on that organ- where, it is an infallable symptom of one of two ic law a provision which will perpetuate an in- things; either that the country has no more 4 natural sources fromn which industry may draw increasing products-or that the people are defi- cient in enterprise and skill to improve the re- sources of their country. Apply this rule to Kentucky or Virginia, or any of the older slave States, and how do they appear The people in them, no doubt, multiply naturally as fast as the people of other States- that is, at the rate of 33 1-3 per cent. in ten years-so that, if none emigrated, the number would be inorcased by one-third in that period of time. Kentucky in 1820 had a population of 564,317, and in 1830 her population was only 587,917; whereas, if she had kept up her natural nerease it would have been 752,422. In 1840, per population was only 779,828; but if she had kept up her natural increase, it would have been ,C003,227. Thus Kentucky lost in the twenty years, from 1820 to 1840, no fewer than 223,399 her people-or about three times the whole population of Arkansas in 1840. Adplying the same test to Virginia, we find that in the ten years from 1830 to 1840, she lost by emigration no fewer than 375,000 of her people. East Virginia, where slavery chiefil abounds, 304,000, and West Virginia, 71,000. At this rate Virginia drives off from her borders to the WVest, every ten years, a ppopulation equal in number to the popullaion of Lte State of Mississippi in 1840. No one pretends to assign any cause for this result other than t]averT. Fellow-citizens, it is a huradiating fact, one that should penetrate the ]heart of every Ken- tuckian, that from the year 180 to this time, Kent icky has sent, or we should ratLer say, driven, from her boson, nearly ts ice as many of her free white citizens as the present nurnr of slaves within her limits. Most of these have shunned the regions of slavery, and ietlted in the free States. They were generally intt-rprLsing, indu-trious, laboring whiie men, who found by sad xperience that a country of slaves was not the country for them; who would not remain where slavery degrades the workingman; who saw that, for some reason, neither they nor their country were prosperous; and who thought of adding to their own prosperity by uniting their destinies lo the not far off prospering States. We will again recur to this view of the subject, but will now proceed at once to a generalsurvey of the comparative condition of the free and slave States. Commencing, then, with Maryland, one of the oldest slave States, we submit he following state-, ments and statistics, taken from a pamphlet pub- lished in Baltimore, in 1846, entiled, "Slavery i' Maryland, briefly considered." This pam- phlet was written by John L. Carey, Esq., a dis- tinguished member of the Baltimore Bar. Af- ter a well considered introduction, Mr. Carey thus speaks of the blighting effect of slavery in his own State. For years past our cotton growing states have been t xporting their soil; and with that improv- juence which slavery generates, that love of present indulgence, careless of what may fol- low, the South has received in return the means of enjoyment only-nothing wherewith to ren- ovate the outraged ground. Such a process long continued must, in the end, ruin the finest lands in the world. Its effects are apparent in the At- lantic States, in the south-west operating irre- sistibly to draw the planters of Carolina and Georgia from their wornout fields. The same general observations will apply to our slave-holding sections in Maryland, and to many parts of eastern Vtrginia too, if it were necessary to pursue the investigation there.- Emigration to the west has kept pace with the impoverishment of our lands. Large tracts have come into the hands of a few proprietors -too large to be improved, and too much eshausted to be productive. But this is not the worst.- The traveller, as he journeys through these dis- tricts, smitten with premature barrenness as with a curse, beholds fields, once enclosed and subject to tillage, now abandoned and waste, and covered with straggling pines or scrubby thickets, which are fast overgrowing the wan- ing vestiges of former cultivations. From swamps and undrained morasses, malaria ex- hales, and like a pestilence infects the country. The inhabitants become a sallow race; the cur- renti of life stagnates; energy fails; the spirits droop. Over the whole region a melancholy aspect broods. There are everywhere signs of dilapidation, from the mansion of the planter woth its wincows half-glazed, its doors half- hinged, its lawn trampled by domestic animals that have ingress and egress through the broken enclosures, to the ragged roadside house where thriftless noverty finds its abode. No neat cot- tages with gardens and flowe rs giving life to tle lar;dscape; no beautiful villages where cultiva- ted taste blends with rustic simplicity, enrich- ingand beautifying; no flourishing towns alive with the bustle of industry-none of these'are seen; no, nor any diversified succession of r ell cultivated farms with their substantial home- stca's and capacious barns; no well-construct- ed bridgem, no well-constructed roads.-Neglect, the harbinger of decay, have stamped her im. pru.'s everywhere. Slavery, bringing with it from its African home its char.cteristic accom- panimcnts, seems to have breathed over its rest- ing places here thesame desolating breathwhich made Sahara a desert.' Mr. Carey next gives a detailed statement of the population of each county in Maryland 5 commencing in 1790, an bringing it on in regu- lar decades to 1840, exhibiting in the aggregate the following remarkable results : " In nine counties in Maryland the white pop- ulation has diminished since 1790. These are the counties: Montgomery, Prince George, St. Mary's Calvert, Charles Kent, Caroline, Tal- bot and Queen Anne's. The aggregate white population of those counties in 1790 was 73,352; in 1840 it was 54,408. Here is a falling off of nearly 20,000; if the account were carried to the present year the falling off would be more than 20,000. "These nine counties include the chief slave- holding sections of the State. In five of them taken together, to-wit: Montgomery, Prince George, St. Mary's, Calvert, .and Charles, the number of slaves exceeds that of the white pop- ulation. These are chiefly the tobacco growing counties, together with the county of Frederick. "The counties of Alleghany, Washington, Frederick, and Baltimore, and Baltimore City, are the portions of the State in which slavery has existed but partially. That is to say, Alle- ghany, with an aggregate population of 15,704, has but8it slaves; Washington, in a popula- tion of 28,862, has 2,505 slaves; Frederick has 6,370 slaves to a population of 36,703; Balti- more county, 6,533 slaves in aggregate popula- tion of 80,256; and Baltimore City includes but 3,212 in its population of 102,513. "Nov taking these four counties and Balti- more City out of the account, it will be found that the aggregate white population of the rest ofthe State has diminishedsince 1790. In other words the increase of our population, which is abeut one hundred and fifty thousand since the first census, has been mainly in those counties where slavery has been least prominent. In those portions of the State where slavery pre- vails most prominently, the white population, during the last fifty years, has diminished." He then sums up, boy the following comparison of a portion of the free and slave States, which exhibits the latter in a painfully humiliating con- trast: "The contrast presented by the progress of the free States, within fifty years, and by that of the slave-holding States for the same period, is so familiar that it would be useless to burden these pages with statistics to illustrate it. It may be sufficient to state, in respect to the in- crease of population, that in 1790 the free States, including Massachusetts and Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, New York, New Jersey and Pennsyl- vania had a population of 1,971,455; while the slaveholding States, Delaware, Maryland, with the Dfistrict, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, contained 1,852,- 494 inhabitants. Tn 1840 the same free States numbered a population of 6,761,082, and the same slave-holding States had entire population of 3,827,110. The former increased in a ratio more than double as compared with the latter. "In our own State, however, where we donuL grow cotton, sugar, or rice, and where there arc no nev lands to present afresh to the plough, and to invite settlers from a distance, the in- crease of population in our chief slave-holding counties has been nothing at all. There has been a decrease, and a very marked one. How has this decrease happened but by a process sim- ilar to that which rendered desolate three hun- dred thousand acres in the campaigneof Naples, in the days of slavery among the Romans- which made Italy itself almost one wildernese, re-inhabitcd by wild boars and other animals, before a single barbarian had crossed the Alps! "Let us not conceal the truth from ourselves. Slavery in Maryland is no longer compatible with progress; it is a dead weight and worse; it has become a wasting disease, weakening the vital powers-a leprous distilment into the life- blood of the commonwealth." This, then, fellow-citizens, is the result of the continued existence of slavery in one of the older States. We shall presently see that the deleterious effeets of slavevy are palpable in Kentucky as well as in Maryland. We will now turn to Virginia, " Old Vir- ginia," the State that we proudly claim as our mother, and let us see if the picture of slavery has there a brighter side. And first we give a comparative view of the progress and develop- ment of the agricultural, manufacturing, and commercial interests of New England and Vir- ginia, as gathered from the best authorities wvith- in our reach. Both seclions may be considered as nearly of the same age in point of settlement, both were settled by Englishmen, and there is a striking similarity in extent of territory. Mr. Howison, in his late history of Virginia, thus contrasts the natural advantages of Massa- chusetts and Virginia, and what is here said of Massachusetts will apply equally to all New England: "Massachusetts was first settled in 1620- Virginia in 1607-Massachusetts in winter has a cold, harsh atmosphere-Virginia has at all times a temperate and pleasant climate-Mas- sachusetts has a hard, sterile soil, little grateful for attention-Virginia has a soil generous even to prodigality, and repaying twenty-fold the la- bor of the husbandman; Massachusetts is watered by small streams, and has but oneriver that may claim the first dignity-Virginia has six of the finest rivers, whose waters reach the Atlantic. . Massachusetts has some iron and granite, but beyond these, ber minerals are as nothing-Virginia has iron, lead, copper, gold, salt, and coal in quantity, which no one has yet ventured to estimate--Massachusetts has indeed splendid harbors, and everything essen. tial to the expansion of shipping-but Virginia has an inland sea and habomthatmightbenade las good as any in the world. Massachusetts has 7,800 square milesof surface-Virginia has t66,- )00 square miles of horizontal area." From this statement of familiar facts, as c in- cer that if Virginia has not equalled New Eng- :aud in progress, the fault is in her people and institutions, and not in her physical condiiion. The area of the New England States is thus Eiven by the best authorities, viz: Maine, Newi -am.shire, Vermont, Massaclhuselts, Rhode T1land, Connecticut, Square Miles. 30,000 9,280 10,212 7,500 l ,206 4,674 Acres. 19,200,000 6,939,200 6,535,680 4,890,000 870,400 2,991,360 Total, 63,026 40,336,640 The relative condition of New England and Virginia, at the present time, is shown by the following statements. They present a compar- ative view of the substantial elements of pros- perity, as well as of moral and intellectual im- provement, in these two sections of the United States-the one a population of diversified in- lustrial employments, and improving all their advantages-the other a population chiefly agri- ,ultural, its manufacturing, mining, and com- inercial advantages but partially developed, im- porting from abroad a large portion of the mn an- ufactures necessary for the supply of its inhabi- tants, most of whichecould readily and advan- tageowsly be made within its own borders. COMPARATIVE VIEW OF TIlE PRESENT CONDITION OF NEw ENGLAND AND VIRGINIA. White population, Free col'd do Slaves, New England. 1840, 2,212,165 do. 22,633 do. 23 Total pop. in 1840, 2,234,821 Persons employed In Agriculture, 414,138 In Manufactures, 187,258 In Mining, 811 In Commerce, 17,757 In Navigation, 44,068 In Learned Profes- sions, 11,050 X Whites over 20 years of age who cannot read and write, 13,041 Students in Colleges, 2,857 Do in Academies, 43,664 -Scholars in Primary Schools, 574,277 Capital employed in Manufactures, 86,824,229 In Foreign Commerce, 19,467,793 In Fisheries, 14,691,294 In L-imber Business, 2,096,041 Bankingeapital in '40, 62,134,850 Virginia. 740,968 49,872 448,987 1,239,827 318,771 54,147 1,995 6,361 3,534 3,866 58,787 1,097 11,083 35,331 11,360,861 4,299,500 28,383 113,210 3,637,400 ESTIMATES OF THE ANNUAL PRObucrs, BY PROF. TUCKER, OF VIRGINIA, ON THE BASIS OF THE CENSUS OF 1840. Innual products of Agriculturc, )f Manufactures, Of Commerce, Xf Mining, 74,749,889 82,784, t85 13,528,740 3,803,638 59,085,821 8,349,211 5,299,451 3,321,629 POPULATION, ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS OF 1830 AN D 1840. White persons in 1830 Colored do 1830 White do 1840 Colored do 1840 Increase of whites in fifty years, Increase of colored persons in fifty yr's, Increase of total pop- ulation, 1,933,338 21,378 2,212,165 22,657 1,219,384 694,300 617,105 740,908 498,829 298,853 5,613 192,636 1,224,997 494,189 The percentage of increase on the total pop- ulation in fifty years, in New England, 121 3-10; in Virginia, 65 6-10. We have given above, the estimates of the comparative products of New Eiigland and Vir- ginia, made by Prof. Tucker. We subjoin those of Dr. Ruffner, whois also a Virginian, because we believe them more correct. He says: "By estimating the value of the yearly plo- ducts of each State, and dividing the same by the number ofpersons employed in makingthose products, we find the average value produced by each person: and by comparing the results of the calculation for the several States, we discov- er the comparative productiveness of Agricultur- al labor in the States. This is what we want for our argument. Professor Tucker, la'e of the University of Virginia, in his useful book, on the Progress of Popuilation, c., has given in detail a calcula- tion of this sorL He was certainly not partial to the North in his estimates. We have care- fully examined them; and think that his valua- tions of products are in some particulars errone- ous. We think, also, that he has omitted tome elements necassary to an accurate result. We have therefore In our own calculations arrived at results somewhat different from his; yet so far as our argument is concerned, the difference is immaterial. We can therefore assure you, fel- low-citizens, that no sort of calculation founded on any thing like truth or reason, can bring out a result materially different from ours. We have not room here for the particulars that enter into the calculations: we can only give the results themselves. The general results, according to both Mr. Tucker and ourselves are as follows: In New England, agricultural industry yields an annual value, averaging about one hundred and eighty dollars to the hand, that is, for each person employed. In the middle States of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, the average is about two lI 7 hundred and sixty-five or two hundred and seven- ty dollars to the hand. And in the old slave States, South of the Po- tomac, the average is about 130 dollars to the hand. This, according to our calculation, is rather above the average for East Virginia, but below that for West Virginia. The average for all Virginia is about 138 dollars. Thus it appears by the best evidence which the case admits of, that the farmers of the mid- dle States, with their free labor, produce more than twice as great a value to the hand, as the farmers and planters of theoldslave States; and that even the New Euglanders, on their poor soils and under their wintry sky, make nearly forty per cent more to the hand, than the old South- erners make in the sunny South,' with the ad- vantage of their valuable staples, cotton and tobacco. In Maryland, the result is intermediate be- tween the average of the North and that of the South; and this agrees strikingly with her condi- tion as a half-slave State; for lower Maryland is cultivated by negroes, and has a languishing agriculture, as well as a stationary population: but upper Maryland is cultivated by free labor, and has a thriving agriculture with a growing population. These results, founded on the best evidence, and confirmed by general observation, are for substance indubitably correct, and cannot be overthrown. Now it is admitted on all hands, that slave labor is better adapted to agriculture, than to any other branch of industry; and that, if not good for agriculture, it is really good for Poth- ing Therefore, since in agriculture, slave labor is proved to be far less productive than free labor- slavery is demonstrated io be not only unprofita- ble, but deeply injurious to the public prosperity. We do not mean that slave labor can never earn any thing for him that employs it. The question is between free labor and slave labor. He that chooses to employ a sort of labor, that yields only half as much to the hand as another sort would yield, makes a choice that is not only unprofitable, but deeply injurious to his inter- est. If we now compare Virginia with New York, the disadvantages of slavery will appear in a still more striking point of view. One of the citizens of our State, Thomas F. Marshall, in a pamphlet published in 1840, daaws the follow- ing comparison between Virginia and New York: "In 1790, Virginia, with 70,000 square miles of Territory, contained a population of 749,308, New York, upon a surface of 45,658 square miles contained a population of 344,120. This statement exhibits in favor of Virginia a differ- ence of 405,188 inhabitants, which Is double that of New York and 68,000 more. In 1830, after a race of 40 years, Virginia Is found to contain 1,211,405 souls, and New York 1,918,. 608, which exhibits a difference in favor of New York of 707,203. The increase on the part of Virginia will be perceived to be 453.187, starting from a basis more than double that of New York. The increase ofNew York upon a basis of 310,120 has been 1,578,301 human beings.- Virginia has increased in a ratio of 61 percent., and New York in that of 566 per cent. The total amount of property in Virginia, u nder the assessmentof 1838, was 211,930,508. The ag- gregate value of Real and Personal property in New York, in 1839, was 654,000,000, exhibit- an excess in New York over Virginia of 442,. 066,492. Statesmen may differ about policy, or the means to be employed in the promotion of the public good, but surely they ought to agree as to what prosperity means. I think there can be no dispute that New York is a grea- ter, richer, more prosperous and powerful State than Virginia. What has occasioned tho difference There is but one explanation of the fact I have shown. The clog that has staidthe march of herpeople, the incubus that has weighed down her enter- prise, strangled her commerce, kept sealed her exhaustless fountains of mineral wealth, and paralysed her arts, manufactures and improve- ment, is Negro Slavery." We thus perceive that slavery produces the same melancholy result in Virginia as we have pointed out as existing in Maryland. But bad as the condition of Virginia is, a still more gloomy state of things is before her. She now gains her support principally by selling slaves to other States. This trade, in the present state of things,is to her of the most vital importance, but it places her at the mercy of the States with which she carries on the traffic. These States have drained off the dark waters which would have overwhelmed her. But now some ofthem show an inclination to shut out the stream from themselves, Itmust then roll back and spread desolation over the face of that ancient Commonwealth. She will be reduced to a con- dition worse than any which herworstememies could wish for her. Sooner or later this state of things must come. Too many of her citizens seem to think that they can keep off this dark cloud by shutting their eyes. If they continue to do so, its thunders will burst upon their ears when it is too late for them to avoid the storm. Look upon the gloomy picture of the ultimate effect of slavery on all classes, drawn by Gov McDowell, of Va. in the speech which he recent- ly delivered in Congress. He says: "Not only is the increase of the black race greater under all circumstances than that of the white, because of the absence, in their case, of all prudential restraint, but when no emigration is allowed to keep down that excessive growth, will follow, of course, that that race will nb. 8 sorb all the occupations upon which the laboring part of the white one can live, and they, as a consequence, will be driven away. When all the field labor, when all the handicraft-trades, such as Carpenters, Coopers, Blacksmiths, Shoe- makers, are engrossed by the slave, an(l taken away from the resources of the laboring white man, when in addition to this the hopes and means of common education are all cut off by contiguous settlements of slaves over whole dis- tiictsof country; when this comes to pass, what earthly consideration can prevent a laboring man so situated from instantly picking up his family and going tosome othercommunity where he might hope to improve and better their condi- tion Nothing could prevent him. Thus throng after throng of this class, amongst the very soundest and best of all, vould pass away from amongst us, almost as numerous and unreturn- ing as the passengers to the tomb, and so they would continue to pass away, until by and by, in the course of a few generations, the whole popu- lstion of our slaveholding States would be reduc- ed to the slaves on the one side, and the masteis and managers on the other-a disproportion so great, so palpable to every eye-so suggest ix e to the slave himself of the fearful secret of his gi- gantic physical power, that nothing could take from his heart the temptation to try it, and try it he would, no matter what the consequences; and thus catastrophe would follow catastrophe, and our sunny and happy Snuth would be covered over with scenes of conflict and of weeping." Read the remarks of Charles Fenton Mercer, the founder of the American Colonization So- ciety, made in the convention called in 1830,for amending the Constitution of Virginia: "Mr. Chairman, as I descended the Chesa- peake the other day, on my way to this city, impelled by a favoring west wind, which, co- operating with the genius of Fulton, made the vessel on which Istood literally fly through the wave before me, I thought of the early descrip- tions of Virginia, by the followers of Randolph, and the companions of Smith. I endeavored to scent the fragrance of the gale which reached me from the shores of the capacious bay along which we steered, and I should have thought the pictures of Virginia which rose to my fan- cy, not too highly colored, had I not often tra- versed our lowland country, the land not only of my nativity, but that of my fathers-and I said to myself, how much it has lost of its prim- itive loveliness! Does the eye dwell with most pleasure on its wasted fields, or on its stunted forests of secondary growth of pine and cidar Can we dwell without mournful regret on the temples of religion sinking in ruin, and those spacious dwellings whose dsors once opened by the hand of liberal hospitality, are now fallen upon their portals, or closed in tenantless si- lence Except on the banks of its rivers, the march of dessolation now saddens this once beautiful country. The cheerful notes of pop- ulation have ceased, and the wolf and wild deer, no longer scared from their ancient haunts, havedescended fromthe mountains to the plains. They look on the graves of our ancestors, and traverse their former paths. And shall we do nothing to restore this once lovely land There was a time when the sun in his course shoneon none so fair!" Extending our view still farther South, into whatever quarter of the country we may,where a large proportion of the population is compos- ed of slaves, and the picture becomes more and more gloomy. In proof of this, we cite the language of the eloquent ex-Senator Preston, of South Carolina. In a speech delivered some years since at Columbia in reference to a pro- posed railroad, he says: "No Southern man can journey (as he had lately done) through the Northern States, and witness the prosperity, the industry, the spirit which they exhibit, the sedulous cultivation of all those arts by which life is rendered comfort- able and respectable, without feelings of deep sadness and shame, as lie remembers his own neglected and desolate home. There no dwel- ling is to be seen abandoned, not a farm uncul- tivated. Every person and everything perform a part toward the grand result; and the whole land is covered with fertile fields, with manu- factories and canals, and railroads and edifices A gentleman by the name o1 Elwood Fsher, of Cin. chnnati Ohio has come to the rescue of the pro-slavei y party In Kentucky, and has shown that there prevails a universal mistake astothe Nsealth of Virginia He has proven that Virginians know noihing about themselves- that in spite ofalt they say Virginia is highly prosperous- that in fact Ler people are the wealthiest in the world! Mr. Fisher estimates the whole property of Virginia at 600,000,)00, he does not saythat ihi, is the assessed val- ue but gives it as the estimate or Mr lies made In 1831.- Why does Mr. Fisher go so far back as 1831 for the v; lue of the property of Virginia Has Virg nia not iriprovedf" The reason is plain. Prof. D. w -was a spc Culator in In. ternal improvement schemes, atid he nmde the estimate of the wvealth of Virginia hch best suited 5Mr. Fisheil's purpose. But let us look a litle at Mr. Fisher's cipher. ing. In the note to page 6 ol his ranpihlet he say: "That (the property) of Virginia was computed at the amomuntnuwassumed in IS34 by ProfDew. I have seen no officialstatement. Butifshe'l'axesotherp operty as high as it groes, the total must now tair exceed that estimate, asinl8t7sletaxed.262,317adult slaves at 80,741 who are worth about 44,000 O(;O, and taxas her other prop- erty, real and peraonal,354,451,exelusive of nierchant's stock." If 232,317 Virginia slaves are worlh as Mr. Fisher says t00,0u,uOO- thenr each slave is worth ,6s65 30(!) The truth is there is no assessed value of property in Virginia as there la in Kentuck!,. Nothing is taxed there ad valorem except land. Naves, horses and evety thinu exceptlant are taxed specifically-just as goltd watches are in Kentucky. Slaves in Virginia arec - '. 32 uts. a head, horses 10 cts.,and so on. I his M r. Fisher must have known-for the A mejican Almanac to which he re- fers shows it. Giving the nuriber of slaves and the tax paid on them-Mr. Fisher has undertaken the wonderful problem as ascertainuig their value! This reminds us ol the boy who wasnoiking away atithe follo'aingsum-"-f a pound ofbutter cOsttix pence how niuch does a pound of soap come to" Oh, Oh. Mr. Fisher,you live in afree State and mistook your calling hen Lou began to estimate the value of slaves. We in Kentucky think our slaves are worth inure than those in Virginia- but we value surs at an av. I erage a little more than 300 ap ece You make the Vir. ginia slaves worth five lires as much as ours!" If you will but let us estimate the wealth ot New York as you have the slaves of Virginia, her wealth instead of being 63' 699,993 will be nearer 3,163,499,965! and towns and cities. We of the South are mistaken in the character of these people, when we think of them only as pedlars in horn flints and bark nutinegs. Their energy and enter- prise are directed to all objects great and small within their reach. Their numerous railroads and other modes of expeditious intercommuni- cation knit the whole country into a closely compacted mass, through which the productions of commerce and of the press, the comforts of life and the means of knowledge are universally diffused, while the close intercourse of business and of travel makes all neighbors, and promotes a common interest and common sympathy "How different the condition of these things in the South! Here the face of the country wears the aspect of premature old age and de- cay. No improvement is seen going on, noth- ing is done for posterity. No man thinks of anything bsyond the present moment " This picture, drawn by the hand of a master, is unhappily too true! Its fidelity cannot be questioned, and it is in vain for interested poli- ticiaus to attribute it to any other cause than that of slavery. And how can it be otherwise, in a land where one half the population is re- duced almost to the condition of beasts of bur- den-intentionally and systematically shut out from every means of improvement, and when a large portion of the other half is nurtured from infancy in habits of idleness and extravigance It is in vain to tell us that railroads and can- als will secure our prosperity, for they cannot change the character of our population nor the habits of our people. Neither railroads nor can- als nor any other works of internal improve- ments can ever exist, to any great extent, where there is that sparseness of population, aversion to labor and want of enterprise, which has characterized every slave country, from the be- ginning of the world. It is useless for South- ern men to be holding conventions to devise the best means of promoting Internal Improvements. We never can have improvements while slavery is among us and capital and labor are shut out by a general contempt for labor. If we have but few internal improvements-if we wanten- terprise-if we have no system for the education of the masses-if our laboring citizens are not prospering, but are annually driven off by thou- sands in search of better homes-if, in short, we are not progressing as the world around us- there is but one cause for it all-slavery-sla- very, which, in the language of a distinguished Virginian, is "a mildew that has blighted in its course every region it has touched from the cre- ation of the world." We have seen how Virginia stands in com- parison with New York, or New England, but we have only to compare the products of South Carolina-slave-loving South Carolina-with those of any free State in the Union, and we have the comparative productiveness of freeand slave labor, so strikingly presented that he must be blind who does not see its significancy. The census returns of 1840, give not only the population of the States, but a 3omplete view of the agriculture in each. Many errors un- doubtedly exist in those returns, partly from 9 wrong estimates of farmers, partly from the negligence of the Deputy Marshals who took the census-but it is just as likely that those errors were committed in our State as in anoth- er-it is just as likely that the products of New York were estimated too low as those of South Carolina-upon the whole, these returns are incomparably the best evidence that exists upon the subject, and their substantial correctness is confirmed by all sorts of evidence, so far as any exists. The census returns show that in 1840, South Carolina had 198,363 persons employed in ag- riculture. And according to our estimates based on those returns, the value of the whole of her agricultural products does not exceed 11,000,- 000. These estimates werecarefully made, and no sort of calculation founded on any thing like truth or reason, can bring about a result mate- rially different. In New York the produce of the dairy alone was worth 10,496,021, and the single item of hay-estimating it at 6 per ton-was worth 18,762,282. By dividing the value of the products by the number of persons in making those products, we find the average value produced by each.- In South Carolina then, agricultural industry yields an annual value averaging something less than 55 to the hand. Now, if we take the estimate by Dr. Ruffner of the productive industry of New England and New York, we find that each man in New England produces three timnes as much, and each man in New York five times as much as each man, in the same pursuit, in South Car- olina. We have not space for the tables showing in detail the comparative productive industry of all the free and slave States. The following statement presents at once the most concise and comprehensive statement we have seen. GENERAL 'VIEW OF THE PRODUCrIVE INDUSTRY OF THE FREE AND SLAVE STATES, ON THE BASIS OF THE Cs-qsus OF 1840. Slave States. 107,934,996 Balance against us, Free States. .397,965,552 107,934,996 8290,030,556 If to this we add the excess of the agricul- tural products of the free over those of the slave States, viz: 52,707,913, we have the en- tire balance against the latter of 342,738,469. We now turn to our own home, to our own State, to Kentucky, and we ask the serious at- tention of our fellow citizens to some argu- ments and statistics, collected by a distinguish- ed gentleman of this State, and first published in 1845. Their general correctness will not be questioned: The number of slaves in Kentucky, at vari- ous periods, may be stated thus: In 1790 " 1800 " 1810 " 4820 I 1830 1 810 Slaves. ,. - . . . . 11,830 so. . . 403 t3 s0.661 126.732 165,213 use . - 182.238 I 10 From this table it appears that in the first ten years the slave population was more than tre- bled; in the next decade, again, more than dou- blecd and from 1830 to 1840 exhibited still an additional increase of 27,045 slaves. From 1840 to 1849 there is still an increase. This table fur- ther shows that in half a century the slave popu- lation has multiplied upon itself nineteen times. In the period we have. considered, what was the advance of the free population of Kentucky The answer includes both white and free color- ed persons. Free pop'tion. 1190 61,217 1800 180,68W' In'cfm 3110 3W5,960 do 1820 437,685 do 1630 62,704 do 1810 597,670 do Original stock 61,217 1790 to 1SOO 110.366 or 180 to 1810 145,338 or 1810 to 1820 111,632 or 1820 to 1830 8; 119 o0 1830 to 1818 74,766 or 191 8 pr ct. 80 5 ' 342 -- 191 " 14 3 " By an examination of the foregoing table, it will be perceived that though the free popula- tion of Kentucky continues to increase, yet in every period of ten years since 1810, the rate has been gradually diminishing, and In a fearful degree. - The proportion of free persons to slaves in 1790 was as 518-100 to 1; in 1840 it was only as3 28-100 to 1, makingit manifest that in the half century under consideration, the slaves in Kentucky have incre sed vastly on the whites ! The next conclusion to be deduced from the facts stated is, that the presence if slavery has re- tarded the flow of population to Kentucky, and checks the growth, and power, and the develop- ment of the abundant resources of the State.- This is apparent from the decreasing decennial increase of our free population. It will more readily appear that slavery is the cause, when we compare the growth of Kentucky with the growth of adjoining free States. Our productions are the same as those of Ohio and Indiana. Our area is greater than that of Indiana, and about equals that of Ohio; our way to market is as easy; our soil as rich and prolific; our climate as propitious and healthy; our institutions (with tile sole exception of sla- very) similar, and as perfect and free, and our population as quick, apt and intelligent. The subjoined table shewing the free popu- lation of Kentucky, Ohio, and indiana is full of significance: Kentucky. 4.. polp. 1890 61,227 Rep. Ohio. Rep. in Con. pop. - a wilderness. IIndiana. pop. Rep. a wilderness.- tures in 1b40, as stated in the census was as fol- lows: Ohio 16,906,267 Kentucky 6,9-16,249 Difference in favor of (dio, 10,969,9 Nearly three times as much capital invested in Manufactures in Ohio. Compare the capital invested in Commerce: Ohio, - 22,W00 210 Kentucky, , - e 10,323,301 Difference in favor of Ohio, tl,877,909 One million and a half more than twice as much capital invested in Commerce in Ohio. Take next the products of the Mines and of the J orest: Ohio-7 1Nines Forest, Kenlucky-Mines Forest, Difference in favor of Ohio, 2,060,869 1 600, COo 2,669,669 1,212,062 _ 200,000 1,642,061 927,797 It is seen at a glance, that so far as these items are concerned, not only is Ohio as a State far richer than Kentucky, but there Is much greater wealth relatively to the population in Ohio than in Kentucky. Were no more capi- tal invested in commerce and in manufactures in the former than latter, relatively to the pop- ulation, it would be not quite twice as much as in Kentucky-that is, only 32,000,000; but the real amount invested, is, 39,105,467! But it may be said that what Ohio gains in manufactures and commerce is lost in agricul- ture. This, too, is easily tested, and we submit the following table,taken from the report of the Commissioner of Patents, made in 1847-which is believed to be as accurate as the census of 1840, and brings the comparison nearer to our own time: Wheat, bushels, Hlaricy, Oats, ' 1 Rye Buckwheat " Indian Corn Potatoes ' Hay-tons. Hemp " Tobacco-lbs., Cotton ' Silk, - Sugar, 1' Ohio. J6,bw(,(Jo+ 2101 0' 0 26.650,0o0 I ,0)CO,c0O 1.2(0 000 G ;,00,OoAo 4,614 000 I, Ito,( 0 6100 9,000,000 3, 000 5,00)0,000 Ken fuck to - 6, 000,00 18,CCO 14,1(0,L1,( 2,660,000 26,0d( 62,01,0,000 1.810,00" 130,Ct0 15, 0o 65m,00o fl0 2,o00,00 0 4,400 3,000,000 1S00 180612 6 95 396 1 4,872 nonec 1810 325.9)0 9 230,760 6 21,52 a dele It is needless to go into an estimate of the ag- 1820 137,58.5 12 681,432 15 147,174 2 gregate values. The table shows, at once, that 1830 632,701 13 937 903 19 343,03I 7 Ohio possesses double the agricultural wealth 1810 597,270 It) 1,519,467 21 68-5,836 10 of Kentucky. Her Indian Corn and Wheat Slavery has caused Kentucky to lag in the alone are worth the whole of the products of race of prosperity, while Ohio and Indiana have Kentucky, as set down in the foregoing table. outstripped her; and unless the heavy burden The aggregate value of those products ara but which weighs so oppressively on the energies little more than double the simple item of Hay of our Commonwealth is removed, she must be in Ohio. content to see her younger sisters on the other When to all this we add that Kentucky is at side of the Ohio leave her at an immeasurable least equal to Ohio in all natural resources; was distance behind. settled at an earlier period, and had a popula- From the census returns of 1840, we have tion of 73,000, when Ohio was a wilderness; compiled the following tables: while now, after a race of forty years, Ohio has The amount of capital invested in Manufac- twice the population, three times the Manufac. t turing and Commercial wealth, and more than I double the Agricultural, then we are prepared r to form some estimate of the comparative value t of the free-labor and slave laborsystems. 5 According to the census of 1840, Ohio had d 272,579, and Kentucky 197,738 persons employ- ed In agriculture. We have no means of ascer- c taining the number in 1847. Taking these num-9 hers as the basis, and the foregoing table, then d according to our estimate-and we are sure that l no calculation founded on anything like truth c can bring out a materially different result-l every person engaged in Agriculture in Ohio i produces as much as every person engagged in the same pursuit in Kentucky, and half as much l more. The same estimate shows that if each white person engaged in agriculture in Ken- tucky, produces as much as each white man in Ohio, then each white man in Ohio produces three times as much as each slave in Kentucky. But, fellow-citizens, it is useless to furnish vou with further facts showing the unproduc- tiveness of slave-labor. We all know that in- dolence and slovenliness are the universal char- acteristics of slaves-and how could it be other- wise, when they have no other incentive to work than the fear of the lash from their lenient Kentucky masters Adam Smith, in his great work on the "Wealth of Nations," says: "The experience of all ages and nations, I be- lieve, demonstrates that the work done by slaves, though it appears to cost only their mainten- ance, is ia the end the dearest of any. A person who can acquire no property, can have no in- terest but to eat as much, and to labor as little as possible." But let us take other examples, in which we may compare slave States that have made the most rapid growth. For example, look at Ar- kansas and Michigan: Arkansas. Michigan. 1830, 30,388 31,639 1840, - 97,574 212,267 And yet another in the case of Alabama and Illinois: Alabama. Illinois. 1830, 191,978 157,455 1840, 337,224 476,183 If we make a more general comparison of the the slave and free States, we still find the facts against slavery. For example-it appears from the last census that the number of white per- sons over twenty years of age, who cannot read and write compared with the whole white pop- ulation is, in the New England States, one to every five hundred and eighty-five; in the State of New York one to fifty-six, and in Pennsyl- vania one to fifty, whereas the number in the slave States averages one to seventeen, in the State of Virginia one to every twelveand a half, in Kentucky one to every fifteen, of the white i nhabitants. The census shows the lamnen- table fact that of the 91,10.5 persons who voted in Ky at the Presidential election in 1840, about twenty thousand could not read and write " .The census shows that in 1810 there Naerc 40,018 Evtiite persons in Kentucky over 20 ears or age, vho c,)ul, miol read anti write Ourestiniate suppowes that one-half ot tIlde were niales. In addition to this, when we take into conside- ration that nearly the whole of the colored pop- ulation in the slave States are without the pri- vilege of education-what a mass of ignorance lo we find within their borders! In New York the average price of land per acre is upwards of 20-in Ohio it is about l1,50-in Kentucky it is according to the Au- litor's report 6,57. Now if by emancipation, he increase in the price of land should be two lollars per acre, that increase would pay for all he slaves in the State. We have no doubtthat, f our commonwealth was rid of slavery, the enhanced value of the land alone would be more han equal to the assessed value of all the slaves. We might add to the statistics we have now riven, and thus pile proof on proof of the fact .hat slavery is hostile to all the industrial and other interests of a State. But we have ad- duced enough to satisfy any man of candid mind, that slavery has greatly retarded the growth of our Commonwealth, and prevented the development of the resources with which Rhe is so richly endowed. Remove this incubus from her fair bosom, and she will speedily be- come quickened with a new life, and enter with spirit on a career of the highest prosperity and renown. As a free State, she would resound from her centre to her extremeities with the busy sounds of enterprise-her population would soon be doubled and trebled-her im- mense mineral treasures would be opened up to the light of day-works of internal improve- ment, facilitating transportation between differ- ent and distant points would spring into exist- ence-habits of activity would banish the lan- guor that is now felt in every vein-cheerfulness would displace despondency-school houses and churches would be greatly multiplied-and the hum of industry would rise to heaven from every hill side and smiling valley like an anthem of praise from a happy and thriving people. When we reflect on what Kentucky might be, we can- not too deeply lament that infatuation which has so long perpetuated a system so detrimental to all her interests. Slavery has not yet ex- hausted her fertility, and brought desolation on her fields, but such will be her melancholy ex- perience, unless she casts off her shackles be- fore it is too late. The advocates of slavery, unable to answer these statistical facts, are prone to ask whether Kentucky is not populous enough, and whether a dense population is not to be deprecated rather than desired. To fortify their posi- tion, they refer to the vices which prevail in large cities, and the difficulties experienced by the masses in getting along in the most densely populated countries on the globe. It is auffi- cient, perhaps, in reply to such logie, to say that in no State of the Union, is there the least probability that, for ages, the population will press on the means of subsistence, for we have an area of public lands, embracing over four- teen hudndred millions of acres-more than an acre and a half for every human being on the face of the earth. With such a boundless pub- lic domain, it is not at all likely that any of the United States will, for generations to come, be afflicted with the evils of over-population.- We are told that we ought to wait a little Those gentlemen, therefore, who affect to think longer. We have waited too long already, and that if Kentucky should emancipate herslaves, the longer we wait the greater the evil be- she will soon be too dsnsly populated, may as comes. It is becoming more unmanageable well quiet their apprehensions. There can be every day. Slavery has always been insisting no doubt that, when slavery shall be abolished that people ought to wait a little longer- The in our Commonwealth, there will follow a very cry is perlectly characteristic of the system.- large increase in our population, and that is With the sluggard spoken of by the wisest of precisely what Kentucky needs to develop her the Jewish monarchs, it is in favor of "a little rtsources, and to insure to heT an eminent and more sleep, a little more slumber, a little more continued prosperity. folding of the hands together." It never was Set aliy one look around him and twenty and never will be ready for any sortof activity. years back and ask himself, why his land has It alway favors the policy of masterly inactiv- risen in value why facilities for transportation ity. In 1792, the question of emancipation was and travel have increased why school-houses agitated, but postponed to a more convenient are more abundant, and the blessings of educa- season. In 1798, it was again agitated and again tion more generally diffused why, in short, postponed. Since that period, half a century society and everything are improved, and there has gone by and the system is not better pre- is but one answer, viz: the population of the pared to be tried before the people than it was State has increased, and its consequent produc- at that time. The truth is, what the pro-sla- t ve industry and wealth. very men call the proper time will never ar- Every good citizen isanxious that the miner- rive. It will never overtake us, we must over- al treasures of the State shall be opened and take it. rendered available to enterprise-that the facili- The insincerity of these men is in every way ties of inter-communication shall be greatly apparent. The last Legislatuye-the most pro- multiplied-that education shall visit its bles- slavery one ever asesrnbled in Kentucky-re- sings on the mind of every child in the State, garding slavery as a blessing, and desiring to and that churches shall be increased ten-fold, perpetuate it-repealed the wholesome provi- hespeaking the universality of the religioussen- sions of the law of 1833-and thus almostas faras timents, and bringing the altar within conveni- they could, encouraged the flooding of our be- eut distance of all. Our statesmen and phi- loved Commonwealth with the refuse jail ne- lanthropists have for many years been loboring groes of other States. Had they possessed the to bring about such desirable results, and their power they would, perhaps, have repealed all labors have been fruitless, because slavery rears our laws which declare the slave-trade piracy, its dark and forbidding front and frowns down and opened the whole continent of Africa to every attempt to introduce great public and pri- the merciless avarice of the negro-trader. Shall vate enterprises. But let slavery be abolished, we still be quiet No, fellow-citizens-by all and then our population will be increased, and the pride we feel in the fair name of our State- we shall soon have our immense mineral riches by the desire we have for her prosperity-by all brought to light, and works of internal im- her interestsand glory-by the love we bear our provement, schoolhouses, and churches will be children and OUT children's children-in short, greatly multiplied; so that every farmerand by all the terrible evils of slavery-never let us maoufacturer will be convenient to a good mar- rest while that abominable repealing statute re- ket, and the benefits of knowledge and religion mains upon the statute-book. will abound in every neighborhood, to enlight- And no)w, fellow-citizens, in view of all the en the cloud of ignorance that now wraps our facts and considerations which we have present. State, its common -with the other slave States, ed, we invite you to co-operate with us in en. as with a pall, grafting upon the newconstitution somescheme Slavery blights everything It touches. It of Emancipation which will ultimately relieve breathes it pestilent breath onl mind and mor- our beloved State from the incubus of slavery. als, and they become languid and dull-its in- It is now no longer a matter of conjecture, but fluences pass over the verdure of the fields, and of demonstration, that a scheme can be devised and it droops and decays. which, Dot Iuddenly disturbing the relation of But it is said the present time is unpropitious rnaster and slave-not materially affecting pri- to the discussion of plans of emancipation, and vate rights-will not only extinguish slavery, that there are so many other subjects of consti- but remove the whole colored population tot, far tational reform before the people that they can- better hoime-without any cost to individuals or not give the requisite attention toslavery. Now the State. as emancipation contemplates a reform infinite- 1V more important than any and all others that t[I Piblished for gratuitous distribution by the "cor- have been suggested, it is utterly unwise to responding and Executive Committee" on Emancipa- postpone it that matters of less moment maybe tion. looked into Moreover, we feel assured that Those persons whowiqh tocontrihute tothefundfor far more attention has been given to the ques- prtn ing Fmancipation documentsfwill please remit their tson of emancipation in the State than to any contributions to Wm. Richardson. other question that has been proposed, and the BLAND BALLARD,Sec'y. people are as ready to vote intelligently iti re- Ioutsvjt.tF, Ky., April, 1849. gard to it as to any other reform.