You have found an item located in the Kentuckiana Digital Library.
James Kennedy Patterson, pater universitatis Kentuckionsis : his career, his achievements, his personality / William Benjamin Smith. Smith, William Benjamin. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-273-32007204 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. James Kennedy Patterson, pater universitatis Kentuckionsis : his career, his achievements, his personality / William Benjamin Smith. Smith, William Benjamin. s.n., [S.l. : 19--] 211 >. ; 28 cm. Coleman Typewritten. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1995. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN05118.02 KUK) Printing Master B92-273. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Patterson, James Kenndy, 1833-1922. 3 EN T U C0 Y I X 1944 as forooasal by Prosident Patterson at dinner :ien Lo President Barker, :hoenli Hotel, 5 January, 1911. 'Then will Kentucky assert her true dignity; then will she know that her true wealth consists not in .cres of Blue Grass, nor in fields of tobacco, nor in square miles of mineral resources, but in the developed intelligence, and high ideals of duty, and splendid morality of her citizens -- a beacon sending its bevams aE !r and an everlasting ex-,onent of the True, the Beautiful, and the Good.1 Almost a Confession of Faith! This page in the original text is blank. J A M E S K E N h D r v A. a _ _ _ Pater Uniers itatis Kentuckionsi s Hi s Career His Achievements L.s Personality By Willi-= Ben-lamin Smith - Sophokles - This page in the original text is blank. I A D A W N O V E R C A S T Witor in adversum This cardinal, Though from an humble stock, undoubtedly ;an fashioned to much honor fromn Ale cradle. JAMES KENEDY PAT-TERSON was born 26th Maroh, 183Z, in the parish of Girbals, Glasgow. Sootland. His father, ,S.i-rw PFttarson, w.',s by trade a calico-printer, one of those sons of tcil to whom ,.arlyle so reverentially doffs his hat in a famous passage. He had married Jennetto Kennedy, a woman of his own station in life. herself a member of a family of calico-printers, but apparently of finer srirital mould and of higher intellectual yearnings, - who displa yed throughout her life a character of much resolution, energy and in- dustry, of sel.f-assertion, poise and native dignity. It is note- worthy, t.ough in accord with Scottish prescription, how often the name Kennedy is found in thba Patterson familys James Kennedy, 'William Kennedy, Walter Kennedy - Patterson. Both these family names .re genaine Scotch and meet us )ften enough in British annuls. F-us, William Patterson (l658-17'Ls) is recognized ai, the chief Drvjeotor of the Bank of England (1691-94), - a Freetrader before Adam Sm:th, mnd certainly a man of vision a ud daring in commnercial-finmnoinl mttters, though not alwys fortunate,, and far from wealthy at the clo:te of his kaleidosoopic career. Bettor known in the United :'tates is ':'he nz=e of another ban er, John Stewart Kennedy, reared in Gl tsgow, - and To wh=m ';ebster should hLve referred in addressing the Sena1Oe (14 March 1834), "It was Williar the :eoliverer, ,nd not ',illiam ihe Conqueror. that established the Bank of 3ngland."' This page in the original text is blank. justly honored, not so mulh that he loft S25,0QO000 out o;' 560,COO,OOO to the Dublic, as that he withdrew from busineas at the age of fifty-two and dedicated the remaining third o0 his dife to the welfare of All. iant, howrever, may be the blood-rl,.ticnship, if my, connecting some of the various historimcl Pat(tersors and Kennedys with the worthy yeomanry af like names in Gorbals Parish, cay be an interesting question, but no answer need b8 sought in this volume. The Accident. .ames Kennedy was the oldest of five children born within eight years (the only daughter Helen, the second child, Lied prematurely, before completing her seocnd year, and lies buried in Scotland). and the problem of life must have presented itself to his father, Andrew, in features of froat sternness and severity. For the son, in the meantime, it had been darkened and hardened by a heavy misfortune. It was the spring of 1837, his fourth milestaae was just passed, and he with his playmate, 'Ni liam Wood, was in gleeful chase over the unsawn logs in a lumber yard; ase slipnrd and fell, -nd his left knee-pana was injured. Kean suffering ensued, and the local physician at 1 st advised that he be taken to 3lasgow :'or an amputation of his limb. However, 't-,vo eminent surgeons, Burns r. d 9.acFarlanue, on consultatLon ereconmended delay'; ho, underrwent la minor surgical operation by a local physician at hoce, r. 31ilifle, it would seem, in the auturan of 1839; through many fluctuations 4;he Thesa single eoxas s are used thruout to indicaUe quo Lation from the Autobiographical Notes of President Patterson. This page in the original text is blank. 3 condition slowly improved till in two years, 'about six mcnths before leaving Scotland' he was 'able to valk with a crutch', an=d. 'at intervals attended school', where he learned reading, writing, ad 'the rudiments of arithmetic' (1842). Hgndicapped. Certainly a dull, dark, and lowering Dawnt For nearly five years the luckless laddie agonized under the hunble roof of his parents, unable to Join his mates in their innocent sports, fettered to a couch of pain; without education, without observati4o without cheer or ccomfort. without hope in the world. Life lay behind him, before him, around him - an arid waste; his sun had suddenly gone under a cloud that spread all over his sky. Had he been abale to read and had h" read Locksley Eall (publishdd 184',). what might have been his fury and despair at such lines as thes-t Iron-jointed, su-Dplo-sinen'd, they shall dive, and they shall rua, -atch the wild goat by the hair and hurl their lances in the sun; fhistle back the parrot' s call, and lap the rainbows of the brooks, Tt i th blinded eyesight noring over miserable books. It is a Ateous image that arises of the helpless patient. 1e WAsy believe thait his mother was his strength through the e lon years o im otant anguish. No waonier that he clave to her to the list with -almost rm-aantic attacllnenis. One might well supcose that As outlook uDonl life wuld have been permanently clouded, that I-e woLUtd haire tbecoe morose or melanoh.J]y, glooy and misanthropic in af Tr yeoarb Such, however, was ia ne manner or measure the case. It i3 amaning with what resistless force the fountains of life bubble up in enrly youth. He w,,s perhaps fa:r less unhappy thin seems oossib:Le to usnow. No trace of the afflictive experiences of the boy seems to have been This page in the original text is blank. left on the mind of the -san. - which may testify not iad.,d to the peeculia. but at least to the notable, sanity and equipoise of his nature. He aceoted fasls without any omaplaiat, without any grudge against God or Nature, fraom whom he might have felt he hal suffered such cruel and irreparable] wrong. W7e Shall See that it wLs a LOeVy handicmp that he bore through life, but the question vhether its total wrking was for gocd or for ill, it would be vain to moot, Snce it is impossible to settle. WVestward, hot The struggle for life grew doubtjess in- creasingly severe in the Patterson household, and at last, when the lad was nine years old, the whole family, leaving Alexandzia, their home since 1835, set sail. 26th April, 1842, in the good ship Perthshire, for America, the land of promise or at least cf hope. The little invalid was five weeks ill, even critically, - and 'all the preparations were made for a burial at seat, - but he quite recovered before reaching port, New York, June 19th. There the financial straits would have been too severe, - for Andrew could find no - ployment in calico-printiag, the industry in Rhode Island had been brought'to a standstill' by 'local disturbances', which sounds much like a strike or lockout - but family affection. always Os con- spicuous among the Patterisons and Kennedys, came quickly te help. A brother of Mrs. Patterson, Wm. Kennedy, who had emigrated to South Carolina in 1822 and become a prosperous planter near Camdan, had But it was really the great year of "Dorr s Rebellion"l - :suoh "ras the nane falsely given to the unsuccessful struggle of the "Su"'fragists", the great body of the people, to wrest the scantiest polit!Lcal functions from tho exclusSve possession of the "Land'holderis". This page in the original text is blank. 5 instructed James Lee, his ozmteroial corresrondent in New York, RI. moet his sister at onoe upon her arrival and deliver her a iraft for 200, -i goodly sim, nearly equivalent in purchasuig power t3 1000 now. :.e had also instructiod James Douglass. senior member if tho cotton-brokers' firm (of Charleston, S. C.) that firs' emnpli3yed Jim in 1822, but who chanced to ba then in New York, to c-ill on the new immigrants and report on return to South Carolina. This instruction proved decisive for their fiture, for Douglass had entered an eaton- sive tract of land in Bartholmoew Co., Indiana. at the nmiiual congressional prices, and h'd sent thither his former schoo:L- end play-mat in Scotland, Johi. i'offatt, for its mtriagemont. Nusural ly the Douglass pointed the fPmily to Indiana, suggesting that they buy sane land and make it their home. Alast the poor calico-printer had not tha rroney for even a mn dest purchase. Again the brotherl s heart of William Kennedy was prompt with assistance; he freely gare his sister the necessary money, and the family prepared tc leave, New York early in September. In Cluest of a Hams. The trip to Indiana Was at tiat day a far more serious matter than is now a trip to Alaska: it wrs made by steamLoat up the Hudson to Albany, thence by the Erie Canal to Buffalco; thence by steamer a.cross Lake Erie to Cleveland; thence by the Ohio C-anal to Portmouth, Ohio; thence by steamb at to Madison, Indiana - a journey of full three weeks. Having accomplished it about the sixth of October, and following the suggestion of Douglass, Andrev Patterson Beautiful for situation, o:a a northward bulge of the Ohio. This page in the original text is blank. 6 left his family in Madison, vent to visit Moffatt at Bartholomeir, Indiana, stayed several days, inspected the small farms offered for sale nd selected one of misghty aores, fiftyr under cultivation, thirty heavily timbered. The house of hewn logs was large, ccio- dious, well-finished, 'tho best in the neighborhood'. and inliko its Poers it boasted la goodly brick chimney', whion had cost ;he owner, Lawrence Bench, by the proud estimate of his wife 'ten silr-r dollars. The whole farm with all iis well-built out-houses cost sevon dollars (the price of a good cow) per scre. Surely nough, when Government entries were made at 1.25 an acre, when bacon was 2, and butter 6) a pound, corn 10 a bushel., and a good horse 35.-s The purchasing nower of the dollrtr has ftllen to a small fraction of its formex sells the farmer gets seemingly high prioes for his products, and the 5The generous Bench threw into the bargain, as a pure gratuity, the following autographic doomnent, which can hardly have failod to serve Patterson well in frequent emergencies: Reseit for 1roeker, horses take one quart of wniskey and one quarter of a nound of tolaco and put in one quart of water and boil the water and tobe'o doarn to one half cint and gave it to him six or eight table spoon full of the ambear in the whiskey and one table spoon full of Baitsman Drops aad mix them together fnd gave it 9.t two doses.-L.Bonch. This script, like 50 many others, received in much later correspondence by Piesident Patterson, illustrates the contention of Havelock Ellis (in The Dance of Life, p. 174), that by correct spelling "We are wilfully throwing away an endless source of delight." "Compare frontire rates on Kentuaky s adCnis8 on as a State into the Union (1 June 1792) Per sound: Butter u6, Beef 20. Buffalo 1. , Venison l, turkeys 150 apiecel The Governor's salary was fixed (November 1792) at 1,000s the principal judges., each 666 2/31 the principal State officers', each 333 1/31 This page in the original text is blank. 7 laborer for his time and toil; but their gain is largely illusory ad iesembles changing one dollar into ten dimes. Then and Now. The calendar year begins in January, a m,;st absurd convention, but the farmer, with a true and ancient sense, insists on beginning his rear with the vernal equinci or p.tudsntly a little sooner, the first o March. The farm-price was pa,i in Madison about midwinter, and the vendor, Bench, came afoot, with his brother-in-law, to Madison, to receive t;e cash. I1 may :ntereist the reader to learn that they demanded silver and would iave naught to do with paper or gold. All night long they journeyed, eaoh w!hth St= and saddle-bags slung an his ahoulder. Arrived at Madison in the morning, they went with Patterson to the bank, received the precious, coins, packed them in rolls and stored them away in the bags, ther; made so= small purchases, and at night-fall set out for hce. - e have changed all that now. In modern civilized times and climes, when tw men bearing bags of currency attempt to walk a few paces iD brond daylight on the public streets, they are promptly met by well-in- formed gentlea..en, gunmen, -who speedily stun or kill them as seemeth best, dispossess them of their money bags. mount into a motor-car awaiting them at htnd, and are quickly swallowed up i:a the :nultitude that no Dman can number. Little danger attaches to this met:,od of acquisition, for the entreiprenaurs can secure or have 1lreaiy secured the legal advice and proteotion of some iliant and skilful counsel, and only in perhaps one caue in ten does any serious personal in- convenience result. If thre method were altogether devoid of risk, it would of course lack the cl.arr: of adventure and of high em-roise. This page in the original text is blank. 8 Jack to Nat-r. Promptly the first of March, 1843, the Pattorsons left Madison for their noe-bought farm, over forty-three miles away. They were brDught thirty-en miles on their may - to Qu-ensville - by the Madison and lndianapolis Railroad, the second built west of the illeghanies, the first being -iat from Lexington to Frankfort (Kr.), begun in 1830, coometad in 18Z4, afterwrds united with the3 Frankfort-Lcuirvllle road completed in 1858. At queenswille (thi terminut then, called Six Mile) they were met by 'Beneh and hits brothor-in-law with two large wagons4, Over wretched roads, in e1xtremely cold weather, they traveLed seL or seven miles to a farmhouse where they stayed over night, and resuming the journey next morning, after six miles more of Siberian ilgrimage, about the middle of the afternoon they reached their now-found home. Imagine their joy and pride, for they had been way; arers for nearly a yeerxt How must the four children, and not least the crippled James, have delighted in the ample chambers of the log-built house, ir the wide acres that invited to l;illa-a with the most generous promise of harvest, in the dark waving wcods with all their sole onsecret., unwhispered still to the sae' of mant A Dryad. But all fruition. however delightful, is yet saddening, and it is not strange that the loneliness of it c111 settled. with heavier and heavier weight upon their hearts., especially ugon the mother-heart that lived in the ohildren. For six long years (1843-49) not one of her five sons saw the 'inside of a sohool-house' - a This page in the original text is blank. 9 deprivation grievous for her to beaor Schoolu were In fact well-nigh unknowa in Indiana, save in the larger towns. Often she regretted that she had left her "Calodonia stern and wild.", where even in the lowliest walks therJ was still soul and culture and society to be found. The noble waxan, full of courage and energy as well as "enduranoe, prudence, foresight, skill", had gradually assizied the general direction of the fzrm - for the father, expert in his narrow craft, know nothing whatever of farming and however willing was quit unequal to the demands of the new situation; - but she did r.ot forgot the things of minds she assuaned charge of her childrents ecucatioc, she taught them in the Shorter Catechism and the metrical version of the Psalms, and still more te read the Scriptures (The Self-Inter- reting Bible, as interpreted by the Rev. John Brown), and such 6ther wholesome literature as she had 1'rought with her from Scotland'. Pioneers. Thus like a vestal she kept the flame of mind- life burning in that wilderness. The neighbors were mainly mounbLineers, from western North Carolina and from eastern Kentucky and lennessse. They were hunters, 'living Largely' by the chase, but their noblest prey was the daer and the wild turkey; of this latter a large specimen w-,s sold for 251; - recentl'r the sliced flesh of the degenerate tmes turkey - universally desnistd since it has lost its freedom (DeOuincey) - was sold in our large cities at four dollars a poundt ;ith rabbits, squirrels and quail in plenty, it wais easy to maintain Not only wts the sehoolhouse distant, but the school rate (,'p2 per quarter) was prohibitive. This page in the original text is blank. 10 a low level of life with little effort; good nature abounded; the instinct of Service, of Heilpfulness. was not extinguished by the rampant overgrowth of the Acquisitive Instinct; it was a p:.eawre to gather with generous asuistance at log-rollings md house-raisings, to join in the homely but hearty cheer so bountifully provided. The fimily feud, that sombre development of high life in the mcuntains, was then unknown. A R E NT I :I T H E C L O U D S Mind in Nature. But what of the delicate child, so many yeosis bed-ridden in Scotland He throve in the wild and hardy new life of the field and wood. In sp!Lte of lameness he bore his part in all the activities of the farm, in planting and hoeing corn, in biniing whoat and oats, in tossing hay, ln tilling the garden, in falling the laedst - "oft bowed the woods beneath his sturdy stroke"t His axe would bring down trees I18 inchee; in diameter', and out theon up into lengths fit for hauling wi th the log-chain, and then into pieces fi-, for the winter s fire. Meantime the mother s irge toward literatur' was not in vain. He had indeed no school-teacher to guide him, but the teacher is especially helpful to the happy few that do not r.eed bnim. Such was James Kennedy Patterson. 3e found a library near by, that of a Englishman, ThoaA Mowbray, formerly of New York, then living along with a niece and nephei 'a life of genteel leisure' OD a farm of 240 acres. The eager boy was freely and gladly adritted to all its This page in the original text is blank. 11 treasures, especially of History and Pootry, to such authors as Hume and Ferguson and Presoott and Plutaroh and Pope and Byron- Frem seven until twelve o'clock at night, while his mother klnitted aA darned and mended for the family - his father was absent two whole winters, Seeking health and ilver at his txade in Rlhode Island - he would sit up with her and read aloud from the books he borrowed. Whenever he heard of a valuable vole, he proseded straightway to procure it. A rumor of RBa11'ns Ancient History hd reached himl he rode five miles to get the treasure, - only to find that it had been sold to a man (Fox Draper') ten miles awayl chagrined but nzt dis- couraged, he followed the fugitive and returned exultant .Lth four Of its volumes. It was now that he began severer studies, such as Arith.etic and Geography, though still avoiding EnglIsh Grinmar as unmanageable without a teAcher. Chambers' elementary "Introduction to the Scienees", such as Geography, Geology, Physics, and Piology, he had brought with him from Sootland (used there as a text1i in parochial schoolg), and he now Dored over it 'from beginning to end. again and again'. Of course, all this could never take tha place of a daily or twice-daily visit to the fmovies', but it was not wholly bad aS an introduction to the Latelleotual life and as a preparation for leadership along the paths of mind. Much of Pattersoa's historical information, poured out sO coPiously in the columns of the Couriar- Journal (1871-5), dates frm these early years. The 'Westward Tide. Ileantime history was also a-making in our own land, especially on ites Southwestern border. Texas had revolted This page in the original text is blank. 12 from Mexico and declared its independence; but distrusting its own stangth. it had asked to be admitted to the northern Unioz. The Whigs, headed by Henry Clay. half-heartedly opposed such annexation as adding an empire to th, region of slavery, but the Democrats triumphed under James K. :olk. Henes followed Annexation and the Mexican war, and the peaci of Guadalupe Hidalgo (2 Feb., 1348), with its cessions of i=,ienso tarritories weot and north of Texas, for which a-puny recompense was paid to salve the wounds of Spanish pride. The youthful James was intensoly interested in the territorial draa, and followed on the map the military movements as detailed in the weeklies (such as the Calmeroial and the Gazette of Cincilmati8t), though stunxbling often oveir the outlandish names, convertiag San Jacinto into San Jack-in-ionl Swift on the heels of peace came the rush to Californ4ia, where gold had been discovered (by Marshall and Sutter", January, 1868)s Never before had adventure called so loudly to the Young Americen spirit. Some heard it and set sail from Hfew York for the Colden. Gate. by way of Panama, or round Cape Horn; the most streaned ovtrland - a long and painful pilgrimage of perhaps half a year. The plains whitened with the bones of thousands. 0' 3uch (42,000 by land, 39,000 by sea, in 1849) as attained California, - a region well-nigh !owbray also took the PhiLadelphia Saturday Evening Post and the Scientific American. '"For the tragedy of his life, almost unequalbd in its irony, see Blaise Cendrars' book, Sutherts Gold. This page in the original text is blank. 13 uninhabited, with only a few religious settlements (of tha Ronan Cptholic faith) - many were luckless and returned with nothing but experience for their pains; the fortunate few brought back their gold in considerable _, whether they had washed it frcs the sands or had received it in oexhan1ge or rental for valuable "claims". The general stimulus of enter rise was felt throughout the United States, as not in a generation be'ore. Canmerce and travel poured back and forth fran the gatewfys o ! the Alleghanies, across the Mississippi to the Pacifin. Everywhore the pulse of trade beat high and Hapse beckoned, especially to thae youlg, with golden proaise. If Only -- . Janms 1[3nundy Patterson was about sixtemn years old, With his eager, ambitious and precocious spirit, it seems likely that but for his crutch he would have been caught ili the great wave of adventure that wav sweeping westward and borne on Its carest - who knows whitherf Of coi;rseo. no one can say what mi'ght hiuve been, since almost amything migLt have been. Yet it is not quitoi idle to suppose cases and to follcw out the lines of likelihood. Probability is the guide of life, and we may be allowed to imagine whai; would naturaJly have happened, had the iron franm of young atteirson not suffered from a withered limb. f. fact that as a teacher in Kentuckl, where the teacher is aeldan exoessively paid, he manajed to live well all his life, and not ungenerously, and yet amasa an est&6. of over a quarter-million dollars, testifies incontrovertibly both t o his interest in financial iffairs and to his high order of 'business' ability. Had he launched 'cuon the "49 tide he would most probably This page in the original text is blank. 14 havo been borne onward to financial suess fu!lly as iistiaguixhed as any he attained in any other field. No multiaillioa-ir. of his d;ly nearlyr eq-aaled him in viswL-n -d in intellectua-l endowment, nor di& any perhaps surprLss him in prudence, energy, or business sxegci ty. One ::inth of a !Tan. But it was a higher niche Than to) be master-of-millions that a-vraited the humble cripple. Tet the first steps that -eree to loeLd up to it were of necessity feesble and& lowly. In the winter of 1849 the father, Lndres Pattersoz, had gone to Madison to maricet his hogt, - his main -md almost his sole source of income. There 'in consultation with soe of his friends', it seemed best tVat the unfortumate lad be apprenticed for five ereari to the firm of Srith & Co., Merchant Tailors. Tailoring seerie to be a highly Honorable and rs3markbly anciet craft, one of the tarlieet, practiced even in the Garden of 7,den, but to the omniverous book-worm and the wood-cho:1pper it can hardly have held out an alluring prsmitse. Nevertheless, he w-s obediant to his father's will, and doubtless with ran-nv teaxs he prepared to leave his he, his books, and his trees for the aramnp nd o;Afinement o, a tailor's approntice. .k new suit of entucky JeO-,s, tho creation of a neighboring tailoress, a glazed silk cap, the gift of his fajther, along 'with a suit of commn0 clothes .in a suit of unde:iwear', - with so rmach furniture ad sgajplied with generalI directions from his father, the lad 1sft hmie the Sth of Fobruary, 1849. Two !cots, Jenes Falooner and Jmes Finlayson, received gnd ontertqiaed hime kindly in Madison t!.ll the terms were settled with Snith & C..I thtt he shnuld serve f.ve yeasr This page in the original text is blank. 15 for hi& bofard and clothing and a anail annual um, inoreasiag slightl from-i year to year, with B total of five ionthls inJ.truoion in school, an ,wverage of orte rmnth a year. Under this agromeint he bog-n sorvice the ManSay following hls arrival. A 5en-ChaM. Por two houra he sat upon a tailor's table, serig -iAoher together, ad then, waroxied of the cranPed pcsture, he -siked Jr. Snith for ., brief respits, which was kindly grantr&. As tha unhlrppy crutohling ato-ped t, the floor, 7eholdt his fethew stood tefore him, and ,rnith (who seewas not to have been half so bad a :ran -.s his name might imply) bmte him spoe.d thfl rest of the day with his parent. The two mt away to visit Vr. ralooner a d the Reverend James Bmown, 'pastow of the .-sociate 14eform ahuroh', by birth a Soot. It seeons strmnge that the heartsiok lad never inqaired why h'sfather h, d ovee that day nor whether he i.. d already bien conferring with Falooner. :"[e seems to hawve accepted i1l all i.,s B angel visit, - hexvenly vision that might vYanish If he locketl too Curiouslyr upon it. But it iequires no lively fancy to reconstruot tha intermediate ocurse of e vents. The 1aj had lodged j welc with F-looner and had Flse meet the Pastor Brown; the ksen-witted. ,;cots could not f dl to recognize the extraordinary intelligence of the Youth (which had indeed become the cooon remark of such as lew him), .ad to perceive that It +romlAd be a blunder worse than s crime to fatter such - spirit to a tailor's bencI: for lifo. Mdeantjne tho Triather maust have a3'.- zed at !am over her beloved son, qad in sme way a conference had been planned and effected. As its result, it This page in the original text is blank. 15 was --greia to .sk role.:sa fran the apprenticeship (w1.ichA Mr. Smith re;Adily granted), and to rter the lad as a boarder with Mr. Brown afl a8s a pupil of lr. Robert French, a student of Divinity, then about to open a school in the Lower Seminary. The captive soul was thus unaxpcotedly freed ani at once began the pursuit of Geography, AritI-nctic. and English Grianar. TVe Horizon Widens. This Mr. Brown, in whose house Frmnoh & ,lattersn rocrned together, had been gritduated from Hanover Ln 1836. and was well versed in the classics as well as in Hebrew. 1o wonder tae Put.Xer son always revered the memory of the mann at whoso table au;a rireside a new day dawned upon him! There he encountered minds, moeeting won of distinction and discussing with them the absorbing questions of the day. It sas an era of chase. In America lhe fieroc nursuit was for gold, aot merely in California, but by evexy channel of cammeroe ana industry. "Trade is tJe golden girdle of Ue Globea'. In s-arope, ait least on the continent, the noblest spirits were chasing another Phantoa not less iaLr but still more elusive, the phbmtom od Preedcm. It is n4t strango that Patterson has no sympathy for the high-hearted and passionate strivings of Mazzini andhis peers. H19 speaks of the Irevolutionar, frenzy in guropeo . The bt noire ot the Briton is revolution. IaYs Burke, f"'d!th or without righi, revolution wil! always be tie last resource of the thinking and the good". Alast who shall decide when the resource is the las-;, and when it is not. The Tory will always be able to plead that the time is not quite ripe and it were better for the poeple to suffer a little while longeri True, the American Republic originated in a Revolution This page in the original text is blank. 17 which votllcl h-.ve been merely a senseless -oebellion had it rot been successful: true also that the Englishman has dethroned one king and decapitated another, but it was all done in such perfect order tha' the kings themselves could hardly take offense. With the Briton, Order is lHeavonus first Lawr, and as for Law, "her seat is the bosom of God, and her voice is the :arzsony of the world." This loftr con.- caption of Hooker, which It is impossible not to samire, needs for its balance that other more realistic definition of the -ur-ose of the Law - acceprted and proclairLed as authoritative till very re:sent yearst 'to nroteot the rich in th4lir Possessions and to restrain t:3. vicious proot". Two Haldanes. Another' im-ortant theme of this Table Talk was Jean erle DAubigne's "lHittory of the lieformation in the liAth Century", which was then aTrpearing is n English translation (:.84G-;,3). The famous work w: s partiet.larly interesting to the Scots in madison, for it might in some measure boast a Scottish origin. The name cf Haldane is now known a:lnd honored over the worl, as b rme by a deep-thoughted savant as well as rublicist and thinker, the Viscount of Cloaa, Lord 'igh Chancellor from 1912 to 1915, translatos of "the World as lill and idea", and author of i--i ortant phIloso-Thic con- structions along the highway of Relativity. e may estimate in s t1ilder, and marking some rVement of Ristory, Lord Melbourne's definition of The whole dut; of Government: "to punish crime and to preserve contracts." Too often in riore recent times, Last and Government are a "gentlemen's agreement" among the ric5a and the strong. This page in the original text is blank. 18 rough aner the movement of the ;cottish maind in a century, by going back to another Haldane. Robert (1764-1842), and his brothem, James Alexander (1768-1851), religious enthusiasts and propagandists, who, when license to preachi was refused than by the Churah of Scotland. - as they (like the Apostls) had neither classical 341 theological training - nevertheless weat boldly forth, as lay preachers, ordainad of God; and in tcoen of eocclesiastic censure they bore the borah of missionary zeal -l over ,o:tland and thence to ;ndia, and back to Switzerland They spent large sis (Robert, 70,000 from :L792 to 1310) in building "tabern-acles" in cities and founding ssmin.aries for students. In Geneva and Mo:ntauban, Robert Rlaldane greatly Lafluenced the university life and fairmed the dying embers of Protestantism into flame.' In spite of his very Imuerfsot knowledge of i'rench he iL- srired a number of theological students, unon; them J'Aubigne n the famrus Gtuizot, Frederic Mconod and II. A. Casear Malan. It was ia this remarkable record of energy and devotion that the Scotchreon. gathered arnourd the Brown board, were justly filled with national pride. The flaRlets IL_. The morning that had dawned so brightly on the soul of James Kennuedy wtas destined to be clouded very soon. .For Very ansing and also instuontive is the ferocity of his attack 2pon the "mild and large-hearted orthodoxy" of Tholuck, Macknight, ad M0oses Stuart, as well as tho German "Neologiets", in his eosition of the Ej1je to the LomanaL (1835, - thought worthy of pirtay, New York, 1870). This page in the original text is blank. 19 the surmnor vaoation he went of course to AliS orn home, exoecting Wo return in the fall. But .':at suaner the cholera raged over all that egion. IUBs own fanily eso L'ed, but MIr. Brown's wife died (,af tuberculosis), anA the Brown household was dissolved. Uear.ag that the Doctor was to pzreoh at ScipiO, seven :.dles from the Patzerson .'iOme, the young stuiont rode, thither to meet him, by appointrient, - rode on a filly that was none too gentle'. Brown had arranged to bo:.rl with a prosoerous far:er, Cranston Taylor, and h1a advised that Patterson seek shelter in Madison some weeks In addvance. This he lid, and found It ia the hme of David Moffatt, another Sc-ot, who lived rent-free on 100 lO eas of land (with an extremely good orohard), the property of J s Douglass. The home of this Moffsatt - the father of six ahildron, two already distinguished ir. t'.eir callings - was a log house perched on a bluff overlooking Hadison. Jnfor- tuna-tely it hal but onelvery indifferent' roola, which served equally wall for sleeping, eating, lLvlng ln general, and the eatertaiLent of zueets. M.offatt could haire no earthly motive in building a better home - no great underlaidng at that time, - since the to hOieste-d was not hi -T7w in perpetuity but only to use and enjoy during his life. Ue was not a Bolshevist and would not be so foolish his as to improvO 'what was not to be his own afte-'eath. In was under this hos'itable roof that young Patterson was admitted to bed-fellowship with David 1loffatt, Jr., and the two became ccnstant cimnpanions. It was a glad descent every aorniag with well-filled dinnor-pails, from their eaglets nest to the School below; but for This page in the original text is blank. 2Q the lame lad it was a slow .ad toilsome ascent every evening on retur.. Yet he was patienb and contenteds he doubtless rernmered the penance of the tailor'tm table, and his memory in 1895 could paint him no 'happier wintiort. In a letter of 'Nov. 10th '49t, addressed to 'Mr. Tlm. K. Patterson, ]Rlisabethtorn, Intd. he saysi Dear Father I have just Returned from the floeot fliere .C have Been for 3 SUOCce13sve Saturdays and filnd nothing there for me. I hope that the cause of the Delay has aot Been occassioned by So akness I feel very anceions to know whetherer that is the cause I hope that you have Been well since you last wrote zand that the same Benign pvovidenme which has granted us Eo Long a coureso of health has s iill been good to you and prant d you a proserous time I am well at this time and have boen so since I last rrote, I hace succeeded Remarkable well have -ot through riy Arilihme- tic I am well advanced in (rammar and Bookkeeping a" so -with moy other studies i like the place I am in very wioll the wether has been very favorable and I have Dcme very well in getting up the Aill I Aope you will write me c, Recoipt of this and Let me mnow how you all are I hopc and trust that this will find you all -fell & as I wish give me Wari est Love to mother and all rA7 Dezar Brothers I -e11ain ayers ho-ning that 5od will Be with you to guide and Bless you and that your healt tnd all may Be Precious in his sight and that you will Be Kept by him in the path of R'ctitud. is the sincere prayer of, oulr affectionate son James Patterson, Compare with this letter, highly characteriotic of the y wuth, of Alis age and his race, the follo-irrng ircn a 16-year old Y.!::.C.A.-Camper, recently received by his mohert "H&VwiAn fine time '1ontt be home till Thursay (igned) Jacobus ;elotes. The great-hearted youth strugglJd 'up the h1l" in the fair fall weather; o1e wondlurs how he fared in the ics and snow eNo sheep is here meant; but it seems rather a bad snell of iruather. This page in the original text is blank. of winter. But nothing coald abate his zeal or his delight in his studies. Ris heart leaped with joy whon Mr- Moffatt consented to receive him as a contributory guest at 1 a week. Re resorted to an abandoned outhouse, formerLy -art ol' the decaying mansiou, for his weekly bath and change of clothiag'. Under such romantic =ondltions it was zAhost a frenzy of .earning that seized him. 13esideas his regular studies with Mr. F-ensh, he attacked Diavies' 'lmenucary Algebra and Bullionts Latin Granr. unaided and alone, apparently concealing She fact from Devid. Us mate, who would seem to have b en tmursuing both subjects with Us. French, and who naturaz.ly felt chagrined when it was revesled. One need not a-pprove the szqcretive- ness, but lmst unstintedly admire the energy and ability thEit drove through squations of First and of Second Degree in five months and corm- tted to memowry the wrhole of the Latin Grannar arnd raed and re- read nine-tenths of Bullionts Latin Iteader before the end of the winter termi - The spark that lit up this emlous flame of energy seems to have been the earlj visit of his host's son, Dr. James Uoffati, who -roudly recitetl under his father's roof tVie tale of ]is own battle with poverty - hw he too had been aprrenticed to a book-binder, who, less tendr-hearted than Smith, had firmly rejected all proffors of release, hoiw he had learned the tongues of the books he w s binding, had later studied at Yale while tutoring the ohil6ren of James Douglass, and was then Professor of Greek in M.iai Unaivers i ty. This page in the original text is blank. 22 A iNTIC :T-ZM:.:UT OF :,NO'-;L--GE A Epaeher. 7vidently the lans ganius had heard his calling. The barriers of ignoranee were f;31in- before him like the walls of Jericho. If he could only keep on forging ahead at the quiokening pac. of the last five monthsl But his funds had failed, and Maroh found him seeking a school tD teach, that last refuge of the im-pov- erished student - and not rawrely, like a Professor's chair (as it has been gently said), of the incomnetent. Disappoiatod in his first hope, 1t the last izoemst, he imediateiy sought and found another school, eight miles 1!rom horn, in "qThe nDcttoms", a boiy of lowlands skirting both sides of Driftwood River. The good fslk offered hi out of the corr:io:: school fund for a three-months te& the -,ealthy 'uzrlier Jinots entertained him five d y; a wReek for Ai a younger brother took h n back and ::.orth from home on 'oniday and -Yriday; - he walked to the river, and the ferryman "hernsoy, the -rinoinpl trustee of thaI schoI , gave him free trz.ns-or1i Lorcss Not stranee then that he s sred just .)42 from his three-: -rnths s.lary. h'any of ui have saved less from rnch 71ore. - 73ut while the 1ad. wazs frugal with himself, as .nly a Scot coald be, he was ;ererous ith others. 'Tis father's breed of hoqs, like his nei,ihbors', was very inferior, - hogs of the forest, su7-.ortin- themselmves through sunuer and auturnm on maste, and so unduly prolonging their lives to tbhre years before becomainz fit for the table. The :.-salthy Janesf hogs were iar finer and taner and subject to =ch earlier fatty This page in the original text is blank. 23 degeneration; accordingly Jaes Kennedy rej ,ced in his own heart by buyin;5 for 5 ta fine sow and litter of "1gs' and taesenting thes to his father. A Giver. The Driftwo od school money being exhausted, the enthx3sistic pedagogue uext organiaed a private "subseription" school lt Brownsville (well-known for extreme poverty), - ons and a hail miles fiom home, in a school-house cabin of unhew. logs, OwLth puncheon floor a td rude bonchegs, The charge for a three-months term was 4.2, -ut hardly 70; culd be finally collected. ThL fancy of the young teacher was caugiht by a piece of blank cloth expo:,ed foar scl in Drownsrilh; he bot"ght i- an't 1ad it made into a frock coat by an intelligont tailor, Thomeas, - the one Abolitionist in the county theni - and all at a total cost of 8. 'Tot only thiii, but he pitied his mother in her neroetual striving with her climsy and primitive cooking utensils, and having observed in the Brownsville shop a good cooking store of the newest type', with all ns dful accessories, he bought it outright for 17.50. Imagine the delight of his mother on returning from a visit (with her husband) to Greene- burg, to find this culinary gem in full setting and ready for sorvices 'Z have always looked baek ALpon that as one of tb. greatest tris=nphs of ry lifO.' Some have been rleased to regard his natuare as selfish, cold, and hard; to such this incident may well be comende". He Pinds A JSJen. On deducting these two items of coat and stove, the Young educator folnd a balance ot 2 for three months Ile no. venturod four miles fromi hLome and tauight a term of three months This page in the original text is blank. 24 at Elizabethtown, on the 1:adison and Indiana Railrcmd, receiving 60 from the public fund. Here he boarded Liost of the time with Dr. A lonzo G. Boynton. an a.ble and cultured phyrsician, not unacquainted with Latin. and possessed of a good medical and general library. The rman and the b oy read and studied together at night, and cemented a warm friendship unbroken btill Boynton's de. th in 1873. Beautifully characteristic of Pattersin is an overflowing recognition of ths merits of his friends and benefactors. 'A more generous, kind-:aearted i'wan I have never '-non'. RIe was always ready with any m.nsy that his y-aun friend needed, even though he had to borrow it himseLf; on graduation Patterson owed him merely on word of honor no l53s than 3400. A medical library hlas a certain fascination f-)r tho inql"iS- 'tive, and that of Boyntor.. yielded the y .ang man no l.ittle information of a. general kind. The Look Aloft. The public well being once more dry, the in- defatigable youngling opened another fountain, a subscription school at 2 a head for another three-months term, from which he crew about pf50. It was nearly the first of April, and he began to think earnest- ly about a College education. Clearly the profession of itinerant teacher offered insignificant prizes. He had now taught a whole year, four teras ol three months each; it had been the very hardest work, and not insairing, and he l]ad received not quite 200, a sun that his board and his liberality to his parents hWd reduced b,r nearly half. it could not go on that way,with any Justice to his native abilities. The College seemed to open the only door of hope. More tham twenty- five yOars before, a certain Dr. John Finlay Crowe, leaving Shelby This page in the original text is blank. 25 County. Kentucky, in repugnsrnce to African slI-1very. had gone to Jefferson County. Ind., and there. after nany ups-a -downs, hai finally fo-Lnded - January 1. 1827. in a log cabin, with sir pu-oils - Hanover College (in South Hanover. a primitive villa3e overlooking the Ohio river for 15 milis, from a bluff 600 feet high. near Miadison), which deservedl;r -yn and retained a high reputatLor. for solund scholarship and exaoting standards. The .elsbhzan, Dr. Ebenezer Thomas, of !`iami Universi1iy, was President and highl r venesrated as metaphysician and resbytdirian preachar; Cro"w w:-s Vice-Proside t and rofessor of History ilnd Belles Lettres; L. Harrison Thompson, Professor of Mathermatics, was 'one of the ablest mathematicians of his time in the west' - whatever that iEy mean; Minard Sturgis". who had edited Sallust with great acceptano, presided in the elassical deoartment. At the Door. A very respectable faculty for the time and clime. In any case It was by far the best on Patterson's horizon.' The Reverend Dan Lattimore. pastor of the church of his parents (at HTis 'connection with Hanover College was severed' the next year. 1852, - uw w-onder why 2zolng to Louisville, he succeeded brilliantly as Princojal of a Claswsical aad Ma-the-m.tical School. But his Assistant, 7rof. Butler. was shot to Leath at school by Matt -ard, whose brother ;utler had chastised. NEturally excitement ran high. John J. Critt- enden left his sea t in the Senate, recently vacated byr Clay, to come to Louisville to defend tho homicide, who was a-cquitted. lett Lo-ais- ville . nd went to .rkans s; where he would seem to have r-et a violent end. "Later. at Hanover, his e'es turned towards Yale, with its rec:an Hadley and its astronomer Olmsteds there he would get m (L;-lorx. I wruld be money well-sperit, even if it cost a thousand do:.lars . Poubtless, but that sumn -aso no where in sight. If it had b'en,--- This page in the original text is blank. 26 Scipio), had long been acbively interested in the 18-year old, snd now secured for him the use cf his own friend's, J. P. Bontals, tperpetual scholarship in HanOver College'. Borrowing Dr, Boynton's buggy and harness, but wilh their own horse, father ,d son drore from home, the 5th of M.ay 1851, to South Hanover. There :'e seourd bo:.rd with Alexander LogaxL at 61.6E2C (one dollar and five 'bit.') a week and the next day entsred the Preparatory Departirant, :.n those days a very --rominent f: ature of the Collegiate organism. The y uth entered the second prepare tory year, beginning with its th!.rd aed last term t6th of May. 1851). An assistant, Kritz, taught him Greek, Latin and Algebra. He maintained himself with ease in his classes, leading Latin, though he found Greek hard at the start. The next year. a senior 'Pre-. ', he roomsd with Samuol Fisher, of oraz-ge County. near Frenach Lick S3prings, in the home of 'iss Gordon, the twio paying 1 per week. 'le bought our own grovisicas and did our own cookingf. much of thelprovisionstbeing brought f: ilis own h me, the 'weekly ixpenses' being about 1.50, apparentl; for the t'o, but exclusive of the room-rent, :making a total of 1.5 a week for each. Knowledge for Sale. f.he next (his Treshman) ;ear he b)arded id&Ih "isses M-atthews at 2 a week. 1ith its close, the svuimer oll 1853, he f.md his funds exhausted ly this exorbitant rate :. d he looked ;oross the Ohio for fatter fields. .'ounted on his father's horse he crossed the river at Milton, in Trimble County, and spent ti.e first night in 'the county seat', at Bedford. There nothinp offered4 and This page in the original text is blank. he set out next morning or Henry Colunty. Gr-dual 1; the as-3ecti of the county improved. and In this latter county he found h'.mseif neal- ing the border of the farrous Bluegrass Land. Before dusk he rea ched New C(estle and inquired for a ;chool - apparently in vain. The next morning, about four miles from New C stl, on his way to Yort Royal. he met 'an eminent physician', Dr. Drane. According to the genial custom of the land. the twain stopped and greated each other and joined in conversation. Trhe young man at once declared he ,was in quest of a school. The Doctor knew of one 'in the horndon neighbor- hood (how redolent, this phrase, of the soil0), labout two miles from New COrstle'. The hunter turned on his path and rode back With the Elector, and before noon had found two school trustees and 'opened negotiations'. It never rains but it aours, and before sunset he had heard of still another school 'in an equally good neighborhood' and with higher compensation. with the trustees of this latte3 he closed negotiations at the rate of 30 for ea-ch of five moBths. VTith his engaging manner0 and his wonderful faculty for mnakinEj friends, he had already received from Robert Cooper an invitation to s-end the night -t his home, but unfortunately the family could not secomodate a boarder. The trustees found him E home with Jack Mcllwain, only half a mile from the school. 'I0perationst were to begin early in sPtember, and he arranged to return irith his most beloved brother, 1Tilliam 1ennedy, that he might entor the school, and the two :return to 'Aided by the syrmpathy his misfortune aroused This page in the original text is blank. 28 Ranover on completion of the term. Ezmulation. The necetssary certificate frwom the exaoainers, -and a first class' one, was granted i:fter 'thorough exnaminatiom by the Prineipal of the 'New CjEt1e School'. Everything npw apptared to James Kennedy in the most roseate hues. He had never met 'a better class o. peoplel. Robert Cooper sent a son and a daughter to the school, and intimacy with the f imily grew. In general the 'pupils were well advanced' - 'good classes in Reading, English Gramar., Arithmetic, Algebra and Latil' - all delighted him with 'coneniable progress'. Close b, lived K. F Smzith. on the farm of his Tnother, a member of the prominent Dapuy f-nmily, and Austin Dlpy his uncle, sent two sons to the toilsrr auest of knowledge. Sm-ith was imnportant not in himself, but with himhad boarded Patterson's predecessor, aul Shipman, for many yeqrs a ac-worker with the famed George 1). Prentice and a prolific contributor' of much that wa;s best, in the Louisville Journal till it fused with the Courier under tle alchenV of "Maras Henryt. Shipma- was only ten years the senior of Patterson and evidently forr.d the stbaple of conversation at the board of S3ith and his friends. 7e may isagine the effect on the miad of his youthfull successor, Said '.hemistokleg, "The trophies of Y/i.Ltiades will not lot me sleep". A PlYmt Only six weeks did the teacher boar(! with MaIlwain, then he found apparently better noComodations with Myr. John Holland, on a bluff a mile from the schoolhouse. Unable to go home for luncheon, he and 1.'Jilliam 'depended uwon a lunch brought by three of This page in the original text is blank. 29 1.r. Holland's children, vrho were my pupils His tall atlletic host, a former blackskrith of Bourbon County. now an uneducated but indus- trious --nd successful faTner, was 'devoted to the gar of ch-ckers' and mede heavy draughts on Patterson's timw. After suppor he would come upstaiis and divert the student with checkers until ton. Patterson would much hav prefeored to devote these two cas three hours to study, for he warn not only teaching but was keeping pace with his own college classes in Hanover in Latin, Greek, and math- ematics, - surely no trifling task. But Rolland needed the relaxatioe of checkers after the labor of the d-., and P- ttarson good-natuxedly, with beautiful and characteristic courtesy, gave him a few hours. When they parted the young man studied an hour, till elevem, then rose regularly at four (or somewhat later), took a cold tu,-bath, and studied ne.rly three hours before breakfast, When -e remernber that a recent survey of 48 reprecentative American Colleges ani Unlivsrsities shows the average time devoted by the student, outside of classes, to preparation for recitation to be (for males) one hour and (for females) two hours, it does not seemrsrar.ae that Patterson was able to kee) pace with only four hours a day. and that when he returnad to .hanover in mid-February he found himself at least abreast with every class. This was a gala winter5 in the mOMory of Patterson. Ksntuc'4r rIts record is preserved in a 'Diary' (with which he seems bo have been sated). of no especial intorest excoept as the faithful mirror of an eager and strenuous spirit overflowing with joy at every gl:impse of opening fields of k-owledge. The inflation of his soul bet:,ays itself in occasional pardonable poraposity of language, of which he himself is not always unoonscious. This page in the original text is blank. 30 hospitality was a revelation that ouits overpowered him. Saturday nights at Cooper's, with the family to church in Nerw Castle on Sun4y, and back to Holland.s that evening - such was the regular round of his enjoymentsl And how :Lt pleased him when in later and lordlier though stormier years his Henry County folk claimed him pr ,udly as their own! The List Incident. Ie returned to Hanover in Februarj,, 1854, for the second term of his So;homore year, accompanied by Mr. 'loopers '-.z James, a most amiable youth; - he and William Patterson became Damon -nd Pythias from the Senior Preparatory through the .:ollege course. James Kennedy had, not thought to teach the follow:.ng winter (1854-5) 'until about the middle of the vacation, but had reco iended the Kentucky school to an attractive acqunintance, named List, cf no conspicuous ability'. 'Later in Augustl he went with List and 'William to visit the trustees aFnd urge Lists appointment for the inter term. But they did not take kindly to List and 'importuned pe to returni. 'After some hesitation and with a good deal of reluctance I consented. List bore the disappointme:at bravely and thanked me heartily for the abortive effort I had made on his behalf'. A true Asklepiad. JwOs and William both returned and reswmd the old round, including the nightly draughto. at Holland's and the daily studies in La-tin, Greek and M,_athematics. We wonder ho)w he toid the 'good deal of time' he was obliged to spend 'visiting in the neighborhood'. But in December (1854) Tilliaz- fell ill with malignant flux'. Dr. ;Wilson - called in after some days by James fror, Pleasure. This page in the original text is blank. 31 ill four miles away on the Frankfort and Louisville Railroad - visited him daily for weeks, and removed him at the earliest to his own hoe for 'more frequent attentiont. Here he remained sereral weeks, visited as often as possible by James. who took him, just able to travel, to Louisville andL thers plaoed him aboard a steser bound for Madison. Indiana, where his parvats met him and he recov.red enough to take charge of a school 'some miles distant from our Indiana home'. Whan asked for his bill Dr. Wilson promptly answered, "Not a cent". Surely a generous big-hearted man. Such kindness I had never before exoerienoed from a stranger. We wonder whether before or tince he ever experienced such kindness from any one, unless perhaps has -mother. Dr. Wilson seems to have followed the Golden Rule of Sophokleso "For a man to help as best he can and may. is the noblest of toils". It is a joy to meet such a character even in fiction, still more in faot, and a very notable indication it is of the imriression that the brothers made, formnifestly Dr. Wilson could not hlave 'made a living' by such general practive. Again in College. On returning to Hanover (Fiebr-uary 1854) tho Kentucky teacher had finished his sophomore year. He had ko 2t up with his cl!:sses while teaohlfng during the preceding fall term, but could hardly have found the r3esults quite satisfactory. To tbaeh, to prepare for the teaching, and to keep up his college work - that was indeed a bit too mach. Aecordingly he now looked round for funds to support him continuously at College the next two years (Fet. 1855 to Aug. 1856), and he seems to have resolved to carry Willias alarg This page in the original text is blank. 32 with hims 'the I Iint total could, readily be brought within five dolla.rs' (a week); unless we miginterPret the Phrase, this resolution was noble and sheds glory on the elder brother. His South Carolina aunt, Mrs. Lary Hailo Klennedy. W;5s ready with 50 a year (which she had already been remitting regulLrly, at the suggestion of lastor Brown). Dr. Boynton would advance the other 200. And so it ws (tone. William was diligent and stood well in his classes; Jasmes t'ok an easy lead in his, besides finding much time for outside studies .nd fo3! work in the Literary Society, - an ancient institution that seems to be gradually making place for tho gridiron and the Dancing Club. And a Greek. This Junior year brought him into the Beta The--a Ti fraternity, in the second year oj! its establishment in Hanover, oml of the oldest and nost distinguisthed fraternities in the United Statep, founded in "2iami University, 183!.. The Greek letters were more railitant then than now, they had not yet Sot the whip-hand of the colleri ate car, '-nd though this Eota. chapter had discrsetly electsd two Professors, Bisho and Crow,, as members, for some time a sharp warfare wvs waged c.gainst it. T:aough for many years 7-tter3on lost touch with his fraternity, yet he always maintained his loyalty to its orinoiples and his affection for his brethren. For the rest of his mdergraduate life, Hanover wr.s his home. 'As leader of his graduating class atterson mounted the rostrum to deliver the Val&&ictory. and at the bidding of the President (Dr. Jonathan Edwards) took off his Beta '-in and laid it calmly on the desk. At the close of the address he pinned on the badge and returned to his seat. His 5 ther was deea ly incensed - at what This page in the original text is blank. 33 with Dr. W. W. Hill. editor of the Presbyteri.n Herald of Louisville, whom he met in the sumner of 185E, he entered into pleasant relations, and some contributions from his I:en ap-,eared in that journal (185E,-6). Anticipp ting his graduation in Angust. he advertised in the sprinu;. as did also his classmate, 1(obert Herron. who thereby fell into car- resnondence with the Eon. Edward Rumsey of GreenvilloKy.. a gen- tleman conspicuous thereafter in Pattersonts life. Another Scol. It was some years earlier that the Greenville Presbyterial Aoadeuq had been established by the Presbytery at Whuhlenberg. but it had not flourished under the Principal, Mk. Donaldson. .'t its May meeting in 1856, the Presbytery requested Rumsey to find another Prineipal andi - as a highly educated 'res- byterian, zealous for the Churoh - to supervise the school more closely the coming yea. a oharge that he acceptod with reluotancao but with resolute purpose to fulifill.e En rout for Hanover, to confer with Herron, he called on Dr. Hill in Louisville, who advi!l-d him to cnnfer with the young consributor, Pattorson. This he did,, and alter an interview of some hours, without furtiher inquiry, he 'He had projected and even prepa:red a course of popular lectures on Natural Science, in which he prohably overshot the mark decidedly; at losrst, we hear nothing more of the ambitious venture. But un soms way it seems to have brought him into relations with Dr. Hill. ""Very naturally and justly the highly honorable Prominence of th, :es&.yteriarn in matters of education and lecrning is conspicuous through-.ut these pages. This page in the original text is blank. 34 engaged the rospective graduate as Principal (ulder his owm supe- vision) for the coming year at a salary of 600, guarantee. 'from his private pursel. Of Herron, as of' List, we hear nothing more. It is an impressive witness to the personality of Patterson, that in spite of his lameness he never failed to master every situation, whatever he wished he secured, not by any trickery or uncertain arts, but ty the compelling force of his intollect and the charm of his speech. As stated, he was the Valedictorian of his clss of 12, a e E.ss large for the time and alace. 7el smile at his modest staterent, Ihat 'Perh- ps the most distinguished member of the class was R. T. Stusrt, of Hluntington, Tenn., who, over twenty years later, "was elected .oderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. Souli;h". The "SweetSeented LManusori t Closed". This Hanoverian period (Lay 1851 to August 1856) we may regard as the happiest cf his liite. It saw the first unfclding of hope into achievement, the full burgeoning of youth, the glad tr!.al of his wings. "They rode with eyes for the vision then; They drank the simlit air :ike wine". He would have been more or less than human had not his uninterrup'ed success atd his easy triumph over every competitor, in spite of his heavy handicap, engendered in him a serene self-consciouness and a determination to press on to the peaks of &mbition. However, he tells us nothing of all this, but only that he 'formed friendships, the recollections of which haie been dear to me through all the years of my life'. This page in the original text is blank. 35 IV FORTH AS A ILA Und.erway. With that simmer of 1856. the youth of Patterson had fled. He was now to enter the baittle as a shialdman, no longer a targeteer. We may imagine with wrhat sad proud tears his mother made provision for his departure for Greenville the last of August. Ho went to Louisville; thence he embarked at 5 P.M. for Owensboro, which he reached the next evening; there he stayed in 'the only hotell ;ill 4 the next morning, when he entered a 'rickety vehicle., the stage coach, which reo-ched Greenville at 9 that night, - a longer and severer trip than now from the Rockies to the Atlantic. For 17 miles not a dwelling of man was in sight. He seems to have been the cnly passen-er as far as Calhoun, whe e he was joined by an .greeable young woman, 'Miss Betty Mann, returning to her home in Greenville. There he stopped at the 'commodious two-story brick' home of Rumsoy, .which his brother-in-law, Jas. WlirO, had builded many years before1. Rums. and the Steamboat. Adward Rumsey, a great name in Pattersonts memory, was then 56 rears of age, His father, 3ro R-unsey, who had settled in Christian Couaty. Kentucky, over half a centur;r before end there practised as phrsician till his death, ws 'the brother of Jas. R-nxsey, to whom Ls justly eascribed the invention ;f At this -oint President Pattersonts INots5 lack precision. There were at le-.st three James Weirs imd two Edward RumeysI the first in each of these sets were indeed brothers-in-law, but both were probably dead before this date (1856) . T:2e second, the Hon. James 'eir Sr., son of the first, was the cousin of Patterson's friend, the Ron. Edward Rumsey, the second, and was an accomplished literatear and author, as well as homme d'affaires (b. Greenville, Ky., 16th Juns, 1821; d. Owensboro, Ky., 1906). This page in the original text is blank. the steamboat' . As early as '1704 ((aore exlactly, in 1786) he exhibited on the Potomac. in the presence of notable technicians, la boat propelled by steam. Uniable to overcome in Amerioa certa:.n mnechanical defects revealed in hi.s trial trip, he went to London ;o make 4the necessary additions and modifications. There Robert Fulton in frequent visits became familiar with his pluns and mode:s. A cerebral hemorrhage snapped the thread of Rumsey's life: he fBll while le turing 'before a body oj! engine rs and inventorsl Fulton exploited the information and idioas received from Ramsey with the familiar result of constructing ;nd propelling The Clermont on the Hudson from New York to Albany iii 1807, the first cosmercial sUCc3ss of a steamboat. - Such the claim made by Patterson, but not absolutely correct. The boat was not 'propelled by steam', but b;r jet of water discharged under high pressure. Whether there was really any future for this methodI of 'jet propulsione seems more than d oubtful. However, the method of nature had been that of perseverance, of trial and error, of miss and hit; the path to success is paved solidly with thu wrecks of illustrious failures. Though the claim made for Rumsey cannot be maintained, yet his place is a secure and honorable one in the long ancestral line of the modern stesmer. It is characteristic of the Brittanica that it 03even cities contended for the honor of Horer's birth, perhaps all w"I'th equal justice, - for there weremany of him. Somewhat similarly Ofiree Kentuckians vie for honors in the invention of the steamn'ats John Pitch, now buried in Bardstown, Ky., measures well with Rumsey in his claims, and Edward West of Lexington, brother of the artist Benjamin V'lest, was also early in the field with his own ingenious device for ':ro-elling boats through water by steam. Certainly a notable record for "backwoodsmen". This page in the original text is blank. '37 gives Fulton only the most niggarrily reco.a doe , ar. n T r.,; e-:.or. Rnsey at all. Modest Vorth. The nephew Edrard had learned much from his sch'l arly father and in a private school taught by a Mr. Eary, grad- uate of Trinity College, Dublin. who gave himn training as good perhaps as he would have received at orthodox Centre or liberal Transvlvania. He never entered public life. th-_,ugh fully equel to its higher dereands, rnd wras idolized by his fellow-citizens for the combined sweetness, Manliness nobility, and purity of hlis character and life. It was a .oops' aniable habit of President Patterson to paint his friends corneur de rose, es ecially the friends of his youth, but we have no evidence in the case of Rumsey that his warm colors were misplaced. A Principal. Fortune again smiled on the young Principal, when Rihnsey admitted him to his own family, though arrangements had already been made for him elsewhere - another among so many conquests of his pleasing porsonality. There he formed a most devoted friead- ship with Bumsey's nephew, Esdward Rumsey !rreir, a gentlen1n of rare rmanners, liberal educationl, one of the most epanionable of memt, for three years his constanlt visitor 'one or more evenings' a veels. - "7i'de is the range of words", says Hser, and their conversation circled about and about over '.Philosophy, Language. Politics, English Literature, Historyl ancient and moderns, but its center was the "domestic institution!' of African slavery, which Fts i,_st drawing all American thought into its vortex. Is it strange that his "Notes" give no hint of either 'Teir's views or his own But his letters cf This page in the original text is blank. 38 protest against the radicalism of his northern kin show that he vas a moderate, like Clay. unable to defend the institution on princirle yet disposed to accept it as a foct and to neglect no apologies that lay at hand. - It was the second 1Londay in September, 1856, that YPamsey escorted the Prineipal to a sohool-house set upon a hill and known as 'the College'. Only five pupils that day, but before Christmp.s the number rose to 40, and before the close of the 'Collegeo year to 75. Doubtless the 'Principal' - who was also the Terminal and the Total - cheerfully recalled the words of the Shuhite. "Thcugh thy beginning was sm-ll, yet thy latter end should greatly increase". The teaching was rmainly of the Three R's, inglish Grammar, Latin, and towards the close. of P:lgebra and Geometry. tOne teacher ras suffi- cientl, but hardly enough. because of the multiplication of el-assel. A haDY Cll The evening cf James Buchanan's fateful inauguration, the Principal received notice from Iona of the two hotelst that a gentleman desired an interview. To his glad surprise it proved to be his loving brother. William, who, en route - from near Carroell- ton. Carroll Co.. where he had juLst closed his school - for Hanover, to resume his studies, had been cveroome by desire to see James Kennedy, and so had diverged thus far from his course., The mutual affection of these brothers is one of the most lovely features in the life of Patterson. William was pleased to stay and help in teach- ing the higher classes. being novn 'well-grounded in areek, Latin, (nd Mathema.tica', and by this division of la'aor the problem of 'tLe multiplication of classes' was scilved. This page in the original text is blank. High Cost of Success. The fame of the lCollege' spread ra-didly over the adjoining ocounties, and it wr;s quickly accounted :t leadox, or even the leader, among 'classical schools west of Louisvlle', - The next year the Ettendanao threatened to swell beyond the capacity of 'the buildings'. William distinguished himself in 'advancod Mathematics, Latin and Greek.' The brother saught seven hours a d. y, from 8 A.M. to 4 P.M., with one n.oon hour of restI Doubtless they advanced the pupils rapidly, but what time or energy had they left for their own advance.mntt Such in America is too often the price of 'success,. A Landowner. Thus far the PTinoipal seems to have been a salaried official, but now "the receiots from tuition" appear un- expestedly, and swell the income greatly; the brothers at once invest in land warrants at about 800 per acre, the nominal value being tl.25. that h d. been issued to veterans of the various American wers. With such warrants for 810 acres William proceeded to &Kansas and went through all the legal formalities in obtaining deeds fcr such lands as he seleeted. W;ith other later entries these wre held for and forty year-7ten sold, soce at twenty times the original price. or more. President Patterson tells of this with evident satisfaction. Though extremely frugal - otherwise he had not been a true Scot _ he was content with very moderate returns, provided no risk was involved. Little culculctlon is needed to show that these land Under date of Dec, 23, 1856, Janes Kennedy writes to Andrewa 'If I don't study some, he (William) will eclipse me before long' - which seems to imply at lecst the practical cessation of his own studies. This page in the original text is blank. 10 entries could hardly have netted 'him much more than 5. and we may suspect that a much higher yield wzas ct th.. time frequnt and ret. soxiably sure. But he seems, with true Scottish caution, never to have regardod an investment at mo:re than 5 as safe. CamLpbell and Wing.. Conspizuous among the famriles oAg settled in 'Vuhlenberg County and giving Itone and dignity to the cozriunityl was that of Col. William Campbell, first co-,main of the like-named General, oonnanier (soae say) at King's Mountains; here 1000 Revolutioxary militia dfeteaXd and captured 1200 Loyalists (7 Cot. 1780), - an insignificant battle, but regarded as decisive for the carolia a.ttitud-, even -Is Saratoga for Now York. as making Yorktown possible. Col. C5ampbell, having received muoh land for his service atop King's Mdountain ( as Patterson thought) and elsewhere, settled first in !rayette County, then in Uxuhlenbarg. where hs reared a family of one son and four daughtirs. Oiae cf these marriei Barton .tone, then a Presbyterian minister of Fayette County, later Over which the war of words still rages. PlAtterson has errsd in thinking the 'L hlenberg William Campbell was in the fiawous "battue". t which his cousin Colonel William Campbell, of 757ashington 'o., Va,, was commander by curtesyl - and at the urgent suggestion of Col. isaac Shelby, preeminent in the early annals of Ken-tucky, to whzm the honor of originating end planning and in large measure of direct- Ing and accom'lishing the fateful campeAign is now generally conceded. cl0. (or Cen.) James Williams, perhaps as the commissioned offioer highest in rank among thelborderers", has been wrongly regarded by some British writers as Comsander. It was essentially a Colonelst victory, the leaders of the mountaineers acting independently but in uniso, and was won by Indian tactics, against which the Loyalist bay- onots were iipotent. The British leader, Ferguson, is very highly and doubtless deservedly praised for his valor an his earlier mrilitary services and inventions; but to the raader of to-day his conduct of thil 'disastrous campaign looks like a long series of blunders. This page in the original text is blank. 1 distinguished as a compeer of th, famous klexander Cempbell, Refor-nert another married Captain Charles F. Wing, ancd it was at Greenville bhat young Patterson met his own marriod fate in the persons of Miss Lucelia 'Wing, daughter of the latter gentleman, whc was born in New Bedford, Mass., his father Ba:rnabas Wing, being a Friend or ;u.aker, whoreaigrated to Kentucky about 17D81 - a ship-owner engaged in whaLing, who suffered the loss of docks anti shipping in the hievolutioaary war. Patterson tells with apparent pride of having seen a note for 39fL 14 sh. sterling given to Win,g in 1775 by the Commonwealth of 'iassachusetts Bay for money he hL, advanced for its service. The note was presented for payment by John Wihig of Chicago to the Treasurer of !Aassac: husetts, who dslined to pay unless authorized by an Act of the Legislature - an( to secure that seemed hardly worth while, though in 100 years at 7 compound interst t200 would alave grown to 200,00o. That, hoiwever, would have been spel ling tue first syllable of patriotism with a Z. The ohar.ctvw :f Captain Tharles Fox '.1ing seems well attested by the f ct that he hell the office of County and Clrouit Clerc in 2.Suhlenberg, by successive appointments of the Governor, for over 50 consecutive years. 'e a:re told he fought as volunteer in John J. Crittenden's regiment' in the 'Here again President Patterson's information was pardonably inematt John J. Crittenden did not head a regiment in that battle but was aide-de-camp to General ((ov.) Isaac Shelby. For many corrective data of these notes, tha writer has to thank the ready knowledge and the equally ready kindness of that matiter of Kentucky history, Dr. Samuel U. Wilson. This page in the original text is blank. 42 ,far of 1812, in the historic battle of the Thames (5th Oct., 1812). O.f Captain Wing's large faily, two sons and six daughters attained very advanced age - a fact of some interest in its bearing on the nruch agitated puestion of longevity And Branks. Another child of Colonel William Campbell rmarried. Ephraim M. Brank, distinguished fcr daring at the Battle of ]iew Or]es. Standing almost alone on a cotton bale(they say'), he aimed delib- errtely at one of a group of British officers and saw him fall, an. his friends believe that officer ttas Sir Zdward Packenham. Brank 'Like so many of its kind, the legend of the cotton-bales still liL- gers and flourishes because edifying and bon trovato, suited to th4 time amnd place. At this point a Yontuckiaz long resident in New Orleatns may be pardoned for inseriiing a word of com.-nt. A. Tho the cotton-bales are rtot mentioned by the Chief 1"nginevo, 11ajor A. LaCarriere Latour, in his authoritative "Memoirs", yet hiic subordinate Hyacinthe Lacotte shoirs them along the whole li.e 3a his painting of the "Battle", and they also come to the front in the sim- ilar "'40,000 painting by Eugene Lamill (1838). Gen. Jackson wrote to President Monroe that only logs and earth wore used; Latour ceclarve "the brez.stwork" (or "parapet"), "rtwenty feet thick at the top tho hard- ly five feet high". "eight hundred. ani fifteen toises, or about a nile "long" was formed of a double row of logs, laid one over the other, leaving EL space of two foet, which was filled up with earth". Nevor- theless, it appears from court records, confirmed by the exporter Vincent Nolte in his "lifty Years in Both Hemispheres" and by the Kentucky volunteer, a Transylvaniac student John Richard Ogilvy, lalter a Presbyterian minister, in his "Kentucky at New Orleans" (1838), thit-. Jackson did 'requisition' 277 bales (for which he afterward paid 6f0 a pound, more than 1alf the market -price), then aboard the near-lyin4; vessel Sumatra - of which 230 were used in building the powder uaagLziie in the Macarte garden, and the other 47 on each end of the line anc at the "half-moon battery"l . Here, Lowever, they proved worthless for2 defence and were scattered every vray in the bombardment of January 1, a3ter which they were all retired to the rear as disabled and even spread out on the ground as bedding for the soldiers and so did no!; figure at all in the memorable Baitle of the 8th. - The British als;o attempted a similar use of hogshez.ds of sugar, but with even worso results, as attested by 'The Subaltern" Robert Gleig, Lieutenant in 85th Light Infantry, In "The British C,..mpaign at Wishington and New Orlans" (London, 1836) . Both cotton and Eugar rebelled; commerce would nol; be This page in the original text is blank. 43 servilized to arms; rather, in recent years, arms have been seri3lized to comrx.res. 7B. The romantic myth of "the tall was on the breastworks ( ,ucer use to make of breastworksl) in linsey-woolsey, with buckskiz, toggins, and a broad-brilned felt hat", "I'mtionless as a statues", 11phi.ton-likel, "the supernatural appearance of some great spirit of Death", "reloading and discharging", "reloading an cxischarging" (thlo "motionless as iL statue"0I) with the same unfailin,; aim, and the same unfailing result till" the sulphurous cloud . ihut out the spectral hunter from our gaze" .... "the Kentucky rifleman oontributed more to our defeat thnn anything else, for while he remained in our sight, ouT attention was drawn frm our duties" - "the battle was lost" - all this "icealizodl history, not as it is but as it outght to be, may be read in the "Kentucky Rifleman in Battle of New Orleans"l (in the Durret Collec'ion, Louisville, Xy.) a manuscript ascribed to a British officer ("I be-' longed to the staff") who seems in modesty to withhold his niame. "he description is certainly graphic but scarcely biographic. TPo a leo' render iV so!inds m-uch too good to be true and recalls the Homeric imaginrtion of Achilles clothed in the manifest terrors of the deil;y, shouting from the moat and scattering dismay amid the crushing ranks :' the TroiansI To_. and the dumb-struck drivers beheld th' unwearying fire Awfully over the head o' thol gweat-souled scion oC Peleus Flaming aloft, for a goddesi, the gleam-eyed Pallas in'lamed it. 3uch a notable picture would very naturally fix itself in poetic fancy and repe;Lt itself in history (or literature). In Chapter VI;: of h!.s "Mebnoirs" Benvonuto Ctllini confeitues how he confounded the "iesiegors of Rome. under strangely similar ,orditions, by shooting "with de- liberate aixd' the Duke of Bourbon, with an arquebuso. C. Much less edifying, but h.Lrdly more accurate, the sul.eenfu. nspersions of the Tennessean Gen. Andres Jackson up)on the raw recruits arrived alrmost naked f ur days be'ore, the 170 ill-armedl Kantuckiajs on the western bank of the Missiseippi. Their rout reflects not on Kentucky courage - which ns man in his senses will auestion - but upon the military competence o" Gen. Morgan and Commander Patterson, as shown in their choice of a iefenco-line against the expert -dgmenw; of Major Latoar (see Z. F. &aith's Battle of New Orleans). Nearly ozUW- fourth of the victorious forces on the eastern side were Kentuckiais. So, then, the ons and only feen a'.leged blot on the war-'scukchoon of the Pioneer Co=roonwealth is simplyr - not there. - Of course, the g.ory of the"famous victory" gather. r tu. the head of Cenera.l Jackson, bitt in truth gneralship cib rather aL insignificant figure. It was the particulars, the individuals, thal; counted - the death-winged unor: ing lead of "the Tennessee and Kentuciy riflerneW"' which leveled the ranks of the British before they could reach the breastwork. It was Major Gabriel Villere who, captured at his father's house at 11 A. .. 23 Dec. 1914. "contrived to effect; his escape" and along with Denis de 'la Rondo brought the news (of the British landing) to Gen. Jackson at 2 a.M. and so saved the city from surprise. It was the indocisivo battle that night (23 Dec.) that really thwarted the invasion. This page in the original text is blank. 44 relt3:ed t0lt on visiting (the next 3unday) the prisoners taken in battle he found the Seats busiud with'reading their Biblest - perhaps curious to fini out why they had been defeated and captured. 2phrsim Brank's son Robert G. - of much significance for Pattarsonts later life - studied at Centre College and Princeton and distinguished himself in Lexington end later in St.Louis in the Presbyterian pulpit. Still another daughter of Cipbell married Judge Alaey MacLean, who served as a Captain in the arav of 1812, vad as Circuit Judge. and ofterwards in Congress. and gcve name to MacLean County. formed frmn part of Daviess, Muhlenberg, and Ohio Counties. It was these fa.-'ilies, the ',ings. the Branks. the MacLeans, along with the Weirs and the Rumseys, that gave distinction and charm to the society of Greenville. Stewart Ccll e. So. then. passed three happy years of the yyoung mans lifn, years of -2rofessional success and financial pros- perity. but apparen'ly not marked by anz' corresoonding intellectual or scholastic growth. And now gocd fortune beckoned him, higher still- to the Principalship of the Preparatory .epartrent of the StewL rt College, Clarksville. Tenn., - a 'Presbyterian institution, with a fairly good endowment and z. good faculty'. It is seen that he still marches under the Presbyterian flia.g. The fees t-..t had paid the brothers at Greenville amounted tc 110 the second and 160C the third year - cetiainly a very gratifying growth. - but it was hardly reasonable to h ope its rate would be maintained, though the reputation of the College' was deservedly high, 'as the most im3ortant school This page in the original text is blank. 45 for males west of Louisvillo. The brothers were vleased but not ,aduly elated, and when the offer of .1000 a year cammee to the elder frcio Clarksville, it appealed to h.-'s Scottish sense of safety, and hnaving gone thither and cautiously inspected at the close of the acadenic year 1358-9, he accepted. "with much reluctance - for he had. been captivated. if not 'llleS bli the social chkarm of Greer.ville. Personalia. Stewart College ras the fostxr eh4 ld of the ennsylvaniark. William Stewart. - owner o' extensive iron works on the Cumberlan River, F scholar enaoying in elegant leisure the aLmple fortune he h. wd won, - and thl s child, expecting to inor it -n=h of his wealth, was in ch:,rge of the Presbytery of Nashville. Its .:oculty consisted of fcuro the President, Dr. R. B. Mo1&ullen, a Mediocrity but a church favorite; Dr. Alexandor Doak, Professor of Greek and Latin, a 'ine classical S.oholar, a lover of literature, a good teacher, a f.scinating companion; Professor Porbes, who had studied Mathematici far beyond what he taught; and Dr. Haskins, a noted Professor of Chemistry; besises these, the Principal of the Preparatory amd his assistaagt selected by himself. On going thither, James Kennedy left -ne Greenville 'Collegeo in charge of hie brotheza, William Kennedy and Andrew MleFarlane, the next eldest. His vacatioz. he had spent mainly with his parents in Tndiana, who must now have begun to regard him with reverent adciiration. About August 2G he ent to Greenville for a week, to say good-bye to his brothers and to Tkumsey, with incidental visits to other friends. He then turned, south, to Clarksville, armed with a letter of introduction from Rumey This page in the original text is blank. 4e to an old friend, the Hon. Gus A. Penry, a distinguished citizen. a Thig leader recently second in a race for Governor with Andrew Johnson. Henry, the son of a hemp manufacturer of Scott Co. (Ky.). had been reared in the lap of wealth, had studied law in Kentuckky, but had gained his distinction at the bar, as well as a wife with ,additional riches, in Clarksville, a town he had represented in Congress. Like so many of Patterson's most valued friends, he had retired from public life and --las enjoying elegant leisure. - So it was then, two generations ago. But what rich man thinks of doing so now The press assures us - in amazement a.t the resignation of Justice Cl-.rke, for travel and study, - that there -anust be sonme mistake. that no l better than a raere scholar or 'intellectual' woule. thini of such a fa.ish waste of time. Cf elegant leisure and schol.stic ease and co=.Iunion with "departed s--irits of the mighty dead", the tale seems to have been told. Such is the Beehive of Man. _he Pulpit Beckons. Clarksville was then Ith most important tobacco mart south of Louisville'; tobacco -was the sta-ole of its tributary region. It w-s here that a new world opened to the young 0Tet tho nobler notion that the trija life of ran cons3ists not in the abundance of goods he possesses, not in what he has but wheat he is, this notion is surely not new to the uorld; great spirits have recognized in all ages that it is only the efflorescence of the soul that is beautiful, only its fruitage that is 8ood. It is not only the wisdom of Age that Perceives this truth. That amazing prodigy Otto Braun. the greatest single victim of the Great ';az, diseerned it clearly in his 21st yearl "Man is not valuable eithmr far his WCrds or for his deeds but only for one reason, for --hat he raelly and tr-Lly is",, ot even from Braun could we demand ebsolute precision and triutb. Tie fails to perceive, or at least to express, the Local fact that the deeper, if not the deepest,nature of Ilan (and the world) is Activit'y. This page in the original text is blank. 47 principal. A warm welcome araitaed him at the MoALulem home, fram husbandl, wife ana sister-ia-law, a oultivatod. intelligent farsily. deeply Intoreated In Stewart Collaege. Other good Seot Preabyterimis were the bankcrs, n. S. Kennedy ( a of h.ppy on) and t P. Nung, both fervent in devotion tothe College. Still anciher 300t WVs Bryce Stewart, and Moen8g. was frcnx Northern Ireland, - both tzobacoto planters. With the Presbyterian rastor, the evereond Thomas )eLaoe2' Wardlaw,, educated at King'. College. Belfast, well-head in theology and trained in classics, he soon formed a very intimate cooneotioa. the two reading Latin together, .tch at the othars home on alternate weeks. It was then, it would seem, that Patterson formed his first close ecquaintancee with Juvenal. His love of the olassies revived, and he found 'em 1 time for private studyl, as he and his assistant, A. C. Hurst, taught each only six lours i dayl Rooms net apart for his use in the east wing of the College building he yielded to Dr. Mclulleng in exchange he received lodgings and board. - The long- cherished purpose of Fatters:8n to etnter the Presbyterian ministry w s very naturally quickened in such surroundings - and he studioe Killinal "Anoient Church" ana also the Institutio Theologiao Zlenoticae of Franols Trretia, with all its pseudo-geometric formalism - and but for the Civil "'ur he would probably have been guided by 'Wardlaw into a Presbyterian theological school and thence into a Presbyterian pulpit. Goa moves in a nysterious way.', His wolnders to perform. This page in the original text is blank. 48 V WAR AND DE3S Married. Very naturally Chrisimas brought Patterson to Greenvil le. vwhere on the 27th Dec. 1859. he was married to Lucelia ring. youngest daughter of the Captain. After a rather brief thoneymoon' of one week, he turned his feet into the strait and stony path of drty. wJich led to Clarksville. The bride reamained at her he, expeeting to join him in the coming spring, - wlkioh brought him not only his brid.e, but soon afterward promotion to thet chair of Latin and Greek, at a salary of 1500. Along with so much good Fortune, however, the disruption of the Federal Union, lcaa foreboded and threatened, nt lost bocame a faat, and the Civil 'as svas about to break out in fury frcnn the Atlantic to the Mississippi and beyonA, Led by South Carolina (20 Deo. 1860) six other states had seseded, and on February 4., 1861, the seven had set up a provisional Constitution and Goverament at Montgomery, Aiaboma, the 4ay the Peace Convention (suggested by Virginia), of all the other 3tates. assembled in ashington; Fort Umter fell 14th April; the next day President Lincoln issued his call. which was received witl wild enthusiasm. fcr 75,000 volunteers, anei the America. war-blood, descended from so Tnany generations of adventure by land and sea, began to boil every- where .,ith a11 its zncient fervor. Of the eight border states, four were repelled into the Confederate group by the President's call of April 15i ;he impetuous sons of the four still hesitant - Delaware, Itaryland, Kentuahy, Missouri. - poured in eager throngs into opposite This page in the original text is blank. 49 caraps. The Southern youth, at least of the higher classes. rose up as one 7an at the call to arms. Clarkswille was swept ilmediately into the warward currentp Pattersoa, himself a British subject, and another Soot, the photographer J. K. McCormick, seem to have been the only'Union men in the town, and both remained prudently silent. _ar and Transylvania. Not only law but also learning Is silent inter at, and in April of 1861 Stewart College closed its doors, its classroom being almost emptyl nearly all the students of proper age and strength had gone to war. Of course, the Principal could not go, even had he boen so inclined, but returned with his bride to Greenville. He had found life in Tqnnessee very pleasant, he loved the thrifty, hospitable, church-going folk, he had imagined himself in the near future a Presbyterian divin.r but the whole warp and woof of his life now took on speedily another hue and pattern. He was cr st out into the world with hardly anything but an education ani a wife, and with no visible means of sup-ort but a crutch. However, the nysterious ways of Wisdom were leading him directly to the final field of his earthly activity. The Reverend Robert G. Brank-, pastor of the Second Presbyterian C'hurch in Lexington and a native of Greenville, was Mrs. Pattersouls cousin; often he visited his father in Greenville, and there the Principal, hitherto always drawn 'Though erlier the count was four to one in favor of the "Union"'. This page in the original text is blank. 50 powerfully towards the clergy, had learned to know and to admire him. It w. s he that now came to the rescue with the su.--;estion tha; Patterson apply for the Principalshi.p (which had become vacant in 1861J of the Transylvania High Scho:1. the attenuated ghost of Transylvc.nia University. which had iallen alasl under ecclesiastiwal suspicion of liberalism and for years had ceased from collegiate or university work. In 1856 the legislature had made a gesture to convert it into a State Normal School, but supplied funds for only one yearls work, and its annual income from investment did not mice reach 4,0001 - Hence its decline and fall. To ThA Blue Grass. Going with Dr. Brank to Lexington the lame scholar at once launched a campaigA for the headship of the moribund 'University', and his captivating personality was quickly successful., The Board of Trustees unanimousl, .cleeted him Principal at a salary of 1800. Returning to Greenville Ie chose his two brothers Willism and Andrew as assistants; as earlier noted, they had been successfil:.y operating the Greenville Presbyterial AcadsnW. This might look like nepotism and under other conditions might have been gravely repre- hensible; but Jsmes 1ennedy was pergionally responsible foiv the success of the school, he knew his Brothers and their thorough fitneDos for t1h work, and he doubtless felt that he could 'carry on' better with them as helpers than with anyone else; for the Scot is exceedingly How powerfully may be felt in reading his Com-ncement address at the Greenville Acadeng (June 1860) OIL "Mt Gon"itutes a Scholar", liho first fruits (published) of his oratory. Like so many of his letters, it is almost a sermon; nothing but exteeme !cogmatic prepossassion could have suggested its bizarre comparisons between Alexander von Hurmboldt and Hugh Miller. This page in the original text is blank. 51 clanlish. Above all, peraps y-ang teachers were scarce. the yscuth had gone to war. 1lis choice :rmved f'rtunate enough, but it is hardly to be recommended as a preoEskent The end of Auguest f:und him ensconced wita his wife and brothere in the old 3lythe House, - an a-,anage of the 'University', for many yeats a residential residence, - and 3ptember 8 the three 'began o-Ds'rations with about sixty studentut, drawn fron the lite of Lexington axwd its vioinity. -N3amed for the Rev. James Blythe, - graduated from Hampiden-Sidney College, 1789, moinister of the vll-known Pisgah Church, 7jtoodford Co., a founder of the land-endowed 1entucky r/ cadwqd 1794, the ."irst of twenty such, or more, ohartered in the Conionwealth soon after its recognition as a State. By Legislative Act of 22 Dec., 1798, it wa.s fused into Transylvania Unirersity with Transylvania Sosninary begotten 1780, in the Legislation ot Virginia. by an appropiaia-:ic "originated by Col. John Todd, at tVe suggestion of Thos. Jefferson) of 8,,00 - increased in 1783 to "not excesaing 20.000" - acres of confiscated Tory-land, to endow "a. pubic school or Seoinary of Learning ... In Kentucky county...", namei fTransylvanial the same year 1733, but not born until 1 Yeb. 178. near Da.nville, whence it was lar- ed by sift of grounds and building ho Lexihgton, 1793. - In 1175 Blythe haid seeured in the East as endownent for the Academy about 10,000 frorr such as George Wdashington, Joks Adams. Robert Merris (eaott 100) and Aaron Burr (40). He was a Przfessor in Transylvanla till 1804, then President till 1817 - when he was succeeded by the Rev. Horace 4olley, - again a Professor Will 183', when he became President of the College a& Hanover, Indiana. It appears that Kentucky's eduzational system, devised mainly by Judge C01eb Wallacs avowedly for the elect, "twhom natuas hath endovl.5 with genis and virtue", or as we might say now, with inherited wealth, was from the first altigether top-hesavy with a brave spread of sail but with a narrow and leaky hull. For the only common schools - four in all - before Transylvania, at Harrodsbur& first, then at McAfee, Boones boro, Lexington, were so-call ad "old Field Sohools", in rude dis- reputable shanties, built out in the "clearings", with puncheoai floors or none at all. No wonder the craft capsized and foundered. Nven Transylvania's "first Classes in 1730 were held in a two-room log cabin"'. I sed story of "Transylvania", of its clouded morn, its radiant noon 1818-27). and its dreary decline, is fully and piously related in she excellent "History " by D1. Robert :Pter, so long its distinguiskM Prtotessor of Chemistry. This page in the original text is blank. 52 Inter-Arma. The war-cloud haad'urst, anC the tempest rgoged in fury. Kentucky was a house divided against itself, literally, fa- ther against son and brother against brother, The Southern seati- oent naturally prevailed in the waLthbir slave-holding class, and it was the Blue Grass region that mainly swelled the ranks of the fatnous Brigade of John H. Morgan. 3ut the mountaineers of the South. ern and Eastern counties rallied to the cause of the 'Unions. Tbe State Administration flatly refused the quota demanded in the Pres- ident's call for Volunteers and the Leg-slature was of course, di- vided. On the enfor6ed abdicatio:a of Governor Beriah Magoffin, a Provisional Government, headed by James P. Robinson, Sr., assurad the reins at Frankfort. In April. 1862, the Feder 1 Government converted Morrison Chapel (the main Transylvania Building) into a hospital, and the 'University' SchoDl began a peripatetic career, during which, strange to say, it -rospered1 It was first removed the the 'old Medical College' at th, Broadway-Second corner, till the close of the (academic) year. On the 1st of Soptember, 1562, after the Federal repulse at Richmaid, Zy.. the Confederates, led by Kirby Smith, owcupied Lexington,, the Morrison Hospital became Yet by no means evenly: In the Geaeral Assembly, The Famous 'Pre- amble and Resolutions", which ended long hesitation and committed Kentucky definitely and finally to the side of the Goveanment at Washington, were reported to the House 18th Sept., 1861, adopted there by an average majority of 76 to 20, and then in the Sena;e by a majority of 26 to 9; promptly nretood by Gov. Uagoffin in a powerful and dignified message, their were as promptly enacted into law, "the objeotions of the Gowernoiw to the contrary notwithstanding", by majorities of 69 to 21 in the Holise and 24 to 10 in the Senate - aad so the State that initiated the doctrine of States Rights and Nullification, under urgence of Zefgierson, in the Resolutions of 17913, in the end cast her lot with the Fe-deral Union. This page in the original text is blank. 53 over-crowded, ewA the Blythe House was'taken by the offieers', for Hospital purposes (Oat. 4, 1862). Whereupon the Methodists gra- ciously offered the Principal 'theirparsonage on South Mill Streetl. Moeawhile the Federals under Buell had won in the eager race f or Louisville (from near Bow ing Green) over the Confederates under Bragg (who at the close of August had eluded Buell and marched on the Ien- tucky metropolis), and then following southeastward had overtaken Bragg :t Perryville, where on the 8th of October the two armies Jzined instubborn battle. Strangely, the 62.000 Federal raw recruits pre- vr.iled over the 56,000 trained Confederates, who retreated towards Cumberland Gap, thus ending the famous "Invasion of kentuckyl. There- at the Confederate troups that had occupied Lexington and its vicinity withdrew southeastward in the wake of Bragg. On reentering the city, the Federals found Morrison Chapel adequate as hospital, and the Pat- tersons returned to the Blythe House. A Brother Gone. William and Anirew had gone (for Dart of the surner vacation) to the Indiana home, where they tarried during the Confaderate occupation, and the schuol did not re-open till after the battle of Perryville had settled the wa in Kentucky. An attack of a,-parently mild 'bilious fever' prostrated William late in NovembeN, but he seemed to recover and 'came down stairs' about Dec. lst.; alasl prematurely, for the next day his m 1ady revived in the most malignant typhoid form. The end cane Dec. 9. before his mother, for whom Andrew had hastened, on the 8th. to Indiana, could arrive. This severe bereavement, the first that had befallen the family for nearly This page in the original text is blank. 54 twenty. -five years, left a permanent Imprint on James Kennedy Patterson. l1illiam '.ad long been the special object of his a-.dAration and affection; to the very last the venerable man could not mention his brother's name without manifest enotiion. William was equally devotod to JAmes, in association with whom he found his most perfect happineis. 'He was fine specimen of manhood, tall well-proportioned. His hair and board were black as coal; his keen black eye arrested irnediate attention; his delicate but finely cut features impressed one with the conviction of gentleinss, firmness and manly vigor. Though his early advantages were comparatively small, he had developod into a remarkable scholat. He read. Latin well, was an enthusiastie Greek student, and a good MathemativianI. - One gets the impression that the premature death of this Gael of he Gaels was a distinct lofts to humanity. There is nothing in the lives of the brothers more boeu- tiful than their mutual devotion. "Behold how good and how pleosant So felt the Transylvr. nia Trustee, as evidenced by the letters of their representatives, M. C. Johnsor,. and George Blackburn Kinkead, l8th Dec., 1862. This page in the original text is blank. 55 it is for brethren to dwell together in unityl'0 The Father Follows. So fell the first of those fatal blows destined so often to slay the Patterson peace; the second was soon and sudden in its ooming. Yielding to persuasion, in hope of assuag- ing her grief, the mother had consented to stay with them some reeks; but abnnt Dec. 20 came a telegram calling her back to the side of her husband dangerously injured by a fall from a wagon. On reachiug home, she found him a speechless paralytic, and he died the day be- fore Christmas. It required brave Aearts to bear up under such double smiting. in his "Notes" President Patterson pays the just and dignified tribute of a dutiful son to the menory oe his father. Andrew Patterson. born in March. 1801. was sn uncorr.aonly handsome man, six feet tall. and well-proportioned. His father. James. 'ias a native of -.4en:rewshire. hcatland; his mothexr Ann (nbe Langwill) was a French ' !e know William Kennedy through his corres.ondenoe, a short diary and a few verses. The latter have a deep theological tinge, along with a wcrld-weariness at first sight unnatural, but not infrequent with high-hearted youth in the first battles of life. They do not reveal any special gift, being apparsntly cast in the fas-iliar .molds of the "metrical version of the Psalmis". The letters and diary make a .-ore favorable impression. They s:3.o a fine vigorous younm spirit, fresh and eager for the fray of life,, devoted to family. - especially to the elder brother, James. - gener us, contented with little, swum fith not a cent in the aockot. xealoas in study, especially of Greek. but not quite equal to James Kennedy in sustained energy, in tenacity and singleness of nurpose, in assidulty, and unwearying will to sue- coed. He writes far more like a yoith tha does his brother, he feels generous indignation, he glows with passion; far less theolog- ical, he rarely preaches, though one long letter to Andrew is really an eloquent sermonfif the most orthod,)x Covoeanter type. Altogether a beautiful, admirable and even lovable youth. almost a trince Zharming, but not yet displaying the masterful qualities that dis- tinguished the long life of his brother. This page in the original text is blank. 56 ship-captain's daughter born in Carrpbellton. Argyllshire, sone oig;hty miles frnm Glasgow. The Langwills. a well-to-do family. were apparently of Yugenot stock and were called Longuevilles on the Continent, The oalicoprinter feLl into ill health on the agus- smitten wilds of the west, and by t'he advice of Dr. Davidson of ,'adison, Ind., returned to his trad, for six month in Rhode Island and for an equal ti- e in 'chuylkill Thus, whence he came back to his farm with health Psrfectly restored in 1845. In 1853 he sold his Rarthclomew County farm on favorable terms and bought a farm in Jefferson County. six miles from Mad'son, where he lived until 1859. wher he sold again and bought, this time in Hancock County. twenty miles east of Indianapolis. As appear-s fron their oorrespondenoo, this roving disposition of the father - along with over-buoyancy and a speculative turn - did not please James Kennedy, his son. Androw had recieved a fair education in the Scottish parochial schools, Owas remarkably well-informed, and held Just opinions upon subjects con- nected with polities and religion - but apparently without the ardeul and aggressive zeal of his sons, whosie letters show the livliest ca cern for his faith and salvation. 'Thoroughly; and scrupulously hon- est and honorable, he lhad a suprene regard for the truth and lived a life whose examnle made a marked ar.d durable imvress upon hia five sons9. There are some worse things in life and character than suen 'regard'; but are there any much bettert Another Brother Lost& wthen the kedical College building burned, U 1ay, 1863, the school 'operationsl were transferred by amicable This page in the original text is blank. 57 arrnangement to the basement of the Second Presbyterian Church. and wRs tiere conducted till the close of the academic year. A Iready Ja-nes Kennedy had urged his mother to leave Indiana and make her home with him. bringing along his yotigest brother, Walter Kennedy, born in Indiana. The fourth son, Alexander, was then employed in Toronto, Canada, where he stayed - from 1882 - till the end of the war, at the urgenoo of his mother, against his own earnest desire to enlint in the ary. Having gone to Indiana about July, James Kennedy returned with his mother in about three weeks (July Y alast to find his brother Andrew' seriously ill. He grew worse, the physician recognized the dreaded typhold fever again, and August 11th the sufferer died. The blew tell with great weight on the whole fadily, especially on the mother, who bore tt bravely but for son months felt little interest in humn affairs. Znter Bowman. The next academic year (1863-64) the wandering Sohool was domiciled in a building near C hrist Church Cathedral. and the next (1864-.5) in 'th. oblong one-storay building in Gratz oark', hitherto oacunied by the Janitor and subsequently designated famil- iarly as the "Kitchen". Here three rooms were fitted upl, for the two Pattersons, James Kennedy with Walter Kennedy (his ymungost 'Of this third brother we learn little boyond that he was5aout lov- able" and that his health was bad. His education seems to have been an anxious and continual oare both to James and William. who were stirring him up constantly to put forth all his powers, - one of the older's letters even bursts into tropical luxuriance of exhortation They accredit him with great ability, and inder their ceaseless prod- ding he made oounemdable progress. But he was hot-headed and some- times wrong-headed, and appears to have marked perhaps a declension from the lofty level of his elders, uhose brotherly watok - care pa- tience, and affection are tender and pathetic to a degree. This page in the original text is blank. 58 b'rothea).and a Robert Pattis,1n frorr New Jersey. But in june (1865) -7ryoe another turn of Fortune s wheel; '-ransylvania University - the sha-dow of a mighty naxme - with all ibs grounds, 1-uildings and adow- ments, had been swallowed up (by Act of 22 Jan., 1865) in Kentucky University, newormefrom Harrodsburg under the witchery of the noted and notable John Bryan Bowma.n A Fourth Bere-vement.- The Patterson administration of the High Jch-aol had been very highly successf al. emniently satisfactory to trustees and to patrons, and had grosn greatly in publie esteem - so First called Harrodstown, later Oldbown, finally Harrodsburg, aow recognised(against the coaterolaims of Boonosboroughh) as the old- est Dermanent setllenent in Kentucky, first laid out in half-acre lots a;nd tea-aor "outposts" by Capt. Jams "cxrod with thirty .oo- rpanions 16 June, 174, then abandonetl during Gov. Lord 'Dunmores warl (decided by the Indian rout at oint Pleasant, 10 Ot.. 1774), but reoccupied finally 15 March, 17715. Two d;ys later, at Syca- tr;ore Shoals, 'Tataga River, was signeL the may ways illegal Treaty with Cherokee chiefs - transferring lor 50,O00 in merchandise to the "Protrietors of the CoIony of Transylvania hevaded by Rio. Henderson) a region of some 20,000,O)O acres, about half of Kentucky (south of the Aivt.) with adjacent pwrts of Tennessee in the bead of the Cumberland River. But the ambit'ious enterprise came too late and fell before the bold energy of Goorge Rogers Clarke, aided by the suspicion and hate its own greed had aroused. The sun of Pri- vate Ringdoms and Proprietary Rn-irwe was already sunk in the eost - to rise again one hundred years after, in brighter and more blasting s lendor. - "Col. Dan. Boone" seems 1o have been a trusted agent of this detested corporation, who voted him aO'present of 2,000 acres of land . with the thanks of the Proprietors, for the signal service ho had rendered to the Compazsy". A me highly historie in that region. It was Col. John () 3owman whlo in the late summer of 1777 raisec. the seige of Loganifs fort, sinco 20 Mlay invested by Indians incited by Col. ienry iianilton of Detroit; also Capt. (afterward Major) "cse-h Ilowman was the bold helpmeet of 'R. Clarke, in his amauingly daring, and successful expedition to Illinois, which issued in the surrender of "Henry Hamilton"', Lieut. Gov. and Superintendent", at Vinoenneis, 24 feb., 1779. This page in the original text is blank. 59 rrach Ildeed that the dissolving Board of Trustees requasted that the Principal be appointed Professor i. the new Kentucky Ujniversity, - . request with which the new Curators promptly and doubly complied. naming him Professor of Latin in the College of Arts, and of History and of Metaphysics In the College of Agriculture ('consolidated' with the University by legislative hoot aplroved Feb. 22, 1865, i4 diatoly u-;on its establishment in conformity with the Morrill Act of 1862). He t6ught in the one College in the morning, in the other in the afternoon besides oe hour a day in Sayre Institutol And further Deronent saith notl, - though the resder mighklike to Ikow what hovr. Undoubtedly that was unwise and absurd, but Patturson had little choice. Uis salary was only 150 asd the prices were inflated, gold being at a gremiun of 50. 2hus he paid 450 for house renti praw- tically one-third of his salary. He had to give up the Blythe House, but was kindly received for a yoar into the ho of Mr. Georg Flack- burn Kinkead, where he taught the young Annie one hour per doyl For his desolate mcher he found board elsewhere, and Ualter foundiE schocl twelve miles from town. But when his mothor returned from th, death- becd of her son Alexander. in Rochater, IT.Y., a victim (12 Nov., 1865) of Ityphoid pnoumaonia9, the kind-hearted Mrs. Kinkead, in lively syrzpathy, invited the heroic woman, so sorely smitten, to make the Kinkeaa residence her hm. This astonishing fatality from 'typhoid' in the vigorous Patterson fea.ily, along with the later sufferings of William, gives rise to grave and puzzling reflections. This page in the original text is blank. 60 VI A G& LDZK DECAJ4lE Blooomtid. This year (1865-6) witnessed another rermrkable outburst of energy in the new Professor. Not only did he teobc three important subjects and one knows not how many young misses, but he waded far deoper into Sanskrit, which he had invaded boldly and with- out any guide the year before, and went so far as to translate the vholo of Nalopukhyahatl The life of such an intense student 'i out- wardly uneventful, and he finds little to record beyond the fact that in t.lay '56, we left Mrs. Kinkead's, having found a home on Wiest High 3treet, which he left the next year for a now 'brick house on East Maint, which, like wany other structures, was recently wrecked to make place for a garage. The following wiater was signalized by a sharp tatt'ck of Dneumonial, which prostrated hia several weeks, but his health was restored through medical skill and tender nursing, which he gratefully acknowledges, as well as the sympathetic visits and mes- sages of his students and fellow-teachers. It is noteworthy that he seems never to have forgotten an act of kindness done him; his memory was crowded with scich delightful incilents and his "N[otes", dictated late in life, abound in thankful recognitions. A Sanskrit Student. It was now that he began the horse-back riding that lent him health and vigor for so many years. '4y own earliest recollection of the Tman behoLds him dismounting, hitching his horse to a tree, and then toilsomaly climbing up the wide: taps in front of the Morrison Chapel. I wonlered and pitied, but soon fond This page in the original text is blank. 61 that he was not unhappy though lame, but ossessed a cheerful temper. and rev.eled in exhaustless stores of exact knowledge. - It was under these srme tress that he would smetimes meet his smaller classes. when the weather favored. 'e thught it very romantic and poetio. - On complete recovery he plunged with renewed vigor into Sanskrit. which seems to have helA him with peculiar fascination. and read all the Bhagavad GitI. ('Song of the Blesd One', inculcating Bhekti. the doct-ine of fai.h, - a part of Book VI of the Aahabharata). Sanskrit opened up to him a new world, such as not even the Greek had disoloa- ad, the Greek, by which strangely encugh he seems hardly to have Ueen adequately influrnoed. In some mysterious way the Hellenic genius. the .aost s9lendid the earth has ever known, remained for him partly al.en and only partly understood His ear was better attuned to Latiz. - 'Ithe voice of ompire and of war, of law and of statW . The utterly free and daring artistic and scientific spirit of the Greek may have dazzled and somewhat frightened his own soul, so profoundly British and conservative. Perhaps alsc his introduction to Greek found him too young and too timid for such adventumous thoughti had he begun it later he might have felt it more fitted to his mind. Sanskrit found him maturer and seems to have worked in some measure a libera- tion of his soul. As he read the Hindu poems of so mansy thousand yers ago, as he exdlored the extremely complicate structure of the oldest Aryan tongue, with its "roots of everlasting being', and discovered the approximate orng nals of so many nythblogioal fancies, a brcad illumination spread over his spirit. Elurnan History rose urp before him This page in the original text is blank. 62 wide and high as the Himalayas, rent and darkened with iremendous chasms and unfathomable depths, yet pare and holy in its snow-cappId sunlit heights. The (fall Stilled. Professor Patterson had never any thought of forsaking the faith of his fathers in its general outlines, but the narrower walls of creed were now expaaded, and he 'definitely aban- doned the intention, long cherished, either of entering the Presby- terian ministry. or of becoming a student of law. As no other hint is given of this latter intention, it can hardly have been seriously entertained; but his close association with the Presbyterian clergy of and the exceedingly pious kej7is letters show clearly that he had been heart-set on the pulpit for many years. Little Without. It has already been remarked, how sparse are Prof. Patterson's notes concerning this era of his alertest mental activity. He was living the life of the soul, and the passing show of things disturbed only slightly his converse with the eternal. He remembers only a few paltry material details, as that he eked out his salary of 1500 by teaching four 'pri'rate puoils' and so kept up eThis interpretation, like all the Imnediately foregoing conjectS.res, is offered merely for what it is worth, which may be very little. It seems intrinsically probable and rocommended by the facts in the case, so far as known to me, and especially by the change in the tone of his letters, which appears to be muistakable. Possibly, however, the entry into the ministry was merely -.:ostponed from year to year. till it was too late. T0 Misses L. 'H. Clay and i. Humphrey. Messrs. Ben. B. T arfield and C. Suydam Scott, 1867-8. This page in the original text is blank. 63 his excellent practice of laying lasicl.e a margin'. Ye-.rs after he gave the writer such a aounsel of perfection. - In the summer of 567 he and Walter visited the Green River region, staying a week in Owens- boro with his brother-in-law. Samuled U. Wfing, 'at that time a pros- verous myrchantl, where they received a delightful visit of some days from Ed. Rumsey. Morrison Chapel. His landlord and neighbor and friend was Mr. Deweese, formerly cashier of the Northern Bank, one of the largest in the State, which branch.s in Paris, Covington, Louisville and Barbourville, - a considerable part of its income was ingeniously roade payable in this last remote town, two or three uays' journey from Lexington - to avoid la run on the parent bankll - Mrs. Deweese was a niece and principal heir of Col. James Morrison, conspicuous in the Blue Grass region during the first half of the nienteenth century, famed as a patron of the old TransylvL nia. As Henry Clay wrote Mor- rison's will (1823). the latter proposed to make Clay's younges. son, John Morrison. his residuary legatee., but Clay obeoted, lost folk might susroct an undue influence. Col. Morrison thea asked w'rat to do with the residuary (about 75,000), and Clay, after reflecting, answer- edt "Give it to Transylvania". Hence arose (and was first occupied No eTnher 14, 1833) the imposing Morrison Chapel, which with its calm Dori majesty and grace still redeems the Carmpus. A Friend Passes. And now another cloud of grief overshadowd. him, in the de. th of Edward Rumsey, 6th April, 1868, a friend for who:: he can hardly find words to express his love and admiration, ta This page in the original text is blank. 64 sweeter and lovelier gentlerran was never Iframed in the prodiaslity of naturel. 'uoh as Rumsoy must have loved James Kennedy, he seems to h.ve loved William Ovan more and tc have lavished upon him 'benovolent actsI. The elder brother appears to have felt no jealousy but rather to have rej )iced in the preference, which he himself approved; for he was infatuated with 'William. The 3irth of Hope. Life came swiftly on the heels of death. April 12, 1863, a son was born to the Pattersons and received the name of Williarm Andrew, in memory of the two boothers so recently deceased. This ehild was the especial pride and delight of his parents, and their overflowing affection was not unworthily bestowed. I myself rernember him as an extremely bright. clear-cut face, gleam- ing with intelligence, with eyes wide open to the wonder of life. His age wSes hardly over six when his father assured me thrt already he grasped firmly 7irchow's concept of the cell as the fund mental -unit in a living organism. The two were inseparable companions, conversing on the most serious subjects, the father explaining carefully every new word that required explanation, and never talking down to the child. At the bed-ide of :bis three-year old he would interpret the lad's high temperature as due to the rapid multiplica- tion of certain corpuseles in the ci c-alation, their clogging and jostling together. The child comprehended in his childish way at once, and forecaught the explanation with the interruption 'Yes, Father, and when they beco clogged and jostle each other, the frictioh causes heat'. !7e are reminded of James Mill and his son, This page in the original text is blank. 65 John Stuart. Let the Child Reach N2. It is certainly true that the childls fodder should be placed higher than we eom:only find it - not merely on the ground but too often in the gutter. The really exoellent in literature mey be made not less attractive and for more stimulating than the maudlin story or the nauseating 'funny pagel. The ohildla book is too often an insult to his understanding and a reproaoh to his t'.ste. The intelligence of children is keener than is comoonly su-oposed and their capaoity for learning is greater. Of course. they should be interested in their woik, but it is a grave mistake to suppose that they have fealing and interest for only the low and the sillye to spare them all effort and to have them do only what they like to do. Such methods must finally result in a race of intellectual invertebrates, of whom the less said the better. O& the other hand, it would be hardly more wise to urge the child for- ward to unnatural and exhausting endeavor, to deny it the sports avd amusereznts of the young, to sickly it over prematurely with the pale cast of thought, and to dam up the stream of life at its bubbling source. - iJ ither is there any ultimate gain in hot-house precocity. Sir William Rowan Hamilton was not really a greater man, amazingly great though he was, because he was full-fledged at seventeen, nor was 'Teiarstraas less great because he wv s forty before he fairly On the contrary, the better child-miad rejects and disdains what is distinctly written1for the ohild'; it ielights to measure itself with its elders. This page in the original text is blank. 65 begun. There are late bloos as veil iFs early ri3es. The matter may be im)ortant, but there is no olpc. here for further discussion. Ezxit Hom. For mcny years, till 1895. the pride, hope, and 1love of the Pattarsons revolved in a widening orbit round their bril- lianit son. Rarely has a child been more carefully trained, especially in the niceties of language and literature, where his ntive aeute- ness was sharpened to the keenest edge. At oeven he accompanied his father on a European tour and close at his side listened on the re- turn voyage to his conversation with Dr. Daniel Colt Gillan. en route to the President's chair in Johns HopkLns University. At a certain point he drew his father's head down close to his own and whispered, Father, I think that was bad English'. He never wvnt to any school till he entered colloge (Preparatory Departmentl, where he readily held his own. - There may be a lesson tiers that few among us are willing to learn. The notion of parental instruction seems anti- suated and almost altogether friendless. The father is too busy with 'business, the mother -with churoh and social activities, and bo'th with Clubs and amusements, for the fireside life and the duties of home, - an institution that is steaiily if not irresistibly wan- ing in modern civilization." Such is the current of life, whieh is 'The only other child of the Pattorsons was a aughter born 10th Feb. 1870, abeautiful infant, with every promise of 'healthful and in- telligent maturity, but swept aw&y-(.Aag. 9) by an early doom. 'to re-open her young life in the life BEeryAn. tTote srs it is not impossible to err in the o 'posite directionj but mama's darling tied to mama9s apron is not a frequent sight amonng us today. This page in the original text is blank. 87 cyclic in its flow; the course of Idevelopmentl may mean re',ress as well c s progress. Indeed it is not always easy to say which is which of these two, or whether there is either. We should need some absolute standard, some invariant measuring rod. But where in the wide domain of Relativity shall we fini it Here we are brought face to face with the profound and ultimate problem of Value, or Validity, which it is the merit of recent thinking perhaps to have formulated but not to havi solved. ,'Among His Friends. Again and again we .sare forced to pause and wonder at the strangely conspicuous faot in the autobiographical 1Notes of Dr. atterson, at the wide chasm that ywans between the dates of 1867 and 1875. For nearly tea years his life would seem to have been practically devoid of incident. The little that he has to say concerns not so much himself as cotain persons whom he learned to kn.now in Lexington, as 'Mr. Benjamin Gratz. David A. Sayre, iVilliam Christy, and the descendants of Henry Clay, and especially Frank loolfolk and Thomas Lewiaski. Of all these persons he has much to tell, things interesting and worth telling but related to his own life in a rather vague and general way, The narrative throws a gen- tle and amiable light upon the hupan side of Patterson's life and character. He loved to chronicle the story of his friendships and his friends, to show what excellent an:L intersting persons these were, how their careers wwre framed in shining or historic connections, how they were lit up here and there into brilliance by deeds of nobility or daring, by words of wisdom or of eigrarxnatic sparkle. This page in the original text is blank. He likes to show how this man and that won his way to wealth or to political eminence or social distinction, and how well he deserved success. There is scarcely any trace of egotism in these paragraphs; the autobiographer plays an altogether modest and retiring part mld seems to feel unselfish pleasure In the merits and achievements of others. The Inner Ma. But the question will not down, why he has so little to say of himself during this period 'as it really so un- eventful Was he indeed so retired and quiescent The answer al- ready su gested a-,pears to be that these years were in truth outwardly very peaceful and unhistorie - but blessed (it has been said) is the peoolo that has no history; inwardly, however, they were the noblest and most fruitful years of his whole life, the years of his richest spiritual bloom, of the greatest expasasion of his mind, the great- est exaltation of his soul. lring these years the man Patterson attained his tallest stature, his fullest and fairest growth, to But rh ch the dnys to come might ad little internal development, though they exploited his powers in splendid external achievement. - Golden Tears. These were the yOUrs of his Professorate in Kentucky University. - after he had ceased to be a High School Prin- cital, but before he became a College President, - the era of his almost nurely scholastic and intelleciural life, his non-administra- tive, non-executive career, -,7hen his soul turned ineard its look He was named President of the A. & M.. College early in August, 186, but the main duties of the President ve e still discharged by Reg nt W otian. This page in the original text is blank. 69 and builded more stately mansions for itself zs the seasons rolled, with the successive circuits of the suLn. - I".v own intimate acquaint- ance with Professor Patterson covered moit of this period, from 1867 to 1874, and testifies in some measuro to the extent and richness of his intellectual growth. He was busie-d mainly with Latin, Sanskrit, Metanhysics, and Science - surely enough for the most c:-pacious mindi Greek he taught, and he taught it well., for a few months during the absence of Professor Neville 'n Europe (1868) - I forget whether it was Isocrates or Thucydides we read. His enthusiasm for Latin Prose Coroosition was great; we disported iIL Crombiels Gymansium and strug- gled to pervert Macaulay and Hume into Cicero and Livyl My own interest was rather in Uete.physics, which he professed with ardor. His hero was Sit William Hamilton, whcym he well-nigh worshipped. It was especially Sir Williamts Philosop0Z of the Conaitioned that en- thralled his admiration, for he thought to find therein some solu- tion for the vexing Antimony of "Free W1ill, fixed Fate, Foreknowledge absolute" indeed he wrote a brief defence of Presbyterian-Calvinistic Theology, which was essentially an am-lication of the Hariltonian Doctrine. - Philosophy. Naturally he was grateful to the populat Parisian Eclectio, Victor Cousin, for his eloquent exposition of the Soot- tish philosophy, and no less to Mans 1 for his "Limits of Religious Thought", but he never mentioned the '!kaminatien of Sir Mlilliam Hamiltonts Philosophy" by John Stuart Mill, tthe Saint of Rationalisr', perhaps because it had only recently appeared (1865). - I do not This page in the original text is blank. 70 know that Patterson ever taught Logio. but he had much to say of Hapmiltones "qcQuantification O'' the xedicate". a doctrine the Soot appears to have appropriated without acknowledgomont from C-orge Bentham. He also admired George Boolols "Laws of Thought", the first great step from Aristotle towards modern Mathematioal Logie. I had read Cousin long before comino; to college, and Hegelts 'Phi- losophy of History4 in early college days, both with awe and rander but aeither in truth with much =derstanding; yet it seems that xq impulse toward Continantal philosophy must have been due in large measure to talks with Patterson. th,)ugh no instance is recalled of his ever expressing any agreement o:r sympathy with idealistic think- ing. He was, of course, a Realist, nor had he penetrated to the heart of Idealistic doctrine; but h. was clear-miAed and steatily broadening during those golen moons and willing to recognize the wirld-significance of the opposing school. He attempted no refu- tation of its contentions; his method was to state them and refer to the authors and works that set ttem forth and then le;.ve the rest to the student, impressing one as himself an inquirer, still oDen to conviction. - At that time he was dipping into German originals, though all his life unsympathetic both with the language an, with the literature, and on one occasion referred with wonder and delight to the power of that tongue in forming single words to ex ress the subtlest, pro- founiest, and most comprehensive thoughts. Had he not been absurdly overloaded with teaching, renuired to do three mens work, in three This page in the original text is blank. 71 widely separated fields, had ham not been hermed in by imrovable public opinion and prejudice. and later diverted from thouight to action, he might have bequeathed the world some enduring .ork o.E extensive knowledge and penetrative inquiry. - Philology. Nut Latin and letaphysics were not his only intsr- ests. As a teacher he enchained me most of all in Philology, ei3ec- ially in the doctrine of Roots, and in tracing the widest relations among cognate words and tongueii. Lndoubtedly it was Sanskrit that insAired him to these far-rang!.ng excursions. GrimnIs La':, of Sound- shifting was a favorite hobby. Day after day the earth would bE, disturbed in some fresh quarteOr, some new root would be discovered and dragged forth to light. and. traced all over the Aryan forest in its finest ramifications. Not all these etymologies have stood the test of time. In particular. in dealing wuith the names of gods, more rigorous methods now prevail tlan are exeamlifled in Coxts AryaztL - tholog, but Patterson's discourse filled the student's mind with perpetual wonder and fitted win.gs to his thought. Much of the teach- er's knowledge was very fresh, it may he he had himself acquired It night before; all the more, perhaps, his method char d and entbrall- ed at least one of his pupils. An hour in his class was like cruis- ing along some alien coast and mooring from time to time, to dieembar; and explore. - All this was before the day when Bertranw Russell could declare that Education had bean one of the chief obstacles to the development of intelligenc'. A Contrast. How different, though quite as excellent in its way, This page in the original text is blank. 72 the method of his noble compeer, John Henry Neville, Prcfessor of Greek, who as a teacher still reigns in my memory supremeJ With him there was no leisurely delightful sailing along "the shores of old romance", but a swift and direct course from port to port, "oer the glad waters of the dark blue sea". Precise knowledge, definite acconulishment - such was his goal. At the first meeting of our First Preparatory class, he detained us hardly ten minutes, reai over the alphabet, assigned a Lesson in X-aehnerls Granmar (First Declension) and dismissed the classi The next day at the appoi:ated hour, ha glanced first, by chance, at me, pointed to the board tnd called out in weighty tanes, "y!ield Al to violence". I went a', once t ,the blackboard and wrote dowm the Greek, with the fzll deolension of the noun. Likewise the rest, each with the sentence assignec him. Then the whole was swiftly razd keenly criticised, no slightest errol escaped. And so on we went at breathless speed. Many could not 'keep hold' and drooped off the flying train. In June it seemed to me never before to much learned about anything in a single year'. The whole of the Second Preparatory was easily mastered in the foll- owing vacation, Freshman and Sophomore in the second year (incluiing Thuoydides); Plato, Aischylos &ad the rest gay, no trouble in the third. The merit was not mine, but his, at least mainly. i was driv- en by the double spur of povertyr and boundless ambition; o'shers, as Jemes Lane Allen and Champ Clark, under similar goading might hasre done quite as riuch, and 'illiam Graham perhaps still more. Such was the fierce urge o-. NeTville' soirit, the completeness oe his knowrledge, This page in the original text is blank. and his masterful method. that drove his students forward almost be- yond their will. He who entsrad such a class might well exelaim witt E later seer "I sought the poaks where blows the keenest air, And few there be find breathing easy there" . Darwinism. To return frvm this digression - an almost inrolun- tary tribute to one of the choLcest sx-irits that have adorned Kentucky's history - Professor Patterson aes also at this time deeply interested in the revolutionary scientific thought. It was the day of Dar rin and Spencer, of ','Iallace and Huxley and Tyndall. Heckel's two-volum,d Generelle MorphAoie had already aoneared (1866), and on the European continent the issue was no longer doubtful, but in Anglo-Saxondom the contest was bitter. Agassiz, who gave the key for New England, had returned from Brazil and w&s clanorous to the last (1873) in his outcries against Darwin; the coergy, those excellent brakesmen on the train of thought, were tugging far and near with all their col- lective might. An attitude at least semi-conservative prevailed. in nearly all institutions of learning. For a while Kentucky Univer- sity heard the moderate but far-reaching voice of the geologist Alex- ander 11inchall, whom the author of :iind in Nature, the naturalist, Renry James Clark, exact in research, with full and accurate knowledge, but timid and over-modest, succeeded. While free thoughts and free pens were active here and there all over the land, the general dis- position was oither to denounce the now theory as im-ious:'or else to scout it as ridiculous. A University professor said in cmy presence that it seemed to be the universal trend, to laugh it out of court. This page in the original text is blank. Evolution. Professor Patterson was too keen-witted and lnrge- minded to dwell very long in such primitive stages (though he dc.d speak once, in 1860, shortly after the a,,nearance of Darwrin8s work, about the absurdity of Transformation of Species - but even Eant re- garded the doctrine of transmutation as "a perilous fzney of reasn" ) I he set out straightway to examine the doctrine as indifferent, pre-par- ed to aocept or reject according to the evidence in the o. se. At the period in question he was earnatetly equiring, doubtless with strong prejudioes in favor of the traitional view, but with ears stilL open to any new voice of truth. He esteemed such cautious works as J.J. Murphyfs, such expert apologioe as those of St. George Mivart, 'rho at last yielded and went over flo the revolutionary camp; he highly respected, even reverencea his countryman, Sir Charles Lyell, who opposed the development theory (Lamarck) till the ninth edition of his Principles of Geology (1852;), when he finally changed sides. Patterson's mind, then. was cor.sidering the evidence carefully eAnd slowly forming its judgment. Ihat this judgment would be there couuld be little doubt (see his pronouncement in 1903. p. ), but it vas perhaps not finally and definitely formed before the incumbence of Presidential cares and duties stayed, or diverted, the onward march of his mind. I never heard him utter a word that would co:='it him to the evolution-theory, nor ever L word in condemnat ion of that theory or In dispraise of its champions. That is saying much In honor of In his Antiquity of Man (1863) he marshals the proofs of the ex- tremely long prehistoric period of huran existenOe. This page in the original text is blank. 75 his courage and his fair-mindedness, when we remember what were his surroundings and what his antecedents, - nor did he ever advanc:e a syllable of arg-umnt or of protest against the avowed and reel-cless radicalism of his pupil. Historian rathlr than Critie. Of 3iblical criticism, however, whether of the Old Testament or the New, the Professor remained apparently innocent. Never a word on the subject was heard to cross his lips. His shelves groan under the Ilinth idition of the Britannica. - but never a hint of its editor, William Robertson Snith, one of the greatest of t11 Scotchmen, the interpreter of comtinental criticism to Zngla:2d, or as one of his unsympatheti2 countrymen phrased it, "the ec'Lo of a dreary voice from Hlland" (Kuenen's). Not even Patterson's mind, overburdened with a tri:le load, could compass the whole 2i!eld in his wonderful decade (1615-74', and it was Biblical Criticism, the most rugged region of all, that he left untrod. Perhaps wisely; for the depths of his nature isre already mightily moved; it might have revolted at any greater d',- His addreso before the Bible Society if Lexington and Vicinity (30 Dec. 1877), expanded into the Cjzegncement Address at Hanover Ccllege (1911). on "Influence of the Bible upon Civilization!, bears clear and convincing testimony to the correctness of this statement. The earlier discourso also witnesses vry distinctly to the dominance of Sanskrit studies over his thoughts at that time (1877). Both these Addressee are full of far-assembled historic material, powerfully arrayed in defense of traditional views tenperately stated and partly defensibloe but on such themes as Scottish preeminence and British superiority Mt is regrettable that a certain straitness of vision and a note of exag- geration should sometimes vitiabe much otherwise admirable disquisi- tion. Thus, l'Uaured by the imfluence exerted upon their fellows by the men who have graduated from Hanover College, men who have distin- guished themselves at the bar, in legislation. in the healing arb, in the pulpit and as missionaries of the Cross, I know of no instittItion at home or abroad, which can dispute with her the palml (Ii. This page in the original text is blank. "6 turbance and have reacted in opposition. ViI SABBATIC 'ONTHS To Paris. It was near the close of this lustrous span thet rosfessor Patterson received one of the well-merited honors of his life, an a -ointment, from Governor Leslo, to represent Kentucky at the International Congress of ieographical Sciences, Paris, August 1-13, 1875. He sailed the l9t i of June on the Cunarder MLarathoa; his strong historic sense led liim to choose this 33rd anniversary of his landing in New York. and it was characteristic of the Tan, Do strongly swayed at all times by family affection, to take with him not only ltrs. Patterson but also their seven-year old son, unwisely, as he afterwards recognized, for the lad was unequal to the trave9l and lay ill much of the tim. On this Congress he made an laborate Of Pattersonts teaching of History. it is not possible to speak: with clear remembranee- Historian he was indeed by birth, and had he oc- cunied solely the chair of History, he would certainly have adorned i it more brilliantly than any other in the University. But Histery was rarely taken Quite seriously in those early days; it was treated rather as a 'rninor, which the diligent student might 'bring upt al- most as well out of class as in it. - Since the foregoing was written, a cultured and intelligent gentlana, once a student under Patterson, afterwards a student at Yale, assures me that his course in History was an especial delight. But the roost eoquent living witness to his deep grounding and perennial interest in History is found in the long series of 3Editorials, mainly o& Foreign affairs, a few of ..hich he wrDte first for the Louisville :Ledger (1871), but the majority for the Courier-Journal - editorials that for a whole lustrum (1871-5) endowed its colunms with unique and unwonted value. This page in the original text is blank. 77 and highly intelligent re ort of sixteen pages, which was prinbed in 10,000 copies by order of the Legislature, and. on the whole trip of nearly five months he has lefi; copious notes, which can not we:il be reproduced in this connection, But their general character oa:.ls for commnent and interpretation, as revealing with singular plainness a distinctive mark: of the man himself, a mark discernible indeed everywhere In his writings and his life but hardly with such start- ling clearness. It is the historic, the annalistic, ts individual human interist of the traveler, his comn lets pre-occupation with Indi- vidual men, their lives., their fortunes, and their families, to the aomparative exclusion of things and even of the general cm-mnal con- cerns of hul-oanity at large. Interest in Mon. The ordinary traveler, especially if en route to attend a Geogra-ihioal Congross, might be expected to show soms lively inter.'stk in the larger uspects of a nature almost entire:.y new to him in ocean and shore and landscape and mountain. in hill and moor, In forest and field, in the quiet, gently flowing streams of country life and the qJok heart-throbs of immense overgrcwn ciitie lifting their glittering brows to the sky while round their feet curdle the torrents of slime. The city squats on gridiron lots, Grim, gaunt, and grey, and raw, Bathing ker feet -uhere waters meet, Bringing food to her mawl Her buildings march oler Godls clean arch, Toothed like a cross-cut saw. It was the first time Patterson had ever seen the great heights and the great de-pths, his life being hitherto spent in the midlands of This page in the original text is blank. 78 the sparse-habited West. One looks for some powerful reaction of his sensitive snirit to this sudden revelation of the Great Wnrld - but hardly finds it. Was it that there was nothing- uw, that he had already beheld the world in imagination and was fandliafr with it a11 ossiblyl yet on noticing a stmilar coaparative indifference, throu;h- out -11 his life, to the outer wirld, one is inclined to anothair ex- nlanationg that Nature and th4, thinjgs of nature did indeol mak', little anpoal to his soul. His inte-.est wr.s in NLan, not TMan in general, but in this and that PerBonality, iln what A had been Fnd S had saidL and C had suffered and D had acomoD3p.she1 In Sootlan. It is astonishing, the number of humar figwres that miarch through his Notes eand the accuracy with which they are sketched in their deeds and their relations. Thus, on arriviln in Zootland he introduces the reader to '1v mother's cousin', 'l'illiam Mcaafarlan' - of the island of 'inch Caillaoh'. of which we learn only that 'it contained an old graveyard where the Macgregors and Macfarlanes had for centuries buried their deadt. He TiSitS Ithe Burns countryl, bat diverts attention at onoa to tell of :ais 'god fortune, years thereafter, to nrisit William S-Ath. curatov o, the Botanical gardens', a Rurns-e3nthusiast, and of an incident at bhe Chioago 2Exroaition. 1893, and of Carnogie's sending 'Jean Armou:r Burns Brown' la hundred pounds', and of 'Doctor Smiath's indignltion at the inept phrase 1-pooy B 'rl I. the greatest -a who ever livel on the earth since our Saviourt(S), as if Ithe minister had said fpcor David'; and of Lord Milne's giving a prize at the Burns centenary This page in the original text is blank. 79 (1859) to a poor poem of 300 Lines, redeomed by the final couplots "Scotland will flourish while each peasant learns The Psalms of David and the Songs of Burns". People He Meets. And so on throughout. He makes the 'asoent of Arthurts Seat alone' and takes; tin the magnifioent view from Sa;lisbury Crag but the rest of the lonE page tells of meeting on descent; a coffee-planter of Ceylon. the son of 'Sir James Horne 2l-7hinstcne, M.P. and Junior Lord of the Treasury - from whom he recives a. 1et- ter of introduction to Sir Jawes, with whom he afterwards visits the "louse of Cominons and hears the debate on the "Plimson Bill for pro- tocting senmen!' (Mlerchants Shipping Bill). He visits Abbotsford and remarks upon the country as 'singularly beautiful, undulatimg fer- tile pasturage alternating wita growing grain', a single observation of the kind, imbedded in a lon,; series of notes about Sir Walterls 'llbsary', and meoting IDavid Coleman' lof Fayetta County', and Andr Christie' 'brother of nr old friend, Robert Christiel, Presbytorian pastor in Lexington. and John jenderson who rented a farm of 10() acres near Bamockburn for 1,000 per annum and netted a profit of 1500 a year - certainly an interesting economic observation. Of course a note about Bruce's great wictory of 1314, and we are at once In London (27th July). with Sir James, and Itwo hours izL the Speakerls Gallery. He recalls 'vezy vividly the impressioi made', but what was it No hint is given Hle crosses from New Haven to Dieppe, and on the car from Dieppe to Paris he falls in with two This page in the original text is blank. 8) Armenians, a silent priest ancl a talkrt.'v merchant, who asks :if people drizwa water in Kentuckt Among the Great. Arrived, in Paris he stops at the Notel lDuck- inghem afA goes straight to tihe 'Business Clouse of Hector Beaucange' with a letter of introduction to the anployee, Alender Hunter (of whom we lenrn much), fromn - cousin James MaLintock'. Cn '!onev'v, 2nd Aug. 1875, the congress opens inalrge room Oaf the _ileies'. Amozxn many dtstinguished persons present ware th6 Tsars 'Trorher, Grand Duke Constantine, Ferdinand de Lesseps, of Suez fame. and '. Usury, historian of the liddlo Ages and Librarian of the Tuileries, - with whsm he sat ana formed a 'stmong attachment'. He meets nany 'French Literatil, attends a risoeption given by the courteous Presi- dent ;4.olahon and his wife, stays nearly azonth in Paris (Notel du Canada), visits several objects an places o note, and returns to England about the end of Augusl. Naturally he falls seaaick; he also recalls a story told by hils 'cousin John MlcLintockt. With Lubbock. Early in Se4otember he attends the Bristol rrm..timg of the British As3ooiation fJr the Advance-ent of Scienco. whero ha sees many distingujes - especially John Tyndall. rrom London he makes many excursionu tn near-lying historoc points, especially to ihc To be sure his corressondence ehows that he was astonished at the avlendor of the Trench oapital, especially ad the width and beatty of the streets, but beyond such ,generalities his observations hazdly go. Interesting In its pathos is the form of his letters to his mo- ther, written in large print-like hand. in tender consideration of her failing sight, - a trifl, but eloquent in telling its story. This page in the original text is blank. 81 battle-field. se5ven miles fromn Hastings (it seems on the anrivsrearr of the famous struggle), wherie his historic sense is of course deeply touched. In mid-Seokember. br invitation, he visits Sir John :ubbook at "High Elms his c seat in ent', where he meets Tynda:Ll and the historian. John Richard 'reen, as well as the savant Millim= Spottiswoode (1825-83) and others - a visit he seems especially to have enjoyed. He regrets not having gone 'Sunday morning' with Tyndall and Spottiswoode to see Darwin, when he could have met Carlyle on the roadl - "s too must regret that he failed to see the chief of English biologists, to whom more than to a-.y other man Britain owed her position in the van of thought. He was doubtless pleased to see Sir John s contrivances for the study of Bees and Ants - a study that marka such a long step forward in our notions of Animal Psychology. - but still more interested in the same investi- gator's researches into Primit:Lve Civilization ani Prehisboric Archae- ology, for these deal with Ilan, With Lubbock he afterwards conducted a long and interesting correspcmdenme. Buayan and Rampden. September 13th the center of activity was shifted fromr London to Bedford, - where 3unyan lay twelve years (1660-72) in jail as a 'common upholder of several unlawful meetings and conventiclee' (how strangely modern and American it soundst), where also he wrote much of Pilgrimss Progress. Patterson withholds comrent en passes on tc visit Ithe seat of the Duke of Bedfordl, with its deer park twelve miles in oLrcuit; as well as Wentmore, county seat of Baron Rothschild, of 10, 000 acres, mainly pleasure grouni, This page in the original text is blank. 82 where in the absence of the wiLdow and daughter of the Baron, l1tely deceased, he was guided and foasted by the manager, Mr. rnith. There he beheld the three historic hamlets, Trivy. Wing, and Ivanhoe,, for- feited by one Hanpden for a bL ow he had given the Black Prince, then a student at Oxford, in a quarrel, as the couplet still curren; there recalls "Trivy, ffing, and Ivanhoe, Three manors for a blow" - Surely not too great a penance, for such an insult to "the powers that be," - he should really have been hanged at least; then the saintly King Charles might not have been bearded by the insolent John Eamp- den. But these are not Patterson's reflections. - Anole Possessions. Thence they went to Cheadle, a suburb of Manchester, where was the country seat of Sir James Watt, once Mayor of Mtanchester, where he met the head-gardener, Robert MacKellax, whose sister had been engaged to John Duncan, an excellent botanist whom he knew well in Lexington. Thence to Chatworth, 'the !oagnificent coun- try seat of the Duke of Devunsire', - an estate of 35,000 acres, of course not the Dukels only one. 'This distinguished house has given many d stinguished statesmen tS the service of the crown. Leaving in Liverpool his wife and son, who (in spite of the l&dIS repeabed distempers) had rnoyed the outing almczst as mrmch as he, Professor O1l it had only given a for to the service of the People, of mtan To some the reflection might arissi What possible right could the Duke have to such vast statesL And who gave him that right ,Jas it man or was it God Such questions are put to-day with in- creasing insistence by the bses minds of Europe and by son in America; but they troubled comparatively few in 1875. This page in the original text is blank. 83 Patterson returned for a few days to his kinsmen in Alexandria. an on Saturday, 16th October, al . three embarked on the Cunarder, Al- geria, for New York, where tliey arrived the 29th. after Ia very stormr passage of thirteen days'. Man and the World. Sveh is the record of this European tcur. - lainly rofessor Pattersonim interest was almost exclusively in man, distinguished men. that had arrived and achieved, - in Britons, for of the contiwenals we hoar virtually nothing. It will be grant- ed that he could scarcely havs, oanupied his tim more profitabl ; very few have come back from it four-months trip with such a riih store of memories, many of value. Yet the comparative absence of genoral interest in the Old World, as an immense natural and even sociul fact, seems notable. It need not astonish, however, for it characterieso the elder, the classical, we might even say the Christian type of OCompsre the observation of a very highly cultured and intelligent lady visiting the continent in 1909: "Teat struck me was how sad were the faces of the women as they went to work (in the chocolate factories). I never saw a cheerful countonanes". In his historic "Confessio FIdil', Dean Inge says on thi3 -oiati "'y own Church has learned somithing but is still lamentably behind the lay conscience. During the agitation against the cruelties prac- tised in the plumage trade, a :Lady who was working for the Plumige Bill tried to enlist the sympathies of the Romau Catholics. and failed completoly. The answer which ihe receivdd was, the lower animals ere made for our utse, we have no duties towards them. This is, I am sorry to say, the common view among Itoman Catholics. The cruelties p'actised on animals in Catholic countries are one of the drawbacks to travelling in the south of Europe. The Mvhejomedans, I em informed, are much more humane". (Outspoken Essays, Second Series, p.57).1 This page in the original text is blank. 84 mind. The ancient felt relatively little concern for anything but Man; the nonwhtuma world. excerpt in so far as he could use it. was for him almbst non-existent; In Hoer it is useful mainly an a source of similes. The Testaments, both Old and Now. are well.-nigh silent about all but Man and Goi.d Says the Apostle, "Does Goc. care for oen Evidently he thinks any much care would be alsurd, that God cares for man alone. The traditional view regard& all things as made by Cod for Man's us., but there are diff iculties. Did He make the fever-bearing mosquito for mn-ms service Did He ma the Pterodactyl and the Iohtbyesaurus to adorn rmaeums or mrely to sup- ply ancestry to their colliners, and cousins to their collaterals, of to-day Clearly the low3st as well as the highest must eaob ex- ist in its own right, an end unto itself, though at the same time a means unto the Whole. How Each to All its being gives, One in the Other works and livesl But this sense of the whole is comparatively modern. Wordsworth is its olasWt representative in Enw;lish poetry, Goethe its High Prisit, Spinoza its Prophet. The recont wide Uplift of the Submerged, hhe Union, Cooperation, Lmnipation. the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and countless such phonomna, all are outputs of a newi- "If there be anywhere in Greek such overt praise end worship of Utu"Is beauty (as in Goethe's Die Nata), I cannot call it to mind". D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson. in Toe e p.137. True, Anwaidlnder wrote a book About a , but he was seeking to solve the Hiddle of the Universe; and the interest of the greatest Naturalist, Arisimotlo, was mainly scientific. At thie. point, Qas at many others, the Roman was nearer to the modeft than was the Greek. This page in the original text is blank. 85 budding sense of Oneness, not merely of God but of the " orld. In 1875 such a sense was active only in realtively few select European spirits and in America rarely beyond the ranks f the Thoreau-E!mrson movement. It is not stranige nor reprehensible that it did not show itself in Professor Patterson's first trip abroad, but the fact does throw open a window through which we niay look upon his soul. Puritan and Cavalier. Porhaps the most important single Incident of tlte tour was thisi Nftzessor Patterson asked Mr. Greeni '13uppose the Puritans had settled in Virginian and the Carolinas. and the Cav- aliars on the bleak shores of Now England, would the-history oi the United States have been different' Green answered that 'the Inquiry was quite new to him and he had not thought of it, but he had the impression that our history would have been quite different'. The question seems well-put and impertant, but the answer cannot be accepted. The differences of Cavalier and Puritan were social and artificial rather than racial and natural. Their main character- determinants were the same. Had the Cavaliers really settled in New England and not returned in disgust, they too would-have smugglsd run where it paid them well, but they would have abhorred slavery, ror it; did not pay in New England; buft in the South the Puritans doubtless An impressive witness to the recent extraordinary development tf this Sense in Edward Bertram Lloyd's "The Great Kinship An Ani;hology of Humanitarian Poetry". collated from nearly soventy posts. Stas Mr. Lioyd: "It would probably now be easy to find a score of htmane poems about animals for every cne that existed a century ago." This page in the original text is blank. 86 would have seen now lights and would have found convincing BibLe proofs and divine senctions for African servitude. Said Pasoa2L "three degrees elevation of the -pole reverses the whole of jur:Ls- prudence", where the gross exaggeration caLnnot quite conceal the truth. Not to mention the faxious "Fightinxg Bishop", wore not ;he most godly and orthodox of Southern Presbyterian divines at the same time the most fiery and eloquent prophets of Secession and 7ar, to preserve and foster the 'llnstitutionl Was not Professor Patterson's brothers-in-law a prosperous Ilanter in South Carolina Samuel Adams, the many-named breower in Bostcn, would have been Samuel Adam the fire-ea.ting slave-ownor in Charleston. and the intensely logica.l Soot, John C. Calhoun, would have demonstrated the indissoluble cohsr- enom of the Union to his constituents in Massachusetts. Personalia. In New York the Pattersons were entertained bp Archibald WT. Stewart, a native Scot, proprietor of the Scottish American, since the death (186)D) of its founder, Mr. Findliay. Stewart's interest in the Alexmanders of Kentucky gives Professor Patterson occasion for interesting discourse about these latter, how John (and earlier his brother, Robert,) had owned Uoodburn ;'arm in Woodford County and beyond all others had improved Kentucky stock, and besides had inherited from three maiden aunts, - sisters of Sir It might be added that manr of the most distinctiv Southern spirits were not "Cavalier", but Soot, Irish, Scotch-Irish, or other suoh, as Patterson himself clearly reoognized and even emphasized (see p, The decisive fact is that in mc-tters social-polltical-economical, the rigid Puritanism of the North showed itself pliant and plastic to the Southern breeze and sky. This page in the original text is blank. 37 William Alexander, of the Court of Fxohequer, - who themselves in- herited eoal mines near Airdrie, Sootland, that yielded them the neat sum of 120.000 a year. At request of Stewart, Patterson per- formed the congenial task of gathering ficts conoerning the Alex- anders, for an article in the Scottish-American. It appears 1that they (along with one of the Dr.dley Brothers) had bought the faxious stallion Lexington for lS.OOC, - a purchase not without meaning for Kentucky; also that a first ocusin, Th,=as Hankey. had represexted Portsmouth in the House of Conrmons and was afterwards a Governcr of the Bank of Xngland, Presumably with the income of 25.000 pounds kindly left him by his maiden aunts, Robert Alexander had bought 25,CCO acres in !Auhlonberg County. a tract rich In minerals, espeo- ially 'black band iron orel. from which it was hoped to manufacture iron under the direction of an imported Scotch expert, Robert Patter- son. 'A rich vein of ore was opened', a now Airdrie sprang up aad in 1857 had attained a mining pop lation of 200. but no good iron was manufactured, and after absorbing two years' income inherited from the aunts, the enterprise was abandoned. Historic Sense. Such details may have little interest, if any at all, for the general reader, but they reveal the nature of P:refes- eor Patterson, how he reveled !Ln chronicling facts, how he huId for them with the keen scent of a I)bood-hound, and marshaled them a'3 a One wonders hat they ever did. beyond selecting their parents irisely, to deserve this income, or why the people at large should pay them such a trifle. This page in the original text is blank. 8 shepherd his flocks. His wos the instinct of the historian; im read- ing his "Notes" one is often rreminded of Herodotos; and had he de- voted his powers to history, 4a would almaost certainly h:rve prodaced some very notable work. MoCosh and White. On hio return to Texington, 5th 'ovembor, 1875, Professor Patterson found awaiting him an invitation froza tan intimate friend and one of the most elegant of Kentucky gentlerua, Judge W(illiam) B(ury) Kinkead.', Ito meet at his teautiful country homel no less a personage than the venerable Scotch Presbyterian divie and favorite pupil of 'Sir William Hamilton, Doctor McCoslh, the author of several widely-f amoe apologetic works, and at thE.t time President of Princeton University (of whieh the Judge's son, George B., a former Transylvania pupil of Patterson's, was an alumnus). The meet- ing of the two Caledoniano was most cordial, though Patterson bad had occasion the year before to controvert the Princeton President, who at the Elmira meeting of the N. E. A. (1873) had strongly assailed The Report of P rofessor Patterson suumitted to Governor McCreary under date of Dec. 10, 1875, and published in 10,000 copies in ac- cordance with the joint resolution of 8 Feb. 1876 (approved, 12 Feb.), is notable for its powerful plea for a State University of the first rank, apparently the first plet of the kind ever made in Xentucky, at least the first to get into prLnt. He also argues forcibly for the development of Kentuckyls imnese mineral resources, setting be Eore us as a model and ideal the Znlglish county of Lanc..ster with its teem- ing factories and their towering chimneys waving aloft in every breeze the black banners of industry. The just reason, however, is not quite so evident. "but what good came of it at last41 quoth little P-sterkin. The mere accumulation of wealth is not rational nor self-justifring. Unless properly distributed anL made to subserve the ends of Juatice and the commonweal, such acumulation may become an abominable curse, a weapon of tyranny, and a folintair- of misery and wrong. It is the highest function of the Univeroiby to justify and sanctify national and individual wealth by widening the skirts of lijht. by expandin4, ennobling, embellishing, and liberating the Human Apirit. This page in the original text is blank. 89 the A. & M. Colleges created under the Morrill Act of 1862: his ultra-denominationalism not urnaturally kicked at beholding the secn- larization of higher education; how should the Church regain ils hold on the man, if once it relaxed. its grip on the boy At the request of Regent Bowmen. Professor Patterson attended the Detroit meeting of the same Association in 1874 and vigorously repelled the attack of LUcCosh. This was the first occasion that behold Patterson enhar- ness'd against the clergy. espeioally the Presbyterian, with whom his relations hitherto had been the most symoathetic and cordial. There then he fired the first gun of freedom, and it echoed through all his nature. It was there also that he met President Andrew D. White, of Cornell, the distinguishes author of the "History of the Warfare of Science and Theology in Chriitendom", who deeply impressed him. This Detroit meeting appears to have been charged with meaning for the mental life of Patterson, whose breast it filled with a larger and freer air than any he had 'breathed before.- To Niagara. There had followed a Canada trip, first to 3rantford, to visit Dr. William Cochran, a prosperous preacher, a Princeton graduate, and a native Scot. hLs roomate for a year in Hanover, and the object of his brother Will:Lamls fierce donunciation in conneotion with the Greek Fraternity Squabble; but James Kennedy seems to '-lave cherished no resentment. There he became pleasantly acquainted with George Brown, a handsome entertainer and Canadian statesman, 6 :`eet 2 "I have long been satisfied that Colleges and Universities wLi:.l in the future be successful in prcportion as they cut themselves loose from clerical influence and dernominational control". In this, 1lhe first and most significant statement of his address, Patterson struck the keynote of his open rsg career. This page in the original text is blank. 90 inches tall, the head of a beautiful family - how related, if at all, to Cochran's two prot4igs, the Highland lads, David end Robert Brown, we do not learn. Thence to Toronto, to the open arms of Thomas -aM- ilton, another Caledontan. Seo:retary-Treasurer of the Northern Rail- way- of Canada, whose son. Thomas Hamilton, Jr., stationed in Laxington with the 79th New York ReRimnt, had there been at home in Pat berson's family and had written him interesting and critical letters from the Federal Camp before Petersburg. - Thence the three Pattersons 'took in the sight of Niagara Falls'. 'It made upon him ttie son William) a profound impression', but the interest of the father was in his fellow Soots, the Hamiltons, 'the noblest race of men that treAd the soill, Browns, and Cochrans. VIII A DAY OF CLOUDS AND OF THICK NARKNESS At the Holm. With his reburn to Lexington. Nov. 1875, the fair holiday for Patterson was over. Classes were properly organizeo and working well, but the enrolmeni, was "less". It was in fact a dark day for the A. and Mi. College. - In 1868 John Augustus Williams had been its President, well-fitted. for the post, a brother-in-law of Regent Bowmanp On his departure Professor Joseph Desha Pickett, Pro- fessor of English in the Kentucky University, had been President pro tem., - a position he could hardly have desired. In August, 18e9, Professor Patterson was aLlled to the unenviable Presidency. Fcr a while, the machinery ran smoothly enough. The year 1869-70 may be said to have marked the zenith af the University's cafeer. This page in the original text is blank. 91 Strife Within. Meantime Patterson was not the only man t:ae sails of whose mind had caught the breeze and were swelling under it3 stealdy pressure. John B. Bowman, Creator and Regent of the Universily. had been mingling with the wider vorld and had come tosee and feel that the great institution he had -:ro jected in his mind could not bo built upoon the narrow foundations of the Reformers faith, that the fusion with Transylvania and the Agricultural-Mechanical College introduced broader popular interests that demanded recognition and encourngement, - in a word, that the University, if it was really to be Kentucky University, must be at least in a measure desectarianizeds its doors and windows thrown wide open, the paths of its thought made brcad and free. This he preceived not indeed 3uite clearly but unmistakably he saw men as trees walking. But the Board of Cuarators had seen no such vision. The majority clung close to the elder ideals of Alex- ander Campbell; they wanted a ienominational college of the straitest sect, or none at all, and fron their standpoint who could blame themT 1,7hen Bowman sought to popularise and liberalise the Board by intro- ducing certain not merely locaL but state-wide celebrities, as James B. Beck, Henry Bell, Madison C. Johnson, and F. K. Hunt, they wore OSn a table-talk between a guesit and his host, an excellent Proi'essor in the Bible College, the guestiispoke of a discussion he had heaLrd in a class room. "Oh", said the lost, "we allow the students the Utmost freedom of thought, - as long es they keep in the right traok". They might strike itto any path they pleased, provided always it was the one path prescribed. The rein is unneeded and unfelt - while the horse follows the furrow. This page in the original text is blank. 92 cooly received by the majority and one after another resigned. Such was the :Little rift within the lute That by and by had made the music mute. '7ater and Oil. The fins-are g;aped wider with every year, svery month, every day. Mr. Bowman lost the confidence ead even the respect of his co-religionisti;; the bitterest animosities weore engendered. The University forfeited the allegiance of tie Refornners and failed to secure that of 4h. unreformed, - an -llegiance tliat the ability and devotion of ius Faculty so well deserved. In "act, the day had not dawned for an undenominational University of KXsntuck-y; Bowman had anticipated by a full generation the natural -rocess; of enlightenrnent and culture, aesd. he waLc anticipates is lost. Ai last, as the matriculation steadily declined, in 1874 the outraged mre.Jority called on the Legislature for an amended Charter requiring, not three-fourth (or 2/3) as heretofore, but all the Curators to te members of the "Christian" Church; - a oloser straitening could hardly be imagined. Such an amendment was of course quite out of Joimt with the notion of an A. and M. College supported by the State, and Bowman had no choice but to oppose it with all his might. Wfisely enough he The Bowman 'Act of Consolidation' was approved 22nd Feb., 1865. As it required the purchase of a .arm valued at 100,000 (the mininum) for the Agricultural and Mechanical Collego, Mr. Bowman bought Ash- land(for t90,000) and Woodland (for 40,000), adj-ining tracts ; land containing (together) 433 acrest, some of the finest in the Stat's. No pay the price, he secured subscriptions from citizens, and to inet bhh payments falling due before subscriptions were collected, he dr,3w cm his own private resources, AnnAct (approved 28th Feb. 1885) aubhor- ized the unfortunate sale ef the scrip (by MA. C. Johnson, for 165,2DO), and another, secured by Boman (anproved 10th Feb. 1866), Autho:ise4 the auditor of Public Acootints to c.raw on the Treasury in favor of ohe Board of Curators of Kentucky Univer.;ity for 20,000, to ald in putting the A, and 1i. College into i diate operation. Such the energy and effic- iency of the Regent. This page in the original text is blank. 93 called on the College President, who eagerly flung himself in-o the breach with an impressive aippeal of full two hours before the joint Conraittee of the Senate and the Hous. Intranigeace. The anti-Bownmanites were led by a doughty chief, by General 11. T. sithers, a distinguished Confederate artiller".st in the Civil `Uar, 'esteemed' - aE Patterson generously declared - la lar-e liberal man' in all save clerical matters. in these, hovever, of uncompromising convictions. It was r ound this chieftan (wi-ose life has been recently published) that the intransigeants rallied, and with them the Faculties of both Colleges (Arts and the Bible). the independent Greek Professor alone excepted (who thereby sacrificed his standing in 'Kentucky Univorsity' proper and passed over to the purely secular Agricultural and Mechanical College). Their contention was natural and from the standpoint of their faith entirely just and right. For them, in the glow of missionary zeal, the prinary aad essential matter was propaganda, it was the salvation of nankini by spreading the Gospel Faith; Science and Culture were at best merely secondary considerations. The policy of Bowman would certainly sub- merge the College of the Bible and pervert Kentuck. University Into a Western Harvard, a hotbed of noxious profane knowledge and fre intellectual growths. As "Chri.stians" they were fully justified in their unyielding opposition. On the other hand and with equal justice from their purely secular and cultural point of view, the A. and M. College Professors, along with Professor Neville, aligned themselves with' the Regent. This page in the original text is blank. 94 John Bynro2 Bowman. The contest was ol-se. In the Legialature the Charter Amendment fialed by 'la nasrrow marginl", but It was only a Pyrrhic victory that Regent Bowman had won. His authority in the "6hristian"' Church was hopeleisly compromised, his name hE.d changed from a watchword into a byworit. and the clouds gathered over his .;t. In 1878 the office of Regent, created for hin in 1865. was aboLished by the 3oard of Curators, and his educational career was ended, He lingered on in life till Sept,, 29. 1892, when he fell beneath ia stroke at his home in -Mrcer County. K7.. - a man of soaring swbition, of generous instincts, of broad enlightened outlook, of extraordinary energy, adroitness. courtline:s, diplomacy, address, and skill in the management of men. An Unkind Fate. The crirninati as and recriminations that marked the close of his Regency need involve no harsh judgment u.-on Jchn B. Bownan. Ia his eager and honest pursuit of high educational aims he found himself entangled witE "practical" men and may have been coerced into their lobbying warys, into the use of practival means unto practical ends. He perhaps never transgressed the ",ode" as it was known in the high circles that he frequented. never broke 8:'gen- tleman's agreement". Like manr another favorite, he lost favor and oll, - less perhapos for any i:ll than for the great good that h, had wrought and the fa-T greater he had sought. It would not be stran ae if in looking rou nd upon the world he had accounted his fate ',n'loserved. This page in the original text is blank. 95 The Climaoteric. But we have somewhat anticipated the course of events. As already indicated, the struggle between Bowman and the Board, between the secular ani the ecclesiastic ideals. was aoag and bitter. The initial prosperity of Kentucky University had beea sur- prising. In 1870 the matriculation had risen to 769. This nImber signified much more than it would signify to-day. The great majority were really students, they not; only attended but they actually stud- ied. IMany came from distant parts of the country, some from 1;he West, the most from the South (where teaching had lapsed during the irar) - nV own room-mate and rival, Htiyden Martin Young, was from New Crleai, - they were generally poor, and keen-sensed for the seriousness of life. Their zeal in some oases se=med to overlay all bounds. Often I expostulated with two yo-umg friends who sat up regularly till two or three o'clock at night, reaiing their "collateral" Latin, Lucret- ius' De Rerum Natura. As to the extent and severity of tie stuiies prescribed and required, let a single incident serve for illustration. In 1869 a class-mate of mine, afterwards a lawyer and honored citisgn of Kentucky, on reckoning up the total n mber of hours andl amount of study reqaired for his graduation in 187C, concluded that it wai quite too much for him, at least without danger to his health; accord!.ngly he left the Lexington school and want to Princeton, where he wags duly graduated in 1870 The Lps. Such was Kentucky Uniwersity in the flush of its early youth. That it might hp-ye become, who can sa But the sky was overeast on Pattersonla return in N;ovember 1875. The matriculation This page in the original text is blank. 96 was steadil ,- falling, from 769 to "little over 200"0 in the fall of 1877. The A. and M1. College had suffered even more than 'Arts and the JBible' from the progressive marasmis. In 1870 it nunbered 300; when askod bY Governor MaCrary for a statement to lay before the Legislature of 1877-8, President Patterson could report only 664 Apparently the sickness was eoen unto death, and the Governor recom- mended that the Legislature aTpoint a joint Cossoittee to consider whether it were wiser to continue the unnatural union or to effect a divorce. With Ma1jor P. P. Johnston as chairman the commnittee visit- ed and examined in 1878 and unlnimously advised a final dissolution. The report was accepted, the tLes between the 'College' and the lUni- versity' were severed. the splkndid dream of Mr. Bowman malted into the air. At Auotion. As the over-lowering Regent vanished from the scene, President Patterson was left sole-reigning over a degopulated d:istrict. Turnin-g naturally to him, the ;icint Conr.ttee called for sluggess;ed leg- islation need to continue the work of the College till the Gencral Assembly should meet next, in 1879. The College had been anchored to the University; now the cords were out, and it was setadrift without a local habitation, yet retaining its namel For its buildings belong- ed to the University. To secure some shelter against the winds of winter, the bill presented and adopted (in the General Absembly) call- ed for a modus vivendi with Kentucky University, whereby the College should retain for two years the premises then occupied, continui:ag its How splendid it was may be fell; on reading his Report to the Govrenor, Stevenson, 28th Dec. 1868. This page in the original text is blank. 9g7 same course of instruotion. ;mnd that meantime a Committee (tho Liev.- tenant Governor with one memier from each Congressional Distr'.ct) should advertise for bids frcrmn any aomrunity that wanted. to settle the vagrant College in Its central towal It was felt tiat various ambitious County Seats such as Bowling Green, Danville, Paris, Il1ch- mond, might coopete and bid high for the outcast thus put up 3t anu- tion; but the first-nermed was an easy favorite, for already tbe Lieu- tenant G &verno:r with M]Zlroy (the Dowling Green of ''arren County rep- resentative) had urged through the Assembly a bill authorizing that .smbitious borough to further by popularvote th. cause of education, - clearly to enable it to out'bid its cometitors. The h31alf Greater than the Whole&. Divining the Le -i13laturits purnose, President Patterson essayed to make head agains; it. Al- ready he had tried to bring t.3 recognition the eCuity-claims of: the non "Disciples" of Lexington and of 7ayette County. - wh had. given liberally to the fund raised by 3ownan, on demand of the Assemirly. to buy a farm' (Ashland-Woodlands) for use of the College - by obtaining and presenting (to the Curatorial Board) a petition, representing nearly thre-fifths of the total subscription, thet the Thoard concedo to each subscribers an e &uitable part of the pur- chased estate, whereon to base some claim before the Legislative Gommittee for retaining the CoLlege in Lo:eing-ton, - especially as tjb, itla to the aforesaid purchase' had beeen rassed (inadvertently it wras sald, 1By a culpable oversnLght on the part of Ifr. Bow.anf, 3ays See footnote, p. 92. This page in the original text is blank. 98 Patterson) to the -4versity instead o:' the the State of KentuakyI Vainly, howeverl For the Board, representing airly the "Christian' Church, dismissed the petition with the just rejcinder that they would rather give twice as much to evi6 the College fromn Lexington, where tnder bhe fostering eare of the whole Comnonwwalth, it would rival, outgrow, overshadow, sad ultinately wither their iwn pride and hope, Kentucky University. On the Razt1s j-. Under such conditions the C-amxittoe met at the Galt House, Louisville. l4th Augst, 1879. in close and doibtful. disputaiiou. It was Loxiugto3L or Bowling Green. Jor the form sr were ,eir of Lexington, Murray of 3ancoak, and others; for the lattr. were 'nderwood (Lieutenant-Governow), McElroy, and the Spesker of the K.ouse, with others. The Louisville rember, Godshaw, was absentl, and the casting vote rested with D. D. Sublett, a I'hristel-a' who ]erso=- al ly favored Lexington, but wc.s spurred by hi3 brethren to give, t'he College azay., Deeply perturbed, he paced the floor up as.d dowr., as the scale trembled in his mind. At last his personal oonvicticas overweighea, and he cast the deciding vote 2or Le.xington. For mean- while neither Patterson not the city had been idle. He had pleaded before the City Council, and it had voted 30000C in bonds to rcatch thy Bowling Green offer; he had pleaded before tho Fiscal Court. and it voted 20,O'O, as a gift of the County; nay more, the City of Lexington had offered ir. addition the City Park of fifty-two acres as a sitr for the College. And sD the tender graft, thus forcibly torn These bonds (t50,OC0) were sold ar 108j-. ths netting 54,125. This page in the original text is blank. 99 from the main stem, for deathl or for a distant trensplanting, had now struck root of its own .i the soil of Lexingtonl - As by Fire. But certairly it was a f6eeble and a wileriz.g plant, and the promise of its future was uncertain an ' slight. Al- ready, before his EPuropean tour, President Patterson had been made chair- man of a certain State-University-Organization Committee, ap-ointed with the Regentts concurrence, consisting (besides) of Professor .T. S. Shaler, the well-known Harvard savant, and poet, and genial man of letters - born in Newrport, Ky., since 1872 Direetor of the Kentucky State Geolog- ieal Survey, and deeply interested in his native State, who was acting as part-time Professor of GeooLogy and Paleontology in the Collagp - along with the accomplished chemist, Dr. Robert eter, anid the Sec- retary of State. Naturally the committees work, the preparat:ion of a plan for a State University, fell mainly upon the Chairman, wrho todk his colleagues into the closest counsel. In the course o' this labor he became aequainted as never before with the general sulject of University Education, he sew the extreme and urgent need of it in Kentucky, with Macaulay he perceived that the right to hang im- plied the duty to educate, and his heart became finally enlisted in the cause that was henceforth to claim more and more of his mdivide.i OA wintry sodl Independent existence began with the New Tear, 1880; Patterson had written the College Charter adopted by the Legislature and signed by the Governor, 4t.A March, 1880. - The initial pligiit of the State College was piteous, almost too shameful to be toldl a certain income of 9,900g a muiieum containing one skeleton cat, one stuffed crow, and so on, - to the possible value of 200; a facislty of five ;rofessors, each at a aalary of 1,250, and to his pecuLiar honor be it said, President Pai;tersonls salary was the sare. This page in the original text is blank. 100 attention and to draw aS" the current of his being into its dOeTe-ning channel. The report he presented was apnrored by the Committee and submitted to the Governor, with whom. however, it 31ept the unbroken sleep of the Just. The time was not ripe for such an institution as therein contem-lated; the season of figs was not yet. Ix TER LIFE MCUTIVZ The Purdon of Presidency. Thus, however, was the weight that crushed the shoulders of Bowman rolled off upon those of Patterson, which were far more elastic and reactive. There it was tossad aad turned, but there it still rested for nearly half a century. In times it came to be almost a part of the President's sele. His thoughts, his wlrds, his deeds, his hopes and fears, the whole round of his ex- porience passed out and was objectified in that burden. Itb was weld- ed upon him and could not be dislodged. 'ven when formally liftud it was still.felt as distinctly as ever, as a rian feels pain in ais limb long after it has been reravd by amputation. He bore not only the burden of the general Udministration, but also in countless cases a parental responsibility was heaped unon him; fathers and mothers sent their children to 1sho "Lexington School". often with hardly the slightest idea of whett a University or a College was, ex- p-cting him to exeroise a personal guardianship more watchful than their own, to oversee the sports, the studies, the ezpendituresi the This page in the original text is blank. 101 amsoukations - sometimes of young reprobates whom they themselves could not control. The letters he received were often sadly aeus- ing. the spelling inexpressibly lawless, izdioating clearly that the geieral educational system of Kentucky had yet to be builded from below the bottom up. The Life of Others, In the earlier decade his "soul was like a star that dwelt apart", in the "high realm of unforgotton song", amid the snowy altitude of the Vedas, in the pellucid air of Attica, on the serene sumzlts of philosophy; but now his "heart the lowliest duties on herself did lay". iBs must not only train young men ia college but also prepare them tor colleget not only build a strtcture but fell and how and haul and shape the timbers. Still more ;ie had to play the politician, to smooth rough places. to remove prejuiices. to allay animosities, to parry blows, sometimes even to curry favor and to solicit support for the wisest measures. It was a sli:ppory Some oi these opisiles are too precious not to be republished and preserved. This pre-collegiate plight of many matriculates, even in much later years, is vividly and sometimes painfully reflected in the M'inu-es of the Board of Trustees, in the :.areful Heports of Committees, - 1rhich show clearly that there sre public-spirited mern willing to undertake and acocmplish very disagreeable tasks, for the general good. 0000hus he was compelled to practise the arts of the demagogue, to court the acquaintaence of the members of the Legislature, to woo their favor by soliciting a biographic sketch of each, to be publishec. in the Lexington papers. More consonant with Presidential dignity the questionnaire that he sent to the Presidents of all St-te Colleg;esg the courteous and interesting canswers. nearly F11 autogra:hiko, m;up- plied him with statistics that he forged into powerful weapons c-ffen- sive and defensive, for the legislative warfare then impending. This page in the original text is blank. 102 and treacherous path that he had to travel, but there was no other that led toward the goal apnoilated. Uo or Down The heaviest cost of this new adventure was one t at Patterson himelf did not perhaps fully understand or apprsciate, else me might have beon fLr less contented in the Pursuit the most of his own internal development. Henceforth there seems Ao havy boen little further growth, expansion and embellishment of his own s-irit- ual nature, no such outburst oi! mental activity as we have alreaiy noted. Henceforth he wzas to us the alrea d.-devoloped powers, to put thon at the service of his fellow-me, to aecomrplish, to ezecuteto rea:-ise and to materialize, but no longer, at least not in any large measure, to engreaten the powers themselves, to make them bud and bloom iM unfold in waxing strength and heauty. to unroll successively thui high- est potencies of his nature. - Now this sorviom of onets followsc is surely a splendid and godlike task. Noble let man be, Helpful and good, For that alone Distinguishe him From all other beings that we can know. And Sophocles had long before proclaimed the Golden Rulel "For a roan to be helpful as best he may and can, is the fairest of toils". The citizen should be willing to render such service, although at the price of his owa internal growth, when the large int- erests of his fellows make the 3F11, even as he should be ready to sacrifice his life itself. But it really is a saorifice, though too This page in the original text is blank. 103 rarel;, felt or anderstood as such. -e oongratul. te the rarn that is e.alled to a Presideney, and nlmnost unif3rray he congratulates him- self, ,nwitting that his pronotion will probably work the arrest of his higher and nobler nature. Sometinmes inAeed the truth is felt. as by a new President who wrote me. well fearing (for another Presi- dent had told him) that henceforth he would "nevew learn a new truth, never have a new and valuable idea, never perhaps read another pro- found vorke.0 Patterson, hoverer, grew into his executive office al- most insensiblyl there was litbtl pure lust of place or power or indeed reward of any kind, but rnther the continual insistent call of ,uty, - to a life, in the main, of sorvic to his fellows, of external self- exnploitation.,0 absorbed in pe':ty or unpleasant details, but isuriag no less in large external aehisovment. Roquital. One reward that he won and highly prized was tho affection and almost f 1ial devotion of a large nanbor of students. Certainly not everyone loved h5m; there are some now that dislike him stronglyl it would be strange if there were not. But many look back uojon him with tender gratitude and exclaim "Blessed be his dusti" A very distinguished attorney tells me that in his own student days at It was printed some years ago that President Wilson avowed he bad not retd a serious bock in fifteen years, none in fact but detective stories. "Yet the fleck of bills from B. F. Stevens, 4 Trafalgar 3o-uare, Londsn, shows clearly that he. ,aintainei his interest in books, particularly of 'otoryr and niography, in a auiale and remarkable manner. This page in the original text is blank. 104 the A. and ! . College his means were almost imnodestly modest; he could not urchase the necktie required in the daily drill, and the official Mn martinet persisted in giving him demerits for its absence. At last he was on the point of dismissil under their accumulation; the :ase came before President Pattersoa, who on hearing the young iman s plea. aros o-n his crutch, as ]3e was wc:. to do for emphasis, and w4rth flashing eye declared that no boy, while he was President, should ever be dismissed for poverty. Progress Such examples zaight be multiplied at ple.-asure, but we can not dwell on details; i; is only the larger facts of his ad- ministration that can be passed in review. Yet an occasional d!Lver- sion may be mentioned, such as fell to his lot in 1877. when he was invited to deliver the annual address to his old Literary Socielty, the Philalethean, in Hanover College. There on the old camp-ground he tented, as did his wife and William. with John M. Coulter, grand- son of Dr. Crowe and now world-known as a botanist. Of the .ddress to the 'Truth-lovers' no copy seems to have been preserved. He was much interested, as being now completely engrossed with ducatiocn, to note the 'progress' of Hanover College in twenty-one years. That progress was unmistakable, for it was visible and palpable; it vsas indeed wholly material, a - rogress in buildings. None other seemed notable; the work of study was not better done, the scholarship had not advanced. Such an observation might undoubtedly have been znade then and may even now be made at many educational centers. Brick and This page in the original text is blank. 105 brains, mortar and mind. are nDt strictly convertible terns. It is not impossible for the most im=-osing temples of learning to chang insensibly into intellectual w2A sriritual mausoleums UTniversity and Colleg. Though himself a builder (in a pocul- iarly pregnant sense) of 3 Univrersity, President Patterson to tie very last regarded the 'small tenominational college' as superior for the general liberal education of the undergraduate. where seems to be at least half justice in this judgment. In 1876 Helmholta de- clared that for study of matheriatics GTdttingen was to be preferred to Berlin; the instruction was just as good, and the personal con- tact O t-har and the taught was much closer. There ma,- be great names as great universities, but they remain mere names for the ma- jority of the myriad 'attendants' comitted almost wholly to the uncovenranted mrcies of nameless subordinates. But why the adjective 'denominationall As a matter of fact 'small colleges' are generally such, but need they be There se to be no good reason. The College is indeed the natural prolongation of the 7High School; it corresponds, though not in a manner to flatter our national pride, to the French I74oee, to the German Gymnassiu or Realsehule; and these are surely uAdenomiL.tional. The truth is, there is far less reason for 'denominational influenco5 in the College than in the University, where the student may have arrived at years of aThe mathematical tradition of 416ttingen is indeed unsurpassedi wauss. Dirichlet, Riemann, Clebsch. Sc:hering, Ennaper, Schwartz, Ilein, Hil- bert. 1Minkowski, et all This page in the original text is blank. 106 discretion and be able to choose his tIdenominationt with some intel- ligence. There is naturally a wide gap between :High School arnd Uni- versity proper; the latter seems disposed to reach down, the former to reach up, till they clasp hands. This is not really a wise oro- cedure; it is a phenomenon of 5rowth, which need not alwars be :igh- ly intelligent. - If the last ';wo years of the High School were strengthened, and fused with the first two years (also stngtheaied) of the College or University into an independent intermediate course somewhat diversified, to meet lihe demands for purely liberal educa- tion on the one hand and prepawatory professional training on the other, at least some of the crudities that infest our present edu- cational 'system' might be removed. This idea was presented in the course of a discussion at the "rashington meeting of the National. Edu- cational Association (1097), but it is a favorite Anglo-American method to let things grow as they will. to trust to time, and t' im- pose as little directive intel'igence as possible upon the process of growth - in other words. tc 'muddle through' (as they say in London) whether it be a 7-rld-rar or a 'Creative Evolution'. The method has its advantages and attains beneficent enduring results - in the course of agesi If we could only retard the pulse of life, and all go "back to Methuselah" J Auld Lang Sve. Personal friendship was ani idea regarded ly President Patterson with peculiar reverence; it was in high degree an expression of the clan-sense, which never dulled In his heart. No wonder that on his trip to Hanover he revisited many scenes of his 4younger years' and clasped hands again with fraternal Soots (and This page in the original text is blank. 107 others), with Aberdeens and Grahams and Wilsons;lto renew acquaxntance with old friends was one of the happiest episodes of my middle :if.4. I ST2ESS AND STORU The Half-Cent Tax. Into the Presidential life, the outer life, of Patterson, there had now entered a momentary lull - before the storm. The feeble A. and M. College (homed in Lexington by Act of Feb. 6, 1830). like a babe "born out of due tie. was gasping for life, but it was at least alive, and its future seemed alarming.. The General Assembly had levied (April 28, 1880) for its support a special tax of half a cent per 8l00 of taxable property (of the whites cf the State). At first sight this does not seem: oppressivo, especially as the assessments were not nearly equal to the market walues. A mnl an- sessed at 1,000 would pay 5 cents a year, his rich neighbor assessed at =20,000 would pay only 1. And what wonders of educational cppob- tunity and advancement were secured for such trifles, which none would hesitate to spend many times in personal indulgencel The sum to be raised therby was not large, as men now count largeness, about 17,500 a yearlS the interest on an endowment of hardly 350,0001 But the Idenominationall colleges saw in such puny proportions the possibili- ties of endless mischief. The fate that the Christians foresaw for their University, and sought to shun by expatriating the College from Lexington. woul6 now surely ovortake them all sooner or later, unless thy took speeds and concerted aotion. Accordingly they forgot for the Co=pare some recent biennial appropriations in other states, rucning into many millions This page in the original text is blank. 108 moment their mutual antagonisms and rivalries and leagued thems slves to strangle the danger In its birth. Such was certainly the part of worldly wisdom, and no one can blame them for not being ountent to be found merely innocent as doves,. Thloj framed an earnest and eloquent petition against the College (at least, as supported by the Stai;e), a petition addressed ITo the Peo.ile of Kentucky' and entitled 'Shull the People be Taxed for Collegiate Educationl" Their plea deserves to be read by every student of the H5 story of Kentuckyy Culture, and e.ccord- ingly at one time it wr.s marked for reproduction in this volume. The Petition. The reader may smile faintly at some of the alarm- ing figures presented. - no less than at patent absurdities and con- tradictions - at the "costly State institution"l distraining froxr. tho people as nuch as 17,000 a year - when in more modern times the sheriff of a single county is said to have distrained four times as muchi But at least one plea in this document seems at first sight plausible. - that the original Idea of the Land Grant had undergone great expansion in the establislument of a State College with a car- riculum where all the elements of liberal culture were representsd For it will always be hard to persuade the natural man that Latia. Greek and Xigher Mathematics, though expressly not excluded in the Movrill Ant of 2nd July, 1862. form any vital part of Agitaulturo and the Mschanic Arts; and if it. were proposed to spend any frac1tion of the Land Grant income in teaching such subjects, the ob, eotion in question might be hard to meet. But it is quite another matter, If the State out of its own funds (by speoial tax) would provide for This page in the original text is blank. 1.09 Su.-h instruction whether in am A. ad M. College, or in t. UIniversity, or in any other institution whatever; as against such an application of State monies by the State, all talk about the limitation of the Land Grant is entirly irrelevanit. eno, the petitooners felt 'he need of attacking the whole idea of a State College, of an State support of 1i.gher Education, which they would see entrusted exclusively to the Church and its Colleges. Can Europe !each Their pleadings would now call for no answer; they sound like a tale of Old unh.appy far-off things And batbles long aso. !"hat is most reoarkable is that the vision of the appelanis seeas so hopelessly blurred and narrow."0 It never occurs to them That aLl their arguments have long ago been utterly refuted by the exaarnlos of the most advanced nations o` -iurop, as Yrance and Gerrvany, n1ay more, of the rmost prosperous nLd enlightehed comnmozealtbs of our own Union. as 'ivhigan and 'lisconsi.n, and now by a score of others. They seem to forget that people live, beyond the Ohio and tie obig Sancy. Towever, it is just this lavish disregard o: outstanding facts ihat The opening of Patterson's re2Kry to President Beatty is a wei-7hty indictment of the clerical theory an1 practise of education: 'The sectarian colleges have had a monopoly of education.. 'hey allege they should have a monopoly stillJ 'forgetting that they live in. the N1ineteenth Century and not in the F'ourteenth.' He draws a ax8- phic 7ioture of the decline and fail of Transylvania, of Kentucky's destitution of the agencies of higher culture, and of 'these long years of de-tdly stillness in law, in literature, in medicine, and in science'. It Is in such passages that resident Patterson rises to the full hei -ht of the occasion, to the clearest consciousness of his mission, and appears igrery way at his very best. This page in the original text is blank. 110 lends interest and value to t0is doQmlenut ror the method pursued is precisely that so regularly erploed to-dsay in conservatiwe-reeotioa- ary discussions of such matters as Cooperation and the Ptblic cwer- ship of Publio Utilities. The trick ls to ignore persistently the experiments and experiance of the Old World and even of Canada ;nld many cities of the United States, and to argue as if concarninp sano new and rash, untried and unheard-of adventure, a slap in the face of the history of the .world. _ And if you insist on calling the foreigner to the szitnss stand, what can. you prove thereby except that you are not 100 AmericanJ Ready Reply Absud and ludicrous as this Petition ny seem to us now. it vas far from seermng so in 1881. it was the great good luck of Patterson to be waiting for an interview witih RenTrY Watterso3'. in the office of the Louisville Courier-Journal, late in the after- noon of I.Tov. 18, when one of tVe stiff placed in hnis hand the pyroof o2 the Petition. which was to go out over the State in the Cou ler- Journal (of Nov. 19) straightwuy and reach the Legislators only a week before their meeting in the General Asssebly (1lov.28). Such was the zeal oe the Colleges, to help 1,he Legislators make up their minds at home, before any reply or discussion was possible! Patters,)n a.Ls startled but not stunned by this not quit unexpeated bolt. On return- Ing to the hotel he called for writing material ad forthwith framod an effective answer and had it published in the immediateoy fo' .owing issue of tle _ourier-Journal (20th Nov.), so that Legislators wre surprised to receive the bane and the antidote by the same rmail] This page in the original text is blank. ill AntaSonist and Protagonist. Such was the first lively skirmish. The battle was yet to come. Prsident Ormond Beatty' of Contre ,ol- lege (Presbyterian), at Danville, was the Coryphaius, eand on Jaiuary 15, 1882, before ajoint Conraitbee of the Senate ead youso he denounc- ed the half-cent Act as lunwisu. unjust. exQdssive, o0rpre!3sive,' aow cording to the Petitioners' 'hope that a matter so unfair, so impoli- tic. so wrong will be speedily wiped from the statute-book". 'Mar he ceased the 1-cent Act seemed doomed. But Patterson followei him the next Friday evenbq, 20th Jan'y. in a masterly address, perhaps the most distinctive that he eirer delivered, wherein he cMs boldly forward as the unCoMPromising .;LdVOCate Of 3tate-supportod highez sscu- lar education. Such is the mal.', true, and highest role -layed by Patterson, his chief title to X.mnlortality. SUra IEclesi. In some other clime at some other time, no special honor might attach to such protagonism; but at thLt tinvi and place the conditions were altogether peculiar. The sentiment of the oecple was but little sympathetic with higher education anl1 was very strongly adverse to aay taxation for its sup ort; the popuiaco Was incurably sectarian, and the sects wore zealously and ever. bittetrly op-posed to the State College (Et least in its general cultural character); most hapless of a12, the Presbyterians headed the a1otack, A Justly honored name, and hirasetf the gentlest and courtliest of scholarly Presidents. His plea for the Colleges was honestly atd powerfully presenteo - in fact, his conclusions harmonized with his premises more perfectly than his op-oonent's, but 'is prenises belonged to the past. This page in the original text is blank. 112 and Patterson h-ad all 1his life beon an ardent Presbyteriar., had for rany years aimed at the Presbyterina ministry; his friends, his kinsmen, his aneastors, his memories, his affections - his whole emotional nature, - all were intensely Presbyterian; his life he.d been largely spent irn Presbyterian schools and colleges - and now it was precisely Presbyterians and Presbyterian education that he had to oppose in a war to the knife. - and the knife to the hilti I t is to his eternal honor that he did not falter nor compro:nise, but turn- ed his back resolutely on all his antecedents, and with eloquence, learning, and above all with romantic valor" he defended the fcrlorn 5'oreover, it was and is a matter of com;on knowledoge that the record of Presbyterianism is honorably and particularly noted for devotion and contribution to higher liberal edwtation. the "training of a freeman"n as Broclus called it (paideian eleutherou). "Let the f llowing passage bear witness 'Equally unfortunate was the reference of Judge lindsay to the early history of Transylvania Uni- versity. Then, in 1825, the Legislature was invited by the message of Governor Desha to consider the condition of Transylvania luiversity, the evil plight into which it had fallen was due largely, if not ex- clusively. to the denominational war waged remorselessly against it by sectarian imosity and jealousy. In that warfare, the church to which I belong played no unimportant part. iad the State sustained and cheered Tremnsylvania as she ought, and not left it a prey to e:- clesiastical rancor and denominstional hat, Transylvania 06ld be to Kentucky today what Harvard is to Massachusetts. and Tale to Conneoti- eat. It was brought into politlcs - how Because assailed by the churches then, as the State College is assailed by the churches now, and bacause of the parsimonious support given to it by the State at tihe instance of clergymen. who !;tood by rith lugubrious visage and ecclesiastical scowl. The ministers of that day prevailed. The curse of Meros rang through the land. Transylvania was handed over to the doctors, not of physic., Dut of divinity, with the inevitable result that always attends oler:Lal -uinistrations when applied to State institutions - decline, dcoadenoe, extinction'. - On hearing such sentences, "the church to 1rhich I belon I might wall haave eor- claimed, "Among us, but not of llS " This page in the original text is blank. 113 cause of Culture and oe Higher Education su-'norted by the State, a with cauwhich in the history of ,entuoky his nam was to be honc- forth indtissolubly wedded. The Tax Unconstitutional His victory In this joust could not be disguised, but the quiver oi' the Six was not yet exhausted; aheir strongest shaft was still unspent. The bold and consistent attalck of 3eatty had been made along ihe lines of publie policy; a subdller and still more dangerous assault was now directed along purely :.egal lines by a quartetie of distinguished jurists: Alexander P. Tlwrphrey, tx-Chief Justice Lindsay, Zdmutd F. Trabus, and Colonel Bennett H. Young, who called vehementily ork the Legislature for repeal of the special tax as un-onstitutional. At this ocint their case was cx- ceedingly strong, and their reasoning so plausible as to deceive ever. the elect. The letter of the constitutioz eas at first sight erttirely Motives are not always - indeed, they are very seldom - unmixed, end one may fairly suspeet that the wiad-spread hostility to the StE to College was by no means purely religious or even sectarian; ib might not have required a Karl Marx to detect an undercoating of economic considerations, of municipal anmbition and commercial rivalry. Yet denominational zeal was genuinely and ab-undantly presaent. This page in the original text is blank. 1.14 in accord with their contentiONO; it sceLWe that the Sta was .osi- tively forbidden to use any monies raised. by taxation few sDy ol-her than common school education. hen John G. Carlisle was sought as Senior Co0ae01 for the State College, he declined, regarding tho eThe provision In question is 'ound in the first section of Art'.cle 11 of the Constitution (of 1849-50) and reads as follaws; "The capital of the f-aid, called and known as the Comnmn School `und, cons'.sting of 1,225,768.42, for which bouds have been executed by the 3tal;o to the Board of education, and 7:, 500 of stock in the bank of Keaniucky; also the sum of 51,223.29, balance of interest on the sehool fund of thp year 1848, unexpendead, together with any sum which may be hereaf- ter raised in the State, by tam:aticta or otherwise, for purposes of education, shall be held inviolate for the nurposo of sustainin, a system of ooircaon schools. The interest and dividends of said fiads, together with any sum which may be produced for that pur-ose, by tax- ation or otherwise, may be apropriated in aid of common schoolt, but eor no other purpose". Altho the two Aots of 22d Dec., 1798, had (1) nominally established and endowed (each with 6.000 acres sf land.) twenty Acaderaies, empowering each Board of Trustees to raise by lottery 1,000 to meet preliminary ez-oenses, and (z) authorized the Boazd of Trustees of Transylvania., as State University, to establish schc ols as nurseries for this University - a scheme due mainly to Judge Caleb vlallac and extravagantly lauded by his tiographer - yet these OnUrgr- ies' languished most wretchedly in the absence of all nursing; for the Constitution of 1799 had not recogniied nor forecast the existence of any kind of public oomnon school. However, in 1836, Congress had din- tributed 23.000,000 (aculated in the ITati nal Treasury, langely fran the sale of -ublio land), on certain oond1icns. among the States; by Act of 27 IFeb. 1837, Kentucky appropriated 1,0O00,30 of her por- tion (1,473,750) to Bdunoatioa but on 16 Feb, 1838, - when Judge 'CM. F. Bullock's Act, establishing the C eou School system of Kentucky. was passed, - the amount was roiuceoz to 8850,000 and invested in the State's "internal improvement" bonds, wrtch (when payment of either principal or interest to the Board of Education beoa-- inconvenient through too much internal improroment) were duly burne, (par Aet of 10th Feb. 1846) by the Governor, - but lists were presrrved and after- ttards recognized and various rioptration al de to the extent of the aggregates above named (mainly through the efforts of Dr. 1obert Brehk- enridge, chosen Superintendent tof Publio Instruction, 1847). 'mSt Patterson clearly proved from the Debates in the Constitutional Kon- vention (Dec. 1849) was thiss That the Delegates had in mind thLs sad experienee with an eiucati.Dnal fund, which the law seemed po'rerless to protect, and over which accordingly they would threw the aegii of the Constitution; that they weros not dreaming of Fi'her Zducatioa. andl that "purposes of educationd was merely short for "purposes of com5on school education"'. This page in the original text is blank. 115 Constituticnal provision as clecer a.nd the oase of the College ai; hopeless. His words weret "cu have no case. The Constitution .-lainly forbids". insay to the Rescue. His judgment was hasty, for closer study of the Constitution must raise serious doubts. One very mportint question will not down but baffles tihe inquiring student, even though a lamant If the Constitution framers, who were certainly AntO]ligent men, really intended to outlaw State aid to Collegiate educatior., why did they proceed in such an artificial and round-about way T.at could have been easier than to--say, "The State shall impose no tax for the support of Higher Education or education beyond the Conon schools" That would have beer the end of controversy, as decisive and clear as the fanous cha-ter on Snakes in Ireland. "There are no snakes in Ireland". Instead we find sentence after sentence apparently restricting ell State support to the Com;on schools, but why all this pother about it Why "uplift the club of Hercules - for what To crush an atom or to brain a gnat"1 Such reflections mi- ht leave one in a quandary, but they no way disturbod the mind of the accomplished jurist. Judge Lindsay, wvhoa the Six Colleges had judiciously chosen to loed the attack on the half-cent tax. Like Goliath, he ampeared before the Lelislative Committee in Frankfort, 1'ednesday, 25th Jan. 1882. with supreme confidence in the righteous- noess of his cause and with only half-concealed contempt for the puny opponent that came out against rnim. For the State College barrister wres none other than President Patterson, who, after the refusal of This page in the original text is blank. 116 Carlisle to lead a forlorn hope, had himself undertaken to lead it. Patterson's Plea. Judge tindsayls condescension to such an ad- versary was natural but unforiunate; woe tohim that underrates his oppooat Re presented the cast of the Six with clearness and vigor and seemingly conclusive logic; few, if any, were prepared for the bouleversement that was to follows Patterson was then (evening of 30th January, 1882) intthe'full flower of his might; the cause, the occasion, the assembly, all conspired to spar his sinews to their utmost tension; he felt that tha highest interests of ,civilization and humanity were for the moment coroitted to his keeping that he was the guardian of the itiity and prosperity, te majesty and the honor of the "proud Commonwealthi of Kentucky", that all hot future hung upon his words. Undoubtedly, also, he enjoyei the syrtpathy of his audience. Though the majorLtAy might shrink from thle tax and wish the Colleges well and feel overoome by the logic of the lawyer, :ret they could not repress the half.-oonsc: ous sense that the President stood for the Hany against the ":ew, that he had bravely entered t most 2 -, otest, and that fai.r play called for an inroartial and attentive hearing. And he for his part was not elow to take ful:. advantage of the situation. Es ,sconded the stage, more impresse.vely because of his lameness, and stood there in oollected might, with the glance of a Jovian eagle, " Lean, large-boned, curved of beak, ani. r. e. with race" - which he by nzo mena denied but proudly avowed and proved by rattling off the Fighland brogue with the utmost rd ad- iness, to the surprised delight of his audience. Nothing, indeed., This page in the original text is blank. 117 could be more welcome to the Scot than this call to defend and f:lori- fy his blood, which he boasted was the noblest on earth, against the ill-timed taunts of his opponent. The Law's intent. The Dullished reports are concerned solely with his argument and give little hint of this extremely adroit and effective introduction, by which he turned all the dats of Judge Lindsay's miscalculated allusions back uon the Judge himself, and caught the emotions of his hearers speedily in the net of his speeah. His argument that followed was not only exceedingly clever but vas also thoroughly honest and went straight to the heart of the matter. Without ex.-licitly raising the doubts and -uestions already suggested, he laid them fairly and finally by showing, from the whole history of the case, that the framers and authors of the constitutional provis- ion under discussion could not possibly have had in mind the use ah- tempted by the Six Colleges; that any such use was not possibly im- plied in the original document and was utterly alien to Its s5riti; that the real purpose of the passage was distinctly deduciKle with perfect precision from the histDrioal setting and was entirely for- eign to the contention of Judge Lindsay. The demonstration was tri- umphant and irresistible. The DrinciAle of interpretation (contem- poraneous construction) employed by Patterson was transparently just and long recogniesd in classical jurisprudence. The mind of the law- maker must also be regarded, and. not merely the letter of the law it- self, and that mind must be collected from its original circumstnces COne Legislator told the President in after years that he wore tae soles from his shoes and raised blisters on his hands, - so enthusiastic hin Applause. This page in the original text is blank. 1 1 of the case. Says Grotias in coamr-ntary on I Cop, 13s7, "General ternis aze to be restricted (in application) to the sub,,ect-matter under discussion" (Solent voces universales restringi ex 2Iataria subjacente). The Triu.mh. So then the literal legalist was subduei by the rational historian.. he victory was s ignal one, not only the most billiant in the career of Patterson, but unequalad perhaps in the history of our University Prosileats. Had it been won at Zornell or Harvard, the victor would at once have mounted into national significance, but not many gave any thought to such a puling ing=nt as the 3tate College of Kontuckx. Yet the President's conduct or this case and its sequels may rell be matched with 3entleyls lifelong struggle in the courts, with this notable difference arha t Patterson's struggles and ingenuities were all in a great comrmunal cause, to protect the interests of the whole People, every merel;r OHonor to whom honorl It redounds to the credit of President Past- erson that in his Golden Jubileo Speech (Oct. 14. 1916) we find this acknowledgement: "In this emergency an opportune suggestion from J. P. Hetcalfe, a former Reported of the Court of Appeals, vi2: That I should look into the debates wrhich preceded the adoption of th, Constitution, induced me to try what a layman might do". 3uch hsn- esty in the indication of sources, in the avowal of rental obligations. literary and scientific, is far from co=n even at the present day. "The career of this the first if not the only Englishman a:mong ,he heroes of classical learning (EILCYC1.Brit.) is also suggested under another aspect by that oI Pattersons for it illustrates vividly what has already been said (p..10 ) on Administration as the S-ooi:.er of Spirit. In accepting the Mac:tership of Trinity College in cax- bridgoe, Richard Bentley virtially abdicated the Mastership of ClzLssi- cal philology in Surope. This page in the original text is blank. 1 L9 pers nal concern being altogether secondary, if not indeed totally absent. The Leage in Coart. Thii Legislature rejected the -loa ot the Six by a decisive majority, but the leaguers did not despair; they transferrd their ease to the Court of Appeals. hoping to hw.o the Act adjudged unctonstitutiOnLl. A lady of Louisville iwas indicod to refuse payment of the tax, where the local judge (the CI:anael Lor) might be expected to decide aga:Lnst the State; whioh would of co arse appeal and so a&pear in the hi7liest court as an appel. and so rith a presumption, however slight, against it. Since in such case, where all was balanced on a razor's edge, even the minims countel, the President also secured two such cases from another district, in khe Circuit Court of Magoffin Countrr, where not the State but the ta:c- payer would appear as appehiat, - thus reversing the presumption in question. Such fighting the dearil with fire does not seem illleiti- mate; though one must regret thLt such a warrior should ever be :force!L to use suc:. weaeoos. However, President Patterson was al'owed Io file his contra-Lindsay argumsni; both in the Chancellor's Court where contrary to expectation it prevapiled) and in the Appellate Court, where finally the controversy was ended (in 1890) by a dec-sion ef JvLge William H. Hlt. which was shaped avowedl along the lines laid down in tVe great legislative address of Patterson. This page in the original text is blank. 120 xi TIM LULL A New Start. With his sig:aal triumph in the General Aseemoly (followed much later by judiciaL confirmation), th& first and epie period of the Presidentls administration may be said to have closed in a blaze of gloty. To be suri, the 'denominations' maintained for years a guerillla contest both in and out of the Legislature. but it was more annoyixg than aLarming. The fundamental prinoipLe of State su -ort of Collegiate ,uwlture had been firmly and final Ly established against what appeartd to be hopeless o ds, and Kentu:ky had aligned herself formally iL the ranks of progress and secular civilization. Gradually, ver Igradually. the sectarian antagonizmn yielded, and still yields; the animosities it angeBdered abeated, the old was rung out, the new rung :Ln. and the general sentiment ad usted itself to the now order and the new idea. It remza ned to build on the foundation thus laid - an exceeding slow and toilsome process, indis- pensable and of signal irnportan4:e but with few features of ins-pi:ing or animating nature. A Touch of Romance. Alreeiy, however, while the legislativo is- sue was pending, there had occu3vWed an incident well-nigh romant"Lc. :The erection of two buildings', begun in the spring of 1881. had pron)eeded. The "College" - now called I'Mai.n" as devoted to administre;ition . ,and the "Old Dormitory', since 1919 converted to class-roan purposes,, the A. and II. College, for reventeen years tolerated as a transient, was installed in this first home of its own Feb. 13. 1883. Two days there- after thoe 'dedication' was celebrated with apropria+ nomp and gen- uine enthusiasm, the Legislature and State officials attending. und the eveningbanquet beins enlivened by the eloquence of Henry W7atterso: and others. This page in the original text is blank. 121 till near the olose of the year - whern a large iistake in the esti- .oates of the architects was discoveredl Funds were alreaiy exhsautel; without them the construction mxast be suspendd; it would :'ave been suicide to an-vly to the Legislature or even to make known the real situation - for the Six - in - League would have proclaimed a 4sa and many wavering votes would certainly have been ietermined against the luckless College. SIh only recourse was to borroiw the neoessary money i.4th the utmost socreoy and proceed steadily with the buillAg. Unfortunately the banks, one awAt all, very properly (from their strlct- ly 'business' noint of view) reosused to land, since the very existence of the College was in the balan4se; if it lost in the Legislature, as seemed much the more probablo iissus, its power of repayment would be gone forever. In this extremitt' the resourceful President came 'or- ward, placed all his private pr:operty (in bands), as collateral iue- curity, in the possession of the Northarn Bank of IKentucky (Lexing- ton), and gave the borrowed monsy to the College, acceptig its notes unsecured. Then we consider that his securities represented tho hard-earned savings of nearly thirty years, and that had the College lost, according to general expectatien, he would have been thrown out into the world a discredited and well-night Penniless cripple, the courag. confidence, and magnanimity of the man see-m to asou al.- most heroic proportions. Such an incident appears to be nearly cr quite unique in the history of American Education, With the moncy thus obtained the building proceeded, and the debt of the Collegc, a-rounting at one tlime to '35,000, was by rigid economy in the coitrse This page in the original text is blank. 12;' of three years completely discharged, the secret having been mean.. while sacredly kept within the Boarde and first disclosed to the wondering public in Pattersonls Commencement ;Address, 2d June, 1888. The Farunnr a Foe. Having broken the deenominational op osition in his heroic campaign for Libera.l Education, the pioneer President was met by a new foe, for whom he was at first quite unprepared: the Farmer himself and his GCrange organization. This was the oyposition not of selfishness or fanaticism but of mere ignorance, which felt interest neither in liberal oultiixe nor in scientific study nor ir. mechanical training (beyond blaclasmlthing and carpentry), but wis'aed them a11 banished from an Agricultural College devoted solely to farming. For such a narrow-gauge, a one-rail-track College, the ,9,909C income from the land script seemed ample, and any other sup- port was obstinately resisted as luring into the forbidden paths of Science and Culture, which properly belonged to the denomination- al schools onlyl It took twenty Yoars of unremitting effort to re- nove this deep-rooted hostility of ignorance and prejudice. An early, admirable and particularly high-hsarted argument of Patterson's in this long campraign is found in his Address before the State -range, It is not out of place to observo in this connection that toe Re ort of the Committee on the A. and 1. College (1890) declares, p/8s ALl allegations and insinuations to t'he coutrza notwithstanding, the facts stand patent to uas that no .1law is to be found in the financLal adrinistration of the institutiowl. again on p.7 "Th concarreo-Lt testimony to the fitness, scholarship, earnestness, integrity, assL- duity, and ability of the !-resident is direct, unequivocal and emn.Laticll. The phrase we have italicized tel:.s its own story. This page in the original text is blank. ' 2;3 Dec. 11, 1383, on 'The RaucatiorL flecuired by our Fa:..ers'5-ehich cculd hardly have failed to expazA and. illiae the Letter minds in his audience, but yet (one suspects) iust have passed far over the heads of the majority. - The victory was painfully von, but was couplete and final. And Distance Also. Another more plausiirle objection was that the College was in reality a local institautio, existing almost solely for Lexington and vicinity, for which the renoter districts were taxed but in which they had little interest, as the distanee made attendance practically impossible. To meet this corplaint. which was not without some basis of fact, an effective piece of legislation was devised and brought forward (by Ferguson in the House and Dellow in the Senate) &ad passed (1893), providing "Thai each legislative representative 4istriet - - - - be entitled to select and tc send to the College eah year one or more properly prepared students as hereinafter provided fJt, free from all charg- es for tuition, matriculation, fuel, room-rent and dormitory fees,, except board. All beneficiaries of the State who continue students for one consecutive collegiate year, or ton months, shall a-so be entitled to theiir traveling expenses in going and returning from said college". - An excellent remedy, a specific - why not thought- of sooner Herewith the legislautive struggle against the G :llego was finally ended, and the temper of the remote districts was perri- nently softened. Reconoilement. Such were scme of the outstanding features of the This page in the original text is blank. 124 Period of Conciliation, which followed that of O-p-osition. The general character of ths Presid.ent's activity, all this -rhile has been clearly and authoritatively indicated in the Ronort &lrsady 4moted. It was a period of almost uninterwupteO iervice, of sutward Accomplishment, and we have seen what that signifies in personal Sacrificoe Perhaps it is not quite accidental that while Patt4zson's Notes on the earlier years. the growth-years of his life, are so very full - he seems to have lingered so lovingly over this compar- atively quiet and uneventful period as being so rioh in friensships and in mental blooms, - on the contrary Hes Notes on these years of Service and Accomplishment are exceedingly scanty; the facts must be gathered almost entirely from other sources such as his speeches and corresa;ondenoe, and the MIinuites of the Eoard of Trustees. - Apparently in his memory those times of trial and triumph had lit- tle chars; and why not when for long periods he had not one good nights rest (as he declares), so many and heavy the cares that weighed him down. Nightlong slumber behoveth a king and a counsellor noway, Whose are the weightiest cares, unto whom much folk are ent:rsted. An Enlighteni Visit. St.Ll his duties did not oonfine hlm constantly to Kentucky. At the initial Washington meoting ef tLh Assooiation of A. and .. Collegos. called in May. 1885. by the U. S. Commissioner of Agriiulturo. all were agog as to ostablishing azuL organizin Experiment Stations, then in contemplation and afteriards This page in the original text is blank. 125 realized under the Hatch Bill of 1887.0 Along with three other Ken- tuockians, Patterson was present, and was a most interested partici- pant. Some isonths later, in quest oI accurate knowledge as well as of Director, " he attended the Ann Arbor meeting of the A.A. A. S. Thence he went to Madison. Wis-onsin, to learn of the organization there. le tells us nothing of tse im:pression he received, though in one speech he would stir up Kent icky to emulate the shining exampLe of 'Wisconsin. Yet we can hardly believe bhe secret impression wasI not profound and lasting. He fond there one of the roost p-ogressive and prosperous Universities, in 'vne of the most progressive and p:'os- perous States, of the Union; a state not nearly so favored by nature as that of his adoption, but whe:ne all the conditions of life wero far more rigorous, reminding him faiiitly of his own Scotland; a State not peopled, like the Southern AppalaLchians, West North Carolina, and East Tennessee, with tle 'best blood of the most imperial of racesl. Soot arnl Anglo-Saxon, but largely with highly mixed and inferior() bloods, German, Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, and what not - and yet strangoly enough disporting itself in the van of political, material and culural e'hioh provided an endowment of 3125,000, yearly, for Experinent Stations, and which Patterson assisted importantly in its passage in the closing hours of the session. Summnoned to Washington by telegram from thc Com- mittee of the above named Association, and along with Representative 7. F.. eadsworth of Mayxville, KeILtucky, he oealed on Speaker Carlisle with request that he recognize HEtCh first when the House met. The Speak- er heeded his fellow statesmen, recognised Hatch, and the Bill, ii. peril of being lost in the press, was passed in fifteen minutes. tis choice fell upon M. A. Scovill. graduate of the University cf Illi- nois, then at the University of Lansas. At Pattersonts suggestica he devoted his first paper (on the Relative Value of Foods) to Corn-loddor, which pleased 4'he farmer. Dr. Scovill was identified with the Rxrinent S tation til_ his premature death., Lk 1911. This page in the original text is blank. 126 progressl Would his own Comnmorwealth ever mount such pinnacles of prosperity7 The question must have forced itself upon him, but it seems never to have shaken his central and basic tenet of the ir.con- testable superiority of the 'iriperial races1 - a tenet almost as hard to abandon as it would have been to change the color of his eyes. The Laws Inc ident. Some time before the divorce of 1878, Pat. terson had received a remarkab e letter from a distinguished Pres- byterian divine, Dr. Samuel Spehr Laws. President of the University of Missouri, offering him the chair of Greek - if he were only e. Baptistl It was the rolicy there to keep the University non-sec- tarian by making it pan-sectarian; Latia was Presbyterian; ath- matic, "Christian" ; the time had come for Greek to be Baptist 4it actually became so in the perscn of Professor A. F. Fleet, as Er.g- lish became Methodist in that of the fine-cultured Professor S. A. Allen). The flattering offer seemed to touch the jus religious and racial pride of Patterson, who replied Isayihg my ancestors for ten generations had been Presbyterians and that I would not go lack on "If the English-speaking stock be the dominant r.eo and hold iT. its hands the destinies of the world; first in science, in art, in relig- ion and all the elements of material and moral progress; if the United States be the predominant factor in the imperial stock, and if the flower of the race be found in Kentucky and Tennessee, in Westemn Vir- ginia and Western 7prth Carolina. what opportunities and responsibil- ities rest with youl It will be yours, if true to the instincts and traditions of the race, to lead in all that educates, purifies and en- nobles men and womn, in all that makes thoe the flower and the efflor- escance of humanity. You have everything to engourage and inspire, and in this unward and forward movement for the regeneration of America, let Kentucky lead the other states of the Union and let the State Uni- ver3ity lead Kentucky. "So latterson in his Farewell to the Presidency, 5th January 1911. Notive the word "art"t He is Possessed by the idea of Anglo-American Race-Supreonacy. This page in the original text is blank. 127 the principles for which the Covenanters, some of whose blood vas in mry veins, had given their lires during the Persecution in Scot- land, for the best chair in Christendom'. Had not his own father proudly borne in procession in 1832 th, very flag that his remote ancestor had flaunted at Bothwell Bridge in 1745, where the Cove- nanters fell in heaps under the sword of the brutal Britons hissed on by the bastard Monmouth - -r. Laws was not offended but by return mail offered him unconditionally the he&Aship of the Normal College, which was declined with thanks. - Its Meaning. This amusing incident throws the clearest lig:A on the deenest nature of Presitent Patterson. "The principles of t:ie Covenanters" were sacred with h:Lm - it is not said for any special truth or virtue in themselves, . but because thev were traditional and sealed with blood. Loyalty appears as the controlling motivo,, a loyalty to history and to race, which accepted the Kirk as a subject accepts his king or a child its father. what Xielander ever thought of asking, "Is Charlie really worthy to rule me" - To a philoso'her or to a world-poet such a motivet may not seem quite adequate, bul; it is far from being unworthy. In fact, it has been the inspiration of They have been charged with being excellent haters, but surely they had intense nrovocation, for morfessedly they were persecuted "with savage hatred and great brutality" and "great barbarity". The his- tory of Presbyterianism, of the Scottish Kirk, which is largely ihe history of aristocratic liberty and institutions within the Chvxrclh, is not only highly honorable anG important, but is also thrilli, and romantic and glorified by a shining cloud of witnesses to their uncompromising faith. It is only as the New-World nrurture of this Old-World stem that the character of President Patterson can beprop- erly pppreoiated or even understood. This page in the original text is blank. 128 many of the noblest songs, as wet1l es the noblest deeds, tVat ad:rn the ana-als of mankind. It is tlae very essenoe of Patriotism. lb is the fundamental note of the Psalms and the Prophets and indeed ot all Hebrew life. "If I forget the,, C Jerusalem. let my right hand lorge- her canning --- let rmy tongue c:Leave to the r; of of my mouth, if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chiief joy". - Such was the spirit high and holy, if not truth-worshiping or cosmopolitan, that possessed hima from first to last. In St. Louis. But the stoy of the University of Missouri Ls not yet ended. On the 27th of MLarch, 1890, shortly after the abdi- cation of Dr. Laws, President PLtterson was called by telegram te St. Louis, into conference with a co=_ittee concerning the Presitency of the State University. He started at once, reaching Louisvillis in the evening, just after it had leaen struck by a tornado; he notined the narrow path of ruin but understood nothing of its cause until. seeing the newspaper account thei next morning. 'Nothing cam oi the St. Louis conference. Further his knowledge of the facts does not seem to extend; but the pres ent writer, at that time a teacher in the 'issouri University, happene to be authoritatively and authenti- cally informed, so as to adds !,'very member of the Coittee was pro- foundly impressed with President. Patterson, captivated by his cornver- sation, charmed by his personality, astonished ab the extent and ac- curacy of his Information; every one thought him fully equal to t1A office in questioni one of them declared he could imagine no higher delight than to listen to Patterson's discourse; but no one would, This page in the original text is blank. l129 assume the res--onsibility, under such troublous and difficUlt co01- ditions as thnn obtained, of nominating an ageing "cripple" as Presi- dent of the University of Missotri. Accordingly, the conference came to naught. One more his withered limb proved itself the architeot of his fortne. xIII 'O0PI PRVISITES To the Old World Agaix. It. was now fifteen years since Patter- son's first European trip 'had only whetted my a-petite for foreign travelf. The summer sky seemed blue and fair in 1890, and with hlo wife and son he turned his face towards the Sast - for a season ef six 72onths - prslonged to fifteen. Unfortunately the clouds began to gather almost immediately after his departure (28th June, 1890, on the Anchor Line, Furnesis), and this groat feast of the soiA - for such he had hoped it would be, overflowing with nectar and an- brosia for which he had been famishing for years - proved to be cne of the bitterest disappointments of his life. Cn his first visit (2875) he had indeed hoped to return 'in a year or twol 'bringing you (1AS brother Walter) with me and remain as long as I will in any place' - evidently for )urposes of spiritual growth, of observation and study. Thk fifteen years OI fight for the College, for secular Culture end Like the heroic Jack Dowling of Minnesota, Dr. Patterson would n.evor acknowledge any handicap, and it was surely rema kable how far tbeo strength of his soul made good the weakness of his knee. Nevertheloss, in spite of the highest-hearted autosuggestion, the handicap remained - 'land thereby hangs a tale"l. This page in the original text is blank. 130 Educatior. in Kentucky, that foll.owed, hsa crowned him with victo:ry and honor, but had left hir' higher nature parched and dry. 2ith unspeakrable eagerness he now hantened to the well-heads of the soul, and first of eA1l to his '&ai countrie', the Scotland of which he could hardly s&peak without tearms. The Cl.oud in the West. Scarcely, however, had he lanced on his native sthores when messages by tost and cable began to crowd upoe him. all urging hi3 lmmediate returat The State was agoniz2ing in that birth-pangs of a new Constitutitia Old things 't-zze passing away, behold till thin3s were becoming newt And it eeomad as if the Colloege :night pass away with the zestl The enemies of State aid to Culture and Fulcation had seen their op3ortunity and renewed the attacks that seemed to have subsided. It a reoars strange that the canny Scot had :ot forseen as much. Had he just postponed his tour another yee.t .hat an ixnmense difference it mi ght have made in his lifel For gure- ly, more than at ordinary seasoxrA, the champion of Culture would be in demand at the framing of the Riev Constitution (in Convention al- ready appointed in 1889 for September 8. 1890). It attests the Inten- sity of his thirst for the drausiht divine, that for once his judgment was clouded and misguided. 1e ither could he be persuaded to rettrn, though he was oertsinly needed. In Jilvl he cabled, 'Can not lea',e yet'. In September (25) a oablegram from his brother bade him return at once. - He cables, will return if Board requires'. 31rom London His place was well-taken bp his surviving brother. Professor l"alter Kennedy Patterson, whose fidelity, industry, and ability at this strenuous and dubious season all alike demand unstinted recognition. This page in the original text is blank. 131 the next day he cables, Oilf Buckner, Johnston, Becicnier can not prevent disaster, I nannoti. The crisis seems to have passed, but only to re- turn in a few weeks, sand again he cables: 'Can not return, but this time 'because songs condition too dangerous to travel1. And this dismal story, petioularly of repeated illness, drags on to the end. At Culloden. Nevsrtheless, at intervals, and especially during the closing mouths of 1890 and January of 1891, he found mach delight iqn renewing the friendships of lauld lang syne', in visiting scones of historic interest, the fountains of patriotic erotions, in his "Caledonia stern and wild", and particularly in reviving in his mind the days of Ancient 2ome. Willlam kept pace with him at first, end ech caught fire from the fervor of the other. They received a 3en- uine Seot weloome from their kinsmen on landing at Greenock, spoelt several weeks at Alexandria, the old family home, visited Tban, ,J. S. Blackies highland f;vorite, thence by the Caledonian CanP1 khro-gh Omagniioent scenery' to Invernioss, the ancient seat of the Came:rons of Lochiel, - a name charged wilb poetic wonlers. There, in pur: Celtic atmosphere, they drove al; once to the fatal field of Cullden where Proud Cumberland prano:ing insulted the slain, And the4r hoof-beaten bosoms were trod to the plain. A pyramid seven or eight feet high marks the spot, and stonies engraved. with names of clans tell where lihey fought and died. Evident!l the President was deeply moved; he i;2peaks of the proscription of the elan- heads by their English cousins, of the revtards offered for them Idead or alivel, of the "atrocitles" that earned for Cumberland a.nd Hasrley This page in the original text is blank. 132 the title of "Butchers". The namnes and dates are .nstonishing. Sure- ly we must be reading a newspaper report of Teuton doings in Northern France. But not This w'as only a family qcuarrel among the B3ritish, in 1745. &reat numbers, possibly 20D,000 or 300,000, in their proud oat- riotism and fierce hatred" of the barberous House of Brunswick (whose "fair-haired young daughters" aaother Soot, Macauley, coloe3rates). fled to 1merica and revenged th,:.selves on the English in -the Rro- lutionary War, whose Issue is amoribed by Patterson not to Puritans nor to Cavaliers nor to any others but the exiled clansn. the faith- ful adherents of the House of Sbuazt, mdee famous by the fates oa Charles and James. Such Is his favorite contention, whioh is nob without elements of historic truth. - He visited the very uncien c barony of the Colquhouns (our Aaricanr Calhoun" and recalls the-ir long-lived feud with the MoGre gors. which was quenched in 'blood at their meeting in the Vale of thte Glen. 'e wonder what they were fighting over. "But what they killed each other for, I coUld nol; well make out". Certainly, for no good reason at all. It was pEAt- riotism. the clan-feeling, that drove them to hew each other to pieces "I tell thee, Colloden's dread eohoes shall ring Wlith the bloodhounds that bark for thy fugitive king". Carobell would hardly h6ve introduced this detftil without the sar.ztion of tradition. The Duke of Cumberland himshlf insptired the merciless fury of Hawley's Dragoons by urging them before thebattle to remember that the Highlanders had circulated a document that deoanded "no quar- ter' for the Lowland foel but nc other person but the keen-eyed luke has ever been able to see the document. "The Man (Mark Twain) was moved by hate - the immeemorial passion of the Puritan1 - says H. L. Mencken, not indeed a safe authority but sometimes partly correct. (See footnote, p/117). This page in the original text is blank. 133 in mutual hate - for ht , lrer alone"er . A a". Prom Edinburgh the Vattersons vislt1 i the battlefield of Donne Hill (Dunbar). where Leslie and his Covenanters were crushed by Cromwell (1650). Their 5killful comnander, superior:o Cromwell in strategy. knower : that his own position was impregnable: but the Gospel ministers of the Comaitttee of Estates, in his arr7, know still better and would not rest until he abandoned it and went down to "hew Agag in pieces before the Lord"; and Agag - Cromwell remarked wvih pres- cience, if not proprietys "!The ],rd hath delivered-them into our hando,". An Industrial Experiment. esignated by Governor Buokner a's Dele- gate to the British Association for the Advanenunt of Scionce, .res- id..nt Patterson proceeded to Leads, where it convened in August, un- der the Presidency of the chief of British egineers, Sir Jr3hn Hawk- shaw. Here he meL Sir ,Ienry Roscoe, one of whose favorite pupil.s was Albert E. 'eInke, sometime Professor of Agricultural Chemistry in the A. and M,. College, whose leaemical intuition' Patterson partieu- larly admired. From Leeds the Pattersons vlsiled Saltaire, the nod- el town of North England, named from the founder, Titus Salt (dicoow- erer of the "secret of the manufacture of alpaca cloth") and the riv- er Airs, - as it Droved to be a most interesting and successful ax- poeriment in cooperation. "His operators were virtually taken into partnership with him. A comnittee was a-pointei to examine the books at the end of each year. After taking out a sum sufficient to cover the Interest upon the money invested, the buildings erected, the This page in the original text is blank. 134 machinery. repairs, insuranoce the wear ;nd tear of the plant, the renainder was divided emong, the employees in ;roportion to the earn- ings of eaoh'. He tells us much more ahiouk this suaaessaul sola- tion of the vexatious iuestion Dsf the relation of oanital anld labor', in a tone of pleased and .leasiag syrmpathy. No other pa-sage i: his notes can be read with more satiLsfactien.e On the Strand. Southward bound, they visited various places of historic or other interest, and on Bosworth Fiold the young VillLams was almost frenzied with enthusi sa in recalling 'pasages Zrom tie u ch-debated tragedy of Richard III. In London" the kindness o: Mr. B. F. Stevens - the wll-known Book-merchant. with whose flrie Patterson was in close relation; for half a century - had providod them convenient q uartet. Thence they sailed (Oot.16) to Antw)rp. and visited the Belgian Capital. and William's fancy again took fire The name S.ltairo preserves the names of the founder and the rivter ilre. Somewhat similarly, the name of the town Pllman, -near Ch!.cago, is said to have beon formd of ahe flrst syllable of Pull - an and tXe 1,-Lot syllable of A1t - man, the ingenious gertleman who worksd out the scheme of orgeniiation l380), on c3mnission of the fsunc.er. ioorge '.!. Pullman. -Nj a pleamat surprise appeared in the person of Eldward Ellermhaw, a State College graduate of 188E. :leoogniuing them 4a they walled. on the Strand) from an omnibus-top, he dismounted and hailed them. 1lith enthusiastic affectiont. He was a young Englishman of Samrsets.ire. whom Wanderluij-, disguised as imterest in agriculture. had. luked to Canada in 18CE, thence to the Blus Grass and the 'Colloeg', thenco back to London, where as student in rlddle Temple he had just won two pri- zes of 100 ga&deas each in Constitutional and International Law. This was a great jo,- to Patterson, whose interest was the liveliest ir the success of his students - and success befell them in the amplest meas- ure. Ellershaw distinguished himself in the Boer War and went down with Kitchener in the am (June 5 1916). This page in the original text is blank. :.35 on the field of '7atarloa, as he! recited the ell-ree-mbered lincs of 3,yron, so generously praised by Sir 'Ialter Scott. N1ot even an tneOy coull have grudged the hopeful youth these moments of deer delight - so long and keen the agory, so brief the wsan of life. that awa2itd him. Through the Depths. From Brussels their way led to Paris (Nov. 2). where Alexander Hunter and the avocat Rene Mausaixe and other friends made two weeks of sight-seeing delightful. Thence by way of Dijon. the quaint, their cours was directed to Italy. "And thy7 witih singing cheered the va-0, all in the highest glee, and the Mt. Canis tunnel resounded with Bonnia Dandel and other Favorite 30ngs o' Scot- land. Iorning found them in Pidmont and Turin, thence to Geno&, where Patterson was interested mainly in ethnographis observations, sal ihenoe to Pisa and Florence. whiere the world of wonders opened full upon them, where the light of the Rebirth of Humanity still lingers in beauiiy like a polar dawn. after the oiircuit of six hundred suns. The Malady. Bub the songs in the Tunnel were almost the laut that the Three should ever sing with the full rapture of heart-felt Joy. For soon after arrival in FlorerLoe the scn, .7illiam. the just pride and hope of his parents, was seized by an obstinate malady. which through nearly five years was ta baffle the skill of European and Amerioar physicians by its persistent recurrence, and finally 'bcre him where we cannot see" (the 3rd of June. 1895). The youth had ant been quite well in Lexington (where he was graduated. 1889). but hitherto (saving slight attacks in Paris and elsewhere) had sesmed to This page in the original text is blank. 136 bolossom In health since sailing fror- ew York. Prm this tbime as till his etura to Jjmerila he swunX like a_ pndulun bet-'een hope and fear, never at -ny time perfsctLy well, p.5sd=in tinrough seasons Df exquisite torture into times of cor.-perative and almost absolute .om- fort and promise, now on the crisbt. now in the trough, while in- creasing care and anxiety consmned the hearts of his parents. Natur- ally his mother suffered most, ifor long stretches almost bmund to his bedside, and her pbysical as we:Ll as mental plight was wretched. A 'i.ngle, Cup. But hz- faishers distress and alarm, as re- vealed in his letters, though varying and remittent, were often 4ox- 'remo. Ilt can hardly be that his mind was ever fter at rest. Ne.er was the sky quite clear ageint always a dark cloud hung on its hixm. As days, weeks, and months went by in the slow oscillation of hist on s disorder - that son tu wh .rm hi' very heart had seemed. to bo transplanted, - as he began to realize that the high hopes on which he had been feeding for over twenty years were turning to ashes cn his lips, that his child could ii.ever be really well again, but r.nst at best drag oat not so rnuch a vigorous and joyous life as a fee'lel and painful existence, his heart must have sunk within him, a nalming sense of the emptiness of all =ast have come upon him. Yet he bcre himself with conspicuous woutage. "C-alvinisir', says the melanchely Dean (Inge) 'is simply baptized Stdcis!fl; but in Patterson the Stoic- iswas not simpAy baptized but also softened into pathetic tenderness for his son. Whenever William's condition would permit, his father was abroad, as in Rome, ex-ploring the tossed ruins of a world, or viewing railes on miles of paintings, or inspecting the many-halleo This page in the original text is blank. 137 laboratories of Berlin, Leipzig, Vienna. or visiting battle-fiells and crying out to himself. "S8to], for thy tread is on an emnpire's dusib". The Lemnian. Meanwhil, he found time to write a n',unbar of 'oll- considered articles for the preas at home, on a variety of subjects. articles displaying great alacr:Lty of style, range and exactness of knowledge, keenness of historic sense, and in general justness o: observation. If one shouldefind any Zault at all it would be that his interests and sympathies arei notably with the notabilities ol! history, with the rewe rather than with the Miany, with Kings and prin- ces and captains, the great, the rich, the wise, the strong, with in- flexible laws and immovable conutitutions and fixed ordinations of society, rrtther than with the toiling millions, the striving masses - always uplifting their bowed heads only to be smitten back into the dust, the groaning Enceladus of Humanity whom the Aetna burden of tra- dition and prescription and precedent holds down in Ignoranoce poverty and shame. He tells of Cavour and Victor Emmanuel, but no word cf Garibaldi or even Mazzini. Yet there are some passages in his essays and speeches whieh show that his ears were not really stopped to the "lamentatfnn and the ancient tale of wrong". In any c seo, we are filled with wonder at the unrel, zing, untiring energy of the lame Artificer, who still toils at the forge of compositioni. while bearing at once the burden of the 'College' - for he is continually discussing Until within recent years, of Bach has been History itself - "the corzemoration of the few by the Few for the Favr" This page in the original text is blank. 138 it in countless letters - and the still heavier load of grief w3A disa-)xointment for his invalid aon. "e are re:::ninded of the mela:- ca' . ly lines of 'Platent All cal esi; and all joylessness, From Easi; to West I go; Unutterable frost succeeds Unutteralble woe. In Central Europe. The foregoing remarks do not apply with full force to the stay in Italy afte, leaving Florence. Following his re- covery from the attack in that city, William was apparently well, and with his y ung kinsman, Yindlay McClintoek, he delighted in tte IVOR- ders of Rome, Naples, Venice. and even Vienna. In erite of his r.eces- sary uneasiness, the President vias overpowered by the proce-sion of history that marched continually before him, and he accounted the month in Rome one of the most memorable of his life. But the tour seers to have been without noteworthy incident till their arrival in Leipzig (the last of January, 1891) where of course they took early opportunity (Feb.3) to view the field of V bl kerclacht of the great Napoleonic overthrow (Oct. 18-19, 1813). In the midst of these sublime recollec- tions (as Renan would say), his malady seized upon William again, and On observation, how ver, of particular imnportane -mas pro7oked by hil stay in Dresden. tIn Saxony and some of the smaller states adjacent 15,to be found the purest Teutonic element in Germany. The casuaL ob- server could.not fail to discove:r marks of 4ifference between the in- habitants of Central &ermnW and the ruspian. Jinker. The ormer is an industrious, kindhearted and unselfish man; he later is haugty overbearing, arrogant. claiming I2he right i3n ruio and ambitious fr rule - as he can u--on all who corne within the sphere of his activities,9 This page in the original text is blank. 139 for nearly three woks stretched him on his bed. The rhysioian rocog- nized appendicitis ("perityohlitis") i ediately, but his boldness of treatme-nt was not equal to his xiagnostic skill. He shrank froza ap- pendectomy, as did nearly all &Lropean physicians at the time. On the Spree. At length, on the 23rd of Feb., the su fferer seem- ed able to be moved to Berlin. but the next day he was prostrated. againl and again the physician (Dr. Braemer) seemed to understard the disease thoroughly but hesitated to operate; he was very attontive, howver, - daily in his visits for two or three weeks, a-nd 'very nod-. erate in his charges1. This moderation nrnst have been very noteworthy, to receive such notios - and it was in the heart of Junkerdom. The stay in Berlin - prolonged till near mid-April - brought the Patter- sons little but anxiety and distress. The President was twice sumnon- ed to Police Headquarte-s, where he ran successfully a gauntlet of Questions rather irritating to his .,nscious innocenen, which may per- haps explain in some measure his severe jvdgment upon the "Junkers., but fail to suggest the methods Df A. Mitchell Palmer. a`tersas notes with interest that the police authorities were far more im- pressed with the sealed oorxmiss Lon of Goveruor 3ackner than with the unsealed letter of Secretary Janmes G. Blane (possibly they recalled Though such operatw'ons ir. theperiod of quicscenoe had been reormatonded. in 1887 Ly Sir Fred.Treves, who iron his barometuy by operating o Ee- ward VII for "perityphlitis" (24 Jun, 1902'. - This :)re Greek term, along with others, has retired beifore the hybrid "appendicitis" s'.noe the notable memoir (1886) of Dr. Reginald Fits of Boston. This page in the original text is blank. 14) the fanmous 'ixhortation of the Secretary, "Burn this Ietterl). T_ Alpland. FromT 3arlin to M!unih. the pleasentest rusLden'.e citg in Euroe, - but William's illness agair Interfered and blooked their movements. Thence to Constanoe, famous for its beautiful Lake and its Holy Council (1414-18) irhich in spite of his "TImperial -3uf Conduct" condemned the "nale thin man', John Hus, and burned him at the stake (July 5, 1415) for "IfElse heretical and revolutionary oc- trines", as well as his pupil Jerome of Prague' (30 ray, 1416) w.o had hastened to his master's defence - a right valiant Council, set to restore the unity of the faith and to 'make the punishment fit' the crime". At the Cradle of the Kirk. thence to Luoerne and then to Geneva, which seemed to Patterson the most attractive city on the Continent, the most desirable for permanent residence. Xere indeed he must have felt at home as nowhere else, for here had .J .ar Calvin taught and molded his pupil John Knox. Few things overwhelmed Patterson with such awe as the broad shadow of ialvin that still seemed to fall 3nd rest on Geneva. He visited. CalvLn's church, he sat in Calvin.s chair; Where the President found 'litt:Le to interest us, sxoept -laces of reminiscence connected with John Hus and Jerome of raguo, lboth of whom antedated the period of Luther'. This treatment of Yus semmi: rather unsy-apathetio when we rewmber his immortal words: "Seek th, truth, hear the truth, learn the truth, speak the truth, hold to ohe truth, defend the truth even to death". A noble elima, a genuine Jaoob's ledderl Hus was in fact many centuries ahead of his age; !-oany buds of his thought are now only beginning to burst into blorn. 2he rebirth of the Czechs, a remcarkable people with a remarkable language. reminds us of the ancient Phoenix. See the recent work of jaroslav Cisar and F. Pokorny on The Czechoslovak republic (T. Fisher Unwin). This page in the original text is blank. 1411 involuntarily he 'recalled the expression of James Anthony Froud.l "St. Paul stamped his imageon St. Augustine. Augustine on Calvit, Calvin on Knox. and Knox upon Scotland and Scotland upon universal Protestantisn', which I believe to be literally true. The subtle and covert implication of the free-thinking and romantic historian. that the whole long-drawn religious movement of nearly two thousand years was man-made throughout, in its origin, its prolongation, and its consummation, seems to have escaped the detection of President Patterson. Cities Comnared. The stay in Geneva was further signalised by a delightful drive over the city, and the three turned their faces towards Paris, where they arrivei the ovening of May the 1st. WiLliam was again ill enrouts, having fainted in Lyons the day before. A stay of nearly two weeks in Paris, of weary waiting upon the con7alescence of the youth, and againtbsV land in London (14th May). Here the -)a- tient was again violently attackod by his pitiless persecutor, anI again the best medical advice ob1jainable dissuaded strongly from an operation. One authority who sai.d decidedly "1ol" was the cistin.. guished Dr. Sutton, who assisted Sir William Gull in his investiga- tion of Bright's Diseaset and like many other Assistants did most of the work. The long stay in Londcn was another period of imratienti expectation. A very cordial invitation to Oxford from Dr. E. A. Freeman (who has succeeded Dr. Stubbs as Professor of Miodern Histcry on the latter's ascension to the Bishopric of Oxford)could alas! r.ot This page in the original text is blank. 142 be accepted. But Patterson's letters at this period are not valu,- less, for they contain some inte;:eating appreciations of the principal cities. He says 'London looks imattrasotive after Berlin and Parls, but surpasses all in the throng of travel, traffic and business1. Paris looked lovelier than ever 'n May tbut has not the same attrac- tion as on the first and second risitl - perhaps the 'psychologic moonntl, his unhapplness about William, determined this Judgment. Berlin he praises as ta great city, with a high average of beauty, much higher than any capital I ht ve seen. There are much finer stireets in Paris, but there are also much more repulsive ones'. But this was in 1891, twenty-three yea's before the Greai Deformationt Home Again. On Saturday, Jtne 6, came the long postponed journey to Glasgow; and again the patient relapsed. The contemplated sailing on the 25th had to be deferred, end not until August did the unfort- unatn travelers reach American shores. Here the invalid revived cuick- ly and flourished in fairly good health, interrupted only by 'mild. attacks , till the crisis of 1895. XII! THE SMOULDERING PIrE Settled. On resuming his official harness, the President found that the University affairs had been well administered through a critical period by the Vice-President, John R. Shackleford, Professor of .2nglish,C an able but modest, unassuming man, whose name deserves Whence it might appear that evren gentle Professors are not always incapable of texecutivel functions. This page in the original text is blank. 143 mention in this volume. The Con'rention had ended its labors and enshrined in the new Constitution. beyond the caprice of Legisla- tures, a recognition of the muchdebated half-cent tax, and thus, along with the favoring decision of Judge Holt in the Court of Ap.. pealm, had set a double seal upon the life-work of Patterson. '3ut for the next General Assembly (1891-92), distinguished by the meembership of --ny able -en, it ras no light matter to adjust the statutes to the now Constitution. The important regulation con- cerning County appointees to the 'State Colldge' (as it was tempo- rarily labeled) has already been mentioned. These wore in large measure years of fruition, peaceful and pleasant for the President. Reminiscence. In 1892 he attended the New Orleans meeting of the Association of Agricultural Colleges and Hiperiment Stations (there seems no way to shorten +he namel) - his Ifirst visit south of Clarksville, Tennessee.0 There he met the Tulane President, William Preston Johnston. son of the Confederate chieftain. Albert Sidney Johnston, whose mortal wound at Shiloh (2 p.m. 6th April, 1862) not only stayed but turned the tidle of Southern triumph and saved the name of General Grant to history. This meting recalled to :atterson a pleasing incident. It seems tiat another member of this aouspiu- ous family, Colonel J. Stoddard Johnston, Editor of the Frankfort 'ea- w was in 180 a candidate for l;he Presidency of the reorganized A. and 1,1. CollegeS Colonel W. C. P. Breckinridge. the far-famed orator, had been suggested by Patterson a,.- a member of the Board of "rusteos. but declined upon the ground that he would not Tote for Johnston and This page in the original text is blank. 144 preferred not to offend his own :Friend, the New Orleans kinsman. Taturaily the heart of Patterson warmed towards the Pylian of Kea- tucky and the iniodent is valuable as shedding light on the ideas, methods and motives that prevail on the highest planes of social and official activity. The Sword Falls. The calm vxays of 1893-4 seem to have left few tr.pces in Pattersons memory. 3Bt in 1895 the 30-year 6 bond.s of 1865 natured and strangoly encugh were not reissued till 1898t Thus there developed in the College budget eaec year a disagreeable debit of 9,9001 In 1898 the Stale awoke and generously ImF.de !Od the deficit, and the overflow of 2,OC,0 was direated by Patterson to the Natural Science Building. All these matters he Mainaged with unyavering fidelity and devotion; surely, however, not with enthusi- srsm but with the heaviest of hearis. For already (June 3, 1395), bhe woo of all woes had fallen upon h'im in the death of his son. Sin,eo the return from Europe the recurr4lnt malady had assusnd a miader form, .nd the parents had doubtless hopfod passionately that it would proire Iself-limitedl and gradually withdrw agnd leove the youth in oeace,. -Lut nol In April, 189Z, a severe attack onnfined him to the house and even to his bed. Still in mid-April the consulting physicians re- gfrded an operation as contra-indioated, but in spite of all their skill he sank steadily until the last of' May. ,hen stirgiaal interference ap- peared to offer the only hope. On the firs' of June the operation was nerformed by Drs. ':tclhurtry of Louisville and Barrow of Lexington, too late, alas3 - for the young man dLed the second day after. e had This page in the original text is blank. 145 been teaching in the College, where he was a general favorite, full of kindness and gracious qualitis, of rare accommlishments in beLles lettres and kindred studies, a youth of lively intelligence, of clear mental vision, of enthusiastic artistic temperament, reminding us more of his uncle William Kennedy that of his own father. A Father's Grief. The death of an only son has always been re- garded as the saddest of all bereavements that can befall a father. Not that the son is worthier than. the daughter or dearer to the fE.- therts heart, but our society has ordained that the name be transmit- ted through the son, and with this name the father descends in a fig- ure to posterity. But the loss of this only child, this new nurture of an ancient stem, his only hope for all the ages to come, was stun- ning. appalling, overwhelming - in peculia and excessive measure to 'resident Patterson, and for two reasonsi because of his intense and overmastering clan-feeling (or family-affection). and because o2 the utter extinction of his lineage, which it signifiedi All of his brethren were already gone save one - no hope of any family-oontina- ance was left him, none whatever. For one to whom such hope was by far the most cherished of all earthly possessions, its sudden and complete obliteration must have been heart-crushing and desolating in the last degree. The blow fell l:Lke a bolt from heaven, with blast- ing --ght. Black from the stroke, above, the smouldering pine Stands a sad shattered 1;runk. Such was President 7attersan the rest of his life. "e read of nen, This page in the original text is blank. 14d; whether in !meri-!& or in 3urop., who behold perhaps an only son smitten with death on the battle-field and nevertheless go on calmi- ly directing the furious strife, urnmoved and serone as the Angel cf destruction that "Rides on the whirlwind and directs the storm'. . All honors to such heroic and patriotic spiritsil But let us rme=rr- bor that sc: the warriors trade, that they are urborne by the elation and enthusiasm of oombat, tat like Horwr s heroe2 they re- maeaber the rspture of battle. In fine, it is not foolishly 3laimel that Pattersonls grief was the graatest that ever bofoll a father, only and justly that it ranked high in its class. In any case, we moustbear it always in mind, if we would understand the last ;eriod of his life, through whioh he waliced in joyless calm, ao-.d the sleorly gathering gloom. Reaotion .',hen such a weight of woo falls upon the plant called mlan, how will he reaet Hoow adjust himself That depends, Pattezson was too old to shake It lightly off, and too strong to bow orushed and humbled to the dust. Some natures less intelleatual, lseJ firmly poised, more emotional and solfish, might have fled from the world, renounced the flesh, and become reoluses in thei own homes or in a religious order. But Patterson's soul stood like "the smoul'ering pine", "black from the stroke", "a sad shattered tu, but 3till it stood, unshakably strong. Sorrow is not merely saddening; though it maZ sweeten, it far more embittisrs, it makes hazah or even sour. 'eI are prone to applaud whenever soraeone who hat exhausted lust to lust's satiety may give to heaven his wrinkles and gray hairs; This page in the original text is blank. 147 but we take far tao little account of the extreme moral trials that grief and pain and severe outwardL conditions may entail upon even noble matures. Very unjustly thet rich expeot the poor to triumph easily over temptations which they themselves could never know. IMany a one might be amiable and g:enerous and even virtuous on ten thousand a month; it is no high art. So in the heyday of budding hope and joy, "Youth at the prow and pleasure at the helid'. the qtual- ities that delight and aharm may perhaps run rampant in glee withcut meaning much for the deeper and more enduring elements ofcoharaoter. But we may learn much from how a nan bears a monumental and perma- nent grief, from the reaction of hiis soul to the adverse condiltions around it. Readjustment. What then was the recoil of President Patterson Re could not indeed exclaim defia:it&',- with Henley: In the fell olutch of Circumstance I have not winced nor cried aloud; Under the blud,eoni.ngs of Chance li-t head is bloody but unbowed. Such had not been his experience. But he had suffered even more. He had beheld the death of hope; the full outpouring steaem of his love and pride had suddenly sunken treckless in the sand. It would not seem unnatural but almost inevitable for his affective impulses to be in some measure turned baok upon themselves, as a hand put fcrth ir.to the emTpty dark is withdrawn. And it may be that such was partially the case, that he became more self-centered, or even more self-regard- ing than before. I do not know; but even if such were the fact, it This page in the original text is blank. 148 should provoke no severe jud-zrsnt. However, the only rooognixable traces 2aiV such reaction, L.f there wt.s anJ such at all, indioate only e very partirnable and almost amiable readjustment of emotions. As he can no longer hope to li'e in his son, he now seeks to live in every other possible way. he makes the University his heir; he builds a mausoleum he thinks o0 a bronze statue of himself to be placed on the Campus and to delfy the tooth of tim he begins a long series of autobiographioal notos; he desSles a merorial volu to enshrine his name for years tocome; he would found a College of Di- .plomaoy to endure while the present constitution of society obtuins. Longing for Life. Surely it is not possible to misunderstand all these zonsistent tokens, to mistake the .oint upon w a;: -. a_ thes3 indications converge. It is the Instinct of Life, the lor1g- ing for posterity, the yearning to endure, the desire to descend in soyme forna or guise th.irough the ages. It would be a very shallow in- terpretation to call this mer Eagotism. The most oatholio and Chris- tian longing for Inmoortality might be so called with greater justioe. There is in it undoubtedly a deeup tinge of Individualism and perhaps a lack of the complomentary shaile ot Universalism, of World-loo (as Francis Younghusband calls it); but Patterson was (not an Anglo-3axon but) a Briton. a Eelt. He could not be trz-e to his own blood wlth- out being strongly individualilstd, whereas he was not only true, he was distinctly typical. "And Something of the .horter-Catechizsl". Had his outlook,upon life been 1:roader and less sharply focusse4, had his feeling for Humanity been less national, racial, and even tribal, This page in the original text is blank. 149 had it veered only a little mo:'e towards what some might call shad- owy Ideals and vague abstracticns, he might have been, not nerheps a better nor an abler nor a usefuler man, but more lovable to n.ny, more diffuse in his benevolenoe tnd beneficence,more sympathetics with the most, less antipathetic to a few. The New Poise. As already stated, it is necessary to bear all this in mind if we would judge the waning of hts life aright. lur- ing his later years undoubtedly ho fell for a while out of touat. with some of his fellowmen; him whom his earlier letters and history exhibit trembling with the joys of amity and renewed acquaintsnoe and hugging his friends close to his heart, whose general bearing with his fellows it has been hard to oriticise at any point, we shall later find disgruntled with some and in uncompromising strife with others. But he was perhaps never consciously wrong, or unjust or ungenerous, never oonsciousl; false to man or to God or to his Ideals. If he erred, it was under the urgenoe of strong impulses that were racial and unconsoioubi rather than conscious and personal, and beoause he was looking too Straight ahead to see widely rouni. But enough of this digression. Day-Dreams. The Patterson letters of this summer (1895) teoltify to his inconsolable grief and desolation oZ sAirit, but there is lit- tle unmanly repining, or vain reigret, or self-reproach over some imag- inary delinquinoy. On the wholei he bears himself nobly upright, un- bending, without disguising but without exaggerating the immensiiuy of his affliction. His day-dreams bring back his son continually, This page in the original text is blank. 1SO not always in his last agony but nearly always in some context of recent exoerience. In Chicago under date of 21st July, 1895, he writnSg 11 had position. I had competence. I had a son second tc none within my knowledge. Ho has left me. 's1hat are the rest worth 15y life ends, if not in failure, in utter disan'v)ointmentf. And herewith he strikes the keynote. It was toe vast vacuity left be- hind him by William that he went on striving to fill up, striving almost unoonsoiously, but by the law of his being, which drove hit on as resistlessly as it drives on the whelo world of life to pro- that long itself into the future by L1ve and union. Again he writejThri sorrow cleaves to him and he will not get rid of it. for that wouLd be disloyalty to the dearest thing on earth. 11 was ianonsciousl;r leaning on him, more and more living in his lifeo - again we hoar the keynote. cIly dear bo, is goe, gone from me forever, till I meet him in the eternal worl.d1 The Mother Departs. In thei hope of finding some diversion from the thoughts of their oalamity, President Patterson went with his wife to the Jenver meeting of' the A.A.C. & E.S. (1895). What seemed to please him most on thi long trip was the visit of Dr. Darby's son, his former pupil in Transylvania, who, learninE of his presence in Denver, came all the way from Cri-)pjl Creek to see himl Only a very grateful and hi-hly appreciative pupil would have done this. He was also deeply touched by the Associationts resolc.- tion of sympathy. But concerning the years of 1895-7 his memory was almost a blank. In the latter year his mother passed avw.y at This page in the original text is blank. 1 1 the ripe age of ninety-one. Upon the many virtues, the fidelity, diligence, industry, piety and Managerial ability o0 this excellent woman, who had lived in his house for thirty-four years, President Patterson dwells with the pathetic delight of a loving son, plainly, however, without one extravagant adjective, without the faintest disoernible note of exaggeration. The day of enthusiasm was gone. XIV GRO'1TH AND GROWLS Fin de Silcle. The years around 1900 were marked by great e:- pansion of the A. and M. "ollege - departments moulting into sohovls and rofsssors into Deans, with a MUltiplying throng of Associatei., Adjuncts, and Assistants. Of ourse, an extension of material ac- comodations was neoessitated many new buildings had to be erected. and new funds supplied, and new appeals made to the Legislature. It was under the administration of CGovernor Beckham. Po wonder that the grief-striaken father, now approaching the Psalmist's limit oJ! seventy, was unwilling to pitch his tent in the lobby and push on the proper legislation to passage. He entrusted this uninviting I-ask to the efficient hands of his only surviving brother, '!alter Konnady Patterson. The spirit of the ycunger son had always ohimed well with the elder9s, and their judgments rarely, though sometimes, clashed.. Friction. But along with so many other new developments, at this time there sprang up certain disoords and contentions in the College This page in the original text is blank. 152 administration that grew more and more regrettable as the years went on. The presidential policies did not always comnand the hearty support of the Executive C' mittee, which was sometimes divided in its councils. For example. it seemed almost impossi- ble to agree on the site of the bullding now known as Patterson Hall. A competitive sibe, 'the Grahea property' was offered at a much lower and inviting figure (4,000), while legal difficulties conoerning the title to the preseit site, 'the Pepper property', nroved very embarrassing. Such indeed exist nearly everywhere in abundance, and he who seeks shall find. Few measures are proposed for the oublic good that are not balked or hindered at first by some legal obstacles in proteotion of some private interest. "Laws and Statutes, said Europe's sagest head, "are passed on by inheri- tance like an everlasting diseaseod reason turns into nonsense, bloss- ing into curse. ',Voe unto thee, t'Aat thou art a grandehildl" In still further complioation of the epper tangle, an item of 1200, taxes for street improvements, wasi still unpaid. The Patterson brothers carried their point with the Board of Trustees, first by buying the site themselves, paying; the price (10,600). and then transferring the grounds to the College under a 'guaranteed title' (as Pattersons legal lingo puts It); then they assumed the tax 4bligation themselves, in the fond hope that the city would forego its claim. But when President Patterson applied to the City Coun- cil for release from payment of the tax, a vigilant member of the _xeoutIve Committee was on hand with mrompt notifiwation that he This page in the original text is blank. 153 would bar such release with an inunction. So then the younger Patterson paid all the tax unbarred by the statute of limritations. generously relieving his brother. Appropriately, the building eroated on the site was named Patterson Hall. Development. For a number of years it hrA been the cherished hone and aim of the President to hae the name changed from College to Univerpity. Again and again in his semi-annual Reports to the Trustees he had urged the propriety of this change, and with great insistence. However, it was not merely enough to win over the Board; public sentiment must be aroused and captivated, the good will of the General A33embly seoured. It was a long and tedious campaiga o education and persuasion; the ditails would not now be either interesting or instruative. 3noug' that it was effective. B;y At of the Legislature (16th March, 1908), the Charter was amended and the expanded institution received the name of State University of Kentuckq. Imagia. the exultation of Patterson, the patient Odysseus of eduoationj Name and Nature. Hereupon, hawever, the Argus-eyed Law leaped again into the ring. The Attorney General, haking back apparently to the elder view that the vital esisence of a being was shut up in its name, now held that the ohazLge of the name from College to University involved a change of identity, a genuine transubstanti- ation, that the College had ceased to be, and therewith the fmr-famid half-cent tax had lapsed into non-existenoc and was not collectiblel By later amendment (1916) this superflucus 'Statet was omitted. This page in the original text is blank. 154 Against this ruling the President p:rotested successfully in an argumaent of transparent clearness wid oonvinoing power, exhibit- ing vividly the distinction between College and University, also showing that the Lexington institution had passed the chrysalis stage of College and was then sprouting its University wings. - and all by sheer, normal growth untransubstantiated. Growing Pains. Strangely, howover, this sturdy, "airy pros- porous growth' was accrmpanied Iby iilbtiplying dissensions and ex- acerbated feelings, some of whioh are this day hard to understand. as c child I heard so imuch about Igrowing pains' as almost to be- lieve that a really rapid healthy growth wasvell-nigh unenduralle because of its agony. Such was nearly the case with the College- University in the years around the turn of the oentury. Every knife soemede sharpened, and there was a chip on every shoulder. On the death of W7illiam ,at comencement season, out of respect, the Board of 'rustees adjourned to the middle of the month, while the students and facu:lty by oommon consent dispensed with all Commencement exer- cises beyond the more giving of diplDmas. The President was sharply criticized for accepting this latter token of sympathy, - he should not have allowed the students to sao:rifice their gaiety to their sympatbyI As if the student of to-day were a monkish recluse in crying need of diversionS And suppoaie the President had declined their proffered condolence and ordered the regular exercises to pro- ceed; how some would have denounced him as unfeeling, more brutish than Brutus, himself I This page in the original text is blank. :L 55 A VAis a Max im. These unfortunate dissensions that dE.rkenec. the penultimeate state of President Patterson ' life are n.)t easy tc, de- fine in their origin, and the aooounts and views are so divers! that the more we learn the less we soem to 1mow. In administration of the University he may have appeared arbitrary. One may suspeot he had grown weary of self-vindication. of forever wearing. the shield of defenoe. Like Diomed of old, he felt galled by the strap and longed to lay it aside. Heno he adopted the maxim to donsider well before deciding on a course, but having decided to -'ursue it inflexibly to the end and without any apologr; for he who onoe begins to defead himself, to apologize, is lest, since there will always bo complainte and hence no end of apologies. Herein undoubtedly there is worldly wisdom; but it is the maxim of an irresponsible ruler, or, in G:eek phraseology, a tyrant (however benevolent), and he who follows Jt, no matter how wise or how good he be, may expect to save much wcorqy, but also to lose much love. That Patterson adopted it seems in part at least a token and expression of the world-weariness that wei- hod upon him in later years. The Tight Purse. Again, the Faculty felt that he did not uni- formly .e.bet them in their just desires for increased salaries, and they wsare doubtless in a certain measure right. The Presilent's lTot wholly, however. The clan-fealing issues on the one hand La Loyalty, on the other in AuthorLty. Patterson was thoroughly loyal; at the same time he not only reoognized but asserted Authority; hba sympathized deeply with the 24onarchical Principle. He speaks of "1the three feriale sovereigns who made Britain illustrious in arts, in science, and in arms'.. Such an expression would hardly occur to any but a royalist in the roots of his nature. This page in the original text is blank. 15(; own sa.lary had always been ezosedingly snall, almost ridiculously disproportionea to the servioes ozxeoted and rendered; yet he heA never eo'rzplained, he had found it suffioient, he had even assud what was almost a fortune; besides, he was a Soot, and a penny looked to him as large as a pound; above all he was heart-set oz. enlarging and improving the College into a University, by every possiblo means, and hence unwilling b, divert its meager income ard heap it up needlessly on the teaching staff. His Reports are eon- stantly exhorting the Board to the most rigid economy; but, however painful, the parsimony was evenly distributed all round, like the pressure of the air.' How necessary it was, must be evideat fron the fact that the College was nearly always deeply in debt, some himes as much as 100,000. But the starveling Faculty could not be sz- pected to appreciate all this nor to take his point of view. To them it seemed that the Adminisl;ration could "always find r0oney -to do what it wanted to do"l Looking round upon the multiplying maeses of brink and mortar, they naturally exclaimed "We ask for bread, and they give us a stonot HenOe there resulted an increasing en- strangement batween the a'aoulty and the President. Collue - and Station. Ancther spot and source of oontinua] irritation was the relation of the Experiment Station to the College proper, and the proper application of its increasing funds. The 'Though, inv a transport of indignation, theo President Meritus might boast to the Board (5th April, 1912) tE very acre of ground and every brick in every building wre my creations, to his honor be it said that he never reckoned his own sorvioes in dollars and cents as vorth three, four, five., six or eight times those of his ablest associates in the University. This page in the original text is blank. 15 Agrioultural Dlepartment at Wash'.ngton had ruled that no part of bh. 4atch payments could be ased in payment for instruotion, whereas the -Arioultural College naturally looked with l-ngry eyes at the amle resources of Its younger sister, Patterson, who had been very acitive in securing enactment of the Eatoh measure, very erious1ly questioned the correctness of this ruling, aIt'Lough disnposed to observe it, and quite openly inclined toward a 'Oliberal oonstruction' o the Act of Congress., It was only human nature in the Directors of the Stations to insist upon independence and self-government, so that a strong tendency ,)ade itself felt in many such Stations toward a practical severanee from the Agricultural Zollelges, a tendency whieh the College Presidents felt in duty bound to opn-oso. Hence friction without and. Vertical or RiorisontalT Sbill another and far iaore f-ndameatal mj-atter regarded the proper naturip and direction of developmunt, wv:ith- er extensive or intensive, whother by the establishment of new Col- loges, as of Law, Medicine. Pharoaacy, Dentistry, Corore, and wuLt- not, or rather by the promotion cof Resaarch, by strengthening, reo- finDng, and every way bettering the educative and enlightening agencies already at work. The President held firmly to the latter idea, he de- fended it on various occasions, and particularly in hsl most imoirtant teliort, after the change of name. Therein he semed to rt;n counter to the spirit of the age, but his reasons seem to be unassailable. Mhe excessive spread of the American University and the general trend tow- ard premature speeialization are shining marks for the most unfavarabl. This page in the original text is blank. l 38 critioism. At this point his iReport of June, 1908, may be heartily com-iended to the reader of to-day. Lines of Growth. By a singular iropV of fate, the Board had already, at a special meeting in April. entered upon the expansivu course so forcibly deprecated bZ Patterson, when it established the Coliege of Law and elected one of its own members as Dean, while se- gotiations were hanging fire with the Louiswille Uedieal College. In further evidence of the same ironV stands the fact that the Presi- dent himself in this same Report calls for the establishment of a 'chocl of Commerce and a Sohool of Journalism. each on a scale of exceeding thoroughness and oompre'iensioni His reasoning is azoell- ant, his ooncentions the most enlightened; but Judge Barker was ri ght in referring such grandiose sohemas to the future - though a; lease a beginning might be made by re-grouping certain courss already g:Lv- en in the lUniversity. 1Whether their full realization would belong to extensive or intensive development, it is not here the olace to inquire, but it should be observed that bot h these plans lay very near to the atterson heart, for both were outbursts of his dominating Er'Lpire-1sonse, his feeling of the mission of the Anglo-American to rule, to direct., and indeed to own the earth. The Schools he had in mind were in fact unconsciously intended as a3ents of the holy propaganda of the Anglo- Keltio race-lordship and World-Dominion, to .hich his whole fortune is finally dedicated by the 13th section of his last "ill and Tests- moent, which provides for the founding and endowment of the Willism Andrew Patterson College to preparelyoung men for the diplonatie ani This page in the original text is blank. 159 acnsular service of the United States', and tprovide special train- Zng for those who may seek emorplyment in extending upon rational and. scientific lines the comeroial relations of Americal. By such in- ternational Trade and Diplomacy, he would help the English-speakeru to govern the globs. The racial nature and the national feeling of P.atterson ran true to form even to the very end. A !ultinlo Official. The Trustees were not ooatent to ordain a Dean of the new-born College of Law; in almost the same breath they made him "Comptroller", with all the powers and fun_1tions that imagination night assemble under that mysterious rubric. For inatance, he "shall be charged with the general oversight of the morals of the students"g he must also visit and oversee the cla.ss rooms, looturo-rooms, and laborator:tes and pass judgment upon bhe work and the methods and the efficiency of the Professors It re- quires nany words to state the endl:oss duties (such as no man on earth could perform) of this concenI;rated official', who is appar- ently respcnsible to the Board alone. It is not strange that in his next Peport (De8. 1908) Patterson speaks of the office of Comp- troller in rather aoid terms and calls for delimitation of the spheres of influence of President, VComptroller, and Business A.gent, not to mention Director; - in fact, the Administrative solo hai become a trio. if not a quartet, and it would require much practice to secure porfect harmony. But it does seem strange that none of thi3 was foreseen, at least by Patterson, in the creation of the "Comptroller". This page in the original text is blank. 160 The Cadet 3loo. Yet another stono of stumbling in the last iuo- decade of Patterson's Administration was the lilitary feature of "he instruction. 'To attempt can here be rmde to unravel this tangled skein. Znough that the drill wit;i accorapanients. which one might have hoped would produce order, discipline, and good behavior among the students, had no such demonstrable effect, if not the contrary. Comaints of disorder, insobordinatior., disregard of regulations, wre not infreqaent; the teachers even set the bad example of ab- sentin- themselves from Chapel exercises, in spite of repeated warnAqngs from the President and the Board, who seemed nonplussed in the -oesence of such perversity. Against this pervasiv, insurg- ence the most strenuous and persistent effots were of small avail. Cnfortunate Incidents. A number of incidents distinguished this era, such as that of the Comoandant, of the Eeportear. of Hallow- e'en, of "the disappearanoe" of 71. E. Srlth - whose later reappear- ancs was rather less spectacular - and those stories were widely and eagerly scattered all over the tnion with a high degree of repor- torial skill but with a rather low degree of judicial exaotness. Such excited representations did the College soant good and were hardly meant to help it. but it seems anazing how little harm they aoosnplished. The attendance does not 3sem to have been sensibly .f- footed.. Perhaps the public had heard such tales before, even about Cornell and other Universities and had Learned to discount them This page in the original text is blank. 161 properly. M eantime the President and the 3oard seem to have borne themselves with oalnass and moderation, though it was cer- tainly hard sailing over a ohoppy sea, and the voyage was exceeding long. ChIaerchez la Feone, Yet another apple of discord remains to mention. The controversy over the audmitsion of women to the !Jni- versity bore the bitterest fruit with the least visible relation to any merits of the case. A playful. only half-earnest remark of an eloquent orator was caught and taken au grand sfrioux and resent- ed deeply by family pride and affection, feelings in themselves al- together worthy and laudable, but subjeot to morbid exagge'ations, to hyperh sthesia. Such super-sensitivorness may develop strange results and entangle even the passionless student in perplexities. The position of the President was at fi:rst apparently that of an Olt is not easy with the present writer's inadequate knowledge of the general situation to devise any expLanation of the anonm' that oharacterized this era. The Law of 189:5. while popularizing the College, had undoubtedly brought an inf:Lux of much "pioneer blood", of raw and rough material, more attractive in Its possibilities than in its actualities. President 'atterson referred the irregu- larities to the 'Dormitory' system and 'ras unwearied in his protests against this latter; but the Board seemod not to accept his diag- nosis, though the Dormitory is certainl;r too o2ten a focus oi dls- order and unseemrly procedure. Perhaps it was a wavel, a phase of College life, a knA of enidemie that had to run its course and pass away leaving the oommiunity, let us hope, if not izzune at least less exposed to sueh attacks in the Suture. In any case, the local animus, as reflected in the press, whet':er lust or unjust, can hardly have ccntributed mch towards bettering cinditions. This local tiemp- or towards the College had not hitherto been always the kindest. In a recent public address a Distinguished alunus tof the late Isightiest) testifies that "the students were intimidated when they appeared on the streets in their college unifornd'. This reminds us of' "Town and GovW1 in Verdant Green and might indicaeo a reversion to primitive type, but hardly a survival of the fitt4)st. This page in the original text is blank. 12 innocent bystander, which is perilous enough when "Both ways missiles amain keep falving and felling the people'. He was drawn into the wrangle rnuch against his own will - for there was no promise of any possible gain to him, no matter what the out- come - and solely by his sense of duty to the University as its President. Once in it, he bore himself bravely. though extremely reluctant to sacrifice life-long attachrnmnts and convert the honey of friendship into the gall of hatrod. Into the merits and demerits of the strife it would be vain and fo lish to enter. Little is ex- aotly determinable at this distance, sni still less that might, oduld, would, or should interest the reader. Those misunderstandings and animosities are quieted now; let them sleep the sloep that knows no waking. If b Reason of Itrength. - But there may have been even still deeper reasons for the cloudiness that overhung this decade of Pres- ident Patterson's life. -:e was growing old, not in spirit but in years. In 1898 he had attained the limit that American Judgment sets as an average to useful activity. The gCrybeaw4 may indoed be tole- rated a little longer, if he behaves right well, but only under oloso watch and growing suspicion. He need not expose ran signs of waning vigor, to justify this critiuai attiiude of the general mind. The prasumption is alweady against him. It is vain to refer to the hosts of examples of men that have done much of their best work in the la- ter years of a long life, sometimes far beyond he Psalmist's more generous limit, It is so much easier to quote Osler (unintelligently) and to fcllow a general rule bliadly than to budge saoh case on is This page in the original text is blank. 163 own merits. There seems to be inheren1; in our toivilizationl a tendency to substitute meohanism for thoughtt some rule-of-thunb for cautious inquiry. te have little tlrme to think, we rust act. So the public were drifting perchance to the opinion that the time was up, that Patterson was lingering suparfluous on the stage, that he should make way for a younger man, - and this on general prun- otples,' regardless of the special evi&ense in the case. - for his powers had put forth no token of decay. 'Ie Nestor Untamed. Of course, this sentiment of the public, gath- ering like a cloud on the sky, could not escape such a keen observer as Patterion, and of course he resented It. He detected no justifi- oation for it in his own consciousness; like Nestor of old he felt still untamied by years and still able to lead forth his forces to battle. In championing the oandidacy of an ageing friend he mar- shals an imposing nrray of such Nestors. but we feel in scanning it that all the while he may be half-unconsioously defending himself against hints, commnts, reflections, ard observations that kept Some Tsyohologists. as Ribot and Varendonok, think they discover a similar trend in all mental "evolution". "In proof may be cited that Report o_ June, 1908, the ablest he ever made; how open his mind was at that time to the light of new truth may be clearly seen in the following sentence: 12ven in the domain of theology. disoo'ueries made in sciences apparently so remote as eth- nology, philology, anthropology, archaeclogy, are from year to year profoundly modifying po-existing beliefs' - peihaps the boldest ut- teranoes he ever addressed to the Board of Trustees: for to Imodifyl a belief is to set aside in favor of socething more or less similar. This page in the original text is blank. 164 straying from vc- rious quarters toward him.. Niothing more natural than for all this to arouse him to self-assertion and to the reso- lution to hzld the fort to the laost. kany a high spirit has nroud- ly refused to withdraw under fire, and Asuch was emphatically the toetoer of the Itighlander - "With his back to the field and his feet to the foee. So would Loohiel prefer to lie, and nothing loss was worthy of his far-wandered eompatriob. At 2. Accordingly, during all those long years of covert criticism ead open o-)osition President Patterson maintained him- self and his policies and his control with dogged determination and with apparently nwevr a thought of Yielding an inch or of res- ignation. Undoubtedly his conscience vras olear and self-justifying at every stage of the game. The steady growth and many-sided devol- opment of the University argued strongly that no grave error had marred its administration," though the heroio period was past and there was no great opportunity for the dls lay of creative wisdom. Such an institution tends to automatism. It is borne along with a certain gathered momentum and of itself will describe its predas- tined path year by year without much special defleoting or direct- ing from without. Once he resigned from the Building Comritteoe, but-wam persuaded to withdraw his resignation. The loss of the normal School in 190E was indeed a heavy blow to the University (and to the State) inwolwing more than the loss of 300 students; but it was perhaps a necessary concession to human nature, because of the hardness of hearts, and not by any means a faulrt of Pattersonts. This page in the original text is blank. 165 Nature and the Wlst. Meantime the President maintained fully his wider contact with the world around., In 1SO0 the College ond Experiment Station Asusoaiation transferred its meeting to San rr- oisco, and the President with his wife and brother attended. it was a season of unbroken enjoyment. Tho wide W'ost unrolled its beauty, its majosty, and above all its immensity before him, and no other revelation of Nature somas to have impressed him so deeply. We wonder. why this livelier sense, so rmch livelier than heretofore In many individuals, as well as in the race, the feeling for nature d sepan and intensifies with advancing years. We are sometimes dis- ap ,cinted at the indifference with which the young, even the highly intelligent, regard the wonders of the external world. The life-tide is too full and strong for the quiet co.teroplation necessary to the perfect appreoiation of the panorama around us. To this general con- sideration should be added another more special, that the absorbing human interest of the President was perhaps on the wane, and the groat voice of the Universo was now rising above the cries of the struggles of men, and even of his own hopes and fears, ambitions and exp eta- tions. !Us heart was sore wounded, almost unto death. It was lature, not b.an, that poured upon it a soothing and healing balm. "Nature never did forsake the heart that loved ber". A similar thought is It was the day before his 87th birthday, when Earth was awaking from her winter-sleep, that, on returning from a short walk, as he entered his Library he murmured, half to himselfs tI do not know that life ever seemed so attractive to me aS it does how9. The Nature-sense is liveliest in the Spring. This page in the original text is blank. 166 the burden of3 the exoulsite first scene of the second part of Faust. -eor more than a week, solely at the Statels expense, the visit- ing scholars fared from point to point cf inter.st in the State, and at last the President turned toward the North. to Tacoma. Seattle, Portland, and thence East by the Great 1Forthern Railway of Canada; then leaving the Canadian Pacific at Mocsejaw, they returned to Ken- tuaky through the Twin Minnesota Cities and Chicago. - completing a month full of hap iness such as he at least had hardly hitherto known. "Education and Empire'. At the Atlantic City -neeting of the sams Association (1902) he was called to the Presidency. A lthe fcl- lowing Pmashington meeting (1903) his address on "Education and Em- pire" received the most flattering recognition, and address unex- called in the history of suoh meetings. If it were reproduced in this volume, the reader would be struck with the exceeding wide range of thought, of intellectual and educational interest, and with the general sanity of view and clearness of outlook. The orator glances from the most reoondite researches in the granular theory of the eth- er to the most practical demands of industrial and vocational train- ing; they are woven together in the wide web of h1is thought, har- monioulsly as the colors in a Corot landscape. One voint of his in- sistenoo is noteworthy and highly charackeristic; he dwells on the Aminportanoe of IPistory, especially of Anglo-Saxon history; he would roake the s9'lendid tale of the trials and triumphs of the English race, particularly in ito struggle for Freedom and Constitutionalism. a This page in the original text is blank. 167 permanent Rart of the oonsciousness of oresry Amerioan. Hs intention- ally varies the proud formula of DlrI.srli on return from Berlin, 1873i "Libertas et imperiat'. Liberty, he thinks, we alrer.dy havel what -.o need is Education, to seoure the Xlmiire. Some one liight ask, Thry Empir Why not Education and rreedsnt Is it quite so sure that we reaily have this latter There is muiuh in recent history ihat sig- ge3ts the gravest aoubts. Great RaceT or Groat faoe But tlh notion of Zmpire is deeply entangled with another idea of Patterson'sE, whih he cherished with reoligious revereneos the world-wide misiiion of the Anglo-Saxon as the Ruler of the earth. Ethnologists te'.l us much that is highly interesting and much that. is true about 15he Great .0co. maning the Teutonic or Germanie ( of whioh the Anglo-Saxon ia the only offshoot that Patterson seems to reaognixe). Undoubtedly a great race, very great indeed; but the great rase That iL not so sure. sadison Grant would indeed prove that the Greek gods were tfair-haired' or 'yellow-hairod' because !lomr calls some of them lrioh-huirod (eukom-)1t Possibly no,other race has been so set upon political- oom-nercial-industrial dominion as the Antlo-Saxon. bua in sniise of E. S. Chamberlain and his authorities the facts are that Soul-Dominion is not the esapecial privilege of the Teuton, that other races make oontributions to Culture and to lEumanity ouite comparable with any, that the Anglo-3Saxon has made or is likely to make. As an illus- tration of the potentialities of other strains, one might take Pres- ident 7ataerson himself. We may not say how his blood was blended This page in the original text is blank. 168 of Plot, Scot and Briton, but certainly it was not deeply tinged with Angle he cane from the test of Scotland, not bhe East, and he would have been tte last to deny that the attractive picture he draws of his noble brother William (p. ) is as little as possible like the Anglo-Saxons, the bright-hairod ohildren of the snow and foam. Then, sad relief, from the bleal: shore that hears The German ocean roar, deop-boomiag, strong, And yellow-hairod, the blue-eyec. Saxon came. But the question of Race and Empire raimes problems much too wide and toc deep for discussior- in this oonnection.0 Enlightening Soiennoe. The largely tttended Washington meeting was rnriked not only by Pat-ersonts presicential address, but ,also by his almost equally interesting "Retrospect of fifty Years", in whicha he skatohed the movement of history (a tleme he always handled with skill ani delight), especially in its reation to the development of Although President Patterson was thus az.. avowed Raoialilt and Nation- alist, it should be said to his credit that he bridled his patriotism with sanity and never allowed it to boar him beyond both the bounds and the reach of reason, - unlike Rudyard Kipling in his otherwise noble 'Doe. Recessional, particularly in the refraini Judge of the nations, spare us yetl Lest we forgolt Lest we forgotl Ma-Aifestly the bard means not "Lost" but "Though we for et"I yet his own extravagant Great-Britainism (or his readers') would not allow him to make such an admission, and accordingly he flouts truth and co-on sense, and falls into the unspeakable and impious absurdity of warning God to "spare us", on,pain of being forgotten by usl unless He "spare us"I1 Whereas the whole teaching, not only of the Old Test- ament but also of History in general, is that it is precisely when Fo t1sparos us" that we do forgot. "Jeshurum waxed fat - and kicked." It is not &paring but runishing that makes us remember. - Whon this perfectly obvious coroeation was first published in the Criti4 of New York. the vditor was overwhelmoA witli letters of violent protest! This page in the original text is blank. 159 State education nder the stimulus of the :orrill legislation. This lwninous "RetrospeotI" is most remarkable for its explioit dec- laration of Pattersongs att. tude towards the theory of Development of Evolubion, particularly as set forth in the works of Darwln and his congeners. :e declareso VBy the new impul3o given to biologi- oal stuly and biological research stimulated by the far-reaching investigatior.3 of Darwin and llallae. and Iuxley and Spencer. the theory of evolution has teen placed upon x firm foundation and has become a poaotioal working leverage for alvanced movement in every direotion. lWhen from the present vantage ground we look back we can soarcely understand how profoundly ths attitudes of thought and of s :eoulation, of accepted theory and well-reasoned scientific con- clusions have adjusted themselves to the aew interpretation of na- ture and of life. Theology no longer dreads but ;reloomes the hy-poth- eais of Darwin and of his fellow-workers :,!oral speculation ac- cepts it as thae key of rational interpretatioon. and every branch of natural science Cinds it a firm pedestal opon which to stazdt This clear-cut deliverance was made in 19)3, while Patterson was at Such is the view of the Christian Evolutionist, Ernest E. Unwin, eloquently set forth in his recent Rj1Din and Biology. Hear also the Dean of 3t.aUlls, VT. H. Ing. i his Cutoken ,ssays (Second Series), p.56: "The discoveries which are still rightly assooiated with the name of Charles Darwin have proved, beyond a shadow of doubt, that the so-called lower animals are literally our distant cousins". In his Comuencement Address, Kentucky Vniversity, 11th Juns, 1871, President Patterson had disowned Darwinism, but in a liberal spirit and with high praise of Darwin and his peers. Day unto day utters speech, night unto night showeth knowledge - and a full generation had a-.mpleted his conversion. This page in the original text is blank. 17C the full height of his powers. Much water has flawed under the bridge since then; biogenetic. has undergone great development and transformation; many of the earlier forms of the evolution theory have perished by supersession. being transcended by higher forms - a fate that awaits all thought and knowledge; what better could be desired But President Patterson had never any ococasion to re- tr7Ot his saying. IT '1C::nITDIcNS OF RETMEIMENTI A Calm. This decado of hard sailing brought littil peace to the .resident but much prosperity to the University. He enjoyed the hearty syr.,pathy and support of Governors Beckhamz and Willson, and through legislative liberality about ton buildings rose upon the University (or College) grounds, while the Zxperirmsnt Station Farm expanded to 201 acres - certainly a plain answer to those that cam- plained of his agoing. And now, strangely enough, he found himself once more successful all roundi the Board and Exooutivo Colitee stanch and ono-minded at this side and the muroxrs outside hushed if not forgot. What did it all mean Perhaps an involuntary admi- ration for the groybeard Nestor, whom nothing could iaunt, nothing cireuwvent, nothing overcome. Perhaps also they "olt that Time was their resistless ally; what they could nrt bring to pass, the itas wovIA 'ui.ly, silently, if not speedily, acooomlish. Be that as it may, an era of good feeling now seemed ko set in. The President, so long tossed on turbulent waters, noti,3ed the stilling of the wavss This page in the original text is blank. 171 and 2zlt the 2avoring breozo and determlned to stir for port. It was .low thn fPrtieth year of his Presile:aoy o:e the many-named insti- tuticon, thre climacteric of his high career, and its oen.1etion was on all hinda enthusiastically celebrated. Every interest appointed its speaker, ead their addresses, along with an "Appreciation", Vere p; .lished in handsone volume. More than all elseo perhaps, he val- ued a letter fDom Andrew Carnegie, 'the greatest Scotohmnan and Phi- lanthroopist of modern times'. Carnegie had already two years before urged him earnestly to apply for a henefiotion 2rom the Carnegie"Foun- dation for the Advancoement of Teaching"; and later the President of the Foundation, Dr. H;enry 3. Pritchett, had insistently renewed the suggestion. Patterson yieldtd to their urgenoe and in June, 19C2, he was notified of the (Carnegie) Trustees' resolution enzolling him as beneficiary at any time he dhould retre". Retirement. Acoordingly, at the June meeting of the Board in Lexington, he announoed his determination 'to retire at an early date', and asked 'for a Coninittee to consider oonditions of retire- ment ad to select a oompetent man to :.oseed ro. Ihe Board hoard with surprise and manifest regret', but a&-onated the Committeet Messrs. Patterson, Barker, Clay, Stoll .nd Terrell; the President sketched in very eLaiphatto terms what type of man should succeed. him. "lhe "Conditions of Retirement" (unfortunate phrase that smacks tUe At one point he almost seems to be describing unconsciously himself; "a man of high moral character, with a reverent attitude toward things sacred and divine, not necessarily a church-n , but in symrpathy with the religious beliefs and aspirations oi' Christiuity4. This page in the original text is blank. 172 much of war and surrenderi) were reported (Louisville, 30 June, 1909) by the Committee through its Chairman, Judge Barker, were adopted without any dissent, and 'became effeotive 15th January, 1910, on which day President Patterson tendered Governor Willson (as ox-officio president of the D3card of Trustees) his formal res- ignation.- There seems to have been a foieling that breakers were ahead, for the Governor urged him to witAhold the resignation; he, however, 'thought it had gone too far to stop' - language that im- plies he already regretted the course talen. Indeed, he certainly A few days later he appeared before the Legislature in eloquent pleading for continued and augmented support of the UJniversity - a powerful passionate appeal, and his latit. Very charaoteristic- ally - for he was never naturalized but remained a Scot to the end - he turned the L0gislatorts gaze not back to Bunker's Hill or Concord, where "'Onoe th' embattled farmers istood And fired the shot heard roumd the world", but moh rather and further to tBanowhkbultwere 'six (he meansfive) hundred and ninety-six years ago ........-a blow was struck 6or hu freedom, the echoes of which, through al'L the succeeding generations, have resounded throughout the worldl. Robert Bruco. a typical Soot laird, after giving a "tardy adhesion" to the national cause and tak- ing a the kingly crown at Scone (27 Marcl, 1308), did bravely and ably wage the war and decisively overthrow the weakest. Plantagenet, Edward II, and his false rretensions, at Bannockburn, 24 June, 1314. What was won on that bloody field was political or national inde- pendence, the Scot right to a Soot king, - which was much at that time. But 6OU years have shown that such political liberty is by no means all; without economic freedom it is mainly mockery. Nearly forty years before (in the Louisville Ledger, May 18, 1871), in a learned discussion of Habeas Corpus, 'the bulw13t of freedomt and of the part played bjy Scottish royalty exclusively ia 'its violationt, the Presi- dent had expressed himself - unguardedly perhaps - somewhat differ- ently; 'The whole period of the Stuart drnasty, from the accession of James I till 1679, was a struggle cve:t this fundamental principle o. the English Constitution -a principle that descended fromn "Ethel- bert, Alfred and Insl, through the laws of Edward the Confessor, the charter of Henry I, the Magna Carta of King John - but which the sua- cessors of the Bruce forfeited crown and even life rather than recog- nise.' This page in the original text is blank. 173 came to recognize afterward. that 'the cardinal mistake I made dur- lng ray conneetion with the University was that I did not accede to his request, viz: retain the Presidency &ad ask the Booard to give re an assistant. - The event would seem to justify fully this great regret of the President's life. The "ConditionVI. The "Conditions tf Retirement" were report- ed by the Corwittee. -.7hiah seems to have (Lone little beyond reporting. These 11conditions" exist in the remarkable chirography of the Presi- dent, they plainly reflect his whole mind on the subject, they were his own deliberate and carefully pondered creation. Conditions of Retirement (reported and adopted 14th Doc. 1909) First: To rpay to President Patterson for and during the remainder of his natural life, sixty (6o) per oont of the present salary which he now receives. which sixty (6C) per cenb amounts to Three Thousand. (3.000.00) Dollars per year: that this sm be payable in equal monthly installments. Seconds That resident Patterson be designated as President Zritus of the University and shall continu, a zombor of the Faculty. Thirs: That he be permitted and allowed to sit with tbe Board of Trustees in its annual and semi-annual sessions, and that he be por- mitted to participate in the deliberations of the Board, but without a vote. Fourths That he be recognised as an adviser and auxiliary to the Vice- President of the University until a now President is selected. Fifth: That he be given the privilege of representing the University This page in the original text is blank. 174 at meetings of the National Associations, Kentuck Teachers Associ- ations, District A.ssociationS, County Associations and High Sehools of the Con=ronvealth and that when he does so represent the Univer- sity all of his expenses to be paid, but ';his privilege of repre- senting the Urtiversity shall not be exclusive. and he shall not take precedence in such representation over tho Now President when ie is elected, should he be present at such Ass)ciation. Sixthl "'hat the University rent to President Patterson the house and premises which he now occupies for and du:-ing the remainder of his life for an arnua rental of Two Kurdred and Forty (240.00) Dollars per rear.e R. C. Stoll, Secretary. The conditions as proposed by President atterson to the Board, June 2. 1909. read thust MWhen the time comses for offering rt resignation I desire to have the following suggestions considered: 1. That the retiring President be allowel still to maintain a semi- officiil connection with the University through the honorary title of President Mmeritus, or some kindred desig:aation. 2. That this carry with it the privilege of sitting with the Board of Trustees in their unnual and semi-annual sessions and participat- ing in their deliberations. 3. The privilege of sitting with the Yao-alty and participating in their deliberations. 4. Recognition as adviser and auxiliary to the Vioe-President and later to the incoming President, until he beoomes familiar with the routine of business. 5. The privilege of representing the University at mxetings of the National Association, Kentucky Teachers Association. District Assooi- ations, and County Associations and High Schools of the Comnonwealth. (That such Orepresentationt di violence to the constitution of the National Association of State Universities, which provided that such frenre3entationi shall be "through the President or Chief Executive of the institution", seems not to have occurred to the writerl) 6. Generally. any service which might be of benefit to the University, but that these services be recognized an voluntarily given, and that I be relieved concurrently therewith from personal obligation and rospon- sibilities. I -may add that I should like the privilege of continued residence on the University grounds.' N.B. The 60 per cent proviso is wanting. To whom its insertion is due must be conjectured. This page in the original text is blank. 175 Contradiction. The first and nearest-lying bervrk upon these "Conditions of Retirement" is that in the main they require there should be no retirement. The President oontimes in service, he retains distinct and highly dignified dutiss, he represents the University on the most important occasions and in the most exalted manner; he receives sixty per cent of the full Presidential sala- ry as compensation and In recognition of these services. iis hand remains on the helm, for he 8its like "Zeus the Adviser" in the Councils of the Board, where his persuasive voice had long been all- controlling, and with the evident pur-pose of still directing its de- liberations - wit, tout a vote, it in true, but his vote had been sol- dom, if ever, decisive, - it was his presence and his counsel that swayed the decisions, and wherever he sat was the head of the table. Their Soone. It is clear, then, that. the "Conditions of Re- tirement" amounted nearly to annulment of the Retirement itself. In the resultant form" of the University ac.ministration we are re- minded vaguely of the Dual form of Govermient, which has been so popular throughout history, of the Two Kings of Sparta, the two Consuls and two Emperors of Rome, the two Chambers in Republics - as our own Upper and Lower House, - of Ca:.hounl-s plan for Two Presi- dents and even the two parents of a child,, Eidently, under certain circumstances the scheme might work as a iiystem of checks and balan- coo. But it seemed without precedent in the history of the American University and sD stood in need of special vindication. Accordingly This page in the original text is blank. 176 we rmust inquire what w"re the motives and considerations that lay back of these "Conditions". The most obvious explanation would be that the President was moved by the 1ve of authority and power. He had long guided almost autocraticaLly the fortunes of the UnLi- versity, which he not unnaturally and not unjustly regarded as in large resa-ure his own creation; he wait wearied by the weight of the sceptre he had wielded for over forty years. but his hands would feel painfully empty without it; he would roll off the burden of responsibility. while at the same timo presiding in a very real and effective fashion over the University s career in the irmmediate fu- ture. That such conditions moved the President seems certain; but it would do him grave injustice to acoentuate the lust of dominion and rule. Not that he was free from 't, not that he was a Sulla or . Charles V.. to resign the reins out of oontermpt or disgust; but that he was not mainly determined by a self-regarding impulse. Mixed Motives. For in th, t case he need not have retired at all, hes mijht readily have secured an assistant from a complaisant Board. No, the President was naturally and pardonably reluctant to surrender the high' placo he hAad held for forty years, but his chief ooncern was the gool of the University. w'lich had taken but not filled the place of Wlilliam in his heexrt. He felt that it still needed his paternal careit wara not qi te able to stand alone, it might easily stumble and fall. He knew that he ocould still serve it effectively both in the Councils of tl:.e Board and in public before This page in the original text is blank. 177 the learned worldi. and he was unfeignedly eager to render it serv- ice, 'rimarily for its own good and only in secondary :nasure for any distinction or power such service eould bring him. ,he Ideal Successor. !,is essential unselfishness is clearly seen in his extreme ea.erness to get the very ablest successor that the whole Union could afford. Ho sought far and near, and the stand- ard of excellence he proposed was exceoding ligh. Not only executive and administrative ability, but extraordinary intellectual endowments with oorresponding scholastic attainents, seemed to him indispens- able. Ho oorros-ondod with the Drincipal eduoational authorities in the land. From one choice he seems to have been dissued by 3J. ritchett (whom the Board had asked to help them seleot a now Presi- dent), who feared that such "soientifici and philosophie genius" might not consist with the practical talent required. And so the search went on. All this implies sincerity in Patterson's concern for tihe University. lHe was not seeking some fE.irly good man, Vaho he might hone to,control, in comparison with whose personality his own would shine out with aided lustre - as a sell-seeker would have done, - but he earnestly sought an intellectual and educational leader not to be dwarft by any comparison with his predecessor, a man that would The Investigating Conmmittee in their careful, thorough, and consci- entious epbrt (June, 1917) found this "Conditiont in direct conflict with the cbastitutiou of the National Association bf State Universi- ties, which specifies that such representation shall be "through the President or Chief Eiecutive of the Institution". This Report is m- reserved in its condenation of the "Conditions", at least, in their actual working. This page in the original text is blank. 178 not take his oue evern from the masterfl 7eritus himself. A Protest. No doubt there wess a certain inconsistency here, but that was not strange, for Patterson was not troublcd with con- sisiency, that special virtue of little mninds. Such a giant as he sought would scarcely be content with a second fiddle; he would Mardly be patient with the supervision implied in the "Conditions', espaoi3lly not with the critical presence of his f7-o 4o forerunner. rDr. Pritohett clearly perceived thr. anomaly and protested in court- e:us mannar, but without availi the President felt that he could not sifely trust the young University wholly to stranger h.nds, he was "'Jesiring, unconsciously no doubt, still to guide its policies" (seport of the Investigating Committee. p. 19, - a document that does honor to its authors). That his apprehensions were by no means altogether unfounded, was illustrated by the course of subsequent events. Unwisdom. 25o must then admit the controlling honesty, sincerity, inte3rity of the President's motives in retaining so many insignia of Presidential authority, ;while certainly not claiming for him any self- forgetfulnows mwre than human. However, the wisdom of the course chosen oan no' for a momnt be eoneeded. The ubjections oF Dr. rit- ohett were well-grounded, as were others - a fact that Patterson him- self cculd not .long fail to oerceive. From the strirt it was impos- sible to fulfil such Yea-and-Nay "Conditions". Thew Pnsion. 'he-n now we pass to the financial cla'se, the case This page in the original text is blank. 179 appears in a light that is hawdlly more fLvurable. It was certainly true that the continuing services of the President, as prescribed in the "Conditions". were honorable and valuable enough, but none the less they were such ns th. wont of twArica does not recognis with financial retiaras. Poets laudatur et- vjget. The Trustees then). oelves received no pay for their consultations. deliberations, andu ,.;eneral rtvnrge=Ant; it may take weeks ox months to pre;are an ad- dress before a scentifie, philosophie, or educational assemblage. - end the sreaker may not expect to ree"ive even his traleling ox- pernses3 The Board -ight justly claim th&,t the sixty per cent sal- ary wan a gratuity. was practically a pe:nsion to the retiring Prrsident. 3ut pensions were hardly a ):3rt of thenfisoal polioy7 o. the tCnivevsity, and the President was aready enrolled &. a bene- ficiary of the Carnegie Foundation to ths a-ount of 3,000 a year, so that kis income after retirement was considerably larger than before, - a ste'te of case at lea-st anorwi.loue, Besides, the regu- lations of the Foundation prescribe tha1, a beneficiary - Professor, though hi may d. many things to eke out his "allowance", "shall no46 be on the payroll of any University". 'erhaps this does not apply tc such superior dignitaries as Presidents, and the right is gener- ally oonoeded to Founders to do as they will with their own. But still the snirit of the notable benefac1tion seems violated in the double nension. Bessdes, the P-.tterson estatbe was reckoned rightly or wror-gly at a auarter million, so tihal; any quostion of need wus excluded. This page in the original text is blank. 180 Work and Wage. On the other hand, it could be urged that the Presidaent had all along been onntent wiiih a salary quite 1itiful in cnnmparison with his iri-ense deserts; th:Lt he had profited the State by xnany thousaads, hundred thousands, siren millions, that the Stato was merely rendering him some inconsideoable acknowledgment of the benefits received. All of which is ver-r true, but is not relevant, The question of Wotk and W.7age is a -uzz.iAng one; what ratio exists betwreen the two is not determinable. but it is oertainly not unity. A 1l4ilroad President may receive 100, :)Q0 a year, but none can say he - as worth just so much to the Railroad. Perhaps he was worth a million m.,ore, yet he might have done fully as well on ,10,000. In Europe such a resident might have done even better on 3,G000 a year. A surgeon may 'interfere' and s3ae the life of a multi- millionvAire and so render him a service worth at least 999 millions; but he would not think of charging at ,=st more than a few thousanis. Nay morel A switchman or brakesman or Dth3r humble employee may sbop a train - by the utmost exertion at the risk of his own life - before it reaches a crumbling bridge, and so mDy sa-.ve the lives of hunareis and render P. servio not expressible even in millions; but no one thinks of giving him any large reward - he is lucky to get a medal or some insignificant gratuity. R1 91CWG Solon Son Pouvoir. But you say, Ithe employes was merely doing his duty' and so was to be reckoned amnong the "unprof- itable servants". Verilyl but so was the surgeon, the Railroad President, or any other, merely doing k.is duty, which calls for every This page in the original text is blank. 181 manis best in the functions of his post,, in the service of his fel- lows. ITowever invaluable, then, the 0:oaievenants of Patterson as President, they could ground no Just cl"im for eX0ptional recog- nition by a pension, although it mar hare been highly proper for the State to pension very President and every Professor on such retire- ment from its service. So then the sixty-percent provision must appear, not in itself improper, but unjustified by the University practice and unwarranted by the circumstances of the cese. Navertheless, it was not unnatural for Patterson, in view of his 1 ng and snlendid career, at a wage rauch lower than generally paii, to seek some recognition in the natvre of a pension, and it was undoubtedly soothing to his dignity and his sense,of worth to have it paid not as a pension or allowanoe but for continued vol- iu.tary functioning for the Univorsity in the exalted position of President Emeritus. Still there remanins the apparently irreconcil- able contradiction between a beneficiary, a President retired, and a President Tnerlitus paid for regular continued service. - 25ven though he should find nothing absolutely inexplicable in this oom- plicated stiuation, the reader will per&ps incline to judge that it was a hard bargain that was closed with the Board in the "Con- ditions of Ietirement'. Once slosed, however, he will sey that it should ,have been strictly fulfilled. Unworkable. And yet the issue showed what should have been foreseen, that the fulfilment was practically impossiblet Such is the close logical texture of events. As in a mathematical This page in the original text is blank. 182 investi.gation a single slight error will. vitiaLte the v.ole and leai t endless discrepancies and contradictions, so in a work- a-day life a single false stop may resu;t In cotntless -Asurder- stanaings and conduct to misfortune or l.o tragedy even. Ulconscious Rivalry. One further .1uestion may still bewildar the render. He 'may ask, 11hy should a man 2f inde-endent =eans, of extensive rossessions, whose every ratinal Aesire was already fully met, who was firmly grounded on t'le Carnegie Foundation against any p.ssible turn of fortune, w'ly shculd he want his sixty rpr-cert salary as President Emeritus Since he was without le- gal heirs and had long since determined to make the University his legateo, why should he war.t to take -, DOO a year from the University rerely to give it back, without ever spending a cent It certainly see.as strange, but a satisfictory anewer may be found in the Patter- son nature and in the cirounstanoes of the case. He wished to make a bequest to the University, a bequest of some dignity and bulk, an irooosing rmlnicioent bequest." Tie honed to live ter, or more years, so that the total sum received, and put at interest, might mount up towards 40,000 or even 50,O.(0. J'e plenned to invest this for forty or fifty years till it seven-folded, or eilht- OMis fancy had in truth been awed by the great Scottiah Founder, Andrew Carnegie, whom he regarded as the Prince of Philanthropists and almost as the Chief of hlen. This page in the original text is blank. 183 folded, or ten-folded itself.0 So the sum rose up before him as 30GO,0OG, Perh&ps 50O,0O0; and that meant three or four or five University Chairs, filled by scholars of renown; it raeant broad beams of light flaslhing all over the land, it meant great good to the Coovoonwealth, - and it meant enduring honor to the Patterson name. "such be the tale they will tell; be mine the renown everlasting." Altruf-egoism. Some one may complain that, after all, this was selfishness and self-glorification. Terhaps; even in the noblest men and deeds, motives are seldom altogether unmixed. It cannot bo claimed for Patterson that he ever overcame the love of fame, that last infirmity of noble minds. But the world -would be noich pleas- anter to live in, a -.1ace of comparativs happiness and peace, if only such self-seeking prevailed more videly in the thoughts and deeds of nen. The question has been ,ptly and impressively put: "is Selfishness, (For time a sin) spun to eternity, Celestial pru&- ence" The Catechism has given an ansswer I"1That is the caief ond of -.an" - "To glorify God and to enIo .im forever"." none the This looking so far into the future has been sharply and frequently criticized, but apparently on very shallow and insufficient grounds. It is in fact a wise arrangement - on one very natural but neverthe- less uncertain supnrositio, aamely, that the present constitution of society is to remain essentially intacii for a very long period, at least a hundred. years. But who knows rhat may happen in three or four ;ienerations Possibly the di-lomat ma;', fold his tent, like the Arab, and international commercial relations may assume forms entirely in- like any that are known at present. OeComnpare the hymni "Whatever, Lord, ire lend to Thee, Repaid a Thousandfold will be; Then gladly will we give to Thee". - Very naturally; who would not This page in the original text is blank. 184 les, it does not seem quite enough to axtend this selfishness in- de'inibely il the time-dimension only. A deeper philoso hy would wiVln the notion of Self in all dimensions and direction,, to in- clude the Unhiverse of Spirit, to develop a Z'orld-sensa such a's already -puts forth its tender buds in the presentments of poets, like Wordsworth and !eredith, and above all of Goethe, - a sense in which Egois2 and Altruism are caught up and reconciled in one. XVI TEH CLOUDED WEST :he GAthering Cloud. So much for tVe "Conditions" in their origin. After they had been formally reported and unanimously adopted. it was not strange that the President should treasure them as a part of himself and regard ary T roposal to rescind them not orly as a breaeh of a contract but as an indignity leveled at his faoe. And what the reaction against sucha unworthy treatment There is suoh a thing as "patient, deep disdain", which is said to characterize the Eant, - but hardly the ".sst of 3cotland. It is extremely to be regretted, as the most serious mistake of his life, that the Mmeritus failed to reca:.l the words of Achilles Of course the development of such a sonse. as of all higher intel- lectual and raoral senses, is a matter not o2 years but of centuries or millaenilo . Perhaps it is not out of place to observe that a certain essay, in whioh this subjeat ito propounded and briefly treated, was sent to President Patterson (191) and was acknowl- elged by him in words of unoon-only hiijh apreciation and approval. This page in the original text is blank. 1 03 addressedo to Agamem-non - Never shall a hands battle with thee on account of a guerdon. Neither with thee nor another, that takes back what he hath given. He, hoetver, was too accustomed to triumph, to accomplish his will in the face of strong opposition, and so he readily and almost un- thoughtedly accepted the gage of battle, in a struggle where no un- clouded eye could foresee aught but repulse and humiliation. First Beuoulse t 3ut we must not anticipate. One high mark of successful administration the President had not yet attained: the establishment of the University on the Carnegie oundation. Throe necessary Kentucky conditions he had already fulfilled: The Board had ap lied, the Governor had endorsed, the Generml Assembly had ap- proved. These external credentials he took to New York about Jar._- ary 20th, 1910, andi laid before Dr. Pritchett, wno was rather con- cerned, however, about the internal fitness of things, about the s irit, te.mper, ideals, and educational, competence of the incoming Administration, and was especially disturbed by a rumor that Judge Barker rculd be chosen to head the University; and accordingly he said of the three oredentialst IWe will hold. these for future con- sideration"'. The New Leaders This repulse minst have mortified Patterson deeply. He saw tne University that he had guided forty years through the wilderness thus unceremoniouslymhalted on the border of Canaasn ;ie returned and resolved to do his best. to save it and gain its aA- misS4on within the pale. The situation was one of the utmost delicacy This page in the original text is blank. 1Is3 and difficulty. He and Judge barker werathe warmest -ersonal friends, and we have many times seen wiat friendship meant for th't Fighlanaler. 'There was no man in Kontuc1q of whom I had a higher opinion or whom I loved morea. ",fe have no reason to doubt these words. But a clever lawyer, an able jurist, a skillful poli- tician, a lovable man is not alwats a scholar, a thinker, an intel- lectual leader, conversant with higher educational problems and fitted to guide the fortunes of a struggling State University. In their judgment of the situation the tvL men, ritohett and Pattersont were perfectly agreed. It was only with extreme reluctance that the latter could bring himself to opposo the candidacy of the Judge, but the issue was sharply joined: he must either obey the dictates cf conscience and ublic duty or yield to the impulse of private friend- ship. To hes honor be it said, he did. not hesitate, but opposed the ambition of his best-loved friend with all his might. In yainm The conclusion was already foregone. and in spite of the vehement pro- test of Patterson, the Jud, e was duly elected February 3S lulO, only the President and Mr. CaLssius !. Clay dissenting, - the latter voting for an impossible choice. Anticiating. To an utsider th!.s official action must appear as mysterious as a similar one in Texcs a few years ago, where, af- ter seeking far and wide for months for a President, the Board wLth- out any hesitancy elected one of its own members. This reoinds one of the barnyard cook that found a particularly luscious morsel anad loudly invoked all his harem to come and behold the wonder, and This page in the original text is blank. 187 proclaimed, "Lot the faireet take it", and then ci.,lmly devoured it hiiixelf. In both cases the thoughts of the BoarA may seem unfath- omable, but they are not wholly inoomprehensible nor unreasonable. Such Boards hnya coro--ratively little to do .rith a President as a sohclar. a thinker, a oaptain of intellect, a guide of spiri ual and educatinnal progress. They deal vrith him almost solely in ais capao!,Ly an Foreran, as boss of the job, as financial agent, as business manager. nnd it is not strange they should rate him according to his administrative or exocoutive abilities. That they esteem these latter as inoomyarably h!.gher and more im'wortant than the former, is shown both by the far higher salaries that they pay an&d by the far higher deference they iihow him. The business men that form suah Boards may well regard the President as one of them- selves, as their equal, with whom they way associate freely; but with the Professor they have little in ooomon and little to do; he is too often treated with a Uindnessthat suggests condesoension. I am Benjamin Jowett, Great Master of BallioL Collegel Whatever is knowledge. I know it, And wi.at I Don't know Is not knowledge. The cleve Q skit was fitting eno-gh for the 'mastesr of half a cent- ury agce, but would Ecarcely suit the :resident of to-day. Ir eleot- ing one of themselves - whose polliticaWl :lans had miscarried - with sole reference to his notable non-sehilastie lualifioations, the Board were not really striking into a new .ath but merely running ahead on the old, anticipating by a fiw dcades the natural courso This page in the original text is blank. 183 of events. In A.D. 2000 the American College-and University- President may well have shed his academio and soholastic feathers entirely, he may have developed into EL financial manager E. san&, and the Faoulty may have found a voioe in the selection of its own members, may have recovered some features of self-governrent and even some semblance of self-respect. A Cadmeian Victo,. After electing Judge Barker over Jr. 7eatterso ms emphatic protest, the Board proceeded with an act of graolous courtesy, by appointing Patteirson and Stoll as Com:-Attee of notification; this latter the Judgei for undiscovered reasons delayed till the Board meeting in Junei. 1910. when he accepted, and Patterson f :n-.lly pledged his sup ort to the now Adcministra- tion, but the Judge did not enter upon the duties of his officen till the ex-iry of his termi as Chief .ustice of the State, January 1, 1911. Meantime Patterson had been, reguularly ap ointed Trustee by the Governor, and as such had been named Chairman of the Com- mittee to select a IFead of the Depa-trient of Philosophy. Also he delivered the Commencement Address at the University oI Vermont where he recived the degree of _L.D. in June, 110, and returned after three weeks' absenoe - to find that the President elect, but not actual, along with another Trustee (neither a member of the Faculty- choosing Committee) had already found the right person to head the Department of 2hilosophy - the capable manager of a private school in Louisville, but without any degree from any College or University. With a singular lack of gallantry, the President Emeritus succesedo This page in the original text is blank. 189 in blooking the lady's oandi2acy for the chair of Philosophy, and also for that of History and Sociology. but she received a double a-eoint'nent3 as AFsociate Profissor of English and as Dean of Women. A Dream ereversed. Thus had Patterson been compelled by oom- r.on sense and his sense of duty to throw himself twice aoross the path of his beloved friend Judge Barker. About the sazme time Dr. ritchett, in his report (for 1910) ad, President of the Carnegie Foundation, condemned the action of the Board in outspoken and 'xnequivooal terms. None of these things contributed to the hap- pinass of the new President. Indeeo. 'they soon became annoying in the extreme. Patterson had doubtless supDosed the Trustees would elect a successor of his own ohoosing and after his own heart, with whom he ,ndly imagined a kind of Damon-and-Pythias or father- and-son relation. In all the counoilo of the Board, which might not always be harmonious, it would certainly be a beautiful thing for the Now to have always at hand tho sage advice and (the) stanch support of the Old. So, we may be sure, the fancy of Patterson had pictured the matter in 1909, - and perhaps also of Judge Barkerl for the two were living in cordial amlty. But the dream had chang- ed into its exact opposites There sat the Ancient in the pose of the keenest of critics, chilling with the icy breath of his cal-- oulating intelligence every warm-hearted proposal of his This page in the original text is blank. 190 succssorl A ol Tanle. So at least it seemed to President Barker, and it was not unnatural that he founi the situation unendurable and resolved to change it. Accordingly. he soon discovered that he had erred in his own conetruotion of the law, that in adoptiqg his own report on "Conditions of Retirement" the Board had 'ventured ultra vires, that it had no right to grant the allowance of sixty per cent, and in his first report (June, 1911) he recommended re- scission. This report was referred to a Committee beaded by Mr. P;delon, a lawyer of Frankfort, a man, it would seom, of sterling character, of broad and clear intelleotual vision, and to the very last a sincere friend and admirer of Patterson. The Committee's report approved of all the new Presidentfs recommendations, except the one Just mentioned, and it was adopted without any dissent. But the estrangement between the Judge and the IAneritus had been -low desperate the situation became. appears vividly in the fact that on April 12, 1912, at a Special Meeting of the Board of Trustees, af- ter a notion (Barker) that 'Iths 'Conditions' be sot aside and held as naught", a Conmnittee (Mr. Clay the chairman) appointed to consult with the two Presidents, reported after luncheon that "both agreed to this"; "That President 3atterson is to.have his pension and to retain hie residence on the grounds at 20.00 poor month, but on the other hand President Patterson is to give up all his official conneotion with the University, he is to resign his trusteedhip by the first of June. he is to resign his position on the faoulty, he is to resign his .osition on the library committee, and his office in the library and all conneotion with the library; that he is to pledge himshlf not to publioly ariticize the present administration, that he is to be absolutely neutral, and indeed to assist thew' - a Report unanimously adopted. Similarly, under like date, the REcutive Comoittee. But on 5th Aug. 1912, at a Board Meeting, "A statement was then read by Presldent Patterson, in which he refused to comply with the terms of the agreement mnde by him with the Board in April, 1912, and stating his reasons for refusing". This page in the original text is blank. 191 widened into ho eless hostility. College Presidents Again. The new President was not disheart- ened by this rebuff. That summer (1911) he addressed circular let. tors to the county superintendents charged (under Act of 18S3. pro- scribing competitive examinations) with making county appointments, instructing them (it was said) in effect to override the law and appoint whom they would. Such bold measures threatened to popular- ize the University greatly. Competirg law colleges began to gasp for breath. The College Presidents once more appealed to the Legis- lature for helm, and also to Attorney General Garnett, who rundered an opinion against the legality of the former Chief Justice's action. But the latter declared he would not heed. the Attorney General's pronouncement, whereupon the Colleges; turned to the Law and employed Judge O'Rear. to obtain an Injunction forbidding the University to pay traveling expenses of studental All seemed ready for the tour- nay but Judge O'Reaor sagaciously coni'erred with President Barker, who agreed to comply with the Law, however irrational; and the gath- ering war-oloud melted. Cheok. It was now the latter's tur to appeal to Frankfort. Patterson had strenuously opposed th now instructions, and it wa natural that Judge Barker should assime that he was in collusion with the College Presidents, for whi3h, however, there does not ap- pear any scintilla of prooS. Accordingly, he carried his case - against the sixty per-cent item of hls earlier Report on Conditions - froam the Board to the Joint Executiva Com-:ittee (of Senate and House), This page in the original text is blank. 192 and asked it to re-port to the Assembly a resolution condeiTming the action of the Board. Instead, the Comnmittee passed a resolution directing the Board to Inquire into the question of legality ol the Conditionsl this resolution was reported but was never adopted; the iouse received it and ordered it to 'be filed, the Senate took no action at all; the Report still remains in a state of torpor. Rescission. :owever, t'he Fresident (B3rkoz) took pity on its imnotent condition and called on the Board to act in accordance, as if the Assembly had adopted the Renort (though the meagre Minutes lo not confirm this statement). The Board mnt but did not act; it adjounned the matter to its regular !reeting (5th Aug., 1912). There the Emeritus, who had meanwhile discovered the true situation at Frankfort, delivered a long argument in protest against the now Presidential temper and the inequity of the rescission proposed. But the Board -ote& (with only two "roos" to rescind "the whalo of said Pe'ort of aesolutiont (the "Cond.itions"), not (it was explained) as convinced against the legality of the lallowancol, but rather to bring the matter into court, where alone it could be settled, - an ex'lanation that does not explain. It seems hard to surpress the suspicion that the well-meaning and Good-natused Board saw clearly that the position of the now President had become unbearable, and On voting, each of five (eyes) assigned the saen "reason": "He thought it the best control (oourso ' to take to bring about a set- tlement of this trouble, whivs would injure the 'Jniversity if alloed to continue". Patterson's acoount(above) differs slightly from the Minutes. This page in the original text is blank. 193 also felt that loyalty called on tlem to sustain hirm In a fight that must belfought to a finish'. Alumni Petition. Cn the other hand. the attitude of the Zmreritus was quite as understandable. He regarded the rescission as a ''s.lameful re-zudiation's of a most righteous oontraot, to grati- fy the very 7an that had "1framed" (or. rather, reported) it; all his self-feoling was inflaed; he smarted under the 'insult', and he turned his face to 4he Law for 'reparation', if not avenge..nt. - His attorney advised a suit, but meantime the Alumni had been a- roused. and under the lead of Sandefor of New York and 3rook of Denver more than three hundred Alumni protested in petitions to the Board for a rescission of the rescission and a full restoration of the "Gonditions" . These petitions met the fate of many such which. it is unsafe to grant and ungracious to deny. They were referred tc a Comrmittee; and this met informally and only once and after a year desired more time. After arnother year of inaction the Commnittee was weary and asked to be discharged. Another Coo ittee (of two) was named, but one of them fell ill and was a;ppointed "United States Senator, so that after another two years without any meeting this second Cormittee was also discharged Since then the petitions have rested undisturbed even to this diy, and so - some still further sklirrishing with the Attorney General being disre.jarded - the ill- advised and ill-fated War of the "Conditions" was ended. restored to the Board. lainly, then, the Presidents 'Retire- ment' had proved singularly Ineffective. It had brought neither the This page in the original text is blank. 194 enjoyment nor the comfort that might have been reasonably hoped for his later days. His peace was tatally marred by the unfortu- nato stru.ggle already detailed, his serenity was clouded by the bitter animosities engendered, and at the saze time his strong effeotive nature was left hungry ami desolate. After the untime- ly death of his son, his Highland heart bound all the cords of feeling round the University that completely overshadowed every other interest in his life and beca& his foster asnd only child. nd now under an alien and almost unfriendly administration, he felt that child estrangedi No wonder that his father-heart was anguished, that lhe looked out through the windows of hi3 home with all a par- ent's yearning for a wayward wandering child. This forlorn situ- ation reached a pathetic climax in 1919. whan his appointment as merm- ber of the Board of Trustees expired - and was not renewed by Gov. MoCreary. The June meetings of the Board he had attended, except when in Europe, with unbroken regularity for over fifty years, but now he w.s no longer competent to Join in the annual summer sessiont His distress, ,which was pitenus to see, was relieved by the Legis- lature of 1919-O, which ordained that he should be an ex-officio member of the Board during his life, a courtesy that he accopted with gratitude and delight. THE LT.VE RAYS Into Clearer Air. Meantime, however, the Emeritus had nct beeo. This page in the original text is blank. 195 idle. The question of a National University (raised by &eneral 17ashington himself in his first and also in his last message) had agitated the State University Presidents at their meeting in 1913. The conoensus of opiion favored the idea, and the distinguished Dr. Eidmund James, of Illinous, was rmade chairman of a Committee, to urge the notion upon Congress. ALrout midwinter he wrote, plead- ing illness in his family and beseecihing the Kentuokian Patterson to sup-ply his place and address the House Committee on Zduoation as advocate of a National lourdation. - This seems to have been one of the highest recognitions that Dr. Patterson ever recived, for James undoubtedly intended the oause of the Nation's University to be pre- sentod with the utmost persuasion and ability possiblo. The Address was lelivered in Washington late in February, 1914, and fully vindi- cated the wisdom of the Illinois Pr4tsident. From Washington Dr. Patterson went to Now York and thenoe to Pittsburgh, accepting var- ious invitations to make addresses, ana at the latter place there occurred what he regarded as a very notable incident. An autograph letter from the world-known Founder introduced him to Dr. Holland, sometime Presbyterian minister, but then Curator of the Museum of the Carnegie Institution. Patterson was naturally curious to know why Holland had abandoned theology for paleontologU, but was too natively courteous to ask. Was it because of some radical shift in belief from religion towards Sciencet Time to Spare. In one of the rooms stood a reconstrueted Cclo- rado Saurisan, 84 feet long and 14 feet highJ In reply to Patterson's This page in the original text is blank. 196 question as to its estimated age. the Curator said "About fourteen millions of years". Inst.ntly the President: 'Dr. :-ollancdon't you think the first verse of the first ohapter of Genesis affords sufficient time to cover this porioe.v The Doctor said, "Undoubt- edly". In comparison with the public pronounoement of 1903 (or even of 1908). already quoted, the l.eading question seems puzzling and provokes a query as to what the Prosident had been doing of later years. Inasmuoh as the sun. raoon and stars had not been cre- ated in the first verse, as the dry land had not eppeared, nor any vegetation till the third day, nor tny lights in the firmament till the fourth, nor any sea-animals till the fifth, nor any land-animals till the sixth, the ready response )f Dr. Holland suggests the min- ister rather than the man of sciono'. The President then quoted from 71illiam Herbert Carruth's versas, "A fire mist and a planet". etc.. to the supreme delight and are of the Curator, and with a few notes concerning this latter's career, the autobiographer closes the account of one of the most pleasant episodes of my whole life'. The incident is not without significance and, along with other evi- dence belonging to this same unhappy period, mey be taken to indicate that in his latest years the heart oI the Emeritus returned in some measure to the faith of his fathers. "'Tis the sunset of life giveth mystical lore". ,'orth Citing. But it may be moll to pause at this point q mo- ment longer. Though it has been often printed, the whole poem should be reoroduced in this connection. This page in the original text is blank. 19': Eaoh in his oim Tonguo I A fire-mist and Ea planet - A crystal and a aell - A jelly-fish and a saurian, The caves whore lshe oavie-men dwell; Then a sense of 3-aw and beauty, And a face turned from the clod, Some call it Eso'.ution, And others oall .) t God. II A hase on the fas.r horizon, The infinite, tender sky, The ripe, rich tbint of the cornfields, And the wild geefie sailing high, - And all over upland and lowland The charm of the golden-rod, Some of us call it Autunm. And others call Lt God. ItI Like tides on a orescent sea-beach, When the moon is new and thin, Into our hearts high yearnings Come welling and surging in. - Come from the my!stic ocean, - Whose rim no foois has trod, Some of us call It Longing, And others call it God. IV A picket frozen on duty, - A mother starved for her brood, - Socrates drinking the hemlock. - And Josus on the rood; And millions who,, humble and nameless, The straight hardl pathway plod - Some call it Gontecration, And others call It God. This page in the original text is blank. 198 All-in-All. As the reader peretpives at once, it is all pure Panthoesm, without the faintest hint of anything distinctly Chris- tian. As such it seems strange that It should have fascinated such a sturdy Trinitarian as Patterson, who indeed regretted that its author was a Unitarian clergyman, - even as some have regretted the Unitarian authorship of "Nearer, Ity God, to Theo", and have amened it accordingly. The fact appears to be, - and it is no discredit to the 1ilelander - that ir. the last 50 or 60 years of his life his mind never attained any moment of dogmatic peace. The strong deep undercurrents of Reason. of Saience and Philoso- phy though not yet of Criticism, strove hard and incessantly to bear the ship far out to sea, but the cords of loyalty, of clan-feeling, of companionship. of racial pride, cf his whole emotional nature, still held it, mightily tossed, yet tightly anchored to the granite bases of ancestral faith. A pathetic plight, with which many might sympathize but few would quarrel. The Old Issue. The verses in question are such .ore pleasing in form than enlightening in though1;. It is the old unescapable problem of Mind or Matter, of Ideal!sm or 3e.lism that still con- fronts us, and Carruth does not hell) us to any solution. The "ten- der sky" 3ut is the sky "tender" in itself, or do we make it so Similarly througheut2 the poeot is discovering all manner of boau- ties and virtues in tht outer world and naming them God, but he does not hint that the ultimate root and spring of all is in him- self, in the Spirit of Ilan, which is eternally unfolding itself and This page in the original text is blank. 199 symbolizing itself in its own creati the Universe of Time and Space. The "high yearnings" do not `oome welling and surging in"j they rise welling and surging up and out from the unoonscious fathomless depths of Soul, they burs-4 and toss aloft in the foam of Consaiousness, in the floeting buh splendid Image and Vision of the sensible World. - Profounder iLnd truer than Carruth's lines, yet not profound nor true enough, aro those of James Stephen., in "The Hill of Vision"il Irverything that [ oan spy Thro the circle ,of mine eye, Everything that t can see Has been woven :),t of me. I have sown the stars; I threw Clouds of morn aad noon and eve In the deeps and steep of blue; And eaoh thing t:hat I peroeive - Sun and seas and mountain high - Is made and moulled by mine eyes Closing it I do but find Darkness and a little wind. The Dusk at Hand. Like the slope sun of his own Highland home, the sun of President Patterson sank slanting in the West and ling- ered long on the rim of the sky: it was not until the 17th daV of his 88th year that it touched the horison; after that the dark crert slowly on. A paralytic stroke left him lame on one side, where hitherto had lain his strength. At last, on the 15th of August, 1922. the veteran hero of more tbai hrty Years' ar for Education in Kentucky closed his eyes on the world of sense and passed away into peaceful slumber. This page in the original text is blank. 200 The tale of thoqa long evening :xours could be told by only one person on earth, by his fu-thful and a&fcotionato Seoretary and friend, Miss Mabel Hunt Poilitt, whose competence end dovo- tion wre alike ooioplete. and it is she has told it, br-efly withal, but with such synpathy go would make any comment or repetition by an outsider seem mpertinast. Enough that every vernal equinox brought him not,only 1he showers and flowers of the reborn year, but also a host of rmessages, good wishes anh congratulations on his birthday, from admiring and loving friends, a shining cloud of witnesses to the great services he had rendered the Public as well as to the stanch and sterling qialities of his head and his heart. 3'inis coronat opu. Such in his life and such in his death was James Kennedy Z tre, the Father of the University of Xentucky. This page in the original text is blank. 201 SUMI!ARY Exceeding wise, fairspoken, and persuading; Lofty and sour to them that loved him not, But to those 3en that sought him, sweet as surmer. In the foregoing pages the more o;ublio facts of President Patterson's life have been set forth as fully as the nature and extent of the information at hand seamed to warrant, along with whatever co=r-ents,p interpretations, and obiter diota even, appear- ed to the writer to be approrriate. The reader is in position to form his own judgment, unaided and unhindered, and will certainly do so, if ho thinks it worth while, yet it may not be improper to surimarize briefly the impression whi.ch this study has made upon the writerts own mind. Success. The Career of James Kennedy Pat berson was notable and signally crowned with suocess. In glanoing over the long array of his years it seems hard not to reca:,1 the lines of Tennyson' about the 'divinely gifted' man. lhose life in low es-bate began And on a simple village green, ....................... . . . . 'ho burst his fate s invidious bar, ........... .......................O And mounted on from :igh to higher. To hobble on to fame, unwearied, fram the potato patch and the tail- or's bench, storing away a world of knowledge by the dim candlelight while his mother knitted and darned, to wrestle with penury from soh-)olhouse to schoolhouse, to win a belated way through College by doubly work of study and teaohing - like Nehemiahis builders with This page in the original text is blank. 202 trowel in one hand and weapon in the other. - and all the while at every turn to lend loving and effective help to the folks at home, all of whom both old and young he always bore as a preoious burden on his heart; - to follow unerringLy the path of preferment and at the same time to explore with a claar, penetrating and comprehen- sive gaze the fields of learning aad literature by which it led; to 11grasp the skirts of hapny ohanse", to stand forth by sudden transformation as the "pillar of a peoplels hope-!, as the chosen Champion of Culture, of untranmeledl Higher 4duoation, of the People, by the Po'onle. for the People, whelinrl the whole course not only of his own life and faith but of the CommonwealthIs progress throug'i a full right angle; to steer on thLs new course unwavering and un- daunted for a generation, through :.lg and storm and rocks and shoals and breakers, into prosperous seas toward a hap' y haven, and ait las' to shine for a moment in the spot-light of Washington, in the halls of the National Legislature, as protagvmist of Culture on the stage of the Nation, - such was the fate that kept spinning and brighten- ing from the tearful pillow of the 1ighland cripple. Omitting the painful and unnecessary incident oi' the tConditionst, we find one long series of hard-von victories, saddened at every turn by bereavo- ments espeoially bitter. It is noi; easy to speak of such a life in terms of proper restraint, a life so prosAic in almost all its de- tails and yet overcast with such a jiamour of romance. This page in the original text is blank. 203 A Path-Breaker. Ionors come and honors go; they am not always deserved or full of meaning; but Achievements remain, and they speak for themselves. The chief achievement of President Patterson was and is the University of Kentucky - or, more strict- ly, it is the favoring attitude of the Corrionwealth towards Higher Education and Culture, - and this is to be estimated not so much from without as from within, in terms of its own intrinsic diffi- oulty. It is one thing to la, a thousand miles of railroad track across a smooth and fertile plain; it is another to bore a few miles of tunnel under a mountain or to swing a bridge through the air over a roaring torrent. In Higher State Education the people of Kentucky must remember Patterson always. sosmwhat as they re- rnebor Boone, as a bold, skilful, prudent, and successful Pioneer. Scholarship. As a sch lar President Patterson was distin- guished not so much by the depth or solidity or exactness as by the extraordinary range of his acquisitions and the keen relish with which he fed upon every form of exact knowledge. The evi- dences abound in the preceding pages and need no further citation. 5When Martha Stephenson, of Harrodsburg, set forth briefly in a public address (3d Juno. 1903) the "History of Education in Ken- tucky", the statistics were deemed almost incredible. th more than confirmed by subsequent investigation. The speaker exposed not merely the body of deplorable faots, but also their origin in the primitive sharp cleavage in society between Upper and Lower, Patrician and Plebeian, reminding us of early and Republican Rome. Education seemed well enough perhaps for the Owners but a vain thing for the 7arners, whom: it merely made discontented and turned away from seeking their real rewardl, which is in eavoeni This plausible theory is not yet quite unknown among ns. This page in the original text is blank. 204 We may wonder what impression it riade on the "residents at Wsashlng- ton in 1903, to catoh a glimpse of the flechanios of -eynolis, whose notions of Idilatancyl and 'granulesl and of matter as intergrmanulc.r vacuum sso far transcend even high-cultured conceptions. It was ex- traordinary that he felt such intelligent interst in such speou3a- tions. But while his interest w s atholie, his taste was far fron indisoriminate. In liter ture he loved the best, and he held daily converse with the soeptered spirits of the 3lassics in varioiLs tonues. One of his latest readings was the Organon, and one, Antigone. He may seem to have neglected some sxpreme. masters, but it was cnly ir. nreference for others almost or qcvits as high. Neither did he scoan the humbler .omelier ranks of authorship; and his literary ap- preciation was not only wide but generous. Litera h, iz. In his own writings, what most surprises i6 the instant finality, the almost perfect finish, of what seems to be the first draught. Apparently he corrected and polished scarcely at all, not even where correction was most neededl there is no hnammering, no forging, the voice of the anvil is not heard; it all comes forth finadly shaped from the mould of his mind. Suob is the method of the journalist, and Dr. Patterson esteemed his omm articles in the Courier-Journal as the best nroducts of his intellect. Had he devoted himself entirely to such work, he might have won fare among the first editorialists of his day. -owever, my own feeling is that hi3 colu no might have failed in their popular a-ioeal. At its best, his style was suited rather for a Scolbish luarterly or This page in the original text is blank. 205 Monthly than for an American Daily. The glow of his mind 7as toc staeady his readers preferred spardle n eigrariatic flash. To be sure his style wras not rigid al might have been changed; but would It have been for the better The 'lould. Wthen now we coce to the Character of the -a to the soheme and structure of his ipritual nature, what strikes us first and last and most of all is that he was preeminently typioal. The tendenoles and powers of his rase reveal themselves in him with fullness and clearness. 'Is ill.ustrates vividly the Philosophy of Cor-lotion, or Realization, as sot forth of late, by Keyserliaxg. The potentialities of the Scottish frame and cast of spirit bloom forth in his life with the utmost profusion. It is a great and admirable nature - by far the chief on earth, thought Patterson, - and he clung to his type not,only unconsciously - like every one also, - but ac nsciously also and withL almost pathetic fidelity. Like Lochiel's heroes, that were "true to the last of their blood and their breath", he was true to his oountry and true to his heath; he loved it intensely, its firths and fiords, its hills and vales, its pines and its thistles, its lairds and its peasants, its Oastles and its cottages, its songs, and tales and books, and the whole -olume of its history. Miost of all, at leest for many years, he revered its Kirk and its Creed and the heroic record of its 'inistry, The austerer features of this racial nature, so oon3'icuous in rcsident Patterson, were apparently a maternal rather than a paternal inheritance, and throughout all his formative period it was the mother that moulded and staraned the man. This page in the original text is blank. 206 and this loyal reverence, much rather than any intellectual assent, remrained to the last the nerve and the core of his religious faith. The Tri'.al Soul. :.oreover. his clan-foeling, extende& to all Scotchmnen, was especially strong. The predominance of Scottish names in his 'Notes' is starting. IXis family affection burned with a steady glow to the very last. His friendships were warm and many, and his judg-ents of his frieinds were often over-generous to a degree. He was a Scot of the Scots, realizing that high nature in his own life in remarkable measure. - For the Scottish race he claimed all that he conld - which woas cer ainly much - but he could not claim that it was Imperial, wrorlid-conquering, world-dominatin'g with all the more vehemence he made this claim (with a certain amowut oi' justiwe) for the Anglo-Saxon, w:Lth which he (as a western Scot) was politically identified, with which he felt himself nationally united, but to which he did not raeially belong, - in his blood and his soul. - It is precisely this ultra-typical quality of the Pat- terson mind that makes it so trans 3atent and easy to comprehend - and not at all any lack of depth. We all understand - or think we understand - the great type-facts and processes of Nature, which we call her Laws, because they are eloments of our experience upon whioh wU' can all agree, as alike for us all. So, too, when we look into the deep race-soul of President Patterson, wO see Its motives, im- pulses, and priaciples - clear as shining fish in the still waters of a mountain-lake. This page in the original text is blank. 237 Nemesis. It is plain that this high-wrought raclality and almost equally high-wrought natioaality. while giving a very high tension to the Patterson nature aad to many of its finest, Ir.ast beautiful and most _dnirable traits, could no. fail to introiuoe certain hardness and coldness and strailness, a caor- prenatal const rction of iymxathy and rango of emotion. Such is Remesis. Everyone must bear tho defects even of his noblest qualities. As he himsel has said, 'Burns had his Faults; who has nott But of his own defects he never attained ane clear knowlodge; they were too deeply interwoven in the centuries oll texture of his nature. - No one can know the conscience of another, not even the psyhosnan- lyst with his most sensitive scales and most delicate tests. But my own oinion is that the Patterson conscience was notably clear. He summed the actions of the day each night before he slept, and he did not consciously wrong his fellow at any time. Hlis faults seem to have been racial rather than individuel. The over-oanniness of the Scot sometimes betrayed him. The intense tribe-instinct foouss- ed his feelings too sharply at times, not so much on himself as on his name and his race. The Life-Urge. Close akin &ad even involved therewith was his Instinct-tq-Live, an instinct excme4ixgly strong. It bore him up in life under burdens of grief thpt might have sunk another helpless to the ground. It dictated much f his Will and may have exposed him to much unfriendly remark. BRlt it was not unworthy either in This page in the original text is blank. 2083 its nature or its origia. It may be that in the ages to come the problems of Mran will bB cleareod u-,), in some manner, by the development of an Inxtinct-of--Deai;h; but we cannot anticipate the milleniums, and at present the hope of humanity is found in the Instinct-to-Live and to zake LiAfe happy an& whole and hal; and to this result the subject of this memoir contributed freely and largely. according to his wt :ortunity and in the full meas- ure of his might. The Life-urge flools the other-ocean lrom smallest, gareatest star out--nourd. And all the wide worldIs wild commotion In endless rest in God the Lord. This page in the original text is blank. 209 NOTE ON CO] RESPONDENCE From y.uth to age, James Kenaedy Patterson was notable as a corres'ondent. His earlier lette:rs in particular are very remark- able, not especially for their liberary quality. not for desorip- tions of nlaoes, nor for transcri tions of impressions made by na- ture upon his soul, not for discussions of literary or philosophic or even oolltical matters, thought these last are sometimes very earnestly and intelligently treatbd, - not for sprightliness of diction or liveliness of fanoy, bat for the intense earnestness of their moral and religious tone, for the always vigilant and of- ten almost nainfully anxious family affection that they disclose. They are iD faot open windows through which we may glimpse the soul of the young teacher and student looking always longingly towards the narental nearth. WThere'er he roamd, his untraveled heart still returned to the humble home ein the orchardl, to the simple ielights of the fireside, to his childish sports and graver ernployments, to the household joys of the table and of converse with his 'dear broth- ers and sisterl. Tears fill his eyes at the sight of his beloved -.illiam, who elsewhere tells how he bubbled over, wild with glee, at their meeting. Such pathetic passages, frequent enough, are the least self-conscious and most pleasing and convincing self-revelations that the great educator has left behind him. But there is still a deeper and a dominant undertone in these letters. It is that of his creed, of his religious faith, for he "cherished much the weight dark This page in the original text is blank. 210 Calvin on his spirit laid". Over all hangs a heavy and majestic and awful cloud, the doctrine of Geneva, that life is a sad and most uncertain pilgrimage, that we are all children of Divine ,Irath and a few of Divine fleroy, hich will sustain and protect and. preserve us (if we be faithful, ar if God so will) through il1 earthly trials unto the everlasting Triumph of Heaven. 'Ie can noi; question the sublimity of this Faith, its sternness, its severity, its solemnity. It towers zaajestic, immovable, as the bare bsld peaks of the Rookies. It is the child tf proud, noble. self-contalned, isolated spirits, whom it upholds in pride, nobility, self-containwnt and isolation. This faith of the hills, of tk.e mountains, enshroluLs and unlifts the soul of Patterson. He must preach it in his lette:; he exhorts his brothers continually, nay more, he exhorts his fathior and mother, he instructs them in his tremendous creed. This start:Les us ab first, and we ask, Can this be perfect sincerity in a youth :Ln hiss early twenties But there is no good reason to doubt hi3 con- scious integrity. The faith in question belongs prorerly to certain icy pinnacles of cur nature, and :In all honesty it strives aiud musb atrive to bring all our being into accord and under its away. In this endeavor it can not perfectl;r succeed, there must result a cev- tain discord, a certain w:ar in our members, a theme for song and tragedy and Confessions and psych,)-analysis without end. The nec- essary outcome is a certain elemenat, nzt of conscious, but of un- conscious, inconsistency, such as keen impartial observers, like This page in the original text is blank. 211 ,Ilbert Mthurray, recognize cs pa ticulc-rly cLaXaeteristic of the 3riton. It i.s not indeed the tribute that vice pays to virtue. - far from it, - but rather 1 the h;.:mage of the Ac- al to the 'deal, the far-of' Unattainable. The Eter:.al .ornaoly, says Goethe, draws us up and on; henoe the unOonsoicuLa disguise of Good Manners and the prevalent attitude of the Masoulirne towards the Feminine. At rare moments this unappeasable Co&lict shows iteelf even in Pat- tersons correspondence. as when he declares to Andrew (23 D31856).: S!I want to make money and enjoy i1. I think I will never be eithe: stingy to others or penurious to Vaelf when I get it. I wi.l pilo ur money for no profligate scamp 1;o spend. If I have any children I ws 11 teach them to make it and that will be enough".0 But this tone is quite exceptionasl. In hiis golden decade (1865-75), as the walls of his earlier world began ;o exoand, the outlook of Patters'rn upon Life and Mlan grew clearer and broader, and. his ultra-Augustin:Lan tone was hushed or greatly modulalied; but the jar never quite lost the savor of the heady Genevan winLe with which through neerly half a century it was filled. OPerhaps especially of the Covenwitor and the Puritan. Indeed, E.'!. Vislak. in 1es recent penetrating study Milton Agaootes has found in this inner, ofsen subconscious, conflict the one key to the undesr- standing of the greatest of all Puxritans. "In this same letter he says of lilliam, 'If I don't study som, .ae will eclipse me before long', but rather with pride than jealousy.