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Sketches of the South and West, or, Ten months' residence in the United States / by Henry Deedes. Deedes, Henry. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-163-30117133 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Sketches of the South and West, or, Ten months' residence in the United States / by Henry Deedes. Deedes, Henry. W. Blackwood, Edinburgh ; London : 1869. vi, 170 p. ; 19 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1994. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN04166.15 KUK) Printing Master B92-163. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Mississippi River Valley Description and travel. United States Description and travel. SKETCHES oF THE SOUTH AND WEST This page in the original text is blank. SKETCHE S OF THE SOUTH AND WEST o P TEN MONTHS' RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES BY HENRY DEEDES WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS EDINBURGH AND LONDON MDCCCLXIX The Right of Trainsato is reserred This page in the original text is blank. CONTENT S. CHAPTER I. PAGE VOYAGE-LOSS OF BAG-CUSTOM -HOUSE AT BOSTON - SPRINGFIELD-TRENTON FALLS-NIAGARA-CURRENT- BATH-SYSTEM OF CHECKING LUGGAGE-ADAMS'S EXPRESS, . . CHAPTER II. WOODBURN FARM-RAID ON MR ALEXANDER'S STABLES- SYSTEM OF POOLS-TIME MADE BY FASTEST HORSES- DEATH OF MR ALEXANDER, . 15 CHAPTER III. FRANKFORT- SHAKERTOWN-NORTHERN JUSTICE-FIRE- ARMS-CLIMATE-CEHICAGO, CHAPTER IV. JOURNEY SOUTH-MAMMOTH CAVES-MEMPHIS-SLEEPING CARS-JACKSON-ANECDOTES OF THE WAR-STATE OF THE COUNTRY, . 48 68 vi CONTENTS. CHAPTER V. ONDITION OF NEGROES-FUTURE OF THE SOUTH-GENERAL GRANT-GENERAL SHERMAN-VICKSBURG-STEAMER RI S. LEE-NATCEEZ-LEVEES-ARRIVAL AT NEW OR- LEANS-SAILING ON A RAILWAY-GEN'ERAL BEAURE- GARD, -95 CHAPTER VI. HAVANNA CIGAR AND CIGARETTE MANUFACTORY-CHINESE -HOUSES-MATANZAS--SUGAR-MILL-COFFEE PLANTA- TION-CAVES OF BELLAMAR-SLAVERY, . . - 114 CHAPTER VII. NEW ORLEANS-STREET CARS-DETERIORATION OF PRO- PERTY-SHELL-ROAD-MOBILE TO MONTGOMERY, . - 131 CHAPTER VIII. MONTGOMERY-QUARREL BETWEEN TWO NEGROES-STATE BUILDINGS-THEATRE-ATLANTA-CHATANOOGA-NASH- VILLE-KENTUCKY HAIL-STORM-NEGROES-DUEL DUR- ING THE WAR-HOTEL CARS-DRAWING-ROOM CARS- NEW YORK, --142 CHAPTER IM THROWS OUT A HINT OR TWO, , 165 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. CHAPTER I. IN the autumn of 1867, finding myself dis- established, but happily not altogether dis- endowed-after thirty years' grind in official life-and there being much to induce me to make an extended tour in the United States, where a number of my wife's relatives and connections resided, our passage was taken in the Cunard s.s. Cuba, to sail for Boston on the 27th of September in that year. The voyage across the Atlantic was ac- complished with about the amount of dis- comfort and pleasure which is generally experienced on such occasions, the elements A TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. and arrangements of the Cunard Company in their several capacities influencing the feelings of the passengers as opportunity presented itself. The weather was gener- -illy fine, and nothing occurred to render the voyage remarkable, the only incident worth recording being of a personal nature -viz., the loss of a bag from the steamer at Halifax containing all our stock of boots and shoes. As, however, the loss was not discovered until the vessel arrived at Boston, it was no drawback to the pleasure of the voyage. At Halifax we laid in a stock of lobsters; and Captain Stone being an adept at lobster-salad, the luxury was partaken of freely by many of us, with what result, the wind having risen considerably before night, can more easily be imagined than is agreeable to revert to. However, "all is well that ends well." I am not sure that the above remark is quite applicable in the present case; for the end was not yet. The next notice in my diary is " The Custom-house at Boston." As our stay in America was to embrace winter and spring and summer, and it being 9 BOSTON CUSTOM-HOUSE. autumn at the time we landed, our baggage was rather extensive, but I hoped that a large box of saddlery and racing parapher- nalia, upon which I was prepared to pay any duty that might be claimed-though hardly anticipating an ad valorem duty of 35 per cent in gold-would give our other effects a fair chance of passing undisturbed. The offi- cers were civil and obliging; and had it not been that we were detained by the fruitless search for my unlucky bag, we should have got through the disagreeable operation very happily. As it was, however, we narrowly escaped a second examination, through the official chalk-marks on our luggage getting rubbed out. I was also subjected, with many other gentlemen, to a strict personal search, for what object I am ignorant, for I did not hear of anything being discovered to warrant this rigorous course. The process being at last completed, we were glad enough to find ourselves comfortably established at the Tre- mont House. As, however, our visit was to the west, our stay at Boston was not pro- longed beyond the following day; and the 3 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. only item of information that I gained in that famous and enlightened city-allowed to be, I believe, the first in America for learning and civilisation-was, that one of the provi- sions consequent on "compulsory education" is, that the police have power to apprehend and fine all children, within certain ages, who may be met in the streets during the hours in the day allotted by Act of State Legislature to public education. How far such a measure would meet the views of the advocates for compulsory education here may be a question; certainly, if the public are to pay for the prospective advantages to accrue to the population of the country by compul- sory measures, it seems but reasonable that they should reap the present advantage of having the streets of the town freed, for some hours in the day at least, from the " gamins" who infest them. We are fairly on our travels, and Spring- field, Massachusetts, is our first halting-place. The great manufactory of arms for the United States, the largest in the Union, is located here. The town is well situated, and an 4 THE WOODS IN AUTUMN. extensive view of the surrounding country is to be obtained from the cupola of one of the arsenal buildings. The streets are well wooded, it being almost a universal custom in the United States to plant trees on each side of the streets, which, in the original plans submitted to the States' Government of the ground it is proposed to lay out as the site of a future city, are always designed of sufficient width to admit of this embellish- ment; the houses and churches large, and indicative of a flourishing population and thriving trade. The breakfast at the Mas- sasoit House must not be forgotten. The house has a great reputation for it, and cer- tainly in quality and quantity the viands were not surpassed in any hotel at which we stopped. There was nothing particular in the char- acter of the scenery through which we passed, beyond the extraordinary beauty, the richness and diversity of the colouring, of the foliage. The tints of the American woods in autumn are so different from any- thing we see in this country, that one can 5 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. hardly take in their beauty without seeing them. The brilliant crimson of the maple and shumach-the dog-wood and the oaks varying from a light red to a deep dark crimson-the deep green of the fir-trees, and the numerous yellow and russet colours of the leaves, make up a most gorgeous picture. It was in perfection here; later on and further west the colours had suffered from the un- usual drought that followed upon the heat of summer. There is some very fine wild and broken scenery just beyond Springfield, after which nothing striking occurs till we reach the bridge over the Hudson at Albany-a grand improvement, as any one will acknowledge who had before to leave the train and cross in the ferry-boat to Albany. At Albany there was considerable con- fusion in changing trains. Our luggage, having been checked to this place from Boston, had to be claimed, and was found with difficulty only, the time being short, and officials and porters few. From Albany we vent to Utica, and thence to Trenton 6 TRENTON FALLS. Falls, the scenery of which has been loudly praised. Much praise too it deserves, for in fine summer or early autumn weather, with pleasant companions, the rambles and cheery influences of the place must be most agree- able. The company were all dispersed, and the principal hotel was shut up; but as the only other hotel was full, a room was got ready for us in the large hotel, though we had to go to the smaller house for our meals, c. There is nothing stupendous in the scen- ery; but the variety in the formation of the rocks causing the falls, the rapids, and the still deep pools, with the overhanging woods, and surrounding wild woodland scenery, must, after or during the hot American summer, be most enchanting. Besides, so- ciety- at all times in America freed from much of the constraint necessarily imposed upon it by the older habits of civilisation on the European continent-has a charm at all American "springs" peculiar to itself, and not to be despised. I should here state that the term "springs" in America answers to 7 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. what with us would be understood as "water- ing-places." We were unfortunate in the weather, as it was very wet, but waterproofs and leggings overcame those difficulties: still the loss of the sunshine was a great drawback to the beauty of the scenery. From Trenton Falls returning to Utica we took the cars of the New York Central Railway to Rochester, and thence to Niagara Falls, passing by the immense salt-works at Syracuse. Here acres of land are devoted to evaporation-pans, and most of the salt used in the United States is manufactured in this locality. "Niagara" certainly grows upon the mind, and time is required to take in its real mag- nificence. When I visited the Falls in 1859 my stay was very limited, and I went away with the impression that there certainly was a " power of water," which fell from a consider- able height, but there was nothing else for it to do. The Falls are so very faithfully repre- sented in the numerous drawings, photo- graphs, and engravings of them, which every 8 FALLS OF NIAGARA. one has seen, that no room is left for sur- prise to the visitor, or for description in a journal. On a further inspection and longer stay, however, combined with walks and drives, and crossings to and from the oppo- site side, the real magnificence of the scene and stupendous power of the water cannot fail to impress themselves on the beholder. I must be excused if I add my testimony to that of, I believe, many others, that though the most magnificent coup ld'ceil of the Falls is to be obtained from the Canada side of the river, the American side bears the palm in the number of points of interest within easy reach; and if any of my readers should find themselves in the neighbourhood of Nia- gara, and be at all pressed for time, I should strongly recommend them to make the Cata- ract House or National Hotel their head- quarters, but by no means to omit a visit to the Canada side. The bright sunshine or moonlight on the waters, and the brilliant refractions in the mist, cannot be enjoyed too long. To describe it is simply impos- sible-its grandeur must be felt. 9 10 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. There is one thing connected with the rapids, however, that generates more merely human, if it may not be called sensuous, delight. I mean the " Current Baths." A portion of the rapids is conducted by a canal at the back of a row of square bathing-rooms, into one of which the bather descends by steps; a sluice is opened, and in rushes Lake Erie on its way to Lake Ontario; a grating would prevent the bather from being carried off to the latter destina- tion. Having made your way with the assistance of the back-water to the head of the bath, you there find a strong rope fixed, to which, by the exertion of all your strength, you can for a very few minutes hold on. Of course you are instantly taken off your feet, and only regain them by a sidelong movement to the shallow part of the bath, from which you approached the sluice. I hardly know how to describe the sensa- tion. To say it resembled that caused by a good drubbing would hardly express my meaning, but it gave a most charming glow through the whole frame. Like the Falls, it THE BURNING SPRING. must be felt to be appreciated; and I strongly recommend every one who has an opportu- nity to give this delicious natural lavatory a trial. The force of the current can be regu- lated for ladies, or even for children. Another of the curious phenomena of this place is the " Burning Spring," on the Canada side, about three miles from the Falls. A jet of flame rises through a funnel, and will pass through a cambric handker- chief without burning it, though, if you hold your hand in it for any length of time, it feels hot. When the funnel is removed, and a light applied to the water in the well or cistern, about four feet below the surface of the ground, the gas ignites, and flickers on the surface as spirits burn when set on fire, though, of course, not so freely as would be the case with pure alcohol. From Niagara we went by Buffalo; but having a vivid recollection of the discomfort of the sleeping-cars on my previous visit to this country, we settled to stop for the night at Cleveland. Having, however, to change trains at Buffalo, and the cars being behind 11 12 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. their time there, we discovered on arriving at our resting-place that no portion of our luggage had been brought on from Buffalo; so the comforts of the night's stay at Cleve- land were not as great as we had anti- cipated. Our luggage came on, however, by the next train, and we found it ready for our start for Cincinnati the following morning. The system of " checking " baggage, uni- versal in the United States, is certainly a most convenient one, but I do not think it could be entirely carried out on our English railways. The distances between stations in America being so much greater than in Europe, and the access of the baggage-master to the passenger, coupled with the fact that the baggage-master inhabits the baggage- van, and, with his assistant, has time to arrange the luggage for distribution during the journey, afford facilities which do not occur on our shorter lines. The interior of the baggage-van, instead of being the chaos which the luggage-van on our lines resembles, partakes more of the neatness and AMERICAN RAILWAYS. order of the post-office vans, all the trunks being ranged in order, and immediately accessible on arriving at the station to which they are checked. There is another " institution " connected with the railways in the United States; it is the " Adam's Express " system. All par- cels are sent by this company, who have a distinct van on each train, and an agent at nearly all the stations. I do not know that the work is done any better than by the railway company on our lines, but in America this branch of the carrying trade is worked by distinct machinery. Again, the luggage allowed is regulated more by num- ber than by weight, each passenger seldom travelling with more than one trunk, the size of that being immaterial. The con- ductor is constantly passing through the cars, and will always send the baggage- master when required. Some time before reaching the terminus he always goes round and collects the checks, giving others in return as each passenger states the hotel or destination to which he wishes his luggage 13 14 TEN MONTHS 1N AMERICA. to be sent. The system could, however, easily be adopted on all through-journeys, especially where railroad and steamboat are in connection, with great advantage to the traveller, without causing additional expense to the carrier, and with, I think, less trouble and greater safety than even the present system of registration of luggage on Con- tinental lines. Stopping one night at Cincinnati, we crossed the Ohio by the magnificent new suspension-bridge, and proceeded by the Louisville, Lexington, and Cincinnati Rail- way to our destination - Woodburn, the farm of fNar Aitchison Alexander, in Ken- tucky. CHAPTER II. HERE I must crave indulgence if I enter somewhat in detail into subjects of a per- sonal nature; but I will endeavour to de- scrile with as little partiality and as much accuracy as possible an establishment which I firmly believe to be unequalled in its extent, and the variety of subjects it em- braces. Mr Alexander, who, though born in Ken- tucky, had received his education in Eng- land, and had taken his degree at Cambridge, never took the oath of allegiance to the American Government, or exercised the privilege of " citizen," and held his property in the State as an alien, under a special Act of State Legislature. He purchased the chief portion of the Woodburn farm estate from his brother and sisters, to whom it had 16 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. been left by his father, he himself succeed- ing to the estates in Scotland of his uncle, Sir William Alexander, late Chief Baron of the Exchequer. The Woodburn property has since been extended nearly to the limits of the military survey granted to Mr Alex- ander's father, and now comprises somewhat upwards of 3000 acres of the best land in America. Kentucky is known as "the garden of the United States," and Woodford county, in which this property is situated, as " the asparagus-bed." This property, if not of world-wide celebrity, is at least well known to every breeder of stock, whether of horses or cattle, in America, and the death of the proprietor, which occurred during our sojourn with him, was felt not only in Ken- tucky, but throughout the United States, to be a real and irreparable loss to the country. The attention of Mir Alexander was origi- nally devoted to the improvement of the breed of cattle in his native State, and with this view he imported from England several thorough-bredshorthorns,iincluding a bull and RACE-HORSES. cow of the pure Duchess breed, some thor- ough-bred Alderneys and Ayrshires, as well as Southdown sheep, considerable herds and flocks of which are still kept up in all their purity of blood on the estate, and command the best prices in the country. For the last ten years, however, Mr Alexander's atten- tion was chiefly turned to the breed of race- horses. Having searched the States and many of the English racin, - stables through, he became the purchaser, for 15,000 dollars, of Lexington, then the property of Mr Ten Broeck, while in whose ownership he ran (on the Mettarrie course, New Orleans) the longest race (4 miles) in the shortest time of any horse on record-viz., 4 miles in 7 minutes 193 seconds. After the race the horse became totally blind, owing to having got at some food shortly before the race, through the culpability or negligence of the attendants. He is still, however, though now eighteen years old, used for stud purposes, and is the sire of more and better race-horses than any other in America. Lancaster, another horse B 17 18 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. of Mr Alexander's, last year at Lexington, Kentucky, made 2 miles in 3 minutes 3.54 seconds; Norfolk, at Louisville, did his 3 miles in 5 minutes 271 seconds; and Me- moza, at Lexington, his 1 mile in 1 minute 441 seconds. Lancaster and Norfolk were both Lexington colts. I am not sure about Memoza. At the expense of being charged with partiality, I shall now endeavour to give a sketch of this wonderful establishment. Woodburn farm is situated close to Spring Station on the Louisville, Lexington, and Cincinnati Railway. A " dirt" road leads from the station into the Lexington and Frankfort Pike, which bisects the property. I should here explain that a "dirt" road answers literally to its name, especially in the winter, when sometimes there is no mis- take about it being "real" dirt: no gravel or metal of any kind is used in its forma- tion. On the other hand, all macadamised roads are called "pikes," whether there is any toll-bar upon them or not. About a mile and a half from the station WOODBURN FARM. you enter the grounds at a handsome lodge, and passing through woodland pastures which can compare with the timber and scenery of any park in England, you arrive at a most unpretending, rambling old house, having a wide verandah in front, shaded on the southern and western sides by a grove of fine locust-trees. To the east a lawn, which in England would be turned into a croquet-ground, separates the house from a grove of cedar-frees forming the entrance to extensive gardens and shrubberies. The pastures all around are filled with colts and yearlings and their dams, all thorough-bred on this part of the farm. The lots are separated from one another by the snake- fence-a post and rail, peculiar to America, without nails, but very strong, each rail resting on another at an angle, the top one supported in the fork of two upright rails, the whole some eight feet high. In each of the lots are wooden sheds, left open for the shelter of the mares, which numbered 109 at the time I was there. About three-quarters of a mile off, still in 19 20 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. the same park-like grounds, are situated the stud-stables, containing Lexington, Asteroid, Planet, and Australian. Asteroid was stolen by, but recovered from, the guerillas at the early part of the war; and towards the end of it had a very narrow escape of being taken again, as will be seen by the subjoined letter from Mr Alexander, giving a full account of a determined raid made on his stables by the guerillas: EXTRACT of a LETTER from ri. A. ALEXANDER, Esq., giving an Account of a Raid on his Property at Woodburn, in Kentucky, on the Gth February 1865. Matters had at length become so unsatisfactory, and life and property so unsafe in my part of Kentucky, that I have at last come to the determination of leav- ing my place, taking with me such stock as is likely to be stolen. I have been satisfied for some time that neither life nor property were quite safe, but the vast expense of so large a move as I should be obliged to make deterred me from the undertaking, till absolutely forced to make it. I believe you heard of the first guerilla raid made upon me by five rascals, who took a number of horses, who were pursued, and from whom we took all but my race-horse Asteroid. I got a couple of my neighbours, very resolute men, to go over into the hills and get the horse, which was done with little RAID ON WOODBURN. cost, though at some risk, my friends paying the price of a good hack for my horse which the rascals had stolen; after this, I armed my men, and kept six armed watchmen, besides the labourers who could be called into service, making in all from eighteen to twenty well-armed men, all collected. My watchmen were placed at three points to give the alarm; two at each of the stables, my training-8tables and stallion-stables, and two at my house. Just a month ago, between sunset and dark, in the dusk of the evening, one of my men came in, and announced that a number of soldiers were coming down the lane. I ordered the house to be closed and barred up (all the front part, at least), got out the arms, and sent word to the men to be in readiness; by this time, they came in two files into the kitchen-yard. I went out to see who they were, and finding them clad in Federal overcoats, presumed that they were Federal soldiers. 'With my gun in my hand and a pistol in my belt, I stepped into the door, and cried, " Halt!" just as the column had gone half by me; they halted and faced about at once, upon which I said, " What will you have, gentlemen " One of them answered, " We want provender for two hundred horses." I replied, " That is a pretty large order. I have pro- vender in various places, but I have no place in which to feed so many horses." Upon this there was a pause for a brief space, and then another fellow said, " We are out pressing horses." In reply I said, " Show your order to press horses." Upon this, he and the whole line drew their pistols, and he said, " This is our order." I at once saw how the case stood, that they 21 22 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. were guerillas, and that they had me in their power; so, to make the best of a bad case, I said, "W Well, I suppose, if you are bound to have the horses, there is no necessity of a fight about it, but if you are disposed to have a fight, I have some men here, and we will give you the best fight we can." Upon this an old man, Captain Viley, whom the rascals had as a prisoner and guide, and who has always shown himself my friend, spoke out, and said: "Alexander, for God's sake let them have the horses; the Captain says he will be satisfied if you will let him have two horses without a fight or any trouble." Determined to get out of the scrape as well as I could, and seeing that the scamps had every advantage of me, I said, " If that be the case, the thing can be very easily arranged," and asked who was the captain. A fellow answered that he was. I then asked him if this was the fact, that, if I would give him two horses without a fight, he would leave me and everything unmolested. He answered, "Yes ;" and I said in reply, "Then you shall have them; and as I am a man of my word, and consider that my word is as good as my bond, you may consider the matter settled, so let us shake hands on the bargain." I stepped out of the door where I had stood during this time, and passed through the first rank, and shook hands with the fellow. Thinking that the matter was arranged, I went back to the door, when the fellow said, " March out your men, and deliver up your arms." I answered, "1 We have made a bargain, and I am to give you two horses. You shall have the horses, but I will neither march out my men nor give up my arms." He then said, " Well, deliver RAID ON WOODBURN. up your arms, anyhow." I replied: " Captain, I have these arms for my own protection. You said that if I would give you two horses without a contest, you would be satisfied to leave everything unmolested. I have agreed to let you have the horses, and I am going to keep my arms, but I assure you that a gun shall not be fired. However, to assure you that I am acting in good faith, I will send my arms into the house." His reply was, " Do so, then, and if a gun is fired, I will burn up your whole place." I said to him that if a gun should be fired it would be his fault. I then went half-way up the long passage from the kitchen to the dining-room, and handed my gun and pistol to some of the servants who were there, telling them to put them away. D. S. (who, with his family, have been staying with me since the former raid) did the same with his gun and pistol; but Nugent retained his arms and concealed himself, I know not where. On returning to the kitchen door, the Captain of the guerilla band said, "W Where are those horses! I am in a hurry." I answered, "They are in the stable there," pointing to the stable close to the house. "Come, then," said he, " let us go to the stable," upon which we all started for the stable. As we were going off, I said, " This is rather bad walking" (as it had been raining more or less for several days, and the mud was about ankle-deep); one of the fellows good- naturedly said, " Getup behind me." To make a joke of the matter, and to try to get upon as good terms as possible with them, I said, " Well, put your foot out of the stirrup, and I will do so." He took his foot from the stirrup, and I mounted behind him, and 23 24 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. thus we moved towards the stables. We had gone only a few steps when the horse began to kick pretty violently, upon which my friend said, " I reckon you had better get down." I answered that I had no objection, and so dismounted. A few steps brought us to the stable near the house, where I had a pair of thorough-bred mares, well broken to harness, a thorough-bred horse I used as a saddle-horse, a very fine animal, and some two or three others of less value. There I told the Captain that we should find one of the animals I proposed to give him. He inquired if it was a good one. I said, " Yes, as good as could be found." He then asked if I had not a horse called the Bald horse, meaning a horse with white on his face. I answered that I had several horses answering this description. He said, " I mean a horse known as the Bald horse." I saw at once that the rascal was well informed as to my horse stock, and said I had such a horse. He then said that he must have him. I stated to him that this horse was a good trotting-horse, one that was valuable to me, but of comparatively little use to him, and that I had twenty horses that I could give him better suited to his use. He replied that he must have him. Again I urged that the horse was only valuable as a trotter, and though valuable to me, and one for which I could get a good price as a fast-trotting horse, yet quite unsuited to his use. He at length said, that if the horse was one that was valuable to me, he was valuable to him, and that he must have him. I then asked, if he took the horse I first proposed to give him and this one, if he intended to take any of my race-horses. He replied, that he must have tho of them. RAID ON WOODBURN. Having ascertained that these rascals did not intend complying with the agreement made with me as to the horses they were going to take, I remembered a letter of warning I had received, some two or three weeks before, informing me that a band of guerillas would make a raid on me, and, after taking many of my best horses, intended taking me off, with the object of getting a ransom from me for my release, and I deter- mined to give them the slip, if possible. I said to the Captain that the Bald horse was in my trotting-stable on the opposite hill, pointing to the stable, and that my man Hull had the key. He desired that Hull should be sent for, upon which I volunteered to go for him, which he permitted. I went off to the brick house, close at hand, where the men boarded, and found Hull putting on his boots, which he had pulled off on getting to the house from the stables. I said to him that these men had asked for the Bald horse, and so insisted on having him that I feared we would be obliged to give him to them, but if he could give them any other horse in his place he must do so; and then started with him from the brick house. As he went through the kitchen-yard he said, " I think Henry has the key of that stable." I at once said I would look up Henry, and leaving him went towards the kitchen door. There I found four horses, two with riders on them and two with empty saddles. I thought two of the fellows had gone in for water, though, when I passed into the kitchen, I did not see them. Those at the door did not say anything to me as I passed by them. I proceeded through the kitchen, up the long passage to the dining-room, and, upon. getting to the 25 26 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. dining-room door, found two of the guerillas there- one with his back to me and near the door, the other opposite to me and nearer the outer door, which opens into the porch towards the garden, which door I had had barred up. The man nearest me had his pistol cocked and presented at Mrs S., who, I think, had a child in her arms, and who stood near the fireplace; at the same time he ordered her to get the rest of the arms, which order I heard as I entered. The other man, farthest from me, and who faced me, had his arms full of guns of all sorts, which he had got from the table where S.'s and my arms had been put by the servants, and from the corners of the room, where stood my father's old rifle that he had brought from Virginia with him when he came a settler to Kentucky, one of my brother's, and some two or three of mine, of rarious 8oerts and 8ize8. He seemed quite loaded down with guns. The other occupants of the room were the nurse, who had a child in her arms, and little Mary S., both of whom, as well as Mirs S., were nearly fright- ened to death. Hearing the fellow order Mrs S. to get the rest of the arms, I stepped into the room and got between the two men. Taking a hasty look at the man with the guns, who seemed rather a good-natured sort of fellow, I faced the man with the pistol, and said, in a firm tone, " The Captain says, if I will give him two horses, without a fight or any trouble, I can keep my arms; and I am going to keep them." As soon as I said this, the fellow faced half about, and, presenting his pistol at my breast, about eighteen inches off, said, "I D you! deliver up the rest of those arms, or I will shoot RAID ON WOODBURN. you." As quick as thought, I knocked the pistol away from the line of my body, and seized the fellow. I saw in an instant that he had been drinking just about enough to make him do anything, and this seemed the only course I had to take. We stood close to the door which opens into the passage, and I made an effort to throw him out of the room, fearing the pistol might go off and shoot some one in the room. I was unable to throw him out at the first effort, but as I had seized him in a way that I had my left shoulder against his right shoulder, and was thus somewhat behind him, in making the effort his right knee came in contact with my left, and it instantly occurred to me that I should trip him; so, lifting him, I advanced my left leg, and throwing my whole weight against him, at the same moment giving him a twist to the left, we fell together out of the door and into the passage, about eight or nine inches lower than the floor of the dining-room. I had a little the best of the fall, as he was undermost, and in attempting to rise lie called to the other man to shoot me, that I was killing him. I took a hasty glance at the man who stood with his arms full of guns, who seemed taken quite by surprise by my actions. He, in answer to the other fellow, said, " He is not armed; he cannot hurt you much." Just then we rose together, I still holding on to the fellow with the same gripe, my arms encircling him just at the elbow-joint, so as to pinion him. The fellow made a violent effort to get away, and again called out to the other to shoot me. As I saw that he might get loose from me, and would most certainly shoot me if he did, I made up my mind to give him another fall, just as 27 28 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. the other called out to me, "Let him go, Mr Alex- ander." I said, "I will not let him go; he will shoot me, as I have no arms." Again the fellow made an effort to get loose, and, giving him the benefit of my knee a second time, down we came together, I still retaining my grasp on him. This time we fell against an iron safe placed opposite the dining-room door, and against the wall in the passage, my elbow rubbing against the door of the safe, and his arm, in the hand of which he held his pistol, must have struck the edge or corner of the safe, for the fellow said that I had broken his arm (which, however, was not the case). Again we rose up together, for I could not hold him down, though I could retain my hold on him which I had at first taken; and just as we were about rising, the man with the guns said again, "Let him go," adding that he would protect me. As we rose, I said, "Do you promise me on the word and honour of a gentleman that you will protect me" He said, "I will," or " I do; " and, thinking that this was as good a bargain as I was likely to be able to make, I let him go. He made a strong effort to get away just as I released him, and I, at the same time, gave him a shove, so that he went through the door towards the kitchen. The other fellow stepped in between us, and kept him moving till they turned into the kitchen. I watched them till they disappeared from the passage, and, following them quickly,, bolted the middle door between the passages, and also the door through which I shoved the fellow; and returning to the dining-room, where I found Mrs S., the nurse, and the children, I told her not to open the doors on any account, and if RAID ON WOODBURN. the fellows should return and inquire for me, to say that I had gone out. This done, I passed to the front part of the house, and out through the door of the little dressing-room which you had when at Woodburn. I went at once to the upper part of the garden, hoping to see what the rascals were at, from thence; but it had begun to grow dark, and I only saw that they had made a fire of straw, c., in front of my trotting-stables, and were getting the horses out. I then hastened to Lexington's stables, and told my man there to take out such ani- mals as were most valuable, that they were likely to steaL I also sent a boy to the training-stable to tell the trainer to remove most of the valuable horses; but before the boy got there a portion of the rascals had got there and taken out four horses. They asked for Asteroid, but in the dusk of the evening the trainer gave them an inferior horse, and so saved the best horse in my stable. They got Norwich, brother to Norfolk, however, a four-year-old mare, that was a good one, and a three-year-old filly by Lexington, which we think well of, besides the colt they mistook for Aster- oid, making four from my race-stable. They also got four from my trotting-stable, and four from my riding- horse stable, and three more from various places, mak- ing fifteen horses in all. The most valuable of the whole was the trotting-horse the captain of the band seemed to be so anxious to get hold of, and he was worth fully as much as any horse I own, except Lexington himself; and I doubt if I would have taken 15,000 dollars in greenbacks for him. The second most valuable was my trotting-stallion Abdallah. Both these. are dead; 29 30 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. the first from a wound in the hock-the second, being captured by the Federals, was ridden to death by a Federal soldier. The third in value, Norwich, was still in the hands of the guerillas when I last heard from home. Six horses and mares are still missing, in- cluding the two which are dead, and their value is not less than 32,000 dollars. Two or three hundred yards further on is the racing-stable, containing from twelve to twenty horses, from two to five years old, each more or less known in the American racing-calendar. Norfolk, by Lexington, was bred and trained here, and sold when three years old for upwards of 15,000 dol- lars-the result of his 3 miles in 5 minutes 271 seconds' race at Lexington. Close by is the race-course. Kentucky is a great horse-breeding State, and nearly every gentleman has his private "track." Mr Alexander had three, each one mile round: one for " running" (Anylice, racing); the second for trotting, of which latter pre- sently; and the third for hurdle-racing. Mr Alexander had always been most fortunate, winning large stakes, and selling his horses at high prices, but never betting a cent. TROTTING-HORSES. But the correspondence, anxiety, and con- stant excitement attending racing being too much for him, it had been his intention to retire from that sport last winter. He had therefore made an arrangement with his cousin, Mr Sweigert, who had all along acted under him as a general manager at Woodburn, to take over the "racing qua- lities " of all his horses. This plan his brother, on succeeding him, carried out, Mr Sweigert becoming the actual purchaser of most of the trained horses, and taking the whole charge and responsibility of the rac- ing stock and stables. Leaving this portion of the establishment returning by the house, and passing some splendid bull and cow stables, and a dairy with a clear spring flowing through it, we come to two trotting - stables, containing about a score of the best trotters in training, and the trotting " track." In America you rarely hear the word " course" used in con- nection with racing; it is almost invariably the " track." The racing-carriage, i.e., "sulky," is a 31 32 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. daddy-long-legs sort of a vehicle-four very high slight wheels, a flat thin seat for the driver, just about amidships, and a steel bar for his feet to press against, for the horse draws nearly as much by the reins as by the traces; and should the former break, which did happen one day when I was there, the unfortunate driver must go a cropper. The ordinary weight of a racing-sulky is sixty or seventy pounds. The felloe of the wheels of all the carriages of the country is made of only two pieces of wood, but the hickory is so strong and tough that it will stand for years, notwithstanding the rough roads and hard usage met with throughout the country. The trotting-horse is a distinct breed from the thorough-bred racer; generally higher behind, and witb a coarseness about the head very unlike the race-horse. On the whole, he is, perhaps, more like our roadsters. The mares, about forty in number, and the young horses, are kept in a part of the woods between the new house (formerly NEGRO JOCKEYS. known as Mrs Buford's dower-house) and Spring Station. The " Forest," " Mam- brino," and " Pilot " stock are here in per- fection. There is one man, I think a Canadian, named Hull, and one negro, employed in training and driving in these stables. The trainer who has done most credit to the Woodburn racing-stables is an old negro named Ansell, but he has lately left Wood- burn; and Jennings, formerly the hurdle- trainer, has now the management of the racing establishment. This part of the business is now, however, entirely carried on by Mr Sweigert at his own new farm of Stockwood, lately purchased from Alexan- der, upon which was situated Mr Alexander's hurdle-track. All the lads in these stables are negroes. They make fair jockeys, but soon get too heavy. Having been raised on the pre- mises, they have their master's interests at heart, and take a lively interest in all the horses. They are of course now all free, and receive wages according to their deserts. C 33 34 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. The hurdles rather surprised them,and at first they tumbled about considerably; now, how- ever, that they have become accustomed to the jumping, they like it, and ride very fairly. A nigger boy on horseback looks rather more like an imp than at other times, and when in his " white " jacket with blue stripe, looks still more unnatural. They have, how- ever, done credit to their colours, as the last season that Mr Alexander raced his horses, he won twenty-one races out of twenty-seven, and ran second in two of the others. All the courses-I beg pardon, tracks-are "dirt," somewhat like Rotten Row. In the spring they are ploughed and harrowed, and the harrowing has to be repeated after every heavy rain succeeded by hot sunshine, other- wise the tracks would become caked and hard. What it becomes and what the jockeys are like after racing in wet weather, may be imagined by any one who has hunted with an eastern counties pack, but they have not got it then. The appearance of horses, jockeys, and spectators after some races at Lexington, Kentucky, run under these cir- cumstances, beggars description. BETTING IN AMERICA. 'The system of betting is very different from that pursued with us. " Pools " are sold pre- viously to the races in the various hotels in the towns and on the course. The plan is this: An auctioneer from his box cries, "Now, gentlemen, let me sell you a pool; what will you give for first chance " A bid is then made, and when the bid is completed, say at fifty dollars, the person to whom it is knocked down is called upon to name a horse. The same process is repeated-" What will any gentleman give for second chance the pool is fifty dollars," the bid of course being dependent on the expectations formed of the remaining horses. Say thirty dol- lars is the highest sum for the second chance. The bidder then names what in his opinion is the next most likely horse. The third bid is for " the field," and if any likely horse is left, the bidding for the field is in proportion, say twenty dollars, making in all a hundred dollars, three bids making a pool. The system is in fact backing horses to win, instead of betting against them. When the bidding is over, the auctioneer calls out, " Gentlemen, come and receive your tickets;" 35 36 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. and after the race he calls out, " Gentlemen, come up and receive your pools," and the hundred dollars would be paid to the person who held the name of the winning horse. The custom of the drivers in trotting-races wearing colours has gone out. I think the fastest time on record was made by Flora Temple, one mile in 2 min- utes 193 seconds. Tatler, one of Mr Alexander's horses, trotted, last fall, mile heats (three best in five) in 2 minutes 26 seconds, 2 minutes 281l seconds, and 2 minutes 29- seconds-the fastest time on record for a five-year-old horse. He was, however, beaten in the race. Trotters are always valued according to the time in which they can make the mile. They are always tested by a watch, and not by any standard horse, the same plan being adopted with " running " races. The following is a statement of the time made by some of the fastest horses in America:- Miles. Running. Min. See. Lexington, . 4 at New Orleans, . 7 19i Lancaster, . 2 at Lexington, c., . 3 351 Norfolk,. . 3 at Louisville,. . 5 27J Memoza,. . 1 at Lexington,. . 1 444 AMERICAN RACERS. 37 The riding-horses in Kentucky are all trained to " rack " and to " pace "-the one a sort of amble, the other a run. Both are very easy paces. You sit well back in the saddle, with very long stirrup-leathers, and let yourself go with the motion of the animal; to rise in the stirrups would be impossible with these PACING. Pocohontas, 1 to waggon carrying 265 pounds-2 minutes 274 seconds. Billy Boyce, heats, three best in five, under the saddle, at Buflow, 1 mile-2 minutes 154 seconds, 2 minutes 141 seconds, 2 minutes 204 seconds. TROrTING. Miles. Min. Sec. Flora Temple, . . 1 2 194 harness. Do. . . 2 4 50- Dexter, . . . 1 2 174 Do. . . . 2 4 51 Do. . . . 1 2 184 under saddle. Mercia Girl, 1 mile, heats, three best in five, losing the two first-2 minutes 30 seconds, 2 minutes 30 seconds, 2 minutes 32 seconds, 2 minutes 30 seconds, 2 minutes 25 seconds. Lady Thom, 1 mile, heats, three best in five-2 minutes 25 seconds, 2 minutes 244 seconds, 2 minutes 25 seconds. Goldsmith and Maid, I mile-2 minutes 23 seconds, 2 minutes 244 seconds, 2 minutes 27 seconds. Trustee, 3 miles to saddle-7 minutes 324 seconds. Sprangle, 50 miles in waggon, carrying 400 pounds-3 hours, 58 minutes, 4 seconds. Ceres, the fastest three-year-old filly, 1 mile in 2 minutes 371 seconds. Woodford Mambrino, the fastest three-year-old colt, 1 mile in 2 minutes 40 seconds. Tatler, the fastest five-year-old colt, 1 mile in 2 min. 26 sec. Since sold to a gentleman from New York for 17,000 dollars. 38 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. paces, and a trot under the saddle is rarely known, and any one riding in our usual style is always said to be " working his passage." A negro always " lopes " his horse-that is, canters or gallops. The saddles generally in use in the country are known as the " Morgan " saddle, having been extensively adopted by that famous light cavalry officer. It is somewhat of a Mexican pattern, having a very high pommel and back, but the seat itself consists of little more than the bare "trees." It saves the horse's back, and is cooler for man and beast, but those are its chief advantages. It must add greatly to the fatigue of a long ride, and is not com- fortable even for a short one. Horses are brought up to be " hitched" to rails whilst their masters are paying a visit, c.; and as they are often left for hours together, even in the rain, the advantage of having merely saddle-trees, with no stuffing to get wet, is very great. Even in the largest towns you often see buggies standing with no one to take charge of them, the horse being fastened by a rein to a weight which CATTLE-BREEDING. the owner takes about with him and places on the curb of the pavement. In many of the towns there are posts, with hooks or rings placed at stated intervals for this purpose. On Sundays at the roadside, in the neighbourhood of the churches, numbers of vehicles are left in this manner, and a robbery is seldom heard of. Horse-thieves abound, but they do not pursue their voca- tion in this line. In the woodlands to the west, through which is a charming drive to the Frankfort "Pike," are chiefly herded the shorthorns, Alderneys, and Ayrshires. The bulls are all kept near to the old homestead in a separate stable. Kentucky is proverbially a most fertile State. It is thoroughly agricultural, and a great portion of it is designated " the blue- grass region," from a rich grass of a bluish- green tint. This grass does not make as good hay as the " Timothy " grass, which is extensively cultivated for that purpose. The corn grown in the district is generally very fine, and the stalk is the chief fodder for the 39 40 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. horses, cattle, and sheep during the winter months. Bullock-carts convey and scatter it about, even when the snow is on the ground. Here I think it will not be amiss to say a few words, if only to pass a tribute, on the many " hands " about the place with whom I was for so long a time in constant inter- course. The household " servants," by which name alone the negroes are designated, were, at the time of my first visit to Kentucky in 1859, most of them old family servants, born and bred on the estate. There is a great deal of white labour in Kentucky; quite two-thirds of the population even then were white. Now, the proportion of coloured hands is much less; but the negroes on this estate numbered about a hundred and fifty, including old men and women and babies. I went to America with, I believe, the Englishman's general impression that " a man might wallop his own nigger." A very short residence, however, in a slave State served to show the fallacy of this presumption. The laws regulating the usage of " servants" are as clearly defined, and at least as well carried LAWS AS TO SLAVES. into execution, as those relating to their masters. There were regulations regarding com- plaints against masters, rules to guide the judge in the nature of the evidence required, and stringent regulations as to the amount of punishment the master was allowed to in- flict-forty stripes save one being the utmost limit allowed to be inflicted by the master without appeal to judicial authority. In such a large extent of territority, where the population is proportionately so very sparse, it is not to be wondered at that police regulations are not very strictly ad- hered to. It is indeed almost impossible to carry them out fully, even as regards the white population. I have known a case in which a schoolmaster was shot down before the rest of the scholars by a near relative of a refractory boy whom he had flogged, and the murderer was acquitted. I have heard of a boy, a " young American," vowing vengeance at the indignity of being flogged by "an Irish- man," though that Irishman was his father; and whilst I was in the neighbourhood, a 41 42 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. " complainant," whose case went against him, waited outside the Court till the judge came out, and then took a "pot shot" at him. The judge returned the fire, but as neither were injured, no more was heard of the matter. One other little anecdote and I have done with the manners and customs of the border State, and will return to the habits of the negro population. While I was at Woodburn a man at Frank- fort shot another two or three times with his revolver. The bystanders did not care to help the policeman to take him, which he contrived at last to do, however, on his own hook, after having winged his bird, for the police are always armed with revolvers, and often find this the shortest way of bringing a thief to a standstill. I have stated that Kentucky is a famous horse-breeding State. Indeed, it is described as " half-horse, half-alligator, with a touch of the tomahawk." It is scarcely worth referring to a statement I have often heard at home, that Kentucky is a " negro-breeding State." Of course, where most negroes are living, the TREATMENT OF NEGROES. more are born. In Kentucky, the proportion of the negro to the white man is less than in any other of the old " slave States." The laws of nature apply equally to black and white. While slavery existed, they were allowed free course; now it is another thing. It is reported that a New-Yorker came down, some years ago I must admit, to pur- chase some horses at a fair. Some disparag- ing remarks were made, though of course there were a number of Kentuckians pre- sent. A rabbit started, and immediately every man produced his pistol, and poor bunnie verily had a hard time of it. This was too significant for the Yankee to mistake, so no further objection was made, and the bargain was satisfactorily concluded. I have said the negroes were happy, and generally well treated. The feeling in the country was opposed to harshness, and any one who adopted such a course would lose caste amongst his equals; and this was the negro's greatest, though certainly not his only, safeguard, and the threat of being sold was reserved as a punishment. 43 44 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. The daily allowance on the Woodburn estate, besides house, firing, clothes, medicine, and tending when sick, was a pound of meat per diem a-head, and as much bread and milk as was desired. This, perhaps, was rather but not much in advance of the usual rate of allowance; and when the numbers of old and infirm are taken into consideration (for no one thought of parting with a good old ser- vant), and the children not to be numbered, it will not be matter for surprise that it is the universal opinion that the abolition of slavery has been a boon to the proprietor. Of course there has been a nominal loss, as each slave represented a certain amount of property; but I heard but one opinion, that, setting aside the principal-i. e., the nominal -value of the slave, each landed proprietor considered himself a gainer by the transac- tion. But, be it observed, there is as yet no poor- law. What becomes of the old people in general I cannot say; I only know the young ones are not born, or at any rate do not exist, in anything like their former numbers. THE NEGRO QUESTION. On our arrival it was affecting to receive the greeting of many of the old hands. " Oh, Miss Mary, I must give you a hug! Yah, yah, yah !" "Well, Massa Henry, you've brought her back all safe, God bless you! " and a blessing even from a nigger is worth something, and makes one feel that the world is not all bad. Oh, how this question of the negro has been misjudged and mismanaged all the world round! but I suppose, as there is a deal of human nature in man, while the world is the world, people will talk of things they do not and cannot understand. The less they understand the more " bunkum " they talk, according to my experience of it; and that I may not lay myself open to a just accusation under the same indictment, I will just " hush up," and leave the ques- tion for the present in the hands of others- of. those who, at least, know more of it than I do. "A man convinced against his will Is of the same opinion still;" and this is one of those questions upon which 45 46 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. now, happily, there is but little cause for differing, and nothing to be gained on either side. On the 1st of December, Mr Alexander, the spirited proprietor of the establishment I have endeavoured to describe above, passed away, after three weeks' illness. If judgment may be formed from the men- tion made of this lamentable event, not alone in the local newspapers and by his imme- diate neighbours, but also in several of the more distant and more important papers of every section of the United States, his efforts in promoting the welfare of the State, and his value as an accomplished English gentle- man of the truest metal, were not unappre- ciated by the inhabitants far and near of his adopted country. To his immediate friends and relatives, whether in prosperity or suffer- ing from the effects of the late horrid war, the place he occupied will be very difficult to refill. I must take this opportunity of plac- ing on record the sense of gratitude enter- tained by Mr Alexander's family for the unwearied kindness of the neighbours throughout his illness, but more especially DEATH OF MR ALEXANDER. of one of them who was unmarried, in his attendance night or day upon him. It is on occasions of this kind in America when true neighbourly kindness is so much shown. Professional nurses are, of course, very seldom to be procured in these country districts; in any case of illness, therefore, the neighbours, almost without exception, offer their services to sit up with and nurse any amongst themselves who may be in need of such attendance. It was, I believe, a near relative of the gentleman, the indefatigable nurse I have alluded to, whom Sir Walter Scott took as his model of Rebecca in his 'Ivanhoe.' The great writer had applied to Washington Irving for a suitable character, and that of Miss G was the result. Many of the family are still Jews; and this lady, at present in her eighty-third or eighty-fourth year, bears traces in her features which might have been applicable to the portrait; and if, as I have every reason to suppose, her nobleness of character equals that of her nephew, a more suitable model could not have been found. 47 CHAPTER III. WOODBURN is about ten miles from Frank- fort, the capital of Kentucky, and during the winter session of the State Legislature, this pretty little town, nestled amongst the hills and watered by the Kentucky river, is the centre of gaiety and sociability. During the time that Congress is in session there are always " hops " twice a-week in the ball-room at the hotel-pleasant social gatherings. In a good room, well lit, a good floor, fair music, and chaperons at home, it would be odd if pretty girls and their beaux could not enjoy themselves for three or four hours twice a-week. The ball does not open till there are a sufficient number of couples to make up a quadrille. Girls dress, some in high bodies, some in low, some in silks, others in muslins, as suits their fancies; and what few mammas FRANNKFORT, KENTUCKY. do go, merely dress in demi -toilette, and seldom appear to have anything to do with their daughters. The State buildings at Frankfort are of precisely the same architecture as those of nearly all the others I have visited, having a handsome faVade, with double rows of columns at the entrance; a wide corridor, on either side of which are the Government offices, Secretary of State's and other officers' rooms; at one end the House of Representatives, and upstairs the Senate House. Each member has a table or desk before him on which to write or put his feet, as occasion or convenience may suggest; and by his side a spittoon-for though smok- ing is forbidden, chewing is allowed. There is good standing-room for strangers at the back of the seats, which all front in a semicircle to the President's chair. There is also a gallery for the accommodation of ladies, who are not in the States required to hide their charms behind even a handsome screen. Frankfort, as I have just remarked, con- tains a most sociable little society-quite a D 49 50 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. " happy family; " for it is proverbial for the kindness of the inhabitants towards one another, and for the pleasant reunions of its young men and maidens, especially in skat- ing-parties on the Benson, a small stream which, for a mile or two before its junction with the Kentucky river, is wide enough, and which, during the "cold spell," freezes hard enough, to afford ample space for many a pleasant c6terie. Last year happening to be leap year, there were many parties throughout the country essentially leap - year parties, whereat the ladies exercised many, though not, that I am aware of, all the privileges which custom has awarded to this quadrennial festival. Young ladies invited young gentlemen to accom- pany them to the ball, young gentlemen kept young ladies waiting the orthodox time before they were ready when their fair part- ners called for them; and doubtless when a young lady was brought up to be introduced to them for the dance, they exhibited the amount of coyness () which had been prac- tised towards them under ordinary circum- THE SHAKERS. stances. In short, for the nonce, the situa- tions were reversed. Another fruitful source of social gatherings in this neighbourhood is, that parties are constantly got up for an excursion up the beautiful Kentucky river (the scenery of which very much resembles that of the Wye between Ross and Chepstow) as far as Shaker's Town ferry, and would include a visit to that kindly and hospitable though peculiar society. This establishment, institution, or what- ever it may be called, has been, I think, very fully described by Hepworth Dixon, but an account of our visit there some years previ- ous to the time of which I am writing may not be amiss in this place, especially as I believe nothing connected with the society has undergone material, if any, change. I was then staying with my brother-in-law, who had extensive dealings with the frater- nity, when we received an invitation to pay them a visit at their settlement. We arrived, a party of nearly a dozen, I think, and were most hospitably received and entertained by 51 52 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. Brother Bryant, who conducted us through the various sets of buildings. They are a gardening and farming community, their ex- cellent preserves being well known through- out this and indeed all the States. Cellars stocked with jars and even barrels of pre- serves of apples, peaches, cherries, and every fruit that can be found in this most fruitful region; stores and workshops filled with all the appliances of the trade or manufac- ture; well-stocked granaries; snug and com- fortable steadings for cattle; whilst the houses in which the community reside are large, well built, and comfortably though simply furnished. This is a community for brothers and sisters. Most kind and charitable, they keep up their numbers by receiving and educating, of course in the tenets of their own peculiar creed, the numberless children rendered fatherless, motherless, and home- less by the late most cruel war. "Secession" is not allowed, but still it does take place, and those who once depart but seldom desire to re-enter the community. I am not sure if there is a reconstruction clause, but if there THE SHAKERS. is, it is hedged about with as great difficul- ties as beset the poor Southern States. The religious tenets of the society are scarcely credible, but we were not admitted to witness their devotions. Strangers have ridi- culed them, so they wisely excluded them from being present at their religious services. Everything about the buildings was scrupu- lously clean. The hospitality of the frater- nity, though simple, was abundant; and nothing could exceed the courtesy and inter- est which they took in showing us over their settlement, and explaining all matters con- nected with their peculiar society and habits. These pages are merely written as a diary of what I actually saw and heard during ten months' sojourn in the States, so they are not the place for an essay on the political fea- tures of the country. I should not, however, be doing justice even to my diary if I refrained entirely from this subject, which is so intimately connected with the state of society in this country. Kentucky escaped most of the violence and depredation, to which I shall 53 54 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. have occasion to refer hereafter, that deso- lated the South. Being, as I remarked, an agricultural State, there was a ready sale for all its produce; and being at the same time a border State, and taking a neutral part in the struggle, though there was much marching to and fro of the contending armies, there was not much hard fighting. Great injury was done to private property by bands of guerillas, deserters from either or both ar- mies, which the efforts, such as they were, of the occupying Northern force were wholly ineffectual in repressing. That these mea- sures were not such as to reconcile the disaffected, or to impress the loyal with the justice of their rulers, cannot be wondered at, when the summary measure of General Burbidge, then in command at Lexington, may be given as a not singular instance of Northern military justice. He ordered out by lot five Confederate prisoners, and had them shot then and there, on the plea that a murder, which had been committed by one of these wandering bands in the house of one of the wealthiest proprietors in Wood- UNSETTLED STATE OF THE COUNTRY. 55 ford county, had been perpetrated with the cognisance of that party. The country for months, nay, even for years-for the remark applies to the time of which I am writing, three years after the termination of the war-was very unsettled; and the police, always feeble, is now quite incapable of rendering life or property, more especially the former, at all secure. The newspapers constantly contain ac- counts of " shootings" and "cuttings," and no great amount of provocation was required to render this system justifiable even in the eye of the law. Scholars have threatened their masters, who, on a pistol being presented, or its presence notified by a significant gesture, have replied by producing another; and on one occasion, in the Episcopal Church at Frankfort, I heard the incumbent, in his sermon, beg the parents of the scholars attending his Sunday-school to use their influence in preventing their children from carrying firearms. " He could produce a well-armed corps from his own school." On another occasion, a young Irish girl accused 56 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. a negro of insulting her, and of afterwards throwing her down an embankment. The negro was taken into custody, and confined in the jail. The next night the Irish broke into the jail, forcibly took out the negro, and hanged him from the top of the rail- way tunnel, close to where the outrage had been committed, leaving the body dangling there till discovered by the driver of the early morning cars from Lexington, who saw it as the train entered the tunnel. Some little time afterwards the friends of the negro endeavoured to prove an alibi, but it was not established, and the affair was soon forgotten. Connected with this affair, I ought to state that an Irish Roman Catholic priest, much respected amongst them, had been induced during the riot to go and try to quiet the maddened Irishmen. In this he was un- successful, and afterwards, when he refused to give evidence as to the identity of the ringleaders, he was committed for contempt of court. His plea for refusing information was, that his presence amongst the rioters was CLIMATE OF KENTUCKY. tolerated solely from the respect to his cleri- cal office, and that, were he to avail himself of the opportunity thus afforded, he would lose all influence over his flock. To the cre- dit of the superior court, he was at once released, and a fitting tribute to his honour- able conduct was given by nearly every newspaper in the State. The climate in Kentucky is very change- able, but the Indian summer of October and part of November is quite charming, and there was also the bright dry cold of Decem- ber and January. On the 23d January the thermometer at 8 A.M. stood at 180, on the 24th at 400, and on the 25th at 240. After a stay of some months at Woodburn, we made a rapid run to Chicago. Having still a holy horror of night jour- neys, which had not been lessened by several fearful accidents which had occurred during the winter, and hoping to have a quiet " all night in" before starting on our seventeen hours' journey, we slept at Cincinnati. To say we slept, though, is very far from the truth. The " army of the Cumber- 57 58 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. land" were celebrating their victories, hon- ouring the dead, and cementing the friend- ships of the survivors, and as the name of each hero was brought forward, the rounds of applause, generally followed by the "tiger " (a conglomeration of yells and shrieks), did not murder, for it banished, sleep. How- ever, all things must have an end, even the Cumberland supper, though it was very long in coming, and it was almost time for our start for the " Queen City of the West " before the last " tiger " went to his lair. That our Republican cousins should constantly award the title of queen to their prime cities may, I suppose, be taken as a well-meant compli- ment to our beloved Sovereign, for whom the respect and admiration are general throughout the States. Chicago certainly is a wonderful place. Thirty years ago, according to "Appleton," Chicago contained only twelve houses, and a population, black and white, of only a hun- dred. The last census fixed it at 250,000. Since my last visit the limits of the city have been extended very considerably in CHICAGO. every direction, and a most striking improve- ment has taken place in the size and mag- nificence of the buildings. Each year is adding to these: old houses, and sometimes whole blocks of houses, are burnt down, and new and more magnificent ones appear, as if by magic, in their places. The fires last winter in Chicago had in- creased to such an alarming extent, that insurances were almost as ruinous as the fires. It was considered that many of these conflagrations were caused by an organised gang for the sole purpose of plunder-not so much of the buildings set on fire, as that in the confusion occasioned by it opportunity might be afforded for breaking into other houses, or otherwise " improving the occa- sion." The following instance came under my own observation: A gentleman heard of a large fire in the neighbourhood of his own store, but recollecting that he had some 300 dollars (greenbacks) about him, he took the precaution to lock them in his safe before going to the scene of action. On his return 59 60 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. home his safe had been broken open, and the dollars, with others in addition, ab- stracted. There is no city that I have visited in America which exhibits such marked char- acter as Chicago. Here the dollar is king, president, or whatever term may be sug- gestive of supreme command, and the go- aheaditiveness of the inhabitants is only equalled by the go-aheaditiveness of the buildings. I am speaking literally. On the outskirts of the city you meet a three-storied house, fully inhabited, going "down the street" into the country! Logs are placed under the joists, and by leverage the house is gradually rolled on. In the city, brick buildings " go up " by the assistance of screws working in the beams and joists, and other beams placed beneath; the whole struc- ture is gradually raised, and a story built below it, realising the Yankee boast of be- ginning at the top story and building down- ward. I cannot recall any particular house that I saw raised in this way on my present visit, but on a former occasion I saw the SLEIGHING AND SKATING. Richmond House, one of the largest hotels then in the city, and occupied by about five hundred visitors, " going up " after this fashion-not in the way some of the large establishments of the kind have " gone up " with us, but with all the business of the hotel in full operation. There had been a heavy fall of snow, and with the unusually hard frost, last winter was a grand time for sleighing. Some of the sleighs on "Michigan" and "Walnut " were very handsomely appointed equipages, and prettily filled. Many of the horses, too, were fine, and very fast, but there was no sleighing on the lake. The ice within the breakwater was twice cut for storing, each cutting being of about eighteen inches thick- ness. The skating-rinks are a very fashionable resort. There are several of them, but the best was a newly - raised one on Wabbach Avenue. It was about a half an acre in extent. A gallery was erected at either end, with seats and stoves, and a narrow footway all round for the skaters, the whole 61 62 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. being well lit with gas. Numerous ladies were enjoying the exercise, some of them being very steady on their skates, but I did not see any performance at all equal to that of the Skating Club in London. There is one at least of our London insti- tutions which has not yet found sufficient favour in American cities to procure its adoption there. The crossings of the streets are an awful ordeal; but then, compara- tively speaking, American ladies never walk. Had they done so, the crossings might have been swept. The street cars are very much used, such being the present fashion. They are wide, and of more easy access than an omnibus, and the universal charge is five cents-about two- pence, at the present value of the dollar. They are very convenient, too, for the charges for "hacks" (most comfortable carriages with two horses) are at a ruinous rate, and cabs do not exist in any of the Northern cities that I have visited, though I have found them in New Orleans-at least there were open one-horse carriages plying in the streets there at one dollar an hour. IMPROVEMENTS IN CHICAGO. To instance the various improvements that have taken place in Chicago, the buildings that have been erected, and the cemeteries laid out, would in itself fill a volume. The Sherman House is a grand hotel, replete with all the comforts and contrivances for which hotels in America are so justly cele- brated. The Opera House, burnt down and rebuilt on a scale of great magnificence, ruined the proprietor. He raffled it for more than it cost. A man who had bought a dollar (3s.) ticket won it, and sold it imme- diately to a company for 100,000 dollars, who at this cost make a good thing of it. "Smart" men these. The water-supply was bad, Chicago being on the level of the lake. A tunnel was con- structed, and carried four or five miles out into the lake, and a large kind of cage built round the mouth, and the city is furnished with an inexhaustible supply of the purest water. The city is divided by the Chicago river, consequently the principal streets, which all run north and south, and are continued on the opposite side of the river, are joined by drawbridges, and the traffic consequently is 63 64 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. frequently impeded. A tunnel is therefore sunk under the river at the end of the prin- cipal street, and the traffic is continued with- out interruption. Certainly intellects are sharpened in this western atmosphere; and here, especially, the increase of the city gives forcible illustration to the story of the emi- grant who arrived late one night, but finding the hotels all full, " guessed he would just camp out on the prairie." No sooner said than done, for in those days the prairie was nearer at hand than it is at present. My friend laid his head on his wallet, and went to sleep. When he awoke he found a city around him, and a hotel built over him. I forget in whose travels, but it has been said by some traveller to Chicago within the last ten years, that a cart went round the city every morning to pick up the bodies of the men murdered during the night. I have paid three visits to Chicago, but did not stay there long enough to speak to the accuracy of this report. I was not there probably at the sea- son of the year when murders were "in." The country within forty or fifty miles of RETURN TO LOUISVILLE. Chicago is not interesting. It is prairie land, though not perfectly flat, and the only native trees are a low stunted oak. There are numbers of churches for every denomination of Christians, some of the buildings being very handsome and substantial edifices. Im- mense fortunes have been made, many of them by the purchase and sale of building- lots-so much so, that this traffic has earned for itself the appellation of the "Chicago fever." Private business unexpectedly shortened our visit to Chicago, and we returned by the Indianopolis route to Louisville, Kentucky, crossing the Ohio river about midnight by the ferry. It is to be hoped that before long a bridge may be built, connecting this city with Jeffersonville on the opposite shore. It is invariably the case that through- out the United States the legislative cham- bers do not meet in the chief city or most thriving town in the state, but in some smaller and less important, though perhaps more central, spot; the idea being that the members of the legislative bodies are less E 65 66 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. liable to be prejudiced by local influences if they assemble in more remote cities. Judg- ing from the amount of " persuasion" brought to bear upon the members, and from the nature of the enactments that are passed, notwithstanding this safeguard, the precau- tion is a wise one, though hardly as efficient as its framers could have desired. Somehow or other-why, I cannot say-the cities in which State legislatures assemble do not seem to increase, as seats of commerce, as rapidly as other cities which are not so privileged. Such at least appears to me to be the case in those places which I have visited. Perhaps the situation is selected with that view. Such, however, is the case with reference to Kentucky. Louisville, situated at the border of the State, on the Ohio river, is increasing rapidly, not only with regard to the stores, commerce, and shipping parts of the town, but also in the numbers of large private residences that are springing up, as if by magic, in the suburbs. The railways here, as elsewhere, come into AMERICAN RAILWAYS. the city on a level-along the streets as it were, shops on each side, the traffic and busi- ness being carried on in the ordinary way. As the cars advance the speed is lessened, and the bell on the engine is rung inces- santly. At crossings the system of gates and gatekeepers is ignored-a notice-board suspended across the street or road, " Rail- way crossing, look out for the locomotive !" being considered sufficient to keep the cross- ing clear. If cattle stray upon the track, the " cow-scraper" is generally sufficiently strong to throw them to one side, and avoid any serious accident. The cars on the Kentucky Railway were not the most comfortable we travelled in. They were older and lower, and in winter the stoves with which they are heated were allowed to get more red-hot, and the ventila- tion was worse than on the other lines. The " conductor" is a great institution on all American railways. Ladies and children are without hesitation consigned to their care, and the confidence reposed in them has never been known to be misplaced. 67 CHAPTER IV. FROM this point commences one of the most interesting trips it has been my fortune to make. I will endeavour to do it justice, and to steer clear of all party prejudice. At Louisville I took tickets to Jackson, Mississippi, but unfortunately had my lug- gage, some portion of which afterwards came to grief, checked only to Humboldt, intend- ing to " lay over" there, and take the train direct to Jackson. I had a strong desire, however, to see Memphis, and was induced, by the persuasive eloquence of the conductor, to alter my plan; passed the roadside station of Humboldt, which certainly did not look inviting, had our luggage rechecked, and made ourselves comfortable for the night in the sleeping-cars. The conductor was an Irishman, and, like all other Irishmen THE MAMMOTH CAVE. in America, was a Fenian, and loud in ac- cusations against England, of "injustice to Ireland," and the misappropriation of the revenues of the Church. There was, I think, only one other occupant of the sleeping-car, and he, it proved, was also going to Jackson. The night was fine and clear, and nothing worthy of remark occurring, we reached Memphis about 9 A.M., after twenty - three hours' travel. Before I enter on my Southern trip, I will here endeavour to describe the Mamnmoth Caves of Kentucky, close to which we passed, and to which we had made an expedition on our last visit. Our party slept at Cave City, about three hours by rail from Louisville; and after a frugal supper, the ladies devoted themselves, until the small hours came round, in pre- paring suitable costumes for the underground work of the morrow. The utmost care had been bestowed on the selection of the colours, and much in- genuity shewn in the improvised cut of the garments; for as there was to be much climb- 69 1TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. ing and scrambling between and over rocks, in many places rough and dirty, simplicity was the order of the day, and flowing gar- ments were tabooed. The result was abloomer costume of the most approved cave fashion. Immediately after an early breakfast we started in two carriages. A drive of about twelve miles over a dirt -road, through a wild country, chiefly covered with dog-wood and blackjack or scrub-oak (a stunted shrub, the leaves of which were, at the time we visited the spot, brilliant with the lovely tints for which the American autumn is so celebrated), brought us to the cave. A good deal of tobacco is grown in this district, but the crop had been gathered before our arrival. Our first halt was at the " Diamond Cave," comparatively small, but with stalactites of very beautiful formation, of a brownish col- our. An hour or so was most agreeably spent in exploring this cave, and the effects produced by coloured lights, burnt by the guide and familiars, were very striking. From this to the Great Cave the country assumed a wilder aspect. The sides of the 70 THE MAMMOTH CAVE. ravines were steeper, the trees larger, and the ruts in the roads were deeper, till we ar- rived at the Cave Hotel. This was a large pile.of rough building, well adapted to con- tain the numbers of visitors who, in the sea- son for excursions, assemble here in large parties. An unlimited number of small bed- rooms opened into a corridor with one large salle-ct-manger, and several smaller parlours, not so much for private sitting-rooms as for public cOteries. The afternoon was spent in rambling about the surrounding woods, gathering ferns or wild-flowers, and in arranging with guides, collecting provisions, and what not, for the expedition which was to take up the whole of the next day. We started about 9 A.M. on our travels, and a walk through a pretty glen brought us to the mouth of the cave, the entrance to which was by an archway about fifty feet from the surface, and we were almost imme- diately in total darkness. Lights were kept in a small temporary lodge, where we left our cloaks, c., as, the change from the tem- 71 72 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. perature of the interior to the outer air on our return would be considerable. We were directly struck by an indescribable noise, which proved to arise from the barking of innumerable bats, with which the walls were completely covered. We disturbed a few, but they very quickly settled themselves on the walls again, and we did not trouble one another further. As we proceeded, the traces of saltpetre having been procured from this part of the cave became evident; and we were shown the corn-cobs which might have been left by the horses used in the works, during the time of the War of Independence, when most of the gunpowder consumed in the United States was manufactured in this district. Our further progress was through high and wide passages, the sides, top, and bottom of which were covered with most lovely in- crustations, and stalactites of alabaster clear- ness, taking the forms of most perfect lilies, roses, grapes, and other flowers and fruit, as accurately as an accomplished artist could have modelled them. Some of the petals THE MAMMOTH CAVE. were several inches in length. In some of the more open spaces-for there were cham- bers of 100 feet long by 40 or 50 high and wide-the stalactites took the resemblances of Gothic clusters of columns, and arches to correspond, which the blue and white lights we had brought with us enabled us to see in all their natural grandeur. Then there was the " fat man's misery," a deep narrow pathway, the sides rising about 4 feet before they opened out into a wider gallery. In the course of time we came to a river, across which we went in boats, and further on we had to row on it for a distance of 100 yards or more. On a portion of the way the roof of the cave descends pretty close to the water, and here is occasionally an impediment to further progress, for under certain circumstances the river rises to the roof, but there is another passage well known to the guides in case of acci- dent. Eyeless and colourless fish, somewhat like cray-fish, inhabit these waters, but they arc difficult to catch, as they are very sensitive 73 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. to any disturbance of the water in their neighbourhood. The temperature of the cave is about 65 at all seasons. People affected with pulmonary com- plaints have tried living in the cave, and have done so for six months together, but I could not hear of an authentic case of per- manent benefit having been derived from this incarceration. We did not get back until 8 P.M., and though some of the party were tired, none were knocked up with their long day's work, in the course of which we could not have walked less than 14 or 1.5 miles. The guides said we had much exceeded that dis- tance. The ramifications of all the number- less smaller passages may, I really believe, be followed for nearly 100 miles. But to proceed with our journey. It is quite wonderful the rapidity with which the Southern railroads have been reconstructed. The line by which we were travelling had been entirely relaid since the war, the rails and almost everything connected with it 74 WOODEN RAILWAY BRIDGE. having been destroyed by one or other of the contending forces, who both availed themselves of its assistance as far as was practicable whenever occasion offered. Some hours before arriving at Memphis we passed over a marvellous wooden bridge and piece of trellis-work extending upwards of a mile, and as I stood on the platform of the car with my friend the conductor, and felt the vibration of the rails and timbers, I cer- tainly did feel rather glad I had not to return that way, but I did not then know the lines I was to travel over. No acci- dent has occurred, and I doubt not that the spirited manager of the line, as the traffic increases, will take the steps necessary to render it perfectly secure. The line is laid for miles and miles through woods and swamps; or rather, to speak more correctly, there was a great deal of water amongst the trees and tangled brushwood, and the eye and senses wearied with the monotony, for, at the time I am writing of, the trees and flowers were not in leaf or blossom. 7.5 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. At Memphis we first got sight of the Mis- sissippi. It is a wide, wide stream. The banks are very low, and when the river is low also, the expanse of mud, with the silvery stream glistening in the sunshine, causes the distance from the Tennessee to the Arkansas shore to appear greater than it really is. The distance, however, from terra firma on the one side to terra firma on the other, is, I believe, two miles and a half. We had to remain in Memphis about six hours before our train for Jackson started, during which time I endeavoured to pick up such items of intelligence as might be acces- sible. Here I first began to hear and see for myself the true state of the South. It is difficult to condense into a few pages, and yet to render my tale interesting but not wearisome, the harrowing sight of ruin and destruction, the incontrovertible accounts of hardships encountered and to be endured, which met me at every turn. Houses and stores decayed or deserted, the occupants and owners killed in the war, or ruined by plun- derers or sequestration. The report-corro- 76 RESULTS OF THE WAR. borated by evidence that could have no col- lusion or contradiction-that families who, before the war, were living in luxury and plenty, were now not able to obtain meat for food once a - week, met me at every turn. Instances there were of well-stocked stores of all sorts, but these, the owners told me, in more than one instance, had been seve- ral times cleared out. My informants did not say, however, how they came to be replenished. Everything in Memphis, however, was not sad and sorry. I found something was up in the hotel, and on inquiry, ascertained that a wedding was just about to take place; and very shortly the happy couple and their friends made their appearance in the corridor and started for the church. In the States, matters of this sort are not conducted pre- cisely after our fashion. Each carriage was occupied by only a lady and a gentleman. As I have mentioned before, the chaperon in America plays a very secondary part, if in- deed she can be said to be included at all in the arrangement. " We do very well with- 77 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. out them," they say. I cannot gainsay it; and as I am only stating fact, we must e'en accept the statement and believe it. " Use is second nature," and not knowing the restraint, they may not require it. I will only say that I do not think that the practice would answer here in the social way that might be wished. To proceed with my tale: not only did all parties return in safety to the hotel, but on our going to the Jackson train we found the happy pair seated in the car, and the bevy of bridesmaids taking leave, all in their bridal attire, except the two who were to accompany the pair on their wedding trip, at least for the first part of it. The adieux were completed at last, and, the cars cleared of all non-combatants-non-travellers, I mean -we again started on our way. The road was uninteresting, and night soon came on. We had a scramble for a cup of coffee at Granada, and at Canton had to change cars, getting into a sleeping-car. I cannot refrain from recurring to " the pair." As the time wore on, and their guar- 78 SLEEPING-CARS. dian maidens retired to rest, they had been sorely puzzled what to do or how to comport themselves in the presence of the motley group of their fellow-travellers. The last I saw of them when I lay down, they were sitting on the side of the sleeping-berth, looking anything but happy; but when I left the car at 6 A.M. at Jackson, they had succumbed to fate, and yielded to the in- fluence of " Murphy." For the information of those of my readers who have not experienced the luxury of a sleeping-car, I will endeavour to describe the article. The carriage during the day is not different from the others, unless, per- haps, it may be a little higher, and therefore better ventilated. The seats are all ranged one (or rather two, for each seat holds two people) behind another, but the backs, by an ingenious contrivance, are reversible, so that the two seats can, when required, be made to face one another. The cars are very simi- lar to those on some of the German railroads. About nine o'clock the attendant comes to make up the beds. He turns the seat 79 80 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. the way I have described, draws out an under-seat till the two meet, and letting down a flap from the side, which forms another berth, and again another from above this one, produces mattresses, pillows, sheets, blankets, and wadded quilts from somewhere, and in " a brace of shakes " a bed, or rather four beds, are ready. There is a partition at the head and foot, and curtain in front, to render the whole as private as such a place can be made. To the south of the Ohio the gentlemen's portion of the sleeping-cars is divided by a curtain from the remainder, which is ap- propriated to ladies or to " couples," and a separate dressing-room is provided at each end. In the North this luxury is dispensed with, and ladies have to take their turn with the lords of the creation. I have said that we had to stop and to change cars once or twice during the night. Either then, or whilst indulging in such sleep as the cars permitted, I was relieved of my purse; and when I opened my bag, for the first time locked, I discovered that A RAILWAY THEFT. 81 the sides had been forced open, and sundry most useful articles abstracted. Of course no redress could be obtained. Had I lost my bag and kept my check, I could have claimed damages; whether I should have recovered them is another thing, and I am very glad I had not to try the experiment; but as it was, each company (and the line we had travelled over belonged to two or three) said it could not have happened on their line, so I had to put up with the loss as best I could, and be thankful that it had not been of greater importance. I think the thief must have been a Yankee, or, if a Southerner, he must have mistaken me for a " carpet-bagger," and therefore fair game for whatever could be got out of me. It is not often they had the chance of get- ting such a good boot and shoe; but the " party"-he may be a Southerner, so I will not call him a thief-must have been in- tensely sold to find that in his hurry he A " carpet-bagger" is a Northern with very small means, who has come south for the ostensible purpose of settling there, but practically to take advantage of the present dis- tress, and to excite the negroes against their former masters. F 81 82 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. had only taken one of each of mine, though he had the good fortune to secure a new pair of boots belonging to my wife. So much for the system of checks and baggage- masters. At Jackson we first became acquainted with the real effects of the war. The town was formerly a flourishing county town, the seat of the government of the State of Mis- sissippi. It is well situated on a quiet little river, the Pearl, the banks of which are very pretty. On one side are thick woods, in which, later in the year, there is good wild- turkey shooting. In the immediate environs were many pretty country houses, with gar- dens full of lovely Southern plants,- "Such was the aspect of this shore- 'Tis Greece, but living Greece no more." Whole blocks of buildings, churches, pri- vate houses, hotels, gardens, have been com- pletely demolished, and if any trace is left, it is only in the chimney-stalk and vacant hearth, and the pools of water, once the site of cellars. The city was twice the scene of contest STATE OF JACKSON. between the opposing forces, but it was not in the heat of the battle that the chief de- struction was effected. It was the work of cool and deliberate vengeance after the city had surrendered. We were staying here first with some relations who had remained throughout the war, and again with others who had been compelled to leave, and live as they best could in the wilds of Alabama. They had now returned, though their comfortable home, replete with every luxury, and one of the best libraries in the State, had been swept from the face of the earth, its site even being scarcely traceable. They were able, however, by dint of firm perseverance and the most strict economy, to live in comparative com- fort now. People get ill and send for the doctor, get cranky and go to law, clothes wear out and require to be renewed, now as formerly, but the universal cry throughout the country is, "No money can be collected." The " Black and Tan" convention was in session while I was at Jackson. It was a 83 84 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. strange sight, and the appellation was very appropriate. A burly nigger, a representative of the constituency, was sitting side by side with a " carpet-bagger." Occasionally an old re- presentative might be seen, but that element was very rare, and, I must admit, not always entirely a creditable specimen of his class. The members may be said to be elected by the negro vote; for not only are white men who took any part in the rebellion excluded from the register, but unless they will take an oath that they did not in any way assist any one who did, they cannot exercise any of the privileges of citizenship; and whatever may have been the case in the early part of the war (and then, I believe, there were many strongly in favour of the Union), long before its close every Southerner had thrown in his lot with the Confederates. At any rate, not to have assisted those who were fighting on that side would have been inhuman, if not impossible. Practical jokes were occasionally perpe- trated, but, as a body, the members did not THE "BLACK AND TAN" CONVENTION. 85 appreciate the fun; and whilst I was there, a discussion on a joke of this nature, to which one of the officers of the House had been a victim, resulted in the expulsion of the per- petrator. The members did not all belong to temperance societies; or, if they did, their pledges sometimes " got" broken. But a very little of the American whisky, before the mid-day meal, goes a good way. The style of oratory, though clever, is very declamatory, very fluent; but the stress on words is apparently guided more by the capability of the speaker's lungs than with any regard to the meaning intended to be conveyed. I do not for a moment mean to say there are not many good and eloquent speakers in America, but the prevailing style is declamatory, and a quiet speaker would carry but little weight, especially if accom- panied by hesitation. All the speakers I heard here and elsewhere were very fluent, but cer- tainly modulation of tone does not form one of the characteristics of American elocution. Lord Charles Russell or Sir William Gossett would not be flattered by the representative 86 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. of their offices in the Jackson Black and Tan assembly. Certainly they would neither of them have appreciated the pommelling he received when he refused admittance, at 2 A. M. one morning, to the body of practical jokers I alluded to above, who insisted on opening the session, and holding a debate, at that unusual hour. I am sorry, for the credit of the party, to say that the offending mem- ber was a democrat. It is but justice to add that his election was declared void, and an- other was desired to take his place. The payment of the members is a terrible tax on the country. It amounts, I think, to ten dollars a-day each, and the session is prolonged or prorogued at the pleasure of the members, to whom, generally speaking, a few greenbacks are a great consideration. Their lodgings were simple, and their fare not sumptuous; and I heard it stated in the assembly, that some half-dozen of them used to sleep on the floor and benches of the House, though I did not see them there. I only know they did not return very early to their quarters, wherever they may have been; ANECDOTES OF THE WAR. and whether any headaches they may have had the next morning were occasioned by the hardness of their pallets, or the strength of their whisky-toddies or brandy-and-water, I am unable to state. I must here give some anecdotes of the war. I had them from the lips of those to whom they refer, and can vouch for their authenticity. I am afraid I must admit that in some cases the opinion of General Sherman, that " the ladies kept the war alive by their bitter hatred of the Yankees," is rather borne out, but it cannot be wondered at. Hus- bands, brothers, sons, were all engaged in fighting for their fatherland,-and against whom Not against brother Americans. The Northern armies were certainly com- manded, and chiefly officered, by Americans, but the hordes of soldiers were the rabble of all countries, born Americans being very rarely found in the ranks, excepting amongst the troops raised in the West. The cruelties practised were in many cases scarcely exceeded in the Indian mutinies. 87 88 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. One gentleman told me that his sister's house in Alabama had been entered. Arms were demanded, and search made for them The owner of the house was an officer in the Confederate army, and his portrait was found in his wife's work-box. " That will do for us," said the ruffian, as he took it out and smashed it with his heel, pocketing the setting. He then shot the baby, and left the mother, believing her to be dead, which indeed very shortly proved to be the case. Can it be wondered at that hatred, undying hatred, has been engendered by such out- rages, and that such feelings are fostered when no hand is held out by the conquering power to soothe or aid, but, on the contrary, every occasion seized for making the defeat only more humiliating to the sufferers "I hate the Yankees, and I bring up my chil- dren to hate them too," a lady said to me; and I am very certain she is not the most vindictive of her race. On the surrender of Jackson-or rather, when it was decided that further to resist the force brought against it by Generals FEDERAL ATROCITIES. Grant and Sherman was useless-the troops were marched out under General Johnson some hours before the evacuation was dis- covered by the Northern forces. A young gentleman, joint owner with his brother of large property in the neighbour- hood, not much more than fourteen years of age, but who had accompanied the forces to the trenches, refused to quit with them. As the enemy's forces advanced to take posses- sion, he was about to fire on a Federal officer. Some bystanders knocked up his gun, and he was taken prisoner, and condemned to be shot next day. A lady, his cousin, and my informant, heard of this, and at once deter- mined, though a well-known rebel, that the only course to be adopted was to try an appeal to General Grant, and to endeavour to get a pardon for Mr W . There was not time for deliberation; the sentence had been passed, and the execution would not be delayed. Urgent demands at length brought about an interview with the General, whose authority was given that the ladies (three, and a little girl) should see the prisoner. 89 90 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. When he was admitted to them he appeared ill and dirty, and said he had been given nothing to eat for twenty-four hours, and only poisoned water to drink. A pail of water had been offered to him and the other prisoners, and he drank of it, but finding the water burning to the taste he spat it out, and desired his brother captives not to taste it. His mouth and lips, however, had the next day broken out with sores. The wells also on his brother's property by his house were poisoned by the soldiers. Mr W 's relations were very much afraid that his indignant speeches and strong language would very much prejudice his cap- tors against him, and begged him to be silent, with but little effect. He knew he was ordered to be shot, and thought he would have a shot too. The officers about ac- counted for the prisoners not having been fed by their own supplies not having come up. I did not hear of the effect of the draught from the pail being accounted for. Shortly after this, an order came for Mr W and his friends to return to General GENERAL SHERMAN. Grant's quarters. The General, after taking his prisoner aside for some minutes, deter- mined to release him, in consideration of his youth, and, I would fain hope, also of his gallant bearing. Meanwhile one of the ladies of the party had recognized in an officer present an old acquaintance, General Sher- man. Fortunately General Grant was in command on this occasion, as his brother General did not scruple to express his opin- ion that the execution ought to have been proceeded with. " The ladies, and such dare-devils as these, will prolong the war beyond endurance." One of the ladies then remarked, " He is my cousin, and I wish I had a thousand such. Poor man, dressed in a little brief authority, I pity you!" "I have been in places of trust," the General replied. " I should not have thought it," was the lady's rejoinder; and then the General, con- sidering that " discretion was the better part of valour," left the argument. Young W was afterwards, while on 91 92 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. General Gibson's staff, badly wounded in the thigh. Returning home for a time, he so far recovered as to be able to resume his duty on crutches. At the close of the war he had an operation performed, and the ball was extracted, but he sank under the shock, only one more of the noble Southern youths victims to this contest. But my story is not yet concluded-there are more dependent on it. As this party of ladies who had been to intercede for Mr V were returning to their home, they saw a crowd of soldiers about their house, and, on approaching nearer, they met an officer with a dress under his arm. " Oh, mamma! " was the exclamation of the girl (about fourteen years of age), " that man has got one of my dresses." This, how- ever, was stoutly denied, on the ladies inter- rogating him, till, by a rapid movement of " mamma," the dress was displayed, and at once identified. Very shortly some soldiers descried on the young girl's throat a brooch enamelled with the Confederate flag. This could not be THE SOUTHERN LADIES. allowed, independently of the intrinsic value of the article, and its immediate surrender was demanded. " No; I'll die first!" was the spirited reply; and she rushed into the house and up some stairs into a gallery, and though nearly forced over the bannisters, and notwithstand- ing the repeated entreaties of her mother and friend to give it up, she still called out, "Now, take it if you dare! " The soldiers, with unusual forbearance, cheered "Bully for you, Miss;" and Miss F wore the brooch triumphantly at the Democratic meeting in New York last sum- mer, one of the few ladies who were admitted to the meeting. Many were the anecdotes of the fidelity of servants to their masters, even in the pre- sence of their " liberators." What a prosti- tution of the name! That there were instances of cruelty and hardships connected with the " institution" will not be denied by any one, but that those were exceptional cases is a fact patent to all who had ever seen the working of the system. 93 94 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. What stronger proof that the negroes were happy and contented can be required, than the way in which they remained faithful to their employers' interests during the war, notwithstanding the temptations to desert, or to do worse, which were so glaringly pre- sented to their views by their Northern sup- porters That when the South surrendered, and the freedom of the negro had become an acknowledged fact, there were instances in abundance of assertions of independence, and even of " crowing " over their old mas- ters, is not to be wondered at. Have not such feelings been exhibited by the emanci- pated Briton throughout these isles within the memory of the youngest inhabitants Before I came south I was told every day " on the best authority," besides newspaper reports, that it was not safe to travel in the Southern States. "White people were in- sulted in the very streets; ladies could not walk out without subjecting themselves to unheard-of atrocities," c. Unheard-of in- deed they were in the South. CHAPTER V. DURING my two months' sojourn in these regions I never met with aught but perfect civility. Occasionally one got a familiar nod, where before no notice would have been taken, but on no occasion did I or my wife meet with the slightest disrespect. The negroes would call themselves "ladies" and " gentle- men," as distinguished from white "men" and " women," which was of course riling to their old masters and mistresses; and hogs and chickens which had strayed out of the precincts of the homestead, soon found their way into pots for which they had not been in- tended; but doors and windows were left open and unprotected as formerly, and robberies were very rare. Indeed all were poor together. The first year or so after the termination of the war, negroes demanded high wages, 96 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. and they would only work for a day or two in the week. Before I left the country, how- ever, they were petitioning their old masters to take them at any price, or no price at all- clothing and food was all they asked; but even this, in numberless cases, could not be given. There was no capital wherewith to employ labour. The cultivators of the soil had been taken away. The crops had been mortgaged, and, from three bad seasons, had failed to produce even sufficient to repay the mort- gages. The land had been seized to pay the debt, and that was insufficient. The North- ern middle-man, therefore, who advanced the money, was ruined also. There had been three successive bad seasons, in addition to the evils arising from the war, and half the land had gone out of cultivation. Every one who knows anything of a south- ern climate is aware of the rapid growth of weeds of every description, and how much more difficult they are to eradicate than is the artificial growth of cultivated plants. Northerners had come down in hopes of making something out of the ruined South. STATE AND PROSPECTS OF THE SOUTH. 97 They had bought or hired land, and planted it with cotton, and only gained a loss of nearly cent per cent. Many parts of the country are well adapt- ed to agricultural pursuits, and it is to be hoped that emigration, assisted by local efforts, may before long bring this splendid country back to life and prosperity. To expect that it will ever be what it was before, is utterly hopeless. Its former owners are, as a class, dead or ruined and dispersed. The exercise of their noble and generous hospitality is no longer possible. Their class is gone, and never can return. It may not be amiss here to insert a letter I received after my return to Kentucky from one of the most respected and "smartest" men in Mississippi, conveying his view of the future of the Southern States. It may be considered a very fair statement of the situation: You request my views of the future of the South- ern States. It is a disagreeable topic. Wre have lost half a century by the results of the war. We have descended from a high degree of prosperity to a state of bankruptcy, with all its concomitant evils. We G 98 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. have, nevertheless, a high grade of people. We shall sustain the shock with great fortitude. We shall push forward with unusual energy our industrial, edu- cational, and religious institutions. In five years' time we shall dispose of the political entanglements that now trouble us so much, enfranchise our people, settle the status of our freedmen, diversify our labour with all the arts and manufactures, and enter upon a course of prosperity to which a state of slavery could never have attained. Slavery had a tendency to accumulate mat- ter in the hands of the few. Their incomes were spent chiefly in their families, educating and socially refining them, but adding comparatively little to the general prosperity of the State. In our new condition the temptations of our soil, climate, and productions will eventually bring us a dense population, occupying and improving all our waste lands, working our mines, build- ing our railroads, navigating our waters, and in all the pursuits of life accumulating not only the means of subsistence, but an aggregation of matter not attain- able in more northern or more southern latitudes. We are, in this zone of the earth, the most pro- ductive and prosperous the globe around. Pass your eye through the latitudes we occupy, alike in Europe, Asia, or America, and you will see a land literally flow- ing with milk and honey. Give us peace and good government, and we are bound to prosper. The theme you have suggested is a grand one. While it opens upon an impoverished and oppressed people, it never- theless presents that imperative and unavoidable neces- sity for great mental and physical exertion which can- not fail to produce the results I have foreshadowed. PROSPECTS OF THE SOUTH. The political fanaticism of the Northern States, ever assaulting the Federal and State Constitutions, has finally culminated in the attempt to impeach the Presi- dent of the United States, because he maintained the Constitution of his country in preference to the corrupt tactics of his party. Whatever may be the numerical vote of the Senate on the question of guilty or not guilty, that corrupt and wicked attempt has failed be- fore the grand judgment of the country. The people will visit the sentence of condemnation (if passed) upon the Radical faction in Congress. They will exculpate the President; they will condemn and abandon the Republican party. The Conservative element will accede to power, this despotic Legislature will be ex- punged, the Southern States restored to the Union, the public debt settled upon a permanent basis, and thus the whole country launched upon a new career of political and physical prosperity. This will require time. Our presidential terms are political epochs. We shall probably beat the Radicals the next election, but should we fail now, we shall beat them four years hence; hence I say that these results may be accom- plished in five years. I have not time or space to give all the reasons for these conclusions. They are the general result of my reflections on the subject. It is a mistake to suppose that this country will now become the victim of perpetual anarchy. The progress which the Radicals have made in that direction has alarmed the thinking minds of the country, and they are now arousing to the importance of putting an end to the legislative tendency in this direction; and this feeling alone must defeat the Radical party, alike in 99 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. August and in the State Legislatures. So much for the situation of the South. I may add that the feeling entertained with regard to General Grant throughout the Southern States was, on the whole, de- cidedly favourable. His was not a vindic- tive policy nor nature; and it was generally thought that, had he come into power through the success of the impeachment of the Presi- dent, his policy towards the South would have been one of reconciliation. For General Sherman there could have been but one feeling. The whole line of his march throughout the States had been marked by ruin and destruction, and a fitter man to carry out a policy of extermination, whether of Southerners or of Indians, could not be selected. From Jackson we went by the railroad to Vicksburg. The country through which we passed was a cotton-growing country, but now given up to sedge-grass and cotton-wood, the most difficult of all weeds to eradicate. A few chimney-stalks marked where once had stood loo VICKSBURG. large and comfortable houses, and charred wood and bricks showed where had been the negroes' quarters. There is a single line of railroad between Meridian and Vicksburg, but the traffic now barely maintains it. At Vicksburg I did not find so much trace of the siege as I had expected. Much of the city which had been destroyed had been rebuilt, burnt down, and built up again. It had been raining heavily for three days, and I was therefore unable to explore the country as I had wished. The lines around the town were very dis- tinct. At first they had been very extensive, but afterwards were very much drawn in. The streets of Vicksburg are not paved, but formed only of clay and sand, and when it is wet, which is not uncommon, it is " real dirty." The streets are of light clay, with stepping-stones at the crossings wide enough apart to allow carriage-wheels to pass between. From the heights above the town the windings of the Mississippi can be seen for miles, and the expedient tried by the Fede- 101 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. rals to make a cut through the low-lying land opposite to and below the town to a point in the stream above it, so as to have communication free, without passing under the powerful batteries which had been estab- lished in the city, was very clearly demon- strated. Such a plan, however, could never have entered any but an American brain; but the energy that could in a very few years complete a railway across some three thousand miles of rough country, much of it inhabited by hostile Indian tribes, and could even think of laying an electric telegraph across or through the unfathomable Pacific, was baffled here, for the cut was filled in with the surrounding soil as soon as water was admitted. The same story of ruin to all white in- habitants, and of destitution amongst the negroes, met me here as elsewhere; only it was corroborated by the account of a gen- tleman who had been canvassing for some State appointment in Arkansas, on the op- posite shore of the river, and whose canvass took him much amongst the newly-enfranch.- 102 A MISSISSIPPI STEAMER. ised blacks. He said that amongst a thou- sand negro families there were last year but twenty-one babies, and only one of them was then alive. This speaks for itself, and only confirms the reports I heard every- where, as well as the correctness of my own observation, that the negro must die out. After a short stay at Vicksburg,-for the only friends I had there were changing their residence and could not receive me-at least, their unsettled state was a good reason for not accepting hospitality, which, however readily offered, I knew could be but ill afforded, - we took our passage to New Orleans on the Robert K Lee, a splendid new boat, beautifully fitted up, and officered by a most superior set of men. The dimen- sions of this steamer were as follows: length, 305 feet; beam, 61 feet; width of gallery out- side cabin, 4 feet; saloon, 18 feet by 200; and width of cabin, 10 feet. Steamers of this kind of build are, I be- lieve, only to be seen in American waters; at any rate, I am sure that superior comforts are not to be met with afloat. The ladies' 103 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. cabin occupies the stern of the boat, and, as is the case in railway cars, gentlemen in the company of ladies are admitted to this sanc- tum. There is, however, usually no division between the part of the saloon set aside for the use of ladies and that allotted to gentle- men, though a partition or curtain can readily be adapted to the purpose when required. The state-rooms open out of the cabin, with a door opposite on to the covered gallery. There are also two brides' cabins, situated on either side at the stern. These are larger, and more comfortably fitted up. The bar, that necessary appendage to everything par- taking of the nature of a hotel, is at the fore end of the gentlemen's portion of the saloon. The " office " of the steamer is opposite to it. The cabins, or state-rooms, are more com- modious than even in the Cunard line steam- ships; and in each are two complete sets of life - belts, often no unnecessary appendage on voyages up and down the Mississippi. I confess that I had considerable qualms on taking my passage - many more than on embarking on the ocean. 104 SCENERY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. On board the Cunard packets I felt en- tirely in the hands of Providence, whilst in a Mississippi steamboat I felt that the stokers and pokers were, to say the least of it, very careless in carrying out the fore - arranged plans of the Almighty. Accordingly-like the old lady who always trusted to the uttermost, when pressed as to her feelings on her pony running away, replied, "Well, sir, I trusted in Providence till the breech- ing broke, and then jumped out "-anxious to give Providence every assistance in my power in case of a blow-up, the first thing I did on going into my cabin was to practise getting into the life-preserver. I am thankful to say that the voyage was performed in safety, and in the utmost com- fort. Any shore less interesting than that of the Mississippi river, with only a moderate amount of water, I cannot imagine; a very strong current, three - quarters of a mile broad, and often more, running about four miles an hour between almost perpendicular wet and slippery clay-banks. l1fi TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. Some friends of mine were in a steamer in 1866 which caught fire. One of them agreed with two others to jump overboard. As the two others did so the smoke cleared away, and my friend saw that his compan- ions had jumped into a mass of flames rising from the lower deck, and they were burnt. He jumped later into the water, and was got ashore some distance lower down. The bystanders pronounced him dead, and were leaving him accordingly, but his brother, who had been more fortunate, insisted on every means being used to resuscitate him, and happily they proved effectual; and last summer he was married to the lovely and accomplished daughter of the opulent Mr - of new York. Our voyage was without adventure, and as the river was not very full, we did not see as much of the peculiarities of it as I had anticipated. The shores of the river are generally low, though occasionally high and picturesque bluffs present themselves. One of these occurs at Natchez, where we arrived about 106 NATCHEZ AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 107 10 A.M. On approaching it from Vicksburg is seen one of the most beautiful gardens on the banks of the river, laid out at a vast expense, but now it can scarcely be said to be kept up. The owner, like nearly all others in these parts, if not entirely ruined, was altogether so crippled in his means as to render impossible all but the most necessary expenditure. We landed at Natchez, as the steamer was to remain there some hours, and having some intimate friends living in the neighbourhood, called upon them, and they accompanied us in a drive round the environs of the town. Natchez was formerly famous for the lux- ury and beauty of the country-seats around it, the residences of wealthy planters of this and adjoining regions, and truly these reports were not exaggerated. Roehampton, or St Leonards, near Windsor, forms the closest resemblance to the district that I can call to mind, and they do not come up to the reality, even in disposition of the ground. The gardens, in happier times, must have been most lovely. We were there too early TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. in the season to see the flowers in full per- fection, even had they had a fair chance of being seen; but as it was, in one garden more particularly, as having fared better than its neighbours, the roses, camellias, azaleas, yellow jasmine, pomegranates,c. c., were in profusion, and the nosegay presented to us by the hospitable lady of the mansion was the ad- mired of all beholders on board the R. E. Lee, and no less so in the saloon of the St Charles Hotel, New Orleans, where we arrived about 6 P.M., just sixty hours from Vicksburg, in- cluding the six hours' stoppage at Natchez. I cannot say adieu to my recollections of this fine boat, and its civil and attentive crew, without recording that having brought our friends on board to dine with us at Natchez, on remarking that no charge was made, the reply I received was, "Oh! not at all; we are always happy to see any of your friends ;" and this, on inquiry, I found to be the general practice. The water in the Mississippi was rather low at the time we were descending; but when it is high, the houses and land, situ- 108 LEVEES OF THE RIVER. ated in many places some yards below the level of the river, must present a very strange appearance from the lofty deck of the steamer. It was situations like this that the conquering army took advantage of to wreak their vengeance on their foe, and were able to disperse destruction on all around indiscriminately. To keep the levees or embankments in repair is one of the most costly of the charges connected with a plan- tation. They are constantly needing and receiving most careful watching to maintain them even in the best of times. Let run to waste, or, still more, if these artificial boun- daries of the river are purposely destroyed, any one can easily understand the utter destruction which must be occasioned for miles around by such a body of water being allowed to run riot over the surface of low- lying land. The difficulty and expense of restoring the embankment are increased tenfold by every day's delay. Whole regi- ments of soldiers and bands of negroes were scarcely sufficient to restore the works; and great indeed was the expense entailed on 109 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. the State in general and the proprietor in particular-if indeed he has been allowed to retain possession of his land-in repairing the breaches which these causes have effected. Judging from the pictures I have seen of New Orleans, the state of the quays and country must be very different now to what was formerly the case. As we came along down the river, we picked up very little cotton, and the land on each side seemed deserted. From one place we brought sixty mules and other plant connected with the cultivation of the plantation, the working of that estate being given up, as hundreds of others were besides. Many were the instances of ruined home- steads ruthlessly shelled or plundered by the Federals, who had possession of the river. At BAton Rouge, formerly the capital of Louisiana, magnificent buildings, a college, and the State arsenal, were roofless and windowless, the effects of the bombardment. As we approached New Orleans, amongst the numbers of steamships lying by the quays, several were pointed out to me as 110 NEW ORLEANS. captured blockade-runners. Rakish, wicked- looking, low-hulled, grey craft they were; and one could not help regretting the kindly aid that had been lost to the suffering South- erner, if not turned against him, by his suc- cessful Northern foe. The steamers arriving at the quays of the Crescent City are all moored by their stems to the wharf, and a peculiar sight it was, slowly steaming down, looking out for any- thing like a vacant space wherein to squeeze the mighty hull of the R. E. Lee. A spot was found at last, but it was nearly 10 o'clock before we landed. New Orleans has so often been described that it seems superfluous to remark upon it here, but my journal would be incomplete without making some allusion to its peculi- arities. There is much about it very strik- ing, especially after a residence in, or famili- arity with, other cities of the United States. The difference between the French part of the town, with its old and narrow streets, and the more modern and American quarter, is great. illl TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. Our stay at New Orleans on this occasion was v ry short. The St Charles was full, and we could not get good rooms there; the St Louis, the next best hotel, was shut up; added to which, there was so much of the same story of ruin and desolation, that I took advantage of a steamer calling at Havanna two days after our arrival, to carry out a latent wish I had entertained to visit a tropical climate, and to provide myself with some real Havanna cigars. Before leaving, however, I was honoured by an introduction to several of the generals, late of the Southern army, well known in America, and not un- heard of in regions far removed from the scene of their exploits. Their talents are now turned to various account. Some have turned the sword into the ploughshare, others into the pen. Many are lawyers; some have " gone West;" General Armstrong, one of the latter, had that day returned to what all Southerners look upon as the city of their hopes. From Texas he had performed part of the journey on a railway, not propelled by steam but by wind. The locomotives 112 GENERAL BEAUREGARD. only ran twice a-week, so he and some com- panions got upon a truck, and with " a wet sheet and a flowing sail, and a wind that follows fast," they sped along as merrily as if engine No. 10 had really drawn them on. With General Beauregard, too, I had some pleasant conversation. He had been much impressed by, and warmly appreciated, the reception he had met with while in England in 1865, and was full of pleasant and cheery talk. His achievements in the field we have all lately heard of, and his appearance, manners, and conversation, fully bore out the firmness and quick decision for which he'was so celebrated. To General Maury, the nephew of the great geographer, whom I am proud of having the honour to call my friend, I am indebted for much kindness, and for valuable informa- tion and introductions. I have said that our stay at New Orleans was but short before we were off again, hoping to see some real tropical scenery. Before that could be obtained, however, I at least had an ordeal to go through. H 1'3 CHAPTER VI. I HAVE no doubt that most of those who honour me by reading this Journal will have crossed the Channel from Dover to Calais at least, and back. Well they, kind sympa- thising creatures, will appreciate the sensa- tions I endured, not for two hours but for sixty, between New Orleans and Havanna. Truly the Juniata had not accommodated herself to amateur adventurers. She had been much used during the war, and as a result was very cranky. The captain was not an epicure; and the sea, though not rough, did not adapt itself to the digestive organs of the passengers; at least I think I was not singular in my earnest longing for the termination of our voyage, and heartily I wished it were possible to return overland; but the weather was fine, and there M as some HAVANNA. amusement in watching the porpoises at their gambols round the ship, and the flying-fish darting through the air, which, though it was only the 28th of March, was as mild and balmy as the most delicate could desire. We did not see a single sail until we made Cape Moro. The approach to Havanna is very fine. Moro Castle, with its towers, battlements, and high bold cliffs, covers by its guns, and those of the fort on the other side, the long narrow entrance which leads to the magni- ficent harbour, the largest and best in those Southern seas. I cannot recall any situation with which to compare it. The soft balmy climate, and all that makes an entirely fresh foreign scene so peculiar and so interesting, is here in all its charms. I had had my passport vise, and had to give it up on landing, with the assurance that it would be returned on my departure. When that time arrived, however, I found that the payment of sundry dollars was re- quired; so, as the document was of no earth- ly use to me, and could be replaced for two 115 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. shillings, I simply did not apply for it. To have procured it at all was entirely unneces- sary, the captains of the steamers being always able to " leave you by accident." We secured very comfortable quarters in the hotel Sta Isabel, on the Place d'Armes. This house had formerly been the palace of Countess Santoveccio, who had married the late Captain-General. They had, after a short time, found that Havanna was not exactly the place most suited to their comfort and their popularity, so had turned their property to the greatest advantage, and left for Spain. Here we were, then, for the first time, in a Spanish town; and if New Orleans was un- like all American towns, Havanna was very different from any city I had ever been in. The streets are very narrow-so narrow that three carriages could not pass abreast; so, to remedy this evil, though in a way which I should be very sorry to see adopted in England, carriages are only allowed to go one way, so that any one entering the city from the west, and wishing to go to a shop a few doors down an adjacent street, where 116 HAVANNA. the traffic was only allowed in the opposite direction, would be obliged to go up the next street, and return down the one in which the shop was situated, and proceed along it until his destination was reached. Then, did occasion arise for visiting a house that had been passed, the same process had to be repeated. Another regulation, ineffectually attempt- ed here in London, was most rigidly carried out in Havanna. Before entering the gates of the city after a certain hour (sunset, for here there is no twilight), every cab or car- riage stops, and the driver lights his lamps. Ladies-that is, Spanish ladies-neverwalk in Havanna excepting during holy week, and then no carriages are allowed; and all true Catholics visit every church, and dress in their grandest trinkets and smartest toilettes. The grace and dignity of the negroes here is very striking. They mingle, too, especially in the churches, with the white population much more freely than in the States. The volante, the carriage of the country, is most peculiar. It should be seen and used 117 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. to be appreciated, for its appearance is most picturesque, though certainly not elegant; but on the rough roads of the country espe- cially, no vehicle could surpass it in com- fort. When drawn by one horse, that one is ridden by a postilion, but generally there are two-one in the shafts, the other, on which the postilion rides, in traces, and fastened as a kind of outrigger by a swingle-tree to the splinter-bar, so as to be half a length ahead of the horse in the shafts. The postilion is always a big nigger, the blacker the better, resplendent in silver lace and buttons, enor- mous boots, and tall shiny hat to match. The arrangement of the horse's tail, which is always plaited, and the end tied with a bow of coloured ribbon to the breeching, is very peculiar. If flies attack the poor animal there is nothing for it, any more than with the unfortunate Lowlander who dons a Highlander's kilt, but to "let 'em bite !" The shafts are enormously long, and the wheels, of which there are only two, axe well behind the body of the carriage, a cabriolet kind of vehicle, slung on something 118 CIGAR MANUFACTORY. like C springs rising from the axle of the wheels, while the front rests upon the shafts. The weight, with two people inside, is some- thing tremendous; and when the negro pos- tilion, boots and all, is included, it is mar- vellous how the little mustang horses can manage to get along in the spirited way they do. The city walls at Havanna are fast under- going demolition, and felons and vagrants are employed upon the works. There are numerous public charities in the city, and at the Foundling Hospital is a wicket-window in which a baby may be, and often is, deposited, a bell rung, and the child is received and cared for, no question being asked, nor introduction deemed neces- sary. Of course the tobacco and cigarette manu- factories are the feature of the place. I was fortunate enough to make the ac- quaintance of Signor Partagas, who kindly showed us over every part of his establish- ment for the manufacture of cigars. Since our visit Signor Partagas, sen., has been shot 119 TEN MONTHS IN AFRICA. by a negro on his plantation, and his son now conducts the business. Many white men are employed, but the work is chiefly carried on by negroes. I do not think that any Chinese are employed in this establish- ment. We afterwards went to see the Honradez cigarette manufactory. Nothing could ex- ceed the courtesy of the proprietors. On entering, our names were taken down; and on leaving, a packet of cigarettes, with his name printed on the wrapper, was presented to every gentleman, and a piece of music similarly endorsed to every lady, of the party. The arrangements are most perfect, but cut- ting out the paper wrappers, and making the boxes to pack them in, form as great a portion of the work as any connected with the manufacture of the cigarette. The tobacco is purchased from any of the stores, cut up, and given out in packets, with papers of the proper size, to be filled by em- ploye's, soldiers, and others connected with the establishment. They are then brought in, and the Chinese coolies, who are almost 120 CHINESE COOLIES. entirely employed on this work, place the cigarettes in packets of the requisite size, and wrap them in the covers. It is surpris- ing the accuracy and expedition with which this labour is performed. The Chinese coolie is extensively employed in Havanna, especially in the manufacture of cigarettes, or in any work requiring particular neatness. As none but Christians are allowed to remain on the island, immediately on their arrival they are baptised in rather a whole- sale (Broad Church) fashion. One of the features in Cuba most striking to a stranger is the entire absence of any- thing approaching to a chimney. Not even in connection with the hotel could we dis- cover one. All the cooking is done with charcoal stoves; and as there are no windows, glazed at least, and no doors are ever shut in the city, the fumes are left to find their own way out, and mingling with the tobacco- smoke, which, though every one smokes, is never smelt, they vanish somewhere, and are never oppressive. The absence of glass from many of the 121 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. windows of the private houses in Havanna gives them rather an unfinished appearance. The houses are often of one story only. The porte cochare forms the coach-house, in which is left the smartly-appointed volante. The stable is often reached through one of the living rooms of the house. The windows always are large ones open to the ground, and are barred very similarly to those in Belgian towns. The residents constantly converse with their friends, en passant, at the windows, and the family circle is open to the inspection of the public after the lights are lit in the houses. The environs of Havanna are very beau- tiful-long streets of villa residences, with lovely flowers in the garden which surrounds each house. The high ground, on one side at least, affords a magnificent view of country, sea, and town. The botanical gardens are not done justice to. They contain every variety of tropical vegetation, large and small, and are open to the public, but the public therefore do not frequent them, or insist upon their being 122 EXCURSION TO MATANZAS. properly attended to; but the specimens of trees are most interesting. The gardens are situated by the side of the Pasco de Tacon, a long drive not very unlike, but still very different from, the Champs Elysdes, and without an Arc de Triomphe at the end. This is the favourite drive of the elite of Havanna, where the ladies in their volantes drive up and down, as in Hyde Park, but bonnetless, in low dresses, without even parasols, veils, or mantillas, though in broad daylight. The chief days for the drive are Sundays and holidays, from five to six, though the hours, I suppose, vary according to the time of year. We made an expedition to Matanzas, a seaport doing a good deal of business, about sixty miles east of Havanna. The road lay through a well-cultivated country-groves of palms, cocoa - nut, and bananas, much sugar-cane and maize, and a little tobacco. The hedges by the road-side, composed of aloes, pines, and yuccas, with convolvulus, white, pink, and lilac, as large as breakfast- saucers, twining all over them, interspersed 123 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. with the scarlet and yellow hybiscus, and other flowering shrubs; while every now and then we passed through the corner of a wood, impenetrable with tangled vegetation, which satisfied us that we were at last in the midst of tropical vegetation. I say satisfied us, for it is not generally allowed that Cuba, especially the northern end of the island, is really in the tropics. At Matanzas we found the Leon d'Oro a very comfortable hotel, the food very good, the house clean, and the servants attentive. What more can be required I may add that the charge was really very reasonable. The beds at the Leon d'Oro were pecu- liarly adapted to the climate. They con- sisted of merely a piece of sacking stretched on a pair of trestles, with a sheet, on part of which you lay and folded the other over you. After the experience of one night I petitioned for a blanket to be similarly applied, and found it a great addition to my comfort, both above and below. One day we chartered a boat, and had a row some miles up the Juan river. After 124 SUGAR-MAKING. we got out of the picturesque harbour and town, which latter is chiefly on one side of the stream, the shores are low and marshy for some distance. They then get a little higher, but nowhere, at least as far as we proceeded, do they rise more than eight or ten feet above the water. Sugar was the chief article cultivated, and the cane looked very well and strong. Our destination was a sugar-mill, through which we were most courteously shown, and the process of making sugar as clearly, minutely, and practically explained to us as could be done, considering that neither in- structor nor pupil could understand one word the other said. However, here at least panto- mime was allowed fair play; the costume of the performers was of the very scantiest; pan- tomime performed its legitimate office; and the various stages through which the sugar passes, from the delivery of the cane to the stage of refining in the vat, were as clearly explained as if we had been mutually cogni- sant of the literal meaning of one another's words. The site of the mill was surrounded 125 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. with groves of fruit- trees, and the grace- ful bamboo, palms, cocoa-nut trees, bananas, and palmettos, of course abounded every- where. It was dark before we arrived at the end of our voyage, and the run in was somewhat intricate. Our boatman was exceptionally civil, and helped us to procure large roots of splendid ferns, and any other curiosities we might point out, entering fully into the spirit of the thing, and enjoying the fun of not understanding a word either of us could say. Another day, making an early start in a volante with an outrigger, we made an expedition to a coffee plantation about nine miles inland. The country through which we passed was very pretty, with hedges of aloes, prickly pear, and wild pine-apple; and the magnificent convolvulus, with occasional views of the gulf, added to the red nature of the soil and the utter wildness of the road (if road it can be called), coupled with the recklessness of the driver, or rather rider, who entirely ignored the presence of huge 126 VISIT TO A COFFEE PLANTATION. boulders which would have upset any other carriage than the volante, rendered the drive most delightfully exciting. Arrived at our destination, we entered the grounds through an avenue of palms and cocoa-nut trees, with hybiscus, orange, and other trees, lovely in colour and in fragrance, thickly interspersed between them. This grove led up to the buildings of the plantation, where a very intelligent negro, who, having been raised in the States, spoke English fluently, was told off to show us round and explain all that we wanted to know. There was very little going on there connected with the coffee, besides which, all the details regarding the cultiva- tion and management of this plant are much better explained in other works than I could offer here, especially as I did not see them in operation. As far as the coffee plant is concerned, all I can speak to is, that it was then in good condition, planted alternately with orange or other trees or shrubs that would give it a little shade. Some were in flower, and some 127 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. had a berry, but the chief interest of the scene was the endless variety of trees and shrubs which grew in such luxuriance all over the plantation. Besides this coffee plantation, we went to see the caves at Bellamar. These caves pos- sess some very fine specimens of stalactites, or rather incrustations, of a similar character to those of the Mammoth Caves of Ken- tucky; and though the Cuba caves are very inferior in extent and variety of form, the roof and walls are covered with brilliant and peculiar crystallisation, white, yellow, pink, and blue intermixed, very superior to any I saw in the other caves, though I do not think that the forms the crystals took were to be compared. The heat, too, of the cave here was very oppressive. The wild wooded hill-side and the well- cultivated valley of Ummri and the Cambres Hills were very beautiful Slavery in Cuba is on a different footing to the institution as it used to exist in the United States. The slave-trade had been in more recent 128 SLAVERY IN CUBA. operation in the island, though the laws enacted for the protection of the slave gave him everything that could be desired, except freedom; and whether that, under the cir- cumstances, would have been a boon, is very questionable. If he was ill-used, and com- plained to the magistrates, he could insist on being sold at a certain price, and his master was liable to punishment; and if he did not like his purchaser, he could object to being bought by him. The only difficulty was to get at the authority before whom to lay his complaint. This was comparatively easy in Havanna, or any large city, but on a plantation it was next to impossible, and then there was nothing for him to do but to " grin and bear it," at both which accom- plishments the niggers are generally great proficients. The public buildings in Havanna are not very remarkable. The cathedral, in which the remains of Columbus are deposited, is of a severe style of Grecian architecture, with- out anything worthy of note about it. There is, however, a famous peal of bells in it, one I 129 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. of which bears the date of 1664. The Place d'Armes is a fine open square. One side is formed by the palace of the Captain-General; and at one of the angles is a small chapel commemorating the spot on which mass was first performed in the island by Columbus. The quantity of fruit served at meals, especially in the earlier part of the day, is very delicious. The guava jelly, too, is not to be despised. Nearly the only other article of manufacture peculiar to the island that I could hear of was a peculiar kind of stick (excuse the " bull ") made from the bones of a certain fish. They are transparent and very pliant, but when taken to a colder climate become brittle. 130 CHAPTER VII. HERE we are again in New Orleans, and this time we were so much better acconmmo- dated at the St Charles that we concluded to remain there until after Easter, particu- larly as I wished to have the opportunity of attending the races on the Mettari course, where Lexington performed his gallant feat, and where three horses from the Woodburn stables were to run in a hurdle-race, the first which had been tried in New Orleans. It is the practice of many of the States governments to offer purses to be raced for, with a view of encouraging the breed of horses, and before the war very large sums were constantly voted for this purpose. Now the stakes are comparatively trifling, and when won, barely paid the expenses of send- ing horses and men the great distances they TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. sometimes travel on this account. The time is always registered, and the result of the race of course affects veryconsiderablythe sale of the horse and the reputation of the stables. In the present case the running was en- tirely between three horses, bred and trained by Mr Alexander, and, till a short time previous to leaving Woodburn, all the pro- perty of Mr Sweigert. The race was very creditably performed, but without exhibiting any striking features. Many of the streets of New Orleans are very handsome. They are not laid out with the regularity, all at right angles, of the cities in the North, though that is their general design. They are kept very clean; and by the side of many of them there is a clear flow of water, the conduit for which must be a sad trap for the luckless white or black, if such there might be, who had indulged over- freely in the beverages of the country; for the plain slab across the conduit often is not nearly as wide as the pavement, so that even a little carelessness would leave you planted in the gutter. 1:32 STREET CARS. Canal Street, the broadest street at present, has a breadth of very nearly 200 feet from house to house. This breadth includes on either side a wide trottoir, and carriage-road for three carriages abreast. Then comes an avenue of trees, between which lies a grass plat, wide enough to admit of a double line of rails for the street cars, and a shady walk. The street cars are drawn by a single mule, and on occasion can contain sixty persons. The road is such a dead flat that one of these animals can trot along even with this load for several miles without showing any fatigue. These tramways extend around and through the city in every direction. There is no conductor, and the passenger on entering places his 5-cent greenback or token in a box for the purpose, ingeniously constructed, so that even the driver has not access to it, though he sees that the proper sum is de- posited. Of course he keeps one eye and a half on the passengers, as a very little bit of one is required for his mule; but I believe payment is very seldom shirked. If the passenger has not change, on touching a bell 133 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. the driver will give it him in full, though sometimes the change may be made up with car - tickets. These are, however, current through the city, and are readily received at par in the shops. The " fair-ground " is a feature in nearly all American cities. It is simply a large space, not unlike a race-course, where shows of horses, cattle, stock, c., are exhibited periodically, with their accessories which usually make these gatherings so pleasant. The chief meetings are generally held in "the fall i.e., September or October-but the ground is available for public amuse- ments whenever it may be required. The streets of New Orleans, as of nearly every American town, are planted with trees, and extend far into the suburbs, and there it is that the beauty of the place is seen. Nearly every house, extending through miles of streets, has its garden all around it. The trees are generally of some flowering species, the China-tree, acacia, sweet olive, orange, and magnolia, roses, oleanders, jasmine, and pomegranates loading the air with their 134 ATROCITIES DURING THE WAR. fragrancy, and looking most lovely to the eye in their brilliant colours. But bring your eye down and you will see the lawns unmown, the beds undug; then raise them and look a little further, and you will see the jalousies unpainted, if not broken and hanging by one hinge, the plaster falling from the walls, and a sad sad look of deso- lation everywhere. Where formerly there used to be twenty carriages, there is not one now. The hacks are only used for funerals, and " Butler" is stamped on all around. One instance I will give, for the correct- ness of which I can vouch. A gentleman of affluence had recently purchased and fit- ted up a house for certainly not less than 30,000 dollars in gold, then worth pound;6000 sterling. He took service in the Southern forces, and when New Orleans was taken by Admiral Farragut, his house was cleared out, the furniture and " fixings," including a very valuable library, stolen, and the house and its surroundings confiscated. Lately an order had come out which, under certain provi- 135 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. sions, returned to the owner property which had been confiscated; but so surrounded were these conditions with penalties, stamps, and fines, that my friend, being in actual want of money for the education of his children, sold his interest in the property for 1500 dollars, then worth pound;214 ! One of the most delightful drives about New Orleans used to be the " shell-road" to Lake Pontchartrain, passing by the Mettari course. On either side of the road are groves of orange, cypress, and other trees, the whole forming a charming drive of about five miles from the heart of the city, but the beauty of the road is gone. That bate noir Butler -he of the " spoons"-cut down the trees, and laid a railway-track along the beautifully even road. The tramway is now gone, but the trees will not come back again for this many a year. Everything at New Orleans was very dear, even fruit and vegetables; and though there is ample space and first-rate soil, with an unlimited supply of manure, I did not oh- serve a single plot of ground devoted to 136 EASTER AT NEW ORLEANS. market - gardening. I do not think there could be a finer opening in the United States for an enterprise of that character. I do not believe New Orleans to be un- healthy, except in the height of summer. The yellow fever as an epidemic occurs but very rarely, and at night there is al- ways a pleasant breeze from the lake and river. On Easter Sunday the churches were beau- tifully decorated with a profusion of white roses and other appropriate flowers. There was a confirmation at Christ Church in the morning, and in the afternoon two gentle- men were admitted to clerical orders in the Episcopal church by the Bishop of Louisiana. We left New Orleans by the steamer on Lake Pontchartrain in the afternoon, and got a very comfortable state-room. The steamer was of a different construction from the river- boats, the lower deck being enclosed, as the weather, even on the lake, is sometimes very wild, and there are also some hours of open sea before reaching Mobile. The shore on either side is generally very flat, though the 137 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. mountains of Alabama form a good distant background. The entrance to Mobile is full of sand or mud banks, and the difficulty of entering the harbour when the buoys had been re- moved, as was done during the war, could readily be imagined. The remains of float- ing batteries were still lying moored in various directions, or, cut adrift, had been blown on to the banks, and there served as beacons. Mobile is a prettily-situated town, compa- ratively high above the harbour, whence it derives its support. As a cotton-mart it is of great importance, being a sort of half- way house between New Orleans and the cotton-growing districts of Tennessee and Alabama, from which countries the cotton is brought to this point down the Alabama river. Mobile boasts of a good race-track, but the races were just over when we arrived, and the horses had been sent on to New Orleans. The chief drive of the place is to the course, about two miles along a shell- 138 MOBILE. road, with magnificent trees on either side, and occasional peeps of the sea between them. The magnolias, large forest-trees growing to the size of elms, covered with blossoms, made the air fragrant with their odour; and the other flowering trees, jasmine, twining convolvulus, and vines, certainly give an in- tense charm to this southern land. We had intended going to Montgomery by the Alabama river, but an inspection of the boats, and the difficulty of ascertaining when they started, and still more as to when they were ever likely to arrive, determined us to go by railroad. A steamer from Mobile, which connects with the railway to Mont- gomery at Tensas, afforded us an opportunity of seeing a portion at least of the river, which appeared pretty and well wooded. The station was most primitive-merely a pier and landing-stage, to which the cars drew up in the midst of interminable and almost impenetrable woods. The track lay through this style of scenery the greater part of the way-the dogwood-tree, wild 139 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. cherry, and peach, besides numerous other shrubs and trees, being in full blossom. Occa- sionally we came upon a cross road, and a hut or two with partially-cleared space of ground for garden or for cow around it; and as night drew on, one saw an occasional burn- ing tree, looking like a huge pillar of fire, marking the whereabouts of some railway employs or enterprising British or German emigrant. The engine - fires are of course supplied by the timber growing immediately around; and so plentiful is the supply at present, that rather than take the trouble to collect the old and discarded sleepers on the line, they are ignited where they lie, and several piled together lent a lurid light to the scen- ery around as we passed along. During the early part of the night the fire- flies in the woods were very lovely, darting about in every direction, their numbers being so great that the woods seemed alive with them. Later on in the night we encoun- tered a tremendous storm of thunder, light- ning, and rain-such rain as is only met 140 RAILWAY DANGERS. 141 with in tropical districts: it seemed as if it must wash away the very railroad. It was so severe that for a short time we came to a complete standstill. One great danger to which railways through these wild woods are liable arises of course from fallen trees, and the police over the extensive lines is insufficient to give timely warning. The pace, however, at which they travel generally prevents any serious accident from occurring. On the older lines the trees near the track have by this time been consumed, but a younger growth is fast coming up. CHAPTER VIII. MONTGOMERY, Alabama, is one of the pret- tiest towns I have seen. The river runs between high banks wooded to the water's edge, and the railway station is on its banks, about half a mile out of the town. Here again began the scene of ruin and desola- tion we had witnessed in Mississippi. As Sherman approached the town, authorities high in the Southern councils had decreed that the cotton stored here should be burnt. The General who carried out the decree sorely hated to destroy so much property of great value, but it would have been worse still to let the enemy benefit by its seizure, so burnt it was as it stood. Eighty thousand bales stored in the magnificent granaries, the walls of which alone are now left to tell the tale, were destroyed. Very few DEVASTATIONS OF THE WAR. days after this sacrifice the Federals entered the town, and completed the work of demo- lition by the destruction of the arsenal, the railway depots, and other buildings of public utility. I inspected the railway track one day, and never after that did I complain that the pace was too slow ! Both have, how- ever, since been mended. The drives about the neighbourhood are very pleasant. Each house stands in its own garden, and the streets are all lined with the acacia and the China tree, the gardens full of roses and oleanders. In short, in happier and more prosperous times, it is easy to understand that Montgomery, the seat of government of the Southern Confederacy until it was moved to Richmond, was one of the pleasantest places.in the interior of the Southern States. I was much entertained here one day, whilst wandering along the cliff and banks overhanging the river, at an altercation be- tween two negroes. The one was working for his livelihood by ferrying a punt across the river-the other was foraging for his food. The aggravating part was, that in this 13 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. particular case the two antagonistic prin- ciples were being carried on in such close proximity. The scene was as pretty a piece of melodramatic acting as can be imagined. The ferryman had seen another darkie-for both were as black as niggers sometimes can be, but seldom are-appropriate his gourd, in which was stored his mid-day meal, and, nothing abashed, walk off with it without an attempt to conceal the theft. The language on both sides may be imagined, but I cannot, with due regard to the deli- cate susceptibilities of my readers, convey the expressions on paper that may meet the public eye. I hardly know whether I may describe the actions of the parties, as they were certainly " suggestive." My friend the ferryman, on observing the other man walking off with the fruits of his labour, says, "You d-d nigger, what you come for to steal my gourd " " Oh! you go "long with you.' I not steal your gourd, I only take him. I'll tell you, ole man, I'll smash your wool skull in if you call me tief." 144 A NEGRO ALTERCATION. " Oh you tam rascal! First steal my pie and then say you'll break my head! Should like to see you! Will kill you where you stand if you not take that gourd back to where you found it." "Like to see you do it; come on, ole man." " Ole man " immediately rushes up to him quite game, pulling off his shirt as he went up to him (a process it was not at all prepared for, for it only came by bits); but then, seeing his opponent had a stick in his hand, exclaimed,-" Oh, dat's all very brave for you to come attack ole man with great big stick! Give me de stick, or I'll hab de law of you." At that threat the stick was given up, and the ole man was about making a furious onset with it, when with its own weight it broke in half. Then the threat of the law was again brought up, and the altercation for some time continued, the negro vocabu- lary being ransacked for epithets suited to the occasion, or calculated to convey an idea of each individual's wishes and expectations as to his opponent's welfare, here or hereafter, K 145 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. as the idea presented itself Eventually the gourd was given up, and the "tief" was allowed to proceed without the law being put in motion. Since the establishment of the Freedmen's Bureau, law has been the ultima thule of a nigger's ambition. It is a fancy soon grati- fied, but, like the dogs of Scripture, they return to it again and again. Theoretically, the Freedmen's Bureau is an admirable institution, and if properly and honestly worked, would be capable of effects as just as good; but, as matters stand, the old mas- ters consider it as a usurpation, and will not appeal to it, and the negroes of course resort to it whenever they are suffering under any grievance, however imaginary. As the new state of things gets more into working or- der, I have no doubt the institution will be abolished, and the orders, laws, and regula- tions of the State will be found sufficient for all parties. I walked and drove miles into the country around Montgomery, and everywhere met with the greatest civility. Many of the old 146 STATE OF THE NEGROES. negroes are located on their old master's land, paying a nominal rent, generally in kind, and regret in many cases the changes that have occurred. The State buildings are situated on some very high ground, and from the gallery round the dome the view is most extensive and beautiful. The private houses are good, and prettily situated. There is no archi- tecture in the churches, though they are numerous. I attended a lecture in the theatre, but the only thing that struck me was a notice over the door of what might have been the "cloak-room " elsewhere, bearing the legend, "Ladies and gentlemen, leave your clothes here." What would the Lord Chamberlain say to such a notice, not on the stage, but with reference to the audience However, the notion did not seem to take, and very few clothes were left, probably because very few were worn, the thermometer standing at the time at nearer 90 than 800 of Fah- renheit. There is nothing especially to remark 147 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. upon in the road between Montgomery and Atlanta. The line of Sherman's march was marked, as usual, wherever the railroad crossed it. The country was generally open, and traces of the endeavours of the in- habitants to cultivate stock, and to grow more general crops for food of man and beast, instead of cotton only, were visible in many places, though much of the land had evidently lain uncultivated for some time, and was overgrown with weeds. On approaching Atlanta, ruin and destruc- tion were all around-trees cut down, fences gone, nothing but chimneys to mark where had stood the homesteads. Perhaps a cotton- press was still standing in a wild waste of sedge-grass and all sorts of weeds. The city itself, a great central depot for the Southern railroads, has indeed, as the guide-books say, " risen phoenix-like from its ashes." The destruction here had been almost equal to that at Jackson, Mississippi. I was told that nothing had been left to mark the situ- ation of the town except a charred post or two; while at Jackson one house and several 148 ATLANTA-ITS STATE. chimneys had escaped the zeal of the de- stroyer. It is marvellous how quickly towns are rebuilt in America-it is almost still more surprising, under existing circumstances, where the money comes from in a ruined country. Certainly many of the buildings are wooden, of a very temporary character, but the hotel in which we stayed was a well-built and comfortable house. Some few of the warehouses, also, had been restored. We were fortunate here in coming in for another ordination service, and for a most eloquent and impressive sermon, suited to the occasion, by Dr Beckwith, Bishop of Georgia. The country about Atlanta is extremely pretty, at least where the trees, c., had not been destroyed in the tremendous fighting in and around the city: the open spaces and woodlands covered with azalea-pink, red, and yellow-and all sorts of wild-flowers; while the woods themselves were full of the dogwood, rose, peach, and red blossom, and other flowering trees. 149 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. It had been my intention to have visited Savannah and the adjacent parts, but I had seen enough to satisfy me of the state of the South, which I had been anxious to ascer- tain for myself, as newspaper and other re- ports could not be trusted. What I have said must, I think, satisfy every reader that the accounts of the ruin and destruction brought upon the old residents in these States have not been overstated. That would be impossible; but the heroic forti- tude with which they have borne their losses, and the energy they display in using their utmost endeavours to retrieve them, speak loudly for the true nobility of the race. The respect and affectionate dependence of the majority of negroes, and their desire to remain in the service of their old masters, or to return to it, if, in the excitement of ob- taining their freedom, they had " levanted," is the best evidence that could be desired that they have reason to believe that the Southerner is their true friend. The Northerners have led them to antici- pate assistance from them that they never 150 EFFECTS OF EMANCIPATION. dreamed of bestowing; and having wrested power from the South, they are now content to let the unfortunate negro, the scapegoat of the drama, take to the wilderness, and live or die as best he may, so long as their dollarships' eyes and noses are not affected by his propinquity. The result of my second visit, and of my more extended tour on the present occa- sion, has been to satisfy me that, taking the negro in America as a class, numbering not less than four or five millions, ten years ago there did not exist anywhere a better cared for or more contented people; whilst now, since the war and the declaration of their freedom, there is not on the face of the earth a greater number of people of one class more miserable. They had always been housed, clothed, fed, doctored, and buried, without thought for themselves. Their edu- cation has been slight, but not more so than that of our own lower class thirty or forty years ago, for many of the plantations had their private schools. By nature, the faculties of the negro are not well developed. 151 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. It has always appeared to me that in talk- ing of the " institution," we have not made sufficient distinction between "slavery," as it existed in America, and the "slave-trade." You may as well expect to make a pointer of a terrier, or a hound out of a pug, as to inculcate the refinements of civilisation into the negro, when you take into considera- tion the few generations that the race can have passed through since his original im- portation, and since his education has been commenced. Comparatively few slaves were sold, except as a punishment. They were all reared in a family, of which they considered themselves members, and of which they were considered by the family to form a part. Now, their independence is for a time most inconve- nient, as they have no idea of engaging themselves, or if they do engage themselves, of holding to the contract longer than suits their fancies; and many are the ladies who have been put to no little inconvenience by their servants leaving them without a day's warning, when of course all the house- 152 CHATANOOGA. hold duties, whether of nurse, cook, or housemaid, fall to be discharged by the in- mates of the house as best they may. From Atlanta we came to Chatanooga, but having no acquaintances in these parts, and each hotel appearing more wretched than the other, we only remained long enough to get a general view of the surrounding country, and, as far as we could, of the famous battle-ground of the neighbourhood. Look- out Mountain would have been the place to visit, but there had been such an incessant downpour of rain for some days previous to our arrival, that the road, such as it was, was inaccessible. That the troops in possession of the heights should not have been able to hold them against all odds seemed to a casual observer incomprehen- sible; and unfortunately I could not find any one whose account of the disposition of the various forces would have been suffi- ciently reliable to warrant under the circum- stances an expedition to explore the situation. The line taken by the railway lies on the banks of the Tennessee river, and very beau- 153 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. tiful it is, with the precipitous sides of Lookout Mountain on the one hand, and the river, wooded to the water, many feet below upon the other. A fellow-passenger told me a curious adventure which had happened to him here, and which was corroborated by the conductor of the train,-that some weeks previously, having left Chatanooga by the night cars for Nashville at the proper time, and having betaken himself in due course to his lair, he was not a little surprised on awakening next morning to find himself back again at Chata- nooga. The train had met with an obstacle which prevented its further progress, so had quietly put back, and the conductor had considerately refrained from disturbing the passengers until the usual hour, when they were aroused and recommended to get their breakfast, as it would be some time before the line was clear. Happily no such acci- dent occurred to our train, and about 4 A.M. we found ourselves safe in Nashville. There is nothing especial to notice here. To say that the government of Parson 154 BROWNLOW AND BUTLER. Brownlow is detested but dreaded, is only to repeat an oft-told tale. I forget whether it was to him or to " Beast Butler " that the remark was applied, when it was reported that he was attacked by cholera. " Poor cholera 1 " was the rejoinder; for the disease was sure to be the one that would have to go under. From Nashville we returned to Louis- ville, and thence to our old quarters at Woodburn. The change from the luxurious vegetation of the South, where we had so shortly before left the trees in full leaf and the flowery shrubs in blossom, to the bare wood and bleak hill-sides, was not pleasant; but fine spring weather followed, and after that the summer. We had rather dreaded the heat of New Orleans and Havanna, when the thermo- meter stood at 800. Now we should for weeks together have hailed a shower, or anything that would have brought the thermometer down to that figure, even in the night. 155 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. In New York the heat was more than usually severe. Happily some business which called me there was completed before the height of the summer; but even in Kentucky it was impossible to keep moderately com- fortable. Great was the relish with which we partook of the " hail-storms " or " mint- juleps," whether of "old crow" whisky or apple-brandy, for either was most delight- fully cooling at the time, though it must be admitted they only made one hotter after- wards. One night, late in the spring, when the corn and the hemp crops were making good progress, a hail-storm passed over a broad belt of the country, stripping the hemp- stalks bare, not leaving enough on large farms even for seed, and cutting the blade of the corn into ribands, while literally acres of corn were almost buried in the earth, where planted on the hill-side. The plough had to be run between the rows, or each plant separately dug out with the spade; but such is the recuperative nature of this land and climate, that long before I left Kentucky, 156 NEGRO MERRY-MAKINGS. all traces of the storm, as far as the corn was concerned, had vanished, and the crops were looking as well and promising as those most interested in them could desire. Christmas amongst the negroes wears now a very different aspect to what was formerly the case. I have never met with in Kentucky what we understand by "dignity-balls," but at Christmas and New Year, gaiety and sociability formerly were promoted by the employers far more than is the case at pre- sent. During Christmas - week certainly little work is done, and many prayer-meet- ings are held, for Sambo is very strong upon those points, and one of the chief induce- ments to him for preferring city to country life is the facility of attending prayer-meet- ings of his own community every day if he could get there. Gatherings, though not prohibited, are discouraged; for, like all un- educated persons, though harmless while left to themselves, they are easily worked upon by designing agitators. They are a faithful, affectionate, trusting, childlike race, utterly lacking in originality or even progress be- 157 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. yond what they have been taught. I have known amongst them a first-rate carpenter, a blacksmith not to be excelled by any white man, and a few others good in their gener- ations; but these instances are very excep- tional. Grooming horses, cleaning carriages, neatness, and tidiness, are rarely met with. They are acquirements that require consider- able pains to inculcate, and are generally disregarded. The day for the annual sale of yearlings at Woodburn was unfortunately very wet, and the sale could not take place in the lovely woodland, but the verandah round the extensive cow-stables formed a convenient substitute. The weather had not, however, the effect of deterring many purchasers from attending, and the sale was most satisfactory. Buyers came from all parts of the country. Tennessee, Illinois, and New York-all were eager to purchase the progeny of Lexington. One gentleman, a native of Tennessee State, who unfortunately was taken ill, and was obliged to remain for some time at Woodburn, was the hero of one of the most 158 AN ADVENTURE DURING THE WAR. 159 romantic incidents of the war. He was pre- sent with the Confederate army in South Carolina, when, meeting a detachment of the Federals, the officer commanding a cavalry regiment of the force challenged any one of his opponents to come out and meet him in single combat. My friend, an admirable swordsman, answered his challenge, and both regiments stood by and watched the encoun- ter. Both knights were severely wounded, and my friend fell into the hands of the enemy, who had come up in force, in the general engagement which ensued. The two heroes were on adjoining beds in the hospital, when the Federal officer, after bequeathing everything he had with him to his opponent, succumbed to his wounds and died. The Federals, however, would not allow of his intentions being carried out, and not only that, but tried my friend for his life on a charge of murder. He was, how- ever, immediately acquitted, and lived to tell me the tale, which I believe in every par- ticular to be correct. Another run brought us again to Chicago, TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. with the thermometer standing at 96 on the seats of the railway cars; but once arrived we could breathe and enjoy the delightful breezes from the lake. From Chicago we came by the Great Western route through Detroit, travelling in one of the magnificent hotel cars as far as Niagara. A hotel it really is, for beds, breakfasts, dinners, and suppers are provided with as much attention to cleanliness, com- fort, and the cuisine, as is to be met with on terra firma. The carriages are most magnificently fitted up. There are several rooms in them, hold- ing four persons, which can be engaged for the journey; and each place, either in the private saloons or in the open part of the car, must be engaged beforehand. A table is shipped between the seats for meals, and removed when desired, or when the beds are to be made up. The fare from Chicago to New York was only forty dollars for two persons, and an additional sum of sixteen dollars secured us a private compartment throughout the 160 HOTEL AND DRAWING-ROOM CAM. 161 journey-i. e., pound;4, 4s. each for a journey of upwards of 900 miles, and 40 hours of time. At Rochester the line runs into the New York Central, and then you change -into a "drawing-room" car, this being a day ser- vice of seventeen hours. The carriages are divided into compartments for four, eight, and twelve, two dollars additional (which is included in the sixteen dollars I have mentioned above) being charged for each reserved seat. For instance, we being two in number took four places, and had a sort of box, not very unlike one of the half-com- partments on the Great Western line, to ourselves for that portion of the journey. Our stay at New York was very short, and nothing occurred worthy of notice, nor was my visit sufficiently prolonged to give me any insight into matters that are not patent to the world. The young ladies affected the " Grecian bend," which gave an angular rather than a graceful turn to their figures. Very high-heeled boots were an ingredient in the get-up, and but that their L TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. heads were very pretty and generally very small, they must have been overbalanced. There would be work for the Lord Cham- berlain in New York, as in many of the cities of the Union, did such a functionary exist amongst the institutions of our cousins. I cannot say that the legs of tables, c., were much draped, but I can say that those of the performers in the White Fawn, and more than one other well-attended piece, were shaded by the very scantiest of gar- ments; by what name the costume would be described it is impossible to say. There are smart men in New York, and I had suffered by them. I threw good money after bad, but had the satisfaction of incar- cerating my swindler for a period. Flesh and blood I got, but of greenbacks not a cent. I cannot conclude these notes without ex- pressing the great pleasure and interest this expedition has afforded me. I have been enabled, through our numerous family con- nections, to see American life as but few Englishmen have the opportunity of doing; 162 FEELING TOWARD ENGLAND. and I am satisfied that whatever tends to promote social intercourse between the two nations will be the surest means of establish- ing that lasting friendship between us which both desire. It is my firm conviction that more is said than is meant, though if we are so thin-skinned as to take for gospel all the bluster and buncome which is talked for elec- tioneering or party political purposes, we can- not be surprised at Brother Jonathan taking advantage of our simplicity and ignorance of his real sentiments, which I thoroughly be- lieve are those of friendship and good faith. I must admit, however, the applicability of the old story of the secretary to a board who had been dismissed by his constituents, and before the final separation invited the directors to a dinner replete with every luxury, and, with a variety of wines suited to each dish, had desired his butler to reserve one glass from each bottle, and after dinner to hand round the mixture as something " really grand." The result may be ima- gined. The remark was not long in com- ing, " Why, Siccem, old fellow, what is this 163 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. All your wine has been first-rate, but this is undrinkable; what is the meaning of it" To which Mr Siccem replied: "Well, gentlemen, the liquor is a glass from every bottle you have had before you, and which you have so much extolled to-day. You must apply the moral yourselves. Individually there can be no better men than you are; but collectively, as an administrative body, you are well represented by the liquor which is before you." Our voyage home was performed with more than usual comfort, as far as the elements and ship (the Australasian) are concerned, and with much pleasure with regard to the captain and those of our fellow- passengers with whom we were thrown in any kind of communication. 164 CHAPTER IX. HAVING thus far endeavoured to describe accurately, and, I flatter myself, without exaggeration, some few of the scenes and occurrences which I have witnessed myself during my visits to America, I trust I may be excused if I devote a very short chapter to the conclusions that the experiences thus obtained have impressed upon me. First and foremost, as being the subject most interesting to, and least understood by, Englishmen generally, let me place the feel- ings entertained by Americans towards this country. I have no hesitation in saying that the feelings of all real Americans are decidedly friendly to us. All are aware that the in- terests of the two countries are indissolubly bound together, if by no other ties-which I TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. do not admit to be generally the case-by those of pecuniary expediency. The Americans have a very large State debt now suspended round their necks, and though the tax-gatherer does not meet with the "difficulties" that were anticipated in the performance of his unwelcome duties, they are not by any means as yet accus- tomed to the burden. Even more-it is very much like a Lincolnshire fence; the more you look at it the less you like it. Still, I am very far from saying that that feeling alone would prevent war, if there were any chance of gain to be obtained by it. But in this instance they, as well as ourselves, have everything to lose and nothing to gain by entering on such a course. Canada, our weak point, has so clearly asserted her dis- like to being annexed, that the American people are well aware that no co-operation is to be expected in that quarter. At the same time, they are equally conscious that there is a thorn in their side which a very slight pressure from without would make very painful, and which would probably 166 DANGERS OF WAR. prove so rancorous that all the efforts of the country would not then prevent mortifica- tion from ensuing. Thus the severance of the disaffected member from the body politic, as at present constituted, would be very probable, and all the bloodshed and expen- diture of the late war be rendered nugatory. The means may not be present, but the will is there, should a favourable opportunity be presented and be properly handled. The requirements, too, for men and means on the Indian frontier are very considerable, and not to be disregarded. During the late war, as every one is aware, the importation of material from Europe-of arms, and, more especially, of men-was very great. These sources of strength it would not be difficult, in the event of a European war, effectually to cut off. That our commerce would suffer to a cer- tain extent cannot be gainsaid-but surely two can play at that game; and though the Americans might send out privateers to " weep British commerce from the seas," our merchantmen might be armed, and a 167 TEN MONTHS IN AMERICA. "tartar" sometimes caught. Our navy, too, it may be presumed, would not be idle, and some American ships would have to remain to guard their shores at home. For, should such an event arise, which I deem an occur- rence next to impossible, it must be remem- bered that Portland, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, of the Northern cities, are not altogether out of reach of shot and shell from our gunboats, which, to say the least, may very materially interfere with the commercial arrangements of those cities. But why say more on this unneces- sary and disagreeable topic The present situation of America is one requiring the utmost efforts of statesmanship to carry it through its difficulties in honour and prosperity. Those difficulties are inter- nal, and must be handled with the greatest delicacy. The element at present so trouble- some and so disturbing to ourselves is equally so to them; and I think I am safe in saying, that there is not one American in a thousand who would be glad to hear that Mr Bright had been able to carry out his wish of removing 168 THE ADMICAN PRESS. an island which shall be nameless a thousand miles nearer the western continent. No; the Irish, in a political sense, are the bane of the Americans, to whom they are, if possible, a more difficult problem than they are to our- selves. It may be said that the press in America must be taken as an exponent of the feelings of the country, but such I do not think to be the case; at any rate, some discrimination is required to ascertain which portion does represent the views of the really governing party. Of course I shall be met with the remark that the extent of the circulation of a paper shows that the views which it advo- cates are those of the majority of its readers. Quite true; but though, metaphorically speaking, a paper may always be " full " of virulent remarks against England, there are many other matters which influence its cir- culation far more materially. If only we would disregard those outbursts of party feeling which, to a certain extent, should be considered as "stock in trade," the shaft, almost always shot at a venture, would M 169 TEN MONTHS IN AMRICA. oftener still fall perfectly harmless. There are numberless subjects of internal economy to which the American Government and people are most anxious to turn their atten- tion; and if we will but lend a deaf ear to the remarks-which, I have said, are chiefly uttered with a view to an increased circula- tion of a newspaper, or to obtaining popu- larity with a certain class, not by any means the largest or most influential-the feeling of antagonism, such as it is, would very soon die away, and the increased prosperity and visible advantages derived from peace would establish beyond a doubt that the policy of "live and let live" is not only the most Christian, but the best paying, course that could be adopted for both countries. rPluWrZD BY WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS, EDINBURGH. 170 MESSRS BLACKWOOD AND SONS' NE W PUBLICA TIONS. 0- Works of George Eliot. A New Edition, complete in One Volume, Crown Octavo, FELIX HOLT, THE RADICAL. BY GEORGE ELIOT. With Seven Engravings, price 3s. 6d. Unifirma with the abore, ADAXM3 BEDE. 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" This book contai-s by faar the most 0iid picture of Scottish life a-id m.ne. that has been given to the public tines the days of Sir Walter SelLt 1In besot jog apest it thisi higis praise, w e msake its desep. twit. not eveit in faour o.f Lord C-kbuern 'Wl -oriala'-tht b hich reseosbim it Ioot, ad whit rank. neat to It in i.terst. '-Rdsourg Roeieie MEMOIR OF THIE POLITIC'AL LIFE OF EDMUNt.D BURKE. With Extracts frfo11 his Writings. By the REV. GEORGE CROLY, D.D. 2 vols. post 8vo, 18s. CURRAN AND 111, CONTEMPORARIES. By CHARLES PHILLIPS, Esq, A.B. A New Edition. Crovwn 8vo, 7s. Od -Certaisly one of the most extraordinay pieces of biography ever produced. . . . . . No library should be witbout iL"-Lo d Brsbsst. Xever, perhbpe, wa there a more csrious collection of portraits crowded before into the jams can- _a'-T-meo. MEMOIR OF MRS HEMA NS. By her SISTER. With a Portrait. Fcap. 8vo, 5s. LIFE OF THE LATE REV. 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"A book pleasant to look at and pleasnt to read-pleasant from it rich store of inecdote, ts geniaity. and its humour, even to perWons who care little for the subjects of which it treats but beyoud measure lightfsl to those who tr.: m any degree members of the .bove-mentio.,ed fraer-idty.`. lurdsty Rsev "We have not been more amused fOr . Iong time and every reader who takes interest in typrphy and it consequences willt -y the sae, if he will begin to rea; beginning, ho willt Ititi6, and be aorry hven it is over."-Atlhrar "Mr Burton has now given us pleant hook, full of quaint anecdote and or a Iivelv booksh taWh. There is a quiet humour inl it wvhtch Is very taking, and there Is a curious knovvledge of buvk avhich is r.clly very ssund."-Ecurniacr. HOMIfER A ND HIS TRANSLA TORS, And the Greek Drama By PROFESSOR WILSON. Crown 8vo, 6s. 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CONTENTS:-Church Music, and other Parochials.-Medical Attendance, and other Parochials.-A few Hoturs at Hamniton Court-Grandfathers alid Grandchildren.-Sitting for a Portrait.-Are there not Great Boastcrs among us-Temperance and Teetotal Societies.-Thackeray's Lectures Swift. -The Crystal Palace. -Civilisation: The Census. -The Beggar's Legacy. ESSA YS; HISTORICAL, POLITICAL, AND MISCELLA NEO US. By Sta ARCHIBALD ALISON, Bart., D.C.L. Three vols., denly Svo, 45s. LECTURES ON THlE POETICAL LITERA TURE OF THE PAST HALF-CBNTURY. By D. 31. MOIR Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo, 5s. "EaquniteiW its t.te and generous In Its critlcism"- uch iflr. LECTURES O. THE HISTORY OF LITERATURE, Ancient and Modern. Froti the German of F. SCHLEGEL. Fcap., 5s. "'A wonderful performance-better than anything we a yet have it our own languoge."-Qusrtertt THE GENIIUS OF HA NDEL, And the distinctive Character of his Sacred Compositions. Two Lectures. Delivered to the Members of the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution. By the VERY REV. DEAN RAM1 SAY, Author of I Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character.' In crown 8vo, 3s. ld. BiLl CKlrOOD'S MAGAZINE, From Commeneement in 11,7 to December 1861. Numbers 1 to 554, forming 90 Volumes. pound;31, lOs. INVDEX TO THE FIRST FIFTY VOLUMJIES OF J3LA CK 1VOOD S M41AGAZIXR. 8vo, 15s. 8 BOOKS PUBLISHED BY LAYS OF THE SCOTTISH CAVALIERS, Arid other Poemis. By W. EL)MIONDSTOUNE AYTOUN, D.C.L., Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in the University of Edinburgh. Twen- tieth Edition. Fcap 8vo, s. 6fd. Pfrofesor Artoun's Lays of the ottish Cavalier, '-a olume of sse which shows that Scotland has pet poe FislIof the true fire, it i1e stirs aid - , ello-skd - tcunpet-note-nov tass jD cadeusi -d an.d w.idas the .aIl oa H.Ihlad de.--ssrtsI.V ree. BOTHIVELL: A POEM. 13y W. EDMONL)STOUNE AYTOUX, D.C.L. Third Edition. Fcap. Svi-, 7s. 61. Profeeor Aytonn h.s predaced a fi-e pnem and an able argUscut and 'flstlielU' will ticedly lae sastand among te Llaiaii.s of Seoeenu aserasrure"-Tkw Jrc".a THE BALLADS OF SCOTLAND. Edited by Professor' AY'TOUN. Thirdl Eiition. 2 vols. fcap. 8vo, 12s. "No country can boast of a rncher collection oS Onllads than heotla d. and no Editor fer tl as Ballads couldhefounddisoreacconplihedthanbProresooreytoun. llvhassttfarthtdvolcasiinulvplomeswhici ranlge writhJ Percy's iteliqo '-which. for eoomptletcss and accuras y. Icae little to be desired-which mnusthen cefoeh dse consi teed o the standard edition o the tcottish allad and which we ccmmci-d 5 a Esode to any a-ufi ourselves -ho ma! thintk of doiu6 rite serwic- to the Esglub Saiiad"-Tsosea POEMS ANXD BA LLADS OF GOET11E. Translated by Prolc-nor AvxousN and THEODORE MARTIN. Second Editi in. Fcap. 8vo, 6s. There no doubt tht the a the best transons of Goethe's mvellu cut fe whch have ,et been publhd."-Ta THE BOOK OF BALLADS. 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Half-bound, 12s. 6Sd CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY, comprising, in Twenty-three Plates, Maps and Plans of all the important Countries and Localities referred to by Classical Authors; accompanied by a pronouncing Index of Places, by T. HARVEY, M.A Oxon. A New and Revised Edition. Half-bound, 12sa 6d. ASTRON-OMY. Edited by J. R. HIND, Esq., F.R.A.S., c. Notes and L)escriptive Letterpress to each Plate, emsbodying all recent Discoveries in Astronomy. 18 Maps. Half-bound, 12s. 64. ELEMENTARY SCEOOL ATLAS OF GENERAL AND DEsCRiPTivE GEoGRAPRY for the Use or Junior Classes. A New and Cheaper Edition. 20 Maps, including a Map of Canaan and Palestine. Half-bound, 5s. -The are a superior o alt 8chool Atlses within our kowledge, s were the Lge work of the 3n Authorin dvaiceofthoethatpreceded the"-Ed.eOiol Time,. 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W"e h-e thoroughly. exmined these voiones; but to lse a full notice !f their varied and -aluable contents would occupy Irgerspce thiw can coiive.. tmllyt deote-tos heir dscussion; we therefore tus general tee,, commend them to the careful study uf every ycuSn man who withen to become good prautical farmer."-Tilcuo. "One of the cfompletent works on agriculture ot wthich ueu literature can boaot.'-Agoiocdrol Gst Ca THE BOOK OF FARMlf IMPLEHENTS AND .1A CHINES. By JAMES SLIGHT and R. SCOTT BURN. Edited by H1ENRY STEPHENS, F.R.S.E. Illustrated with 876 Engravings. Royal 8vo, uniform with the ' Book of the Farm,' half-bound, pound;2, 2s. THE BOOK OF FAR.M1 BUILDINGS- Their Arrangement arid Construction. By HENRY STEPHENS, F.R.S E., and R. SCOTT BURN. Royal 8vo, with 1045 Illustrations. Uniform with the ' Book of the Farm.' Half-bound, pound;1, lls. 6d. THE BOOK OF THE GARDEN. By CHARLES M'INTOSH. In 2 large vols. royal Svo, embellished with 1353 Engravings. Each Volume may be had separate7y-riz.: I. ARCHITECTURAL AND ORNAMENTAL.-On the Formation of Gardens- Colnstruction, Heating, alid Ventilation of Fruit and Plant Houses, Pits, Fralnes, atid other Garden Struetures, with Practical Details. Illustrated by 1073 Engravings, pp. 7,66. pound;2, 10s. II. PRACTICAL GARDENING.-Directions for the Culture of the Kitchen Garden, the Hardy-fritit Garden, the Forcing Garden, and Flower Garden, including Frulit and Plantt Houses, with Select Lists of Vege- tables, Fruits, and Plaifts. Pp. 868, with 279 Engravings. pound;1, 17s. od. " fWe feel Juotiied In e -ommending Mr M'lrtosh two excellent volumes to the notice of the pubic." -Gordewurs' C:hroeiscM PRA('TICAL SYSTEM OF FARMI BOOK-KEEPING: Being that recommended in the 'Book of the Farm' by H. STEPHENS. Royal 8vo, 2s. 6d. 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THE YESTER DEEP LA ND-CULTURE: Being a Detailed Account of the Method of Cultivation which has been suc- cessfully practised for several years by the Marquess of Tweeddale at Yester. By HENRY STEPHENS, Esq.. F. R.S. E, Author of the ' Book of the Farm.' In small Svo, with Engravings on Wood, 4s. OdL WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS. A MANUAL OF PRACTICAL DRALI.XIG. By HENRY STEPHENS, F.R.S.E., Author of the 'Book of the Farm. Third Edition, 8vo, 5s. A CATECHIS.I OF PRACTICA'L AGRICUL TURE. By HENRY STEPHENS, F.R.S.E., Author of the ' Book of the Farm,' c. In crown 8vo, with Illustrations, is. HA.VDY BOOK ON PROPERTY LA 1V. By LoRD ST LEONARDS. The Seventh Edition. To which is now added a Letter on the New Laws for obtaining an Indefeasible Title. With a Por- trait of the Author, engraved by HOLL. 3s. 6d. 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