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Mammoth Cave and its inhabitants, or, Descriptions of the fishes, insects and crustaceans found in the cave / with figures of the various species, and an account of their allied forms, comprising notes upon their structure, development and hab habits, with remarks upon subterranean life in general ; by A.S. Packard, Jr., and F.W. Putnam.
Mammoth Cave and its inhabitants, or, Descriptions of the fishes, insects and crustaceans found in the cave / with figures of the various species, and an account of their allied forms, comprising notes upon their structure, development and hab habits, with remarks upon subterranean life in general ; by A.S. Packard, Jr., and F.W. Putnam. Packard, A.S. (Alpheus Spring), 1839-1905. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-269-32003557 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mammoth Cave and its inhabitants, or, Descriptions of the fishes, insects and crustaceans found in the cave / with figures of the various species, and an account of their allied forms, comprising notes upon their structure, development and hab habits, with remarks upon subterranean life in general ; by A.S. Packard, Jr., and F.W. Putnam. Packard, A.S. (Alpheus Spring), 1839-1905. Naturalists' Agency, Salem [Mass.] : 1872. 62 p.,  leaves of plates : ill. ; 24 cm. Coleman Chapters I-III first published in the American naturalist, Dec., 1871, Jan.-Feb., 1872; chapter IV, "Synopsis of the family Heteropygii," pub. in the Annual report of the Peabody Academy of Science for 1871. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1995. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN05109.09 KUK) Printing Master B92-269. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Cave animals. Heteropygii. Mammoth Cave (Ky.)Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915. T II E: MIAl MMOlT H CAVE AN D ITS IN H-1-A BITAN-TS, OR DESCRIPTIONS OF TIlE FISHES, INSECTS AND CRUSTACEANS FOUND IN THE CAVE; FITH FIGURES OF TIlE VARIOUS SPECIES, AND AN ACCOUNT OF ALLIED FORMS, COMPRISING NOTES UPON THEIR STRUC- TURE, DEVELOPMENT AND HABITS, WITH REMARKS UPON SUBTERRANEAN LIFE IN GENERAL. BY A. S. PACKARD, JR., AND F. W. PUTNAMI, EDITORS OF THE AMERICAN NATURALIST. PRINTED AT TIHE SALEM PRESS. Corner of Liberty and Derby Streets, SALEM, MASS. F. W. I'LTNA N & CO. PER E F -A C E. THE following pages were first p)ublished in the " Ameri- can Naturalist " for December, 1871 and Jamnlary, 1872, with the excej)tion of the Synopsis of the fatmily including the Blind fishes of the cave, which 'as first published in the " Annual Report of the Peabody Academy of Science for 1871." In bringing- the several articles together in the plresellt form but slight chlanges have been made, p)rincipal:ly in the form of a few additional notes. It will undoul)tedly be the good fortune of some visitors to the cave to discover other kinds of animals than those nlentiolle(l in the following pages, and to observe new facts relating to the habits of the various species. For it must be reiiiemnbered thrat all the observations thus far recorded have been made by but a very few of the thousands wlho annually visit the Mammoth Cave, and that no thorough zo- ological exploration of the cave has yet been undertaken. Should any new flacts be observed, or unknown species dis- covered, the authors of this little work would be pleased to be informed of them, and communications oni all such matters are solicited for publication in the pages of the A'MERICAN NIATURALIST. THE AUTHORS. PEABODY ACADE.MY OF SCIENCE, &eleu, Jlcss., Feb. 1872. This page in the original text is blank. THE MAMItOTI-T CA-VE AND ITS IN'HABIrANTS. CHAPTER 1. THE FORMATION OF TIHE CAVE. BY F. W. PUTNAM. AFTER the adjournment of the meeting of the American Associ- ation for the Advancement of Science, held at Indianapolis, in August last, a large number of the members availed themselves of the generous invitation of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company, to visit this world renownedl cave, and examine its pe- culiar formation and singular fauina. The cave is in a hill of the subearboniferous limestone forma- tion in Eidmondson County, a little to the west and south of the centre of Kentucky. Green river, which rises to the eastward in about the centre of the state, flows westward passing in close proximity to the cave, and receiving its waters thence flows north- westerly to the Ohio. The limestone formation in which the cave exists, is a most in- teresting and important geological formation, corresponding to the mountain limestone of the European geologists, and of con- siderable geological importance in the determination of the west- ern coal fields. We quote the following account of this formation from Major S. S. Lyon's report in the fourth volume of the Kentucky Geological Survey, pages 509-10. "The sinks and basins at the bead of Sinking creek exhibit in a striking manner, the eroding effect of rains an(d frost - some of the sinks, which are from forty to one hundred and ninety feet (5) From the AMERICAN NATURALIST for December, 1871. FORMATION OF THE CAVE. deep, covering an area of from five acres to two thousand. The rim of sandstone surrounding these depressions is, generally, nearly level; the outcropping rocks within are also nearly horizon- tal. Near the centre there is an opening of from three to fifteen feet in diameter; into this opening the water which has fallen within the margin of the basin has been drained since the clay when the rocks exposed within were raised above the drainage of the coun- try, anul thus, by the slow process of washing and weathering, the rocks, which once filled these cavities, have been worn and carried down into the subterranean drainage of the country. All this has evidently come to pass in the most quiet and regular manner. The size of the central opening is too small to admit extraordinary floods; nor is it possilble, with the level margin around, to suppose that these cavities were worn by eddies in a current that swept the whole cavernous member of the subearboniferotis limestone of western Kentucky; but the opinion is probable that the upheaving force which raised these beds to their present level, at the same time rupltured and cracked the bIds in certain lines. that after- wardls the rains were swallowed into openings on these fractures, producing, by denudation, the basins of the sinkhole country, and further enlarging the original fractures by flowing through them, and thus forming a vast system of caverns, which surrounds the western coal field. The Miammotlh Cave is, at present, the best known, and, therefore, the most remarkable." So much has been written on the cave and its wonders, that to give a description of its interior would be superfluous in this connection, even could we do so without unintentionally giving too exaggerated statements which seems to be the natural result of a day underground, at least so far as this cave is concerned, for after reading any account of the cave, one is disappointed at finding the reality so unlike the picture. As the Association party was accompanied by one who, while a most enthusiastic collector and explorer, was also a calm recorder of statements made by the geologists of the party, we cannot do better in conveying to our readers the general geological character and structure of the cave than to copy his account. " As we expected to remain within the cave a long time, our trusty guide, Frank, had provided himself with a well-filled can of oil, to replenish our lamps, and with this strapped upon his back lie led the way into the thick darkiless. We shall attempt no description of the cave. Its darkness must be felt to be ap- preciated, and no form of expression, understood by mortals who have never descended to its cavernous depths, nor trod its gloomy W. P. FIsHBAcIc, Esq., of the Indianapolis Daily Journal. 6 FORM1ATION OF THE CA1VE. corridors, can convey anything like an adequate i(lea of the place. After spending fifteen hours within its chambers, it is absolutely nauseating to read the descriptions which have bseen current in the letters of newspaper corresl)on(lents for a quarter of a century, and even the vigorous and( pictiiresque language of Bayard Taylor becomes tame and commonlplace when it attempts to (lescribe this subterranean wonder of the worl(. How and when the cave was lnadle, were the leading questions in the min(ls of the geologists. They (1o not believe that the cave was the immediate result of some violent upheaval of the strata, which left these vast crevices and chambers of which the cave is composed ; neither (lo they share the poplular b)elief that the rapid and violent action of some subterranean stream of water has worn these deep channels throuigh the limestone ; on the contrary, they find conclusive evidence that the same agencies are at work and the same changes in plrogress to-(la that lhave been slowly, steadily and quietly, thlrouirhL vast lperiodls of time. accomp)lishing the marvellous won(lers that now astonish the beholder. The cave is wrought in the stratuim known as the St. Louis limestone, which in some lplaces reaches a thickness or depth of four hundred feet. This stone is dissolvedl whenever it is subjected to the influence of running or dripping water impregnatedl vith carbonic acid gas. Water expose(l to the air readily absorbs this gas, and surface water percolating through small fissures of the limestone, (lissolves it. Another fact should be state(l. When, (luring this lprocess of so- lution, the water becomes thorougilly imnpregllate(l with lime, it loses its power to dissolve the stone. The following conditions, then, were.essential to the l)rodluctions of the cave, assuming lhat is not disputed by geologists, that the place where the cave now is, was once nearly solid limestone. First, that there should l)e fis- sures in the strata, allowing the ingress of the surface water. Sec- ondly, there should be a l)lace or places of exit for the water charged with limestone in solution. WVithotut the latter, the water would become charged with lime, fill tup the crevices, and the (lissolving process would cease. These condition-s are all present to-dlaV, and have remained the same (luring the countless agres that heave passed awav while the work has b)een in progress. There have (lommbtless been times in the history of the cave, when, owing to a greater flow of water, the work has progressed more raj)i(lly thlalm at plres- ent, b)ut that the results have been accomplished in the maniier state(l, rather thmn by the proce-s of attrition by rapid currents of large volumes of water, seems to be the general opinion of scien- tifie men. This theory is strengthened by the fact thlat vhere the cave attains its greatest heights, andl reaches its lowest (lepiths, the dripping waters have never ceased their labors, an(l are busily at work to-(lay. In the Mammoth Dome, for instance -rarely seen bv visitors, on account of the dangers and fatigute incident to the journey - where the chasm attains a height and depth of more J FORMATION OF THE CAVE. than two hundred and fifty feet, a cascade falls from a great height, and keeps the entire surface of the rocks covered with dripping water. This, falling into a deep pit below, finds an exit through which it bears away a portion of the lime composing the rock. After a walk of thirteen hours, our guide informed us that he would conduct us to the Mammoth Dome if we felt able to bear the fatigue of the journey. Foot-sore and weary, we were not in a favorable condition for so arduous an undertaking, but Mr. Thomas Kite of Cincinnati, who had visited the locality thirty years ago, urged us to go, and told us the sight of this Dome was worth all the rest. Provided with magnesium and calcium lights, we crawled and climbed our way to the brink of the pit, the bottom of which was reached by a rickety ladder, slippery and dripping with water. A portion of the party descended, and when all were ready the lights were ignited, and the immense dome was revealed to us in all its majestic beauty. Upon our return, three hearty cheers were given to the good friend at whose earnest solicitation we under- took this part of our journey. We are indebted to Professor Alexander Winchell. of the Uni- versity of Michigan, for the following abstract of his views con- cerning the formation of the cave. "The country of the Mammoth Cave was probably dry land at the close of the coal period, and has remained such, with certain exceptions, through the Mesozoic and Cwnozoic ages, and to the present. In Mesozoic times, fissures existed in the formation, and surface waters found their way through them, dissolving the limestone and continually enlarging the spaces. A cave of con- siderable dimensions probably existed during the prevalence of the continental glaciers over the northern hemisphere. On the dis- solution of the glaciers, the flood of water which swept over the entire country, transporting the materials which constituted the modified drift, swept through the passages of the cave, enlarging them, and leaving deposited in the cave, some of the same quart- zose pebbles which characterize the surface deposits from Lake Su- perior to the Gulf of Mexico. Since the subsidence of the waters of the Champlain epoch, the cave has probably undergone compar- atively few changes. The well one hundred and ninety-eight feet deep, at the further end of the cave, shows where a considerable volume of the excavatory waters found exit. The Mammoth Dome indicates probably, both a place of exit and a place of entrance from above. So of the vertical passages in various other portions of the cave.' We believe that the views of Professor Winchell are in harmony with those of the other eminent geologists of the party, and when it is considered that the geologists of this excursion stand in the front rank of the most eminent scientific men of the world, their views upon this interesting subject are well worthy of attention. Before dismissing this branch of the subject, we will take occasion 8 FORMATION OF THE CAVE. to correct a popular error concerning the formation of the beauti- ful structures that adorn the ceilings of some portions of the cave. In the dryer localities, where the floors are dusty and everything indicates the prolonged absence of moisture, the ceiling is covered with a white efflorescence that displays itself in all manner of beautiful shapes. It requires no stretch of the imagination to dis- cover among these, the perfect forms of many flowers. The lily form prevails, and the ceilings of many of the chambers are cov- ere(l with this beautiful stucco work, surpassing in delicacy an(l purity the most beautiful workmanship of man. These are not produced, as many suppose, by the dripping of water, and the gradual deposit of sulphate of lime upon the outer portions. The stalactite is formed in this manner, but these are neither stalacti- form, nor are they produced in a similar way. Dripping water is the agency that forms the stalactite, while the efflorescence in the dryer portions of the cave cannot take place where there is much moisture. The growth of these beautiful forms is from within, anl(d the outer extremities are produced first. They are the result of a sweating process in the limestone that forces the delicate filaments of which they are composed through the pores upon the surface of the rock, their beautiful ctrve(d forms result- ing from unequal pressure at the base, or friction in the apertures through which they are forced. Mr. L. S. Burbank, of Lowell, Mass., has kindly furnished us with the following abstract of his opinions upon this interesting subject. 'The rosettes, wreaths, and other curve(l fibrous forms of gyp- sum, in the Mammoth Cave, occur only in particular strata of the limestone which (lo not appear in the first part of the long route. Their formation may be exl)lained in this way: that portion of the rock where they are found consists of carbonate of linme, with some impurities, and containe(l originally the stilphide of iron, or iron pyrites, disseminated in small grains or crystals, and also in rounded nodules or concretions, sometimes of considerable size. By exposure to air and moisture, oxygemi unites with both the sulphur and the iron, producing sulphuiric acid and oxide of iron. which combined, form a sulphate of iron. Then a double de- composition takes place; the sulphuric acid unites with the lime to form the gypsum ; the carbonic acid of the limestone combines with the oxide of iron, forming a carbonate of iron, and this, on further exposure, parts with the carbonic acidl, and leaves the brown coating of oxide, which is seen in many places omn the sur- face of the rock. The gypsum is thls constantly formihig in the rock, and, being soluble, is carried by the water to the exl)ose(l surface where it crystallizes. The crystals appear to grow out from the rock 1)y additions from beneath, which continue to push the ends first formed, an(1 if these do not become attached to other parts of the rock, straight needle- 9 AN'IMAL LIFE IN TIHE CAVE. like fibres are often produced. Very commonly, however, the crystals begin to form when a small nodule of the iron ore is ex- posed at the surface; the parts first formed become attached to the surface around the edges. and as the chemical action proceeds towards the centre of the nodules successive leaf-like layers are thrown out, and the rosette form is the result. Along lines of fracture in the surface of the rock, the crystals are curved in op- posite directions. The wreaths and other figures formed by the chains of the ro- settes, may be caused by the chemical action described taking place around the edges of large masses or concretions of the iron ore. These crystalline forms occur only in the dryer parts of the cave. Where there is more moisture, as in the ' Snow-ball room,' the gypsum merely forms white, rounded concretions, originating from nodules of the iron ore on the roof and sides of the cave."' With these general remarks on the cave we give a brief account of its interesting fauna, comprising representatives of the Fishes, Insects, and Crustaceans. No Mollusks nor Radiates have as yet been discovered, but the lower forms of life have been detected by Tellkampf, who collected several species belonging to the gen- era Jlonas, Chilomonas, and () Chilodon. 'In the following pages it will be noticed that the authors have expressed widely different views as to the origin of the peculiar forms of subterranean animals. 10 CHAPTER If. TUE CRUSTACEANS ANDr IN SECTS. BY A. S. PACKARD, JR. REPRtESEN-TATIV'ES of all the grand divisions of the Insects and Crustaceans have been found in this cave, and if no worms have yet 1)een detected, one or more species would undoubte(lly reward a thorouogh search. We will enumerate what have been found, beginning with the higher forms. No Ilymenol)tera (bees, wasps, and ants) or Lepi- doptera (moths) are yet recorded as being peculiar to caves. The Diptera (flies) are represented by two species, one of Anthomnyia (Fiig. 122) or a closely allied genus, and the see- Fig ond belonging to the sin- gular and interesting ge- nus Phora (Fig. 123). The species of Antho-t myia nsually frequentZ flowers; the larvw live in decaying vegetable mat- ter, or, like the onion fly, attack healthy roots; while thle maggots of 1 Phora live in decayingi substances. It would be Ahy prestlnhltuloIls in the writ- er to attempt to describe these forms without collections of spe- cies from the neighborhood of thle cave, for though like all the rest of the insects they were found three or four miles from thle mouth, yet they may be found to occur outside of its limits, as the eyes and the colors of the body are as bright as in other species. Among the beetles, two species were found by Mr. Cooke. The Froi the AMERICAN NATURALIST for December, 1871. (11) INSECTS OF THE CAVE. Anopthalmus Tellkampfii of Erichson, a Carabid (Fig. 124), and Adelops hirtus Tellkampf (Fig. 125) allied to Catops, one of the Silphidee or burying beetle family. The Anopthalmus is of a pale reddish horn color, and is totally blind; in the Adelops, which is grayish brown, there are two pale spots, which may be rudi- mentary eyes, as Tellkampf and Erichson suggest. No Hemip- tera (bugs) have yet been found either in the caves of this coun- try or Europe. Two wingless grasshoppers (generally called crickets) like the common species found under stones (Ceutho- philus maculatus Harris), have been found in our caves; one is the iadeoefcus subterraneus (Fig. 126 nat. size) described by Mr. Scudder, and very abundant in Mammoth Cave. The other spe- Fig. 1-24. cies is C. stygia Scudder, from Hickman's cave, near Hickman's land- Fig. 123. in-, upon the Kentucky river. It is closely allied to the Mammoth Cave species. Ac- cording to Mr. Scudder, the specimens of C. stygia were - J found by Mr. A. Hyatt " in Phora. X 00000000 k the remotest corner of Hickman's Cave, l Xf00000Xh in a sort of a hollow in the rock, not par- ticularly moist, but having only Fi 15 a sort of cave dampness. They were found a few hundred feet from the sunlight, living exclu- I 2 sively upon the walls." Even the remotest part of that cave is not so gloomy but that some adS lAnophthalmus Tellkampfii. sn sunlight penetrates it. The other species is found both in Mammoth Cave, and in the adjoining White's Cave. It is found throughout the cave, and most commonly (to quote Mr. Scudder) " about 'M artha's Vine- yard' and in the neighborhood of 'Richardson's Spring' where they were discovered jumping about with the greatest alacrity upon the walls, where only they are found, and even when dis- In Erhardt's cave. Montgomery Co., Virginia, Prof. Cope found "four or five spec- imens of a new Anopthalmus, the A. pusio of Horn, at a distance of not more than three hundred feet from its mouth. The species is small, and all were found together under a stone. Their movements were slow, in considerable contrast to the acti vity of ordi- nary Carabidae." Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 1869. p. 178. 12 INSECTS OF THE CAVE. turbed, clinging to the ceiling, upon which they walked easily; they would leap away from approaching footsteps, but stop at a cessation of the noise, turning about and swaying their long an- tennm in a most ludicrous manner, in the direction whence the disturbance had proceeded; the least noise would increase their tremulousness, while they were unconcerned at distant motions, unaccompanied by sound, even though producing a sensible cur- rent of air; neither did the light of the lamp appear to disturb them; their eyes, and those of the succeeding species (R. stygia) are perfectly formed throughout, and they could apparently see with ease, for they jump away from the slowly approaching hand, so as to necessitate rapidity of motion in seizing them." Mr. Henry Edwards has discovered a wingless grasshopper in a limestone cave at Collingwood, Massacre Bay, Middle Island, New Fig. 126. Hadenecus subterranets. Zealand. Says Mr. Scudder, who has described the species in the "1 Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History" (Vol. xii, 1869, p. 408) under the name Hadenmcus Edwardsii, "the cave is close to the sea shore, and near a very large coal deposit, which occasionally crops out in the interior. The HIadenowci were rather numerous, but very difficult to catch, disappearing in the crevices of the rocks on the approach of lights. They appeared to be most abundant near the streams of water which percolated through the rocks." The wingless grasshopper of the European eaves is the Hadenocus palpatus Scudder, first described by Sulzer under the name Locusta palpata. The Thysanurous Neuroptera are represented by a species of Machilis, allied to our common Machilis variabiUs Say, common in Kentucky and the middle and southern states. So far as Tell- 13 INSECTS OF THE CAVE. kamnpt's figure indicates, it is the same species apparently, as I have received numerous specimens of this widely distributed form from Knoxville, Tennessee, collected by Dr. Josiah Curtis. It was regarded as a crustacean by Tellkampf, and described under the njame of Triura caverniicola. lIe mistook the labial and maxillary palpi for feet and regarded F the nine pairs of abdominal spines as teet. Fig. ]27. The allied species, 311. ict riabilis Say, isi figured in vol. v. pl. 1, fig. 8, 9 (see also p. 94 of vol. v of the -NATUtRALIST). An interesting species of Campodeat of which the accompanying ctt (Fig. 127) is -, a tolerable likeness, tflotgh (lesignled to il- lustrate anothier species (C'. staplyliwts A W\estSt.) was discovered 1by M1r. Cooke. Both the Eturopean an(l otl common spe- cies live nd(ler stones in damp places, aiid the occurrence of this form in the water is I quite remarkable. The other species are blid(], and I coul(l (letect no eyes in the Mammlloth Cave slecimell. A small spider was captured by Mr. Cooke, but afterwvards lost ; it wvas brown Camp adea. in color, and possibly dlistiuct from the AnrtJ','oljat m'juuun0tl1iq Tellkf. (Fig. 128) which is an ev-eless form, white and very small, being brit half a lile in length. The family Profe-or Agt:s-iz in ki, brief notice of the Manmmoth Cave animials. does not (riti- cise Tellkampf', refei-ence of this animal to thle crustacea; and so eminent an authority upor the :li-ticnllates a, Schiddte remarks thalt while- Dr. Tellkamif's account atford. us no netals of forming amy concluision as to its proximiiate relations," that, however, it ' plapears to belong to the orier of Amphijodl. and to have a most remarkable structure." Tellkanmpf's figuire of M1achilis is entirely wrong in representing the labial alindmaxillary valii a-s ending in claws, thus giving the (reature a crustacean aspect; and ndeed lie d, scribes themt as trutie feet! t C0inpodef Cookei n. sp. Cloely allied to (C. Ainericana,but it is much larger; the an- tenn.e are 24-jointed instead of 20-jointedl as in C. Arnericean, and reach to the basal 0bldoininal segment. while in C. Amnericean they reach only to the second thoracic; the terminal joints are nailcth longer than in thwat species, the penultimate joint being one- third longer. Lait thr ee abdominllal segmentS unequal (equlal in C. Am7nerisana) the penul- tillmate very short, not half as long as the terminal, which is onger and slenderer than in C'. A'aaericoae, while the three ar-e miuch narrower in proportion to the rest of the body than in the other species. IHind femiora longer than in C. Amer;cana. Entirely white and pilose. Length 2.5 inchi the largest C. Aimericana being .15 to .20 inch. ,Anal sty- lets broken off.) ,everal specimens were seen by Mr. C. Cooke, but only ilie was cap- tureti in a ponl of water, two or three inches deel, in company with thle C: cidotea. 14 INSECTS OF THE CAVE. of Harvest men is represented by a small white form, described by Tellkamipf under the name of PIclalmigodes arhi(ata (Fig. 129) but now called Acaithocheir arCata Lucas. The body alone is but half a line long, the legs measuring two lines. It should be bJorne in mind that many of the spiders, as wvell as the Thysanura, live in holes and (lark places, so that we would naturally find themn in caves. So, also, with the Mvriopods, of which a most remarkable Eig. ]28. form (Figs. 130. alnid 130a front of head) was foundl by Mr. Cooke, three or four miles fromh the mou0tth of the cave. It V is the only truly hairy species known, an approach to it being 7 t , foundiiiPseitdotreisiia Vudii Cope. It is blind, the other spe- cies of this group which Protes- / J g sor Cope found living in caves hlaviniig eyes. The long hairs ar- Anthrobia monmouthia. range(l aloig the back, seemn to sutgest that they are tactile organs, and of more u-se to the Thotis- and legs in making its way about the nooksanld cranies of a per- pIetually (lark cave than eyes would be. It was found by Mr. Cooke under a stone. Prof. Cope has contributed to the IProceediti-rs of the Amnerican Philosophical Society" (18/6', ). 171 ) an interesting account of the Spirostrephon (.seudotreniie) (Copei n. sp. Head with rather short. dense hairs; no eyes, and no ocular depression behild the antennae. the smtrfae(e of the epicranitinm being well rounded to the antennal sockets; behind the insertion of the antennme the ii les o(f the head are much mtiore swollen thaui in S. lwctaris. Akntennie slenlder, with short thick hairs; relative length ot' joints, the 6;tl being lonigest; Qth. 4th. th. 3d, 5th, 7th, 1st, the 7th joint being nmiuch thi(ker thanx the 8th. Twenity-eight segments be-iles the heald: they are entirely smooth, striated neither longitudinally nor tran versely; a few of the anterior segments rapidly decrease in diameter towards the head. The segmients are but slightly convex, and on ectch side is a shoulder, bearing three tubercle, in a traits- verse row, each giving rise to a long stiff hair one-half to two-thirds as long as the seg- ment is thick; these hairs standl up thickly all over the back, and may serve at onice to distinguish the species. No pores. Feet long and slender, nearly als long .a, the au- tennre, being very slender towards the claws. Entirely wvhite. Length of body .35 inch; thickness 04 inch. It is nearly allied to Pseudotrenzia Vudil of Cope. It will le noticed that Profesor Cope characte-izzes the genuis Spirostrephon as having " no pores "; though we find it difficult to reconcile this statement with that of Wood who dlescribes S. inctarios as having 'lateral pores." ('ope sepalrates Pseuidoltremia frno niiirostrel)phi fiir the rea- son that the segments have '-twvo porue; on each side thec median lille." The pre:selnt species has no pores. but seems in other characteu-s to be a true Spirostrephon, and we are thus led to doubt whether Pseudotremia is a well foutnded genus. 1.5 INSECTS OF THE CAVE. cave mammals, articulates and shells of the middle states. Ile says that " myriopods are the only articulates which can be rea(lily found in the remote regions of the caves [of West Vir- ginia] and they are not very common in a living state." The Pseadoptreuiai caveriwnruto which he describes, "5 inhabits the deep- Fig. 123. Acanthocheir armata. est. recesses of the numerouis caves which abouind in Southern Vir- giinia, as far as human steps can penetrate. I have not seen it near theii mouiths, thouigh its eyes are not undevelopedl, or smaller than those of manv living in the forest. Juidging from its remains, which one finds under stones, it is an abundant species, though Fig. 130. 1 i - Fig. 130a. Spirostrephon Unpet. Spir-ostrephon Copei. rarel, seeil by the dim light of a candle even after considerable search. Five specimens only were procure(1 from about a dozen caves." Thie secon(1 species, P. Vadii Cope, was found in Mont- gomery Co. and he thinks it was not found in a cave. Professor 113yatt i nfornis me that he saw near the " Bottomless Pit" in Mam- 16 A X)- ;d 0f 0.,2 fa EAS W G CRUSTACEANS OF TIHE CAVE. inoth Cave, a brownvIish centipcle-like myriopoi. over all illch ill lellgth, which moved oil ill a raipid zigzag inotion. Umnlbmtmimiately lie di(l not capture it. Next to the ili mm fish, the lid(l crawlisli attracts the aIttelltiou of visitors to the cave. This is the (miotburs ql'leidu.s (Ii . m'r 1il, i. 18;1. froin II:n)eii's Diloiurniaphi of thle ( o ot II Aillericall t i ,Rstacidwls) fir.t dle- -seribedl h) 1)I. Tell- a n f. lie re- 1 na1lks tlht t II e eN-es are rulllieilmmt- amyW in 'thl ahlts' Z R. 1Lit ate 1ar .i''ii ill mi-h! ad(1(1 tha' t this lI ; it (Vile to ie theS 000;\f00t 0 h_ 1: ai teti 4)1h t(l, tlw e av- lOpits aike than-mimit tied totheir vouiiw, N P ,. ted toia the il Olllwr-, air, Itil tife tioi lmtioi tP'. x-CR of oil1pmiimlt that le- ]do Itie ltio e11 i'c'mnc a.wf (ir't l nlt'ill"i ()II t ile I :, habit. Thmis i S :t pmI t iall p 414Utl at lea-'t thaIt I le char- tilhe 2 'la1111 Sam pe- Ctutb'()4(SRt //l/ri/2tt. cies of a iii]minls are those ilmlherited from :ailmmlts, no0lifled by their phsic'1l miurroull(l- in s an I adaptations to chmanoinr conditions ot lile. im eimmr (ce- tamit alterations in parts which iave beenl tranismitte(l witi moule or 5MAM1M1OTH CAVE. 2 1,7 CRUSTACEANS OF THE CAVE. less rapidity, and become finally fixed and habitual. Prof. Hiagen has seen a female of CaGnbaras Barton il from Mammoth Cave. " with the eyes well (levelop1ed," andI a specimen was also found by Mr. Cooke. Prof. lIargn remarks that " C. pellacidias is the most aberrant species of the genus. The eyes are atrophied, smaller at the b1ase, conical, insteadl of cylin(drical an(d elongated, as in the other species. The cornea exists, but is small, circular, and not faceted; the optic fibres and the dark-colore(l pigments surrounding them in all other sl)e- cies are not develop)ed." It seems 32 difficult for one to imagine that our blind craw fish was createdl sud- denly, without the intervention of secon(lary laws, for there are the 0r1t-idea.Ytfyyia (idue view). eyes more 1perfect in the yo toyJ th(ot Fig. 133. the (adidt, thus pointing back to an- a k cestors unlike the species now ex- isting. We can now understand, why embryologists are anxiously studying the embryology of animals to see what or-gans or characteristics are inherited, and what originate (le novo, thus building up genealogies, and forming almost a new depart- ment of science: comparative em- bryology in its truest and widest sense. Of all the animals found in eaves, either in this country or Europe, perhaps the most strange aid unle0x- pected is the little creature of which Clvcidfea st yga (dorsal view). we now speak. It is an Isopod erus- tacean, of which the pill bugs or sow bugs arc examflle1C. A true species of pill bug (Titaiiethe.s illm.S Schii0"dlte) inhabits the caves of Carniolia, and it is easy to believe that one of the numerous species of this group may have become isolated in these caves an(l modi- fied into its present form. So also with the blin(l Nipharpis sty- gius cf Europe, allied to the fresh water Garnmarus so abundant in pools of fresh water. We can also imagine how a species of Asellus, a fresh water Isopodl, could represent the Idoteid.-e in our 1.8 CRUSTACEANS OF TIHE CAVE. caves, an(l one may yet be found ; but how the lpresent form 1e- came a cave dwveller is diffleult of explanation, as its nearest allies are certain species of Idotea wN-hich are all m11arine, w-ith the excep- tion of two species: I. entoaton, living ill the sea aiid also iii the lejlths of the Swvedish lakes, as discovered by Loven, the distill- ,Ttlishe(l Swedish naturalist, while a species re)resenting this has; been detected by Dr. Stiml)son. at the bottom of Lake M3lichigan. Our cave dweller is nearly allied to I(lotea, )but (differs in b)einlr blinld, and in. other particulars, and may be called Cvceiroteat sty- qia. (Fig. 132 side view, enlarged ; Fi-. 133 dorsal view ; b, in- ner antenna; c, 1st leg.) It wvas found creeping over the tine sandy bottom, in, company with the Camipodea. in a shallow pool of water four or five miles from the mouth of the cave. This closes our list of knowit articulates from this and other eaves in this country, the result of slight explorations lb a few in- (lividuals. 'I'he number will be (loubtless increased by future Fe- search. It is to be hoped that oar western naturalists will thor- ou ghly exlplore all the sinks and holes in the cave country of thle western and middle states. The subl-ject is one of the highrhest in- terest in a zoological point of view, and from the light it throws on the doctrine of evolution. Professor Schiddlte. the emfinent I)anish zoologist, has given us the most extendled ac('ount of tile cave fauna of Europe, which has been translated from the D)aisih into the Transactions of the Entomological Society of' London (new series vol. 1, 1851). Ile exarmine(l four caves; namely, that of Adelsber-, the Mao-- dalena and Ltuere caves, all in the neighlborhood of Adelsberg. Generic characters. head l:trga. much thi ker than the body and as long as broad subeyliuidr icil. routii(led in fr-oit. No eyes. Fir-t antenna: slender. .8-joinited ('d anitek- nxe broken off). Ab)dominal segments conisolidated into one pieie. l)itele- chielly lfronll Idotea, to which it is otherwise elosely allied, by the 8-jointed (in-tead of 4-jointed, l-t (inner) anteune, the very large head, and by t-ie ab-enre of any traces of the three ba- sal segments of the abdomen utisally present in Idotea. Specillc characters. Body smooth, pure white: tegument thin, the viscera appearing thi-ough. Head as wi-le as sUiceeding segment, and a little inore than twice as lnig. Inner antenumi minute, slenider. tile four basal joints of nearly equatl length, thougho thie fonuth is a little smaller thEla the basal three. remaining tmir joints mn-io smaller thanl others,. being one-h.tlt as thick andl two-thir(d a.ts long is either 1t tie four baal joint-: enlds of last fourJoints a little swollen. giving rise to two or three lnilr.; terminal jitni ending in a mote distimnt knob, and beharing five hairs. Segment of thorax very vdis- tiitct. suti-ues deeply incised; edges of segments pilose; abdomen flat above, ro)tuldedl behind, with a very slight median projection; the entire pair of gills do not reach to the end of the abdomen, and the inner edges diverge posterio-ly. Legs long anod -lell- der, 1st pair shorter. but no smaller tlian the secondl. Length .'5 inelh. 1!9 GENERAL REMARKS ON CAVE FAUNA. anl the Corneale cave at Trieste. The only plant foutnd was a sort of fungus, Byssus fildras Linn. Thle only vertebrate is the sin-tilar salamander, Ilylpochthoit (Proteus) mgint s, foulnd in the Maldalina river. No shells were fonud. Regardinog the artien- lates lie writes: "On searching along the walls within the entrance of the eaves, armong the rubbish and the vegetable (lebris along the sides of the river, we meet with a considerable number of Insecta, Myriopoda, Arachnida and Crustacea, of various families which shun daylight: being such species only as inhabit l)romisculously other places, )rovi(led the- are moist andl feebly illumille(l. We find species of Pterostichus, Pristonychus, Amara, Quiedius. Iloa lIota, Omalium, Iister, Triehopteryx, Cryptophagus, Atomaria, Ptinus, Ceraphiron, Belyta. a grasshopper of the Locust family, l)robably the Raph ido- pworc cac icolt Fischer, as it was only seen in the larva state, Tricll- op)tera. Sciara, Psvchoda, Phora, Hleteromyza, Sapromyza, Tomoce- rus, Linyphia, Gaimasus. Cryptops, Julis. and Asellus. In pro- l)ortion as we recede from the entrance the number of species as well as individuals greatly (lecreases, and at the distance which entircly excludes the light, only single individuals are found. In the deepest recesses these species are entirely wanting, except some few which have been transported by the current; only a few Diptera are founiid; namely, a species of Phora, verv near P. ma- cilatta 3Ieig., Ileteroimqyza flacipes Zett., and Salpromq-oza chrysopJh- thablm, Zett., extending also very far into the caves, eveil to the remotest accessilble places in Adelsberg cave, more than half an hour's walk from its entrance. Dead moths are occasionally found far in the caves, being left there by the bats; all likewise aeci- dental specimens of the parasites of the latter. Of the five ear- lier known animals which inhabit these caves, I found Pristonycha eleya.ns )ej. rather frequently, and I/eio lota speiwa Er. in consid- erallIe mnubers. Besides thlese are Anopvthralmus Sc7hn)idtii, which is very rare, anld the wood louse. Tifaietltes Atta. The new formns hie found wvere a beetle (Bith ysci(I bywssisia) allied to our Adelops ; StaJobbis trroglodytes. an aberrant gentus of S il)phids ; a Podulrid], Awe 'roplorwts Still;Lidii; and the two blin(l arachnidlans, one a spi- dcir allied to D)ysdera, the Stalita t(enaria, and( a false-spider. Blo- throus sl.pelwoes. Among the criistacea lie fou-nd XilpAr-gos 'stygis, t Ludu ig Miiilier enumerates four othere speciei of Aielop-c from the-e cave-, and three -peoie, fromrtn eFrance. and facldtrite'i sp-e1(.P iii verliailnl. Zool. Ieot. Vereins. '.Vienl I. p .4 .'s. ee alto Elellei'- letrage zur 6i-terrei i. Grotteun-Fainia. (Mvyrio- p la annd Cruit:tiea-) V ienin 1-.A Hle ale-.'ri ts 21 11ii )mol withi rilinientarv eve- TJ'!ehty.spheriau Senl4ifitii) lliedl t- ('Inleris.: in' blint!deh spevies- (Brachydes;ius subterr(a4Ceus) iltiedt to i'o1vle-itiu.; Ion a ;teiv Tithanethues ( '. graniger). aid notices Mowoli4tra CattfCa (erst. 'IWankel (ISil) Iio flotiltl a new Iha'liai gidt (Leiobun1444m trfl!/lo- d!, tes) ii itih di-tinet etv, anmd fou1r4 -eciesi of nliatei in the Cavyes (1 Easten An.ti'ria. The nt teC- Iie SrIlphails 8pehr4eus, I ittopodes .S1sbrrmnens, G(inwums lorik tus atnid G. nireus. amil n aduditaional speies of TaclhtN -ba'ria (''. Hfyrtlii). See alo Ehrenberg's 114 or czive in(eftt (1onitb-sberielite (lei, Xk1d. BIerlin. i54;i.) t several spec ies of Nipulairgus oct.irin the wvells and hot springs in Europe. Accord- 20) GENERAL REMARKS ON CAVE FAUNA. allied to Gammarus, which li-es in small pools of water aw(l is white and blind ; and the cave 1)ill bug, Tituethe/ies albs (Koch.)." In conclusion Schihdte remarks that:- "We may with propriety apply the collective terin Sa bter- raneau Faucta to those animials which exclusively inihabit caves, and. are cex)ressly constructed for such habitations. Still tIl(re is nothing ill this name which would indicate that the ie aiundls have any claiin to lbe con-sid(red as a separate grouip. evold tile mere peculiarity of their common l)lace of abljole. While a 'ew of them possess such an extraordiiiary structure as to stand ill 110 comp)arison with those animals which inliabit tile lighit. there are others, formaing only niore characteristic links ill t le gr)oups of annials more or less shy of light, of Nhliell mnaimy tire touindl clilioln ill the localities of the caves; and. sonie belomwr to -enera having a wide local, as well aS geographllical. extension. IN-e .lre accorlilgly preventedl fron considering the entire l)phenlolmen1onl ill any other liglht thanr Something )urely local, and the similarity which is eX- lhilited ill a few f1ormins (Alloplhlitaliltus, Adelops, lJ:thiyscil) be- tweenI thle mamllmlloth Cave aid the caves ill Cariliohl. othiernvise thani as a very plain exparession ot that analogy, which subsists generallv between the fitiuna of Elurope and of -North America. Besides, it is clear to me that the fthnit of time eaves of Cariuiola consists of two divisions, of wvhiich tile essential character is reter- ab)le onl the one hand to tihe dark locality, and onl the other to the additional colnfilieinent to stalactitic lorinatiois ; as yet we are not ing to B1ate an(l le-twooul (llriti-h 5e-sile evedl 0rlit:0vae.i tile llritishl a tillple- have lbeenl obtained fromii aritiviaill txalvatei wells CllC-te'4 ithi-es I'm' dl oa -ti1 1plriwses. il sonie in .talni--, theile elkI- have eein dlli. ill othelr bait b (ut tly 'hag. I their geological .o.dition I . le hahitats 11:1 e beenC ejiMiaii V4a ll- At1 t (ii Thaw tia' " 'I exi1ts ill tle Oolite forrmatii, at IRin-wo al ill cIalk-l1lillt g.zlvel. at ansallluiall I ill stlate. At Corhan and iatl:aiille:atl thev ale 1011ll 1 oh a hill. at it;nligwloll they lie 111w. Thle :amlllearanice of, some of tile-o anini ial, in1 a wvell Soll a ilaae it, bellix v: el. rnl-' C- a illet ionl 1,1an'o0illeal aleu ilimte e-. Thls 11e wiere ('I1't' a;tlllpt tii ll''l' (Ji:titi I1. nearl An'lolvei 111(1 awt Maaantlrieal.V:A nle.!ir s-'lvtiitli. lsint naft a Itl: ae att' thlena e as to lieb folllt I tile -urrotniioling, treamn; it. lat ti; 1 , perisl in the light. It i' ilnposla-iblih ti retailfa tellel as an1 extremDle vaLiet-. aOt lln llii ti- nil oit' alur ontl flr le water Alllalillp-41. (.uai- llartaatstiltssince v[t'ariou11s parts uot anlyiv litel ill Iaarll, bait -'ille :11 altenl'l ill Cilht- aeter; vor example. tile extranlra illayv e; alng:ltiion wlml slendernile-- ifoaoa'a tiut ilralwileles ol eClal aof tile last pailr ot ca ;1ll 411 aiaiinlage', :eemia to be i1 ivial Awttlctir e. Ihlavill for its object the antenna-like tla-tal 1a ailwate wlila:Ir;atilr s at tile extlrlkiitV at ti1 h Iv. hAo.tialiugI Wve I ;til til nio elasil Iatet 111 V to tjli- gelll- ill tIle ri et- altl atreias of Eurlioe, yet Brlizelills 11: t:aken an the .leeli seal. nea 114 hlalIlal. a Pailli whicl he hl., described 110d1cr the iamme Lrpi,po a'lyalft a. a pproml'Iltatilng sal IlaLrtly to it that it alwilelars tai ie -ctireeiv genericially at istillet. W e arle ilcli "I tis tlin k tlhast (,e,,anaoarlus /414 4Ulex a f aMilne C'EIw;ardl', tfran tlite wartill springv aaf (j;assilli ill Italy. iii'4) bel.,ing- to thi, gen l 4l." aii Ni1la:a-l - the-a' are tile 1lallaving species known besiles X. styfiaas; i.e. -V. ,qJaHea'r 1Sa-iiate ( Vll4l444 4445 ptet- 01415 Ko(wh. the eaavltliaigy of wliil ha:a eell stuiliel 4ht b . .. St I.eaaageu \. i',taae ]late. V. Kawhia'a ttjll4 B-ita'. Aaaothler geuleteric FormI1 is4 Cr'44;x/4 f.1111' let 1ha Ih:vB e. ahiclh alsai lbeliong to tile ulblblea lanle.! t filamt. "A ingle -lacaia as yet i, all I ath h )a- been found hk1illEuiglhaia I lilt We 11:1Ve little aliIt bult that ;iaa ...4t4,r. I;rtinmii44 t Milneia' IEd- WaIiat.s w'hi11 I:a, folilnld lay M1. ELria:inii ill tile w'zarlir sparilngs o01 ktimit-chalka ha-i aalg- :11,,) ta thli, gelil- . It iS culloaiillIhat we Taltl1 h:ave t va-caro I iatht Wlhile tle 'a11111:11- o1 tih- genlus. 14 ill thve prIe e linlg(N iphargus) inihalait the ieep aritificial elk. wiIa'l it being known to exi-t ia 1ill- riveev awll strealis. its ue:avest alhleal forai i, to be fonilat ill a mItarlille gelills. Galmiumlarell:t." 21 GENERAL REMARKS ON CAVE FAUNA. alble vigorously to discriminate l'etween tle two. Wc shall ac- cor(lingly look upon the subterranean fauna, or more properly fauna s, as small ramifications which have l)enetlate(l into the earth from the geographically-limited faunas or the adjacent regions; anlld which, as they extentled themselves into (larkuess, have beeii aecom modated to surromidi ing cireninstances. Animals not far re- mote from the ordinary forms, prelpare the tralisition from light to darkness. Next follow those that are constructed for twiliglht; anl last of all those destined for total (larikness, amid whose strlue- tiure is quite peculiar. Amnong these soine are a(ldl)tedl for special localities, those which inhabit dry localities or detached little reservoirs being totally blind, while others, de-stined for runnirig streams, have eyes of iniperfeet construclion, so as to receive the inml)ression of rays of light, but no proter image of illuminated objects. Wie may therefore with tolerable lprecisiol) arrange the inhabitants of caverns under the following heads - Shade (otimals.-Exten.sive general and species inmhabiting cav- erns near their entrance, and, generally, all cool, shady and moist localities. Of' these. those that fly occasionally enter far into the caverns (D)iptera). Twiligrht atnitals.-They belong to widely spread genera, but are peculiar to the caves, and distinguished 1by their small eyes. They are principally found near the entrances to the caves, but proceed (leepelr into the (larkness thanr the shade-aninials, and although wiigle.ss they pelnetrate often tlme whole extent of the dark spaee.-( Prhi;tony- chuss elegr(1Its, IIoilota .speheti.) CUue aiiiinalrs.-They form, at least in part. peculiar genera, are winglessi and colorless, as far as the consistency of their inteou- mnents will admnit, and exist exclusively in total darkliness. The terrestrial division is blindl; the aquatic has a perception of light. Tfo this group bleong ill the animals in the MNIammioth Cave, and aniongy ttlone of the caves of Cariuola. Anoplhthalimis, Ba.1thyscia, perhaps likewise Anurophorus and llyporlmithou, which, however, mati belong to tie tfollowin(r group. Sfaletiter cr oce annarlts.- Insects. Arachnidans and Crustaceans ,p)pertaimning to l)eculiar trenera, wingless, blimid. brightly colored aceording to tlhe nature of their integuiments, either light brown, yellowish white, or snowv white. perhaps according to the pre- lpon'lerance ot time Chtitine ; living iii total (larkness, peculiar to stalactite cave-;, in part occupying the columns and constructed aceording-ly, either for ascent or hovering over them. 11ere belong inost of time animals treated of in this m.mnoir--Stagobius, Blo- tuirns, Stalita, Niplhizrgus, and Titanethes." A plrtin,!nt question arises as to the time of time formation of these cavtes an(l when hley became inhuabitalde. As previouisly stat- n a note appenided he adds to the li.it ' a new cave crustaeeia. P[nloln nflOpth(dl- mrnu Kollar. 'lidi to serve as food for Hvlyohthon [the Salamiandler]. of which last genus he discriminjates six species." 22 ORIGIN OF CAVE LIFE. ed, the caves of the western and middle States are in lower Car- boniferous limestone rocks, though thle Port Kennedy cave explored by lVheatley and Copet is in the Potsdani limnestone. They could not have been formed under water, but when the landl was drained by large rivers. This could not have occnrre(l previouts to tie Tri- assie l)eriod. Prof. Dana in his 'Manutal of (eolorgy" shows that the Triassic continent spread westward from thle Atlantic coast ' to Kansas, and southward to Alabama ; for throuigh this great area there are no rocks more recent than the Pal'ozoic." 'Througih the Mesozoic period [comprising the Triassic, Jurassic, alnid (reta- ceous periods] North America was in general (Iry land, and onl the east it stoo(l a large part of the time above its present level." Thoughl at the close of these pero'Is there was a gemiqral extinc- tion of life, yet this was not probably a suddlen (one of months and even years), but rather a secular extinction, andl there may be l)lants and animals nowv living onl dry land, which are thle lineal descendants of mesozoic and more remotely of (Carbonife;rous forms of life. So our cave animals may possibly be thle siurvivors of Mles- ozoic forms of life, just as we find now living at great (lepths in the sea remnants of Cretaceous life. But from thme recent explora- tions ini the caves of Europe and this country, especiailly the Port Kennedy cave, with its remarkable assemlblage of vertebrates and insects, we are led to believe from the array of facts l)reselnted by Prof. Cope that our true subterranean fulla probably (loes n1ot (late farther back than thle beginning of the Quateriiary, or Post pliocene, period. We quote his I'general ol )servations" in his article on the Port Kennedy fautia. "The origin of the caves which so aboun(l in the limnestones of the Alleglany and Mississipl)i valley regions, is a subject of nIuch interest. Their galleries measgure miany thoilsamids of miles, and their number is legion. The writem l has examined twventy-five, in more or less dletail, in Virginia a ll Tennessee, and calll a(ld his testimony to the belief that they have been formedl by currents of running water. They generally extend in a direction parallel to the strike of thle strata, and have their greatest diameter iii the directiomi of tile (lip. Their depth is determined in solIIe measure by the softness of tile stratuim, whose removal has g'iven them existence, but in thinly stratified or soft material, tile root-s or large t A notice of the animals found in this c.'ve will be found in the i'roccehoeltgs iif the .Amcerieain Philosophical Society. April. IS7 l. The inse.ts there enuoilerted would probably not come under the head of cave insects. 23 ORIGIN OF CAVE LIFE. masses of rocks fall in, which interrupt the passage below. Caves, however, exist when the strata are horizontal. Their course is changed by joints or faults, iuto which the excavating waters have found their way. That these caves were formed prior to the postpliocene fauna is evident from the fact that they contain its remains. That they were not in existence prior to the drift is probable, from the fact that they contain no remains of life of any earlier period so far as known, thoug1h in only two cases, in Virginia and Pennsylvania, have they been examined to the bottom. No agency is at hand to account for their excavation, comparable in potency and efficiency to the floo(ls supposed to have mnarked the close of the glacial perio(d, and which Prof. Dana ascribes to the Champlain epoch. An extraor(linary number of rapidly flowing waters must have operated over a great part of the Southern States, some of them at an elevation of fifteen hundred feet and over (perhaps two thou- sand) above the present level of the sea. A cave in the Gap AMountain, on the Kanawha river, which I explored for three miles, has at least that elevation. That a territory experiencing such conditions was suitable for the occupation of such a fauna as the deposits contained in these caves reveal, is not probable. The material in which the bones occur in the south is an impure limestone, being mixed with and colored by the red soil which covers the surface of the ground. It is rather soft hut hardens on exposure to the air. The question then remains so far uIanswered as to whether a submergence occurred subsequent to the development of the post- pliocene mammalian fauna. That some im)ortant change took place is renderec probable by the fact, that nearly all the neotropi- cal types of the animals have been banished from our territory, aid the greater part of the species of all tlpes have become eS- tinct. Two facts have come under my observation which indicate a subsequent submergence. A series of caves or portions of a sinoile cave once existiii'r on the southeast side of a ranmre of low hills amon-ii the Alleghnany mountains in Wythe Co., Virginia, was found to have been removed by dlenuldation, fragments of the bot- tom (leposit only remaining in fissures and conecavities, separated byr various intervals from each other. These fragments yielded the' remains of twenty species of l)ostleliocene mnnlmialia. This (le- nudtition can be aseril)ed to local causes, followhin a subsidenee of uncertain extent. In a cave examined in Tennessee the ossife- rolus dleposit was in plat attaehedl to the roof of tIhe chamber. Identical fossils were t.iken fromn the floor. This migrht, however, be accountesd for on local grounds. The islands of the eastern part of the West Indies itippear to have beemi sep)arate(l by sutlber- genee of larger areas, at the close of the perio(l (diring which they See Proceed. Amer. Phil. Soc. 1869D 171. 24 ORIGIN OF CAVE LIFE. were inhabited by postp)liocene mammnalia and shells. The eaves of Angailla include remains of twelve vertcbrates, of which seven are matumalia of extinct species, and several of them are of large size. These are associated with two recent species of niolluscs Tarbo p)icat, and a Tartlra near lmpepJ forinis.t As these large ami- mals no doubt require(l a more extendled territory for their suipport than that represented by thle small islan(l Anguilla, there is every prolbability that the separation of these islantls took place at a late l)eriod of time and probab)ly subl)seluent to the spread of the postpliocene fauna over North America." I think the reader will conclude from the facts Prof. Cope so clearly l)resents, that the subterranean fatuna of this country does not date back of the Quaternary period. These species must have been created and taken up their abode in these caves (Mammnoth Cave and those of MIontgomery County, Virginia) after the breccia flooring their bottoins and containing the bones of Quaternary ani- mals had been deposited; or else migrated from Tertiary eaves farther south, which is not probable, as it has been previously shown that those blind animals inhabiting wvells imme(liately die onl being exl)ose(l to the light (British Sessile-eyed Crustacea, i, p. 313), though tile blind craw fish is not thus affected. Tile case becomes much simpler when we consider thle age of the rocks in which the Adelsberg an(l other caves mentioned by Schi6dte are situated. The Alps were unlller water in the Middle Eocene ; consequently the caves could not have bee I formed until the close of thle Tertiary. HIelce tile species of tile cave fauna. were evidently created either at tile close of thle Tertiary, or more probably the beginning of time Quaternary, as "even in time later part of the Pliocene era there was an elevation of three tilousand feet in a part of thle Island of Sicily" (D)ana). W'e are therefore led to conclude tilat tile species of time subterranean faunma the world over are recent creations, probably not older tltan the ex- tinct mammnals associatedl w it 11ll.ll Loc. cit. 1861). 183; 1870, 6(18. A fourtli sl)ecies, of gigtantic Cliinciliil lia, 1been found by 1)r. Rijger.nia. whichin I)aye valle1 L,.too-sarlus ieltdoiis ( '''p. It is rvire.sented bv portions of jaws and teeth of three inulividluals. It is oie 't the l:arge;t spirie.i, eqtui- ling the L. leti eens, anut1 hias several itrkeul 4charicters. Thluii the rt, Q'It tihe molars are very short, and the trituratinttix orlh oblique to the sh.at. The r-i tso tihe second and fourth are loniger than tli',-e of the fir-st aiinl thirdl. The last ninwlar hl:us th nr dental coluns insteaul of three as inl the 1-thlu' LoronXyl, alld is t riiailtdlr or qua lid:tiit-hiaped. in sectiun ; the third is -1tiduialrnall:tr in sectioll, and hia: three c olunims. The -ecvund is the snmialle-t, I)eing only .; the length of the SuhtritngitlMrl, 1i st. L.Vilgthl Of ICtA1l series in .0 or 2.5 inches. Palate narrow aind deeply coniueave. There is but little or ii' lat. eral constriction in the (outlines of the teeth; tlhe slhanks are entirely stra ighit. In its adlitional dentinal cdluinn, tlis l, ecies approaches the genu.s Autblyihiziw. The large Chliichillas of Ainfui Ia are -as tollows, Loxomaylies longidens, L. bltidens, L. qezadrans, and Aniablyrhiza hin piedetea. t See Bland, Proceed. Amer. Phil. Soc., 1871, 58. 25 ORIGIN OF CAVE LIFE. Assuming on the principles of evolution that the cave animals were derived from other species changed by migration from the outer world to the new and strange regions of total darkness, it seems evident that geologically speaking the species were suddenly formed, though the changes may not have been wrought until after several thousand generations. According to the doctrine of natu- ral selection, by which species pass from one into another by a great number of minute variations, this time was not sufficient for the production of even a species, to say nothing of a genus. But the comparatively sudden creation of these cave animals affords, it seems to us, a very strong argument for the theory of Cope and Hyatt of creation by acceleration and retardation, which has been fully set forth in this journal. The strongly marked characters which separate these animals from their allies in the sunlight, are just those fitting them for their cave life and those which we would imagine would be the first to be acquired by them on being re- moved from their normal habitat. On introducing the wingless locust, Ceuthaphfius maculatus, into a cave, where it must live not under stones, but by clinging to the walls, its legs would tend to grow longer, its antennas and palpi would elongate and become more delicate organs of hearing as well as touch, and the body would bleach partially out, as we find to be the case in H. subterranea and C. stygia. The Carabid beetle, Anopthalmus, extending farther into the cave, would lose its wings (all cave insects except the Diptera have no wings, elytra excepted) and eyes, but as nearly all the family are retiring in their habits, the species hiding under stones, its form would not undergo farther striking modification. So with the blind Campo- dea, which does not differ from its blind congeners, which live more or less in the twilight, except in its antennae becoming longer. The blind Adelops, but with rudiments of eyes, does not greatly depart in habits from Catops, while on the other hand the remarkable Stagobius of the Illyrian caves, which according to After writing this article, and without knowledge of his views, we turned to Darwin's Origin of Species to learn what he had to say on the origin of cave animals. He attri butes their loss of sight to disuse, and remarks: "By the time an animal has reached, after numberless generations, the deepest recesses, disuse will on this view have more or less perfectly obliterated its eyes, and natural selection will often have effected other changes, such as an increase in the length of the antenna or palpi, as a compen- sation for blindness." 5th Amer. Edit., p. 143. We are glad to find our views as to the increase in the length of the antenna and palpi compensating for the loss of eyesight, confirmed by Mr. Darwin. 26 ORIGIN OF CAVE LIFE. Schiodte spends its life in crawling ten to twenty feet above the floor over the columns formed by the stalactites, to which unique mode of life it is throughout perfectly, adapted, is remarkably different from other Silphids. Its legs are veery long and inserted far apart (the prothorax being remarkably long), with surprisingly long claws, while the antennae, again, are of great length and densely clothed with hairs, making them most delicate sense or- gans. So also are the limbs of the false scorpion, and the spi- der and pill bug (Titanethes) of remarkable length. But the modifications in the body of the Spirostrephon are such that many might deem its aberrant characters as of generic impor- tance. It lbses its eyes, which its nearest allies in other, but smaller, eaves possess, and instead gains in the delicate hairs on its back, which evidently form tactile organs of great delicacy; the feet are remarkably long, as also the antenne. These are not new formations but simply modifications, apparently by use or dis- use, of organs present in the other species. The aberrant mvrio- pod and Stagobius are paralleled by the blind fish, an animal so difficult to classify, and so evidently adapted for its abode in end- less darkness. And as an additional proof of the view here taken that these cave animals are mollified from more or less allied spe- cies existing outside of the caves, we have the case of the craw fish, whose eyes (like those of the mole), are larger in the young than adult, indlicating its descent from a species endowed with the faculty of sight, while in the adult the appendages are modified as tactile organs so as to make up for its loss of eyesight, in order that it may still take its prey. We thus see that these cave animals are modified in various ways, some being blind, others very hairy, others with long ap- pendages. All are not modified in the same way in homologous organs; another argument in proof of their descent from ancestors Schiiodte remarks that " it is difficult to understand the mode of life of Stagobius troglodlytes; or how this slow and defenseless animal can escape being devoured by the rapid, piratical Arachnidans, or find adlequate Support on columns, for inhabiting which it is so manifestly constructed. 'We are led in this respec t to consider the anten- nie. Whatever significance we attach to those enigmatical organs. we must admit that they are organs of sense, in which view an animal h:aving theni so much developed as Stagobius, must possess a great advantage over its enemies, if these be only Arachni- dans. Its cautious and slow progress, and its thiid reconnoitring demeanor, fully indicate that it is conscious of life being in perpetual danger, and that it endeavors to the utmost to avoid that danger. Darkness. which always favors the pursued more than the pursuer, comes to its aid, especially on the uneven excavated surface of the columns." 27 ORIGIN OF CAVE LIFE. whose habits varied, as those of their out-of-door allies do at pres- ent. Had they been specially created. for subterranean life, we should have expected a much greater uniformity in the organs adapting them to a cave life than we actually find to be the case. Another fact of interest in this connection is the circumstance that these cave species breed slowly, being remarkably poor in in- dividuals; they are nearly all extremely rare. Did they breed as numerously as their allies ill the outer world the whole race would probably starve, as the supply of food even for those which do live is wonderfully limited. It is now known that animals inhabiting the abysses of the sea are often highly colored: light must penetrate there, for we know that were the darkness total they would be colorless like the cave insects. In view of the many important questions which arise in relation to cave animals, and which have been too imperfectly discussed here, we trust naturalists the world over will be led to explore caves with new zeal, and record their discoveries with minuteness, and the greatest possible regard to exactness. The caves of the West Indian Islands should first of all be carefully explored. Also those of Brazil, those of the East Indies and of Africa, while fresh and most extended explorations of our own Mammoth Cave should be made, perhaps by a commission acting under gov- ernment or State authority, in order that the most ample facili- ties may be afforded by the parties owning the cave. NOTE.-Since my article was printed. Prof. Cope's article entitled " Life in the Wyan- dotte Cave" has appeared in the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History" (Lon- don) for November. He enumerates the following articulates as inhabitants of this cave; Aeophth-almus Tellkampfii, and another species; two species of Staphylixidw; Raphidophora; two species of iUes; an Aranea-like and Opilio-like spider; a species of Pseudotremia; Cambarus pellucidus, an unknown aquatic Crustacean with external egg pouches. and a Lern ean (crustacean) parasitic on the blind fish. Of these one beetle (Anophthalmus), the cricket (Raphidophora), a fly, the Opilio-like spider, the cen- tipede, and the blind crawfish, are probably the same as those found in the Mammoth Cave. Two beetles and two crustaceans are certainly different from those of the latter, and the centipedes are much more numerous. The Gammaroid cruetacean found in the waters of the Mammoth Cave. and which is, no doubt in part, the food of the blind fish, we did not find; but somie such species no doubt exists, as we found an abundance of a lively little tetrade. apod crustacean near the mouth of a cave close by." The wingless grasshoppers are common however, and Piof. Hmagen writes me that the cave insects in Europe are probably not so rare as they are thought to be by natu- ralists, since the guides do not show the best collecting places, wMihing to keep a stock on hand to sell to visitors. 28 CHAPTER 1I. TIE BLIND FISHES OF THE MAMMOTH CAVE AND THEIR ALLIES. BY F. W. PUTNAM. THE blind fish of the Mammoth Cave has from its discovery been regarded with curiosity bv all who have heard of its exis- tence, while anatomists and physiologists have considered it as one of those singular animals whose special anatomy must be stu(lied in order to understand correctly facts that have been demonstrated from other sources; and, in these days of the Darwinian antid devel- opment theories, the little blind fish is called forth to give its tes- timony, pro or con. Before touching upon this point, however, we must call attention to the structure of the fish and its allies, and to others that are either partially or totally blind. In the lancelet (Branchiostoma) and the hag (Myxine) the eye is described " as simple in form as that of a leach, consisting sim- ply of a skin follicle t coated by a dark pigment, whIch receives the end of a nerve from the brain." Suchl an eye speck as this struc- ture gives would only answer for the simple perception of light. In the young of the lampreys (Petromyzon) the eye is v-ery small and From the AMERICAN NATURALIST for January, 18,2. t See further on where Prof. Wyman questions this structure. I These young lampreys have been described under the generic name of Ammocetes, and it was not until 1856, when Prof. MUller discovered the fact of a metamorphosis in the lampreys, that their trie position was ascertained. Prof. Muller has traced the history of the common European species and shown that it is three or foifr years in attaining its perfect form. With this fact before us and with the early stages of the Myxinoids still unknown, have we not some reason for suspecting that the Lancelet may yet prove to be a larval form of the Myxinoids, notwithstanding that it is said to lay eggs Why should we not suspect the existence in the very lowest vertebrates of some- (29) BLIND FISHES IN GENERAL. placed in a fold of the skin of the ]lead, and probably of little use, as these young remain buried in the sand; but as they attain ma- turity, and, with it, the parasitic habits of the adult, their eyes are levelope(l to a fair size, thus reversing the general rule in the class. In most other fishes the eyes are developed to a full and even remarkable extent as to size and perfection of sight in water. In Anableps, or the so called four eyed fish of the fresh waters of Central and South America, which belongs to a closely allied fam- ily with our blind fish, the (yprinodontidce, the eyes are not only fally developed, but are divided into an upper and lower portion in such a way, by an opaque horizontal line, as to give the effect of two pupils, by which the fish probably sees as well when follow- ing its prey on the surface with its eyes out of wslter, as when under water. But it is in the interesting family of cat fishes (Silu- ridee) that we find the most singular arrangement of eyes in per- fect adaptation to the diversified modes of life of the numerous species. In this family the eyes assume nearly every possible mod- ification from partial and even total blindness to perfectly dlevelop- ed eyes, and these organs are placed in almost every conceivable position in a fish's head; from the ordinary large eyes on the side, to small ones on top of the head, enabling the fish to see only what is above; to the oval eyes on the side, in some just back of the mouth, situated in such a way that the fish can only see what is in close proximity to its jaws or even below them. Many genera of this family found in South America, Africat and Asia,-' have the eyes so small and buried under the skin or protected by folds or cartilage, as evidently to be of no more use than simply to distiun- guish light from darkness. Among the most interesting forms of this family, in this respect, is the genus described by Prof. Cope under the name of Gronias nigrilabris. This fish is very closely allied to our common bull thing akin to " alternate generation," or of larva capable of reproduction Without having any facts to support such an assumption, except that, on general principles, the young of Myxine would probably be very much like Branchiostoma, and that its young is not known, while Branchiostoma has only been found in waters where some species of Myxinoid exists, I think that before the position of the lancelet is firmly established we must know the embryology of the Myxinoids; for should the lancelet prove not to be the young of the Myxinoids, it must necessarily form a distinct class of animals, perhaps as near to the mollusks as to the vertebrates. Pimeloduw cyelopium of Humboldt, Helogenes, Agoniosus and other genera. t Eatropius congenasu. Ai.ia, Shilbichthys, Bagroides and other genera. 30 THE PENNSYLVANIA BLIND FISH. pout or horned pout, and of about the same size (ten inches in length). It was taken in the Conestoga river in Lancaster Co., Penn., where it is "' occasionally caught by fishermen and is sup- posed to issue from a subterranean stream said to traverse the limestone in that part of Lancaster Co., and discharge into the Conestoga." We quote the following from Prof. Cope's remarks on the fish: - "Two specimens of this fish present an interesting condition of the rudimental eyes. On the left side of both a small perforation exists in the corium, which is closed by the epidermis, representing a rudimental cornea; on the other the corium is eQmplete. Here the eyeball exists as a very small cartilaginous sphere with thick walls, concealed by the muscles and fibrous tissue attached, and filled by a minute nucleus of pigment. On the other the sphere is larger and thinner walled, the thinnest portion adherent to the corneal spot above mentioned; there is a lining of pigment. It is scarcely collapsed in one, in the other so closely as to give a tripodal section. Here we have an interesting transitional condi- tion in one and the same animal, with regard to a peculiarity which has at the same time physiological and systematic significance, and is one of the comparatively few cases where the physiological appropriateness of a generic modification can be demonstrated. It is therefore not subject to the difficulty under which the advocates of natural selection labor, when necessitated to explain a structure as being a step in the advance towards, or in the recession from, any unknown modification needful to the existence of the species. In the present case observation on the species iii a state of nature mav furnish interesting results. In no specimen has a trace of anything representing the lens been found." When we remember that the lens of the eye in Amblyopsis has been found, even though the eve is less developed in all its parts than in Gronias, it is probable that a careful microscopical exami- nation would show its existence in this genus also. It is interesting to note that this fish is black above (lighter on the sides and white below), notwithstanding its supposed subter- ranean habits, and that all the other members of the family having rudimentary or covered eyes are also dark colored, while the blind fishes of the Mammoth Cave and of the caves in Cuba are nearly colorless. This want of color in the latter fishes has beels consid- ered as due to their subterranean life. If this be the cause, why should the blind cat fishes retain the colors characteristic of the other members of the family living in open waters Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 1864, p. 231. 31 THE BLIND FISHES OF CUBAN CAVES. The fishes which in a general way, so far as blindness, tactile sense and mode of life are concerned, come the nearest to the blind fishes of the Mammoth Cave, are those described by Prof. Poey tinder the names of Lucifuga subterranens andl L. dentatus. t These fishes having the broad, flattened, fleshy head, with minute cilia, without external eyes, and inhabiting eaves so similar in structure to the Mammoth Cave, make a com'parison of them with the fishes of the Mammoth Cave most interesting. This is greatly enhanced by the fact that the Cuban fishes belong to a family of essentially marine habit, quite far removed from Amblyopsis. The fresh water ling (Lota), belonging to the same great group of fishes (though to a distinct family or subfamily) containing the cod on the one hand and the Cuban blind fish on the other, is probably the nearest fresh water relative of the Cuban fish, but Fig. 1. Blind Fish (Stygicola dentatus) from Caves In Cuba. the nearest representative yet known is the marine genus Brotula, one species of which is found in the Caribbean Sea. In the Cuban blind fish we find ciliary appendages on the head and body quite distinctly developed, evidently of the same character as those of Amblyopsis and answering the purpose of tactile organs. These cilia are in the form of small, but plainly visible, protuberances (reminding one of the single fleshy protu- berance over the opercular opening just back of the head in Ambly- opsis). There are eight of these on top of the head of a speci- men I hastily examined, received from Prof. Poey by the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and quite a number arranged in three Memorias Sobre la Historia Natural de la Isla de Cuba, por Felipe Poey. Tomo 2, pp. 95-114. PiA. 9. 10, 11. Habana. 1856-8. f This species was afterwards referred to the genus Stygicola Gill. on account of the presence of palatine teeth which are wanting in the other species. There are also sev- eral other good characters, to judge from the figures of the head. skull and brain given by Poey, that would warrant the reference of the fish to a distinct genus from L. subter- raneus. 32 FIRST NOTICE OF THE BLIND FISH. rows on each side of the body, showing that tactile sense is well developed in this fish; though it is rather singular that the barbels on the jaws, so usually developed as organs of touch in the cod family and its allies, are entirely wanting in this fish. The brain of Lucifuga subterraneus, as represented by the figures of Poey, differs very much from that of L. dentatus and of Ambly- opsis. In all, the optic lobes are as largely developed as in allied fishes provided with well developed eyes. In Lucifuga subterra- neus the cerebral lobes are separated by quite a space from the round optic lobes, which are represented as a little larger than the cerebral lobes, and also of greater diameter than the cerebel- lum; this latter being more developed laterally than in either L. dentatus or in Amblyopsis. The three divisions of the brain are represented, from a top view, as nearly complete circles (without division into right and left lobes), of which that repre- senting the optic lobes is slightly the largest. In L. dentatus the procencephalon and the optic lobes are represented as divided into right and left lobes, as in Amblyopsis, and the cerebellum does not extend laterally over the medulla oblongata as in L. subterra- neus, but, as in Amblyopsis (PI. 1, fig. 1 d), is not so broad as the medulla, and, projecting forwards, covers a much larger portion of the optic lobes than is the case in L. subterraneus. The Cuban blind fish has the body, cheeks and opercular bones covered with scales. As in Amblyopsis the eyes exist, but are so imbedded in the flesh of the head as to be of no use. The out- line cut here given (Fig. 1), cbpied from Poey, is very character- istic of the form of the fish, but does not exhibit the fleshy cilia or details of scaling. The first notice that I can find of the Mammoth Cave blind fish is that contained in the " Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia," Vol. 1, page 175, where is recorded the presentation of a specimen to the Academy by W. T. Craige, M. D., at the Meeting held on May 24, 1842, in the following words "A white, eyeless crayfish (Astacus Bartoni) and a small white fish, also eyeless (presumed to belong to a subgenus of Silurus), both taken from a small stream called the 'River Styx' in the Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, about two and one-half miles from the entrance." Dr. DeKay in his "Natural History of New York, Fishes," page 187, published in 1842, describes the fish, from a poor specimen in MAMMOTH CAVE. 3 22 4THE BLND FISHES OF YAXEOTH CAVE. the Cabinet of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York, under the name of Amblyopsis spelkeus.t DeKay's description is on the whole so characteristic of the fish as to leave no doubt as to the species he had before him, though the statement that it has eight rays supporting the branchiostegal membrane (instead of six), and that the eyes are "large" but under the skin, must have been due to the bad condition of his specimen and to his taking the fatty layer covering the minute eyes for the eyes themselves, as pointed out by Prof. Wyman. Dr. DeKay places the genus with the Siluridee (cat fishes) but at the same time questions its con- nection with the family and says that it will probably form the type of a new family. In 1843 Prof. Jeffries Wymant gave an account of the dissection of a specimen in which he could not find a trace of the eye or of the optic nerve, probably owing to the condition of the specimen, as he afterwards found the eye spots, and made out the structure of the eye. When describing the brain, Prof. Wyman calls attention to the fact of the optic lobes being as well developed as in allied fishes with well developed eyes, and asks if this fact does not indicate that the optic lobes are the seat of other functions as well as that of sight. He also calls attention to the papillae on the head as tactile organs furnished with nerves from the fifth pair. Dr. Theo. Tellkampf I was the first to point out the existence of the rudimentary eyes from dissections made by himself and Prof. J. Muller, and to state that they can be detected in some specimens as black spots under the skin by means of a powerful lens: Prof. Wyman afterwards detected the eye through the skin in several specimens. Dr. Tellkampf also was the first to call attention to the " folds on the head, as undoubtedly serving as organs of touch, as numerous fine nerves lead from the trigeminal nerve to them and to the skin of the head generally." It is also to Dr. Tellkampf that we are indebted for the first figure of the fish, and for figures illustrating the brain, and inter- nal organs. The descriptions of the anatomy of the fish by Drs. Obtuse vision. t Of a cave. S Silliman's Journal, Vol. 45, p. 94. 5 Proceedings Boston Soo. Nat. Hist., Vol. 4, p. 395. 1853. II MUller's Archiv. fur Anat., 1844. p. 392. Reprinted in the New York Journal of Med- icine for July, 1845. p. 84, with plate. The only other figures of the species, that I am aware of, are the simple outlines given in Poey's Mem. de Cuba, the woodcut in Wood's Illustrated Natural History and the cut in Tenney's Zoology. None of these figures are very satisfactory. 84 THE BLIND FISH FAMILY. Tellkampf and Wyman are all that have ever been written on the subject of any importance, with the exception of the description of the eye by Dr. Dalton, whose paper, in the "New York Medical Times," vol. 2, p. 354, I have not seen. Prof. Poey gives a com- parison of portions of the structure with that of the Cuban blind fishes. Dr. Tellkampf proposed the name of Heteropygii for the family of which, at the time, a single species from the Mammoth Cave was the only known representative, and makes a comparison of the char- acters with those of Aphredoderus Sayanus, a fish found only in the fresh waters of the United States, and belonging to the old family of Percoids, but now considered as representing a family by itself, though closely allied to the North American breams (Pomotis), and having the anal opening under the throat as in the blind fish. Dr. Storer,t not knowing of Dr. Tellkampf's paper, proposed the name of Hypsceidc, for the blind fish, and placed it between the minnow and the pickerel families, in the order of Malacoptery- gian, or soft rayed, fishes. According to the system adopted by Dr. Gunther, it stands as closely allied to the minnows, Cytprino- dontidce (many of which are viviparous and have the single ovary and general character of the blind fish), and the shiners, Cyprini- dce, of the order of Physostomi. Dr. Tellkampf, in discussing the relations of the family, points out its many resemblances to the family of Clupesoces, and its differences from the Siluroids, Cy- prinodontes and Clupeoids, with which it has more or less affinity, real or supposed. Prof. Cope in his paper on the Classification of Fishes I places the Amblyopsis in the order of Haplomi with the shore minnows, pickerel and mud fish, and in an article on the Wy- andotte Cave, he says that the Cyprinodontes (shore minnows) are its nearest allies. This arrangement by Prof. Cope places the Haplomi between the order containing the herrings and that containing the electric eel of South America, all included with the garpike, dog fish of the fresh waters (Amia), cat fishes, suckers and eels proper, etc., etc., in the division of Physostomi as limited by him. From the advanced position of the terminus of the intestine being so different from the position which it has in ordinary fishes. t Synopsis of the Fishes of North America, published in 1846. American Naturalist. Vol. 5, p. 579, 1871. lIndianapolis Ddily Journal of September 5, 1871. Reprinted in Ann. Mag. Nat. liot., Nov., 1871. FISHES WITH EYES ALSO IN THE CAVE. Prof. Agassiz in 1851 stated that the blind fish was an aber- rant form of the Cyprinodontes. Thus all those authors who have expressed an opinion as to the position which the fish should hold in the natural system have come to the same conclusions as to the great group, division, or order, into which it should be placed. For all the terms used above, when reduced to any one system, bring Amblyopsis into the same general position in the system; its nearest allies be- ing the minnows, pickerels, shiners and herrings; and unless a careful study of its skeleton should prove to the contrary, we must, from present data, consider the family containing Amblyop- sis as more nearly allied to the Cyprinodontes, or our common minnows having teeth on the jaws, than to any other family, differ- ing from them principally by the structure of the several parts of the alimentary canal and the forward position of its termination. I have thus far mentioned only one species of blind fish from the cave, the Amblyopsis spelceus. The waters of the cave not only contain another species of blind fish, differing from Amblyopsis in several particulars, especially by its smaller size and by being with- out ventral fins, which I have identified as the Typhlichthys subter- raneus of Dr. Girard; but also a fish with well developed eyes, as proved by the account given by Dr. Tellkampf and by the drawing of a fish found by Prof. Wyman, in 1856, in the stomach of an Amblyopsis he was dissecting. In order to call attention to the fact that fishes with eyes are at times, if not always, in the waters of the cave, I have reproduced the drawing by Prof. Wy- man on plate 1, fig. 13. It is very much to be regretted that the specimen is not now to be found, and that it was so much acted on by the gastric juice as to destroy all external characters by which it could be identified from the drawing, which is of about natural size. Dr. Tellkampf's remarks on the fish with eyes are as follows: - "Besides the colorless blind-fish, there are also others found in the cave, which are black, commonly known by the name of ' mud- fish.' I saw a dark-colored fish in the water, but did not succeed in catching it. The latter are said to have eyes, and are entirely dissimilar to the blind-fish." The name " mud-fish," given to this fish with eyes, and the state- ment that it is of a dark color, together with the drawing by Prof. Silliman18 Journal. p. 128. 36 HABITS OF THE BLIND FISH. Wyman of the fish found in the stomach of the blind fish, showing the position of the dorsal fin to be the same as in the fish commonly called mud fish in the fresh waters of the Middle, Western and Southern States, perhaps, indicates the fish with eyes to -be a spe- cies of Afelanura. This fish is called mud fish from the habit it has of burying itself in the mud, tail first, t to the depth of two to four inches, and of remaining buried in the mud in our western ditches during a time of drought. This habit, perhaps, in a measure fits it for a subterranean life. The occurrence of a fish belonging to the same family with the blind fish, but with well developed eyes, in the subterranean streams in Alabama, as mentioned further on and figured on PI. 2, fig. 4, however, renders it probable that the cave fish with eyes may be the same or an allied species, and the drawing by Prof. Wyman would answer equally as well for it. The fact that the Amblyopsis succeeded in catching a fish of, probably, very rapid and darting movements, shows that the tactile sense is well developed and that the blind fish must be very active in the pursuit of its prey; probably guided by the movement which the latter makes in the water so sensibly influencing the del- icate tactile organs of the blind fish that it is enabled to follow rapidly, while the pursued, not having the sense of touch so fully developed, is constantly encountering obstacles in the darkness. In describing the habits of the blind fish Dr. Tellkampf says:- "It is found solitary, and is very difficult to be caught, since it requires the greatest caution to bring the net beneath them with- out driving them away. At the slightest motion of the water they dart off a short distance and usually stop. Then is the time to follow them rapidly with a net and lift them out of water. They are mostly found near stones or rocks which lie upon the bottom, but seldom near the surface of the water." Prof. Cope, in describing the habits of the blind fish which he Dr. GUnther considers the genus Melanura of this country to be synonymous with Fig. 2. Umbla of Europe. In each country only one species has been as yet satisfactorily de- scribed. t See the Interet-ting notes on the habits 01 the mud mim- now, by Dr. Abbott in Amer- lcan Naturalist. Vol. 4, pages Mud fili (Melanura linti). 107 and 388, with 1igure of the fisb on page 38a, which we here reproduce for comparison. 37 88YOUNG OF THE BLIND FISH. obtained in a stream that passes into the Wyandotte Cave, though he entered it by means of a well in the vicinity of the cave. says that: - "If these Amblyopses be not alarmed they come to the surface to feed, and swim in full sight like white aquatic ghosts. They are then easily taken by the hand or net, if perfect silence be pre- served, for they are unconscious of the presence of an enemy except through the sense of hearing. This sense is, however, evi- dently very acute, for at any noise they turn suddenly downward, and hide beneath stones, etc., on the bottom. They must take much of their food neir the surface, as the life of the depths is apparently very sparse. This habit is rendered easy by the struc- ture of the fish, for the mouth is directed upwards, and the head is very flat above, thus allowing the mouth to be at the surface." The blind fish has a single ovary, in common with several genera of viviparous Cyprinodontes. In three female specimens of Am- blyopsis which I have opened, the ovary was distended with large eggs, but no signs of the embryo could be traced. In these three specimens it was the right ovary that was developed, and this, as in the figure (Plate 2, fig. 1 c), was by the side of the stomach and did not extend beyond it. The number of eggs contained in the ovary was not far from one hundred in the specimen figured. As the embryos develop, the mass probably pushes further back in the cavity and also extends the abdominal walls. That the fish is viviparous is proved by the statement made by Mr. Thompson before the Belfast Natural History Society, that one of the blind fishes from the cave, four and a half inches long, "dvas put in water as soon as captured, where it gave birth to nearly twenty young, which swam about for some time, but soon died. These, with the exception of one or two, were carefully preserved, and fifteen of them are now before us [at the meeting, I wish they were here], they were each four lines in length." It is singular that no mention is made regarding these young, as to the presence or absence of eyes, and, as if it was fated that this important point should remain unnoticed as long as possible, it is equally singular that Dr. Steindachner omitted to examine some very young specimens which he received from a friend a few months since and sent to the Vienna Museum, where they will remain unexamined until he returns there. I saw the Doctor only Annals and Mag. of Natural History, Vol. zili, pp. 112, 1844. 38 GENERAL REMARKS ON THE BLIND FISHES. a week after these, to me, interesting specimens had been sent abroad, and he was as grieved as I was disappointed at my being just too late to take advantage of them. (See note on p. 52.) At what time the young are born has never been stated, but judg- ing from such data as I can at present command, I think that it must be during the months of September and October. Specimens col- lected during those months would probably contain embryos in various stages of development, the examination of which would un- doubtedly lead to most interesting results. (See note on p. 52.) Prof. Wyman has most generously placed in my hands his un- published notes and drawings of the several dissections he has made of Amblyopsis, as well as his specimens and dissections. Many of these drawings are reproduced on Plate 1, and will, with his notes which I here give, greatly enhance the value of this arti- cle, as his dissections have been made with the utmost care, and with a patience and delicacy that only a master hand attains. It will therefore be understood that. in giving credit to Prof. Wyman in the following pages, I refer to his unpublished notes, except when the quotation is given from a special work. In quoting his description of the eye and ear from "Silliman's Journal" I have changed the references so as to refer to his drawings reproduced on Plate 1, and not to the three cuts given in "Silliman's Journal," though the figures of the brain and of the otolite were copied from those cuts. The largest specimens I have seen of Amblyopsis are several males and females, each from four to four and a half inches in length, which seems to be about as large as the fish grows, though Dr. Gunther mentions a specimen in the British Museum of five inches in length. The largest specimen captured of late years is said to have been taken, during the summer of 1871, and sold for ten dollars to a person who was so desirous of securing the pre- cious morsel that he had it cooked for his supper. The smallest specimen I have seen was one and nine-tenths inches in length. The general shape and character of the fish is best shown by the figures on plates 1 and 2. "The whole head, above and below, is destitute of scales, the naked skin extending backwards on the sides to the base of the pectoral fins; the scaly portion of the body above ends in a semi- circular edge covering the space between the upper ends of the opercula. The skin covering the middle region of the head is TACTILE ORGANS OF BLIND FISH. smooth, but on either side is provided with numerous transverse and longitudinal ridges (P1. 1, fig. 7), which are, on the whole, regularly arranged. The first row of transverse ridges, eight or nine in number, begins between the nostrils and extends back- wards, diverging from the median line. The third ridge is crossed at its outer end by a longitudinal one, as are also two others farther back. The second and third rows, situated, in part, on the sides and, in part, on the under surface, are less regular than the preced- ing. A fourth, or the borders of the operculum, is still less well defined. The transverse are also crossed here by longitudinal ridges. About ten vertical ridges, also provided with papillae, and similar to those on the head, are visible on the sides extending from the pectoral fins to the tail, but are not so well defined as those on the head. The skin of the head is of extreme delicacy and is cov- ered by a very thin, loose layer of epithelium."-WYMAN. "The larger ridges have between twenty and thirty papillae, many of these having a cup-shaped indentation at the top, in which a delicate filament is, in some instances, seen (PI. 1, fig. 9). These papillae are largely provided with nervous filaments, and, as is obvious from their connection with branches of the fifth pair of nerves, must be considered purely tactile, and the large number of them shows that tactile sensibility is probably very acute and in some measure compensates for the virtual absence of the sense of sight. Plate 1, fig. 8, represents one of the ridges of the head magnified, showing the papillae of which it is made up, and figure 9 shows three papillae still more enlarged. Two of these show a cup-shaped cavity at the top, and the short, slender filament al- ready mentioned. The surface of the papillae is covered with loosely connected epithelium cells. Fig. 10 shows the nervous fil- aments distributed to the papillae: a, a branch of the fifth pair of nerves passing beneath the papillary ridge and sending filaments to each papilla. These papillary branches interchange filaments, forming a nervous plexus in connection with each ridge. This figure of the nerves was drawn with a camera lucida, from a speci- men treated with acetic acid."- WYMAN. "Plate 1, fig. 6, represents a double system of subcutaneous ca- nals, which extend the whole length of the head, but were not traced farther back than the edge of the naked or scaleless skin which covers it. Forwards they bifurcate, nearly encircling the nasal cavity, towards the middle line ending in a blind pouch. 40 THE EYES OF THE BLIND FISHES. The lateral branch was not traced distinctly to an end, but seemed to connect with the olfactory cavity. The walls of these canals are exceedingly delicate and easily overlooked." -WYMAN. "Plate 1, fig. 5, shows the globe of the eye with the optic nerve (c), as seen under the microscope. The lens (b) is detached from its proper place by the pressure of the glass. Irregularly arranged muscular bands are attached to the exterior of the globe (a, a, a, a), but were not recognized as the homologues of the muscles of the normal eye of fishes; nevertheless, they indicate that the globe was movable." -WYMAN. "In the three specimens recently dissected, the eyes were ex- posed only after the removal of the skin, and the careful separation from them of the loose areolar tissue which fills the orbit. In a fish four inches in length the eves measured one-sixteenth of an inch in their long diameter, and wvere of an oval form and black. A filament of nerve (PI. 1, fig. 3a) was distinctly traced from the globe to the cranial walls, but the condition of the contents of the cranium, from the effects of the alcohol, was such as to render it impracticable to ascertain the mode of connection of the optic nerve with the optic lobes. Examined under the microscope with a power of about twenty diameters, the following parts were satisfactorily made out (PI. 1, fig. 3): 1st, externally an exceedingly thin membrane, b, which invested the whole surface of the eye and appeared to be continu- ous with a thin membrane covering the optic nerve, and was therefore regarded as a sclerotic; 2d, a layer of pigment cells, d, for the most part of a hexagonal form, and which were most abun- dant about the anterior part of the eye; 3d, beneath the pigment a single layer of colorless cells, c, larger than a pigment cell, and each cell having a distinct nucleus ; 4th, just in front of the globe; a lenticular-shaped, transparent body, e [see also fig. 4], which consisted of an external membrane containing numerous cells with nuclei. This lens-shaped body seemed to be retained in its place by a prolongation forwards of the external membrane of the globe; 5th, the globe was invested by loose areolar tissue, which adhered to it very generally, and in some instances contained yellow fatty matter; in one specimen it formed a round spot. visible through the skin on each side of the head, which had all the appearance of a small eye; its true nature was determined by the microscope only. It is not improbable that the appearance just referred to may have misled Dr. DeKay-where he states that the eye exists of the usual size, but covered by the skin. If the superficial membrane above noticed is denominated cor- rectly the sclerotic, then the pigment layer may be regarded as the representation of the choroid. The form as well as the position of the transparent nucleated cells within the choroid correspond 41 EYES AND EARS OF THE BLIND FISH. for the most part with the retina. All of the parts just enumer- ated are such as are ordinarily developed from and in connection with the encephalon, and are not in any way dependent upon the skin. But if the lenticular-shaped body is the true representative of the crystalline lens, it becomes difficult to account for its pres- ence in Amblyopsis according to the generally recognized mode of its development (since it is usually formed from an involution of the skin) unless we suppose that after the folding in of the skin had taken place in the embryonic condition, the lens retreated from the surface, and all connection with the integument ceased. According to Quatrefages, however, the eye of Amphioxus Et] is contained wholly in the cavity of the dura mater, and yet it has all the appearance of being provided with a lens. If his descrip- tion be correct, then the mode of development as well as the mor- phology of the eye in this remarkable fish is different from that of most other vertebrates, since the lens never could have been formed from an involution of the skin, nor could the eve with its lens, as Prof. Owen asserts, be a modified cutaneous follicle. Whatever views be taken with regard to the dlevelopment of the eye of the blind fish, the anatomical characters which have been enumerated show, that though quite imperfect as we see it in the adult, it is constructed after the type of the eyes of other ver- tebrates. It certainly is not adapted to the formation of ima- ges, since the common integument and the areolar tissue which are interposed between it and the surface, would prevent the transinis- sion of light to it except in a diffused condition. No pupil or any- thing analogous to an iris was detected, unless we regard as repre- senting the latter the increased number of pigment cells at the anterior part of the globe. It is said that the blind fishes are acutely sensitive to sounds as well as to undulations l)roduced by other causes in the water. In the only instance in which I have dissected the organ of hear- ing (which I believe has not before been noticed), all its parts were largely developed, as will be seen by reference to P1. 1, fig. 1 e. As regards the general structure, the parts do not differ materially from those of other fishes except in their proportional dimensions. The semi-circular canals are of great length, and the two which unite to enter the vestibule by a common duct, it will be seen, project upwards and inwards under the vault of the cranium, so as to approach quite near to the corresponding parts of the opposite side. The otolite contained in the utricle was not remarkable, but that of the vestibule (P1. 1, fig. 2) and seen in In birds and mammals there is a stage of development where the lids come to- gether and firmly unite, to separate again when the animal "gets its eyes open." In the mole rat (SpakLa tgphlus) of Siberia, the lids never open, and the eyes remain through life covered with hairy skin. It is not improbable that in Amblyopsis some- thing analogous to this, a closing of the skin over the eye, may have taken place.-J. W. t I have used the prior name of Branchiostoaa in this paper when speaking of the Lancelet. 42 GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE OF BLIND FISH. dotted outline in fig. 1 e is quite large when compared with that of a Leuciscus of about the same dimensions as the blind-fish here described."-WYIAN, Silliman's Jouirnal, Vol. 17,). 259, 1854. The Amblyopsis spelcelus undoubtedly has quite an extensive distribution, probably existing in all the subterranean rivers that flow through the great limestone region underlying the Carbonif- erous rocks in the central portion of the United States. Prof. Cope obtained specimens from the Wyandotte Cave and from wells in its vicinity, and in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge there is a specimen labelled "from a well near Lost River, Orange Co., Ind.," which, with those from the Wyandotte Cave, is Conclusive evidence of its being found on the northern side of the Ohio as well as on the southern, in the rivers of the Mammoth Cave. I have been able to examine a number of speci- mens from the Mammoth Cave, and have carefully compared with them the one from the well in Orange Co., Ind., and find that the specific characters are remarkably constant. In 1859t Dr. Girard described a blind fish, received by the Smithsonian Institution from J. E. Younglove, Esq., who obtained it "from a well near Bowling Green, Ky." The general appear- ance of this fish, which was only one and a half inches in length, was that of Amiblyopsis spelceus, but it differed from that species in several characters, especially by the absence of ventral fins. Dr. Girard therefore referred the fish to a distinct genus under the name of Typldichtthlys subterraneus. Dr. Gunther considers this fish a variety of Amblyolsis spelceus and records the specimen in the British Museum 1' from the Mammoth Cave," as " half-grown." U By the kindness of Prof. Agassiz, I have been enabled to exam- ine nine specimens of blind Jislh without ventra7s, in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Seven of these were collected in the Mam- moth Cave by Mr. Alpheus Hyatt in September, 1859. One was from Moulton, Lawrence County, Alabama, presented by Mr. Thomas Peters; and another from Lebanon, Wilson Co., Tennes- see; presented by Mr. J. M. Safford. It is not stated whether I have also been informed by 3Mr. Holmes of Lansing, Mich., that blind fishes have been drawn out of wells in Michigan. tProceedings Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., p. 63. t Blind fish. J Catalogue of Fishes in the British Museum, Vol. 7, p. 2. 1868. H The largest specimen I have seen of Typhlichthys is one and seventeen-twentieths inches in length, and the smallest Amblyopsis one and eighteen-twentieths inches. 43 OTHER SPECIES OF THE FAMILY. these latter came from wells or caves, but probably from wells. They are all of about the same size, one and one-half to two inches in length, and are constant in their characters. Moreover, four of the seven specimens from the Mammoth Cave were females with eggs. These eggs were as large in proportion as those from Amblyopsis. The ovary was single and situated on the right side of the stomach, as in Amblyopsis. The difference in the number of eggs was very remarkable, each of the four specimens examined having but about thirty eggs in the ovary, while in three females of Amblyopsis (all, however, of nearly three times the size of Typhlichthys) there were about one hundred eggs in each. As in both species there were no signs of the embryos in the eggs, it is not probable that any of the eggs had been developed and the young excluded, nor is it at all likely that the great vari- ation in the number of eggs would simply indicate different ages. By a reference to the figures (PI. 2), it will be seen that the pyloric appendages, stomach and scales of the two fishes are different. For these reasons, taken in connection with the absence of ven- tral fins, I have no hesitation in accepting Dr. Girard's name as valid for this genus, of which we thus far know of but one species, with a subterranean range from the waters of the Mammoth Cave, south to the northern portion of Alabama. In this connection it would be most interesting to know the relations of the "blind fishes" said to have been found in Michigan. For tlhus far we have Typhlichithys limited to the central and southern portion of the subterranean region, Amblyopsis to the central, and the spe- cies in the northern portion undetermined. In 1853, on his return from a tour through the southern and western states, Prof. Agassiz gave a summary of some of his ichthyological discoveries in a letter to Prof. J. D. Dana. In this letter are the following remarks:- "I would mention foremost a new genus which I shall call Clio- logaster, very similar in general appearance to the blind fish of the Mammoth Cave, though provided with eyes; it has, like Ambly- opsis, the anal aperture far advanced under the throat, but is en- tirely deprived of ventral fins; a very strange and unexpected combination of characters. I know but one species, COl. cornutus Ag. It is a small fish scarcely three inches long, living in the ditches of the rice fields in South Carolina. I derive its specific Published in American Journal of Sci. and Arts, Vol. 16 (2d Feries), p. 134, 1853. 44 OTHER FISHES OF THE FAMILY WITH EYES. name from the singular form of the snout, which has two horn-like projections above." This is the only information ever published regarding this inter- esting fish and the only specimens known are those on wl-hich Prof. Agassiz based the above remarks. By the kindness of Professor L. Agassiz, who has placed all the specimens of the family contained in the Museum of Com- parative Zoology in my hands for study, I ami enabled to give a figure and description of this interesting species from the three specimens in the Museum, which were labelled as the originals of Chologaster cornutus Ag., from Waccamaw, S. C., presented by Mr. P. C. J. Weston, 1853. The largest of these specimens was distended with eggs and I was enabled to compare the ovary with that of Amblyopsis. From its being single and the eggs very large, I have no doubt that it is a viviparous fish like the other genera of the family. The position of the ovary behind the stom- ach, as shown in fig. 2c, plate 2, and the presence of four pyloric appendages (P1. 2, fig. 2a) instead of two, as in Amblyopsis (fig. la) and Typhlichthys (fig. 3a), are good internal characters, sep- arating it from the other genera, independently of the presence of eyes and the absence of ventral fins and papillary ridges. The stability of the internal characters I have mentioned was most unexpectedly substantiated by the discovery of a second species (P1. 2, figs. 4, 4a) of the genus among the specimens in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. I have the pleasure of dedicating this species to Professor Agassiz, not only in kindly remembrance of the eight years I was associated with him as stu- dent and assistant, but also because the fish so well illustrates the decided position he has taken relative to the immutability of spe- cies. The only specimen known of this second species was drawn from a well in Lebanon, Tenn., and presented to the Mulseum by Mr. J. M. Safford, Jan., 1854. It is a more slender fish than C. cornutus, but the intestine follows the same course and the four pyloric appendages are present as in that species. In the genus Chologastert we have all the family characters as well expressed as in the blind species, though it differs from Am- A Synopsis of this family with descriptions or the four species will appear in the "Report of the Peabody Academy of Science for 1871." (Reprinted here. p. 5..) t Literally " bile-stomach ;" probably named from the yellow color of the fish. 45 ORIGIN OF THE BLIND FISHES. blyopsis and Tvphlie hthys by the presence of eyes, the absence of papillary ridges on the head and body, and by the longer intestine and double the number of pyloric appendages, as well as by the position of the ovary; and agrees with Typhlichthys by the ab- sence of ventral fins. Amblyopsis and Typhlichthys are nearly colorless, while Chologaster Agassizii is of a brownish color similar to many of the minnows, and C. cornutus is brownish yellow, with dark, longitudinal bands. Among the most interesting points in the history of this genus is the fact of its occurring in two widely different localities, C. Agassizii having been found in a well, in the same vicinity (proba- bly in the same well) with a specimen of Typhlichthys, and undoubtedly belonging to the same subterranean fauna west of the Appalachian ridge, while C. corn utus belongs to the southern coast fauna of the eastern side of that mountain chain, and is thus far the only species of the family known beyond the limits of the great subterranean region of the United States. Having now given an outline of the structure, habits and distri- bution of the four species belonging to the family, and recapitu- lated the known facts, we are better able to consider the bearings of the peculiar adaptation of the blind fishes, in the Mammoth and other caves, to the circumstances under which they exist. Prof. Cope in stating, in his account of the blind fish of the Wyandotte Cave, " that the projecting under jaw and upward di- rection of the mouth renders it easy for the fish to feed at the sur- face of the water, where it must obtain much of its food," suggests that:- "This structure also probably explains the fact of its being the sole representative of the fishes in subterranean waters. No doubt many other forms were carried into the caverns since the waters first found their way there, hut most of them were like those of our present rivers, deep water or bottom feeders. Such fishes would starve in a cave river, where much of the food is carried to them on the surface of the stream .... . The shore minnows are their nearest allies, and many of them have the upturned mnouth and flat head..... .Fishes of this, or a similar family, enclosed in subterranean waters ages ago, would be more likely to live than those of the other, and the darkness would be very apt to be the cause of the atrophy of the organs of sight seen in the Amblyopsis." This suggestion was undoubtedly hastily made by Prof. Cope when writing the letter which was printed in the "Indianapolis 46 ORIGIN OF THE BLIND FISHES. Journal," and were it not that the article has been reprinted in the "Annals and Magazine of Natural History," I should not criticise the statement made in an off-hand letter for publication in a news- paper; for with Prof. Cope's knowledge of fishes it could sinply be a hasty thought which he put on paper, when he suggests that it is because the Cyprinodontes have a mouth directed upwards and are surface feeders that they were better adapted to a subterranean life than other fishes, and hence maintained an existence, whbile other species, which he supposes were introduced into the subter- ranean streams at the same time, died out. If the fishes of the subterranean streams came from adjoining rivers, why were not many of the Percoids, Cyprinoids and other forms, that are as essentially surface feeders as the Cyprinodon- tes (many of the latter are purely "mud feeders"), as capable of maintaining an existence in the subterranean waters as any species of the latter Neither is it necessary for us to assume that the structure of the fish should be adapted to feeding on the surface, for not only have we in the blind cat fish, described by Prof. Cope himself, from the subterranean stream in Pennsylvania, an example of a fish belonging to an entirely different family of bottom feeders, thriving under subterranean conditions, but the blind fishes of the Cuban caves are of the great group of cod fishes which are, with hardly an exception, bottom feeders. The fact that the food of the blind fishes of the Mammoth Cave consists in great part of the cray fish found in the waters of the cave, as shown by the contents of several stomachs I have examined, and also that one blind fish at least made a good meal of another fish, as already mentioned, shows that they are not content with simply waiting for what is brought to them on the surface of the water, and that they are probably as much bottom as surface feeders. Again, in regard to the sense of sight, why is it necessary to assume that because fishes are living in streams where there is lit- tle or no light, that it is the cause of the non development of the eye and the development of other parts and organs If this be the cause, how is it that the Chologaster from the well in Ten- nessee, or the "mud fish" of the Mammoth Cave are found with eyes Why should not the same cause make them blind if it made the Amblyopsis and Typhlichthys blind Is not the fact, pointed out by Prof. Wyman, that the optic lobes are as well developed in Amblyopsis as in allied fishes with perfect eyes, and, I may add, 47 ORIGIN OF THE BLIND FISHES. as well developed as those of Chologaster cornutus, an argument in favor of the theory that the fishes were always blind and that they have not become so from the circumstances under which they exist If the latter were the case and the fishes have become blind from the want of use of the eyes, why are not the optic lobes also atrophied, as is known to be the case when other animals lose their sight I know that many will answer at once that Amblyopsis and Typhlichthys have gone on further in the development and retardation of the characters best adapting them to their subterra- nean life, and that Chologaster is a very interesting transitionary form between the open water Cyprinodontes and the subterranean blind fishes. But is not this assumption answered by the fact that Chologaster has every character necessary to place it in the same family with Amblyopsis and Typhlichthys, while it is as distinctly and widely removed from the Cyprinodontes as are the two blind genera mentioned Assuming, for the moment, that Chologaster is a transitional form between the surface feeding Cyprinodontes, and Typhlichthys and Amblyopsis, let us recapitulate the characters that distinguish the different forms and see if they exhibit transitions, and if Cho- logaster is traversing the slow developmental road to Aniblyopsis. Allowing all characters embraced in the general structure of the skeleton, brain, scales, fins, etc., as ordinal, and common to both Cyprinodontes and Heteropygii, we will recapitulate only such as can be considered of family and generic value in the two groups. CYPRINODONTIFS. C1OLOGASTEIR. TYPHLICUTHYS. AMBLYOPSIe. Surface feeders. In part. Unknown. Partiallv. The same. Intestine. In many genera Moderately Shorter with two The same. long and convo- long with two turns. lited, in others turns. short and with single turn. StomachAfpylor- In most. if not Stomseh well The same, with The same. icappenduges. all, stomach not defined, cc- one pyloric ap- well defined cal. with two pendage on from intestine pyloric, ap- each side. andl without ap- pen'lagcs on pendages. each side. Viviparous. Many genera. Probably. Probably. Undoubted- ly. Ovary. Single in vivipa- Single and Single and The same. rous genera pi teed behind placed at side and placed by the stomach. of stomach. the side of in- testine in some and posteriorin others. The ovary is also single in other genera of viviparous fishes belonging to distinct orders. 48 ORIGIN OF THE BLIND FISHES. In normal posi- tion. Present in few genera.: On body regu- larly imbricat- ed and loosely attached. Head with scales With scales. or naked. Tactile papilln n Absent. on the head and body. Ventral fins.1T Present in most genera. absent in at least two. Eyes. Well developed in all. Habitat. Fresh water; brackish water; salt water. Geographical Nearly all parts of range. the world. Forward of pec- The same. torals .t Present. The same. Irregularly ar- The same. ranged. firm- ly attached by being cov- ered in great part by the cuticle. Naked. The same. Abeent. Absent. Well developed and normal. Limestone wa- ter of subter- ranean riv- ers. Brackish water One species in subterranea n streams of S. central por- tion of the U. S.; a 2d spe- cies in the So. AtI. coast fau- na of U. S. Very prominent as ridges on the head and sides of body. Absent. Rudiment a ry t t and of no use. Limestone wa- ter of subter. ranean rivers. Central & south- ern portion of su8 b terranean fauna of Unit- ed States. The same. The same. The same. The same. The same. Present. The same. The same. Central and N. central portion of same. From this brief comparison of some of the prominent charac- ters of the genera of the Heteropygii with the Cyprinodontes, their t Aphredoderus and Gymnotus, and other genera of distinct orders have this forward position of the anus also. t The air bladder is in several families present in some species and absent in others. The presence or absence of scales on the head, or on portions of it, is a generic character subject to great variation in many families and quite constant in others. I I cannot recall anything but the barbels on the head and jaws of many genera of Cyprinoids, Siluroids, Gadoids, etc., etc., that can be said to be tactile organs among fishes, with the exception of the fleshy papilla on the head and body of the blind fishes of the American and Cuban caves, and the filaments of the fin rays of many fishes and the fleshy ventral rays of the Gurnards. T Of all fins, the ventrals are the most likely to deviate from their normal structure and position. Their presence or absence, as exhibited in many families, and often by different ages of the same fish, and the great variation in their position in different genera of the same family, render any change in them of either generic, specific, or individual character, or simply indicative of age (as they are lost in some adult fishes while present in the young, and in others not developed until after the other fins). As I have alluded to the fact, in the first part of this paper, the eyes of fishes are no more the constant and unvarying part of the fish structure than the ventral fins, and like them are subject to almost every conceivable variation in position in the bead, and perfection in structure. tt The largest specimen I have seen of Typhlichthys, is less than two inches in length and as the eye of an Amblyopsis of twice the size is not over a 32d of an inch in width it must be very small indeed in Typhlichthys, and I confess to not being able to find it in an ordinary dissection, assisted only by a good lens. MAMMOTH CAVE. 4 Anal opening. Air bladder. Scales. 49 ORIGIN OF THE BLIND FISHES. acknowledged nearest allies, we can only trace what could be regarded as a transition, or an acceleration, or a retardation of development, in simply those very characters, of eyes and ventral fins, that are in themselves of the smallest importance in the struc- ture (permanence of character considered) of a fish, and, as if to show that they were of no importance in this connection, we find in the same cave, blind fishes with ventrals and without; and in the same subterranean stream, a blind fish and another species of the family with well developed eyes. If it is by acceleration and retardation of characters that the Heteropygii have been dwveloped from the Cyprinodontes, we have indeed a most startling and sudden change of the nervous system. In all fishes the fifth pair of nerves send branches to the various parts of the head, but in the blind fishes these branches are devel- oped in a most wonderful manner, while their subdivisions take new courses and are brought through the skin, and their free ends become protected by fleshy papillh, so as to answer, by their deli- cate sense of touch, for the absence of sight. At the same time the principle of retardation must have been at work and checked the development of the optic nerve and the eye, while accelera- tion has caused other portions of the head to grow and cover over the retarded eye. Now, ifthis was the mode by which blindness was brought about and tactile sense substituted, why is it that we still have Cholo, gaster AgassizUi in the same waters, living under the same condi- tions, but with no signs of any such change in its senses of sight and touch It may be said that the Chologaster did not change because it probably had a chance to swim in open waters and therefore the eyes were of use and did not become atrophied. We can only answer, that if the Chologaster had a chance for open water, so did the Typhlichthys and yet that is blind. If the Heteropygii have been developed from Cyprinodontes, how can we account for the whole intestinal canal becoming so singularly modified, and what is there in the difference of food or of life that would bring about the change in the intestine, stomach and pyloric appendages, existing between Chologaster and Typh- lichthys in the same waters To assume, that under the same con- ditions, one fish will change in all these parts and another remain intact, by the blind action of uncontrolled natural laws, is, to me, an assumption at variation with facts as I understand them. 50 ORIGIN OF TIlE BLIND FISHES. Looking at the case from the standpoint which the facts force me to take, it seems to me far more in accordance with the laws of nature, as I interpret them, to go back to the time when the region now occupied by the subterranean streams, was a salt and brackish water estuary, inhabited by marine forms, including the brackish water forms of the Cyprinodontes and their allies (but not descendants) the Heteropygii. The families and genera having the characters they now exhibit, but most likely more numerously rep- resented than now, as many probably became exterminated as the salt waters of the basin gradually became brackish and more lim- ited, as the bottom of this basin was gradually elevated, and finally, as the waters became confined to still narrower limits and changed from salt to brackish and from brackish to fresh, only such species would continue as could survive the change, and they were of the minnow type represented by the Heteropygii, and per- haps some other genera of brackish water forms that have not yet been discovered. In support of this hypothesis we have one species of the family. Chzologaster cornutus, now living in the ditches of the rice fields of South Carolina, under very similar conditions to those under which others of the family may have lived in long preceding geological times; and to prove that the development of the family was not brought about by the subterranean conditions under which some of the species now live, we have the one with eyes living with the one without, and the South Carolina species to show that a sub- terranean life is not essential to the development of the singular characters which the family possess. That a salt or brackish water fish would be most likely to be the kind that would continue to exist in the subterranean streams, is probable from the fact that in all limestone formations caves are quite common, and would in most instances be occupied first with salt water and then brackish, and finally with fresh water so thoroughly impregnated with lime as to render it probable that brackish water species might easily adapt themselves to the change, while a pure fresh water species might not relish the solu- tion of lime any more than the solution of salt, and we know how few fishes there are that can live for even an hour on being changed from fresh to salt, or salt to fresh, water. We have also the case of the Cuban blind fishes belonging to genera with their nearest representative in the family a marine form, and with the NOTE ON THE YOUNG BLIND FISH. whole family of cods and their allies, to which group they belong, essentially marine. Further than this the cat fish from the subter- ranean stream in Pennsylvania belongs to a family having many marine and brackish water representatives. As another very in- teresting fact in favor of the theory that the Heteropygii were formerly of brackish water, we have the important discovery by Prof. Cope of the Lernaean parasite on a specimen of Amblyopsis from the Wyandotte cave; this genus of parasitic crustaceans be- ing very common on marine and migratory fishes, and much less abundant on fresh water species. Thus I think that we have as good reasons for the belief in the immutability and early origin of the species of the family of Heteropygii, as we have for their mutability and late development, and, to one of my, perhaps, too deeply rooted ideas, a far more satisfactory theory; for, with our present knowledge, it is but the- ory on either side. YOUNG OF THE BLIND FISH.-Dr. Hagen gives me the follow- ing information about the young specimens I mentioned (page 38) as belonging to Dr. Steindachner, which I just missed seeing before they were sent to Vienna. These specimens were procured by Dr. Hartung for Dr. Steindachner under the following circum- stances. Just as Dr. Hartung was leaving the cave hotel on Oct. 21, a bottle was brought to him containing four specimens, one of which was smaller than the others (probably Typhlichthys), all living. He immediately transferred them to a jar containing alco- hol and took no notice of them until he reached Nashville, when he discovered an addition of eight little ones in the jar. The birth of these young was undoubtedly due to placing the parent in the alcohol, and the date (Oct. 21) would correspond to the time I have stated as probably that at which the young were born. Dr. Hagen states that he examined the young under a lens, with- out taking them from the jar, and could not discover any eyes. The specimens were about three lines in length. So now we have two more facts to add to the history of the blind fishes (though whether they apply to Amblyopsis or Typh- lichthys is not yet settled). First, that the young are born in October, and second, that they are without external eyes when born.-From the AMERICAN NATURALISTfor February, 1872. 52 Fq I N Oft: 0tr gAl i. A i a:ie a EXPLANATION OF PLATE ONE. [All the figures on this plate are from original drawings by Prof. J. Wyman.] FIG. 1. Brain, nerves and organ of hearing of Amblyopsn spewuse; enlarged; a, olfac tory lobes and nerves; b, cerebral lobes; c, optic lobes; d, cerebellum; e. organ of hearing, showing the semicircular canals, with the otolite repre- sented in place by the dotted lines; f, medulla oblongata; g, optic nerves and eye specks. FIG. 2. Otolite, enlarged. FIG. 3. Eye, magnified (natural size one-sixteenth of an inch in length); a, optic nerve; b, sclerotic membrane; c, layer of colorless cells; d, layer of pigment cells (iris); e, lens. FIG. 4. Lens, enlarged and showing the cells. FIG. 5. Eye, enlarged, showing the muscular bands, a, a, a, a; b, the lens pressed out of place; c, the optic nerve. FIG. 0. Top of head, showing the canals under the skin, of the natural size. The two black dots and lines indicate the eyes and optic nerves in position. FIG. 7. Top of head, showing the arrangement of the ridges of papillae. Natural size. FIG. 8. One of the ridges of papillae from the head, magnified. FIG. 9. Three of the papillan from the ridge, still more magnified, showing the cup- shaped summit and projecting filament. FIG. 10. A portion of the ridge magnified, and treated with acid, to show the arrange- ment of the nervous plexus supplying the papilla with nerve filaments from a branch (a) of the fifth pair. FIG. 11. Epithelial cells from the head. FIG. 12. Epithelial cells from the body. FIG. 13. A fish with eyes, found in the stomach of an Amblyopsis. (53) EXPLANATION OF PLATE TWO. FIG. 1. AMBLTOPSIS SPELUSEs DeKay. Natural size. 1 a. Stomach and pyloric appendages. Twice natural size. 1 b. Scale, magnified. 1 c. Abdominal cavity, showing position of stomach and single ovary. Natural size. FIG. 2. CHOLOGASTER CORNUTUs Agassiz. Natural size. 2 a. Stomach and pyloric appendages. Twice natural size. 2 b. Scale. magnified. 2 c. Abdominal cavity, showing stomach and single ovary behind the stomach. Twice natural size. FIG. 3. TYPHLICUTHYS suBTEnRANEUS Girard. Slightly more than natural size. 3a. Stomach and pyloric appendages. Twice natural size. 3 b. Scale, magnified. FIG. 4. CIIOLOGASTER AGASSIZII Putnam. Natural size. 4 a. Stomach and pyloric appendages. Twice natural size. 4 b. Scale, magnified. The scales figured on the plate are all from the second or third row under the dorsal fin. 4 b is represented with the posterior margin dowon, all the others are represented with the posterior margin on the left. The natural size of the scales is given by the minute outline at the left of the figures above each scale; 4 b is so small that the natura l size can hardly be represented by the black dot. (54) CHAPTER IV. SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILY HETEROPYGII. BY F. W. PUTNAMq. HETEROPYGII TELLKANIPF, Mifller's Arch. f. Anat., p. 392, 1844; and New York Journal of Medicine, v, p. 84, 1845. Hypsacidce Storer, Synopsis N. A. Fish, p. 435, 186. Brain of ordinary development in all its parts, similar to that of Cyprinodontes and of about the same proportions. Cerebral lobes larger than the nearly round optic lobes. Cerebellum overlapping the posterior third of the optic lobes. Medulla oblongata broad, with well defined right and left sides. (On comparing the brains of the three genera the only difference noticed was that in Chologaster the cerebellum was not quite as large proportionally, but more elongated and not quite as wide as in the other genera, while the optic lobes of this genus with well developed eyes were no larger than in a Typh- lichthys of the same size.) Skeleton not studied. GUnther gives the vertebrae as thirteen ab- dominal and nineteen or twenty caudal. The bones of the head are tlin and mostly flattened as in the Cyprinodontes. Occiput slightly convex. Body compressed posteriorly. Head and anterior portion of body depressed, giving the form of a broad, flat head, with a compressed tail. Branchiostegal rays six in number and but slightly covered by oper- cular bones; opercular opening large. Fins. Dorsal and anal nearly opposite and posterior to centre of body. All the fins except the ventrals well developed, with central rays longest and first rays simple. Pectorals close to the head, about in the middle of the sides. (Ventrals present in Amblyopsis, absent in Typhlichthys and Chologaster.) Mouth opening upwards, with lower jaw slightly projecting. Mar- gin of the upper jaw formed by the intermaxillaries. Maxillaries placed behind the intermaxillaries, with lower third broad and below the intermaxillaries. Several rows of fine teeth on the intermaxil- laries and lower jaw. (Teeth on palatines in Amblyopsis and Typh- lichthys, none on these bones in adults of Chologaster.) Scales. None on the head. Body closely covered with small, par- tially imbedded cycloid scales, irregularly arranged. Lateral line absent. From the Annual Report of the Peabody Acadenmy of Science for 1871. (55) SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILY HETEROPYGII. . Xostrils double. Anterior tubular and standing out from the end of the snout. Stomach well defined, ececal. Pyloric appendages present. Intestine with two turns. Anus situated under the throat and forward of the pectorals. Ovary single. (Placed by the side of the stomach in Amblyopsis and Typhlichthys and behind it in Chologaster.) Viviparous. (Amblyopsis.) Testes paired. (Amblyopsis.) Air bladder with pneumatic duct. (Amblyopsis.) Liver with the left lobe very large and partially enclosing the stomach. Amblyopsis DEKAY, Fishes of New York, p. 187, 1842. Eyes rudimentary and imbedded under the skin. Head with numerous transverse and longitudinal rows of sensitive papillve provided with nerve branches, many of the nerve branches terminating as free filaments outside the papilla3. Small granula- tions on the spaces between the papillary ridges. Canals under the skin. Teeth minute, curved, and arranged in rows on the intermaxillary, inferior maxillary and palatine bones. Body with a prominent papilla just over the opercular opening, at the base of a small papillary ridge, similar to those on the head. Papillary ridges on sides of body of same character as those on the head, and arranged at nearly equal distances from opercular opening to base of caudal fln. Pyloric appendages, one on each side. Ovary situated on the right side of the stomach. Fins. Ventrals small and placed near the anal fin. Dorsal, 9. Anal. 9. Pectoral, 11. Ventral, 4. Caudal, 24. Amblyopsis speleus DEKAY. LARGE BLINDFISIL. CRAIGE, Procd. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., i, p. 175, 18i2. DEKAY, Fishes N. Y., p. 187, 1842. WYNIAN-, Amer. Jour. Sci., xlv, p. 94, 1843; Ann. 3lag. Nat. Ilist., xii, p. 298., 1813. TiioMrPSoN, Ann. Mtag. Nat. list., xiii. p. 111. 1844. TELLKAMPF, Miil- ler's Arch. f. Anat., p. 39t2 1844; N. Y. .Jour. Iedicine, v, p. 84, with plate. giving three figs. of the fish; position of internal organs; brain; stomach; air bladder; scale 'profle view gives the fish uithout ventral fins. but ventral view shows them), 1845. STORER. Synopsis N. A. Fish, p. 43.5. 1846,. OwEN, Lect. Comp. Anat. Fishes, pp. 175, 02 (fig. of brain), 1816. WYMAN, Proed. Boston Soc. Nat. Iist., iii, p. 349, 1850 'DALTONs, N. Y. Medical Times. ii, p. 354. 18-.' AGAssIz, Amer. Jour. Sci. xi. p.128, 1851. W1Y73AN, Proed. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.. iv, p. 395 (1853), 1854; v. p. 18. 1854; Amer. Jour. Sci.. xvii, p. 259. 1854 (with figs. of brain. eye, and otolite). GIRARD. Proc. Nat. Sr i. Philad., p. 63, 1859). POEY, 3lem. dle Cuba, ii, p. 101. PIs. 9, 11 (outlines of fl.-h and of brain), 18.,8. WOOD, 111. Nat. list., iii, p. 314, figure. 1862. TEs..NEY, Nat. Hist., p. 344, figure. 1865. GVNTHIER. Cat. Fish lrit. Museum, Vi;, p. 2. 186. COPE, Ann. Mag. Nat. Ilist., viii. p. 368, 1871. PUTNAM, Amer. Nat., 56 ST-NOPSIS OF THE FAMILY IIETEROPYGII. 57 vi, p. 6 et seq., with figs., Jan., 1872. WYMAN, Mss. notes and drawings in Put- nam, Amer. Nat., vi, p. 10 et seq.. 1872. PUTNAMi, Amer. Nat., vi. p. 116. Feb., 1872 (additional note on the young). PLATE I (American Naturalist, Vol. vi, Jan., 1872). FIG. 1. Brain, nerves and organ of hearing of Amblyopsis spela-us; enlarged; a, olfactory lobes and nerves; b, cerebral lobes; c, optic lobes; l cerebellum; e, organ of hearing, showing the semicircular canals, with the otolite represented in l)lace by the dotted lines; f, medulla oblongata; g, optic nerves and eye specks. FIG. 2. Otolite. enlarged. FIG. 3. Eye, magnified (natural size one-sixteenth of an inch in length); a. optic nerve; b, sclerotic tuenmbrane; c, layer of colorless cells; d, layer of pigment cells (iris); e, lens. FIG. 4. Lens, enlarged and showing the cells. FIG. 5. Eye, en- larged, showing the muscular bands, a, a, a, a; b. the lens pressed out of place; c. the optic nerve. FIG. 6. Top of head, showing canals under the skin, natural size. The two b)lack dots and lines indicate the eyes anld optic nerves in position. FIG. 7. Top of head, showing the arrangement of the ridges of l)apillaR. nat. size. FIG. 8. One of the ridges of papille from the head, magnified. FIG. 9. Three of the papfilve from the ridge, still more magnified, showing the cup-shaped summit and projecting filament. Fig. 10. A 1)ortion of the ridge magnified, and treated with acid, to show the arrangement of the nervous lplexus supplying the papilla with nervous filaments froi a b-ranch (a) of tle fiftl pair. FIG. 11. Epithelial cells from the head. FIG. 12. Epithelial cells from the body. PLATE 2. FIG. 1. Natural size; la, stomach and pyloric appen(lages, twice nat. size; lb, scale, magnifiedl (nat. size represented by the small outline on the left over the figlure); Ic. abdominal cavity, shbwing position of stomach and single ovary, nat. size. h1ead more than half as wide as it is long. Length of head, from tip of jaw to end of operculuin, contailled nearly twice in length Of body from operculum to base of caudal fln. Dorsal and anal fins of equal size, rounded, anal commences under third ray of dorsal. Pectorals pointed, reaching to commencemlent of dorsal. Ventrals pointed, nearly reaching to comlnlencement of anal. Caudal broad, long and pointed, membrane, enclosing simple rays above and below, continuing slightly on the tail. Scales small, longer than b)road, with quadrangular centre and from 8 to 12 concentric lines, which are broken and reduced inl number an- teriorly and crossed by numerous radiatin, furrows posteriorly. Colorless, or nearly so, with transparent tills. Measurements. Largest specimen, 4-5 inches total lengtll. Smallest specimcn, 1-9 total length. Geographical distribation. Subterranean streams in Kentucky and Indiana. Specimens examined: - PROF. wY.IAN'S COLLECTION. 7 specimens. Half grown and adults. Mammoth Cave. MUSEU. OF CO'MPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. , specimens. No. 778. Half grown and e Y adults. 'Mammoth Cave. 1 specimen. No.-. Two-thirds grown. Cave near Lost River, Orange Co., Ind. The scales described were in every instance taken from the 2d or 3d row un- der the dorgal fin. SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILY IIETEROPYGII. BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY. 2 specimens. No. 840. Half grown. Mammoth Cave. PEABODY ACADEMY OF SCIENCE. I specimen. No. 520. Adult Y. Mammoth Cave. Presented to Essex Insti- tute in 1851 by N. Silsbee. Other specimens. Dr. GUnther mentions six specimens and a skele- ton in the British Museum. Mr. Thompson, an adult and newly born young in the collection of the Natural History Society of Belfast. Dr. Steindachner has recently sent an adult and- eight young to the Vienna Museum. The first specimen of which we have any record was presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- delphia; the second is the one described by DeKay and then in the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. Prof. Cope obtained three specimens from the waters of Wyandotte Cave in Indiana. Dr. Tell- kampf had several specimens from the Mammoth Cave, and it is prob- able that specimens exist in nearly 411 the principal museums and in many private collections, as about all that have been caught in the Mammoth Cave for years have been sold by the guides to visitors. H1abits. But little is known of the habits of the large blindfish. Dr. Tellkampf states that they are solitary; on the slightest motion of the water they dart off a short distance, and that they are mostly found near stones or rocks on the bottom, and seldom come to the surface of the water. Prof. Cope states that if they are not alarmed they come to the surface to feed, swim in full sight, and can then be easily captured if perfect silence is preserved. He also thinks that they are principally surface feeders. In the stomachs of several that I have opened the only remains found were those of Crayfish. In one specimen, opened by Dr. Wy- man, a small fish with well developed eyes was found in the stomach. (See Amer. Nat., vi, p. 13, Pl. 1, fig. 13.) The eggs are well developed in September, and the young are born about the middle to last of October. The young when born are half an inch or less in length, and are without external eyes. (See Amer. Nat., Feb., 1872. The young there mentioned may possibly be those of Typhlichthys.) TyphUichthys GIRARD, Procd. Acad. Nat. Sd!. Phiilad., p. 63,1859. Eyes rudimentary and imbedded under the skin. Head. The same arrangement of rows of sensitive papillae as in Amblyopsis, and the spaces between the papilla with granulations as in that genus. (The subcutaneous canals probably exist, but have not yet been made out.) Teeth, as in Amblyopsis, on the maxillaries and palatines. Body with papilla over opercular opening, and with the papillary ridges on the sides as in Amblyopsis. Pyloric appendages one on each side as in Amblyopsis, but of 58 SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILY IIETEROPYGII. slightly different proportion and shape. (Stomach not so pointed behind as in Amblyopsis.) Ovary situated on right side of stomach, as in Amblyopsis. (Eggs fewer in number and proportionately larger than in Amblyopsis.) Fins. Ventrals absent. Dorsal, 7 or 8; Anal, 7 or 8; Pectoral, 12; Caudal 24. (This formula is given after counting several specimens. Girard gives, D. 7; A. 8; P. 11; C. 23.) It will be noticed that the only characters separating this genus from Amblyopsis are the absence of ventral flits, the shape of the stomach and pyloric appendages, and larger eggs ill less number. Typhlichthys subterraneus GIRARD. S3MALL BLI-NDFISII. GIRAUD, Proed. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.. p. G3, 1859. Gt'NTHER. Cat. Fish Brit. Museum, vii, p.2. 1868 (as a syn. of Amblyopsis). PUTINA3, Amer. Nat., vi. p. 20 et seq., with figs., Jan., 1872. PLATE 2 (Amer. Nat., Vol. vi.. Jan., 1872). FIG. 3, slightly more than natural size; 3a, stomach and pyloric appendages, twice nat. size; 3b, scale, mnaguitled (nat. size represented by suall outline over the figure). Proportions and gencral appearance, want of color. arrangement of papillary ridges, position and shape of tins as in Amblyopsis spelwus, with the exception that, owing to the jaws being more obtusely round- ed, the head is slightly blunter and broader forward. 31embrane of caudal quite prominent and extending forwards to pos- terior base of dorsal and anal fins. Scales broader than long. Large quadrangular centre with from 6i to 8 concentric lines reduced in number and broken up on anterior margin. Posterior portion with numerous radiating furrows. Measurements. Largest specimen, 185 inches in total length. Smallest specimen, 1o45 inches in total length. Geographical distribution. Subterranean streams in Kentucky, Ten- nessee and Alabama. Specimens examined: - MUSEUM OF COMPIARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 7 specimens. No. 780. d 7. Adults. Mammoth Cave. Collected and pre- sented by Alpheus Hyatt, Sept.. 185.9. 1 specimen. No. 781. Moulton, Alabama. Presented by Thomas Peters. 1 specimen. No. 782. Lebanon, Tennessee. Presented by J. 31. Safford. Other specimens. Dr. Girard described the species from a specimen in the Smithsonian Institution, taken from a well near Bowling, Green, Ky. Dr. Gunther mentions a specimen, in the British Museum, from the Mammoth Cave. Habits. Nothing Is known concerning the habits of this flsh. It is evidently much rarer at the Mammoth Cave than the large species, to judge from the small number in collections. The fact that Mr. Hyatt obtained seven specimens when he was at the cave in September and did not get any of the other species, may indicate some peculiar loca- 59 SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILY HETEROPYGIT. tion in the waters of the cave where it is more abundant than in other places. The eggs were fully developed in these specimens, but no embryos could be detected. The fish is probably viviparous, and very lik:ely gives birth to its young in October. Chologaster AGASsIZ, Amer. Jour. Sci., xvi, p. 135, 1853. Eyes in normal position and well developed. Head with small granulations on the surface of the skin. (No papillary ridges.) Teeth minute, curved and arranged in rows on the intermaxillary and inferior maxillary bones. None on the palatines in the adults. (Of the four specimens examined, the two larger (C. cornutus) are without palatine teeth, while the single specimen of C. Agassizii, which is evidently a young fish, has a few minute teeth on the pala- tine bones. In the smallest specimen of C. cornutus the mouth is abnormal, the intermaxillaries being reduced to a small central portion and there are consequently no teeth in the upper jaw, but the minute teeth on the palatines are present.) (Body without opercular papilla and papillary ridges on the sides.) Pyloric appendages two on each side. Stomach rounded and turned slightly on the side. Ovary situated principally behind the stomach. Fins. Ventrals absent. Dorsal, 8 or 9. Anal, 8 or 9. Pectoral, 12. Caudal, 28. This genus principally differs from Amblyopsis and Typhlichthys by the presence of eyes, the absence of papillary ridges on the head and body, by having two pyloric appendages on each side instead of one, and by the posterior position of the ovary. It agrees with Typh- lichthys in the absence of the ventrals, and the young further agree by the presence of palatine teeth. 1 believe this is one of those interesting cases where one set of organs, or one portion of the animal structure, takes the place of another which from accident is wanting, and that in all probability these palatine teeth, that under normal con- ditions would be cast off as the fish attained maturity, would have continued to exist in this specimen and answer all the purposes of the intermaxillary teeth. But that in this accidental continuance of these palatine teeth, from the mere mechanical use forced upon them, we have the first stages of the development of a distinct genus, to be characterized by permanent teeth on the palatines, and reduced upper jaw bones, as many of the developmental school would argue, I do not think will bear the test of facts observed. A not uncommon malformation of fishes consists in the entire or partial absence of the maxillary or internmaxillary bones. I have specially noticed this among our common fresh water trout (Salmo) and marine conner or sea perch (Ctenolabrus) but there have never been recorded allied genera with these characters, while the malformed specimens are hardly numerous enough to give support to the the- ory that such malformations are hereditary, and it is probable that each case was caused by the non-development of the parts from special cause during embryonic life, or by accident to the individual. 60 SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILY HETEROPYGLI. Chologaster cornutus AGASSIZ. AGASSIZ, Amer. Jour. Sci., xvi, p. 135, 1853. GIRARD, Procd. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., p. 63, 1859. GUICTHER, Cat. Fish. Brit. Museum, vii, p. 2, 1868. PUTS-AM. Amer. Nat., vi, p. 21 et seq., with figs. Jun., 1872. PLATE 2 (Amer. Nat., Vol. vi, Jan., 1872). FIG. 2. Natural size. 2a, Etomach and pyloric appendages, twice nat. size. 2b, scale magnified (nat. size represented by small outline over the left of the fig). 2c, abdominal cavity showing stomach and single ovary behind the stomach, twice nat. size. Head more than half as wide as it is long. Length of head, from tip of under jaw to end of operculum contained twice in length of body from operculum, to caudal fin. Width between the eyes equal to distance from eye to tip of under jaw. Eyes of moderate size, situated just back and over the end of the maxillaries. Dorsal and anal fins of nearly equal size, slightly rounded. Anal with slightly longer rays and commences under fourth ray of dorsal. Pectoral fins pointed, reaching to line of commencement of dorsal. Caudalfin pointed, about equal in length to the head. Membrane above and below extending but slightly on the tail. Scales very small and deeply imbedded in the skin. Circular with small smooth space forward of the centre. From 15 to 20 con- centric rings, cut by a few short radiating furrows on anterior, and longer and more numerous ones on posterior margin. Intestine is a little longer than in an Anmblyopsis of the same size. The two pyloric appendages on the left side are close together and broader than the two on the right side, which are wider apart, longer and more slender than the others. Color. Yellowish brown, much darker above, lighter on sides, and light yellow on under part and sides of head, belly and under part of tail. Three longitudinal very dark brown lines on each side: the upper commencing near the middle of top of head and following along the back to base of caudlal fin; the middle one commencing at the nostril and passing through the eye to upper portion of opereu- lum, thence about in the centre of side to about the centre of base of caudal fin; the lower commences under the pectoral fin and follows the ventral curve of the body to the base of caudal fin. All three lines are darkest and broadest forward, and terminate as a series of nearly confluent dots on the tail. Central rays of the caudal dark brown, outer rays uncolored. Dorsal, anal and pectorals not colored. Measurements. The three specimens are respectively 1-5, 2, and 2-3 inches in total length. Geographical distribution. South Carolina. Specimens examined:- MUSEUM OF COMFPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 3 specimens. No. 776. Rice Ditches at Waccamaw, S. C. Presented by P. C. J. Weston. 1853. (Orig. of Agassiz.) 61 SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILY HETEROPYGII. Ha bits. Nothing is known concerning the habits of this species, the only specimens observed being the three mentioned. From the fact of its having a single ovary containing a small number (about 60) of large eggs it is probable that it is viviparous. Chologaster Agassizii PUTNAM. PUTNAM, Amer. Nat., vi, p, 22 et seq., with figs. Jan., 1872. PLATE 1 (Amer. Nat., Vol. vi, Jan., 1872). FIG. 4. Natural size; 4a, stomach and pyloric appendages, twice nat. size; 4b, scale magnified (nat. size shown by minute dot over left of the figure). Head more than half as wide as it is long. Its length is contained three times in the length of the body from the operculum to the base of caudal fln. Eyes proportionately large and placed over ends of maxillaries. Dorsal and anialfins broken, but probably of about equal size. Anal fin commences about under fourth ray of dorsal. Pectoralfins pointed and reaching about half way to the dorsal. Cautdal fin pointed, not quite as long as the head. Scales very minute, longer than wide, with 4 or 5 concentric lines round a granulated centre. A few radiating furrows cut the concentric lines on the posterior margin. Pyloric appendages and stomach about the same as in C. cornutus. Color. Uniform light brown,without markings except that the base of the caudal fin is rather darker than rest of fish. Fins uncolored. .21leasurements. Total length, 1-4 inches. Geographical distribution. Subterranean streams in Tennessee. Specinmen examined:- MEUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 1 specimen. No. 777. From a well in Lebanon, Tenn. Presented by J. M. Safford. Jan., 1851. This species principally differs from C. cornutus by having a longer body and smaller head, by having the eyes proportionately larger, and by its coloration. Nothing is known of its habits except the fact of its subterranean life. The scales of the single specimen known indicate a young fish, and it is probably not over half grown. The four species given in this synopsis are all of the family as yet known, but that others will be discovered and the range of the present known species extended is very probable. The ditches and small streams of the lowlands of our southern coast will undoubtedly be found to be the home of numerous individuals, and perhaps of new species and genera, while the subterranean streams of the central portion of our country most likely contain other species. 62