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Discourse on the first centennial celebration of the birth-day of Washington : delivered by request, to the citizens of Lexington on the 22d of February, 1832 / by Charles Caldwell. M.D. Caldwell, Charles, 1772-1853. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-217-30936060 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Discourse on the first centennial celebration of the birth-day of Washington : delivered by request, to the citizens of Lexington on the 22d of February, 1832 / by Charles Caldwell. M.D. Caldwell, Charles, 1772-1853. Printed by N.L. Finnell & J.F. Herndon, Lexington, Ky. : 1832. 56 p. ; 22 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1995. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN04607.02 KUK) Printing Master B92-217. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Washington, George, 1732-1799 Sermons. A DISCOURSE ON THE FIRST CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OP TES BIRTH-DAY OF WASHINGTON, DELIVERED BY REQUEST, eI D lam (393UMBS70 (Dal On the 22gd of February, 1832. BY CHARLES CALDWELL, x D. LEXTNCYTON, KENTUTCKY: PRINTED aY N. L. FINNELL & J. F. HERNDoN. 18=3 FEBRUARY 25th, 1832. DEAR SIR, It is with the most sincere gratification that we discharge the duty imposed upon us, as a Coomrtnittee, of communicating to you the fol- lowing resolution of the Lyceum. " RESOLVED, That the thanks of this Lyceum be tendered to Pro- fessor CALDWELL, for the able and eloquent address, delivered by him on the 22nd inst. in compliance with an invitation, first given by the Lyceum; and that a committee be appointed to request a copy of the same for publication in pamphlet form." Adding our personal solicitation, to that of the Lyceum, on this subject, we remain Your friends, B. 0. PEERS, L. P. YANDELL, EDWIN BRYANT. To Professor CALDWVELJ To Messrs. PEERS, YAN-DELL, and BRYANT: GE.NTLEXEN--In reply to your polite note, of the 25th, en closing a Resolution of the Lexington Branch of the National Lyceum, permit me to say, that I take great pleasure in placing at the disposal of that Institution, the Address I had the honour to deliver, on the 22nd instant. For yourselves, accept my cordial thanks, for the friendliness and courtesy of your manner, in discharging your duty as a Committee. I shall only further express my desire, that the members of the Lyceum will consider the Address of the 22nd as inscribed to them. as a mark of respect, by their and your Friend and Fellow Member, CHI. CALDWELL February 27th, 1832 LEXINGTON, March 9, 1832. UR. CH. CALDWELL, Dear Sir-At a meeting of the Board of Councilmen for the City of Lexington, the enclosed Resolutions were unanimously adopted. It affords me pleasure to be the organ of communicating to you the wishes of the Board, that your Oration should be presented to the pub- lic in pamphlet form. Allow me to say, that it occasioned me infinite pride and satisfaction to listen to your Address, which was enriched with profound learning. and the brilliancy of eloquence. Very respectfully, Your most obedient servant, CHARLTON HIJNT. At a meeting of the Mayor and Board of Councilmen of the City of Lexington, March 1st, 1832, Resolved, That the Mayor be authorised to make application to Charles Caldwell, M. D. for his eloquent Oration, delivered at the re- quest of the City Council, on the Centennial Anniversary of the birth of GEORGE WASHINGTON, for publication. Resolved, That the Mayor cause 250 copies of the said Oration to be printed in pamphlet form. A Copy-Att. H. I. BODLEY, Clerk of the City. To CHARLTON HUNT, Esq. Mayor of the City of Lexington: Dear Sir-It is gratifying to me to comply with the wishes of the Board of Councilmen of the City of Lexington, as expressed in their Resolutions, communicated to me this morning, respecting the Dis- course I had the honour to deliver, at their request, conjointly with that of the Lyceum, on the 22d instant. For the courteous and flattering terms, in which you were pleased to make the communication, I ask your acceptance of my acknowl- edgements, accompanied by an assurance of the high respect, With which I have the honour to be, Dear sir, your obedient servant, CH. CALD WELI 4farch Otih, 1832. AN ODE Coinposed for the first Centennial Celebration of the BirdWay of WASHINGTON. BY JOSIAH DNiHAM, ESQ. HAIL, the bright, the radiant morning; 'Tis our Hero's natal day! Join each heart, and voice, and viol, Loudlv chant the solemn lay! WASHINGTON! thou sainted Hero! 'Tis thy glorious natal day. Go,-,aid Heaven; let man no longer Fear the lash, nor kiss the rod; Seek a clime beyond the ocean, Where no tyrant's foot has trod. There, thou Pilgrim, Freedom waits thee; Go! and fear no tyrant's nod. Storms nor tempests fright the Pilgrim;- See him dare the mountain wave! Lo! he gains the destined haven- Freedom's home, or Freedom's grave. See him plant the holy standard,- Freedom's standard;-let it wave! Freemen! Tyrants still pursue you! Foes are thundering on your strand! Ikise-and meet the storm of battle; Rouse, ye daring, patriot band!- Heaven has deigned a chosen leader- flail the leader of your band! Loudly roars the furious onset; Soon the vanquished foeman flies;- See the Victor calmly smiling, Like von rainbow in the skies; Peaceful smiling, like the rainbow Beaming mercy from the skies. Sainted spirit! drop thy mantle,- 'Tis an empire's jubilee; While the ocean wave is rolling, Let us raise the song for thee. Annual raise the grateful paan, Sainted WASHINGTON, for thee! CENTENNIAL DISCOURSE. FELLOW-CITIZENS, IT is recorded of an orator of antiquity, that, being chosen to address the people, on a subject too weighty to be handled by him, he appeared on the rostrum, at the appointed hour, but maintained a fixed and dejected silence. When asked, by one in authority, why he did not commence his discourse he falteringly replied, that the splendour of his theme had dazzled him into blindness, and its unutterable magnitude strick- en him dumb. I do not say that such is, at present, the case with myself. The assertion would not be literally true. And, under the heavy responsibility devolved on me, I am too much in earnest, and too solicitous of accu- racy, to deal in hyperbole. Nor is this all. There are before me so many great and shining realities, pre- senting each a claim to my attention, that nothing could justify me, in resorting to fiction. A statement of sim- ple facts is all that becomes me, and all that is necessary to my immediate purpose. I do say, then, not in the guise of affected modesty, to propitiate favour, nor as a device in rhetoric, to elicit applause by magnifying my labours; but, in the spirit of truth, and with the approbation of my conscience- under these sanctions, I declare, that the duty assigned me, in the exercises of this day, is far beyond the reach of my ability. To climb its height, compass its magni- tudle, and adapt my performance of it to its boundless variety, I find to be impossible. Nor do I deem myself solitary in this incapacity. Far from it. The task is beyond the ability of any man. The individual who could dalty accomplish it, under the regulations, to which I must conform. has not yet beheld the light. Nor is 6 there ground to hope that he ever will. Limited in time and space, as I am; called on to embody and ex- hibit, in a discourse of an hour, or even of manv hours, matter sufficient to fill decades of volumes of history, philosophy, and poetry, much of it rising to epic gran- deur; and which would occupy years of labour and research, in collecting and preparing it-thus restricted in scope, and trammelled in action, awed by the vastness of his subject, and oppressed by its weight, the master genius of the age, if any such there be, would be want- ing in the effort, as certainly as I shall. Worse still; he could scarcely fail to sink, in his performance, far below his usual level. The swan is lofty in its flight, and melodious in its notes, only when it is joyous and free; and, if his spirit be broken, or his wings ham- pered, the bird of Jove is unfitted to soar. But I must have done with introductory matter, and proceed to the immediate object of the occasion. We are assembled to unite, in sentiment, with mil- lions of our fellow-citizens, in a festive act, which the nation honors, and all enlightened freemen will learn to revere. We are pledged to perform our part, however humble, with suitable feelings, and in such fitness of style and manner as we can attain, in the great Jubilee of the first Centennial Anniversary of the Birth-day of Washington. In its own nature, as well as from the object of it, the festival is peculiarly interesting, and calculated to recommend itself to our choicest affec- tions. But there is a consideration connected with it, which should doubly endear it to us, and enhance, in an equal degree, our devotedness in observing it. None of us can hope to join in it again. Long before our country shall be summoned to another observance of it, Exception is taken by Solve (I think hypercritically) to the phrase "Centennial A-nniversary." It is to be recollected that, by the usage of standard writers, the term "anniversary" is made to signify the act of celebrating an annual festival, as well as the festival itself. On this ground, therefore, the expression is correct. we shall be insensible to the spirit-stirring scene. The mandate of "Dust to dust" shall have been executed on us; and, of all our own doings, which so anxiously oc- cupy us, or of all that the partial hand of friendship, or the fond one of love shall have done for us, not a rem- nant may survive to tell that we have existed. Even the record of the part we are acting in the rites of this day, memorable as it is, may be erased and forgotten. Time may have effaced it, neglect may have suffered it to fall to decay, or accident or violence may have com- mitted it to the flames, or scattered it to the wind. But the assurance to this effect, I say, instead of dishearten- ing, should cheer and animate us, in the present cele- bration. As we shall partake of the festival but once, let us do it in a spirit of gladness and gratulation, worthy of the boon, for which it is instituted. While we do homage to the occasion, with sentiments of gratitude and veneration, it is our duty to enliven it with libations of joy. Nor is there wanting another reason, why we, as inhabitants of Lexington, should peculiarly rejoice in it. Our city was named, by its intrepid founders, in honour of the place stained and consecrated by the. first blood of our revolutionary struggle, which Washington conducted to its triumphant issue. On contemplating the subject, it will immediately appear to you, that, in the service of this day, we are called on, not merely to commemorate the life and ac- tions of one of the best and most illustrious of men-of HIM, who was pronounced, and justly so, by a compat- riot and fellow-soldier, who knew him well, to be "First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his fellow citizens." A task like that, though confessedly arduous, might be performed, in a manner to meet expectation, and escape censure. But, a much higher and weightier one devolves on us, as participants in this great festival of the nation. We are to celebrate an epoch of sur- passing moment-an aggregate, into which most that enters belongs to the sublime-a portion of time. great S in the events, rich ill the improvements, and radiant in the glory of an entire century! And of such a century, as is not to be judged of by any other delineated in his- tory. In splendour and magnificence, all that belongs to substantial usefulness, and all that contributes to the elevation and happiness of man, it is INSULATED A ALONE. No single one of the preceding centuries, nor any five of them united, can compare with it in the grandeur of its march, or the importance of its results. Each and all of them, when contrasted with it, sink and grow dim, in a degree I am unwilling to attempt to express, lest I subject myself to the charge of extrava- gance. Feeling myself however supported, in the fol- lowing statement, by all the authentic records that bear on it, I offer it entire, although it is, in part, a repetition of what has been already alledged. In all that pertains to the developement of mind, the diffusion of knowledge, the display of public spirit, and the cultivation and exercise of practical virtue; in whatever relates to wisdom of design, benevolence, magnanimity, and rectitude of intention, grandeur of achievement, and felicity of result; in every thing that ministers to human refinement in manners and taste, to individual and domestic comfort and elegance, to the elevation of man in the scale of existence, and the gen- eral amelioration of his condition, as a moral, intellec- tual, and social being; as relates to these points, and all else subservient to the improvement and happiness of our race, the term of years, beginning on the 22nd of February, 1732I, and ending on the present day, has no parallel in the annals of the world. When compared with it, all preceding periods, of equal duration, serve but as diminutives to swell its dimensions, or as shades in the picture to heighten its lustre. Such, in the aggregate, is what I shall call, by way of distinction, TIlE CENTURY OF WASHINGTON; and the supremacy, as a member of the human family, of HIrI, whose name it bears. is fairly deducible from it. He 9 was indisputably the MAN OF THE ERA; the individual, who, taken in all his attributes, was the greatest, the most efficient, and the best; who had fewer faults, and higher virtues; and who, by his opinions, deeds, and example, did more to amend the condition of his race, than any of his contemporaries. However extravagant this representation maybe deemed by some, or unfounded perhaps by others, it is notwithstanding true, as might be clearly made appear, were there time to dwell on it. The facts which might be adduced to substantiate it, are sufficient praise of HIN, who is the subject of it. Besides having identified him, in the minds of the American people, with all that is estimable and great in human nature, they have embalmed him in his own virtues, and enshrined him in his glory. To perpetuate his fame, and prevent the breath of detraction from sul- lying it, the facts themselves, as a body of testimony to future ages, are placed alike beyond the influence of dispute and forgetfulness. Faithful history has already recorded them; the sentiments of liberated nations have endorsed the record; Freedom has attested it; and Time will put his seal to it, and render it imperishable. In this tribute to the Father of his country, it is my wish to be liberal and discriminating, as well as correct. Applause is substantial and lasting, only when tempered with justice and truth. It is therefore that I make the following admissions. Many individuals may have surpassed Washington in extent of knowledge, depth of wisdom, and brilliancy of genius. Chieftains superior to him in war may have led armies to victory. Statesmen of greater attainment and sagacity, and of more vigorous intellects and a wvi- der reach of mind, may have figured in the councils and cabinets of nations. Patriots of equal purity may have devoted their lives to the service of their country; and some men may have exhibited a moral and social ex- ample as free from blemish. But, in no one known to fame have all these elements been at once so abfindantlv I0 and happily blended. In no one has the aggregate been so great, and the balance so complete. And the per- sonal form and majesty of their possessor were fit con- comitants of such a rare combination of mental attributes. Hence, if it is not now, it will be received hereafter, as a conceded truth, that, as a monument of moral sub- limity, individual grandeur, and unsullied worth, the Leader of our revolution, and the Chief Founder of our present government, is without a rival. The catalogue of human greatness, extending through modern and an- cient times, contains no other name so elevated and spotless. The history of his life and actions, connected with their consequences, abounds in matter confirmatory of this. But I have dealt sufficiently in abstract views, and general assertions. My duty requires that I should now sustain them, by a reference to facts. That I shall en- deavour to do, by a brief analysis of my subject. I mean, by a hasty sketch of some of the leading events and productions of the Century of Washington, which give it the pre-eminence I have alledged it possesses. Those events consist in the discoveries, inventions, and im- provements, in the sciences and arts, as well as in the mode of regulating the concerns of social and political life, made within the period, to which I refer. They all contribute, although unequally, and more or less di- rectly, to human happiness; the only consideration which renders them valuable. It may be added, that they have given to the age, to which they belong, a The wife of a foreign Minister, a woman of a masculine and cul- tivated mind, who, from having accompanied her husband, in the char- acter of embassador, to some of the most distinguished Courts of Europe, was no stranger to royalty, and other forms of elevated rank, and factitious greatness, stated to the writer of this note, that Wash- ington was the only personage she had ever seen, in whose presence she could not feel at ease. She added, that, notwithstanding his courtesy and affability, there was an augustness and personal majesty about. him,.wlhich overawed her, and disqualified her for conversation. Vet her collonmial powers were fine. 11 character of practical usefulness, far surpassing that of any preceding one. In proof of the superior greatness and lustre of the Century of Washington, I am justified in stating, that it includes within its limits, the actual commencement of almost all the sciences. In this assertion, which, at the first view of it, may perhaps be questioned, it is my desire to be correctly understood. My meaning is, that most branches of human knowledge, whose facts are so classed, and their principles so developed, that they now fall strictly under the denomination of sciences, have undergone the changes necessary to mould them into that shape, since the 22nd of February, 1732. Previ- ously to that period, if they existed at all, it was as a chaos of individualities, along whose dark and troubled surface no spirit of light and order had moved. Of all we now denominate Natural sciences, this is true. Not one of them had a formal existence a century ago. If we ex- cept Mecharnical Philosophy, and Mathematics in its various branches of astronomy, navigation, geometry, and the rest, the world was then without a science. Should that term be claimed for what was known of philology, logic, and rhetoric, I shall not pause to con- test the question, but shall dismiss it with a single remark. Whether those branches were sciences or not, the manner in which they were treated and taught, contributed but little to enlighten the human mind, or improve the condition of civil society. Much indeed had been written, and many impas- sioned controversies held, about morals and metaphysics. But, those branches were not erected into sciences. No sound and stable principles in them had yet been de- veloped. The productions of moralists and metaphysi- cians, more especially the latter, were but little else than the dreams of the closet or the cloister, and the dogmas of the schools. They were not the offspring of obser- vation and induction, the parents of all legitimate science. Nature had never been fairly consulted respecting mat- 12 ters of mind. The subject indeed was considered beyond the limits of nature; and hence called meta- physics. Clouds and mysticism therefore enveloped it. This, I venture to say, is true, although Aristotle, Seneca, Leibnitz, Malebranche, Condillac, Des Cartes, and others had lived and laboured. Even the metaphy- sical writings of Locke, sagacious and profound as he was, are marked with vision, and replete with error. Their foundation is defective; and hence their super- structure is necessarily perishable. I have admitted that certain branches of mathematics existed as sciences, when Washington was born. But most of them were comparatively inceptive and crude. Their condition then, contrasted with their present con- dition, was scarcely more than as infancy to manhood. or the dawn of morning to noon-day splendour. True; Newton had lived, and astonished the world. by his labours in astronomy. But, could that great man return to earth, possessed of the knowledge lie carried with him to the grave, lie would be himself no less as- tonished, at the discoveries and improvements, in his favourite science, which have been made, since his death, by the labours of his successors. Let us fancy him reanimated, and seated in the ob- servatory of Herschel, poring through the grand tele- scope of that sagacious explorer of the heavens, and mark the issue. But I must pause, until Newton him- self shall have been taught, by its constructor, how to use that wonderful instrument. That being accom- plished, what does the pupil first discover Four plan ts, which had escaped his notice, during his life- time, sweeping along their orbits, between Mars and Jupiter. Having contemplated these, he next observes two satellites, equally new to him, moving in the distant train of Saturn. He is then directed, by his instructor, to throw his eve far beyond the belted planet, and it falls on Georgiutm Sidus, and its suit of moons. Nor is the lesson vet terminated. Instructed to launch, in 13 vision, into the shoreless ocean of the Milky Way, and other portions of siderial space, he is lost in amazement at the celestial glories, that beam on his eye from every quarter. Suns and their systems, in countless myriads, for the first time emerge to his view, from the abyss of infinity, presenting him with an actual pageant in the heavens, far surpassing, in splendour and magnificence, all his fancy had previously conceived. Mighty as had been his imaginings of creation, he finds they were dwarfish, compared to the reality. To consummate the whole; he learns, at length, that this array of beam- ing worlds is nothing but a retinue of inferior orbs, mo- ving obediently around one primary central sun, which claims their homage, and gives them their laws. And that sun he fancies to be fitted up, in suitable grandeur and glory, for the immediate dwelling of the God of the universe. But Newton has not yet finished his pupilage. Let us contemplate him again in the retirement of his study, where a widely different scene presents itself The writings of La Grande, La Lande, D' Alembert, and La Place are before him. In them he finds works of human genius, at whose brilliancy and compass he is scarcely less astonished than he was at his recent sur- vey of the heavens. To fathom the depth, and follow out the details of some of the calculations of those great astronomers, proves a labour of such difficulty to him, as he had never before encountered. Nor is it until af- ter many trials, that he accomplishes his task. But suc- cess at length crowns his effort, and brings along with it an ample reward. Ile is enraptured vith the novelty and delightfulness of the result. Where he had once thought that irregularity and some confusion prevailed, in the movemnents of the celestial bodies, he now finds nothing but order and harmony. He, for the first time, clearly perceives, what he had previously only imagined or hoped, that the organization of the heavens is per- fiect; that if one influence produces disturbance in it. C 14 another rectifies it; that nothing is permitted to deviate from its track, except in obedience to settled laws; that every where antagonizing powers support and regulate each other, and co-operate to the same end; that com- ets themselves are as subject to control, as the planets and suns among which they stray; and that therefore, in the disposition and arrangement of the innumerable orbs, which occupy immensity, and the complication of whose movements would seem to be infinite, such a scheme of checks and balances prevails, as to erect the whole into a mighty system, self-regulated, self-sustain- ed, subject to neither derangement nor decay, so com- plete in all its parts, and so sublime and glorious in all its attributes, as to be worthy of HIM who called it into being. Such, I say, are some of the lessons, which even Newton would have to learn, in his own science, were he now to return to earth, before he would be up to the present period, in the march of knowledge. It would be easy to show, did circumstances permit me, that, on many other points, connected with his favourite Stu- dies, he would be found in an equal degree, wanting. His acquaintance with the solar spectrum was very de- fective. Of the rays of the sun, the colorific alone were known to him. Of the very existence of the ca- lorific and deoxidizing, much less of their properties, he had no suspicion. Nor, while he would acknow- ledge the valuable contributions to the science, by Hers- chel, Piazzi, Olbers, and Harding, in their discoveries of additional suns and planets, would he fail to adjudge the palm to La Place, for his unprecedented calculations of the movements and laws of the material universe. The "Traite de Mecanique Celeste," of the latter as- tronomer, he would lay by the side of his own " Princi- pia," and pronounce it one of the most gigantic produc- tions of the human mind. So great have been the dis- coveries and improvements in astronomy, and its collat- eral branches, within the period I am reviewing. Nor has scientific and practical navigation been less 15 strikingly advanced, within the same term of years. This truth is so palpable, that to dwell on it would be superfluous. The simple statement of it is sufficient, for all who are observers of current events. The arri- val of every ship in our seaports is proof of it. Long since the middle of the eighteenth century, a voyage across the Atlantic was deemed a serious and perilous undertaking. And to pass Cape Horne, or the Cape of Good Hope, was considered almost tantamount to a pas- sage to the grave. The length of time moreover con- sumed, in the accomplishment of those enterprises, was comparatively great. But that condition of things ex- ists no longer. Improved navigation has entirely dis- pelled it, and introduced a new and much more desira- ble one. The voyages referred to are now performed with such ease and safety, and in periods so reduced, that none of them are dreaded; and some of them are resorted to, as excursions of pleasure. This change is attributable to various causes. The chief of them are, improvements in naval architecture and practical sea- manship, the invention of chronometers, multiplied and improved modes of taking celestial observations subser- vient to navigation, and a more accurate knowledge of winds and currents. Much was known, a hundred years ago, of the land and water of the globe we inhabit. But Geography, as a science, had no existence. Physical Geography had not even received a name. It can scarcely be said that the earth was definitively proved to be a sphere. Cer- tainly no voyager had yet passed around it; the enter- prise which settled the question of its figure. Other facts had rendered its sphericity a matter of belief, with all enlightened men; that proved it. Circumnavigation, the most gigantic, and one of the most important ge- ographical achievements, belongs then to the Century of Washington. So do the discovery and exploration of the greatest part of the continent of Oceanica, which is now, to the student of Nature, one of the most interest- 16 itg portions of' the world. Nor is it unimportant to him, whose business is commerce, and his object gain. Even governments have found it worthy of their atten- tion, on various grounds of national policy. Although the continent of America had been long discovered, yet little was known of it, in 1732, except along its maritime borders, and in the vicinity of its principal rivers. Its great interior was wholly unex- plored, save by the roving sons of the forest. And they passed through it, not to study its character, as philoso- phers, develope its resources, cover it with the product of skilful cultivation, and connect it. by industry and enlightened enterprise, with other lands. Their am- bition was, to preserve it as hunting-ground, make its waters tributary to their pastime and sustenance, and stain its soil with the blood of their foes. But, within the period already specified, the entire continent, in all its divisions, from the extreme north to the heights of Cape Horne, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, has been trodden by the foot of civilized man; its native wealth, with its susceptibilities of cultivation and popu- lation has been examined; it has been formally added to the community of nations, and the knowledge of it makes a part of scientific Geography. To the continent of Africa similar remarks may be partially applied. That extensive and interesting quar- ter of the globe has not been neglectedi. Though still too deeply hidden from cultivated travellers, it is much better known, than it was at the commencement of the era I am considering. Within the same term of years, several voyages of discovery, directed to the seas and lands of the north, have added not a little to the stores of geography. Nor must I omit what has been done in the continent of Asia, the first inhabited portion of the earth. Even there, the spirit of discovery has been active and effi- cient, within the century, whose events I am reciting. Many of its great rivers and plains, previously unknown, 17 have been successfully examined, and the Himmalayan mountains, not more extraordinary from their height, than singular on account of other qualities, have been measured and explored. As sciences, or branches of the same science, Miner- alogy and Geology are of recent origin. Even fifty years ago, they were so incipient, as to be scarcely spo- ken of. Yet now, they constitute the delight of many of the most cultivated votaries of nature, and minister abundantly to the resources of nations. The mineral wealth of the world is much developed and augmented by the improvements they have introduced in mining; and they have greatly extended the boundaries of know- ledge. They have already thrown no little light on the philosophy of earthquakes and volcanoes, more espe- cially the latter, and are doubtless destined to throw yet much more. They have also facilitated and impro- ved, in a high degree, the operations of cutting canals and constructing roads, and other works of convenience and usefulness. Nor is this all. To them alone are we indebted for all that is rational in our present theory of the earth, including its structure, primitive condition, former productiveness, the changes it has undergone, the corresponding succession of its inhabitants both vegetable and animal, and its probable term of past du- ration. As relates to several of these points, more infor- mation has been communicated, and more prejudices removed, by that division of the science; which treats of Fossil Remains, than by all other sources of knowledge. It has done much therefore to disenthral the human mind, and restore to it its long lost freedom of action. Hence, it is equally useful to man, and honorable to the century that has given it birth. To Botany, whether classical, physiological, or pro- fessional, and to Natural History, in all its departments, similar remarks may be applied. A century ago, they were in a chaotic condition. No master geniuses had vet reduced them to order, and erected them into scien- 18 ces. Botanical gardens, and Zoological cabinets had scarcely an existence. Certainly they were in a very crude and humble state. For all philosophical and practical purposes, therefore, those of them, which did exist, were little else than names. To form them, and enrich them with rare and valuable articles, neither the various climates and countries of the globe, on land, nor the waters of their seas, lakes, and rivers had yet been explored. Nor were labours and enterprises, to that effect, in high estimation. The cause is plain. The minds of educated men, more intent on learning than science, had not been turned to pursuits, whose pleasures were unknown, and their importance misun- derstood. But Buffon, Linnwus, Banks, De Candolle, Mirbel, Cuvier, and others appeared, and a new era ac- companied them. The beauties and riches of the ani- mal and vegetable kingdoms were no longer neglected. Plains, forests, and mountains, the atmosphere and the ocean-all places where living nature was found, pre- sented attractions, unknown before, to the awakened spirit of Botany and Natural History. While some lovers of those branches of knowledge examined their own countries, others pushed their researches into re- mote ones, until the native productions of every quarter of the globe were discovered and collected. Every ac- cessible spot was laid under contribution, and made to surrender up a portion of its stores to some enterprising and fortunate adventurer. Hence arose the splendid museums, and magnificent gardens and menageries, which are now such abundant sources of instruction and amusement to visiters; and which constitute the pride and delight, not alone of scientific men, but of cities and communities. And Botany and Natural History are now sciences, as useful as they are attractive, and add to the lustre of the era that produced them. In what terms shall I speak of the great revolution that has occurred in CHEMISTRY The subject might give interest and importance to volumes, while I must 19 despatch'it in two or three paragraphs. The aspects it presents to the enlightened inquirer are as numerous, as they are important. Few topics are so rich in matter illustrative of the character of man, his toils and visions, and his progress in attainment. When we survey that science (but no science then) through the retrospect of a century, we find it in the same crude and shapeless condition, with other branches of human knowledge. It had not yet escaped from the abuses of the alchymists. Many of its cultivators still indulged their dreams, either really or pretendedly, and indulging, pursued them, of the transmutation of metals, and the composition or dis. covery of the elixir of life. Thousands of interesting experiments had indeed been made, and many impor. tant results obtained. But the entire proceeding pre- sented little else than a disjointed scheme of chance- medley and hypothesis. No settled principles govern- ing the action and changes, the combinations and reso- lutions, of the elementary particles of matter, were yet developed. Nor were any of what are now called ele- ments discovered. Fire, air, earth, and water were still permitted to usurp that name. Genuine and practical analysis, the only test of truth, was scarcely thought of, much less performed. Chemistry and charlatanry were regarded as so nearly synonymous, that both terms were often used as marks of reproach. Still, so peculiarly curious and attractive was it, and so highly useful were many of the discoveries, to which it had led, that no branch of knowledge was more zealously cultivated. None perhaps had votaries so enthusiastically ena- moured of it. Such was the condition of chemistry, until after the middle of the eighteenth century. But a change at length occurred in it, as sudden and unlooked for, as it was useful and brilliant. Attracted by the issue of se- veral new and interesting experiments, some of the ablest inquirers of the age turned their attention to it, and, by further discoveries. and their own talents for generali- 20 zation, soon gave it a title to the name of a science. Nor was this all. Not satisfied with a common victory over ignorance and prejudice, nor with views into the secrets of nature that might be questioned, they raised the favourite object of their study to the rank of an exact science. Even that did not fill the measure of their ambition. They persevered in their labours, until they threw around it a splendour, partly emanating from itself, and reflected in part from their own great names, which rendered it the philosophical idol of the day. It became for a time the most popular and engrossing subject of inquiry, took an ascendency over all other branches of science, and even usurped the place of some of them. Among the distinguished men, who thus con- tributed to its elevation, Black, Cavendish, Scheele, Priestley, and Lavoisier, stand pre-eminent. They are the fathers of chemistry, considered as a science. Most of them lived and laboured within the last fifty years; and it is far within that period, that the full importance of their discoveries has been made apparent in their consequences. The lights, which first issued from their laboratories, have been regularly increasing, and are increasing still, by the labours of hundreds, worthy to be their successors. To what degree of brightness this blaze of knowledge may attain. to what depth it may penetrate into the unexplored recesses of nature, or what further disclosures it may make there, in fifty years more, it were vain, if not presumptuous, to hazard a conjec- ture. It is enough to speak of present realities, without prying into future probabilities. In doing this, I am justified in asserting, that, within the period so often al- luded to, chemists have surpassed their predecessors, in a degree almost incalculable, in the usefulness and splen- dour of their discoveries and improvements. They have contributed, therefore, their full share, to the pre- eminence, scientific and practical. of the Century of Washington. Of MEDICINE it is as true as of chemistry. that, a hun- 21 dred years ago, it was in a humble condition. Although reluctant to pronounce it, at that time, a scheme of hy- pothesis and empiricism, I am more so to admit it to the rank of a science. True; it was, and had been, for ages, a profession of extensive learning and great honour. Many illustrious men had adorned it; and industry had done much, in observing diseases, and collecting facts. But, that it was entirely destitute of sound principles, is proved by every medical production of that date. In the knowledge of anatomy but little progress had been made. In that of comparative and morbid anatomy, none at all. If Bonetus had written, no one appears to have profited by his work. Practically considered therefore it was useless. Physiology, whether healthy or diseased, had scarcely a name. Certainly, as relates to truth and usefulness, it had nothing more. The er- rors and corruptions of humoralism, and the mechanical notions, which were no less visionary, predominated every where. If Stahl had attacked them, he had not overthrown them. Such facts, respecting diseases, as had been collected by observation, instead of being made the foundation of theories, and serving to control and correct them, were forced to conform to them. Hence, every thing yielded to the conjectures of the closet, and the dogmas of the schools. The deference paid to what the world called high authority, was servile in its spirit, and retarded not a little the progress of knowledge. Nor was the profession free from the influence of super- stition, even among those who were deemed the most enlightened. Charms and invocations were often re- sorted to, in the treatment of the sick. Such was the condition of Medicine, until about the year 1740, when a new era of improvement in it began to open. But, neither was its dawn very bright, nor its march rapid. Opinions, however groundless or perni- cious, if fortified by prejudice and sanctioned by time, cannot be subverted by the labours of a day. Accord- ingly, though years rolled on, and many physicians of D T2' eminence arose, and acquitted themselves ably in the cause or truth, Medicine continued to be enveloped in error. Nor was it until about forty years ago, that the profession became completely victorious in the contest, and attained the rank of a distinguished science. Were there time to dwell on the subject, and were it expedient in me to do so, this truth might be easily proved; and satisfactory causes for the change could be assigned. But a cursory reference to a few events, which have a bearing on the subject, is all that is permitted me. The actual career of medical improvement, in the course of which so much has been done, in the develope- ment of the true philosophy of the profession, began in 1793, with the appearance of pestilential diseases in the West India islands, the United States, and other parts of the American continent. The maladies, to which I refer, were so novel and formidable, that they awakened unusual attention, and created unprecedented alarm. It soon appeared that they were no common foe, and could not therefore be resisted by ordinary means. Their progress moreover was as rapid, as their attack was violent. In most cases, if they were not speedily van- quished, they proved speedily fatal. Under these cir- cumstances, physicians felt compelled, as well by con- siderations of duty as of interest, to inquire more accurately and practically into the nature of the diseases they were contending with, than they had ever done before. While thus engaged, they soon became con- vinced, that, for the attainment of their end, the Book of Nature was, at that time, the only source of informa- tion, in which they could confide. Written books were of little avail. In plain terms, they found it necessary to apply themselves to the examination of dead bodies, to ascertain the seat and character of their complaints, and the cause of their death. Thus did inquiries into morbid anatomy begin to be pursued, as an essential element of professional knowledge. Previously they had been regarded as only incidental. Nor have these 23 inquiries been since suspended. On the contrary, they have been steadily persevered in, and greatly extended, in every enlightened section of the globe. And I fear- lessly add, that, since the year 1793, they have thrown on the profession of medicine, more of the light of true science, than it had ever received before, in the space of any three centuries, that history points to. Previously to that period, as the history of the profession shows, the views of physicians had been unstable, because they were unsound. But now, they are as fixed, on many points, as the laws of nature. The French revolution, which was then in its com- mencement, and which kindled up a war of five-and- twenty years, involving the wounds, sickness, and death of many millions of the human race, was another very abundant source of improvement in Medicine and Sur- gery. The Great Leader in that war, himself a purely practical man. banished from his presence all that was theoretical. Nor did he stop here. He compelled eve- ry one, who was in any way connected with him, to be also practical. His friends were obliged to be so, to retain his confidence and favour; and his enemies to escape destruction. This spirit of practical accuracy soon pervaded the medical, no less than the military corps, under his immediate command. From them it spread to others, in adjoining and even remote nations, until all Christendom has felt its influence. Thus, through the operation of natural causes, has the world been signally benefited, by two of the most formidable evils, pestilence and war. The issue is, that medicine has not only attained the rank of a science, but has risen to a degree of usefulness and splendour, worthy of the century of which I am treating. In proof of this, many important facts might be specified. The absorbent sys- tem and its functions have been brought to light. By the aid of chemistry, great improvements have been made in the form and efficacy of various medicinal arti- cles. while a number of new and valuable ones have 24 been discovered. The erroneous belief in the contagious nature of yellow and typhus fevers is beaten down. That in the contagious nature of plague and oriental cholera morbus, which is no less unfounded and perni- cious, is fast declining. Within the period alluded to, small-pox-inoculation, which has preserved so many millions of lives, if not actually introduced into Europe and America, became popular and general; and vaccine- inoculation was discovered. Operations in surgery, ne- ver before thought of, have been successfully performed, and the treatment of madness, scrophula, and other for- midable complaints has been greatly simplified and improved. Finally; within the last hundred years, the average duration of human life has been lengthened, in various parts of Europe, and I doubt not in our own country also, from ihirty-five to forty per cent. Some calculations make the improvement still higher. It was during the Century of Washington that Frank- lin erected ELECTRICITY into a science, taught the world how to disarm the heavens of their lightning, and guard against the thunder-stroke. That the experi- ment, productive of the latter result, was one of the boldest ever conceived, and led to one of the happiest discoveries ever made, needs no proof. The simple statement of it establishes the fact. An event, at once so extraordinary and useful, is alone sufficient to immor- talize, in history, not only its author, but the age that produced it. Never was eulogy more highly merited, than that so happily bestowed on the great American sage and philosopher, partly in relation to that event, and partly for his services, in the cause of freedom. "Eripuit ecelo fulmen, sceptrumqi e tyranno." GALVANS 8M, with its interest and beauty, and all the important experiments and their results, which it has given rise to, is also a discovery of the Century of Washington. So is the art of AEROSTATION, with its bold- ness and sublimity. While the former discovery is, in 25 no common degree; useful, as well as brilliant and attrac- tive, the latter is marked with a grandeur almost super- human. For man to soar through the heavens, in calm security, piercing the clouds and leaving them far below him, and transcending even the bourne of the eagle's wing, is to surpass hope, and rise, in act, to the summit of conception. A series of events, connected with each other, and belonging to the period of time I am considering, is the discovery of the power of STEAM, aid dte invention and construction of machinery for employing it. So extra- ordinary is the nature, and so astonishing the effects, of this entire scheme of science and art, that it is difficult to think or speak of it with temperance. Nor is it less difficult to say, what is intemperate, when we are con- sidering it. The power it has given to man, and the fi- cilities it has thus created for hin, are beyond computa- tion; and the results he has already produced by it, are such as imagination had never conceived, until they were brought into existence. That employment of it, in which there is the most impressive display of grandeur and magnificence, is navigation, and transportation on rail-roads. Of the importance and sublimity of these operations, it is scarcely possible to think extravagantly. They transcend even fancy. Time, and distance, and weight are all but annihilated by them. Labours, which once consumed weeks and months, are now performed in hours and days. This is not the language of meta- phor. It is true to the letter. Navigation on the Mis- sissippi, and its tributary streams, and transportation be- tween Liverpool and Manchester, prove it. But the usefulness of steam-power in the aggregate. in the great work of human improvement, arises from the innumerable purposes, to which it is applied. In arts and manufactures generally it has done wonders. In a single county of England, it has enabled the inhab- itants to do the work of twenty millions of human beings, operating without the aid of machinery. And 26 one printing establishment, in London, issues, by means of it, every day, an amount of letter-press, which it would require a million of clerks to transcribe. The statements to this effect, inserted in respectable Periodi- cals of the day, have nothing of conjecture in them. They are the result of calculation. In conclusion; the attainment of the control of steam, and its application to navigation, rail-road conveyance, and the various other processes, in which it is employed, have alone in- creased the power of man, and multiplied his operative facilities, far beyond the improvements of any other five centuries that can be named. Under this head, reference might be nriade to the im- provements of the present age, in the works of the mechanician generally. They are striking and impor- tant. They not only save an amount of human labour, which can scarcely be calculated, but add greatly to the perfection and safety of mechanical processes, as well as to the beauty and excellence of their products. In- deed the extent and diversity of improvement and in- vention, in mechanics, constitute a prominent feature of the times, and have contributed, in an eminent degree, to the advancement of society, in the useful and elegant arts of life. Some of the automatons machinery of the day is so curious, and so far surpasses that of former times, as to be worthy of remembrance. Another memorable event of the period I am con- sidering, is the discovery and establishment of the science of PHRENOLOGY. And, notwithstanding the sneers of uninformed rudeness and spurious wit, the clamorous invectives of prejudice and passion, the abuse of vulgarity tinselled with learning and the misrepre- sentations of calumny, the angry assaults of schools and the uncharitable denunciations of bigotry-notwith- standing these, and all other forms of opposition, which a spirit of hostility may devise and practise against it, I avow my belief, not only in its truth, but that, as a dis- covery, it is the most important that has ever been made. 27 Neither that of gravitation, nor of the circulation of the blood is comparable to it. It is a discovery which must necessarily become the parent of many others; because is throws light on the fountain of all discovery. In confirmation of my opinion, on this subject, I fearlessly appeal to time and events. And they will confirm it, as certainly as truth shall prevail over error, and great events be deemed superior to small ones. Phrenology discloses to man what he is most vitally interested in understanding, his own constitution, as an intellectual, social, and moral being. It teaches him the true knowledge of himself, and instructs him more fully not only in the proper end of his being, but also how he may most certainly attain it. It is as far superior, there- fore, to all other branches of science, as the movements of mind are superior to the common operations of mat- ter. It alone makes known the principles of sound ed- ucation, which is destined to improve and elevate man to the highest perfection, of which he is susceptible. Had it nothing else to recommend it, that single con- sideration would demonstrate its supremacy. But its recommendations are as numerous as they are weighty. It is the only source of a correct knowledge of the philosophy and treatment of mental derangement. Nor is it less important in practical theology, legislation, ju- risprudence, and every other human pursuit, where man either officiates as an agent, or is acted on as a subject. In other words, it is applicable to the entire business of life, and is therefore, in its relations, the most extensive, as well as the most interesting and useful of sciences. One of the objections urged against Phrenology, which has perhaps operated more to its prejudice than all owhers, is, that its tenets are unfriendly to morality and religion. This charge can have arisen only from an entire ignorance of it, or from a reckless determina- tion to make war on it, at every hazard, and to employ means in assailing it, which truth and justice disavow. The science is not unfriendly to either religion or mo- 28 rality. When fairly interpreted, it is their fbithful, and, permit me to add, their ablest advocate. It pleads their cause in the language of nature, which is never per- verted to purposes of error. It shows that they are both rooted in the human constitution; that they make a part of that constitution, as essential elements of it; that they are not the products of mere art or training (although training improves them); but, that they are the result of the handy-work of the Divine Architect, in the formation of man. Strike from man's constitu- tion his native sentiments of religion and morality, and Phrenology pronounces that you mutilate him as com- pletely, and much more injuriously, than you would by depriving him of his leg or his arm. In fine; the science shows, as one of its fundamental tenets, that a sentiment of religion makes a part of man, in consequence of the relation in which he stands to the Deity; that it fits him for that relation; and that, without it, he would be an exception to the unbroken aptitude, which pervades cre- ation, constitutes much of its beauty, and testifies to its wisdom. And it further shows, that sentiments of mor- ality make another part of him, to fit him for his rela- tions to his fellow-men. Phrenology therefore is as pure and important, as truth and unlimited usefulness can render it. EDUCATION has been briefly referred to. As the chief engine however in the work of human improvement, it is worthy of further notice. Within the last hundred years, the modes of conducting it have been greatly amended. It is no longer a mere technical process, every step of it taken in obedience to scholastic au- thority and antiquated usage. The monkish rules es- tablished for its government, in the Dark Ages, or im- mediately after the revival of letters, have nearly disap- peared. It is beginning to assume the shape of a science, and to be administered on principles much bet- ter accommodated to the human mind, than those which governed it a century ago. Nor is the manner of ad- 29 ministering it less improved. In common with other branches of knowledge and art, it is fast conforming to nature, and falling under the guidance of common sense. Men of talents, both alone, and connected with socie- ties formed for the purpose, are industriously investiga- ting it, on scientific principles. They are analyzing the human mind. and making an estimate of its powers and susceptibilities, that they may ascertain the best mode of training aned improving it. Nor are they only ma- king the true principles and best plans of education their study. Many of them are making the art of teaching their business. And they have chosen it, as the employ- ment of their lives. Their hopes of usefulness, repu- tation, and subsistence rest on it. They have therefore every incentive and opportunity to attain excellence in it, and bring it to perfection. And they will do so. Nor is it possible for them to have selected a more important and honorable pursuit; a truth which the public are learning to recognise. Men thus engaged have already done much for the improvement of their profession; and, by the increase of their numbers, their daily ac- quisitions in the knowledge of principles and matured experience, and their perseverance in their labours, they will yet do much more. In fine; the improvements re- cently made, and still making in schemes of education, with the awakened spirit of reform accompanying them, are some of the most promising occurrences of the age. Their true value posterity alone will be able to compute. But it will certainly be great. The preservation of sound government, with its innumerable blessings, can be effected only by the diffusion of knowledge and vir- tue among the people. And of these, well directed education is the genuine source. POLITICAL EcoNonIY is another star in the scientific galaxy of the Century of Washington. It was not un- til the middle of that period, or perhaps later, that it can be said to have attained the rank of a science. Pre- viously to that date, it was but a mass of unassorted E 30 fiicts and crude opinions. Its principles were not yet developed; and nations had of course been but little benefited by it. But it is now so far matured and systematized, as to constitute one of the most important branches of human knowledge. When skilfully em- ployed, it is a main source of the prosperity of States. Within the term of time I am reviewing, AGRICUL- TURE and HORTICULTURE have been greatly improved. Although I feel scarcely authorized to say, that they are yet advanced to the state of a science, they are much nearer it than they were a hundred years ago. Scien- tific principles are, in many respects, applied to them; and the increase and amelioration of their products, with many able and interesting publications on them, furnish ample testimony of their advanced condition. Of COMMERCE and MANUFACTURES the same is true. Their improvement, within a century, as well in relation to the principles on which they are founded and con- ducted, as in extent, quality, and taste, has kept pace with that of other branches of human industry and knowledge. Records entitled to credit might be ad- duced to show, that they have increased in quantity per- haps a hundred-fold. And they have augmented the wealth, and comforts, and splendour of the world, if not in a corresponding ratio, at least in a very striking one. The present beauty and elegance of various sorts of manufactured articles, might be themes for poetry. Every thing in nature, that is delightful to the eye, is successfully imitated by them. Commerce moreover, by opening and maintaining a ready and constant inter- course between the remotest people, as well as between those more contiguous to each other, has contributed greatly to the benefit of our race, by rendering stranger nations known to one another, and hostile ones friendly, and thus advancing civilization, liberalizing the human mind, adding to its stores of knowledge, and, in some measure, converting the entire family of man into one great society. A further advantage resulting from it is, 31 that it surpasses all other civil pursuits, in giving hardi. hood and enterprise to those who are concerned in it. Nor is this all. The fleets of merchantmen, that tra- verse the ocean, and whiten every sea and harbour with their sails, constitute a striking feature in the grandeur of the times, and thus, on well known principles, tend to elevate human thought, and improve human feeling. It is when man associates with grovelling objects, that he is most prone to grovel himself By the converse of this, every thing of elevation and magnificence has an ameliorating influence. But I must proceed no further in detail. Time for- bids it. Yet many important points of improvement re- main unnoticed. To a few of them I shall briefly refer. Appalling as its operations still are, the aspect of war is less repulsive, and its general character is greatly amended. There is in it much less of savage ferocity, than there was a century ago. The warrior has ex- changed his thirst of blood, for an honorable ambition of victory. And when he conquers, he generously for- gets the foe in the captive. War moreover has much more of science in it, than it had formerly. To be a great and accomplished Leader, is now to be a highly cultivated man. Besides, by far the most splendid mili- tary and naval spectacles, that the world has witnessed, were the product of the century I am considering. And, as already observed, all that is grand has an elevating influence on the human character, and tends, by a law of nature, to assimilate it to itself. One of the late achievements of war promises to lead to very important results. I allude to the conquest and colonization of Algiers. That event is the commence- ment of the overthrow or reform of the powers of Bar- bary. Christendom will not much longer be drained of her blood or her wealth, by their piracies, nor condemn- ed to the more degraded condition of being tributary to them. Unless their ferocious hordes become civilized, they will be exterminated, or driven from the seacoast. 32 and compelled to subsist by some sort of industry, or perish, in the interior. But this is not all. The conquest of Algiers is but the first of a series of events, which is to produce a revolution in the condition of Africa. It cannot be in the destiny of thilg. that that continent is to remain for ever a hidden and unproductive waste. It will he here- after fully explored. its resources will lbe brought to light, and its plains cultivated, and it will yet be the dwelling place of civilized and powerful nations. And to that issue, in the prospect of w hlici philanthropy and science rejoice, the conquest of Agiers will essentially con- tribute. It constlutes therefore an important event in the Century of Washington. The surt)ression of the slave-trade in part, and the arrangements made to suppress it altogether, and ulti- matelv to abolish slavery, are likewise events that ought not to be forgotten, on the present occasion. They tes- tify to the advancement of nations in justice and hu- manity, and constitute an element, not only pleasing, but of great value, in tihe moral improvement of the age. They should be doubly esteemed and rejoiced in by Americans, because they were first projected in our own country. The scheme of African colonization is another event, that deserves to be cited. Be its issue what it may, that enterprise had its origin in praiseworthy mo- tives. And similar ones continue to cherish it. To say nothing of its hurnaiiity, justice, and salutary policy, there is a moral sublimity in it peculiarly impressive. To convert the ignorance and barbarism of Central Africa, which had hung like a mildew on it for ages, and were once deemed as immovable as its mountains, into knowledge and civilization, with all their concomi- tants of comfort and elegance-to change its unproduc- tive and frowning wilds into fruitful fields and smiling gardens-to erect towns and cities in its deep solitudes- to make idleness in it yield to industry, and to substitute 33 free government for despotic rule to attempt these things, is a glorious effort. Success in it would be a victory over that which the world has thought invinci- ble. The military conquest of nations has nothing of grandeur to bring into competition with it. The very conception of it tends to assimilate the human mind to itself, and fit it, by fresh-inspired vigour, boldness, and enthusiasm, for the great enterprise. Nor is this all. The project has something sacred in it. It resembles the restoration of the Jews to the olive-groves of Pales- tine. After ages of absence and slavery, to return the liberated African to the land of his Forefathers, where he may visit their tombs, however lowly, moisten them with his tears, and ultimately mingle his ashes with theirs-to attempt this, is a work of affection, with a tincture of romance in it, to which all that is humane and magnanimous in our nature must wish success. Another project, lately originated, which has already done not a little, and promises to do much more here- after, for the benefit of man, is the institution of socie- ties for the suppression of intemperance. But it is to be lamented that, as yet, its scope is too limited. Hith- erto its efforts have been directed only against intem- perance in drinking. Intemperate eating has been, in no shape, assailed by it, but is passed unnoticed as if it were innocent. Is it so Let half of the diseases of our own country, and of every country, where abun- dance prevails, answer; and their reply will be negative. Their very existence gives that reply; for they are the offspring of intemperate eating. True; the destructive effects of intemperance in drinking, on the comparative- ly few, who practise it, are more sudden and obvious. The desolation, moral and intellectual, as well as cor- poreal, which it produces, is deeper and more disgusting. It is therefore more degrading, and of worse example. But the greater frequency of intemperance in eating, es- pecially among those who are not compelled to labour, brings the aggregate of its mischief much nearer to an 34 equality with that of intemperance in drinking, than i6 generally imagined. Could a thorough investigation of the subject be had, it would be found, that in the United States generally, and among the wealthier classes of other countries, the number of intemperate eaters, in- cluding those of each sex, and every age, surpasses that of intemperate drinkers, in the proportion of more than a hundred to one. Intemperate eating, with its train of evils, is rarely noticed; intemperate drinking al- ways is. Hence, the former is the more insidious enemy of the two. While our Knights of the Water-Cup, then, are tilting so valiantly, and I rejoice to say, so sucessfully, and levying such a crusade against brandy, gin, and whis- key, they will lay society under additional obligations, of no less weight, by condescending to break an occa- sional lance, with Cayenne, pepper, horseradish, and mustard, and their more substantial associates. Nor should they forget, that, in the business of reform, exam- ple is preferable to precept. The establishment of Bible, Tract, Missionary, and Peace Societies, belongs also to the century I am re- viewing. And whatever may be their issue, they are the fruit of philanthropic and pious intentions, and are therefore entitled to a respectful notice, in an account of the efforts made and the schemes devised, for the ben. efit of man. The progress made in the knowledge of ANTIQUITIES, during the last hundred years, deserves to be honorably spoken of. Within that period the wonders of Hercu- laneum and Pompeii, as well as of other long-buried ruins in Italy, have been brought to light. So have ma- ny of the arcana of ancient Egypt, which had slumbered for thousands of years, in the pyramids, temples, and catacombs, and under the hieroglyphical characters of that singular country. The classical regions of Greece have been also more successfully explored, than in pre- ceding times; and more reasonable views have been 35 formed of the ancient condition of our own continent, by inquiries respecting the mounds, pyramids, and other ruins of the United States, Mexico, and Peru. In matters of RELIGION, bigotry, superstition, and in- tolerance have been shorn of much of their influence, and are giving way to more enlightened and liberal opinions, and a better state offeeling. Christianitybeing already freed from much of the militant temper and ty- rannical dogmatism, by which it was once so repulsively characterized, and rendered so unworthy of the followers of HiM, whose life was such a model of meekness and charity, that, even when "reviled, he reviled not again"- under a change so encouraging, there is reason to hope, that it will become ultimately, in practice, what it was originally proclaimed to be, in spirit, a message of "peace and good will to man." Notwithstanding the splendour of the Augustine age of Anne, in England, and of Louis XXV, in France, LITERATURE has been greatly improved, during the Century of Washington. The Literature of Germany, which is scarcely surpassed, at present, by that of any other nation, haA been created within that period. So has that of Russia, as far as it has advanced. But to speak of the Literature of the most cultivated people. One hundred years ago, no great work, possessing all the requisites of history, had been written either in the English or the French language. Since that date, se- veral such have appeared, which would have been con- spicuous in Greece, when she was the literary mistress of the world. As respects the literature of our own country, there is no just ground for the censure so illib- erally and maliciously thrown on it. Though not yet mature, its promise is ample; the abundance of its blos- som foretells a harvest distinguished in opulence; and it has already advanced far beyond what its most sanguine friends had reason to anticipate. We have not comple- ted our fifty-sixth year, as a nation; and yet we have mary able and elegant writers. Considering our youth, and 36 the many obstacles which have operated to retard our success, in the labours of the study, our progress in crea- ting a national literature is unprecedented. The world may be safely challenged, to furnish a parallel to it. Though the productions of the American pen may want the polish of perfect scholarship, they are rich in mascu- line thought, and clothed in a nervous and perspicuous style. The United States contain, at present, but little more than four times as many inhabitants as they did at the close of the revolutionary war; yet they have twenty tones as many good writers. Encyclopuedias, those vast repositories of learning and science, have also originated within the time I am speaking of Nor is this all. Magazines, Museums, Reviews, and the entire class of Periodicals, which have done more for the improvement and diffusion of Letters, than all other productions, had scarcely an existence, a century ago. Yet, it is chiefly through their instrumen- tality, that, for the last forty years, the influence of the press has been all but omnipotent. And never, until the era of the "Great Unknown," had the full power of moral fiction and dramatized history been put forth and felt. It is in the course of the same century, that the STAGE has been converted into an elegant and instructive school of morality and taste. It is not true, as has been boldly charged against it, that, within the last sixty or seventy years, that institution of genius and fancy, has been a source of licentiousness. The splendour of its exhibi- tions has been so free from indecency and moral pollu- tion, that delicacy and virtue have ceased to condemn it. and been compelled to admire. Since the reform produced in it, by Garrick, it has been, not merely a scene of innocent and delightful amusement, but a place of resort to refine manners, improve language and style, and contribute to the elevation of sentiment and thought. It has elicited moreover some of the happiest efforts of the human mind. In proof of this. I refer to many of 37 the productions of the dramatic muse. That, at an ear- lier period, the Stage had been impure and demoralizing, 1 readily admit. Hence its condition then,compared with its present condition, confirms the reform, for which I am contending. The improvements made in Music, within the last hundred years, are peculiarly striking Almost all the distinguished composers and performers, in that branch, belong to the Century of Washington. In proof of this, the names of Haydn, Handel, Mozart, Gluck, Beetho- ven, and others, might be mentioned. It is especially within that period that music has been brought to such perfection, as to swell the mind with thought, as well as to inflame it with passion, and inspire it with sentiment. We are told, by one poet, that Orpheus not only tamed wild beasts, and drew forests after him, by the enchant- ment of his lyre, but so far propitiated the Infernal Powers, as to "half redeem his lost Eurydice." "A conquest how hard, and how glorious! "Though Fate had fast bound her, "With Styx nine times round her, "Yet Music and love were victorious." By another, we are informed, that "old Timotheus," by the same art, "raised a mortal to the skies," and St. Ce- cilia "brought an angel down." There is reason to believe, however, that were those musicians now living, they would be novices in musical science, and but hum- ble performers in Concerts and Operas. So would the professors of the art, who flourished in more modern times. Some of the other Fine Arts, especially painting, en- graving, and modelling, have been also very highly im- proved, both in taste and manual execution. This is particularly true of the drawing and engraving of maps, a most important branch of practical geography. With- in the same period the beautiful art of lithography has been invented, and brought almost to perfection. These inventions and improvements contribute greatly to the F 38 gratification of the cultivated portion of the community, and the instruction of all, who make them objects of at- tention. They facilitate the diffusion and perpetuation of the likenesses of distinguished men, animals, and things, in a degree not conceived of even fifty years ago. I need scarcely add, that they are eminently subservient to the advancement of Botany and Natural History, and every other kind of knowledge, in which plates may be usefuL Much is said of the personal elegance, gracefulness of mien, and courtesy of manners, of ladies and their knights, in the times of chivalry. But the representa- tion to that effect has reached us chiefly through ro- mance. Sober history does not ratify it. To say the least in dispraise of them, the nations of Europe, du- ring the feudal and chivalrous ages, were tinctured with grossness, not to call it barbarism. Their sports, customs, modes of life, and entire character are proof of this. True refinement of manners was unknown to them. To that delicacy of deportment, tempered cheerfulness, and cultivated sentiment, which consti- tute the charm of polished society, they were strani- gers. They wanted manly gentleness; and their wit was rough, and caustic, rather than sprightly and play- ful. In conversation, they were prone to contentious- ness; and their arrows of attack and defence were not only barbed, but dipped in vinegar, if not poison, ra- ther than in oil. Their social intercourse had nothing of finished breeding in it. Notwithstanding their parade of devotion to the Fair, they were comparatively insen- sible to the reclaiming power of female virtue, and the softening influence of female manners. Their banquets were always scenes of boisterous carousal, and often of blood. And, if the weapons used, and the greater splen- dour and ceremony attending them be excepted, their tournaments differed materially in but two points from the present boxing matches in England. They proved oftener fatal; and the combatants engaged in them were 39 men of rank. The sports and amusements of high-life then, were similar to those of low-life now. The gorgeousness that every where prevailed, during the reign of Elizabeth, was as tasteless as it was glitter- ing. It was but as "Columns blazing in barbaric gold." The Queen herself was a miserable specimen of female refinement. Even in the court parties of Louis XIV and XV, and other contemporary monarchs, acts were often done, and expressions indulged in, which would now be deemed rude and offensive in common society. In a word; female delicacy, grace and beauty of the highest order, genuine courtesy and refinement of man- ners, and all else that now constitutes the charm of the best bred and most cultivated circles, are to be found only within the period I am considering. Were Mary, Queen of Scotts, by far the most fascinating woman of her age, now living, with the personal and mental quali- ties she possessed, united to her manners, she would be surpassed in beauty, accomplishments, and loveliness, by thousands of her contemporaries. But the most invaluable improvement in science and practice, remains to be mentioned. It is that which has been made in the knowledge of human right, of legisla- tion and jurisprudence, and of the principles, organiza- tion, and administration of sound government. That improvement is so vast and diffusive, so universal in its relations, and so indiscriminate in its effects, that every one feels it. While nations in masses rejoice in its in- fluence, it brings comfort to the home of the humblest individual. and raises the occupant to the dignity of a man. It is the fulfilment of that law of our nature, whose promptings, though suppressed, can never be ex- tinguished, that man has a right, of which nothing but crime can deprive him, in his life and liberty, the exer- cise of his talents, and the fruit of his industry. Not only does this great advancement in human happiness 40 belong to the Century of Washington, but a large portion of it is the product of his own labours. As already stated, he did much more, by his counsels and actions, to amend the condition of his fellow men, than any other individual of the period referred to. The American revolution was the day-spring of human liberty and right, to the nations of the world. By unshackling the mind, as well as the body, it gave freedom, strength, and independence to thought, and prepared the way for the unexampled train of improvements which succeeded. Nor have these improvements been confined to any par- ticular branches of knowledge. Although more con- spicuous, and therefore more noticed, in some than in others, they have extended to all. The same freedom of action which invigorated the mind, and rendered it more efficient and successful in one pursuit, increased its efficiency in every one. Hence the period of time that has elapsed, since our revolutionary war, is distin- guished far beyond any other, of equal extent, in the amount of human improvement it has produced. But it is needless to dwell on the leading part which Wash- ington performed in that contest, and in the subsequent establishment of the federal government. He was the hero and hope of the one, and the great counsellor and administrator of the other. It may be assumed, as cer- tain, that without his aid, neither would have been so happily consummated as it was. Am I asked to specify some of the distinguished im- provements to which the American revolution has led I point,in compliance, to renovated christendom. France is free. In that great, but once subjugated empire, the clank of fetters, and unheeded groans in the dungeons of state, are no longer heard. A mighty people have risen in their majesty, dashed the sceptre from the hand that enslaved them, and assumed the privilege of gov- erning themselves. True; the nation is still in an agi- tated condition; and all that is desirable to it is not yet attained. But the good work is in progress, and will be 41 consummated, as certainly as darkness and error retreat on the approach of light and truth. The waters of the ocean do not cease to be troubled, the mordant the cloud and the tempest have swept by. But they subside by degrees, and the vessel, lately endangered, availing her- self of the breeze that remains, passes oii in safety. Spanish and Portuguese America have thrown off their foreign yoke, and a continent is liberated. And although the inhabitants have not yet realized all the blessings, which hope presented to them, wisdom will hereafter arrange and settle, and tithe and experience will mature their institutions, and tranquillity accompa- nied by prosperity will visit them. Thus will they be rewarded, by ages of happiness, for their efforts and suf- ferings, during a few years, in the cause of freedom. In Greece, the Cross is no longer compelled to do homage to the Crescent; nor the descendant of Phocion to submit his neck to the Turkish scimitar. That once enslaved country is again free; it may now look back, unstung by sentiments of self-reproach and abasement. to the deeds of the heroes of Marathon and Thermopike; and an opportunity is afforded it, to emerge from its de- gradation, take rank among nations, and resume and perpetuate its long lost glory. In Germany, though no revolution has occurred yet great advances have been made in the knowledge of natural rights, and constitutional government. Passive obedience is no longer the prevailing sentiment of the people, Nothing but the sword maintains, at present. the security of the throne. And that is obviously losing its power. The military will not long sustain their su- premacy. But a few years more. for the further diffu- sion of knowledge and spirit, and a single spark may kindle up a volcano, which shall convulse the empire. and terminate in it the existence of absolute rule. In Prussia, the grasp of despotism is weakened, and dangers threaten the House of Brandenburgh. From among his subjects, of almost every description, the 42 voice of reform, if not of freedom, reaches the ears of the successor of Frederick. Nor does it greet the royal listener in terms of homage, or tender to him a mes- sage of peace and security. Far from it. As subter- ranean murmurs foretell the earthquake, and a troubled ocean the coming storm, it warns him of approaching events, which will further circumscribe his power, or wrest it from him, and terminate his dynasty. In Spain, Portugal, and Italy, a spirit of freedom is gradually awakening, though as yet its efforts have been feeble and fruitless. But, once awake, that spirit never slumbers again; nor does it remain quiet, or retrograde in its course. Its vigilance and action are eternal, and its movement is forward, until the consummation of its purpose. Though an infant now, it will be a Hercules hereafter; and its first labour will be the extermination of Despotism. Even through the mists of Belgium and Holland, the knowledge of right, and the light of liber- ty have partially penetrated, and the inhabitants of those countries are slowly emerging from their degraded con- dition. What shall be said of Poland, the glorious but deso- lated country of Kosciusko and Skryznecki What pwan of praise can do justice to her valour or what depth of lamentation can equal her calamity Twice, during the Century of Washington, has the spirit of freedom performed prodigies there; and twice has it failed in the conflict with tyranny. But, is it extermi- nated No, truly; nor can it ever be. A belief to that effect can arise only from a want of knowledge of hu- man nature, and the history of nations. Revolutions may pau.e; but they never go backward. They keep pace with knowledge, whose progress no imperial man- date can arrest. Exterminate the awakened spirit of freedom from a heroic nation! As well may an effort be made, and a hope entertained, to dry up, by human meain. the waters of the ocean, or to extinguish, by a breath, the light of the sun. Would a failure in our 43 own revolutionary contest have extinguished the spirit of freedom in the heroes of Bunker's Hill, Saratoga, and York An intimation to that effect would be a slander on their memory. Thank Heaven! their love of liberty was not so frail. It was composed of "stern- er stuff," and made a part of their being. It was in- haled with their first breath, and could have expired only with their last. No, no! While a true Polish heart shall beat, that spirit will survive. No political merging of Poland in Russia will extinguish it. No temporising kindness or clemency will appease it. Nor will it be inactive. Though defeated twice, it will rally a third, a fourth, a fifth, and, if necessary, a hundred times, until its end shall be attained. It is irrepressible and immortal. The march of Liberty is as certainly onward, as the march of time. And, as one of the ef- fects of it, Poland will be free. She will rise, like the phrenix, in renovated splendour, and augmented vigour, from her own ashes, and be hereafter as triumphant, as she has been heretofore unfortunate. Nor is this all. From that disenthralled country of heroes and patriots, a spirit and a power will yet go forth, which shall strike the sceptre from the hand that has oppressed her. Let the Autocrat of the north (if not the present, some one of his successors) tremble on his throne! Poland will yet be avenged on him for her wrongs! She will yet convince him, that his dreams of perpetual domination are vain; that his yoke and fetters are only on her body; that her spirit is still unbroken, and free; and that he may as well attempt to compress, in his hand, the flick- ering fires of his own skies, as restrain that etherial essence from action. As the orb of knowledge rolls on, in its course, ac- companied, as it is, and ever will be, by a longing after liberty, Russia herself will be awakened, enlightened. and rendered sensible of what is due to man; and sixty 4 The aurora borealis. 44 millions of human beings will cease to submit to the nod of a mortal. The contest now pending is between Le- gitimacy and Right-fictitious power and real power- the assumed "DIVINE RIGHT" of kings and their minions to govern the people, and the positive DIVINE RIGHT of the people to govern themselves. Such, I say, is the nature of the contest, now existing in several nations; and which will arise hereafter, in every subjugated na- tion, as knowledge shall be extended. Nor can its is- sue be doubted. All rights of mere assumption will be overthrown and abandoned, and those of nature will prevail. This is as certain, as that the government of the universe is benevolent and just. It makes a neces- sary part of that government. But all the consequences of our revolutionary con- test are not yet recited. When we direct our eyes to the present scenes of the British empire, where com- paratively much of freedom has been enjoyed, what do we there discover A virtual, if not a positive revo- lution. To denominate the changes that have recently occurred, and which are still in progress, in that nation, a mere reform, is an abuse of terms. They are sap- ping the vital prerogatives of royalty, and transferring its authority to another source. If the public prints do not deceive us, the British government is paralyzed. Its power is much more completely in the hands of the people, than it was during the revolution of 1647, or at any previous or subsequent time of the power of Crom- well. It was then wielded by the military arm of the usurper. But it is as really in the hands of the people now, as if it were formally surrendered to them. There is reason to believe, that were it not for the numerous political "Unions" and "Associations," that have been lately established, anarchy, with its desolating train of concomitants, would overrun the kingdom. The mili- tary would be unable to preserve order. Nor, if recent events may be relied on, as evidence, is it altogether certain that they would be anxious to do so. But, be 45 that as it may, they are feeble, compared to the turbu- lent multitude. William is therefore but nominally a king; and, to retain even the title, he must conciliate the people. An attempt to control them, by arbitrary means, would cost him his throne; perhaps his head. That those great changes will be ultimately productive of good, I cannot doubt. But, through what calamities they may previously lead, no human foresight can dis- cover. The fires of Freedom are abroad on the high places. But, unless vigilantly watched, and wisely di- rected, they may swell to a conflagration ungovernable and indiscriminating-consuming friends and foes pro- nmiscuously. Such are a few of the most striking events, which, since the date of the American revolution, have changed and improved the condition of Christendom. Am I asked, whether they are all to be regarded as the effects of that revolution My reply is, yes; and I make it confidently. That achievement was the first act in the mighty drama, and prepared the way for all that has followed it. That it was peculiarly instrumental in the production of the French revolution, has never been doubted. Nor is it less obvious that it led to the revo- lution in Spanish and Portuguese America. And, to those who have-examined the subject, it is equally clear, that it had great influence in animating and strength- ening the spirit of freedom and reform, in the British empire; first in Ireland, and afterwards in England; and in exciting them to keener inquiries into the nature and foundation of human right. In fine; notwithstanding their reluctance to acknowledge the fact, it has been to those nations an unfading beacon-light, from which they have never withdrawn their eyes-their "cloud bv day, and their pillar of fire by night," to marshal them to the object of their wishes and hopes. Let it consum- mate its purposes when and where it may, the complete emancipation of the human powers began its career. in 16 the United States, on the 4th day of July, 1776. All movements before that period, important as they were. had been butpreparatory. Thus, by a spark from the altar of Freedom, in our own land, is a flame kindled up, in a distant one, to consume the unhallowed power that would have enslaved us. The " poisoned chalice" is returned to the " lips" of those who prepared it. Such is the course of retributive justice. Nations as well as individuals must submit to it. And time will render its sway universal. Throughout the earth, the years of despotism are numbered. And, in enlightened nations. they will be but few. These considerations testify to the power of the American revolution, as a moral and political event, and to the greatness and glory of Washington, as its Leader. As already mentioned, it commenced the real liberation of the human mind, and, in time, increased its energies, and added to its resources, by giving it wider scope and freedom of action. And thus followed, in a natural suc- cession of causes and their effects, the events that have agitated and astonished the world, and amended its condition. No matter how vast they were, or how wide- ly scattered over the globe, by sea or by land-whether in Europe, Asia, Africa, America, or even Oceanica- if they had any connexion with the French revolutiona- ry war, they had also an obvious connexion with ours. Had it not been for the influence of the American revo- lution, Napoleon would never have overrun Italy or Egypt, annihilated the Alps, as a barrier to his march, worn a diadem, invaded Russia, or expired a captive, on a rock, in the ocean. He would have run his course.. in comparative obscurity, a " - Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood." Bitt I feel that I have strayed too long, and too wide- ly, from my native land. Like a truant wanderer, weary of absence and travelling, I must now return to it, and quit it no more. In doing this, I realize somewhat of the sentiment of the poet, in his longing to close his life in the place where he was born. "And, as a hare, whom hounds and horns pursue. "Pants to the place. from whence at firs he flew, "I still had hopes, my long vexations past, "Here to return, anid die at home at last" Notwithstanding the changes and improvements, in other regions, during the Century of Washington, by far the greatest are those which occurred in his native country. And in the production of many of the most important of them, he was himself, as heretofore stated, the principal actor. They most faithfully therefore de- lineate his character, and most loudly and directly speak his praises. At the time of his birth, eleven feeble British colo- nies (afterwards increased to thirteen) without wealth or influence, unknown to fame, and almost strangers to each other, were scattered along the Atlantic border, from the forty-fifth to about the thirty-fourth degree of north latitude. As yet scarcely a cabin had been erect- ed on this side of the most easterly chain of the Blue Mountains. Nor did any but the boldest hunters ven- ture to penetrate into the wilds of the West. They were trodden only by the savage and his game. The entire valley of the Mississippi, and a large portion of the country between the Allegh any mountains and the Atlantic ocean were possessed by powerful tribes of In- dians. Between these and the colonists there raged a perpetual and unsparing war. So determined and fatal was the contest, that the latter sustained, at times, but a doubtful existence. Under such circumstances, it was scarcely possible for the colonies to be prosperous. To maintain themselves in comfort was all they could hope for. None but the most resolute and enterprising race of men could have done even that. Their chief pur- suit was agriculture. But that is a peaceful occupa- tion, and can never flourish amid the strife of arms. It 48 is the laurel that loves the unweeded mountain, while the olive clings; to the cultivated plain. Such, when Washington was born, was the condition of the colonies, whose entire population scarcely, if at all, exceeded a million. To speak of the early achieve- ments of that illustrious man, which, like the bright purple of morning, ushered in his day of glory, is not my intention. They make a part of history, and have been so often recited, and published in various forms, that no American ought to be ignorant of them. The old should dwell on them, in gratitude, for the services they rendered, the young should learn them, as models to imitate, and all should cherish them, in fond recol- lection, as the common property and pride of the nation. It is enough to say of them, at present, that, on all great and trying occasions, they bespoke the hero devoted to his country, and the welfare of his race. In protecting the frontiers from savage incursions, and in other in- stances of importance and peril, they were above all price. They were never sullied by neglect, or a failure in duty; and, on various occasions, they surpassed even hope. Washington was, for many years, a leading member in some of the provincial councils of his country. At length the war of the revolution occurred, and he rose, as a commander, to the summit of fame. Hence the inscription on the sword, presented to him by Frederick; " FROM THE OLDEST GENERAL, TO TIHE GREATEST GENERAL." But I cannot pause to depict his military ' Since the delivery of this Discourse, I have been not a little sur- prised, at hearing some gentlemen talking, as they thought, very wise- lybut, as I thought, very mistakinglv, about the "moderateness" of Washington's talents; especially his talents for war. They admitted, with all imaginable kindness and condescension, that he was "pru- dent" and a fortunate but not "' greater" than many other men would have been, in the station he held. A formal attempt to defend his superior greatnes in war, would be to admit the possibility that it was wanting in him. I shall not there- 49 career. Nor is it necessary that I should. It is too brilliant to be concealed from any eye, that desires to look on it. The path of day needs no emblazoning. Peace returned, and Washington exchanged the sword for the plough. As he had been recently the first among military Leaders, he now stood foremost, as a private citizen, and an enlightened agriculturist. Na- ture had formed him for pre-eminence in all he attempted. After a few years of political difficulties, a body of pat- riots and sages convened, at a threatening crisis, to de- liberate on measures for the public welfare, and he was at their head. The Convention was as able and august, as human wisdom and dignity could render it. The issue of its labours was the FEDERAL CONSTITUTION, one of the most profound and perfect productions of the human mind. It has been pronounced, both in Europe and America, the ablest state paper that was ever writ- ten. Yet, it is worthy of remark, that to secure its adop- tion, and implant it more deeply in the affections of the people, it was deemed important that a letter, recom- nendatory of it, from the Presiding Officer of the con- vention, should accompany it. Such was the deference fore make one. Yet his superiority might he shown in a very few words. 1. He never committed a military mistake. When his enemies (I mean his private enemnies) attempted to prove that lie did, they al- ways failed in their effort; and the mischief they meditated, recoiled on themselves. 2. No other commander ever (lid so much, vith s'mch slender means: [ might almost say, without meants. Such wvas the declaration of Fred- erick. 3. No other ever acquired and retained, to an equal extent, the af- fection and confide! ce of his arms; which rendered it a much more formidable weapon in his hand, than it would have been, under other circumstances. 4. No one was ever so successful, in the selection of offiers; a consideration showing his sagacity, and profound jmdgment of men. 5. No other ever gave such entire satisfaction, in his performanace of the duties intrusted to him. Such are some of the evidences of Washington's greatness in war; and they are irresistible. 50 paid to his opinion, on account of the confidence reposed in his wisdom and rectitude. The government went into operation, Washington oc- cupying the station of Chief Magistrate, by the undivided suffrage of the American people. In that respect he stood as perfectly alone, singled out for supremacy, by his high and faultless character, as in most others. No succeeding President has been unanimously elected; nor is it probable that any one will be hereafter. Great and victorious as he had been in the field, he was soon found to be equally distinguished in the cabinet. Though the times were perilous, and difficulties pressed on him from various quarters, his administration was triumphant- ly successful. Proof of this was found in the unexam- pled prosperity of the country. He, in a few years, sub- dued or propitiated the hostile nations of Indians, on our frontiers, and enforced on Great Britain the fulfilment of some of the articles of our Treaty of peace with her, which she had hitherto evaded. In consequence of the neutrality which he maintained, in the midst of the con- vulsions of war in Europe, the Americans became the commercial carriers for a great portion of the world. This privilege poured into the lap of our country such streams of wealth, as had rarely fallen to the lot of any people. It gave us moreover, in a short time, a com- mercial marine, equalled only by that of Great Britain. But this is not all. It was during the administration of Washington. that the great platform of practical govern- ment was laid, on which his successors have only had to build. And the more accurately they have built on it, according to the model which he prepared for them, the more successful have been their measures, and the more prosperous the nation. Every departure from it has been a source of inconvenience, if not of evil. Time and experience have proved, that its materials were as sound a- truth could render them. and its construction as skilfid, as wisdom could make it. Without intending the least disparagement tothe Presidents,who succeeded 51 him, I am justified, in saying, that his administration was original and inventive, while theirs was but imitative. Is any one inclined to ask, by what means he achieved so much, in the capacity of Chief Magistrate The an- swer is easy. He did it by devoting his own great mind and ample experience unremittingly and exclusively to the good of his country, and by selecting, as his coun- sellors and ministers, able and virtuous statesmen, who did the same. Wisdom, rectitude, and firmness char- acterized all his official transactions. He had no selfish partialities to sway him, nor any sinister purposes to serve; no friends to reward, by executive favours, and no foes to punish, by executive frowns, except the friends and foes of the Commonwealth. He remembered that he was clothed in authority, for the good of the people; not to subserve his own private views; nor the views of a party. Hence, party-cabal withered in his presence. I should rather say, that it never dared to approach him. The majesty of his virtues, and the deep indignation he was known to cherish, against corruption in all its guises, overawed it. He felt that the measures of his adminis- tration Were identified with the welfare of the entire pub- lic; not with that of a part of it; and he had a political as well as his personal conscience, whose purity was unsullied, whose eye never slumbered, and whose in- junctions he obeyed. Regarding it as the commissioned Vicegerent of his God, he consulted it in all things. His high duties alone engrossed his thoughts, and controlled his actions. This was true of him, in all the relations of his life. As a man he was above artifices, as a states- man guileless and full of resources, and, as an executive officer, inflexibly just. He was too proud to descend to stratagem, which is an open acknowledgment of a want of power. No dignified statesman, conscious of possessing power to compass his ends, by a direct course, will stoop to the devious one of chicanery and intrigue. Illustrious as was his example therefore, in the capacity of Commander in Chief of our revolutionary armies, that 52 which he exhibited, as Chief Magistrate of the Union, is infinitely more important to us. It has a much wider and deeper, as well as a more permanent influence on the nation at large, and bears more immediately on the private interests, and the character of every one. And none but those who are resolved to act in conformity to the principles which united in it, are worthy to be his successors in office. Nor is it possible for the experi- ment of a free representative government to be con- ducted to a successful issue, except under the adminis- tration of such Chief Magistrates. No matter by what name the government may be known, Republic, or Monarchy; if the head be impure, corruption will distil through the whole body, and disaster, if not dissolution must follow. If the President of the United States does not so entirely forego selfishness, as to merge his pri- vate feelings, whether friendly or hostile, in his public duties, he dishonours his station, is a traitor to the high trust reposed in him, and his influence and example, as The following extract from one of Washington's letters, from the strict tenor of which he never departed in practice, sets forth his views on this important subject. It would make an excellent motto, to be inscribed on a tablet, in gilded letters, and placed over the door of the cabinet-room, in the President's mansion. "1 I believe it is unnecessary for me to say, that when I accepted the important trust committed to my charge, by mv country, (the Presi- dency of the United States,) I gave up every idea of personal gratifi- cation that I did not think was compatible with the public good. Un- der this impression, I plainly foresaw that part of my duty which obliged me to nominate persons to offices, would, in many instances, be the most irksome and unpleasi. g; for, however strong my personal attachment might be to any one, however desirous I might be of giving him a proof of my friendship, and whatever might be his expectations, grotunded upon the amitv which had subsisted between tusI was fully determined to keep myself free from every engagement that could embarrass me in discharging this part of mv administration. I resol- ved that whenever I should be called to nomi ate persons for offices, I would do it with a sole view to the public good, and would bring for- ward those who, upon ereri. consideration, and from the best informa- tion I could obtain, would in my judgment be most likely to answer this great end." 53 tar as they prevail, fall like a blight on the prosperity of the nation. The avenging hand of History will hold him up to posterity, in deep contrast with Washington, stained in the colours of his own delinquencies, and, in union with the Arch-culprit of England, "damned to everlasting fame." Should a man, thus wanting in pa- triotism, ever be elevated to that august station, (which may heaven avert!) well might the indignant exclama- tion of the poet be applied to him; "'If such there be, go mark him swell, "For him no minstrel raptures swell, "lHigh though his titles, proud his fame, "Boundless his wealth, as wish can claim; "Despite those titles, power, and pelt; "The wretch concentred all in self, I Living, shall forfeit fair renown, " AEd, doubly dying, shall go down "'To the vile dust, from which he sprung. " Unwept, unhonored, and ulnsunlg." Having served, as Chief Magistrate, through two con- stitutional terms, Washington declined a third election, and retired once more to private life. But, I can follow him no further, except from his mansion to his tomb. He died soon afterwards, of an acute disease, in his six- ty-eighth year, with a constitution unbroken, and a mind unimpaired. This circumstance ought not now to be lamented. On the contrary, it is a subject of thankfil- ness and gratulation. Having already done enough for his own glory, and the good of his race, the time and manner of his death came in kindness to him. They saved him from the feebleness and infirmities of age, the occurrence of wvhich would have been distressing to him, and the manifestations of which, in such a man, it would have been painful to witness. They enabled him to consummate his high career, and be as great in his death, as lie had been in his life. And he was so. Like the tropical sun, lie wvent down in his brightness, unchilled, and unobscured, by a lingering twilight. Never was a deathbed scene characterized by more of moral sublimi- H 54 ty than his. His mind was serene and vigorous, his conscience peacefull, his resignation cairn and manly, his remembrances gratifying, his hopes lively ania en- couraging, and his fortitude heroic. He was as vcto- rious over all that is appalling in death, as he had been over the foes of freedom and lis country. With his own hand, which had so often achieved victory, in other scenes, he closed his fading eyes, and died as a man ought to do, who has devoted his life to the good of the world, and been always successful, and always pre- eminent. The event fell on the country, like an electrical stroke, and was every where felt as a great calamity. The na- tion lamented it with a sincerity and unanimity, equalled only by those of their admiration of HIM who was the subject of it. Never had man received before such fu- neral honours, as were paid on the occasion. They were the spontaneous offering of affection from six mil- lions of his fellow citizens. Nor did they arise from cal- culations of interest or favour. Nothing was to be gained by them. They were the fruit of remembrance, not of expectancy. Yet, moved by a common impulse, as if instinct with but one spirit, every section of the country engaged in them, with the warmth and venera- tion of filial love, and the solemnity due to religious ob- servances. In the performance of them, the nation pre- sented ONE VAST FUNERAL PROCESSION, in which all joined, and every one was a mourner. They were there- fore the heart-felt homage of the entire Union, to its CHIEF FOUNDER, and GREATEST BENEFACTOR. "Such honours Ilion to her HERO paid; " And peaceful slept the MIGHTY HECTOR'S shade." This is literally true; and, as far as I am informed, it is unique. I have no recollection of the same act being done for himself, by any other dying man. APPENDIX. IT was the intention of the author of this Discourse to include in it a comparative view of our country, its population and general con- dition, at the period of the birth of Washington, at the present period, and at that of his next centennial birth-day. The following sketch of the comparison was even prepared. Bit, there being no suitable place for it, in the body of the Discourse, it is added, in the form of an appendix. A moment longer, and I shall close my Discourse. Let us devote that point of time to a passing contemplation of what our country was, when Washington was born, what it is now, as the result, in no small degree, of his labours and high example, and what it is likely to be, on the next centennial celebration of his birth-day. In 1732, what now constitutes the United States, held nothing but a border-population. It consisted, as already mentioned, of a few infant colonies, thinly scattered along the Atlaitic coast, without wealth or other resources, struggling for existence with a savage foe, unacquainted with each other, strangers to fame, disregarded and un- felt by the rest of the world, and dependent on Great Britain for many of the comforts, and all the luxuries and elegancies of life. It is now an enlightened and high-spirited nation, with a population of thirteen millions and a half, enjoying freedom and self-government, reposing in the lap of peace and prosperity, rich in fame, great in power and influence, flourishing in agriculture, rising in arts and man- ufactures, covering the ocean with its vessels of war and commerce, abounding in wealth and all the other elements of natianal grandeur and refinement, and advancing rapidly to more exalted destinies, un- der a form of government, which constitutes the admiration of every free and cultivated people. What will it be, on the 22d of February, 1932 In meditating an answer to this question, human foresight fails, and imagination shrinks from the effort. The task must be re- served for the orators and poets of that day. And they will be found wanting in it, unless their powers shall be inordinately great. The theme will be overwhelming, even when all the elements of it shall be before them. One prediction however may be fearlessly hazarded. Let union be preserved, and the government administered on the principles of Washington, and, by the day referred to, the United States will be the greatest nation that the sun has shed his beams on. In the pride of its power, the Roman empire was dwaifish to it. Its popu- lation will be two hundred millions,densely spread out from the Lakes to the Gulph of Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the Pacifio ocean 56 And, hb turnpikes, canals, steam-boats, and rail-roads, this nighty mass will be consolidated into one communitv, each portion of which ivill be virtually in contact with every other, as well as with the whole. Its unity ill he the niore complete, and its compactness and power the greater, from its speaking the same language. To consummate its strengtlh, efficiency, and grandeur, it will be enlightened and free. As an obstruction to its practical operations, neither the Alleghany nor the Rocky Mountain s will have then an existence. While their phy- sical sublimity and magnificence, and all their benefits, in the for- mationof rivers, the variation of climate and soil, and the production and support of a corresponding diversity in the vegetable and animal kingdoms shall remain, they will be passed over as easily as plains or prairies. From its command of the ocean, moreover, by its naatch- less navy, every section of the globe will be open to the enterprise of the nation, atid sensible of its power. Such, I saY, will be the effect of the permanent adhesion of the States to each other, and their continuing to be governed on the same principles, which shed such a lustre on the administration of Wash- ington, and are so forcibly inculcated in his Farewell Address. But, let them be divided into separate governments, and engaged in re- peated wars with one another, like the States of ancient Greece, and not only will their attainment of greatness and glory be prevented, and their prosperity destroyed, but some modern Philip may arise, and ..uiijugate the whole of them. 1 recognize, therefore, the united voices of Patriotism and Virtue, in the indignant exclamation, which breaks on the car of fancv, " Wit hrced be the arm that would sever the Union, or subvert its governunent, and palsied the tonge thliat loould advise itt"