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Manual and notebook for English composition / by James Finch Royster and Stith Thompson. Royster, James Finch, 1880-1930. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-276-32008216 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Manual and notebook for English composition / by James Finch Royster and Stith Thompson. Royster, James Finch, 1880-1930. Scott, Foresman, Chicago ; New York : [c1917] xv, 268 p. ; 25 cm. Coleman Includes blank pages for recording the errors that the student makes. Includes bibliographical references (p. 7-17) and index. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1995. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN05121.01 KUK) Printing Master B92-276. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. English language Rhetoric. English language Composition and exercises.Thompson, Stith, 1885- MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION BY JAMES FINCH ROYSTER, Ph.D. PROFESSOR (F ENGI.ISH IN THE VNIVERSITY OF TFXAS AND) STITH THOMPSON, Ph.D. INSTRUCTOR IN ENGLISH IN THE UNIVERSITY (F TEXAS SCOTT, FORESMAN AND COMPANY I CHICAGO NEW YORK COPYRIGHT 1917 BY SCOTT, FORESMAN AND COMPANY PREFACE This book is the result of an attempt to supply helps toward the teaching of English composition that are not furnished by the text- books of rhetoric. The first part, the MANUAL, contains information that students of composition should have at hand, the dictation of which would needlessly consume many class periods. The second part of the book, which alone has any claim to originality, is the NOTEBOOK. Its use is fully explained in the Introduction. The final form in which the book appears has been determined with the help and advice of several members of the department of English in the University of Texas, who have been using in their classes with marked success the system of theme-correction recommended here. For the rules given in the treatment of such subjects as Grammar or Diction it is almost impossible to trace all obligations to their real source. At the beginning of each division of the NOTEBOOK we have indi- cated those standard textbooks that we have found most helpful. For further aid in the preparation of the Manual and Notebook we owe many debts of gratitude. Several special obligations are acknowledged at their proper places in the text. Particularly do we wish to thank Mrs. Jessie Goddard McKinlay, of Portland, Oregon, for her careful reading of the manuscript and for her many helpful suggestions. JAMES F. ROYSTER STITH THOMPSON Austin, Texas March, 1917 This page in the original text is blank. TABLE OF CONTENTS I, PREFACE ............................................................ INTRODUCTION ............................... ' (iI iii xi PART 1. MAN UA1, 1. SYMBOLS USED FOR THE CORRECTION OF. THENMES ................. I 2. SUGGESTION'S AS TO SUBJECTS FOR THEMEs ........................... 2 3. LIST OF SUPPLE.MENTARY RE-ADINGS . 4. REFERENCE BOOKS STUTDENTS SHOULD KNoN ............................ 15 5. SOME PERIODICALS STUDENTS SHOULD K.Now .......................... 17 6. MECHANICAL FORM OF MANUSCRIPT ................................. 17 PART II. NOTEBOOK I. PUNCTUATION Elements in Contrast 25 22. Antithetical expressions. . 23. Words or phrases in p .air . 24. Expressions like "a pleasant, 25 though expensive, trip ". 26 Ellipses 25. Omission of important wordss.... Inversions 26. Invverted elements ............... 27 Miscellaneous Uses 27. Long subject separatedl from verb 28 28. Separation merely for clearness. 29. After interjections. 30. With quotation marks and paren- 28 theses . 3 1. Dates . 29 32. Names of places. 33. Numbers. 34. In connection with namies of per- 29 sons . B. THE SEMICOLON 35. General principle .............. In Compound Sentences 36. Without simple conjunctions (no connective) ................ Note 1. With conjunctive adverbs Note 2. The series a, b, and c... 26 27 27 A. THE COMMA 7. General principle ............... Coordinate Elements 8. Two coordinated groups......... 9. Coordinate adjectives........... 10. Series of three or more ivith con- junctions .................. 11. The series a, b, and c........... Note 1. Etc. .................. 12. Clauses of compound sentence ,joined by simple conjunction. 13. Clauses of a compound sentence ntot joined by simple conjunc- tion ....................... Subordinate Elements 14. Direct quotations-noun clauses.. 15. Non-restrictive adjectives phrases and clauses................. Note 1. -No comma with restric- tive phrases or elhuses. 16. Adverbial clauses .............. Introductory, Parenthetical, and Absolute Expressions 17. Introductory or parenthetical par- ticles .......... ............ 30 18. Absolute phrases ....... ........ 30 19. Elements in apposition ..... .... 30 20. Vocatives ......... ............ 31 21. Parenthetical expressions ........ 31 V 3i1 3;1 31 :32 33 33 33 33 33 34 :14 :14 :34 34 TABLE OF CONTENTS 37. With simple conjunctions ....... 35 In Simple and Complex Sentences 38. For coordination of long or com- plicated elements ..... ....... 35 With Explanatory Words 39. Before explanatory words and phrases like -iz ............. C. THE COLON 40. General prineipl ........ ........ 36 Introductory Use 41. Before formal statements ....... 36 42. After salutations .............. 36 43. To introduce explanations or illus- trations ........ ............. 37 44. TABULAR VIEW OF THE USE OF THE COMMA, THE SEMICOLON, AND THE COLON ........ ............37 D. THE PERIOD 45. 46. 47. 48. With sentences ................. 38 With headings .................. 38 With abbreviations ............. 38 With omissions ................ ,9 E. THE EXCLAMATION POINT 49. After interjections.............. Note 1. Punctuation of exclama- tory sentences.............. 50. For doubt or sarcasm........... F. THE QUESTION MARK 51. For query or doubt............. G. THE DASH 52. General remarks............... 53. With a sudden break............ 54. Pareilthetical expressions........ 55. With summarizing clause ........ 56. After emphatic word or phrase.. 57. With tabulations............... 58. With side-heads .............. 59. Before references.............. 60. With dates, etc................. 61. With commas, etc............... 62. For rhetorical effect............ 63. To indicate omissions........... H. THE APOSTROPHE 64. With 65. With 66. With possessive case............ contractions .............. unusual plurals........... I. QUOTATION MARKS 67. With direct quotations ......... 68. With double quotations ........ 69. With a series of paragraphs or stanzas ..................... 70. As apology for unusual words ... 71. With titles of articles, etc....... 72. With word and its definition..... 73. General rule ................... J. PARENTHESES 74. For parenthetical expressions ... 75. For figures and letters marking di- visions ..................... 76. Punctuation marks with parenthe- ses ........................ K. BRACKETS 77. With interpolations, explanations, etc. ........................ 78. For parentheses within parenthe- ses ......................... L. THE CARET 79. To mark omissions............. M. ITALICS 80. For emphasis .................. 81. For foreign words and expressions 82. Isolated words and phrases...... 39 40 41) 43 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 46 46 46 46 47 47 47 47 47 48 48 N. CAPITAL LETTERS 83. General remark. 84. First word of sentence . 40 85. First word of quotations. 41 86. Beginning of lines of poetry. 41 87. Beginning of resolutions, etc.. 41 88. Pronoun I and interjection 0. 41 89. References to the Deity. 41 90. Proper nouns and proper adjec- 41 tives . 42 91. Important words in literary titles. 42 92. Words capitalized when referring 42 to definite persons or things.. 42 93. Certain words not to be capital- 42 ized . 49 49 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 5tc Vi vii TABLE OF CONTENTS II. SPELLING A. RULES FOR SPELLING 94. Rule for ei and ic........ 95. Doubling of final consonant...... 96. Dropping final c............... 97. Words ending in y.............. 98. Words to be written separate... B. REPRESENTATION OF NUMBERS 99. 100. 101. 102. Dates, pages, street numbers.... Money ....................... Series of numbers in short space. Treatment of isolated numbers. . . C. ABBREVIATIONS 103. General rule .................. 104. Abbreviations not proper when used alone .................. -105. In footnotes, technical matter, and business letters............. 85 85 85 86 86 86 86 87 87 D. HYPHENATING 106. List of words to be hyphenated... 107. Words not to be divided......... 108. Disputed spellings............... E. SYLLABICATION 1009. General principle .............. 110. Unnatural syllables ........... 111. Prefixes and suffixes............ 112. Syllables of one or two letters... 113. Doubled consonants ............ 114. Two consonants combining for one sound ...................... 115. Final le. ..................... 116. Monosyllables ................. 8, 88 88 F. REFORMED SPELLING 117. Reformed spelling ............. III. SENTENCE STRUCTURE 1. DEFINITIONS 118. The sentence .................. 111 119. Simple sentence defined .. 11..... I 120. Compound sentence defined..... . 111 121. Complex sentence defined ....... 112 a. Noun clauses ..... .......... 113 b. Adjective clauses .... ........ 113 c. Adverbial clauses .... ....... 114 122. Balanced sentence defined .. 115. 123. Loose sentence defined . . 11l 124. Periodic sentence defined .. 116 2. RHETORICAL PRINCIPLES IN THE SENTENCE 125. The three great principles ....... 116 A. UNITY DEFINITION 126. Definition of unity ............. 116 CAUTIONS In Simple Sentences 127. Irrelevant modifiers ............ 116 In Compound Sentences 128. Two thoughts in single sentenee. . 117 129. Coordinate clauses written as sep- arate sentences ............. 117 130. Subordinate clauses made cobrdi- nate ....................... 117 131. Wrong coordinate relation ...... 118 132. Coo6rdinate relation not made evi- dent ....................... 11 133. Frequent use of parentheses ..... 118 In Complex Sentences 13s4. Coordinate clauses made subordi- nate ...................... i135. Wrong subordinate relation...... 119 119 B. COHERENCE DEFINITION i136. Definition of coherence .......... 119 CAUTIONS Faulty Reference 137. Indefinite reference .... ........ 120 Note 1. Indefinite they .......... 120 Note 2. Indefinite it ............ 120 Note 3. Indefinite that or those. . 120 Note 4. Feminine so ............ 120 138. Ambiguous reference .... ....... 121 139. Dangling participles-vague .... 121 140. Dangling participles--ambiguous. 121 Note 1. Agreement of participles and gerund phrases .......... I. 121 141. El]iptical clauses ..... ......... 122 Note 1. In titles ................ 122 88 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 9() 90 90 iTABLE OF CONTENTS Faulty Placing of Modifiers 142'. Clause not near word it governs... 122 143. Phrases not attached to modified words ........ ............. 122 144. Two phrases modifying same word . ...................... 122 145. Modifying words not near modli- fied words ...... ............ 122 Note. 1. Only ....... .......... 123, Note 2. Correlatives ..... ....... 123 Undue Ellipsis 146. Oniission of necessarv sentence elements ....... ............. 123 147. Elliptical participial phrases ... . 124 Change of Construction 148. Change of point of view ....... 149. Error in balane................ a. Infinitive With participle...... b. Participle or infinitive with 124 124 124 verb ....................... 124 e. Active with passive voice ..... 1 25 d. Word or phrase with clause... 125 e. Figurative with literal expres- sion ....................... 125 Formula hr, b, taid c . . 125 Preposition governing several ob- jects to be repeated .......... 126 Note 1. Infinitive sign and subor- dinating conjunction to be re- peated .................... 126 C. EMPHASIS DEFINITION 152. Definition of emphasis .......... 126. DEVICES FOR OBTAINING EMPHASIS 153. Use of expletive there .......... 127 154. Position of however, therefore, etc . ........................ 127 155. Beginning and end of sentence ...1 2'7 156. Words referring back to preced- ing sentence ...... .......... 127 15 7. Words out of their natural order. 127 i158. Antithesis ....... ............. 128 159. Balanced sentence ..... ........ 128 160. Climax .......... ............. 128 Note 1. Anticlimax ..... ........ 128 161. Periodic sentences ..... ........ 128 162. Correct subordination ..... ..... 128 163. Rhetorical question ..... ....... 12o8 164. Exclamation ....... ........... 129 165. Summary of devices ............ 129 D. MISCELLANEOUS SENTENCE ERRORS. 166. "House that Jack built" eon- struction .................. 167. Preposition separated front its ob- 129 ject ...... .................. 129 168. Consecutive statements introduced by but andl for .............. 129 169. Split infinitive ......... I ... 129 IV. GRAMMAR 170. A. RELATION OF GRAMMAR TO COMPOSITION... 165 B. FUNDAMENTAL ERRORS OF CONSTRUCTION 171. Fragmentary sentences .... ..... 166 172. "'Comma blunders . ............. 166 173. When and where-clauses as pred- icate nouns ..... ............ 167 174. Sentence as subject or comple- ment ..... ................ 167 175. Elements vvithout syntax ........ 167 C. NOUNS Possessives 176. Possessive case of word-groups.. 167 177. Possessive of inanimate things... 168 178. Possessive when possession is not meant ............ ....... 168 179. Double possessive ............. 168 180. 181. 1 182. 183. 184. Plurals Irregular plurals .............. Collective nouns ............... Expressions of quantity......... Singular nouns with plural form. Ambiguous number ............ 169 170 170 170 171 D. PRONOUNS Reference 185. Antecedents of pronouns ........ 171 Case 186. Form of possessive of her, it, you, etc. ................. 171 187. Confusion in cases because of in- tervening "he says" ........ 171 188. Who and whoever attracted into objective case by preposition.. 171 189. Objective after copulative verb. .. 171 150. 151. Vtiii TABLE OF CO(INTEXTS 190. Case of subject and predicate of inifiinitive ................ 172 191. Case of olject of preposition.... 17 2 192. Uses of possessive .............. 172' 198. C(ase after as and thant ......... 172 194. Case of appositives .............1 172 Number 195. Mistake in number through con- fused antecedent ............ 17:8 196. Number of each, ceery, etc ..... 173 Miscellaneous 197. Consistency in the use of pro- nouns we, Yiou, mC. etc ........ 17:1 198. Use of either and the latter ...... 174 199. Editorial we ................... 174 E. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Articles and Demonstratives 200. Use of the article ............... 174 201. Repetition of article and demon- strative ...... .............. 175 Comparison 202. Comparative with two persons or things ....... .............. 175 20:3. Comparison with things of the same class-eomparative de- gree ........ ............... 176 204. Comparison with things of the same class-superlative degree. 176 205. Confusion of as and thoai ....... 176 206. Adjectives and adverbs incapable of comparison ..... ......... 177 Miscellaneous 207. These kind, those kind, etc ...... 177 208. Choice of adjective or adverb after looks, solnds, etc...... . 177 209. Expressions like "He kept it safe" ....... .............. 178 210. Omitted preposition in adverbial phrase of time .............. 178 F. VERBS Agreement 211. Plural and compound subjects. . 178 212. Singular subjects joined by or oi itor ......... ............... 179 21:3. Suh.jeets in different persons con- nected by or ........ ......... 179 214. Confusion in agreement caused l)y intervening word .......... 1 7 9 215. Numiber not affected by togetl'a, irith,et. 7..................179 216. Verbs not to agree with predicate noun ...... ................180 217. Agreemenit with -xpllletiie it ..... 180 218. Effect of expletive tJl(c . ........ 180) 219. It doit't and you was ........... 180 Tense 220. Tense of statenient of genieral truth ....... ...............180 221. 'rimiie modifie. with verb in l)ast tense ....................... 181 222. Use of present perfect ten se ..1. I,8] 223. Use of past perfect tense ........ 181 224. Use of perfect infinitive ......... 181 2 25. Use of present participle ........ 182 Shall and Will; Should, and Would 226. In independent clauses ..........13 I :' 227. Inl dependent clauses ............ 184 228. In questions .................. 184 229. Other uses .................... 185 Voice 230. Misuse of passive voice ......... 185 Mood 231. Use of subjunctive ............. 185 Miscellaneous 232. Possessive caye of substantive he- fo-re gerund ...... .......... 186 233. Improper omission of Iprincipal verb ....................... 186 234. Use of be as principal ;nid auxili- ary verb ................... 186 G. Prepositions 235. Object of preposition ........... 186 236. Use of betwecn ................ 187 237. Preposition phrases after in re- gard to .................... 187 H. Conjunctions 238. Like not a conjunction ..... .... 187 239. Use of both ................... 187 ix; TABLE OF CONTENTS V. DICTION 1. GOOD USE A. GENERAL PRINCIPLE 240. General principle of good use .... 207 B. PRESENT USE 241. Obsolete or archaic words or phrases ...... ............... 208 242. New formations ..... .......... 208 C. NATIONAL USE 243. 244. 245. 246. 247. 248. 249. 250. 251. Foreign words ................ Americanisms and1 Anglicisms. Provincialisms ................. Violations of idiom........... D. REPUTABLE USE Vulgarisms .................... Slang . . ............... Technical terms ............... Colloquialisms . ............... Improprieties .................. (a) In grammar .............. (b) In meaning ............... 208 209 209 209 211 212 212 212 213 213 214 2. EFFECTIVENESS A. SPECIFIC AND GENERAL MEANINGS IN WORDS 252. Specific and general words .......2 18 B. FORCE IN THE USE OF WORDS 253. Overuse of superlatives .... ..... 218 254. Qualifying words ..... ......... 219 255. Redundancy ................... 219 (a) In grammar ..... ......... 219 (b) In words ...... ........... 220 256. Tautology ........ ............ 221 257. Wordiness .................... 221 258. Use of words in two senses ......2 21 259. Repetition .................... 221 Note 1. Straining for synonyms. 221 260. Trite expressions ..... ......... 222 261. Hackneyed quotations .... ...... 223 C. APPROPRIATENESS IN THE USE OF WORDS 262. Fine writing .................. 22 4 263. Historical present ..... ........ 224 264. Poetic diction ...... ........... 224 265. Euphemism ................... 224 D. EXPRESSIVENESS IN THE USE OF WORDS 266. Connotation ......... .......... 224 267. Figures of speech ..... ......... 225 268. Accidental rimes ..... ......... 225 269. Succession of like sounds ........ 225 Class notes and word lists .............2 4.3 Index........... .261 I INTRODUCTION This Manual and Notebook for English Composition contains the usual material to be found in the best handbooks of composition. By the use of'definition, injunction, and example it treats the most impor- tant matters of English grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, spelling, and diction. It enlarges, however, the plan of'the conventional manual of composition: it combines with the matter of the usual rhetoric a NOTEBOOK in which students may be required to record the errors they make in their themes. Use of the NOTEBOOK is very simple. In the text, which is divided into five parts-(1) Punctuation, (2) Spelling, (3) Sentence Structure, (4) Grammar, and (5) Diction-the general principles of each of these subjects are set forth. At the end of each of the five divisions are a number of blank pages intended for recording the errors that the stu- dent makes in these forms of composition. These blank pages are ruled down the center. In the column on the left (under the heading "Error") the student should write the incorrect form of every sentence in his theme that contains an error, and in the column on the right (under the heading "Correction") he should record the correct form of the sentence. The student should, furthermore, be required to find in the NOTEBOOK the rule or injunction his error violates, and to set down, with the date of the theme, the number of the section that deals with his mistake. The followingn model form of a corrected page illustrates the use of the NOTEBOOK; DICTION (Error) (Correction) Jan. 9 256 This fact is believed universal/ih by1 all. This fact is believed by all. In the case of spelling, the procedure may be varied; usually it is necessary to record no more than the word misspelled in its incorrect xi Xii MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION and correct forms. The following model may be used for Spelling: SPELLING (Error) (Correction) Feb. 3 preperat ion preparation The advantages of correcting themes in this manner are obvious. With the rules immedliately at hand in the same book, and even within the space of a few pages from the place where he records his errors, the pupil should be able to make correction of his faults with ease aind accuracy. By separating his incorrect from his correct matter, and by grouping his errors under definite heads, he should be able, also, to see more clearly the direction his errors take than he would dlo if lhe should merely leave them scattered over many pages of theme paper. Classification of his mistakes should show the student quite as much what he does not need to study as what he needs to study diligently. If lie finds at the end of the term that he has made many errors of punctu- ation, but that he has written down few corrections in the section of the NOTEBOOK on "Grammar," he will know that lie should spend his time in the review of the rules of punctuation rather than upon the further study of grammar. The NOTEBOOK provides, furthermore, a satisfactory basis for con- ference between student and instructor, and saves the time of both in this personal instruction. The student, who has been directed to come to conference with the entries in his NOTEBOOK posted up to date, can show the instructor inimediately what errors he has been unable to cor- rect. In all cases the student should be required to have recorded, before he comes to conference, all his mistakes, even if lie has not been able to complete the " Correction " column in his NOTEBOOK: The instructor can then proceed without delay to the correction of the sen- tences that have given trouble. The student should, of course, bring to conference his themes for reference. The text of the NOTEBOOK confines itself to a consideration of Cor- rectness in grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, an(d Some teachers object to having students copy misspelled words, even though it be for the purpose of correcting them. Such teachers may have the work in the left-hand columin omitted, or some mnemonic device such as the following may be used: (Error) (Correclion) Feb. 3 Cf. Enrepa re morep aration INTRODUCTION Xiii diction; and the ruled sheets are intended for the correction of offenses against the general principles of accuracy and good use. Many mat- ters of composition that an instructor will want to call to the attention of his class are not inclu(led in the NOTEBOOK; many offenses against straight thinking and clear expression that his students will commit are covered by none of the rules. Emphasis has been thrown upon the fundamental matters of composition-the crude and mechanical mat- ters of accuracy. In these things the majority of students must be diligently instructed the greater part of the time. For systematic instruction that seeks to bring students to the point where they can spell correctly, punctuate accurately, and use good grammar, clean dic- tion, and a clear sentence structure, a manual that clearly sets forth the most important principles of good form and clear expression is as necessary as is constant practice in writing. The manual and the student's writing, in the actual practice of instruction, too frequently become separated. The result is discouraging to both student and instructor. Practically all students need to have the relation between the injunctions in the handbook and the errors in their themes pointed out; most students, too, need to be shown more than the nature of their errors: they must be made to correct them. It is, indeed, only the exceptional student who by his own effort analyzes the mistakes in his writing with sufficient understanding andl interest to avoi(l making the same errors again and again. The attention that students usually give the revision of a theme is very small in comparison with the time and care the instructor has devoted to pointing out the mistakes in the theme. The methods usually employed for keeping students up to the mark in revising their writing have obvious disadvantages. That the plan of having students rewrite their faulty themes doubles the work of the teacher-if lie actually does read the second copy-is an objection which mioilgt be ignored if thl benefit that comes to the student through rewriting were at all comi- mensurate with the time and labor the instructor must devote to the task. But rewriting gives the student full opportunity, in every case, to dodge the issue of his errors by composing sentences that evade the difficulties raised in the first form. It is true, of course, that in a large number of instances an entire recasting of the sentence is just the remedy to remove the fault-in the case of awkward sentences, for instance; but students frequently take advantage of this fine principle of revision to save themselves the trouble of distinguishing between its and it's! The second theme, moreover, often displays new faults that cannot be corrected without a further revision or rewriting. This process may become an endless chain. Marginal correction of errors Xiv MANUAL, AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION in the text of a theme students do not usually take very seriously. It is always easier for the student to say, "I don't know how to correct this sentence" than it is for him to take the trouble to find out what is wrong with it and make it right. Avoidance of the difficulty easily grows into a habit. A student may, however, be prevented from falling into this habit, or he may be broken of the habit if he has caught it, by being required to group and record his errors conveniently near the explanations of them. It is for this purpose that the present NOTEBOOK has been prepared. It provides a means of easy reference for discussion of common errors in English speech and an apparatus for assembling close to the injunctions the offenses against them that the student may commit; moreover, it allows him little chance to avoid the responsibility for his sins of construction. The principles of grammar, diction, punctuation, and sentence structure considered in the NOTEBOOK have been treated with a deep respect for the demands of present-day standard usage, but not, it is hoped, with too high regard for pedantic purism. Since English is a living, and therefore a changing language, the question of good use is in many cases today undecided. The strictest exactions of an ex- cessively formal standard of speech have been softened by some con-- cession to usages that have grown reputable, even if they have not yet received the full approval of over-strict purists. This has not been done to strain unduly the quality of mercy toward colloquialism, but in the belief that setting the standard upon too artificial a base fre- quently turns the interest of intelligent students from the' study of composition, and lessens their respect for any sort of standard in speech. If the teacher of composition hopes to develop in his pupils a language conscience, which is the greatest spur of ambition toward acquiring good form in speech and writing, he should put before them a clear exposition of the nature of the standard written language, and he should make plain to them the difference between its nature and that of colloquial language. The teacher of composition is not always of sufficient linguistic broad-mindedness to admit the artificiality and highly developed formalism of our standard written language; and he does not always know how widely it differs from the language many of his students are accustomed to hear and to use everywhere outside of the classroom. Leading a student away from the illogical, clipped sentence form, from confusion of grammatical numbers, and from the loose use of words of his everyday speech up to a clear and finished expression of his ideas and a discriminative use of words, is more easily INTRODUCTION accomplished if the student is aroused to a respect for a reasonably based standard the nature of which he understands, than if he is con- tinually threatened by the stick of appeal to blind authority unreason- ably far removed from his own experience in language. A sense of )ride in his speech, as great as his sense of pride in his clothes, will make a student want to grasp the nature of the errors he makes, and to discard his vulgarisms. Injunctions against incorrect forms of speech have necessarily to be expressed by the use of the negative imperative. The study of com- position differs from that of any other subject in the school program of studies in that it does not start at the beginning of the subject, and in that it is more largely corrective than it is constructive: corrective of the speech that the majority of students use all the time they are not writing papers as classroom tasks, .and that they have used for many years before they began the study of composition. The teacher's ex- planation of the reason for the necessity of the weeding-out and sub- stitution process in acquiring an easy use of the standard language should, however, keep the student from looking at a textbook of com- position as only a collection of "don'ts" that bear no relation to his life beyond the examination set at the end of the course. Such a sympa- thetic treatment at the hands of understanding teachers will, it is hoped, make this book a very useful adjunct to the successful training of students in the fundamentals of English composition. Next to the inspiration of a powerful teacher, the greatest incentive toward good writing is the practice of reading. To provide this neces- sary complement to an effective course in writing, there is presented in the MANUAL a comprehensive list of books from which teachers may choose the reading they will require of their students. TV This page in the original text is blank. PART ONE MANUAL SYMBOLS USED FOR THE CORRECTION OF THEMES 1. The following symbols are in general use by English teachers for the purpose of indicating errors in themes. They are arranged according to the part of the NOTEBOOK in which the errors should be cor- rected. After most of the symbols will be found the numbers of the sections in which the errors they represent are discussed. No code of symbols can be made to indicate all possible errors. If the instructor wishes to be more definite in the marking of a mistake, he may refer directly to the proper section in the NOTEBOOK. Large matters of style and arrangement, grouped here under the heading "Miscellaneous," cannot, NOTEBOOK. 1. Punctuation P. = Flaulty punctuation [7 7-931. Cap. = Ise capital letter [ 3 83-931. L. c. = "Lower case": use small letter [ 83-93]. Q nots. = Use (ottolation marks [ 67-731. Ital. = Ilse italics (in written work under- score once) [ 80-82]. 2. Spelling Sp. =FItlty spelling [94-111]. Syl. = Improper syllabic division [ 109- 116]. 3. Sentence Structure S.= Faulty sentence structure [ 118- 169]. S. IU. = Violation of sentence unity [ 126- 135].- S. C. =Violation (it' sentence ('oherenee [ 136-1,51]. S. E.= Violation of sentence emplihasis [ 152-16i9]. as a rule, be corrected in the Bal. = Laek of balanee in sentence [ 148-151]. Cl.= lack of clearness [ 1:36-1511. Ref. = Faulty reference [ 137-1411. Tr. = Change position of word or phrase. K. = Awvkward sentence order, constrni- tion, or phrasing, [166-169]. A =,Something omitted. 8 = (mit. Pt. V. =Violationi ot point of view . 4. Grammar Gr. = Faulty grammar [ 170-239]. C(. b. = Comma blunder" [ 172]. Frag. = Fragmentary sentence [ 171]. T. = WI-rong tense of verb [ 220-229]. 5. Diction D. = Fatulty diction [ 240-2691. lRe). = Objectionable repetition of word or phrase [ 259]. T -=Taiitology [2561. Red. = Redundancy [ 255]. 2 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Fig. = Faulty figure; mixed metaphor [ 267]. W. = Passage "wordy" [ 257]. Ch.= Poor choice of word. The word marked "Ch." may be in perfectly good use; attention is called by this symbol to the fact that in this instance the word is not well chosen to express the meaning the writer evidently intended to convey [ 252 and in general 253-269]. F. W. = "Fine writing": pompous or pre- tentious language [ 261]. Coll.=fDietion too colloquial [ 2501. Wk. = Diction weak or colorless [ 253- 261]. Id.= Faulty idibm [2 461. 6. Miscellaneous U.= Lack of unity in the thenie as a whole. C. = Lack of coherence in the theme as a whole. E. = Lack of emphasis in the theiue as a whole. U. = Lack of unity in the paragraph. C. = Lack of coherence in the para- graph. E. = Lack of emphasis in the para- graph. =-Doubt as to the correctness or soundness of the sulbject-mat- ter. =Alake paragraph division. No [ = Do not make paragraph divi- sion. MS = Manuscript illegible or other- wise faulty. 1, 2, .3. ete. = Arlane as the numbers indi- eate. X = Obvious error. SUGGESTIONS AS TO SUBJECTS FOR THEMES 2. In the choice of a subject for a theme a student should be gov- erned by several considerations. He should be sure, in the first place, that the topic is one that he is capable of discussing. If he does not know enough to write about it immediately, he should consider whether he can inform himself about it in the time he has before he must hand in the theme. He should also choose a subject that may be adequately treated in the space that he intends to devote to his theme; hence he should see to it that his subject is strictly limited. As a rule, students have a tendency to choose subjects that are too general. Many volumes are usually required for the complete treatment of a general topic. In a short theme adequate treatment can be given only to particular and definitely limited subjects. Students should, above all, choose things to write about that interest them. The most interesting subjects are those that make their appeal because of their live, human quality, or because of their nearness to interests that students have already established, or because of their relation to the writer's acquired experience. in life. For the correction of these miscellaneous errors more recasting of the. whole theme is usually necessary than can be done by entering the mistake in the NOTEBOOK. For this reason no place has been assigned in the NOTEBOOK for units of composition larger than the sentence. SUGGESTIONS AS TO SUBJECTS FOR THEMES After a subject has been chosen, the student must find an appro- priate title. This should always be as short as is consistent with clear- ness and interest, and should usually be stated in the form of a noun and its modifiers. The subjects given below are merely suggestions. It is hoped that they may serve to call to mind suitable subjects that the student may not otherwise think of. A. SUBJECTS FOR EXPOSITION An account of the condition of a certain organization; e.g., "The Present Condition of Our Football Team." An account of your ideal of anything; e.g., "My Ideal of a Gentleman." An account of any crop; e.g., "The Raising of Corn." An account of the cause of some great public disturbance; e.g., "The Cause of the ]Recent Street Car Strike." An explanation of the construction of a scientific instrument; e.g., "Thle Micrometer Caliper." An account of the manufacture of something; e.g., "The Making of Blankets." An explanation of the qualifications desirable in a man holding a certain position; "The Qualifications of a Good Doctor." An explanation of some artistic process; e.g., "The Making of a Charcoal Drawing."' A comparison of the life in one place with that in another; e.g., "Life in the High School and in the University." An account of the conduct of some great gathering; e.g., 'Tlile Airaniemgeniets tfor the Recent State Convention." An explanation of some scientific term or process; e.g., "Electrolysis." An account of the political situation in a certain place; e.g., "The Recent Political ('am- paign in Pennsylvania." An account of some great business system; e.g., "The Chain Store." An account of the amusements of a certain class of people; e.g., "How the Italian [Negro, Polish, etc.] Laborer Spends His Leisure." An account of life in a certain place; e.g., "Life in a Summer Camp." An account of how to do a certain thing; e.g., "The Art of Rowing." Anl account of how to play a certain gaame; e.g. "How to Play Chess." An account of interesting things you have made; e.g., "Our Summer Camp." An account of an interesting trip you have taken; e.g., "Up the Columbia on a Steamer." An account of an interesting place; e.g., "The Shaker Village in Kentucky." An account of some particular class of people-considered socially; e.g., "The Wall Flower"; considered industrially; e.g., "The Lumberjack"; or considered raeially; e.g., "The Bohemian Farmer." Aln account of some particular industry; e.g., "Logging on the North Pacific Coast." Afn account of some notable piece of engineering; e.g., "The Hudson River Tube." An account of how men conduct themselves under particular conditions; e.g., How College Men Behave at Dances." 3 4 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION The following list of particular themes of considerable length and preparation, may offer suggestions: The Trans-Siberian Railway The Resources of Texas The British Cabinet System The Production of Hospital Milk The Relations of the President, the Senate, and the House Salisbury Cathedral The Feudal System The Furnishings for a Camp Kitchen The Furnishings for a Student's Room subjects, some of them suitable for requiring much reading for their The Water-coolin- Svsteni for Automno- biles The Organization of a Lumber Camp Artificial Ice Fighting Forest Fires The Difficulty of Settling Down at College The Hardest Part of the Freshman Year My Favorite Books My Favorite Pastime The student should make a special effort to correlate the work in his other courses with that in his composition courses. The following topics suggest the way in which he in all of his courses: Economics and Sociology( The Economic Wastes of Fashion Recent Prison Reforms at Sing Sin,. N. Y. The Economic Ideas of Henry George What Does a Bank Do The Social Effeet of Speculation in Wheat and Cotton Immigration Communities in tile United States The Causes of Immigration Fire Loss and Fire Prevention in the United States Preservation of Soil Fertilitv Infant Mortality and Means of Prevent- ing It Small Town Planning The Eight Hour Day The Commission Form of Government The City Manager Plan of City Govern- ment Vocational Guidance for Girls "Safety First" on Railroads and in Fac- tories Rural Hygiene may fihd subjects for compositions Wise and Unwise Clharitv The Real Cause of Divorce in the United States Agencies for the Care of Destitute Chil- dren .Juvenile Courts The Economic Resources of Alaska Cooperative Stores in the United States Communistic Societies in the United States The American-Japanese Problem Community Drama as a Socializing Force The Campaign Against Tuberculosis Agriculturet The Fariner of Tomorrow What Science Has Done for Agriculture The Best Method of Marketing Farm Crops (any particular crop) The Need of Cooperation among Farmers Leguminous Crops and Their Importance in Agriculture A Modern Stock Farm The Farm Garden The Work of the United States l)epart- ment of Agriculture ,For this list of subjects in Economies and Sociology the authors are indebted to Professor A. B. Wolfe, of the University of Texas. tFor this list of subjects in Agriculture the authors are indebted to -'rofessor W. S. Taylor, of the University of Texas. SUGGESTIONS AS TO SUBJEC'TS FOR THEMES How Can the Farmer be Taught Alore Effectively The Importance of Good Live Stock on the Farm The Farm Home Weeds Birds: Their Relation to Agriculture Intensive Farming: Its Future in the United States How to Live on an Acre Soil Robbers and Soil Builders Modern Conveniences for Farm Houses The Need of Silos in the South The Gas Engine and Its Relation to Iu- proved Farming Farm Poultry Giant Kelp as a Source of Potash Diversified Farming for the South Climate as a Factor in Determiniing the Type of Agriculture The Development of Farm MNachinery The Telephone and Rural Free l)elivery as Aids to Agriculture The Use of the United States WNreather Bureau in Farming B. SUBJECTS FOR ARGUMENT A subject for argument should be of real interest to both debaters andl audience. Local matters will often yield better subjects than national or world-wide questions. After circumstances have settled a question of policy, it ceases to be a subject for argument. For this reason any list that might be given would probably need revision within six months. Good suggestive lists of argumentative questions may be found in the following books, to which the student is referred: Shurter and Taylor, Both Sides of 100 Public Questions (Hinds, Noble, and Eldridge); Baker and Huntington, Principles of Argumentation; Craig, Pros and Cons (Hinds, Noble, and Eldridge); Brookings and Ringwalt, Briefs for Debate (Longmans, Green, and Co.); Nichols, Intercollegiate Debates, 2 vols. (Hinds, Noble, and Eldridge). NOTE.-General propositions do not make satisfactory subjects for student arguments. Our ancestors of a hundred years ago engaged in many philosophical and general arguments. The following subjects, debated in the literary societies of one of our state universities during the early years of the nineteenth century, will serve as examples of the kinds of subjects to avoid: Is a liberal education more conducive to happiness than a savage life Is health a greater blessing than riches Does the man with a competency or he who is in a very affluent station einjoy most happiness The following are subjects that have been debated in schools and colleges in the past few years: Resolved: that the amount of property transferable by inheritance should be limited by statute. Resolved: that the electoral college should be abolished and the president elected by direct vote of the people. 5 6 MANUAL AND 'NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPO;SITI()N Resolhre1: that the Itnited States ought to own and control the coal mines of the count rv. Ke. oiced: that the Federal Government should grant financial aid to ships engaged in (oi'r foreign trade and owned by citizens of the United States. Resolrvd: that Labor Unions. as they nowv exist, are, on the whole, beneficial to societv in the United States. Resolred: that our legislation be shaped towardl an abandonment of the protective tariff. Resolred: that the Federal (lovernment should purchase and operate all railroads operating within the United States. Resolved: that the Initiative anld Referendum be made a l)ar't of the legislative, svslelil of Resolved: that all corporatiolis doing all interstate business be compelled to take out a federal charter. Resolved: that public libraries, museums, and art galleries should be open on Sunday. Resolved: that Representatives to Congress should be eligible from any district wit hin their own state. Resolved: that Representatives in- Congress should vote according, to the wishes of their constituents rather thfan according to their own conlvietiolns. Resolved: that Socialism is the best solution of American labor problems. Resolved: that the formation of a separate political party would be for the best interests of the laboring classes. Resolved: that women should be granted suffrage oil equal termis with men in -. Resolved: that municipalities should house the poor of cities. Resolved: that the United States should have uniform marriage and divorce laws. C. SUBJECTS FOR DESCRIPTION Places, persons, and animals, scenes from life, and moods and l eelings are the subject-matter of descriptions. The subjects listed b)elow, arranged according to these divisions, may be used for themes, or may suggest people, objects, or occasions students may wish to descrile. Choice of a good subject does not in itself make certain that a goodl (lescription will be pro(luced by the writer. In writing a descrip- tion that attempts to arouse the imagination or to stir the emotions of a reader, one should try to portray the feeling or emotion excited by the object described. Such an impression cannot be produced by merely furnishing a complete enumeration of all the characteristics of a de- serted town, for instance; only those details of the appearance of the thing (lescribe(1 that hell) to make a unified impression stand out dis- tinctivelv from the maas should be chosen. A catalogue gives only information. To give inforiration is, however, frequently the only object of a description; for example: the description of a criminal sought by the police; a guide-book's description of a city; a legal description of land. The following subjects, however, are not of this kind; they should be given an imaginative treatment. LIST OF SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS IPlaes The (Camipus Down at the Wharf An Indian Village. An Oriental Shop A Ranch House The Village Church Persons or Animals My Landlady Trhe (Country Boy at College The Old Clothes Man Our Janitor The Football Hero The College Failure The Grumbler Mly Best Frienid IProfessors I Have Known The Family Horse The Fraternity Dog Scenes from 1he Life of Pzersons or Communities An Evening with the Bookworm A Day of Oui Preacher's Life Our Days in Camp The Commuter's MIorning The Dancing Class In the Dean's Office Afternoon Tea at 's The Moving Picture Show WAaiting for the Judge's D)ecision From My Window A College Examination Roomi MIoods and Feelings Blue Monday Watchin- for the Postman Expelled My First Opera The Touch-down LIST OF SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 3. One of the greatest incentives toward good writing is the read- ing of first-class books. A clear and forceful style in English prose has come about only after a long period of experiment. To neglect the study of the works that are the results of this development is to do away with one of the 'greatest inspirations toward good writing that can be found. Reading outside of class should therefore be systematically and constantly pursued by the student who hopes to make good progress in learning to write. In the preparation of this list of readings supplementary to a com- position course, the attempt has been made to include a sufficient variety of works to meet the needs of each student. Supplementary reading should always be interesting, for it is assigned primarily for the pur- pose of giving the students the habit of reading good literature. Much discrimination and judgment must therefore be exercised in the choice of reading for the student who does not already like to read. Books least foreign to formed tastes, and yet really worth while, should be chosen. The approach to the best writers should come only as the student is ready for it. It will often be found, however, that one of the better authors will appeal to all students; only a few do not enjoy Treasure Island or Robinson Crusoe. Some modern novels and plays are also good stepping-stones for the uninterested student. 7 8 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION It is also the endeavor of a good course of reading to broaden the literary horizon of that small but important group of students weho have read far beyond the requirements of the preparatory schools. This purpose has been held distinctly in mind in the preparation of the following list. A. OLDER ENGLISH AND AMERICAN NOVELS Jane Austen: Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, Emma, Mansfield Park, Northanger Abbey. R. D. Blackmore: Lorna Doone. Charlotte BrontZ: Jane Eyre. Emily Bronte: Wuthering Heights. Fanny Burney: Evelina. Wilkie Collins: The Woman in White, The Moonstone, No Name. J. Fenimore Cooper: The Spy, The Last of the Mohicans, The Pilot. Daniel Defoe: Robinson Crusoe, Colonel Jack, Moll Flanders. Charles Dickens: David Copperfield, Tale of Two Cities, Bleak House, Dombey and Son, Pickwick Papers, Great Ex- pectations, Old Curiosity Shop, Oliver Twist, Our Mutual Friend. Benjamin Disraeli: Coningsby, Tancred. George Eliot: Silas Marner, Adam Bede, The Mill on the Floss, Romola, Middle- march. Henry Fielding: Tom Jones. Mrs. Elizabeth Gaskell: Cranford. Oliver Goldsmith: The Vicar of Wake- field. Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Scarlet Let- ter, The Marble Faun, The House of the Seven Gables. Thomas Hughes: Tom Brown's School Days, Tom Brown at Oxford. B. RECENT ENGLISH James Lane Allen: A Kentucky Cardi- nal, Aftermath, The Choir Invisible. James M. Barrie: The Little Minister, Sentimental Tommy, Tommy and Gri- zel. Arnold Bennett: The Old Wives' Tale, Clayhanger, Hilda Lessways, These Twain. Charles Kingsley: Hypatia, ITvestward Ho!, Hereward the Wake. Mark Twain: Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, Innocents Abroad. George Meredith: The Ordeal of Richard Feverel, Diana of the Crossways, Beau- champ's Career, The Egoist. [Mere- dith's sentences are overcrowded with thought; his style is elliptical; his ideas are, however, worth the struggle neees- sary to obtain them.] William Morris: News from Nowewre, The Well at the World's End. Walter Pater: Marius the Epicurean. [A story of the time of Marcus Aurelius, giving a remarkable exposition of Epi- cureanism, Stoicism, and Christianity; it is not easy reading.] Charles Reade: The Cloister and the Hearth. Sir Walter Scott- Ivanhoe, The Talisman, Quentin Durward, The Abbot, Kenil- worth, The Fortunes of Nigel, The An- tiquary, The Heart of Midlothian, Guy Mannering, The Bride of Lammnermoor. Mary Shelley: Frankenstein. Tobias Smollett: Humphrey Clinker. William M. Thackeray: Vanity Fair, Pen- dennis, Henry Esmond, The Newcomes, The Virginians. Anthony Trollope: Barchester Towers, Doctor Thorne. AND AMERICAN NOVELS Samuel Butler: The Way of All Flesh, Erewhon. Joseph Conrad: The Nigger of the "Nar- cissus," Almayer's Folly, Chance, Vic- tory, Nostromo. - William DeMorgan: Joseph Vance, Some- how Good, Alice-for-Short. Conan Doyle: The Hound of the Basher- iuilles. LIST OF SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS John Galsworthy: The Country House, The Man of Property, The Patricians, Fraternity. George Gissing: Veranilda, The New Grub Street. Thomas Hardy: Far from the Madding Crowd, A Pair of Blue Eyes, The Re- turn of the Native, Tess of the D'Urber- villes. Maurice Hewlett: The Forest Lovers, The Life and Death of Richard Yea and Nay, The Queen's Quair. William Dean Howells: The Rise of Silas Lapham. Henry James: The Story of Daisy Miller. Rudyard Kipling: The Light that Failed, Kim. Joseph C. Lincoln: Cap'n Eri, Mr. Pratt: Jack London: The Call of the Wild, The Sea TVolf. S. Weir Mitchell: Hugh Wynne. Thomas Nelson Page: Red Rock, The Old Gentleman of the Black Stock. Francis Hopkinson Smith: Colonel CGarter of. Cartersville. Robert Louis Stevenson: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, The Ebb Tide, St. Ire's, The Master of Ballantrae, Treasure island, Kidnapped. H. G. Wells: -inn Veronica, JUarriage, The New Machiavelli, The 1Fife of Sir Isaac Harman, Tono-Bungay, Mr. Brit- ling Sees It Through. William Allen White: The Court of Boq/- ville, A Certain Rich Man. Owen Wister: The Virginian. Ph ilosolphiq Four. C. FOREIGN NOVELS Hono i6 de Balzav: Eupejeie (;rapdelt, Pire Goriot, The Country Doctor, The Cho- uans. Bj6rnstjerne Bjornson: Arne, The Fisher- maiden, A Happy Boy. S. M. de Cervantes: Don Quixote. Alphonse Daudet: Tartarin of Tarascon. Fyodor Dostoyevsky: The Idiot, Crime and Punishment. Alexandre Dumas: The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Twienty Years After. Gustav Frennsen: Jorn Uhl. Perez Galdos: Doia Perfecta. Nicholas Gogol: Dead Souls. Maxim Gorky: The Mother, The Spy. Jldovie IThlavy : Th .-I bbe Constantin. Victor Hugo: Les Misirables, The Mat IVho Laughs, Notre Dame de Paris, The Toilers of the Sea. Selma Lagerlif: The Stiril of GilsIa lBer- ling. A. R. LeSa-e: The' I dventures of Gil Blas. Prosper Merimee: Colomnba. J. H. B. de St. Pierre: I'aul and Vir- ginia. Romain Roland: Jean-Christophe. Henry Sienkewiez: Quo Vadis, With Fire and Sword. Lyof N. Tolstoy: War and leace. .1nna Karenina. I. S. Tourgenief: Fathers and Sons, Vir- gin Soil. Emile Zola: Downfall. Paris, Rtome. D. COLLECTIONS OF SHORT STORIES James M. Barrie: Auld Lieht Idyls, A Window in Thrums. Alice Brown: Meadow Grass. Joseph Conrad: Youth. Tales of Unrest. Margaret Deland: Old 'hester Tales. Guy de Maupassant: 7'h" Odd Number. Conan Doyle: The .-drentures of Sher- lock Holmes, The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes, The Return of Sherlock Holmes. George Gissing: The House of Cob- uebs. Thomas Hardy: Life's Little Ironies. Wessex Tales. .Joel Chandler Harri;: .ieqhts iwith Urnrle Remus. 9 10 MANUAL AND NO(TEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Francis Bret Harte: The Luck of Roar- ing Camp, Under the Redwoods. Nathaniel Hawthorne: Twice Told Tales, Mosses from an Old Manse, Grand- father's Chair. "O. Henry": The Four Million, Strictly Business, Roads of Destiny, Heart of the West. Maurice Hewlett: Little Novels of Italy, New Canterbury Tales. W. W. Jacobs: Many Cargoes, The Lady of the Barge. Sarah Orne Jewett: The Country of the Pointed Firs, Tales of New England. Rudyard Kipling: Jungle Book, Just-So Stories, The Phantom Rickshaw, Life's Handicap, Wee Willie Winkie, Traffics and Discoveries, Plain Tales from the Hills. Ian Maclaren: Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush. Fiona MeLeod (William Sharp): Washer of the Ford. Thomas Nelson Page: In Ole Virginia. Edgar Allan Poe: Tales. Robert Louis Stevenson: New Arabian Nights, The Dynamiter, The Merry Men. Henry van Dyke: The Blue Flower, The Ruling Passion. H. G. Wells: The Country of the Blind. Mary E. Wilkins (Freeman): A New England Nun and Other Stories. Collections of Stories by Different Au- thors: Stories by English Authors, 10 vols., N. Y., 1897 (Scribner's). Stories by American Authors, 10 vols., N. Y., 1912 (Scribner's). Stories by Foreign Authors, 10 vols., N. Y., 1907 (Scribner's). Types of the Short Story, Benjamin A. Heydrick, Editor (Scott, Foresman). Short Story Classics (American), 5 vols., William Patten, Editor (Col- lier). Short Story Classics (Foreign), 5 vols., William Patten, Editor (Collier). Little Masterpieces of Fiction, 8 vols., H. W. Mabie, Editor (Doubleday, Page). American Short Stories, Charles S. Baldwin, Editor (Longmans, Green). Book of the Short Story, Jessup and Canby, Editors (Appleton). Best American Tales, Trent and Henne- man, Editors (Crowell). E. GREEK, LATIN, SEVENTEENTH CENTURY FRENCH, AND ELIZABETHAN ENGLISH DRAMA Good translations of many of the Greek and Latin plays listed below, and of many of the books under "Classics" (p. 12), are pub- lished, with the text printed opposite the translation, in the Loeb Clas- sical Library (Macmillan). Everyman's Library (Dutton), the Temple Classics (Dent), and Bohn's Library (G. Bell) also supply translations of many of the classical and more modern books suggested in this list and in that headed "Modern Drama-Foreign" (pp. 11-12). Refer- ence is made to these editions wherever possible. Easily available trans- lations are noted in the parentheses after the works of each author. Greek 2Eschylus: Prometheus Bound, Agamem- non, Chmphoroi, Eumenides [tr. Plum- tre, Bohn]. Euripides: Alcestis, Medea, Hyppolytus [Everyman's, Loeb, vol. iv, Bohn]. Sophocles: (Edipus the King, CEdipus at Colonus, Antigone [tr. Plumtre, Loeb, vol. i]. Aristophanes: Frogs, Knights, Clouds [tr. Frere in "World's Classias" No. 134, Loeb, Bohn]. LIST OF SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS Latin Plautus: Miles Gloriosus, Rudens [Bohn] . Terence: Phormio, Andria [Bohn, Loeb]. Seventeenth Century French Corneille: Le Cid [tr. Florence Cooper (Appleton) ]. Racine: Phedre [Bohn, vol. ii of Racine's Dramatic Works]. Moliere: Les Precieuses Ridicules, Tar- tuffe [Bohn]. Elizabethan English Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet, Henry IV (Parts 1 and 2), Hamlet, Macbeth, King Lear, Othello, Antony and Cleo- patra, As You Like It, The Tempest. The Winter's Tale, Twelfth Night, Mid- summer Night's Dream, Richard IlI, Julius Caesar, All's Well that Ends Well, Much Ado about Nothing, The Taming of the Shrew. Selections from the other Elizabethan dramatists may be found in: W. A. Neilson: The Chief Elizabethan Dramatists. C. M. Gayley: Representative English Comedies. F. MODERN DRAMA-ENGLISH Granville Barker: The Voysey Inherit- ance, The Madras House, Waste. James M. Barrie: Pantaloon, The Twelve- Pound Look, Rosalind, The Will. John Galsworthy: Strife, Justice, The Pigeon. Oliver Goldsmith: She Stoops to Con- quer. Henry Arthur Jones: Mrs. Dane's De- fense, Judah. Charles Rann Kennedy: The Servant in the House, The Terrible Meek. Percy MacKaye: Sappho and Phaon, A Thousand Years Ago. John Masefield, The Tragedy of Nan, Pompey the Great, Phillip the King. William Vaughn Moody: The Great Di- vide, The Faith Healer. T. G. Murray: Maurice Hart. Arthur Pinero: The Second Mrs. Tan- queray, The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith, Iris. Stephen Phillips: Paolo and Francesca, Ulysses, Nero. Lenox Robinson: Harvest. George Bernard Shaw: all the plays in the volumes "Plays Pleasant and Unpleas- ant." and The Doctor's Dilemma, Get- ting Married, Man and Superman, Caesar and Cleopatra, Misalliance, Androcles and the Lion. Edward Sheldon: The Nigger. Richard B. Sheridan: The Rivals, The School for Scandal. Githa Sowerby: Rutherford and Son. John Synge: The Playboy of the West- ern World, Riders to the Sea, Deirdre of the Sorrows. Oscar Wilde: The Importance of Being Earnest, Lady Windermere's Fan, A Woman of No Importance. William Butler Yeats: Where There Is Nothing, The Hour Glass, Cathleen ni Hoolihan. Israel ZangwVill: The Melting Pot. G. MODERN DRAMA-FOREIGN Leonid Andreyev [Russian]: King Hun- Gerhard Hauptmann [German]: Lonely ger. Lives, The Weavers, The Sunken Bell. Bjornstjerne Bj6rnson [Norwegian]: Be- Henrik Ibsen [Norwegian]: Peer Gynt, yond Human Might, Bankruptcy, Leo- The Doll's House, Ghosts, Rosmersholm, narda. Hedda Gabler, The Master Builder. 11 12 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Maurice Maeterlinck [Belgian]: The Blind, The Intruder, The Blue Bird, Monna Vanna, Pelleas and Melisande. Edmond Rostand [French]: Cyrano de Bergerac, Chantecleer. August Strindberg [Swedish]: The Link, The Creditor, The Father, The Stronger. Hermnann Sudermaun [Germanj]: Mayda, The Fires of St. John, The Joy of Lit- ing, The Vale of Content. Lyof N. Tolstoy [Russiani : The Power of Darkness. Anton Tehekoff [Russian]: The Seagull, The Cherry Orchard. H. CLASSICS Greek Homer: The Iliad, The Odyssey [Every- man's; Lang, Leaf, and Myers tr. (iliad) and Butcher and Lang (Odys- sey), Macmnillan]. Herodotus: History [Everyman's, Bohn]. Pindar: Pythian Odes [Bohn]. Demosthenes: On the Crown [Every- man's, Bohn]. Sappho: Odes and Fragments [Ed. and tr. Wharton]. Thueydides: History of the Peloponne- sian War [Everyman's, Loeb, Bohn]. Xenophoiu: lAnabasis [tr. H. G. Daikyns (Macmillan)], Memorabilia of Socrates [Everyman's]. l'lato: Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Republic [tr. B. Jowett (several editions); also Everyman's, Loeb, Bohn]. Aristotle: Poetics [tr. Lane Coolper (Ginn), Loeb, Boha]. Lucian: Dialogues of the Gods [tr. 11. Williams (Macmillan); also Boluhn]. [See also the dramatists under seetion E.] Latin Cicero: Old Age [tr. H' P. Houghton ("Oriel Booklets")], Friendship [both in Bohn, Everyman's]. Ovid: Metamorphoses [Bohn]. Vergil: Eneid, Eclogues [Bohn, Every- man's, Loeb]. Horace: Odes and Epodes [Temple Clas- sics, Loeb, Bohn], Satires [Bohn]. Catullus: Poems [Loeb, Bolhn]. Tacitus: Germania, Agricola [Every- man's, Loeb, Bohn]. Caesar: Gallic War [Oxford Library of Translations, Loeb, Bohn]. Livy: History of Rome [tr. W. L. Col- lins (Lippincott), Bohn]. Miscellaneous Anglo-Saxon--Beowulf [tr. by Gummere. The Oldest English Epic; also by Child, Riverside Literature Series]. Persian-Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam [tr. by Edward Fitzgerald]. Old French-The Song of Roland [tr. by A. S. Way, Cambridge University Press], The Lays of Marie de France [tr. by F. B. Luquiens (Holt)]. Middle High German-The Nibelungen- lied [Everyman's, Bohn]. Modern German-Goethe: Faust [tr. by Bayard Taylor, Riverside Literature Series]. Finnish-Kalavala [tr. by Kirby, Every- man's]. Icelandic-The Elder Edda [tr. by Olive Bray]. Italian-Dante: Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso [Everyman's, Bohn, Temple], The New Life [Temple]. For a good discussion of the great sys- tems of mythology see: Helen A. Guerber: Myths of Greece and Rome, Myths of Northern Lands. Charles M. Gayley: Classic Myths in Eng- lish Literature. LIST OF SUPPLEMENTARY READ)INGS I. LETTERS, BIOGRAPHY, AND AUTOBIOGRAPHY Marv Antin: The P'romised Land. Jane Austen: Life and Letters (W. and R. A. Austen-Leigh, editors). .James Boswell: Life of Samuel Johnson. Gaitialiel Bradforid: Life of Robert E. Lee. Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett (Browning) : Love Letters. James Bryce: Studies in Contemporary Biography. ThlomIlas Carlyle and Jane Welsh (Car- lyle) : Love Letters. Earl of Chesterfield: Letters to His Son. a. K. Chesterton: Life of Dickens. Cook and Benham (editors): Specimen Letters. Charles W. Eliot: John Gilley. James Anthony Froude: Life of Caesar. Edwin Greenlaw (editor): Familiar Let- ters. John Keats: Letters. Helen Keller: Story of My Life. J. G. Lockhart: Life of Scott. ,lames Russell Lowell: Letters. George Moore: Memoirs. John Morley: Life of Gladstone. Car'dinal Newman: Apologia pro l'ita Sua. George Herbert Palmer: Life of Alice Freeman Palmer. Robert Louis Stevenson: Letters. Booker T. Washington: Up from Slareryq. J. ESSAYS Matthew Arnold: Essays in Criticism, Lit- erature and Dognma. I'eiendship-s Gar- land. Francis Bacon: Selected Essays. Arthur Christopher Benson: ironm a Col- lege llWindow, 'The House of Quiet. Berdan. Schultz. an(l Joyce (editors) Modern Essails. Bryan arid Crane (editors) : The English Familiar Essay. John Burroughs: Sharp Eyes. Birds and Bees, The Breath of Life, Pepacton, Year in the Fields. Thomas Carlyle: Heroes and Hero Wor- ship, Sartor Resartus. G. K. Chesterton: Heretics, Orthodoxy, Varied Types. S. T. Coleridge: Biographia Literaria, Essays and Lectures on Shakespeare. inamuel McCord Crothers: The Gentle Reader, By the Christmas Fire, Hu- nanly Speaking, The Pleasures of an .-! bsentee Landlord. (Geor-e William Curtis: Prue and I. Trhomas DeQuincey: Confessions of an English Opium Eater, Selected Essays. Clharles W. Eliot: The Durable Satisfac- tions of Life, American Contributions to Civilization. Ralph Waldo Emerson: Selected Essays. Anatole France: The Garden of Epic urus. Edward Everett Hale: Americav Essays, English Essays. Frederick Harrison: Memories atnd Thoughts,, Realities and Ideals. William Hazlitt: Selected Essays, Table Talk, Essays on the English Poets. Thomas Wentworth Hi-ginson : Part of a Man's Life, Things W6orth While, Three Out-Door Papers, Old Cambridge. Oli'.er Wendell Holmes: The Autocrat of the Yreakfast Table. Charles Lamb: Essays of Elia, Last E.- says of Elia. Walter Savage Landor: Imaginary Coin- versations. Andrew Lang: Adventures among Book,, Essays in Little, Old Friends. Richard Le Gallienne: Prose Fancies. James Russell Lowell: Among My Books. My Study Windows, Political Essays. Michael Montaigue: Selected Essays. John Henry (Cardinal) Newman: St- lected Essays. Walter Pater: Imaginaryi Portraits. Mis- cellaneous Stldies, Plato and Platonism, . Ippreviatwits. 14 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Bliss Perry:. The Amateur Spirit and Other Essays, The American Mind. John Ruskin: Sesame and Lilies, Ethics of the Dust, Crown of Wild Olive. Charles A. St. Beuve: Selected Essays. Leslie Stephen: Essays Literary and Practical. Robert Louis Stevenson: Virginibus Puier- isque, Memories and Portraits, Famil- iar Studies of Men and Books. Algernon Charles Swinburne: Essays ana Studies. William M. Thackeray: Roundabout Pa- pers, Book of Snobs, English Humour- ists. Charles Dudley Warner: Backlog Studies. K. PHILOSOPHICAL AND GENERAL SCIENTIFIC WORKS Henri Bergson: Creative Evolution, Laughter, Time and Free Will. Charles Darwin: The Origin of Species, The Descent of Man. G. Lowes Dickinson: The Greek View of Life, The Meaning of Good, The Mod- ern Symposium, Is Immortality Desira- ble, Justice and Liberty. Jean H. C. Fabre: Insect Life, Social Life in the Insect WVorld, The Life of the Spider. John Fiske: Excursions of an Evolution- ist, The Unseen World and Other Essays. Ernst Haeckel: The Riddle of the Uni- verse. 'Thomas H. Huxley: Essays, Evolution and Ethics, Man's Place in Nature. William James: Psychology, Varieties of Religious Experience. Maurice Maeterlinck: The Life of the Bee, Wisdom and Destiny, Our Eternity. Walter Pater: The Renaissance. Josiah Royce: The Philosophy of Loy- alty. George Santayana: The Life of Rea- son. Herbert Spencer: Essays Speculative and Practical. H. G. Wells: First and Last Things. William Butler Yeats: Ideas of Good and Evil. L. HISTORICAL WORKS Thomas Carlyle: The French Revolution, Frederick the Great. G;uglielmo Ferrero: The Greatness and Decline of Rome, The Women of the Caesars. John Fiske: The Beginnings of New Eng- land, Discovery of America. W. E. H. Lecky: History of England in the Eighteenth Century. John Motley: The Rise of the Dutch Re- public. Francis Parkman: The California and Oregon Trail. William Prescott: The Conquest of Mex- ico, The Conquest of Peru. Theodore Roosevelt: The Winning of the West. Bernadotte Schmitt: England and Ger- many, 1740-1914. Goldwin Smith: Irish History and Irish Character. J. A. Symonds: The Renaissance. G. M. Trevelyan: England Under the Stuarts. H. 0. Waneman: The Ascendancy of France. M. POETRY Standard anthologies of English and American poetry follow: Thomas R. Lounsbury: Yale Book of Curtis Hidden Page: British Poets of the American Verse. Vineteenth Century. REFERENCE BOOKS STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW Francis T. Pa]grave: Golden Treasury. Henry S. Pancoast: Standard English Poems. Arthur C. Quiller-Couch: Oxford Book of English Verse. George Saintsbury: Seventetnih Century Lyrics. Edward C. Stedman: A Victorian A n- thology, An American Anthology. Burton E. Stevenson: The Home Book of Verse. Thomas Humphrey WVard: English Poets. Poets and Poetry of the Nineteenth Cen- tury, 12 vols. (Routledge). Alphonso G. Newcomer and Alice E. An- drews: Twelre Centuries of English Poetry and Prose, Three Centuries of American Poetrly and Prose. George B. Woods: English Poetry and Prose of the Romantic Morement. 4. REFERENCE BOOKS STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW A. ENCYCLOPEDIAS Encyclopedia Britannica. Very full and authoritative. On many abstract sub- jects it has original work of a high order; e.g., "Poetry." 11th edition, 1910. New International Encyclopedia. Briefer. but authoritative. Second edition, 1915. Nelson's Encyclopedia. Loose-leaf sys- tem. Keeps up to date by inserting new leaves. Grove's Dictionary; of Music and Musi- cians. The Jewish Encyclopedia. Authoritative on Hebrew subjects. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Autlhorita- tive on Catholic subjects. La Grande Encyclopedie. The best French authority. B rockhaus: Kon. ersations-Lexikon. The best German authority. Hastings: Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. B. DICTIONARIES Murray's New English Dictionary. Un- finished. It is the highest authority oi the history of English words. A Concise Oxford Dictionary, Adapted from the Oxford Dictionary, by Fowler and Fowler. The Century Dictionary, Cyclopedia of Names, and Atlas. New edition, 1911. in twelve volumes. Very full informa- tion on the meanings of words. 1 he New International Dictionary. Prob- ably the best single volume dictionary for students. The etymologies are full and exact. Newv edition, 1910. Roget's Thesaurus of English iWords and Phrases. Fernald: English Synonyms, Antonyms, and Prepositions. C. ALLUSIONS AND QUOTATIONS Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Very full and authoritative in the ex- planation of allusions in literature. Bartlett's Concordance to Shakespeare. An index to every word in Shakespeare. Cruden's Concordance. An index to every word in the Bible. Bartlett's Familiar Quotations. One of the best indexes to quotations. 1 5 1I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION D. BIBLIOGRAPHIES Poole's Index. A standard index to the articles in the leading magazines. It is kept up to date by the publication of annual numbers. Annual Library Index. Largely supple- mentary to Poole. Kroeger's Guide to the Study and Use of Reference Books. See p. 53 for diree- tions as to the use of the Annual Librarv Index. Bibliographies issued by the Library of Congress. Sonnenschein's The Best Books. A guide to a large number of the best available books, classified by subject. Baker's Guide to Historical Fiction. A great number of historical novels ar- ranged by periods of history. E. BIOGRAPHY Century Cyclopedia of Names. This in- cludes the names and brief biographies of real persons and of many fictitious characters. Dictionary of National Biography. The standard work on English biography. It has an epitome that is very conven- ient for quick reference. Lippincott's Universal Pronouncing Dic- tionary of Biography and Mythology. Applehon's Cylclopedia of l merican Biog- raphI. Six volumes with supplement. Who's Who; W'ho's W1ho in America; Wer Jsl s; Qui Otes-rous. Separate books of similar plan issued annually in England, America, Germany, and France. These volumes furnish brief accounts of living men and women of importance. Their old numbers are of increasing interest as repositories of much information that would otherwise be unavailable. Debrett's Peerage. Contains a great num- ber of facts concerning English families of historical distinction. Almanach de Gotha. A similar work cov- ering most of the European countries. F. CURRENT OR HISTORICAL FACTS The Statesman's Year-Book. Has a great mass of information about every coun- try. The World Almanac; The Tribune Alma- nac. These, like some other annuals issued by the great newspapers, con- tain much information about America. Whitaker's Almanac. A similar work re- ferring principally to England. The Annual Register. This and the next two books in this list give information about the preceding year. The New International Year-Book. The American Year-Book. Index to the London Times. Index to the New York Times. Ploetz's Epitome of Universal History. An epitome of all the important events of history, with accurate dates. Harper's Dictionary of Classical Litera- ture and Antiquities. Notes and Queries. A magazine devoted to notes and queries on a multitude of out-of-the-way facts. Yearly indexes are issued. G. ATLASES Lippincott's New Gazetteer. A geograph- ical dictionary of the world. The Century Atlas. Good classified ref- erences to places. Putzgers Historischer Schul-Atlas. A val- uable atlas for the history student. The Handy Reference Atlas. Useful for a student's desk. Rand-McNally's Atlas of the World. Standard. SOME PERIODICALS STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW 5. SOME PERIODICALS STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW NOTE.-This list of periodicals does not attempt to be at all complete. It gives the names of some of the periodicals with which students should be acquainted, and with which they are often unfamiliar. Scores of good magazines could easily be added to the list. 1. Literary, with a large portion of original literary matter. (a) English: The British Review, The Poetry Review, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, The Quarterly Review, The Edinburgh Re- view. (b) American: The Atlantic Monthly, The North American 1eview, The Unpopular Review, The Century, Poetry: a Magazine of Verse, Contempo- rary Poetry. 2. Literary and political; largely crit- ieal rather than original. (a) English: The Athenaeum, The Spectator, The Na- tion (London). (b) American: The Bookman, The Nation (New York). The Dial, The Sewanee Review, The New Re- public, The South Atlantic Quarterly, The Drama. 3. Art. Arts and Decoration, Interna- tional Studio, The Craftsman, The House Beautiful. 4. Music. The Music Quarterly, The Etude, The Musician. a. Digests of current events. The Lit- erary Digest, The Review of Reviews, Current Opinion, The World's Work. 6. Philosophy and Religion. The Hib- bert Journal (of more general interest than any other of the philosophical jonr- nals), The Philosophical Review, Mind, The Monist, The International Journal of Ethics, The Harvard Theological Review. 7. History. American Historical Re- view, English Historical Review. 8. Economies. Journal of Political Economy, The Political Quarterly, The American Political Science Review. MECHANICAL FORM OF MANUSCRIPT A. LETTERS 6. Letters may be roughly divided into three kinds: business let- ters, informal social letters, and formal social notes. As far as punc- tuation at least is concerned, the first two may be considered together, for in most respects the same rules cover both. A special section will be devoted to models of the formal social note. Business and informal social letters normally have six parts: (a) the outside address, (b) the heading, (c) the inside address, (d) the salutation, (e) the body, (f) the complimentary close. BUSINESS AND INFORMAL SOCIAL LETTERS For both business and informal social letters the following models will serve as indications of the correct manner of addressing the envelope: (a) Mr. George W. Lawrence. 1561 Central Avenue, Indianapolis, Indiana. (b) Mr. George W. Lawrence 1561 Central Avenue Indianapolis Indiana 17 18 MANU7AL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION (Either of these arrangements of the words in the address may be used-with or without the marks of punctuation. A general use of the typewriter has increased the practice of writing all the lines of the address flush with the same margin [b aboye]. Time is lost in making indentations, even if the machine is equipped with a tabulation key.) More unusual forms are: (Good) (Bad) For the Pastor of the Second Pastor Second Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Church. 625 3rd 625 Third Street, Springfield Springfield, 0. Ohio. Mr. George W. Lawrence 1561 Central Avenue Indianapolis Indiana To be forwarded The following are models for the headings of business and informal social letters: (Good) (Permissible in Business Letters) 17 Wendell Street, 17 Wendell St., Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge, Mass., January 17, 1915. Jan. 17, 1915. Springfield, Kentucky, (Permissible in Friendly Letters) February 13, 1913. At Home, Monday Morning. These forms are proper for both kinds of letters, but a certain lati- tude is allowed in the arrangement of the details of both forms. The injunction against abbreviation in the heading may be waived in busi- ness letters, but it is observed in social letters. On the other hand, the demand for exactness in the heading that is made necessary by the conditions of business is usually lacking in the case of friendly letters. For informal social letters it is generally unnecessary to use any inside address. AWAen it is used, it follows the same rule as in business letters, or it may be placed in the lower left-hand corner of the letter, below the complimentary close. For convenience the models for the inside address and the salutation are given together. MECHANICAL FORM OF MANUSCRIPT' (Good-Business Letters) (Good-Informal Social Letters) (a) Mr. George W. Lawrence, (a) Dear Charles, Indianapolis, Indiana. My dear Sir:- (b) Messrs. Allyn and Bacon, (b) My dear Dr. Jameson: Boston, Massachusetts. Gentlemen:- The punctuation after the salutation varies with the degree of familiarity and informality the writer wishes to express. In the order of their informality, going from the most formal to the most informal, the following punctuation marks are used: ( -) (: ) (,-) (-) (,). It will be observed that neither (;) (!) nor (.) is used for this purpose. Note that the salutations containing My are more formal than those not containing it, and that the word dear, unless it be the first word of the salutation, is not capitalized. In the body of a letter the same rules of punctuation, and of com- position in general, obtain as in other forms of discourse. The following are models for the complimentary close: (Good-Business Letters) (Good-Informal Social Letters) Very truly yours, Very sincerely yours. Smith Manufacturing Co. John WV. Stevens per James W. Smith Good complimentary closes for business letters are: Truly yours, Very truly yours, Respectfully yours. For social letters no rule can be made: the complimentary close will vary with the intimacy of the correspondents. As a rule, such closes as the following will suffice: Very truly yours, Sincerely yours, Very sincerely yours, Faithfully yours. In going beyond these simple forms in intimacy, remember that restraint is always preferred to effusiveness, and that it is better to let your friendship breathe through the body of the letter than to appear in the close alone. FORMAL SOCIAL NOTES Formal notes should be written in the third person. They should have no heading, no salutation, no complimentary close, no inside address, and no signature. They should be consistently written in the third person. The numbers occurring in dates should-unlike those in ordinary letters-be written out. The following models will be suffi- cient to show the usage in regard to these notes: g1 20 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH CO'MPOSITION (a) Mrs. Thayer requests the pleasure of Mr: James's company at dinner on Wednesday, June the fifteenth, at seven o'clock. 1517 Illinois Street, June the eighth. (or June eighth.) (b) Mr. James accepts with pleasure (c) Mr. James regrets that, on account Mrs. Thayer's invitation to dinner on of illness, he is unable to accept Mrs. June the fifteenth. Thayer's invitation to dinner on June 14 East Sixteenth Street, the fifteenth. June the ninth. 14 East Sixteenth Street, (or June ninth.) June the ninth. B. THEMES If the title of a theme is typewritten, it should be put in capitals. If it is written by hand, it should be underscored three times. The reason for the underscoring is based upon the accepted practice of the printer's code for the underscoring of words. One straight line under a word or a group of words in a printer's copy indicates that this word or group of words shall be set up in italics; two straight lines, that it shall be set up in SMALL CAPITALS; three straight lines, that it shall be set up in CAPITALS; a wavy line, that it shall be set up in bold-face type. Use regulation theme paper. Write with pen and ink or with a typewriter and on only one side of the paper. Write legibly. Bad handwriting is as slovenly a manner of conveying ideas as is bad articu- lation. Avoid all flourishes and undue shading of letters. Do not write over the margins; remember that the teacher must have room to write corrections. Indent the first line of every paragraph about one inch. Make all the paragraph indentations equal. Do not leave parts of lines blank except at the end of paragraphs. In narrative writing, put each quoted speech into a separate paragraph. In quoting poetry always follow the verse-arrangement of the orig- inal exactly. If the quotation begins in the middle of the line, imitate the position of the words in the original. (Wsarong) More things are wrought by prayer Than this world dreams of. Wherefore let thy voice ... (Right) More things ale wrought by prayer Than this world dreanis of. Wherefore let thy voice . MECHANICAL FORM OF MANTUSCR1T 2T (1Wro-ong) This is the forest primeval; the murmnuring pines and the hemlocks Stand like druids oL eld . . . (Right) This is the forest primeval the lInrinuring' pines alln the hemlocks Stand like druids of eld C. THEME OUTLINES No exercise is of more value to the student than that of making- outlines for his themes before writing them out. In order to make a good outline he will be compelled to think over his subject in its various aspects and thus to discover what he knows or thinks about it. He will also be brought to judge what material must be rejected before the theme can be unified. After this elimination of material has taken place, the outline will assist him in assigning its proper proportion to each division. If this work is conscientiously done, a student will have in mind, when he begins to write, not only what he is going to say, but also how he is going to say it, and in what order. There are in general use two methods of arranging outlines of themes and articles. In the first of these, each of the points made is indicated by a word or a phrase. In the second, a whole sentence is used to indicate the thought developed under each point. The following models will show the correct use of each of these methods: 1. Outline by Heads AN EASTERNER IN THE WEST 1. 1is first impression. A. Rawness of country. B. Lack of expected romance. C. Lack of conveniences. D. Hospitality. II. I npressions after a month's visit. A. Pleasantness of wvild land- seape. B. Romantic possibilities discov- ered. 1. The round-up. 2. The ranchnian's daughi- ter. C. Pleasure in pioneering. III. Impressions at the end of the year. .A. Regret at leaving the plains. B. Pleasant memories of the ranch. C. Determination soon to retu in. 2. Outline by Sentences AN EASTERNER IN THE WEST I. His first impression in the West was of (1) the rawness of the country, (2a) the lack of the expeeted romance, (3) the lack of conveniences, and (4) the hospitality of the people. II. After a month he was impressed wvith (1) the pleasantness of the wild land- scape, (2) the romantic possibilities that he had discovered in the round-up and in the ranchman's daughter. and (3) the pleasure of pioneering. III. At the end of the year lie went homle with (1) a regret at leaving the open plains, (2) pleasant memories of the life on the ranch, and (3) a deter- ininiation to return soon. '1 22 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION NOTE 1.-Unless a theme is long enough to need an introduction and a conclusion that is distinct from the discussion, do not put these divisions in the outline. Themes of five or six pages seldom need either introduction or conclusion. NOTE 2.-Do not make subdivisions unless there are more than one. When only one aspect of a subject is to be discussed, include it as a memorandum under the main head; do not make a subdivision of it. (Wrong) (Right) I. Early life. I. Early life-in Kentucky. A. In Kentucky. (Also Right) 1. Early life. A. In Kentucky. B. In Indiana. NOTE 3.-Be sure that heads written as if they are coordinate really are coordinate in thought. (Wrong) (Right) I. Early life. I. Early life. A. In Kentucky. A. In Kentucky. B. In Indiana. B. In Indiana. IT. In Virginia. C. In Virginia. NOTE 4.-In an outline, write the title separate from the outline. It is not a main head in the outline. I. PUNCTUATION CONTENTS OF CHAPTER A. The Comma 7. General principle. Coordinate Elements 8. Two coordinated groups. 9. Coordinate adjectives. 10. Series of three or more with con- junctions. 11. The series a, b, and c. Note 1. Etc. 12. Clauses of. compound sentence joined by simple conjunction. 13. Clauses of compound sentence not joined by simple conjunctions. Subordinate Elements 14. Direct quotations-noun clauses. 15. Non-restrictive adjective phrases and clauses. Note 1. No comma with restrictive phrases or clauses. 16. Adverbial clauses. Introductory, Parenthetical, and Absolute Expressions 17. Introductory or parenthetical par- tieles. 18. Absolute phrases. 19. Elements in apposition. 20. Vocatives. 21. Parenthetical expressions. Elements in Contrast 22. Antithetical expressions. 23. Words or phrases in pairs. 24. Expressions like "a pleasant, though expensive, trip." Ellipses 25. Omission of important words. Inversions , (i. Inverted elements. Miscellaneous Uses 27. Long subject separated from verb. 28. Separation merely for clearness. 29. After interjections. 30. With quotation marks and paren- theses. 31. Dates. 32. Names of places. 33. Numbers. 34. In connection with names of persons. B. The Semicolon 35. General principle. In Compound Sentences 36. Without simple conjunctions (no connective). Note 1. With conjunctive adverbs. Note 2. The series a, bI, and c. 37. With simple conjunctions. In Simple and Complex Sentences 38. For coordination of long or coinpli- cated elements. With Explanatory Words 39. Before explanatory words and phrases like viz. C. The Colon 40. General principle. Introductory Use 41. Before formal statements. 42. After salutations. 43. To introduce explanations or illus- trations. 44. TABULAR VIE1ll OF THE USE OF THE C OMIMA, THE SEMI- COLON, AND THE COLON. D. The Period 45. 46. 47. 48. With sentences. With headings. With abbreviations. With omissions. 23 24 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION E. The Exclamation Point 49. After interjections. Note 1. Punctuatioa of exclamatory sentences. 50. For doubt or sarcasm. F. The Question Mark 51. For query or doubt. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. G. The Dash General remarks. With a sudden break. Parenthetical expressions. With summarizing clause. After emphatic word or phrase. With tabulations. With side-heads. Before references. With dates, etc. With commas, etc. For rhetorical effect. To indicate omissions. H. The Apost:rophe 64. With possessive case. 65. With contractions. 66. With unusual plurals. I. Quotation Marks 67. With direct quotations. 6S. With double quotations. 69. With a series of paragraphs stanzas. 70. As apology for unusual words. 71. With titles of articles, etc. or REFERENCES Manly and Powell: Manual for Writers, chapters v and vi. Woolley: Handbook of Composition. Genung: The Working Principles of Rhetoric. Bates: Talks on Writing English, second series, chapter xvi. Herrick and Damon: N ew Composition and Rhetoric. Ward: Sentence and Theme; What Is English 72. With word and its definition. 73. General rule. J. Parentheses 74. For parenthetical expressions. 75. For figures and letters marking divi- sions. 76. Punctuation marks with parentheses. K. Brackets 77. With interpolations, explanations, etc. 78. For parentheses within parentheses. L. The Caret 79. To mark omissions. M. Italics 80. For emphasis. 81. For foreign words and expressions. 82. For isolated words and phrases. N. Capital Letters 83. General remark. 84. First word of sentence. 85. First word of quotations. 86. Beginning of lines of poetry. 87. Beginning of resolutions, etc. 88. Pronoun I and interjection 0. 89. References to the Deity. 90. Proper nouns and proper adjectives. 91. Important words in literary titles. 92. Words capitalized when referring to definite persons or things. 93. Certain words not to be capitalized. SYMBOLS lUSED FOR CORRECTIONS P. = Faulty punctuation [ 7-93]. Cap.= Use capital letter [ 83-93]. L. c. = "Lower case": use small letter [ 83-93]. Quots. = Use quotation marks [ 67-73]. Ital.= Use italics (in written work un- derscore once) [ 80-82]. A. THE COMMA 7. It may be remarked in regard to the use of commas, as, indeed, General of all the other marks of punctuation, that the subjective elements cannot principle be absolutely excluded in the application of the rules of punctuation of use of established by logic and convention. Punctuation usage varies, too, from generation to generation; fewer commas, for instance, are used today than ever before. Disagreement in the use of the comma and of the semicolon will be found in certain cases between those who take as the basis of standard punctuation modern magazines and newspapers, and those who hold to the practice of books printed by conservative pub- lishing firms. Up-to-the-minute usage in punctuation, as in diction, cannot be easily determined. Yet it should be borne in mind that consistency in punctuation, as in other things, is much to be desired. An attempt has been made to set up, in the rules that follow, a punctua- tion practice that is. neither too old-fashioned nor too new. Generally speaking, "the comma is used to indicate the smallest interruptions in the continuity of thought or construction, the marking of which contributes to clearness." Although the rules for the use of the comma are well established, and should be consistently followed, it is often true that a writer must exercise his judgment in determining whether he should use a comma; he must in many cases decide for him- self to what degree "the continuity of thought or construction " is inter- rupted by words, phrases, or clauses. In case of doubt as to the use of a comma it should be remembered that the inclusion of a comma that cannot be defended on the grounds of logic, syntax, or authority is a more grievous error than the omission of a comma that should be inserted. COORDINATE ELEMENTS 8. Two groups of words joined by coordinating conjunctions- Two compound subjects, compound predicates, and coordinated modifiers- coordinated should not be separated by commas unless the groups themselves are groups lonJ. (This does not apply to independent clauses of a compound sentence; see 12. For the punctuation of word-groups with the con- junction omitted, see 11.) 25 26 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION EXAMPLES (Compound subject) Short, without comma To live peacefully and to live honorably are not always the same thing. Long, with comma To live in relations of peace and friend- ship with the outside world, and at the same time to keep our consciences per- fectly clear of evil and of evil intentions are not always the same things. (Compound predicate) He went up the stairs and turned into the room. He went rapidly up the long winding stairway, and disappeared from the sight of the crowd. (Coordinated modifiers) To live in peace and in honor is a thing greatly to be desired. It is a worthy ambition to wish to live in such relations with the world that all men who know you call you friend, and on such terms with yourself as never to cause you to be subject to the pangs of a guilty conscience. Coordinate 9. Commas should be used to separate two adjectives modifying adiectives the same noun, if they are coordinate in thought. If, however, one of the adjectives is joined so closely to its noun that the preceding adjective is felt to modify the phrase, no comma is used. EXAMPLES (Coiirdinalte adjective) My grandmother wore a beautiful, costly necklace. (One adjectire c'losel, joined to noun) My grandnmother fwore a beautiful pearl necklace. NOTE.-III the former the nec/lace was beautiful and costly; in the latter the pearl necklace was beautiful. (Example of both. types) This thrilling, exciting hook was published in an expensive red bindings Series of three or more, with toniunctions 10. In a series of three or more words or groups of words with conjunctions connecting all the words or groups of words, no comma is necessary unless the series is very long, or the groups themselves are long or are to be specially emphasized. PUNCTUATION EXAMPLES (Without comma) He was equally familiar with the works of Homer and Dante and Goethe. (With comma) (1) He was equally familiar with the works of Homer, and Shakespeare, and Vergil, and Racine, and Dante, and Cer- vantes, and Ibsen. (2) Neither France for her art, nor Germany for her army, nor England for her democracy can be cited. (3) But he had for company the great Burke, and the great Johnson, and the great Reynolds, and Garrick, and Gold- smith, and Fox. 11. In a series of three or more words or groups of words with the conjunction omitted except between the last two words or groups of words [the series a, b, and c], each member of the series should be set off by a comma. EXAMPLE He was a poet, essayist, and dramatist. NOTE 1.-Etc. should always be preceded by a comma. CAUTION.-DO not put a comma before the first element of such a series unless a comma would be required there if only one element were present instead of a series. EXAMPLES (Incorrect) The three studies I like best are. History, Englisb, and Economies. (Correct) The thlee studies I like best are History, English, and Economics. (14iso correct) We have three heads under which we ex)ect to discuss the question-. namely, economy, efficiency, and convenience. (See 39.) 12. Use a comma to separate the clauses of a compound sentence that are connected by one of the simple conjunctions (such as and, but, or, nor, yet, whereas, while, or for), except when, under the provisions of a 37, a semicolon is demanded. See also note 1, below. Clauses of compound sentence Joined by simple conjunctions The series a, b, and c 27 28 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION EXAMPLES (Misleading) 1 searched the library for the book is of the utmost importance to me ill my studies. ( Correct) (1) 1 searched the library, for the book is of the utmost importance to me in my studies. (2) Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth knowledge. NOTE 1.-When the clauses are very short and closely connected, the comma is not necessary. EXAMPLES (1) He read and I listened. Clauses of compound sentence Not joined by conjunctions (2) He sang well and he acted well. 13. Commas may be used to separate clauses of a compound sen- tence that are not connected by conjunctions, when the clauses are short, have no commas within themselves, and are closely parallel in substance and forne. Even under these conditions, most good writers prefer the semicolon (see 36). Unless all these conditions appear in the sen- tence, the use of a comma at the end of an independent clause that is not connected with the following clause by a conjunction is inexcusable. (See 172. This error is called a "Comma blunder.") EXAMPLES ( Tl'rongf) Many poets have written their best work when very young, Bryant finished "Thana- topsis" in his eighteenth year. (Permissible) The rains fell, the winds blew, the snows Irifted in the valleys. (Better) The rains fell; the winds blew; the stiows drifted in the valleys. SUBORDINATE ELEMENTS Direct quotations- noun clauses 14. Use a comma to set off direct quotations introduced by a verb of saying. EXAMPLE He said, "Come in." NOTE 1.-When the quotation is long, a colon should be used (see 41). NOTE 2.-If the quotation grammatically depends upon a directly preceding word which is not a verb of saying, there is no break sufficient to demand a comma. PUNCTUATION EXAMPLE His voice was drowned by shouts of "Put him out !" NOTE 3.-Do not use a comma before indirect quotations. EXAMPLE He said that he would be unable to come. 15. Use a comma to set off a non-restrictive phrase or clause; i. e., one that merely explains or presents an additional thought about the word it modifies, and that may be dropped without destroying the continuity of the sentence. EXAMPLES (1) Mt. Hood, rising to the height of (2) He passed the glass to the visitor, nearly twelve thousand feet, stands like a who drank heartily. guardian spirit over the city of Portland. NOTE 1.-When a phrase or clause limits the word it modifies so that it is an essential part of the idea, and so that the thought of the sentence is incomplete without it, it is a restrictive phrase or clause. Restrictive phrases and clauses are not set off by commas. See 121b, 1. EXAMPLES (1) That mountain rising to the south- (3) The man who drank so heartily is east is Mt. Hood. a visitor. (2) He who runs may read. 16. Use a comma to set off an adverbial clause when it precedes its principal clause. EXAMPLE If you will come tomorrow after dinner, I shall be very glad to see you. NOTE 1.-When the adverbial clause follows the principal clause, the comma is usually unnecessary unless the adverbial clause is very long or is not needed to complete the sense of the sentence (non-restrict- ive). As and (since, showing a reason, so that, showing result, and for are always non-restrictive and are preceded by commas. EXAMPLES (Short, without comma) (Long, with comma) Let your life be blameless if you would Let your life be blameless and irre- he revenged before your enemies. proachable, if you would be revenged (Result clause, with comma) before your enemies and if you would We have observed the results for two have them fail in all their attempts to years, so that we are safe in proclaiming pull you down from the position that the success of the system. excites their enmity. (Non-restrictive clause, with comma) This is beyond his accomplishment, al- though it is not above his desire. NOTE 2.-Observe that these clauses follow the general rules of punctuation for inverted elements. See 26. Non-restric- tive adjective phrases and clauses No comma for restrictive phrases and clauses Adverbial clauses 29 30 MANUAL AND NOI--BOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION bitroductory and paren- thetical particles INTRODUCTORY, PARENTHETICAL, AND ABSOLUTE EXPRESSIONS 17. Set off from the rest of the sentence by commas such conjunc- tions, adverbs, connective particles, and phrases as now, then, howeverr, nevertheless, moreover, furthermore, therefore, though, in shor t, indeed, in fact, for instance, that is, of course, after all, on the contrary, on the other hand, to be sure, for example, happily, fortunately, etc., when they make a distinct break in the continuity of the thought and structure of the sentence-i.e., wheti they are parenthetical. EXAMPL (1) In fact, it will Ihe impossible to carry out our plans. (2) He will answer. of course, that hle knew it all the time. (2:) Fortunately, we shall not need his help. (4) Why, therefore, sliould we give him anlv consideration'! N-OTE 1.-Do not use a comma with such words when the construc- tion is logically close and structurally smooth enough not to call for any pause in reading; especially (a) with therefore, nevertheless, etc., when they( directly follow the verb; (b) with indeed when it directly precedes or follows an adjective or adverb that it modifies; (c) with now and then whene their use is strictly temporal; nor (d) ordinarily with such terms as perhaps, likewise, etc. EXAMPLES (1) It will therefore he impossible to (4) Now the promises will be carried carry out our plans. out that were then made so positively. (2) Your letter was very wveleome in- (5) It is perhaps going too far to state deed. this as a definite rule. (3) Your letter was indeed welcomie. NOTE 2.- For the punctuation with e.y., viz., etc., see 39. 18. Use a comma to set off phrases used without definite gram- matical relation to the rest of the sentence. Such phrases are called absolute phrases. EXAMPLES (1) Night havin, fallen, we hastened home. (2) Yet, so much being -ranted, it is right to guard ourselves against miscon- struction. (3) To confess the truth, I was muei to blame. 19. Use a comma to set off expressions in apposition. wasith Or without the conjunction or. EXAMPLES (1) Washington. the young Virginia colonel, was present. (2) The ealladiuni, or elephant ear, is popular as a flower for borders. Absolute phrases Elements irk apposition I UNCTUATION NOTE 1.-Do not set off appositives that are a recognized part of a name. EXAMPLES William the Conqueror; Alexander the Great. NOTE 2.-Do not set off quoted appositives. EXAMPLES (1) The word luggage-van is an An- Flieism). (2) The expression "He carried his girl to the party" is a provincialism. 20. Use a comma to set off words in direct address. EXAMP1LES ( 1) This, gentienleln, is what [ p)roponse. (2) Friends. we have assembled today for a solemn purpose. NOTE 1.-1Vocative words introducing an extended address should, howN-eve( r, be followed by a colon. See 42. 21. Use commas to set off parenthetical clauses and phrases when they are structurally disconnected from, but logically related to, the rest of the sentence. EXAMPLES (1) Richards, successful as lie was dur- ing his college days, failed utterly when lhe entered the business world. Parenthetical expressions (2) This is, I suppose, the most diflicult of all the problems. (3) He was, I have no doubt, as guilty as you think. NOTE 1.-If parenthetical expressions that have no close structural or logical connection with the rest of the sentence are introduced, they should be set off by dashes or parentheses. See 54, 74. ELEMENTS IN CONTRAST 22. Use a comma to set off antithetical words, phrases, or clauses. EXAMPLES (1) lie trustel, not in his ownl exer- tions. but in something turning up. (2) He voted as lie did, not because he w-as influenced by his father, but because he was convinced that lhe was voting right. 23. Set off with a coimnia words or p)hrases used in pairs. EXAMPLE Sink Pal swim, live or (lie, survive or lelislI. I give my hand and heart to this vote. 24. Use commas to set off words, phrases, or clauses that govern a following noun, and that separate from this noun other governing words or phrases parallel in structure but different in meaning. These Words or phrases in pairs Expressions like "a pleasant, though ex- pensive, trip" Vocatives Antithetical expressions 31 32 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION "set-in" elements usually have an antithetical or causal relation to the preceding element. EXAMPLES (1) The deceased was a stern and un- approachable, yet withal sympathetic and kind-hearted, gentleman. (2) Now comes the most difficult, be- cause it is the most personal, relation be- tween the teacher and the student. Omission of important words (3) He is as old as, if not older than, his cousin. (4) He was thoroughly in love with, and completely under the influence of, his scheming wife. ELLIPSES 25. Use a comma to mark the omission of important words. EXAMPLES (1) Johnson's strength as a lawyer lay in his persuasive eloquence; Carter's, in his keen mind. (2) Mary was pretty; Jane, the oppo- site. INVERSIONS 26. Use a comma to set off words, phrases, or clauses when placed out of their regular order. See 16. EXAMPLES (1) What he meant by such actions at a time of national stress and trouble, I have never been able to tell. (2) To a man of his ability and of his training for the battle of life, the task should be easy. NOTE 1.-When the transposed element is short, the comma may be omitted, though even then it is often advisable to retain it for emphasis. EXAMPLES (Short, without comma) (1) What he meant I am at a loss to tell. (2) To Johnson the work was very dis- agreeable. Long subject separated from verb Separation merely for clearness (Short, with comma for emphasis) To Johnson, the work was disagreeable; to Savage, it was unendurable. MISCELLANEOUS USES 27. Use a comma to separate from its verb a long subject con- sisting of a phrase or clause. EXAMPLE That he has involved himself in a number of disgraceful disputes and brought the name of the college into disrepute with the people of the state so that they hesitate longer to send us their sons, is admitted on all sides. 28. Often a comma is used for the sake of clearness to separate two identical or closely similar words, even if the sense or grammatical construction does not require such separation. Inverted elements PUNCTUATION 33 EXAMPLES (1) Whatever is, is right. (2) The chief aim of academic striving ought to be, to be a real help in improving the life of the community. NOTE 1.-Use a comma to separate two proper names when they signify different persons or places. EXAMPLES (1) To William. Johnson gave special (2) To Nebraska, America extends her preference. sympathy. For these sentences, see also 26. 29. After an interjection a comma is often to be preferred to an exclamation point. EXAMPLES (1) Oh, that I had never been born! (2) But alas, all my plans ended in failure. NOTE 1.-After Oh the exclamation point should very seldom be used. 30. A comma should be placed inside the quotation marks if the context requires a comma. See 67, note 3. A comma should be placed outsside the parentheses if the context requires a comma. See 76. EXAMPLES (I) "That was all a mistake," said he. (2) We have in our neighborhood teachers, mechanics (such as carpenters, electricians, and engineers), and trades- men. 31. Punctuate dates according to the following models: April 28,1915. Friday, May 3. Christmas Day, 1913. A.D. 525. 127 B.C. 32. Names of places should be punctuated according to the fol- lowing models: Boston, Mass. "The Oaks," Pasadena, California. 123 Morrison St., Portland. Oregon. [The English style is: 27, St. Mary's Terrace, Pdddington, W.] 33. Ordinarily, numbers should be pointed off with a comma at the "thousands" place. 12.765. NOTE 1.-Observe the following classes of exceptions: (Dates) 2250 B.C.; (pages) p. 1765; (house numbers) 5624 Lowell Avenue; (tele- phone numbers) Cambridge 27689. After interjections With quotation marks and parentheses Dates Names of places Numbers 34 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR. ENGLISH COMPOSITION In connection with names of persons General principle (a) Without simple con- junctions 1. No connective 2. With conjunctive adverbs 34. In the punctuation of titles accompanying the names of per- sons use the following models: William Stewart, Ph.D. Carlson and Williams, Attorneys. James Thomas, Esq. There is good authority for both the following sets of forms: Thomas Ryan Jr. and Thomias Ryan, Jr.; Williamn Godwin Sr. and William Godwin, Sr., but the form with the comma is preferable. B. THE SEMICOLON 35. In general, the semicolon is used to indicate a more distinct break in the sentence than that marked by the comma. Its weight as a mark of punctuation lies midway between that of the comma and the period. The semicolon is primarily the punctuation mark of coordina- tion-co6rdination (a) between independent clauses ( 36 kind 37), (b) between dependent clauses and phrases, and (c) between series of words ( - 38). IN COMPOUND SENTENCES 36. Use a semicolon between the clauses of a compound sentence when they are not joined by one of the simple conjunctions. [The simple conjunctions are such words as and, but, or, nor, yet, whereas, while, for, etc.] EXAMPLE Men are not to be judged by their looks and habits; tuey should be judged by their character and by their work. NOTE 1.-The semicolon should always be used when the clauses are joined by such conjunctive adverbs as so [for cautions as to use of so see 246, 253], therefore, hence, however, moreover, accordingly, consequently, nevertheless, besides, also, thius, still, thten, other wise, further, likewise, else, etc. It is absolutely necessary to distinguish carefully between these words and the simple conjunctions. See M 12 and 37. EXAMPLES (1) It has been a very late spring; con- sequentlv wve have not played tennis very often. 2) We lo1led to bear from him every day: we have, however, had only one letter from him. NOTE 2.-The semicolon is used to separate members of a series of clauses when the conjunction is omitted except between the last two (the series, a, b, and c). This rule is, however, subject to the exception given in g 13. 3. Series a, b and c PUNCTUATION EXAMPLE The aspirations of our souls make this life often seem disappointing; tile disappoint- ments of this life compel us to long for a life beyond; and thus the very miseries of today anchor us to hopes of the future. NOTE 3.-For the treatment of coordinate clauses when they are very short and simple, see N 13. 37. Use a semicolon between clauses of a compound sentence even when they are joined by one of the simple conjunctions [for these see the preceding section], (1) if these clauses are punctuated internally with commas, or (2) if the clauses are long. EXAMPLES (1) Washington was, like Napoleon, a great general; and, like Napoleon, he was also a statesman and thinker. (b) With simple conjunctions (2) The birds appear to be quite proud of their power of swelling and puffing themselves out in this way; and I think it is about as droll a sight as yoli can see to look at a cage full of these pigeons puffing and blowing themselves out in this ridieu- lous manner. NOTE 1.-Some writers separate the clauses of a compound sen- tence with semicolons even when a comma might ordinarily be em- ployed, especially if the second clause is in strong antithesis to, or explains, the first. EXAMPLES (1) A wise son will hear his father's reproof; but a scorner will not hear reproof. (2) Look well to your condtuet; for actions speak Ilider than words. IN SIMPLE AND COMPLEX SENTENCES 38. Use a semicolon to separate coordinate members of a simple or complex sentence when any of those members are internally sepa- rated by commas or are long. This rule applies especially to coordi- nated dependent clauses, an(l to series of similar sentence elements. EXAMPLES (1) The following officers were elected: James Wilson, President; Guy Roberts, Vice-President; and Walter Morgan, See- retary and Treasurer. (2) He was courteous, not ciinging, to superiors; affable, not familiar, to equals; and kind, but not condescending, to in- feriors. (3) We can almost fancy that we are visiting him in his small lodging; that we can see him sitting at the old organ be- For coordina- tion of long or complicated elements neath the faded green hangings; that we can catch the quick twinkle of his eyes, rolling in vain to find the day; that we are reading in the lines of his noble coun- tenance the proud and mournful history of his glory and his affliction. (4) What discouragements and disas- ters had pursued them; what dangers they had feared; how they had schemed and toiled; what glorious success they had aehiev ed-all this he told us. 35 36 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION WITH EXPLANATORY WORDS 39. A semicolon should be used before such explanatory words and phrases as that is, for instance, for example, namely, as, to wit, and the abbreviations i.e., e.g., viz., and the like. In recent typographical practice the dash is frequently used in place of the semicolon. EXAMPLES (1) To explain the statement I should have to go far back; that is, I should have to tell you not only who be was, but what his family had been for several generations before him. (2) The student should elect a general course for his first year-e.g., English, mathematics, history, Latin, and German. NOTE 1.-Observe that these introductory words are always fol- lowed by either a comma or a colon. See 17, 41. C. THE COLON 40. Generally speaking, the colon is the mark of expectation. In nearly all its uses it serves to introduce something that has been pre- pared for by what has gone before. As a mark of introduction, it is more stately and formal, and is applied to longer thought groups, than the comma. INTRODUCTORY USE 41. Use a colon to introduce (1) formal statements, (2) lists of items, and (3) long quotations. EXAMPLES (1) We hold these truths to be self- evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. (2) We have noted the following con- tents of the room: a cathedral clock; a colonial sideboard; three old ehairs; six oil port raits. (3) After much hesitation, the old man testified as follows: "I was born . ." NO1TE 1.-It will be observed that the colon in these cases really equals an implied as follows or that is. NOTE 2.-When a long quotation or list begins on the line following that in which the introductory word is written and makes a new para- graph, the introductory colon may be followed by a dash. See 58, 61. After 42. Use a colon at the end of the salutation in a formal letter or salutations a formal address. Before explanatory words and phrases like viz. General principle Before formnl statements PUNCTUATION (1) My dear Sirs: EXAMPLES (2) Gentlemen of the Convention: NOTE 1.-For the punctuation of the salutation in letters, see 6a. 43. Use a colon to introduce a clause that presents an illustration or explanation of the meaning of a preceding clause. To introduce explanations or illustrations EXAMPLES (1) Some of our most notable poems have been written by young men: "Thana- topsis" appeared in the author's eight- eenth year. (2) The house has gone further: it has declared conciliation admissible, previous to any submission on the part of America. 44. TABULAR VIEW OF THE USE OF THE COMMA, THE SEMICOLON, AND THE COLON IN THE PUNCTUATION OF THE SENTENCE A. Separation of Clauses of a Compound Sentence 1. Separated by comma- a. If connected by simple conjunction [ 12]. b. Even when not connected by simple conjunction if clauses are short, hare no commas within them- selves, and are closely parallel in form [ 13]. 2. Separated by semicolon- a. When not joined by simple conjune- tion- (1) With no connective at all . (2) Joined by conjunctive ad- verb [36n1]. b. Clauses in series a, b, and c [ 36 n 2, with exception of short clauses 13]. c. Even when joined by simple con- junction if- (1) Clauses are punctuated in- ternally with commas [ 37a]. (2) Clauses are long or involved [ 37b]. 3. Separated by colon- a. When second clause illustrates or ex- plains first . B. Separation of Members of Compound Subjects, Compound Predicates, or Compound Modifiers 1. Usually not separated by marks of punctuation [ 8]. 2. Separated by com ma- a. When groups are long [8 and 10]. b. When groups are numerous [ 10]. c. When two or more adjectives modify same noun [but see 9]. d. When conjunctions are omitted [ 10]. e. In series a, b, and c [ 11]. 3. Separated by semicolons- a. When any of the members are inter- nally separated by commas  C. Separation of Subordinate Clauses from Main Clauses 1. Noun clauses- a. Usually no punctuation, but- (1) Before short quotation- comma . (2) Before long quotation-eo- Ion . 2. Adjective clauses- a. Before restrictive clauses-no comma . b. Before non-restrictive clauses- comma [ 15 n 1 ]. 37 38 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 3. Adverbial clauses- a. If adverbial clause precedes main clause-comma [ 16]. b. If adverbial clause follows main clause - usually no comma [16n1], but- (1) If clauses are long or in- volved-comma [ 16 n 1]. (2) Non-restrictive clauses (usu- ally introduced by as or since, showing reason, for, so that, showing result)- comma [ 16 n 1]. NOTE.-The semicolon is not used to separate dependent from independent clauses. NOTE.-For additional uses of the comma, see 17-34; for additional use of the semicolon, see 39. With sentences With headings, etc. With abbreviations D. THE PERIOD 45. Use a period to mark the completion of every sentence, except interrogative and exclamatory sentences. This is the most common use of the period. Observe 17 for a discussion of " Comma Blunder. " NOTE 1.-Periods should be used at the end of every declarative sentence in quoted conversation, if the quotation actually ends the sen- tence, even though the quoted sentence may be very elliptical. See 171. EXAMPLES "Yes." "No." "Of course." But "Yes," said the man. 46. Use a period after words or phrases that form headings when other matter follows in the same line; and ordinarily after any other words or phrases that, though they are not properly complete sentences, stand alone without the need of other words to complete their function. EXAMPLES (1) 18. Pronouns. Error in Case.-Unlike the English noun, the pronoun .... (2) 'Atlantic MIonthbl,1, Juiie, 1910. NOTE 1.-If headings and titles are on a line by themselves, modern usage demands that no mark of punctuation shall follow them. Note the practice on this page. As to items in a tabulation, usage is divided. See the Table of Contents of this book. 47. Use a period after abbreviations. EXAMPLES Ala. (=Alabama'); 9nmm. (=9 millimeters); No. (=number): ibid.; Macmillan & Co.; Chap. ii. NOTE 1.-Generally no period follows abbreviations constantly used in technical treatises. Other exceptions to this rule must be learned from observation. Among these exceptions may be noted the follow- ing: (1) the first member of a compound abbreviation, (2) the chemical symbols, (3) abbreviations of technical and scholarly journals, and (4) (according to some good authorities; e.g., Manly and Powell, Manual for Writers the phrase per cent and the symbol MS (="manuscript"). EXAMPLES (Correct) H20, HSO4; The story will be found in JAF, xxii, 117 (=Journal of American Folk-Lore, volume xxii, page 117); The lights are 16 c-p. (=16 candle-power). (Permissible) (1) He lent the money at six per cent interest. (2) The MS was examined by the jury. NOTE 1.-In England it is the practice to write Mr., Mrs., and Dr. without the period (Mr, Mrs, DIr). 48. Use several periods (ordinarily three or four) to mark an With omission from a quotation. Periods used in this manner are called omissions points. In poetry, fill out with points any part of a line that may be omitted, and if one or more complete lines be omitted, use a line of periods to mark the omission. EXAMPLES (1) The constitution provides that "each state shall appoint . . . a number of electors equal to the whole number of senators and representatives. . . " (2) "Of man's first disobedience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sing, Heavenly Muse, that on the secret top Of Oreb or of Sinai didst inspire," etc. E. THE EXCLAMATION POINT 49. Use the exclamation point after interjections or any words, phrases, or sentences that express a very strong emotion, an ardent wish, a forcible command, or great surprise. A sentence of this kind is called an exclamatory sentence. See 45. After interjections EXAMPLES (1) Would that those prosperous days might return! (2) Fire! Fire! NOTE 1.-The following models will show several possible forms Punctuation of punctuation for exclamatory sentences: of exclam- atory (1) Rouse, ye Romans! rouse, ye slaves! (5) 0 Scotia! my dear, my native soil! sentences (2) Alas, for the deed! (6) Brave men! Strike now or be al- (3) Alas! How could I know ways slaves! (4) But alas! it was not to be. 39 PUtNCTUAT10)N 40 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION NOTE 2.-Observe the use of the comma in the fourth example, where no strong emotion is expressed by the interjection. See 29. For doubt 50. An exclamation point may be used after any word, phrase, or or sarcasm sentence that expresses doubt or sarcasm. EXAMPLE He is an honorable man! NOTE 1.-An exclamation point within parentheses may be put after a word as a mark of criticism or surprise. It should be observed, however, that this use of the exclamation point can be easily overdone, and that at best such a method of sarcasm is obviously mechanical. EXAMPLE The speaker continued: "Nobody should leave home tomorrow without a marked ballot in their (!) pocket." Note that many writers use, in place of the exclamation point in such a sentence, the word '! sic" to indicate that the error actually appears in the sentence quoted and that it is recognized as an error. F. THE QUESTION MARK For a query 51. Question marks are used after a word or sentence to mark a or a doubt query or to express a doubt. Such a sentence is called an interrogative sentence. See 45. EXAMPLES (1) Who was his father (2) Chaucer was born in 1340 () and died in 1400. NOTE 1.-Question marks should not be used with indirect questions. EXAMPLE I asked whether lie would be able to go with me. G. THE DASH General 52. The dash is one of the most effective marks of punctuation. remarks It should not, however, be arbitrarily substituted for the period or the comma. The rules for the use of the dash are well established and should be strictly followed. The fundamental purpose of the dash is to break or suspend the thought or construction of a sentence. In a long sentence in which a statement is repeated in many forms and with much detail, a judicious use of the dash may unwind the apparent entanglement of words. PUNCTUATION 53. Use a dash to indicate a sudden interruption or suspension of, or an unexpected turn in, the thought or construction of a sentence. EXAMPLES With a sudden break (1) Europe in peace and prosperity, and Europe in the throes of war-what a contrast! (2) I wish I could persuade you to- but what is the use (3) Is there-can there be-any method by which freshmen can be made to write uniformly good English 54. As a rule, dashes should be preferred over parentheses for setting off parenthetical expressions that are logically and structurally disconnected from the rest of the sentence. See 21, 74. EXAMPLE I was riding with a lady-her name doesn't matter, but we may call her Miss Johnson-when I came upon the rascal again. 55. Use a dash before or after an informal enumeration, to set off a clause summarizing the thought in the enumeration. See 41. For parenthetical expressions With summarizing clause EXAMPLES (1) Each has added to his country's glory-the soldier, the sailor, the states- man, and the private citizen. (2) The soldier, the sailor, the states- man, and the private citizen-each has added to his country's glory. 56. Use a dash to set off an expression added to lend emphasis to, or to explain or expand, a word or phrase. The emphatic word or phrase is often repeated. A dash marks a stronger break than would a comma used under such circumstances. EXAMPLES (1) This, then, is the point-a point I have repeatedly made during the past year. (2) All these sacrifices I have made for a man-a man whom I called my friend. 57. Use a dash after a word or phrase that is set in a separate line, With and that is succeeded by paragraphs, at the beginning of which the tabulations original phrase is implied. EXAMPLE The committee shall have power- 1. To call on other members for help. 2. To levy assessments to cover expenses. 3. To take final action in emergencies. 58. A dash should be used after headings at the beginning of a With paragraph. Whether a period precedes the dash or not depends on side-heads the rule in 46, note 1. After emphatic word or phrase 41 42 AWNUAL ANI) NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITI1N EXAMPLES (1) Caddoan Indians.-The best au- thority on these Indians is Dorsey. See his . (2) American Indians, Religion of- Boas, in the Handbook of Ameri- can Indians, gives one of the best accounts of this subject. Within the past year . . . Before 59. A dash should be used before a reference wfieii it follows a references quotation. EXAMPLE The evil that men do lives after thenm; The good is often interred with their bones. -Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act Ill. Scene ii, lines 73, 74. With 60. Two numbers or date-words representing the extreme limit dates, etc. of a series of numbers or dates should be connected by a dash. If the numbers or dates connected are both internally punctuated, a long dash should be used. EXAMPLES (Right) (a) May-July, 1908. (b) May 1,1908- January 1, 1909. (c) pp. 7-12. (d) Luke 5: 7-6: 14. (e) 1880-92. (f) 1900-1904. (g) pp. 102-7. (h) pp. 102-17. (i) pp. 100-109. (j) A.D. 125-54. (k) 387-354 B.C. With commas, etc. For rhetorical effect To indicate omissions (Right) From May to Jnly, 1908. (Wrong) From May-July. 1908. 61. The dash is sometimes used to prolong the effect of a period [see 58] or a colon [see 41, note 2]. Formerly the dash was used to prolong the effect of a comma. In recent typographical practice, how- ever, its use after a comma has been given up except in cases where the comma would normally follow the word, phrase, or clause to which the matter preceded by the dash is joined. EXAMPLE She ran into the shop, the uninviting haunt of her father,-or she would have run if fear had not overcome her. 62. Use a dash to mark pauses and repetitions that are intended for dramatic and rhetorical effect. EXAMPLE "I-I have done you-have done you a great wrong," she faltered. 63. Use a dash to indicate the omission of letters or figures. EXAMPL (1) On a November afternoon of the year 18-, a nian . . . (2) The villain was really a brother of 1-dB y of C n. PUNCTUATION NOTE 1.-Representation of proper names by the use of certain letters of the name separated by dashes is not so common a practice among good writers of the present time as it was a generation or two ago. In narrative waiting it is better to take a frankly fictitious name or date, and not attempt to hide a real name or actual date in this mannelr. H. THE APOSTROPHE 64. The apostrophe is used to indicate the possessive case. See With 176-179. possessive case EXAMPLES (Singular) (Plaral) The nmii's hat; the wvomain s boinet; Afenis hats: womeni s bnomitets:. boys' the boy's cap. Baps. NOTE 1.-The function of the apostrophe is as definitely granmllmat- ical as is the use, for instance, of the ending i to indicate the genitive (possessive) case of the second (o) Latin declension; its omission when syntactically it is demanded is a graver error than a careless mistake in punctuation. NOTE 2.-Remneniber that his, hers, its, theiris, ours, yours, and ashose do not take the apostrophe. For the contraction it's, so often confused with its, see 65, 186. 65. Use an apostrophe to denote the intentional omission ot all With unpronounced letter or letters. contractions EXAMPLES Couldn't (=could not) ; ne'er (=never) ; o'er (= over) ; it's (= it is) ; 'tis (= it is). NOTE 1.-The use in the standard written language of the apostro- phe as a sign of the omission of sounds that have disappeared in well- established spoken usage is a convention. The contractions ne'er and o'er are used only in poetry, and in poetry only for the sake of metrical convenience. 66. Use an apostrophe to form the plurals of letters and figures With and of rare noun-coinages. unusual plurals EXAMPLES (1) Cross your t's and dot your iPs. (4) He was one of these nie'er-do-well's (2) His 2's and 3's were almost illegible. that may be found in every college. (3) All the Y. M. C. A.'s in the state were represented. 43 44 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION I. QUOTATION MARKS 67. Every direct quotation should be put in quotation marks. EXAMPLE Patrick Henry said, "Give me liberty, or give mne death." NOTE 1.-Quotation marks may be omitted from well-known quo- tations such as those from the Bible or Shakespeare, or from proverbs. EXAMPLES (1) The play illustrates this fact: the wages of sin is death. (2) The principle lie acted on was: a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. NOTE 2.-Do not use quotation marks for indirect quotations. EXAMPLES (Right) He replied that he appreciated the favor very mech. (Also right, IN DIRECT ADDRESS) He replied, "I appreciate the favor very much." NOTE 3.-For the punctuation of dialogue and of quoted matter, the following models will be of use: ( ) "Give me the book," he said. [ 14, :10.] (2) He said, "Give me the book. John." [ 14, 310.1 (3) "Give the book," lie said. "to me." [ 14, 30.1 (4) "Give me the book," he said. "It is mine." [14, 30.] (5) "Is this your book" he asked. (6) "Is this the book," he asked, "that contains the quotation, 'The proper study of mankind is man'" [ 68.] (7) "What an interesting book this is!" lie exclaimed. (8) "Give me the book, John," he said. [ 14, 30.] Observe that the punctuation at the end of a quotation, with the exception of the semicolon, always falls within the quotation marks. See 30. 68. A quotation within a quotation is enclosed in single quotation marks. EXAMPLE "Let us see," he continued, "whether the statement 'all men are born free and equal' is true or not." 69. Use quotation marks at the beginning of each of a series of quoted paragraphs or stanzas, but at the end only of the last paragraph or stanza of the series. With direct quotations With double quotations With a series of paragraphs or stanzas PUNCTUATION EXAMPLE He then quoted Tennyson:- "Strong Son of God, immortal Love, Whom we, who have not seen thy face, By faith, and faith alone, embrace, Believing where we cannot prove: "Thine are these orbs of light and shade; Thou inadest life in man and brute; Thon madest death; and lo, thy foot Is on the skull which thou hast made." 70. Use quotation marks when any apology is needed for the use of Ha word (1) as unusual, or coined for the occasion, (2) as too technical for general understanding, (3) as ironical or humorous, or (4) as slang or a nickname. EXAMPLES (1) She was wearing a gown of "lob- ster-colored" silk. (2) The next process in logging is the "rigoilg-slinging" and the "skidding" of the logs, preparatory to "decking" and "jarnming" them. (3) His "studious application" in the Universitv caused him to withdraw "on account of ill health." It is said that he is now trving to "fix it up" with the fac- ulty. (4) I hope he may be able to do this, 1)lt I am afraid of "Doe" Wilson. NOTE 1.-In a humorous or colloquial context, such apology for slang and nicknames should not be made, nor should apology for tech- nical words be made in a technical context. NOTE 2.-Many good English expressions are frequently supposed to be slang and are often put into quotation marks through this mis- apprehension. For some of these words and expressions, see 246b. 71. For titles of books, articles, etc., the usage is divided between italics and quotation marks. The modern tendency seems to be toward the use of quotation marks for the titles of short poems, short stories, articles, pictures, statues, subdivisions of books, and names of book series. Italics are generally preferred for the names of books, news- papers, and magazines. EXAMPLES (1) Shelley's "To a Skylark." (2) Kipling's "Without Benefit of Clergy," from Wee Willie Winkie. (3) John Corbin's articles "Which Col- lege for the Boy," in the Saturday Eve- qling Post. (4) See Tennyson ("English Men of Letters Series"), p. 51. (5) In a recent number of the Century there appears an article on "Printemps," a new painting, and "Motherhood," a new group of statuary. As apology for unusual words With titles of articles, etc. 45 46 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION NOTE 1.-For such well-known works as Homer's Iliad and books in the Bible, most writers use neither quotation marks nor italics. NOTE 2.-In writing a title, be sure that it is exact. Take special pains not to leave off the The at the beginning of a title if the The is actually a part of the title. In the names of newspapers and maga- zines, however, the The is often not to be considered a part of the title. EXAMPLES (1) We read Hawthorne's "The Ambi- tious Guest." (2) I saw it in The (London) Times. With word and its definition General rule For parenthetical expressions For figures and letters marking divisions (3) The article appeared in the Spring- field Republican. 72. Enclose in quotation marks a word or phrase accompanied by its definition. EXAMPLE By "barbarism" is meant a word that is not in good English usage. 73. In general, it may be observed that when quotation marks are used with discretion they are very useful, but that when they are used too frequently they disfigure a page and confuse the reader. Note that quotation marks are out of place (a) to enclose a title at the head of a theme unless the title itself is a quotation, (b) to enclose proper names, (c) to enclose fragments of proverbs, or (d), as a rule, to label humor. J. PARENTHESES (-) 74. Parentheses are used to enclose explanatory matter that could be omitted without destroying the complete sense of the sentence. EXAMPLE My grandfather was in the habit of rediiarking (and he was a man who could speak of the subject from long experience) that women would always have their way. NOTE 1.-Observe that when the connection is not completely broken between the main part of the sentence and the parenthetical expression, it is better to use commas or dashes. See N 21, 54. 75. Figures or letters that are put into the text to mark divisions in enumeration are enclosed within parentheses. EXAMPLE The reasons for his resignation were three: (1) advanced ag-e, (2) failingl health, (3) a desire to travel. NOTE 1.-When the divisions are written in paragraph form, the figures are not enclosed within parentheses. PUNCTUATION4 EXAMPLE A. lls reasons for resigning were- 1. Advanced age. 2. Failing health. 3. Desire to travel. 76. If the parenthetical expression is a complete sentence, the Punctuation mark of punctuation should be within the parentheses; if it is a part of marks with a sentence, the point should be after the parentheses. parentheses EXAMPLES (1) My brother-in-law then entered. (He is a young corporation attorney, and imagines that he knows it all.) He came over to the spot where I was standing. (2) This is always the correct punctua- tion before conjunctive adverbs (and, but, or, and the like). K. BRACKETS [ ] 77. Brackets are used to enclose 'any explanation, note, interpo- lation, correction, or omission that is set into the text by the editor. EXAMPLES (1) [This passage was added in the second edition.-Editor.] (2) The author continues, "He [Emer- Son1 had now reached his thirtieth year." With interpolations, explanations, etc. (3) "Sir Thomas Brown[e] was one of the greatest prose writers of the sixteenth [seventeenth] century." 78. Use brackets for enclosing parentheses within parentheses. EXAMPLE Grote, the great historian of Greece (see his History, I, 204 [second edition]), says that, etc. L. THE CARET A 79. The caret is used to indicate an omission in the text. EXAMPLES the the I speak today only to the good, true, and brave. For parentheses within parentheses To mark omissions M. ITALICS 80. Use italics [indicated in the manuscript by underscoring once] For for words or phrases to which it is desired to give special emphasis. empha86 EXAMPLES (1) The whole essence of his artistic creed is embraced in the words Truth to life. (2) This was, however, not the ease. 47 48 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION NOTE 1.-Avoid the over-use of italics for emphasis. The whole purpose of italics as a means of emphasis is defeated if they occur too often. 81. Italicize short foreign expressions and foreign words phrases that have not been completely Anglicized, even though may be of fairly frequent use in English. .and they EXAMPLES (1) He is the debater par excellence of the Senate. (2) In such disputes we should always remember that de gustibus non est dispu- tandum. (3) He accepted the suggestion in toto. NOTE 1.-Do not italicize parts of names of foreign persons or things. EXAMPLES The Louvre; The Are de Triomphe; The German Reichstag; Herr von Rossbrg-; The Rue Royale. NOTE 2.-Do not italicize foreign words that have become thor- oughly Anglicized. The following is a list of such words and expres- sions: Ad valorem, a priori, a propos, aide de camp, alias, alibi, Alma Mater, amateur, anno Domini, ante-bellum, attache, has- relief, bona fide, bon ton, brie-A-brac, eaf6, canto, carte blanche, census, chaperon, charge d'affaires, chauffeur, chef d'ceuvre, clef, confrere, connoisseur, consensus, cri- terion, datum (plur. data), d6bris, debut, decollete, denouement, dilettante, divorce6e, dramatis personse, encore, ensemble, en- tr&e, et cetera, ex cathedra, expose, faqade, facsimile, fete, finis, fracas, garage, gratis, habeas corpus, harem, herira, lIse majest6, Magna C[h]arta, mandamus, massage, matin&e, menu, motif, naive, n6e, nil, nom de plume [a French word made in Eng- land], onus, papier meh6, patois, per annum, per capita, per cent, per se, per- sonnel, postmortem, prima facie, pro rata, proteg6, pro tem[pore], quondam, regime, rendezvous, r6sum6, role, sauerkraut, seior, senorita, soiree, stein [a German word made in America], subpoena, tech- nique, tkte-h-tkte, tonneau, ultimatum, um- laut, verbatim, versus, via, vice versa, viva voce. NOTE 3.-Italicize the following foreign words and abbreviations: ad, loc., eirea (ea.), et al., ibid.. idem, infra, loc. cit., op. cit., passim, sic, supra, s. v.. vide. NOTE 4.-Do not italicize such simple abbreviations as etc., nor usually the following: cf., e.g., i.e. vs. or v. (versus), viz. 82. Italicize words when referred to as such, and letters when used as appositives of words. EXAMPLES The noun effect; the letter y; the line xy; the point A in the diagram. For foreign words and expressions Isolated words and letters PUNCTUATION N. CAPITAL LETTERS 83. A correct and discriminating use of capital letters is essential General to all well-written composition. The rules for their use are very definite remark and should be followed rigorously. The employment of capitals indis- criminately for purposes of emphasis is a vice in writing that the student must shun. 84. The first word of every sentence should begin with a capital. 85. The first word of every direct quotation should begin with a capital. EXAMPLE He asked, "Why did you not go 7" NOTE 1.-This rule does not apply to indirect quotations. EXAMPLE He asked why you did not go. NOTE 2.-When a quotation is interrupted in the middle of a sen- tence by "said he," or a like expression, the second part of the quota- tion does not begin with a capital. See 67, note 3. EXAMPLE "Since this was so," he continued, "what was I to do'" NOTE 3.-Do not capitalize a quoted fragment of a sentence if it is immediately connected with what precedes. EXAMPLE He was very thoroughly convinced that "men may rise on stepping-stones Of their dead selves to higher things." Cf. 6c. 86. Begin the first word in every line of poetry with a capital. EXAMPLE The evil that men do lives after them; The good is oft interred with their bones. 87. The first word of every formal resolution, question, or salu- tation should begin with a capital. EXAMPLES (1) Resolved, That the United States should go to war with Mexico. First word of sentence First word of quotations Beginning of lines of poetry Beginning of resolutions, etc. (2) WHEREAS, It hath pleased God . . . (3) To whom it may concern, Greeting. 88. Capitalize the pronoun I and the interjection 0; the word oh only at the beginning of a sentence. Pronoun and inter- jection 0 49 50 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 89. Words referring to the Deity, to the Trinity, to Jesus Christ, to the Bible or parts of the Bible should begin with a capital. EXAMPLES 1) Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Ghost. (2) The best poetry in the Bible is found in the Old Testament. 90. Begin all proper nouns and proper adjectives with capitals. EXAMPLES William James; England; South Carolina; the Latin language; Ameriean Indians; the French people; the James theory; Ameriean Indian customs. NOTE 1.-Names of the days of the week and names of the months should be capitalized, but not the names of the seasons. Other proper nouns are names of races, countries, languages, cities, and divisions of countries; streets, parks, and squares, organizations such as political parties and religious sects; historical events and ages. The words negro and gypsy are not capitalized. 91. Capitalize the important words in literary titles. EXAMPLES (1) "The Haunted and the Haunters." (2) A Tale of Two Cities. NOTE 1.-In bibliographies and indexes only the first word and the proper nouns of literary titles are capitalized. 92. Many words should be capitalized when they refer to definite persons or things, even though, when they are used generally, they are not capitalized. EXAMPLES (1) The college had fifteen professors. (2) This is Professor White of Stanton College. (3) He was assisted by an aunt. (4) Have you seen Aunt Sarah (5) He organized a company for the manufacture of shoes. (6) A railroad crosses our street. (7) The Pennsylvania Railroad crosses Hammond Street near the building of the Charleston Shoe Company. (8) New York is southwest of Boston. (9) This company has done a large business in the Southwest. Certain words not to be capitalized 93. Unless they come under the provisions of 90 or 92, the names of subjects taught in school and college should not be capitalized. EXAMPLES Geology; history; government; physics; English; German; Latin. References to the Deity Proper nouns and proper adjectives Important words in literary titles Words capitalized when referring to definite persons or things 51 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION CO RRECTION I - -l I I + l -4 ERROR I i 52 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION - MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 53 PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION ___._ _ ____ _---. -__________________________________- __________ _- _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _- -- _____ - - - - - - - _____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- -- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-_ 54 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION CORRECTION 1 I. I ERROR MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION 55 CORRECTION ERROR I i 56 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION CORRECTION I I t i i ERROR I I II MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION 57 II i I i I I I 58 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 59 PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION I I__ _ _ __. _ I I _ I _ ! l _ _ _ _ _- i _ . _ l l 60 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION I - ----- I I I I I I I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSl'l'ION 61 PUNCTUATI ON ERROR CORS ECTION X . . . . .... _ . . _ _. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ _ - ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.- _ _L__ __- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - I _ l _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- _ _ _ .. . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ . _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ . _ _ . _ _ _ . _ _ _ _ _ . _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _- . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I I I 62 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 63 PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION -1 64 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION A 4 Ii i I I I I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION 65 I l I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________________________________________ _______________________________________________ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ --- --- -- ----- 66 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION 67 CORRECTION ERROR 68 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION i I I i r I i MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 69 PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION ___ _______ _i_ 70 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION 2 Ip I.. L MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION Ii 71 72 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION i i MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 73 PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION I I 74 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION 75 CORRECTION ERROR --- - ---- --- 76 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION al _ __ L __- l -- -----r-- _ ! _. _ . ._ I i T I II ___________ _________________________ ___________________________________________ I ___________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________ _____ _____ ___ _____________________________________ I___________________________________________________________________________________________ MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION 77 CORRECTION ERROR , _ 1 ___. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ T 78 MAN-UAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION 4 I p MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 79 PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION I. 80 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION' PUNCTUATION ERROR CORRECTION i I i i i i - I I ii i i I I i i MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION 81 CORRECTION I ERROR I I --- 82 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION PUNCTUATION -I. r- ERROR CORRECTION II. SPELLING CONTENTS OF CHAPTER 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. A. Rules for Spelling Rule for ei and ie. Doubling of final consonant. Dropping final e. Words ending in y. Words to be ,ritten separate. B. Representation of Numbers 99. 100. 101. 102. Dates, pages, street numbers. Money. Series of numbers in short space. Treatment of isolated numbers. C. Abbreviations 103. General rule. 104. Abbreviations not proper when used alone. 105. In footnotes, technical matter, and business letters. D. Hyphenating 106. List of words to be hyphenated. 107. Words not to be divided. 108. Disputed spellings. E. Syllabication 109. General principle. 110. Unnatural syllables. 111. Prefixes and suffixes. 112. Syllables of one or two letters. 113. Doubled consonants. 114. Two consonants combining for one sound. 115. Final le. 116. Monosyllables. F. Reformed Spelling 117. Reformed Spelling. REFERENCES Rules for spelling in Webster's lnterna- tional Dictionary. Payne, Learn to Spell. Woolley, Handbook of Composition. Manly and-Powell, Manual for Writers. SYMBOLS FOR CORRECTIONS Sp. = Faulty spelling [ 94-117]. Syl. = Improper syllabic division [ 109. 116]. 83 This page in the original text is blank. A. RULES FOR SPELLING 94. For the arrangement of the e and i in a digraph, the following Rule for ei rime will serve as a guide: and Me I before e Except after c Or when sounded as a As in neighbor and weigh. As a general rule, i follows 1, and c follows c. EXAMPLES Relief, belief, deceive, receive; weigh, neigh, neighbor. EXCEPTIONS Weird, financier, leisure, seize, neither. 95. When a monosyllable or a word accented on the last syllable Doubling ends in one consonant preceded by one vowel, it doubles the final con- of final sonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel. consonant EXAMPLES Abet. abetted. abetting; drop. dropped. dropping; stop, stopped, stgp)pill. NOTE 1.-When these conditions are not fulfilled, the final conso- nant is not doubled before the suffix. EXAMPLES Daub, daubed (final consonant pieceded by diphthong) revel, reveling (not accented on last syllable. NOTE 2.-Observe the following exceptions to the foregoing rule: Combat, combated; handicap, handicapped: humbug. humbugged. 96. Words ending in silent e usually drop the e before a suffix Dropping beginning with a vowel. final e EXAMPLES Hide. hidiin-: shine, shining; love, lovable. NOTE 1.-Words ending in ce and ge do not drop the e when -ous or -able is added. The retention of e preserves the soft sound of c and g. 85 86 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION EXAMPLES Noticeable; outrageous. NOTE 2.-Some words retain the final e in order to guard against mispronunciation or confusion with other words. EXAMPLES Hoe, hoeing; shoe, shoeing; agree, agreeing; eye, eyeing; hie, hieing; singe, singeingz; dye, dyeing. Words 97. Words ending in y preceded by a consonant usually change y ending to i before any termination except one beginning with i. in y EXAMPLES Mercy, I1]eiciful; modify-, iodifies, (but modifying). Words to 98. The following words should always be written as separate be written words separate all right (There is no such word as airight) a while (noun) near by all ready (adjective) in order in spite See also 107, 108. B. REPRESENTATION OF NUMBERS Dates, 99. Do not spell out the following classes of numbers: (1) date: pages, (2) pages, divisions, or sections of a book; or (3) street numbers o0 streethos. numbers houses. EXAMPLE He was born at 32 Washington Street, July 17, 1843. (See page 118.) NOTE 1.-Ordinal numbers for days of the month may be either spelled out or represented by numbers. EXAMPLES (1) The twelfth of March. (3) It was March 12. (2) The 12th of March. (4) It was Mareh the twelfth. Money 100. In the representation of sums of money observe that isolated sums in cents are spelled out; that dollars and cents are given in figures; that even dollars are spelled out if the number does not consist of more than two words; otherwise the sum is usually represented in figures; and that when several sums are mentioned in a close context, figures should be used for all. SPELLING EXAMPLES (Correct) It cost forty cents. It cost 1.40. It cost one dollar. It cost five thousand dol- lars. It cost 325. (Also correct ) My room costs me 7.59 a niontli, and my board 18; my contribution to church is 30 cents; my incidental expenses ranWge from 11.50 to 13.25 a month. 101. When several numbers are mentioned in a short space, Ulse figures for all. EXAMPLE There were 17 Englishmen, 59 Frenchmen, 196 Italians, 4 Roumanialls, and 265) Americans in the camp. NOTE 1.-Except in tabulations, statistics, and the like, never begin a sentence with figures. EXAMPLES (Wrong) 593 men, 416 women, and 123 children went down with the ship. Series of numbers in short space (Right) (1) Five hundred ninety-three men, 416 women, and 123 children went down with the ship. (2) The number that went dowii with the ship was 593 men, 416 women, and 123 children. 102. When the numbers to be expressed do not occur in connec- tion with other numbers or groups of numbers, spell out the numbers that may be expressed in one or two words. Use figures for those that require more. EXAMPLES (1) He is twenty-five years old. There were ten thousand persons present. The estimated cost of the war is forty billion dollars. Treatment of isolated numbers (2) The castle is 524 years old. There were 12,634 persons present. The cost was 14,242.60 (see 100). C. ABBREVIATIONS 103. In general, avoid all abbreviations in formal writing. See 105. EXAMPLES (Bad) He was secretary for James & Peters of Atlanta, Ga. Later he became pres. of the Lilly Mfg. Co. General rule (Righ t) He was secretary for James and Peters [or James & Petcrsl of Atlanta, Georgia. Later he became president of the Lilly Manufacturing Co. [or Coirpany l. NOTE 1.-Some exceptions to this rule are: i.e., e.g., q.v., viz., etc., A.D., B.C., Mr., Messrs., Mrs., D)r., Rev., Hon., Esq., St., Myr., and thie French M., MM., Mine., and Ml1e. Titles that go before the names of persons may also be written out. 87 88 MIANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Abbreviations not proper when used alone EXAMPLES Mr. Johnson; Dr. Charles Eliot; Dr. (or Doctor) Eliot; Rev. (or the lieverende James Chalmers Hinton, William Brown, Esq.; Mle. DeSouchet. NOTE 2.-In the ilames of business firms the sign & (-and) is gen- erally used. 104. Soine abbreviatioiis are proper when used with other words, but are improper when used alone. Among these are a. in., p. in., Dr., and No. EXAMPLES ( Wrong) He came at four this a. Il. I went to see the Dr. What is the No. of vour room" In footnotes, technical matter, and business letters (Right) le came at 4 a. m. He came at four in the morning. I went to see the doctor. I went to see Dr. Strong. What is the num- her of your room We are in No. 39. 105. in footnotes, in technical writing, and in business correspond- ence, abbreviations are allowed much more freely than ini a literary composition. EXAMPLES (1) Cf. vol. i, chap. ii, ppx 72ff. (In a footnote this ineans "See volume ene. chapter two, page seventy-two and the following pages.") (2) Please send us 3 doz. No. 1 pencils (4 38c and 3 lbs. assorted rubber bands Ca 2.45. (3) The engine will develop 24 hp. The retort contained 28 ee. of alcohol. D. HYPHENATING 106. The rules for hyphenating words are so complicated, and have so many exceptions that a student must learn from observation- what words are to be hyphenated. The following lists will be of help for reference. Some of these wor(ls are properly compound words, some of them are on the way toward becoming single words, and somne Are still looked upon as separate words. ITsage, rather than logic, must dleter- mine the correct form. HYPHENATE birth-rate blood-relation boarding-house business-like by-laws by-products coal-dealer court-martial cross-examine (ross-referenee death-rate dining-hall ex-President Taft fellow-beings fellow-citizens fellow-men first-class reading four and five-sevenths great-grandfather great-grandson half-truth horsepower inter-university man-of-war mother-tongue ninety-nine (hyphenate all numbers from 21 to 99 except multiples of 10; e.g. 40) objeet-lesson Lists of words to be hyphenated SPELLING oftice-holder over-careful quarter-mile quasi-contract re-creation (as distin- guished from "recrea- tion") self-evident self-respect smoking-room so-called poet son-in-law starting-point subject-matter title-page tool-maker twenty-five two-thirds up-to-date Vice-consul Taylor walking-stick well-knowvn author well-nigh will-power woman-like DO NOT HYPHENATE bipartisan bookkeeper headquarters highly developed species landlady lawgiver 107. The following very as single, undivided words. myself vourself himself itself themselves anybody everybody somebody nobody anything something overweight prearrange proofreader recast schoolroom subconscious taxpayer thousand fold underestimate underfed workshop common words should always be written somew hat whoever although altogether whatever wvhichever whenever wherever already inasmuch moreover notwithstanding, nevertheless nowadays farewell textbook outside inside football baseball basketball together 108. There is good authority for both forms of the words below; percent oneself anyone someone everyone today tomorrow tonight pver cent. (or per cent) one's self any one some one every one to-day to-morrow to-night E. SYLLABICATION 109. In dividing a word at the end of a line, make the separation General between the syllables and at no other place. Just what the syllables of principle a word are must, as a rule, be learned from the sound and from reference to dictionaries. The following suggestions will be of service. Words not to be divided given Disputed spellings 89 90 MANUAL ANI) NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 110. Do not separate a word into groups the pronunciation of which is difficult or unnatural. EXAMPLES (Wrong) Prostr-ate; pri-nciple; instr-uction. (Right) Pros-trate; prin-ciple; in-struc-tion. 111. As a rule, prefixes and suffixes should be treated as separate syllables. EXAMPLES (Right) Con-fine; lo-ing; be-tween; hard-er. ( Wrong) Conf-ine; lo-ving; bet-ween; har-der. But see 112. - 112. In writing, avoid separating syllables of one or two letters from the rest of the word. This rule takes precedence over 111. TO BE AVOIDED Man-y; a-gainst; a-mong; hil-ly; on-ly. Doubled 113. When a consonant is doubled, the syllables should usually be consonants divided between the two consonants, even when this practice is contrary to 111 and 112 above. EXAMPLES Oe-casion; ad-dition; drop-ping; hit-ting; hap-pen; sad-den. Two consonants combining for one sound 114. Do not divide two consonants which together make a single sound. Some such combinations are th, ph, ng, gn, tch, gh (silent or as in rough). EXAMPLES (Wrong) Wit-her; elep-hant; gin-gham; alig- nment; watching; doug-hty. (Right) With-er; ele-phant; ging-ham; align- ment; watch-ing; dough-ty. 115. Combine final le with the preceding consonant. EXAMPLES Edi-ble; possi-ble; tri-fle. Monosyllables 116. Never divide a monosyllable. Leave room at the end of the line for long monosyllables like through and strength. TO BE AVOIDED Thro-ugh; stren-gth. Unnatural syllables Prefixes and suffixes Syllables of one or two letters Final le SPELLING F. REFORMED SPELLING 117. English spelling became standardized in the eighteenth cen- tury. Unfortunately the standard established was traditional and not phonetic. Many organized attempts have been made to reform our spelling, but none of the movements to place it upon a more simple and a more nearly phonetic basis has succeeded in changing the illogical spelling practice that we have great difficulty in learning, and that, hav- ing learned, Nye cling to tenaciously. About ten years ago the Simplified Spelling Society was established in England, and the Simplified Spell- ing Board was founded in America. To the American organization for bringing about a gradual reform in our spelling belong, among its thou- san(ls of members, many of the best-known philologists of the United States; a few organizations and several thousand people have obli- gated themselves to practice the reforms suggested by the Spelling Reform Board. A summary of the simplifications proposed up to the middle of the year 1916 is contained in a pamphlet issued by the board on June 15, 1916. It is:- "1. Drop final -e when useless or misleading. It is useless in such words as carv(e), curv(e), twelv(e), awo(e), blu(e), tru(e), etc. It is misleading at the end of such words as enqlin( e), promis(e), definit(e), etc., because its normal use after a single consonant is to sho that the preceding vowel is long. Hence it is retained in such words as fine, wise, polite. "2. When -ed final is pronounst t, rite it simply t. When it is pronounst d, rite it simply d. As kist, dipt, stept, blest, wisht, aimd, armd, dimd, raind, etc. But when the e affects the preceding vowel or consonant (see Rule 1 above) it must be retained. Bakt for baked will not do, or dind for dined, or deduct for deduced. When -uced final is pronounst nst, spel it so, as advanst, annoitnst. etc. "O. In the combination ea, sounded as in head or as in heart, use the letter which is sounded and omit the other, as tred, hevy, helth, wvether, plesant, hart, harth, etc. "4. Omit silent b, n, and s, as det, lamt, condem, iland, etc.; but retain silent final -b after a long vowel, as in tomb, comb, etc. " 5. Change ph to f when so sounded, as alfabet, fotograf, sulfur, tele- fone, etc. "6. In the termination -ence prefer s to c, as defense, pretense, offense, etc. 'implified spelling is employed throughout the pamphlet. 91 92 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION "7. For -ough substitute o, u, of, or uf, according to the sound, as tho, thru, cof, ruf. Prefer plow to plough. "8. Drop -ue after g in catalog, dialog, leag, harang, etc.; but not where the preceding vowel is long, as in vague, intrigue, rogue, etc. Change tongue to tung, Milton's way. "9. When -ice is pronounst like -is in this, spel it so, as notis, justis, servis, etc. "10. Omit -te from -ette final, as quartet, coquet, etiquet, omelet, etc. "]1. Substitute -e for the digrafs and ligatures a(e cc, o e A, aIs medieval, fenix, cyclopedia, etc." Although the Simplified Spelling Board (has not converted the country to its reform movement, it is entirely allowable for any writer to use its suggested spellings if he wishes to do so, and if he uses them consistently. Any one may obtain information about simplified spell- ing by writing to The Simplified Spelling Board, 18 Old Slip, New York. A list of twelve words spelled in simplified form recommended by the National Educational Association in 1898 has found considerable popular acceptance. The list is: altho, tho, thru, thruout, thoro, thoro- fare, thoroly, catalog, decalog, pedagog, program, prolog. Thot (for thought) and brot (for brought) are not, however, simplified spellings, and have not been recommended bv the Association. Thev are (lis- tinctly objectionable. NOTE 1.-In a few groups of words English spelling and Amierican spelling differ. The suffix spelled in America -or (favor, honor, etc.) is quite generally spelled by Englishmen -our (favour, honour, etc.); the suffix -ize we append to many words (civilize, apprize) to which the English add -ise (civilise, apprise, etc.); the termination -ense (defense, pretense, etc.) is preferred in America over the English form -ence (defence, pretence, etc.) ; in derivative words from simple words ending in 1 and p Americans usually do not double the final consonant before the suffix (traveler, woolen, kidnaped, etc.), while Englishmen gener- ally write two consonants before the suffix (traveller, woollen, kid- napped, etc.); Americans often write theater, center, etc., in contrast to the English usage, theatre, centre, etc. The spelling of some single words, too, differs in England and America; e.g.: English storey (parts into which a house is divided horizontally), tyre-American story, tire. English spelling practice is giving up shew (verb) for show, waggon for wagon, and verandah for veranda. For authoritative English spelling, see the New English Dictionary. MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SPELLING 93 CORRECTION ERROR I i i 94 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SPELLING ERROR CORRECTION - - -4 -4-- - MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITiON SPELLING 96 CORRECTION I I _ _ _ I j I T I ERROR 96 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSiTION SPELLING ERROR CORRECTION I 1-I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SPELLING 97 CORRECTION _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ERROR. i i 98 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SPELLING ERROR CORRECTION I i F L MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SPELLING ERROR CORRECTION 99 I I IT 100 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SPELLING ]ERROR CORRECTION j I_.. i. _ _ .. i MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 101 SPELLING ERROR CORRECTION _ _ _ _ _ , .. , _ _ _ -__V - - - - -I-_ _ _ _ _ , _ __ _ __ _ ___ .__ _ .__ _ .__ _ . _ ___ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ . . _ _ _ _ , _ MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SPELLING CORRECTION 102 ERROR I I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 103 SPELLING ERROR CORRECTION 7 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SPELLING CORRECTION 104 ERROR I I i I I I I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SPELLING ERROR CORRECTION 105 I -T- ______ ______________________________________I 106 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SPELLING ERROR CORRECTION I--i I I I i i I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 107 SPELLING CORRECTION ERROR I i i I l 108 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SPELLING ERROR CORRECTION [ I i I I I I i ---- --- -- I 1I i i I III. SENTENCE STRUCTURE CONTENTS OF CHAPTER 1. DEFINITIONS The sentence. The simple sentence defined. The compound sentence defined. The complex sentence defined. a. Noun clauses. b. Adjective clauses. c. Adverbial clauses. 122. The balanced sentence defined. 123. The loose sentence defined. 124. The periodic sentence defined. 2. RHETORICAL PRINCIPLES IN THE SENTENCE 125. The three great principles. A. Unity DEFINITION 126. Definition of unity. CAUTIONS In. simple sentences 127. Irrelevant modifiers. In compound sentences 128. Two main thoughts ini a single sen- tence. 129. Coordinate clauses written as sep- arate sentences. 130. Subordinate clauses made cobrdi- nate. 131. Wrong coordinate relation. 132. Coordinate relation not made evi- dent. 133. Frequent use of parentheses. In complex sentences 134. Co6rdinate clauses made subordi- nate. 135. Wrong subordinate relation. B. Coherence DEFINITION 136. Definition of coherence. CAUTIONS Faulty reference 137. Indefinite reference. Note 1. Indefinite they. Note 2. Indefinite it. Note 3. Indefinite that or those. Note 4. Feminine so. 138. Ambiguous reference. 139. Dangling participles-vague. 140. Dangling participles-ambiguous. Note 1. Agreement of participles and gerund phrases. 141. Elliptical clauses. Note 1. In titles. Faulty placing of modifiers 142. Clause not near to woord it governs. 143. Phrases not attached to modified words. 144. Two phrases modifying same word. ,145. Modifying words not near modified words. Note 1. Only. Note 2. Correlative:. Undue ellipsis 146. Omission of necessary sentence ele- ments. 147. Elliptical participial phrases. 109 118. 119. 120. 121. MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Change of construction 148. Change of point of view. 149. Error in balance. a. Infinitive with participle. b. Participle or infinitive with verb. c. Active with passive voice. d. Word or phrase with clause. e. Figurative with literal expres- sion. 150. Formula a, b, and c. 151. Preposition governing several ob- jects to be repeated. Note 1. Infinitive sign and sub- ordinating conjunction to be repeated. C. Emphasis DEFINITION 152. Definition of emphasis. DEVICES FOR OBTAINING EMPHASIS 153. Use of expletive there. 154. Position of however, therefore, etc. 155. Beginning and end of sentence. 156. Words referring back to preceding sentence. 157. Words out of their natural order. 158. Antithesis. 159. Balanced sentences. 160. Climax. Note 1. Anticlimax. 161. Periodic sentences. 162. Correct subordination. 163. Rhetorical question. 164. Exclamation. 165. Summary of devies D. Miscellaneous Sentence Errors 166. "House that Jack built" construc- tion. 167. Preposition separated from its ob- ject. 168. Consecutive statements introduced by but and for. 169. Split infinitive. REFERENCES Canby and Others, English Composition in Theory and Practice. TLamont, English Composition. Gardiner, Kittredge, and Arnold, Manual of Composition and Rhetoric. Genung, The Working Principles of Rhet- oric. Herrick and Damon, New Composition and Rhetoric. Ward, Sentence and Theme. SYMBOLS .FOR CORRECTIONS S.= Faulty sentenee structure [ 118- 169]. S. U.=Violation of sentence unity [ 126-135]. S. C_ Violation of sentence coherence [ 136-151]. S. E.=Violation of sen ence emphasis [ 152-169]. Bal.= Lack of balance in the sentence [ 148-151] . Cl.=Lack of clearness [ 136-151]. Ref.= Faulty reference [ 137-141]. Tr.= Change position of word or phrase. K.= Awkward sentence order or con- struction [ 166-169]. A Something omitted. 8= Ornit Pt. V.= Violation of point of view [ 148]. 110 1. DEFINITIONS 118. A sentence is a group of words, set in a definite grammatical The relation, expressing a complete thought. sentence The tests of a sentence are: (1) The thought it contains must be complete and (2) it must not contain more than one main thought. Formally, every sentence must contain at least one finite verb expressed or understood. Considered with respect to grammatical structure, there are three kinds of sentences: (1) simple, (2) complex, and (3) compound. See S 119, 120, 121, respectively. Considered with respect to rhetorical structure, there are three kinds of sentences: (1) balanced, (2) loose, and (3) periodic. S3e 122, 123, 124, respectively. 119. A simple sentence is one that makes a single statement in one Simple and only one clause. sentence A sentence containing a compound subject, a compound verb, or a defined compound object is considered as a simple sentence, because only one statement is made. EXAMPLES (1) John saw the president. (3) John saw and admired the presi- (2) John saw the president and vice- dent. presidenlt. (4) John and James saw the president and vice-president. 120. A compound sentence is one that makes two or more state- Compound ments of the same grammatical rank and of approximately equal impor- sentence tance in thought. The two or more clauses may bear any one of several defined different relations to one another: a. Joining of two or more similar ideas. EXAMPLE The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his handiwork. The more frequently used connectives in this type are: and, besides, further, moreover, likewise, nor (=and not). Similar or equivalent ideas may be put together without making use of any conjunctions. EXAMPLE After a painful struggle I yielded to my fate; I sighed as a lover; I obeyed as a son; my wound was insensibly healed by time, absence, and the habits of a new life. 111 12 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION b. Alternation between two or more ideas. EXAMPLE We must act iiow, or we shall always be sorry. The most frequent connectives used in this type are: or, nor, else, otherwise, or else, either . . . or, neither . . . nor. c. Contrast between two ideas. EXAMPLE Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers. The most frequently used connectives in this type are: but, yet, and yet, nevertheless, however, only, still, whereas, while. d. Reason in one clause for the statement in the other. EXAMPLES (1) He was at the class yesterday, for (2) He undoubtedly committed the I saw him. murder, because the evidence is over- whelming. Connectives used in this class are for and because. e. Inference or conclusion. EXAMPLES (1) He hoped to win the prize; there- (2) It began to rain about eight o'clock; fore he studied night and day. consequently the picnic was postponed until the next day. The most frequently used conjunctions in this type are: hence, therefore, consequently, as a result, so. Frequent use of the weak connective so should be avoided. The use of so as a conjunction usually sets up as of equal thought-rank two or more ideas that actually are of unequal thought-rank. Ideas of inferior rank should be subordinated. The careless form, "He grew weak and thin, so he became despondent," is written in well-articulated sentence form, " He grew so weak and thin that he became despondent," or "Because he grew weak and thin, he became despondent." f. Illustration or example in one clause of the statement made in the other: EXAMPLE An age of l)olitical glory usually brings produced Sophocles and Plato and Thlucy- about a varied and remarkable literary dides and a dozen other great names in activity: it was the age of Pericles that the world of letters. Complex 121. A complex sentence is one consisting of an independent clause sentence and one or more dependent clauses. The dependent clauses perform defined the functions of nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. 112 SENTENCE STRUCTURE a. Noun clauses may be used to perform any of the functions of a a. Noun noun; e.g.,- clauses 1. Subject of a sentence. EXAMPLE That he will refuse to serve is certain. 2. Object of a verb. EXAMPLE I replied that it would be impossible. 3. Object of a preposition. EXAMPLE I have no objection to wlhat hle suggests. 4. In apposition with another noun. EXAMPLE I asked him the question, What (lo you intend to do 5. Subject complement or object complement. EXAMPLES (1) This is exactly what I meant. (2) This makes the situation just what I felt it would be. b. Adjective clauses modify or depend upon nouns or pronouns. They are always relative clauses introduced by who, which, or that, or by words which are equivalent to these relative pronouns, as where [-'place in which "], when [='"time at which "], etc. Adjective clauses may be restrictive or non-restrictive. 1. Restrictive clauses are those that limit or determine the mean- ing of the antecedent. EXAMPLE The book that we were expecting on this mornings mail has not yet arrived. 2. Non-restrictive clauses are those which are merely explanatory of the antecedent, or which present an additional thought. EXAMPLE His eyesight, which had never been too good, now deserted him entirely. NOTE 1.-The distinction between restrictive and non-restrictive clauses is of importance in determining the punctuation of these clauses. The latter are set off by commas; the former are not. See 15. b. Adjective clauses 11;3 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Adverbial c. Adverbial clauses depend upon verbs, adjectives, and other ad- clauses verbs. They may express any of the adverbial relations; 1. Time. EXAMPLE When the doctor arrived, the man had recovered. Connectives used in adverbial clauses of time are when, then, be-- fore, after, while, since, till, until, as soon as, so long as, whenever, now that. 2. Place. EXAMPLE Whither thou goest, I will go. Connectives used in adverbial clauses of place are where, whence, whither, wherever. 3. Degree or Comparison. EXAMPLES (1) The army marched farther today (3) The faster they march, the sooner than it did yesterday. they will arrive. (2) The army did not march so far yes- (4) He does not seemn so well as lie did terday as it dlid Wednesday. yesterday. Connectives used in adverbial clauses of degree or comparison are as, than, as . . . as, [not] so . . . as, and the construction seen in sentences: the + the comparative of the adjective or adverb . . . the + the comparative of another adjective or adverb. The comparison by means of the article seen in Sentence 3 has its origin early in the history of the language when the article was declined. The the in Sentence 3 above goes back to a form meaning "by this" or "by so much." The sentence expanded, then, would be literally: "By the faster they march, by so much the sooner they will arrive." 4. Manner. EXAMPLES (Wrong) (Right) He walked like he was crippled. He walked as though he were crippled. Connectives used in adverbial clauses of manner are as, as if, (18 though. Caution: Do not use like as a conjunction. But see 238. 5. Cause or reason. EXAMPLE I did the work well because I enjoyed it. Connectives used in adverbial clauses of cause or reason are be- cause, for, as, since, seeing that, inasmuch as, now that, in that. Caution.-Observe the difference between this type and the com- pound sentences in which the cooridinate clause gives the reason for the writer's knowledge or belief. See 120d. 114 SENTENCE' STRUCTURE 6. Condition. EXAMPLES (1) If you should see him, you would realize the truth of inv stateielit. (2) Unless you are willing, I do not wish to remain. Connectives used in adverbial clauses of condition are if, so, unless (=if not), on condition that, in case (that), but that, say, suppose, pro- vided, whenever (=if ever). 7. Purpose. EXAMPLE I tell you at this time so that yiou may be able to complete the work before Easter. Connectives used in adverbial clauses of purpose are that, so that, in7 order that, lest (=so that . . . not). S. Result. EXAMPLE The appropriation was vetoed, so that the department had to economize. Connectives used in adverbial clauses of result are that, so that, but that. 9). Concession. EXAMPLE Although he had receiced excellent grades on his themes, his elass work caused him to fail in his course. Connectives used in adverbial clauses of concession are though, although, albeit, however, whoever, no matter how, if, even if, notwith- standing. 122. A balanced sentence is one that is made up of two itiembers Balanced that are similar in form, bnt often contrasted in meaning, sentence 1. defined EXAMPLE The character of Milton was peculiarly distinguished by loftiness of lhugtt that of Dante bv intensity of feelinmz. 123. A loose sentence is one so constructed that there is more than Loose one place where it might end an(le still make complete sense. sentence defined EXAMPLE He ascended the ditficult hill in order to obtain a good view of the valley below, which was covered by fruit-farmns with their trees all in bloom. NOTE 1-Observe that this sentence might end at any one of four other points without destroying the senirs 116 116 MANUTAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Periodic 124. A periodic sentence is one so constructed that the meaning is sentence incomplete until the end has been reached. defined EXAMPLE In the firm desire to preserve liberty on this hemisphere, in the determination that the republic which was founded by the heroic labors of our fathers shall not be destroyed, and with a full realization of the seriousness of our act, we offer, in defense of our country, our services. NOTE 1.-" Loose" and "periodic" are relative terms. A sentence may be partly loose and partly periodic. For example, the sentence just quoted. might be made partly loose by transposing the main clause so that it will fall after "hemisphere' NOTE 2.-A loose sentence is of most value in giving flexibility to style. It is more informal and conversational than the periodic. It is used more in narrative, description, and informal essays than in other forms of discourse. A periodic sentence is of most value in the expression of closely woven thought, in impassioned oratory, or in other cases of elevated style. It is found especially often -in formal essays, orations, debates, and public addresses. See 161. A balanced sentence is always valuable for making contrasts or comparisons. See 159. 2. RHETORICAL PRINCIPLES IN THE SENTENCE The three 125. In the structure of sentences, three great principles must be great observed-unity, coherence, and emphasis. Unity is concerned with principles the material used in the construction of the sentence; coherence, with the logical arrangement of the material admitted by the principle of unity; and emphasis, with the effective arrangement of the material. A. UNITY 1. DEFINITION Definition 126. The principle of unity demands that, since a sentence must of Unity express a single complete thought, nothing must be admitted into the sentence that does not contribute to this thought, and nothing must be omitted that is needed to complete the thought. 2. CAUTIONS In Simple Sentences Irrelevant 127. In simple sentences, avoid irrelevant modifying words or modifiers phrases. Nothing should be admitted as a modifier that does not really aid the expression of the thought of the sentence. SENTENCE STRUCTURE EXAMPL (Bad) His daughter, Julia, charming as a con- versationalist, graceful as a dancer, and but recently graduated from the Univer- sity, added much to our enjoyment of the evening. (Improved) His daughter, Julia, charming as a con- versationalist and graceful as a dancer, added much to our enjoyment of the eve- ning. [If the idea of the recent gradua- tion is necessary to the thought of the paragraph, it should be put in a separate sentence, unless some actual relation is shown between this idea and that of her charm as a conversationalist and grace as a dancer.] In Compound Sentences 128. Do not combine into a compound sentence clauses that really do not form a single thought. Such clauses should be w ritten as sep- arate sentences. EXAMPLES (Bad) The sermon, preached by the Reverend J. M. Stanton, was especially good, and after the service we were invited to Aunt Alice's for dinner. See 132 below. Two thoughts in single sentence (Improved) The sermon, preached by the Reverend J. M. Stanton, was especially good. After the service we were invited to Aunt Alice's for dinner. 129. Except for the purpose of giviing emphasis to the second member, do not write statements as complete sentences when they are logically coordinate clauses of a compound sentence. EXAMPLES (Bad) Immediate action should be taken. And the people should be warned of their danger. (Bad) He sanon And he played. He danced. Coordinate clauses written as separate sentences (Imp roved) Immediate action should be taken, and the people should be warned of their danger. (Good, and emphatic) No answer has yet been maade to the charges. And none will ever be made. See 132 below. 130. Do not write clauses as coordinate when thiey are not of equal importance. EXAMPLES (Bad) Both religions were forms of nature worship, and in the ancient architecture of Mexico and Japan certain similarities can be traced. See 132 below. Subordinate clauses made coordinate (Improved) Since the religions of both countries were forms of nature worship, certain sim- ilarities can be traced in the ancient archi- tecture of Mexico and Japan. 117 118 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION NOTE 1.-Do not use and as a conjunction unless the statements joined by the and are closely related in thought, and the second is a real addition to the first. NOTE 2.-Avoid especially the stringing together of many clauses in a compound sentence. The and-habit is annoying to both readers and listeners; it is seldom the case that some of the clauses joined by and should not be thrown into a subordinate position. EXAMPLES (Stringy) One of the chief difficulties with our col- lege work is the term examinations, and if they were abolished I am sure that more freshmen would remain in college and graduate and go out into the state and be- come good citizens and add to the glory of the University: and thus, as time goes on, the University would grow and pros- per and become truly representative of the community and a source of pride to all the citizens. (Improved) One of the chief difficulties with our college work is the term examinations. If they were abolished I am sure that more freshmen would remain in college and graduate. so that they would go out into the state to become good citizens and add to the glory of the University. Thus, as time goes on, the University would grow and prosper until it would become truly representative of the community and a source of pride to all the citizens. 131. Do not join coordinate clauses with one connective when the logical relation calls for another. For example, do not join contrasted statements by and. EXAMPLES (Bad) The sky is clear, and no stars are visible. (Improved) The sky is clear, but no stars are visible. 132. Do not fail to make the relation between the clauses of a com- pound sentence evident to the reader. EXAMPL (Bad) Boston has a good Symphony Orchestra, and you should spend next winter there. (improved) Boston has a good Symphony Orchestra, and, since you wish to hear good music next year, you should spend the winter there. 133. Avoid the frequent use of parentheses. They are usually signs of careless composition. EXAMPLE As we approached the station (the day had been frightfully hot and we were glad to get in), a shouting of college yells (Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, for the most part) began in the car behind us. The thought must be recast entirely. Wrong coordinate relation Coordinate relation not made evident Frequent use of parentheses SENTENCE STRUCTURE In Complex Sentences 134. Do not subordinate, in relative clauses, statements that are logically coordinate. EXAMPLES (Bad) I entered the University the next fall, followed shortly afterward by ray elder brother, with whose help I easily made good grades. Coordinate clauses made subordinate (impru Ecrd) I entered the University the next fall and, with the help of mv elder brother, who followed shortly afterward, I made good grades. 135. Take care that the relation of adverbial clauses to the main clause is correctly expressed. Study the various relations of the ad- verbial clauses and note the distinction between them. (Bad) Think twice when you speak. EXAMPLES (Improved) Thinik twice before you speak. NOTE 1.-Make very sparing use of while in any other sense than that of time. EXAMPLES (Weak) While all that you say is true, I cannot agree with you. (Improved) Though all you say is true, I cannot agree with you. (Proper) While we were in New York, we at- tended grand opera every week. NOTE 2.-Do not use when in the sense of whereupon. EXAMPLES (Bad) The decision of the judges was an- nounced, when a great cheer arose from the students of High School. (Slightly improved) The decision of the judges was an- nounced, whereupon a great cheer arose from the students of High School. (Proper) When the decision of the judges was announced, a great cheer arose from the students of High School. B. COHERENCE 1. DEFINITION 136. The principle of coherence requires that a sentence be so Definition phrased and its parts so arranged that its meaning is clear and unmis- of Coherence takable. 119 Wrong subordinate relation MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 2. CAUTIONS Faulty Reference 137. Do not use a pronoun in such a way that it refers to an idea conveyed by the sentence as a whole or to an idea implied by some word in the sentence. Pronouns should have definite antecedents. The fault can usually be corrected by changing the pronoun to a demonstra- tive adjective and inserting a noun after it. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) I always stay away from home oni moving-day, for it is very disagreeable work. (2) If I were not certain that I am right, I should not have the courage, to publish this. (Improved) (1) I always stay away from home on Loving-day, for moving is very disagree- able work. (2) If I were not certain that I ant right, I should not have the courage to publish this article. NOTE 1.-In colloquial or familiar discourse the indefinite they (corresponding to the French on and the German man) is allowed, though it is better to avoid it in the more dignified forms of writing. EXAMPL (Informal) They have coffee and rolls for breakfast in France. Indefinite it (Formal) Breakfast in France consists of coffee and rolls. NOTE 2.-Avoid indefinite it (except it rains, it snows, etc.). EXAMPLES (Bad) In Webster's Dictionary it says that don't is a colloquialism. Indefinite that or those (Improved) In Webster's Dictionary don't is called a colloquialism. NOTE 3.-Avoid indefinite that or those in sentences in which a rela- tive clause seems to be anticipated. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) The major was one of those typical old Southern gentlemen. (2) Her gown was of that fashionable new material. Feminine so (Improved) (1) The major was a typical old Southern gentleman. (2) Her gown is of that new material which is fashionable this year. NOTE 4.-Do not make habitual use of so in the sense of very as an intensive. If so is used, it should ordinarily be completed by a that-clause of result. This indefinite use of so is generally known as "the feminine so., EXAMPLES (Weak) It is so hot today. (Improved) It is very hot today. Indefinite Reference Indefinite they 120 SENTENCE STRUCTURE 138. Do not use a pronoun in such a way that it nmay b)e taken to refer equally well to several antecedents. Pronouns should have par- .ticular antecedents. EXAMPL (Bad) (1) The Judge tfld(1 (Charles to call him tip when he came to the city; that he should let him know when he was com- ing to see him so that he could have a few of his best friends to meet him. (2) She wore a new brooch in her hair, which was very beautiful. Ambiguous reference (Improved) (1) The Judge said to Charles, "When you come to the city you Imiust call me up. Let me know when you are coming to see me so that I niay have a few of my best friends to meet you.' (2) In her hair she wore a new brooch, which was very beautiful. 139. Do not use a participle when it refers to an idea conveyed by the sentence as a whole or implied by some word in the sentence. EXAMPL (Bad) While meditating over his disappoint- ment, a seheme presented itself. (Improved) While meditating over his disappoint- ment, he thought of a scheme. Make it clear who was meditating. 140. Do not use a participle in such a way that it may be taken to refer equally well to several antecedents. Dangling participles -Ambiguous EXAMPLES (Bad) Our garden last year was not very suc- eessful. Being on a rocky soil, I was un- able to plow it deep enough. (Improved) Our garden last year was not very sue- cessful. Since it was on a rocky soil, I was unable to plow it deep enough. Make it clear who or what was on a rocky soil NOTE 1.-Participles and gerund phrases should not introduce a sentence or clause unless they logically modify the subject of the sen- tence or clause. Correct an error of this kind by changing the phrase to a clause or by making the noun which is logically modified the subject of the sentence. EXAMPLES (Bad) Having been twisted in an accident, I sent the wheel to the repair-shop. (Improved) I sent the wheel that had been twisted in the accident to the repair-shop. Agreement of participles and gerund phrases (Also good) Having been twisted in an accident, the wheel was sent to the repair-shop. Dangling participles -Vague 121 122 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 141. An elliptical clause (i.e., one from which the subject and predicate have been omitted; e.g., "when six years old" for "when he was six years old") should not be used unless the omitted subject is the subject of the governing clause. EXAMPLES (Bad) When two months old, my parents moved to Lexington. (Improved) When I was two months old, my par- ents moved to Lexington. (Also good) When two months old, I was taken by my parents to Lexington. NOTE 1.-This rule applies to titles of themes or articles. (Bad) "Experiences while in Europe." EXAMPLES (Improved) "My Experiences in Europe." Faulty Placing of Modifiers 142. Place a clause as near as possible to the word that it modifies. EXAMPLES (Bad) The mad dog bit a horse on the leg, which has since died. (Improved) The horse, which has since died, was bitten on the leg by a mad dog. Phrases not attached to modified words 143. Be sure that phrases used as modifiers are placed near the words they actually qualify. EXAMPLES (Bad) Five dollars reward is offered for the discovery of any person injuring this property, by order of the chief of police. (Improved) Five dollars reward is offered, by order of the chief of police, for the discovery of any person injuring this property. Two phrases modifying same word 144. Two phrases or clauses modifying the same word should not be placed one before and one after the word; one should immediately follow the other. EXAMPLES (Bad) If I am in the city, I shall come to see you, if I have time. Modifying words not near modified words (Improved) If I am in the city and have time, I shall come to see you. 145. Place modifying words as near the words qualified as pos- sible. Take especial care with nearly, just, scarcely, hardly, almost, ever, not, and quite. Elliptical clauses In titles Clause not near word it governs SENTENCE STRUCTURE Note the difference between "He nearly caught a hundred fish" and "He caught nearly a hundred fish." The first sentence implies that he probably caught none; the latter that he caught perhaps ninety or ninety-five. NOTE 1.-When possible, place only before the word it modifies. Only always suggests a contrast, and if it is misplaced, the implied contrast will be illogically expressed. Note the difference in meaning between the following: "I have only read over one page of the lesson" [not memorized it] and "I have read over only one page of the lesson" [not two pages]. It is possible that sooner or later idiom may succeed in breaking down this logical distinction. NOTE 2.-Place the correlatives not only . . . but also; either . . . or; neither . . . nor; both . . . and; on the one hand . . . on the other hand before words that they connect. The words connected should always be in the same construction. See 261. EXAMPLES (Bad) He neither succeeded in scholarship nor athletics. (Improved) He succeeded neither in scholarship nor in athletics. (Also good) He succeeded in neither scholarship nor athletics. Undue Ellipsis 146. Do not omit any sentence element necessary to the logical Omission expression of the thought. See 260. of necessary sentence EXAMPLES elements (Bad) (1) Chaucer was closer to Dante than Shakespeare. (2) Mrs. Smith disliked Mary as thor- oughly as Jane. (Improved) (1) Chaucer was closer to Dante than to Shakespeare. (2) Mrs. Smith disliked Mary as thor- oughly as she did Jane. (Also good) (1) Chaucer was closer to Dante than was Shakespeare. (2) Mrs. Smith dislikeu Mary as thor- oug-hly as Jane did. Only Correlatives 123 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 147. Participial phrases that supply the place of subordinate clauses should usually, for the sake of clearness, be preceded by proper connectives. EXAMPLES (Bad) Working his way through college, lie saved several hundred dollars. (Improved) While working his way through college, he saved several hundred dollars. NOTE ].-In very short participial phrases, where there is no like- lihood of confusion, the connective may be omitted. EXAMPLE Walking to town this morning, I saw the new decorations. Change of Construction 148. Avoid a change of point of view within a sentence. EXAMPLES (Bad) In George Eliot's early works, the philo- sophical strain is not so noticeable, but in her later works some think it is because of this philosophy that her works become heavy reading. (Improved) In George Eliot's early works, the philo- sophical strain is not so noticeable, but in her later works this philosophy has. as some think, made her works heavy reading. 149. Ideas parallel in thought should be parallel in expression. a. Do not link an infinitive with a participle. EXAMPLES (Bad) Attending classes regularly. with well- prepared lessons (his real business in col- lege), to be a loyal supporter of the ath- letic teams, and to gain as much as possible from association with fellow-students- these are duties no freshman can afford to neglect. (Improved) To attend classes regularly, with well prepaaed lessons (his real business in col- lege), to he a loyal supporter of the ath- letic teams. and to gain as muelh as possible from association withI fellow-students- these are duties no freshinan can afford to neelect. b. Participle or infinitive with verb b. Do not link a participle or an infinitive with a finite verb. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) I know of no better leaders for the movenient than Thomas and Carr; the former to put forward new ideas and the latter always perfeets them. (2) We studied hard that night on all our courses, but spending most of the time on1 Latin. (Improved) (1) I know of no better leaders for the movement than Thomas and Carr; the former puts forward new ideas and the latter always perfects them. (2) We studied halrd that night on all our courses, but spent most of the time qn Latin. Elliptical participial phrases Change of point of view Error in balance a. Infinitive with participle 124 SENTENCE STRUCTURE c. As a rule, do not link an active with a passive voice. EXAMPLES (Bad) They often showed anger, and personal remarks were made. c. Active with passive voice (Improved) They often showed anger and made per- sonal remarks. d. Do not link a word or a phrase with a clause. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) We agreed to be prompt with the payment of the money each month, and that we would not be longer than three years in paying the whole debt. (.2) This is a true saying, and which is worthy of all belief. (Improved) (1) We agreed to be prompt with the payment of the money each month, and not to be longer than three years in paying the whole debt. (2) This is a true saving and worthy of a.ll belief. NOTE 1.-The connectives and iwhiich and but which should be espe- cially noted. And and but should introduce a coordinate clause, which a subordinate. The use of and which and but which will, therefore, gen- erally cause a break in construction. Their only correct use is to con- nect two relative clauses as in "The book which you mention, and which is, by the way, the required reading in English this term, has interested. me very much. "I e. Except for humorous effect, do not link a figurative with a literal expression. EXAMPLES (Bad) With joy in their hearts and good food in their lunch baskets, the boys left for a dav in the woods. e. Figurative with literal expression (Impror ed) Cheered bv the thought of the good food in their lunch baskets. the boys left with joyful hearts for a day in the woods. 150. The formula a, b, and c should not be used unless the elements Formula connected are coordinate. a, b, and c EXAMPLES (Bad) Tile game was long, dull, and the players made many errors. (Impro red) The game was long- and dull, and the players made many errors. NOTE 1.-This error can be corrected by breaking the series with a conjunction between the first two members. d. Word or phrase with clause 1295 126 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Preposition governing several objects to be repeated 151. A preposition governing several objects should be repeated with each of the objects after the first, when the construction of these objects would not otherwise be immediately clear. EXAMPLES (Bad) The speaker was applauded by all the students, and especially the boys. Infinitive- sign and subordinating conjunction to be repeated (Improved) The speaker was applauded by all the students and especially by the boys. NOTE 1.-The same caution applies to the repetition of the infinitive- sign to when it governs several infinitives and of subordinating con- junctions when they introduce several coordinate assertions. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) I begged him to give up the wild companions he had been associating with, return home, and in the future keep away from his disreputable friends. (2) Since preparation is necessary be- fore the enemy lands on our shores and attacks us, the machinery of the govern- ment seems to be so ponderous that prompt action is impossible, and the will of a vast majority of the people of the nation is obviously being thwarted by a few ob- struetionists, some change in procedure seems to be imperative. (Improved) (1) I begged him to give up the wild companions he had been associating with, to return home, and in the future to keep away from his disreputable friends. (2) Since preparation is necessary be- fore the enemy lands on our shores and attacks us, since the machinery of the gov- ernment seems to be so ponderous that prompt action is impossible, and since the will of the vast majority of the people of the nation is obviously being thwarted by a few obstructionists, some change in pro- cedure seems to be imperative. When the infinitive phrases or the subordinate clauses are very short and simple this rule may be disregarded. EXAMPLES (1) We instructed him to go, investi- gate, and report his findings. (2) Since you request it, and there is no valid objection, we shall order the work done. C. EMPHASIS 1. DEFINITION Definition 152. By emphasis in the sentence we mean the arrangement of of Emphasis the members of the sentence so as to produce upon the reader an instant, clear, and forceful effect. The order of words in the English language is so flexible that it is generally possible to place the most important part of a sentence in a prominent position without destroying the co- herent relation of its members. If, however, a decision must be made between having a sentence of ordinary composition emphatic and having it coherent, it should be made coherent. There are a number of devices by which an emphatic arrangement may be secured. SENTENCE STRUCTURE NOTE 1.-Writing that depends solely upon sentence arrangement to secure emphasis of expression is so obviously mechanical that it de- feats its own purpose. Combined with a choice of assertive words that reflect the conviction of the writer, empbntic sentence arrangement should, however, add force and power to composition. 2. DEVICES FOR OBTAINING EMPHASIS 153. Make very sparing use of the expletive there to introduce a sentence. EXAMPI (Weak) There could always be seen a number of children running to and fro. (Improved) A number of children could always be seen running to and fro. 154. As a rule, place such words as however, therefore, also, ac- cordinzgly, nevertheless, and moreover within the sentence rather than at the beginning. EXAMPLES (Weak) We had planned for several weeks to have a launch party on the lake. How- ever, when the day arrived it was raining, and we could not go. Position of however, therefore, etc. (Improved) We had planned for several weeks to have a launch party on the lake. When, however, the day arrived, it was raining, and we could not go. 155. As a rule, avoid the use of very weak or colorless words at the beginning and end of a sentence. EXAMPLES (Weak) (1.) This is the most important point of all, I think. (2) Also this is true. (3) He is a murderer, after all is said. (Improved) (1) This is, I think, the most important point of all. (2) Tais is also true. (3) He is, after all is said, a murderer. 156. As a rule, place at the beginning of a sentence any words that refer to the preceding sentence. EXAMPLES (Weak) While I was in Washington, I desired to see the president. I called on my con- gressman for help in order that I might do this. (Improved) While I was in Washington, I desired to see the president. In order that I might do this, I called on my congressman for help. 157. Words out of their natural order are emphatic. EXAMPLES (Weak) I will go. You are right. Diana of the Ephesians is great. (Emphatic) Go I will. Right you are. Great is Diana of the Ephesians. Beginning and end of sentence Words referring back to preceding sentence Words out of their natural order Use of expletive there 127 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Antithesis 158. Emphasis may be obtained by antithesis-the placing of ideas and thoughts in contrast. EXAMPLE Character is what we are; reputation, what people think we are. Balanced 159. The balanced sentence [see 122] is emphatic. Its effect sentence is similar to that of antithesis. EXAMPLE Worth makes the man; the want of it, the fellow. Climax 160. Climax-the arranging of words, phrases, or clauses in an ascending series-is one of the most emphatic of all orders. EXAMPLE Thus man passes away; his name perishes from record and recollection; his history is as a tale that is told; and his very monument becomes a ruin.-Irving. Anticlimax NOTE 1.-Except for humorous effect, avoid anticlimax-arrange- ment in a descending series. EXAMPLE If a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he comes to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to incivility and procrastination.-DeQuincey. Periodic 161. As a general rule, the periodic sentence is more emphatic than sentence the loose sentence. See 123, 124. There are, of course, many places where a loose sentence is to be preferred. Use that form which best expresses the idea. The periodic sentence, being more nearly symmetrical and bolder than the loose, is frequently the more stimulating to clearness of thought in both reader and writer. The short period is usually better than the long one. The loose sentence has often a more direct and conversational effect than the periodic. For further discussion of these forms of sentence see 236, note 2. Correct 162. A correct observance of subordination helps secure emphasis subordination in the sentence. Be sure that the important thought of the sentence is contained in the main clause, and that no subordinate thoughts are written as independent clauses. See 121. Rhetorical 163. The rhetorical question, in occasional use, is an effective question means of obtaining emphasis. EXAMPLE Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard his spots 128 SENTENCE STRUCTURE 164. The exclamatory sentence may be used for emphasis. EXAMPLE How poor are they that have not patience! 165. The student should cultivate especially the skillful use of climax, antithesis, balanced sentences, and periodic sentences. He should use the rhetorical question and the exclamation very sparingly. D. MISCELLANEOUS SENTENCE ERRORS 166. Avoid so placing a series of similar phrases or clauses that the second depends upon the first, the third upon the second, etc. A familiar example of this construction is "The House that Jack Built." As a rule, such a sentence must be entirely recast. EXAMPLES (Bad) I never knew a mall who was so ready to help a friend who had got into difficul- ties wchich pressed him hard. (Improved) I never knew a man so ready to help a friend who had got into pressing diffi- culties. Exclamation Summary of devices "House that Jack Built" construction 167. Do not interpose a number of words between a preposition and its object so that an awkward pause occurs after the preposition. EXAMPLES (Awkwtard) lie is a constant reader of, though by no means an enthusiast over. modern drama. (Improved) He is a constant reader of modern drama, though by no means an enthusiast over it. Preposition separated from its object 168. 1)o not introduce two consecutive statements by but or for. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) I am surprised to learn that lhe has left, for I had supposed that he was going to remain here, for he tol me so last veek. (2) 1 inquired about his wife. hut he did not answver. but turned away. (Improved) (1) I am surprised to learn that he has left; I had supposed that he wvas going to renmain here, for he told me so last week. (2) 1 inquired about his wife, but lie Ilurned away without answering. Consecutive statements introduced by but or for 169. Avoid the split infinitive-an adverb placed between to and Split the infinitive with which it is joined. This usage is employed by some infinitive careful writers, but the weight of authority is against it. For a good discussion of the point see Genung, The Working Principles of Rhetoric, p. 239. EXAMPLES (Awkward) I want to finally bring this point up for discussion. (Improved) I want finally to bring this point up for discussion. 129 This page in the original text is blank. MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE 131 CORRECTION ERROR i l - - 132 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION I Ii MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE 133 CORRECTION I - - - I ERROR MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION -I 134 . I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 135 SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION 136 I I I I I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 137 SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION + II 138 MAN-UAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION 4 MAN-UAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION 139 I 140 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 141 SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION 1 142 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 143 SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION MAN-UAL AND NOTEBOOK SENTENCE ERROR FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION STRUCTURE CORRECTION 144 I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 145 SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK SENTENCE ERROR FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION STRUCTURE CORRECTION 146 r MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 147 SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION I.. 148 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION Ii- MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 149 SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION I- I. 150 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE 151 CORRECTION ERROR i i I i I I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION 1- 152 - -I -I - - I 1- - - - - MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 153 SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION t T II I 154 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION I i I I I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 155 SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION 156 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE 157 CORRECTION ---l - - - l,- ERROR I 158 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION j MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 159 SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION 7 I I T 160 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SENTENCE STRUCTURE ERROR CORRECTION Ii 161 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSlTION SENTENCE STRUCTURE CORRECTION ERROR - I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK SENTENCE ERROR FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION STRUCTURE CORRECTION i I i f I i i ii i I 162 i i II I i I IV. GRAMMAR CONTENTS OF CHAPTER 170. A. Relation of Grammar to Com- position B. Fundamental Errors of Construction 171. Fragmentary sentences. 172. "Comma blunders." 173. When and where-clauses as predi- cate nouns. 174. Sentence as subject or (complement. 175. Elements without syntax. C. Nouns Possessives 176. Possessive case of word-groups. 177. Possessive of inanimate things. 178. Possessive wheni possession is not meant. 179. Double possessive. Plurals 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. Irregular plurals. Collective nouns. Expressions of quantity. Singular nouns with plural form. Ambiguous number. D. Pronouns Reference 185. Antecedents of pronouns. Case 186. Forms of possessive of her, it, you, etc. 187. Confusion of cases because of in- tervening "he says." 188. Who and whoever attracted into objective case by preposition. 189. Objective after copulative verb. 190. Case of subject and predicate of infinitive. 191. Case of object of preposition. 192. Uses of possessive. 193. Case after as and than. 194. Case of appositives. Number 195. Mistake in number through fused' antecedent. 196. Number of each, erery, etc. con- Miscellaneous 197. Consistency in the use of we. yo/U, one, etc. 198. Use of either and the latter. 199. Editorial we. E. Adjectives and Adverbs Articles and demonsiratives 200. Use of the article. 201. Repetition of article or demonstra- tive. Comparison 202. Comparison with two persons or things. 203. Comparison with things of the same class-comparative degree. 204. Comparison with things of the same class-superlative degree. 205. Confusion of as and than. 206. Adjectives and adverbs incapable of comparison. Miscellaneous 207. These kind, those kind, etc. 208. Choice of adjective or adverb aftcr looks, sounds, etc. 209. Expressions like "He kept it safe." 210. Omitted lprelposition in adverbial. phrase of time. F. Verbs Agreement 211. Plural ard compound subjects. 212. Singular subjects joined by or or nor. 213. Subjects in different persons con- nected by or. 163 164 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 214. Confusion in agreement caused by intervening word. 215. Number not affected by together with, etc. 216. Verbs not to agree with predicate noun. 217. Effect of expletive it. 218. Effect of expletive there. 219. It don't and you was. Tense 220. Tense of statement of general truth. 221. Time modifier with verb in past tense. 222. Use of present perfect tense. 223. Use of past perfect tense. 224. Use of perfect infinitive. 225. Use of present participle. Shall and will; should and would 226. In independent clauses. 227. In dependent clauses. 228. In questions. 229. Other uses. Voice 230. Misuse of passive voice. Mood 231. Misuse of the subjunctive mood. Miscellaneous 232. Possessive case of substantive be- fore gerund. 233. Improper omission of principal verb. 234. Use of be as principal and auxiliary verb. G. Prepositions 235. 236. 237. Object of preposition. Use of between. Preposition phrases after in regard to. H. Conjunctions 238. Like as a conjunction. 239. Use of both. REFERENCES Kittredge and Farley, Advanced English Grammar. Manly and Powell, Manual for Writers. Herrick and Damon, Newr Composition and Rhetoric. Scott and Buck, -A Brief English Gram- mar. SYYIBOLS USED FOR CORRECTIONS Frag. = Fragmentary sentence [ 171]. T. = Wrong tense of verb [ 220-229]. Gr. =Faulty grammar [ 170-239]. C. b. = "Comma blunder" [ IL72 ]. A. RELATION OF GRAMMAR TO COMPOSITION 170. The grammar of a language is an analytical description of the forms which the speakers and writers of that language habitually employ. Grammar is, then, a summary of collective usage rather than a code of arbitrarily founded rules. Although a language as highly organized as English is today conforms its grammatical usage, in the main, to logical demands, established usage is a higher language law than logical consistency. Language is a social institution; while logic is an exact science, whose laws, like those of the natural sciences, do not change. Language is never motionless; we can not arrest it at a fixed point "in order to study it as a naturalist kills and pins out a butterfly in order to study life." Yet in regard to the large majority of constructions and of word-forms, the usage of speakers and writers who pretend to a respectable linguistic-social standing is practically uniform, and is in fairly close agreement with the demands of logic. Usage is variable in exceptional cases; some constructions are today still in the process of changing from what they have been for hundreds of years; in other constructions the change may have been carried through in our own day. Decision in such cases is difficult to make; usage is not voted by democratic majorities; it is determined rather by a system of plurality voting in a restricted suffrage, in which the vote of Mr. John Galsworthy, for instance, counts for much more than does yours or that of your companion. In considering the respectability of a construction, we must always bear in mind that what is considered bad taste in one social group may be looked upon as good form in another: social distinctions in language use are as firmly set as they are in table-manners. Neither persons nor constructions necessarily remain in the social group into which they were born. The footman and the aristocrat exchange positions. A vulgar usage at last gets into book language, and becomes respectable; an over-refined usage is sent back to the soil for renewal in freshness and naturalness. Students need not, however, feel any great responsi- bility resting upon them for pushing forward the claims of any con- struction common in vulgar speech or careless writing for a place in respectable, but not unduly formalized usage. The place of construc- tions that now hold an ambiguous position will in time be fixed. When it is fixed, another group of special cases will offer itself for trial. See 240. 165 Relation of grammar to composition 166 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Fragmentary sentences B. FUNDAMENTAL ERRORS OF CONSTRUCTION 171. Do not write subordinate sentence-elements as if they were complete sentences. Remember that every sentence must have a main clause, and that every clause must have a subject and a predicate. Present-day English usage conforms to the logical demand that every sentence must give full grammatical expression to a complete thought. Observation of this usage is a reasonable requirement to make of stu- dents trying to learn the means of clear and accurate expression, despite the fact that many good modern writers (Kipling, Conrad, Wells, Gals- worthy, for instance) intentionally employ the incomplete, or half- sentence for stylistic purposes. The half-sentence form is common in everyday speech and in slipshod writing, where its presence is due to carelessness, and not to selection, which is the principle that determines its occasional use by men who are conscious of their style. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) You pick up a newspaper and you read of half a dozen accidents. All caused by someone's lack of care. (2) The judicial department is in no sense representative. Whereas the lhgis- lative is strictly representative. (Improved) (1) You pick up a newspaper and read of half a dozen accidents, all caused by someone's lack of care. (2) The judicial department is in no sense representative, whereas the legis!a- tive is strictly representative. 172. Do not write two or more sentences as if they were one. An erroneous use of a comma, in place of a period, to separate sentences is called a "comma blunder." For another variety of "comma blunder" see 13. EXAMPLES (Bad) (Improved) The river resembled a great, dirty, elon- The river resembled a great, dirty, elon- gated pool, it moved as if some dread dis- gated pool. It moved as if some dread ease were destroying its vitality and vigor. disease were destroying its vitality and vigor. NOTE 1.-This fault is quite as serious when independent clauses of a compound sentence not connected by one of the simple conjunctions are separated by commas. A semicolon is the correct punctuation in that case. See 12, 13. Do not, however, join with semicolons clauses not belonging to a unified sentence. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) Jess was rather plump, he was called fat by his intimate friends. (2) He grew red, he made the clumsiest and most futile efforts to transport the meat to his plate, food was there before him, he could not, however, eat. (Improved) (1) Jess was rather plump; he was called fat by his intimate friends. (2) He grew red; he made the clumsiest and most futile efforts to transport the meat to his plate; he could not, however, eat. "Comma blunders" 173. A when or a where-clause should not be used in place of a predicate noun. EXAMPLES (Bad) A simile is where a comparison between two objects is expressed; a metaphor, where it is implied. (Improved) A simile is a figure of speech in which a comparison between two objects is ex- pressed; a metaphor, one in which it is implied. When and where-claused as predicate nouns 174. Do not use a sentence (except a quoted sentence) as the sub- ject or the complement of is or was. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) I saw Sherril in the city yesterday is my reason for believing that he can show an alibi. (2) The reason for Johnson's anger was Lowry had insulted hin (Improved) (1) That I saw Sherril in the city yes- terday is my reason for believing that he can show an alibi. (2) The reason for Johnson's anger was that Lowry had insulted him. Sentence as subject or complement (Also Proper) The fact that I saw Sheitril in the city yesterday is my reason for believing that he can show an alibi. 175. Do not use a word, phrasef or clause that does not have a definite grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) When I come to the point which the death of the heroine is related, I can- not hold back the tears. (Confused) (2) As regards what was Shakes- peare's opinion of this matter seems well worth considering. Elements withou. syntax (Improved) (1) When I come to the point at uhich the death of the heroine is related, I can- not hold back the tears. (Improved) (2) What was Shakespeare's opinion of this matter seems well worth consid- ering. C. NOUNS POSSESSIVES 176. In forming the possessive case, treat a word-group as a whole. Possessive case of EXAMPLES word-groups (1) The King of England's throne. (2) Somebody else's book. (3) Someone else's hat. (4) His son-in-law's property. GRAMMAR 167 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION NOTE 1.-Observe the difference in the formation of the plural and the possessive of such word-groups. EXAMPLES (1) Seven sons-in-law. (2) Three kings of England. (3) The son-in-law's property. (4) The king of England's throne. Possessive of inanimate things Possessive when possession is not meant 177. As a rule do not use the possessive case except of words desig.- nating persons or animals. EXAMPLES (Bad) (Correct) The piano's top is raised. The top of the piano is raised. NOTE 1.-Good use permits a few exceptions to this rule: (a) old and established personifications such as "the ship's side " or " the water's edge"; (b) idiomatic phrases, such as "for mercy's sake," "for conscience' sake," etc.; (c) genitives of measure, such as "a day's work," " a month's study, " or " a span's breadth. " 178. In general, use the possessive case of nouns, except before a gerund, only for the purpose of expressing possession. Take special care not to use it to indicate the object of an action. For that purpose, use an of-phrase. EXAMPLES (Bad) (Correct) The city's administration has been badly The administration of the city has been managed. badly managed. NOTE 1.-Greater latitude is allowed in the case of pronouns. Such phrases as on my account (=on account of me), to their credit, in his defense are in good use. NOTE 2.-For the possessive of a substantive before a gerund, see 189. Double 179. The double possessive (i.e. the possessive used after the possessive preposition of) is an English idiom. Usually, the objective case can be substituted if it is desired, though in some cases this would change the meaning: "a picture of John" is not the same as "a picture of John 's." EXAMPLES (Unidioinatic) A book of Johnson. (Correct) A book of Johnson's. One of Johnson's books. An uncle of Jones's. An uncle of Jones. NOTE 1.-The same remark applies to the possessive of the pronoun. EXAMPLES ( tn o idomatic) A friend of me. 168 (Correct) A friend of mine. 180. The plural termination of almost all nouns in English is Irregular -s or -es. A few nouns form their plurals in -en (oxen, children); a Plural" small group of nouns change the vowel of the singular to form the plural and add no suffix (men, feet); the plural of some nouns is the same form as the singular (deer, sheep; and terms of measure, as score, dozen, etc., when preceded by a numeral). In addition to these unusual plurals, inany nouns of foreign origin retain the plural forms they had in the language from which they were borrowed; some nouns of this group have double plural forms: the plural termination of their original tongue an(l the regularly patterned English plural form. The more important classes of foreign plurals and some of the common words in this group are pointed out in the table given below. FROm LATIN (Plural) ae alumnae larvae i fungi [or funguses] radii [or radiuses] alumni a memoranda bacteria strata data es analyses antitheses bases erises oases theses axes ellipses era genera [or genuses] ices indices [or indexes] vertices [or vertexes] us (rare) apparatus [or appa- ratuses] ies series (Singular) a alumna larva us fungus radius alumnus um memorandum bacterium stratum datum is analysis antithesis basis crisis oasis thesis axis ellipsis us genus ex index vertex us apparatus ies series GRAMMAR 169 7 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION FROM GREEK (Singular) on- phenonienon criterion (Plural) a phenomena criteria FROM HEBREW seraph cherub im seraphim [or seraphs] cherubim [or cherubs] FROM FRENCH eau beau tableau eaux beaux [or beaus] tableaux [or tableaus] Thi. Collective nouns are grammatically singular, but they may be treated as plural if individual rather than collective action is ex- pressed. Be consistent, however, in your usage in a given piece of writing. EXAMPLES (Wrong) The class have studied their lessons hard, and is now preparing to take its mid-term examination. Expressions of quantity, etc. Singular nouns with plural form (Right) (1) The class expressed its apprecia- tion. (2) The class did not have their lessons well prepared today. 182. Expressions of quantity and multiples of numbers, when they form a single idea, are treated as singular. See 211. EXAMPLES (1) Fifty dollars is too much to pay (2) Four times three is twelve. for it. NOTE L-The sum of two or more numbers is usually considered as singular, as "Four and three is seven." Here, as well as in "four times three is twelve," usage allows are. 183. Some nouns are plural in form but singular in meaning. They should be construed as singular. Examples are news, physics, mathe- matics, measles, mumps. NOTE 1.-Some authorities construe athletics as plural, and this tendency seems to be growing. EXAMPI (1) Physics is taught by Professor Sampson. (2) Athletics is (or are) supported by popular subscription. Collective nouns 170 184. Do not make the singular form of a noun serve at once as Ambiguous both singular an(1 plural. number EXAMPLES (Wrong) He is one of the best, if not the best, teacher in the state. (Right) Ile is one of the best teachers in the state, if not the best. D. PRONOUNS Reference 185. Be sure that the antecedent of every pronoun you use is defi- nite and unmistakable. For examples of pronouns with definite and with indefinite antecedents, see 137-138. Case 186. Observe that there is no apostrophe in the possessive case of pronouns. Write its, yours, hers, etc. It's is the contraction for it is. See 64, 65. It's for its is a very common error in careless writing. 187. Since the form of pronouns differs in the nominative and objective cases, errors in the use of these cases often occur. Do not change'the nominative who to the objective whom when "he says" or a similar phrase intervenes. EXAMPLES ( Wrong) He is the Wall wlhom I thought would lhelp me. (Right) He is the man who I thought would help me. Antecedents of pronouns Form of possessive of her, it, you, etc. Confusion in cases because of intervening "he says" 188. Do not allow who and whoever, when subjects of finite verbs, to be attracted into the objective case by a preposition precedingo and governing the clause which they introduce. ( W'rong) I gave the book to whomever was kiter- ested in it. EXAMPLES (Right) I gave the hook to whoever was inter- ested itn it. Who and whoever attracted into objective case by preposition 189. Avoid using the objective case after finite forms of the copula. This usage is common in speech, but it is not allowed in standard written English. EXAMPLES (Wrong) (1) It is me. (2) It is him. (1) It is I. (2) It is he. (Right) Objective after copula- tive verb GRAMMAR 171 172 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH (C'ONMPOSITION Case of subject and predicate sub- stantive of infinitive 190. Place the subject and the predicate substantive of an infini- tive in the objective case. EXAMPLES (1) The paper reported him to be in Europe. (2) The people who imagined the stranger to be him were mistaken. (3) The man whont I thought to be my eousin was really a stranger. 191. Take care not to use the nominative case as object of a prepo- sition. See 235. EXAMPLES ( IT'rong) ( I ) rhis is between you and I. (2) They spoke to we girls about it. (Right) (1) This is between you and me. (2) They spoke to us girls about it. Uses of possessive Case after as and than 192. For the double possessive see 179. For the possessive of a pronoun in the "objective genitive" con- struction, see 178, note 1. For the possessive of a substantive before a gerund, see 179, note 2, and 232. 193. Remember that as and than are not prepositions; they are conjunctions. They always introduce a clause, expressed or under- stood. The construction of any substantive following these words must be determined by the construction of the substantive when the clause is written out in full. EXAMPLES (Wrong) (1) He is larger than me. (2) 1 like her brother much better than she. (3) 1 (all do it as well as him. (Right) (1) He is larger than I (am). (2) I like her brother much better than her (i.e., than I like her). (3) I can do it as well as he. EXCEPTIONN 1.-Than whom is an idiom. EXAMPLE For a while, Clive thought himself to be in love with his cousin, than whom no more beautiful girl could be seen. 194. Be careful to place an appositive in the same case as the noun with which it is in apposition. EXAMPLES (Wrong) (1) He mentioned a few of us-namely, she, I, and John. (2) A few of us answered-her, me, and John. (Right) (1) He mentioned a few of us-namely, her, John, and me. (2) A few of us answered-she, John, and 1. Case of object of preposition Case of appositives Number 195. Be sure that the number of a pronoun agrees with the number of its antecedent. EXAMPLES ( Wrong) One of the most difficult problems that tomes before us is that of unemployment. (Problems is the antecedent of tU (Right) One of the most difficult problems that come before us is that of itnemrployme!iI. 196. Since any, each, every, neither, anyone, everyone, someone, somebody, no one, a person, etc., are singular, pronouns that refer to them must be singular. EXAMPLES (TWrong) (Right) (I ) Everyone did as they pleased. (1) Everyone did as he pleased. (2) Each of them brought their wives. (2) Each of them brought his ewife. NOTE 1.-The use of the plural pronouns they, their, and the wu with singular indefinite pronouns as their antecedents is a mark of c:uveoess and inexact writing and speaking. The bad habit may be frequently observed in the language of many people who otherwise speak and write with respect for correctness. Miscellaneous 197. I)o not use different pronouns to refer to the same person or thing. Be consistent in your use of pronouns. EXAMPLES (Bad) A person lnever counts the time spent on (leor-le Eliot's work as lost: unconsciously they are taught a lesson. (Impro ved) (1) WVe never count the time spent on George Eliot's work as lost; unconsciously we are taught a lesson. (2) A person never counts the time spent on George Eliot's work as lost; unl- consciously he is taught a lesson. Mistake in number through confused antecedent Number of each, every, etc. Consistency in use of pronouns we, you, one, etc. NOTE 1.-In a sentence of this kind, we, you, a person, a man, or the passive construction is to be preferred to the awkward one-construction. The one-construction is so obviously mechanical that in informal lan- guage it is seldom carried consistently through a sentence; one as an antecedent is referred to in unstilted language by he, his, and him. In formal composition the strictly logical demand that the pronouns which refer to one shall be one and one's is observed. EXAMPLES (Informal) (Formal) One should keep his own accounts. One should keel) one's own accounts. NOTE 2.-Everyone, no one, and many a one, however, are always followed by his or him. G PvAAI IMA R 173 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 198. In speaking of more than two persons or things, prefer any [one] and the last to either and the latter. (Possible) She was smaller than either of her three sisters. EXAMPLES (Preferable) She was smaller than any [one] of her three sisters. 199. Do not use the pretentious forms we, our, us when you are referring to yourself. Prefer the simple forms I, my, and me. We was once in general use in editorials for the purpose of making the opinions of papers seem less personal. The best newspapers of today have almost given up the practice of employing the editorial we. Besides being an affectation that only thinly veils false modesty, the use of we in relating personal experiences is likely to be incongruous and ridiculous. EXAMPLES (Ridiculous) When we were a boy of eight, we broke our arm. (Pretentious) When the writer was a boy of eight, he broke his arm. (Right) When I was a boy of eight, I broke my arm. E. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Articles and Demonstratives 200. The use of the article cannot be taught in a few precepts; it must be learned from observation. A foreigner should note the idio- matic employment of the article in the language of good speakers and writers. The English-speaking student should observe the following points: The choice between a and an depends upon the sound of the words to which a or an is attached; and the ear, not the eye, should be the guide. Use a before consonant sounds, an before vowel sounds. Avoid especially the use of a before silent h; and avoid an before sounded h, o as in one, and u as in use. EXAMPLES (Avoid) A honorable; an house; such an one; an university. (Prefer) An honorable; a house; such a one; a university. Observe that the sounds of these words are "onerable," "house," "wun," and "yuniversity." Such an one is, however, found in writing that is archaic. An university is found frequently in English usage. Use of either and the latter Editorial we Use of the article 174 EXCEPTION 1.-Many authorities prefer an to a before historical and habitual and other words which, being accented on the second syllable, have a very weak h sound. EXAMPLES (Correct) A historical romance; a habitual drunk- ard. (Also correct) An historical romancee; an drunkard. 201. Repeat articles or demonstratives with two or more nouns Repetition or adjectives when separate persons or things are meant. of article and demonstrative EXAMPLES (Misleading) He had a black and yellow dog. (Unambiguous) He had a black and a yellow dog. NOTE.-The first sentence states the fact that lie had one dog, spotted black and yellow; the latter that he had two dogs, one yellow, the other black. EXAMPLES. (Wrong When Separate Persons or Things Are Meant) (1) The secretary and treasurer. (2) A Harvard and Amherst student were present. (Right When Separate Persons or Things Are Meant) (1) The secretary and the treasurer. (2) A Harvard and an Amherst student were present. EXCEPTION 1.-Where the two things are closely connected, and where no confusion can arise, usage permits a single demonstrative or article. EXAMPLES (1) The father and mother of the general. (2) The stars and stripes. (3) These people I just introduced you to are that aunt and uncle I have often mentioned to vou. Comparison 202. When speaking of two persons or things, use the compara- tive degree of the adjective or adverb, not the superlative. EXAMPLES (WVrong) (1) Of the two brothers, he is much the strongest. (2) Of the two brothers, he was the most cordially received. (Right) (1) Of the two brothers he was imnclol the stronger. (2) Of the two brothers, he was the more cordially received. habitual Comparative with two persons or things GRAMMAR 175 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Comparison with things of the same class -compara- tive degree 203. When comparing any person or thing with others of the same class, and using the comparative degree of the adjective or adverb, use other to exclude the person or thing compared. EXAMPLES (Wrong) (1) He is larger than any boy in his class. (2) He was more expensively dressed than any bov in his class. (Right) (1) He is larg er than any other boy in his class. (2) He was more expensively dressed than any other bov in his class. Comparison with things of the same class superlative degree Confusion of as and than 204. When any person or thing is compared with others of the same class, and the superlative degree of the adjective or adverb is used, the use of all, not any, to indicate the whole class is demanded by logical considerations; but the use of any may, perhaps, be defended as idiomatic, in such a sentence as: It is the largest of any of the libraries in America. In more logical form, the sentence would read: It is the largest of all the libraries in America. In simpler, and usually preferable form, the sentence would read: It is the largest library in America. 205. Avoid confusing of as and than in expressions of com- parison. EXAMPLES (Loose) (1) Lincoln was as great if not greater thait Washington. [Here as great is corn- pleted by than, not by as, the idiomatic vord.] (Loose) (2) He is older and quite as well trained as I. [Here the comparison set forward in older is completed by as, not by than, the idiomatic word. If a comma should be placed after older, it may indi- cate, by the process of substitution, that than I is to be understood; e.g., "lie is older, (= than I) and quite as well trained as L."] (Exact) (1) Lincoln was as great as Washing- tou, if not greater. [Here than Wash- ington is easily supplied at the end of the sentence.] (Right, but Awkward) (la) Lincoln was as great as, if not greater than, Washington. (Exact) (2) He is older than I, and quite as well trained. NOTE 1.-There is no doubt of the fact that in the use of this con- struction logic is receding before idiom. The ambiguous, or clipped, comparison illustrated in "He is older and quite as well trained as I" 176 is a case of what has been aptly called "the short circuit in English syntax." The span between older and I is "too long to be consciously felt," and so the thing compared is attached immediately to the second of the comparisons. 206. Certain adjectives and adverbs are, logically speaking, abso- lute in meaning. Among theni are absolute, axiomatic, conclusive, entire, faultless, fundamental, unique, and the adverbial forms of these words. It is, therefore, illogical to say: This is the most axionaetic of al. the trutlis vou hlave inentiomloed. But words of this sort have a tendency to run down-hill, andl their completive meaning is worn off by constant inexact use in popular lan- guage; for the absolute meaning is substituted a signification of com- parative nearness to the absolute. Thus more perfect comes really to mean more nearly perfect. When we wish, in ordinary discourse, to say with finality of conviction that an argument is perfect, we are forced to add a perfective adverb, and to say, "The argument is quite (entirely, wholly, completely, etc.) perfect." Miscellaneous 207. With kind, class, species (as a singular), sort, qevus, and other collective nouns singular in form, do not use these and those. Sav this kind; that sort, etc. EXAMPLES ( Trong) 1 (1o not like these kind ot books. (Right) (Ilso Right) I do not like this kind of book (or I do not like these kinds of books. books). (In the last sentence several classes of hooks are referred to.) Avoid saying kind of a book. See a 247. 208. After such verbs as look, sound, feel, or stand, an adjective is used to modify the meaning of the subject of the verb; an adverb to modify the meaning of the verb itself. EXAMPI (1) He looks old. (Old describes his condition; not the condition of the look- ing. Looks is merely a copula, or sign of predication, as the verb be is.) (2) Her playing sounded sweet. (Sweet refers to playing.) (3) The trumpet sounded shrilly in the night. (Shrilly describes the manner of ,sounded. Sounded is a predicated) Adjectives and adverbs incapable of comparison These kind, those kind, etc. Choice of adjective or adverb after look, sound, , etc. (4) He looked intently at the newcomer. (5) The old house stands dark and somber. (6) Your hands feel cold. (7) You must remain good for another month. (8) T anm well. All's well. (Here well is an adjective.) GRAMMAR 177 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSIT1ON Expressions like "He kept it safe" 209. The modifier of the object in such expressions as he kept it safe and he kept it safely should be an adjective; the adjective states the condition produced by the action of the verb. The modifier of the verb in such expressions should be an adverb. EXAMPLES (Adjectives) (1) He kept it safe. (Here the inter- est uppermost in the speaker's mind is upon tire condition it is in; i. e., it is safe.) (2) Sweep it clean. (3) Hold it motionless. (4) Nail it tight. (Adverbs) (1) He kept it safely. (Here the inter- est uppermost in the speaker's mind is upon the manner in which it was kept.) (2) Sweep it gently. (3) Hold it carefully, so that it will not fall. (4) Nail it quickly. 210. Strict usage does not allow the omission of the preposition before an adverbial phrase of time. EXAMPLES (Doubtful) Washington died the fourteenth of De- cember. 1799. (Correct) Washington died on the fourteenth of December, 1799. F. VERBS Agreement 211. Plural subjects take plural verbs. EXAMPLES (Wrongy) Fifteen men was present. (Right) Fifteen men were present. NOTE 1.-If the plural subject is regarded as a single idea, it may be treated as singular. See 182. (a) Collective nouns including a group of persons or things looked upon as a unit are followed by a singular verb-form. EXAMPLES (1 ) A fleet of twventy submarines wvas sighted. (2) Fifteen dollars, was the price. (3) This school of philosophers has few followers. (b) Nouns nearly synonymous, or closely related in thought, form- ing a compound subject may be followed by a singular verb-form. EXAMPLES (1) Such courage and bravery is not often seen. (2) His food and drink was little. Omitted preposition in adverbial phrase of time Plural and compound subjects 178 NOTE 2.-Two or more subjects connected by and form a l)1urll subject. Two names joined by and, but looked upon as a corporation unit, are considered a single subject. EXAMPLES (1) .Johnson an(l Smith live in the country. (2) The Delaware and Hudson is im- proving its service. 212. Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb. EXAMPLES (Wrong) Neither he nor she were present. (Right) Neither lie nor she was present. 213. The verb of two or more subjects differing in person and con- nected by or should be put in the conjugational form required by the subject nearest the verb. EXAMPLES WIV rong) (Right) (1) You or I are going. (1) You or I am going. (2) Does you or he know where she (la) Are you or I goings lives (2) Do you or he know where she lives NOTE 1.-Often it is advisable to recast a sentence of this kind entirely, in order to avoid a very awkward construction. Singular subjects joined by or or nor Subjects in different persons connected by or EXAMPLES (Correct but (C'lumsy) She or I am at home every afternoon. (Bet ter) She or I may be found at homie every afternoon. 214. Take care lest you make a verb agree with a word that inter- venes between it anudits subject, instead of with the subject itself. EXAMPLES (TVrony) A new law regarding fraternities and sororities have been passed. (Right) A new law regarding fraternities and sororities has been passed. Confusion in agreement caused by intervening words 215. Remember that the number of the verb is not affected by words joined to the subject by with, together with, accompanied by, ,i.ncludin, as well as, no less than, or similar expressions. Number not affected by together with, etc. EXAMPLES (Wrong) Senator Jameson, accompanied by his daughter, Miss Gladys, were at the exhibit. (Right) Senator Jameson, accompanied by his daughter. Miss Gladys. was at the exhibit. GRAMMAR 1/D9 180 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 216. Be careful to make verbs agree with their subjects, not with their predicate nouns. ( Wrong) The best discipline for the body are the gymnasinn (-lasses. EXAMPLES (Right) The best discipline for the body is the gvmnasium classes. 217. The expletive it takes a verb in the third person singular. EXAMPLES (1) It is our friends who have failed tus. (2) It is this man that I Inemit. 218. The expletive tleere does not affect the number of the verb. EXAMPLE There is only one student absent today, whereas yesterday there were tell. 219. Avoid the vulgarisnis it don't and you uwas. (WNrozng) It don't make any difference if von was there. EXAMPLES (Right) It doesn't [or does not] make any dif- ferenee if you were there. Tense Tense of state- ment of gen- eral truth 220. Modern usage inclines to put a general truth in the present tense, even though it be contained in a' subordinate clause dependent upon a verb in the past tense. EXAMPLE Columbus was persuaded that the earth is round. NOTE 1.-Considered from a logical point of view, a general truth is without time distinction: it was true in the past; it is true in the pres- ent; it will be true in the future. Grammarians call this use of the present tense, which represents past, present, and future time, the gnomic present. NOTE 2.-A general untruth which was formerly believed to be true, but which is now known to be untrue, is put in the past tense, if it is expressed in a subordinate clause dependent upon a verb of saying or mental perception in the past tense. EXAMPLE Homer thought that the world was flat. Verbs not to agree with predi- cate noun Agreement with ex- pletive it Effect of expletive there It don't and you was 221. To mark a definite point in past time, join a time modifier to a verb in the past tense. EX (Obscure) The Navaho Indians, who went on the war-path, migrated from Canada to the Southwvest. AMPLES ((Clear) The Navaho Indians. who recently wvent on the war-path, migrated sercral (en- turies ago from Canada to the Southwest. NOTE 1.-The past tense unaccompanied by a time modifier ex- presses the accomplishment of an act at a time indefinitely placed between the beginning of existence and the present moment. EXAMPLE Trasilis went mad, and believed that all the ships of the wvorld belonged to him. 222. Do not use the present perfect when the point of view is the past. The present perfect should be used to express an act or a series of acts begun in the past and completed just before the present; and also to express an act of past time that affects the present and that is looked at from the point of view of the present. EXAMPLES (Wrong) I have seen a good play yesterday. (Right) I saw a good play yesterday. I leave seen several go4)d plays this year. 223. The past perfect tense should be used when the course of a narrative is suspended for the introduction of a preceding event. EXAMPLES (Obscure) Johnson complained loudly against the university. Though we did not know it at the time. he was compelled to withdraw on account of the poor grades that he made. He advised us to Igo to some other universitv. (Clear' .Johnson complained loudly against the university. Though we did not know it at the time, he had been compelled to with- (haw on account of the poor grades that he had made. He advised its to go to some other universitv. 224. Do not use the perfect infinitive unless the action represented by it is complete at the time indicated by the main verb. Take special care not to use the perfect infinitive with verbs of intention. EXAMPLES (Right) I intended to see him. Use of present perfect tense Use of past perfect tense Use of perfect infinitive (The intention was to see, not to have completed the act of seeing.) NOTE 1.-Instances in otherwise good writing in which a perfect infinitive follows a past tense of a verb of intention are, perhaps, the Time modifier with verb in past tense (IVrong) I intended to have seen him. GRAMMAR 181 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH (COMPOSITIO(IN result of attraction of tenses. Inflectional and relational fornms lose the keenness of their meanings; language is constantly trying to reinforce them. Logic calls the reinforcement tautology, for analytically it is unnecessary; natural language uses the reinforcement for emphasis. But the economy of our language has not yet felt that this particular case of inflectional tautology is necessary. EXCEPTION 1.-The perfect infinitive is used with ought to express obligation, even though the action cannot be thought of as having been clone before the obligation comes into force. This construction seems to be the result of an effort to supply the need created by the merging of the present and the past tense of the verb ought. The vulgarisinis "1 had ought to do it" and "I hadn't ought to do it" are, p)eor1l)ps. logically, sounder than the accepted form, but usage forbids their enm- ployment even colloquially. EXAMPLE (Correct) He ought to have gone. NOTE 2.-Do not use the perfect tense of a conditional verb-phrase in a dependent clause unless it represents action prior to that of the main verb. EXAMPLES (IWrong) (Right) I would not have done this if I had I would not have done this if I had thought it would have done you any harm, thought it would do you any harm. Use of 225. Do not use a present participle unless it represents action of present the same time as that of the main verb. participle EXAMPLES (Loose) (Right) (1) He entered the university in 1911, (1) He entered the university in 1911 finishing in 1915. and finished in 1915: (Wrong) (2) He was an old roan now, being born (2) He was an old man now, having before the Civil War. been born before the Civil War. NOTE 1.-A syntactical defense of the not uncommon construction seen in "He entered college in 1911, finishing in 1915" has been pro- posed by assuming that the participle finishing is not adjectival, but that it is a predicate, coordinate with entered. If this is true, we have still a loosely articulated sentence-two coordinate ideas expressed by verb forms of unequal rank. 182 Shall and Will; Should and Would 226. Iii independent clauses, use silil and will, and should ana] would acCorTling to the following scheme: Simple Futurity or Intention EXAMPLES I shall go (I should go) you will go (you would go) he will go (he would go) Shall and will; should and would (a) In independent clauses we shall go (we should go) you will go (you would go) they will g-o (they would go) Volition, Determination, or Promise, Implying That the Matter Is in the Control of the Speaker EXAMPLES I will go (I would go) you shall go (you should go) he shall go (he should go) (1) I [we] shall arrive on the five o clock train. (2) If the train is on time, I [we] shall arrive at five o'clock. (3) If the train had been on time, I [we] should have arrived an hour ago. (See Note 1.) (4) You [he, they] will arrive there at five o'clock. (5) If the train is on time. youl [lhe. theyl will arrive at five o'clock. we will go (we would go) you shall go (you should go) they shall go (they should go) EXAMPLES (Ii) It the train had been onl time, von 'he, they] would have arrived an honr a- h. (See Note 1.) (7) In spite of his l)rotestatio)iis. I I wel will force him to eome away. (8) If I [we] ever have the powe r we] will force his resignation. (9) You [he, they] shall be made to suffer. (10) Since the power has nIow fallen into my hands, you [lie. thev') shall he inade to suffer. NOTE 1.-To express in a main clause dependence on a condition stated in a subordinate clause, use should in the first person, would in the second and third. [But see Note 2 for special case.] EXAMPLES (1) I [we] should leave if that were true. (2) He [you, they; would have known of this condition if I had been able to write. NOTE 2.-To express in a main clause a promise dependent upon an unreal condition stated in the subordinate clause, use should for all persons. EXAMPLES (1) You should have everything you ask, if I had the power of giving. (2) He should have everything he asks, if I had the power of giving. (3) They should have everything they ask, if 1 had the power of giving. (4) 1 should have all I want if he had the power of ;zivin,. 183 GRAMMAR 18 ANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION NOTE 3.-" You will go" is used as a courteous form of command to a subordinate. NOTE 4.-" You shall go," "he shall go," "they shall go" are used in speaking of what is destined to take place, or what is willed by some ruling power. EXAMPLE Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. 227. In dependent clauses, observe the following: a. A main verb in the present tense calls for will or shall in the dependent clause; one in the past tense calls for would or should. b. In noun clauses introduced by that, expressed or understood (indirect discourse), where the noun clause and the principal clause have different subjects, the distinction between shall and will and be- tween should and would is the same as in independent clauses. EXAMPLES (Simple futurity or intention) (1) I think that she will be very -lad to see us. (2) I thought that she would be very glad to see us. (3) The conductor says that we shall arrive at the station in five minutes. (4) The conductor said that we should arrive at the station in five minutes. (Volition or promise) (1) Mary says that Johnnie shall obey or be punished. (2) Mary said that Johnnie should obey or be punished. (3) Our leader tells the superintendent that we will have just treatment or we will stop work. (4) Our leader told the superintendent that we would have just treatment or we would stop work. c. In all other dependent clauses, use shall and should, to express simple futurity or intention for all persons, and will and would to express volition or promise for all persons. EXAMPL (1) Mary says that she shall be able to accompany us [futurity] and that she will meet us at four o'clock [promise]. (2) He told me that he should be here by nine o'clock [intention]. (3) If I should find out anything [coil- dition and futurity], I shall let you know. (4) If he will come to me [volition], I will help him. (5) If he would only come to me [fcon- dition and volition], I would hfellp hiM. 228. In questions, use will and shall, would and should, accord- ing to the following principles: a. When the subject is in the first person, use shall and should except in repeating a question addressed to the speaker. EXAMPLES (1) Shall I help you with the work! (2) Will I help you with the work Why, certainly, I will. (b) In dependent clauses (c) In questions 184 b. When the subject is in the second or third persons, use -the auxiliary that is expected in the answer. EXAMPLES (1) Shall you attend the reeeption (Answer: I shall attend . . .) (2) Should you go if you had the chance (Answer: I should go . . .) (3) Will you sign the lmal)er (Answer: I will Si-II . . .) (4) Would you sign it if it were pre- sented to you (Answer: I would sign ...) 229. In addition to the uses of would and should explained above, (d) Other there are several others that; deserve mention: uses a. Should is frequently used in its original sense of " ought." EXAMPLE You should not do that. b. Would is frequently used to signify habitual action. EXAMPLE W\hen he was at his worst, he would sit for hours without speaking-. c. Would is sometimes used to express a wish. EXAMPLE Would that I were able to help him as he deserves. Voice 230. Do not use the passive verb with a vague and indefinite agent Misuse of when the thought requires that the agent be clearly pointed out. passive voice - EXAMPL (Impersonal and wveak) At that time Samuels did me an injury which will never be forgiven. (Improved) At that time Samuels did me an injury which I shall never forgive. NOTE 1.-Even when the agent is expressed, the use of the passive voice is often clumsy, weak, and indefinite. EXAMPLE (1Weak) At that time Samuels did me an injury which will never be forgiven by me. Mood 231. The following uses of the subjunctive should be noted: Use of a. In main clauses it should be used to express a wish: the present subjunctive subjunctive a wish for the future; the past subjunctive an unfilled wish for the present; and the past perfect subjunctive an unfulfilled wish for the past. 185 GRANIMA R MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION b. In subordinate clauses it expresses condition, either contrary to fact or uncertain. EXAMPLES (I ) Lon- live the king! (2) Ohi, that he were here! (3) Oh, that I had been there! (4) If lie were here, I should not be afraid. (5) If this be tiea- ... snake the most of it. Miscellaneous 232. Before a gerund, put a substantive in the possessive case, if it has one. EXAMPLES (Wrong) The cause of him leaving at this time is unknown. (Right) The cause of his leaving at this time is tin known. I have my doubts as to this being true. I have my doubts as to that being true. (This and that have no possessive ease.) 233. Do not supply a principal verb from one part of the sentence to another when the same form is not grammatically proper to both parts. Supply the form proper to each part. ( Wrong ) He expressed only what we all have and are thinking. EXAMPLES (Right) He expressed only what we all have thought and are thinking. 234. A single form of the verb be should not be made to serve at once as a principal and an auxiliary verb. ( Wrong) The actress was very beautiful and ad- mired by everyone. EXAMPLES (Right) The actress was very beautiful, and was admired by everyone. G. PREPOSITIONS For the idiomatic use of prepositions, see 243a below. 235. Put the substantive object of a preposition in the objective case. EXAMPLES (WV'rong) Perhaps everyone present, except he, guessed why. He spoke to you and I. (Right) Perhaps everyone present, except him, guessed why. He spoke to you and me. Possessive case of substantive before gerund Improper omission of principal verb Use of be as principal and auxiliary verb Object of Preposition 186 GRAMMAR NOTE 1.-When a noun clause is the object of a preposition, do not let the nearness of the preposition to the subject of the clause change the subject from the nominative to the objective case. EXAMPLES (1Wronqg) They were in dloiht as to whomt was present. (Right) They were in doubt as to 7( hfs was pres- ent. 236. Do not use between when more than two persons or things Use of are considered. EXAMPLES between (IVrong) I could not choose between the three of them. (Right) I could not choose among the three of them. 237. Do not use a clause beginning with to after the introductory preposition phrases in regard to, in respect to, as to. EXAMPLE (Ridiculou4sly awikward) A discussion took place in regard to to wbat period the fossils belonged. NOTE.-The difficulty is not avoided by merging the two to's, for the sentence is then logically incomplete. EXAMPLES (Wrong) (Right) A discussion took place in regard to A discussion took place in regard to the what period the fossils belonged. period to which the fossils belonged. For other errors in the use of prepositions, see 238, 247 below. H. CONJUNCTIONS 238. Do not use like as a conjunction to join two clauses. EXAMPLES ( Wrong) I repeated the passage just like he did. (Right) (1) I repeated the passage ju-t as he did. (2) His brother looked ,just like him. NOTE 1.-The use of like before a noun or pronoun that may be considered the subject of an elliptical clause is quite correct. EXAMPLE He swims like a duck. 239. Do not use both to refer to more than two persons or things. EXAMPLES (1Wrong) Both Williams, Jones, and Scott were present at the game. (Right) (1) Williams, Jones, and Scott were all present at the game. (2) Both Williams and Jones were present at the game. Preposition phrases after in regard to Like not a con- junction Use of both This page in the original text is blank. MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 189 GRAMMAR ERROR CORRECTION MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR CORRECTION I. 190 ERROR MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR ERROR CORRECTION 1 I I 191 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR ERROR CORRECTION I I i i 192 I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 193 GRAMMAR ERROR CORRECTION _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _I__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR ERROR CORRECTION 194 I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR ERROR CORRECT10N __. _ ___ _..._ _ _I ._ _ I i I i _ _ r I 195 191- MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR CORRECTION -I -I ERROR -I I-- i I ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ I - I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR CORRECTION _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __-I_ _ _ _ ERROR - - 197 198 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR ERROR CORRECTION i - if I-- - - -I I I + ___________________________- 1 l MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR ERROR 199 CORRECTION r -- ______________________________________ _______________________ j _______________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ -t 200 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR ERROR CORRECTION i- i MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR ERROR CORRECTION -I -- - - J- - - 201 i 202 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR ERROR CORRECTION == - X - _______________________________________________________________I ____________________________________________________________________ i I i I i I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR 203 ERROR ('I)IRE('lTON __ ___ _ __ ___ -, I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ ____________________ ______________________________________ I _________________________________________ _____; . MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION GRAMMAR CORRECTION 1 -r 204 ERROR I I I I V. DICTION CONTENTS OF CHAPTER 1. GOOD USE A. General Principles 240. General principle of good use. B. Present - Use 241. Obsolete or archaic words phrases. 242. New formations. C. National Use 243. 244. 245. 246. 247. 248. 249. 250. 251. or Foreign words. Americanisms and Anglieisms. Provincialisms. Violations of idiom. D. Reputable Use Vulgarisms. Slang. Technical terms. Colloquialisms. Improprieties. (a) In grammar. (b) In meaning. 2. EFFECTIVENESS A. Specific and General Meanings in Words 252. Specific and general woirds. B. Force in the Use of Words 253. Overuse of superlatives. 254. Qualifying words. 255. Redundancy. (a) In grammar. (b) In words. 256. Tautology. 257. Wordiness. 258. Use of words in two senses. 259. Repetition. 260. Trite expressions. 261. Hackneyed quotations. C. Appropriateness in the Use of Words 262. 263. 264. 265. Fine writing. Historical present. Poetic diction. Euphemism. D. Expressiveness in the Use of Words 266. 267. 268. 269. Connotation. Figures of speech. Accidental rimes. Succession of like sounds. REFERENCES Manly and Powell, Manual for Writers. Fowler and Fowler, The King's English. Genung, Outlines of Rhetoric. Liamont, English Composition. Hall, Studies in Usage. Hill, Foundations of Rhetoric. Herrick and Damon, New C om position and Rhetoric. Fernald, Connectives of English Speech. Greenough and Kittredge, Words and Their Ways in English Speech. Woolley, Handbook of Composition. Lomer and Ashmun, The Study and Prac- tice of Writing English. 205 I' MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION SYMBOLS USED FOR CORRECTIONS D. = Faulty diction [ 240-269]. Rep.= Objectionable repetition of word or phrase [2591. Tg.= Tautology [ 256]. Red. = Redundancy [ 255]. Fig. = Faulty figure; mixed metaphor [ 267]. W. = Passage "wordy" [ 257]. Ch. = Poor choice of word. The word marked "Ch." may be in perfectly good use; attention is called by this symbol to the fact that in this instance the word is not well chosen to express the meaning that the writer evidently intended t0) convey [ 252, and, in general, 253-2691 F. W. = "Fine writing"; pompous or pre- tentious language [ 262]. Coll. = Diction too colloquial [ 250]. Wk. = Diction weak or colorless [ 253- 261]. Id.= Faulty idiom [ 246]. 206 I. GOOD USE A. GENERAL PRINCIPLE 240. Good use is not an absolute term. What is good use in one language level may be bad use in another. Many words belong exclu- sively to the vocabulary of the uneducated; they convey to the associ- ates of those who speak them thoroughly definite meanings, and are perfectly good words in the language of the unlettered. They have upon them, however, the stamp of their class, and are to be avoided by those who do not wish to proclaim themselves low-mannered. Between the distinctive vocabulary of vulgar speech and the selected diction of the formal written language stands a group of words that educated people use in free and easy conversation and in writing that does not aim at elegance, formality, or precision. These are colloquialisms. In many cases, however, we cannot with certainty discriminate between vulgar use and colloquial use: what one holds to be vulgar, another considers colloquial. Colloquialisms are excluded from the formal written language, which admits only well-tried words whose meall- ings are exactly fixed. Colloquialisms are, however, forever seeking admission into the standard formal language; some gain entrance; others fail to advance their respectability. Additions the formal vocab- ulary must have, for undue refinement of meaning kills many words; their preciseness causes them to narrow their circulation until only purists cling to them, or they drop back into the colloquial language with a breadth of signification that the formal language does not recognize. In any given generation the great body of words in the English lan- guage is fixed in one group or another; there is no dispute about their position. But in regard to that interesting group of words whose place is in their own time uncertain, who shall say It is very easy to be too dogmatic in putting the taboo on this word or on that word; it is very easy, also, to be too charitable toward all word-newcomers. It is easy to say that usage determines in all cases; it is most difficult to determine in every case what is good use today. We must bear in mind when we use the term "good usage" that there is colloquial good use and formal good use. Good colloquial usage is the body of words habitually used in easy discourse by people with good speech manners. Good usage in the formal language is the word practice of responsible writers who have a care and respect for their native language. Good usage is best 207 General principle of good use 2Oti MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION learned by observation and imitation in association with people who are as careful in their speech as they are in their table-manners, and by acquaintance with the writing of people of the same social and intellectual rank. See 170. B. PRESENT USE Obsolete 241. Avoid the use of obsolete or archaic words or phrases. or archaic Such obvious archaisms as whilom and yclept should be avoided entirely in prose. words Such forms as goeth, hath, doth, thou, ye, and thee are proper only in sernions, prayers. or poems. The past participles gotten and proven, considered archaic in standard usae, are common in colloquial use, which likes the -en past participle formi. Prefer, however, yot an(d prored. New 242. Though niany new words that are current today only in formations technical or -vulgar use may be in good use tomorrow, it is best for stu- dents not to employ newly formed words until they have been generally adopted by good speakers and good writers. EXAMPLEF (Archaic and Colloquial) (Literary) (1) This has beeni proveii to our comn- (1) This has been proved to our coiii- plete satisfaction. p)lete satisfaction. (2) The people lhave gotten a false (2) The people have got a false im- impression of the organization. pression of the forganization. Pure anld applied sciences and trade furnish the most fruitful sources of word- coinage. Nearly all inventions, scientific discoveries, and scientific theories are giveni new names, which are usually at once adopted into the scientific vocabulary. If the discover ies become popularly known i, or if the inventions are put to general use, their names are taken into the general vocabulary. Such has been the case with electricity, automobile, atid ra- dium. Some trade names, too, have become good English (e.g., kodak), but most of them are only rapidly passing tenns of the language of trade. In addition to the words furnished the language by the two special and legitimate sources of word-coiniage mentioned above, other words are being constantly mnade in pop- ular speech aecording to processes of word-formation that have built up a large part of the words in our present vocabulary. Examples of these new formations are: to enthuse, to motor, to burgle, to concertize, to siang, to film, to filmize, confliction, pants, newsy, slangist (a user of slang), doctress, auto, bike, phone. Such words are unauthorized in the standard language, not because they are incorrectly made, but because no necessity for their introduction is felt. When the standard language needs a nev formation of popular speeeh, it will ap)ropriate the word. New formations should be avoided tntil good usage has stamped them with its sanction. C. NATIONAL USE Foreign 243. Unless very urgent reasons exist, do not use a foreign word words when there is an equivalent in good English. Avoid especially the following: ad libitum, multum in parfvo, faux pas, qi 6vire, eclat, recherche, chic, nouveau riche, raison d'Rtre. In its earlier stages, the English language adopted many foreign words, which makte up a fairly large part of the words now in general use, and which have been for centuries thoroughly Anglicized. Modern English, too, has not hesitated to appropriate to its own use words from other languages. Many of these later borrowings fit into a special con- text, which must be learned from observation. Logic, for example, makes use of a priori, a posteriori, per se. Law uses bona fide, mandamus, not pros (nolle prosequi). Politics furnishes us carte blanche, coup d'etat, ultimatum. The fine arts give us bas relief, con- noisseur, role, technique. Literature and criticism have introduced denouement, facsimile, finis, literati. A list of common words adopted from foreign languagres is given in 81, note 2. 244. Where there is a difference between the English and Amer- Americanisrs ican expression for the same thing, prefer that of your own country. and Anglicisms A few of these American expressions, with their English equivalents, are: druggist- chemist; mot ion-pictu rr-cinema; ticket-agent-booking-clerk; conductor-guard; dining- car-restaurant-car; editoirial-leadefr; beet--beet-root; elevated railwayq-overhead rail- way; baggage-luggage; gasoline-petrol; elevator-lift. 245. Avoid provincialisms-the use of words or expressions pecuil- Provincialisms iar to a certain section of the country. Examples of provincial use are: allow, calculate, expect, guess, or reckon for think o1r suppose; disremember; faror (for resemble, as "He favors his brother"); right smart (for a great deal) ; you all; two bits; calaboose; ruination; sunup; sundown; all over (for every-where); raised (of persons); I am through (for I have finished); tell good-bye (for bid good-bye) ; piece (for distance, as "I went a short piece"); tote; to watch out (for to take care) ; want in, want out. 246. Avoid the use of words and expressions that are not in Violations accordance with English idiom. of idiom Idiom gives the foreigner who is learning to speak the English language more trouble than do constructions that are in agreement with the demands of logical grammar. Rules will not aid him, for rules are repugnant to idiom. Nothing but close observation of the use of good writers and of correct speakers will teach a foreigner the subtle distinctions of English idiom. Here only a few points that offer difficulty to native users of the English are noticed. a. A number of verbs, nouns, and adjectives are arbitrarily joined only with certain prepositions. The use of such verbs, nouns, and adjectives with their fixed prepositions must be learned from observation. A few of them are: abhorrence of; absolve from; accord with; acquit of; adapted to or for; agree with (a person), to (a proposal), on (a settlement); ava;l-"He tried, but to no avail" or "His attempt was of no avail"; averse to or from; bestow upon; change for (a thing), with (a person); comply with; confer on ("give to"), confer with ("talk DICTION 209 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION with"); confide in ("trust in"), confide to ("intrust to"); conform to, in conformity with or to; convenient for or to; conversant with; correspond with or to (a thing), with (a person); dependent upon (but independent of); derogatory to; different from (never than or to); differ from (a person or thing), with or from (in opinion); disappointed of (what we cannot get), in (what we have); dissent from; glad of or at; always at homle, never to home-"He went home yesterday, and he intends to stay at home all the sum- mer" ; independent of (but dependent upon); inferior to; insight into; involve in; martyr to or for; need of; part from or with; profit by; reconcile to; in search of (tot for) superior to; taste of (food), for (art) ; thirst for or after. b. Many expressions that are grammatically illogical are never- theless good English idioms. A few of these are: in our midst (this expression is, however, generally regarded as trite), in the thick of it, many a, not a whit, a friend of mine, out of his head, over (for more than), put to death, since (for ago), to and fro, turn the tables, under the circum- stances, try and come (for try to come), as it were, by hook or by crook, ever andv anov. fall asleep, had better, had rather, How do you do spick and span, whether or no. c. As a rule, too and very should not immediately precede a past participle. EXAMPLES (1T'rony) (Right) He was very excited. (1) He was very much excited. (2) He was very tired. (Here tired is left to be an adjective.) d. Do not follow near enough with a clause; it takes a for-phrase. EXAMPLE-S (Wrong) (Right) It was near enough that I could see it. It was near enough for me to see it. e. Violation of idiom occurs when one uses to modify two sentence elements a single clause or phrase that is not idiomatically adapted to both of the sentence elements; e.g., "I conferred and trusted in him." The sentence should read: "I conferred with him and trusted in him." f. The nominative absolute construction is an imitation of a Latin construction and is generally not felt to be an English idiom. Use it as little as possible; prefer a subordinate clause. EXAMPLES (Awkward) (Better) The moon lhaving risen, we set out on our When the moon rose, we set out on our journey. journey. 210 DICTION 211 q. In translating from a foreign language, care shouldl be taken not to use expressions or a word-order not in accordance with English idiom. EXAMPLES (Greek-English) (1) This plan seemed best, toe go to I estor, if perchance he might arrange some plan that destruction should rot come to all the Greeks. (French-English) (2) He had disposed of these plants in a manner such that one could judge of their view with a single glance of the eye. (German-English) (3) This one must seat 1erself by him on the bench, and the old man told him of his bees, how he already as a boy cared for them, how he later, now already over seventy years before. built this fence (English) (1) The best plan seemne(d to be to go to Nestor and ask him if he could think of some way of averting destruction from the Greeks. (English, (2) He had arranged these plants in such a way that a view oif thenm eould be obtained at a single gla lcle. (English) (3) She now took a seat by hinm on the bench, and the old man toidt him about his bees,-about how even as a boy he had cared for them, and how later, more than seventy years ago now, hie ihad built this fence D. REPUTABLE USE 247. Avoid. vulgarisms-words or expressions not accepted as good usage in either colloquial or formal language. Many vulgarisins are centuries old; inany are born of the moment. Slang expressions, exaggeratedly fanciful language usually of recent make, are vulgarisms that in a few years from the time of their coinage either wear themselves out or remain upon the point of entrance into the standard language. Some of the most frequent vulgarisnis are:- ilbore in "the above remarks." [See 251a.I Ad for advertisement. Aint for is not or has not. All the farther for as far as as in "That was all the farther we went that day." Amount for nuimber, as "a great amount of carriages." Bank on for count on. Blame on for blam.e for. Cute for dainf4q. Etc. It should be avoided iil a literary context. It may be written in tabulated lists. Every so often for occasionally. First rate as an adverb; e.g.. "Lie sue- ceeded first rate." Gents for men or (genllele)oen Gesture as a verb. Gym for gymnasium. (College usage.) Hadn't ought to for ought not (See 181, exe. 1). Help but be, as in "I conldn't help but be angry." Say help being. Kind of a. Say "What kind of man "I" not "AVhat kind of a man I" Most for almost, as in "most every day." Never for not, as in "Did you see him yes- terday -No, I 'never saw him." Nothing like for not nearly, as in "He is nothing like so well today." Vulgarisms 212 MIANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Of any for of all. (See 204.) Per. Do not use per with words that are not Latin. Sav "one thousand dollars a year" (or per annum). Piano, voice, etc., for piano lessons, etc., as in "I am taking piano." Proposition for work,, task, or thing. Providing for provided. D)o not say, "I will come providing I am well." Run for conduct, as in "He i-tiiis his 1)lSui- ness poorly." Same as a pronoun. Do not say, "We have received your order and will attend to same immediately." Same as for in the same teat as, as "iHe (lid it same as you did." Sai, for give orders, as ill "The boss says for you to report at once." Seldom ever or seldom or ever for seldom if ever. Selection in any other sense than some- thing selected. SaY "This is a book of selections from Wtagner-" bitt not "He played a selection on the piano." Some for somewhat, as in "He is some letter today." Sort of a for sort of. See kind of a. Such with a relative clause, with who, which, or that as the proniouni. Use as. WRONG: Such students who wevse l)res- ent voted against the resolution. RIGHIT: ,uch students as were l)pesent voted against the resolution. Take stock in for approve or believe in. That there, this here, for that and this. The ones for those. Unbeknown for secretly, unexpectedly. Underhanded lot- underhand. Varsity for university (College usage . Wait on for wait for. Ways for way, as in "I went -a long ways." WI orst kind for very much, as in "I wanted to go the worst kind." 248. The use of slang jars the tone of formal writing and speaking No examples of slango are uieeded l)Y students. 249. In writing that is addressed to the general public, the use of technical words or of words intelligible to only a certain class of people should be avoided. If such words must be used, they should be explained, for the ordinary reader cannot be expected to know them. In students' themes the most frequent violation of this rule will be found in the use of the technical language of the athletic field or of the university or school administration. Examples of the latter are optional, elective, prereqnisite. In writing -(ldressed to members of one's profession or to scholars, technical language is a necessity. When the scholar or professional man addresses the larger public, he must, however, use the public's idiom. 250. Avoid the use of colloquialisms in formal writing. Many expressions appear in the speech and intimate letters of cultivated people that are never used in their formal writings. A few colloquialisms are: shape (for manner or condition, as in "The machine is in good shape"), show 2ep (for appear or come, as in "He didn't show up," and for expose, as in "I showed himi up"), take in (for attend, as in "I took in the show"), mad (for "inmioderately exeited"); locate (for find or settle), onto (by analogy with into), take Slang Technical terms Colloquialisms (for study, as "I took French"), ughl (for vicious), fix (for mend), nice (for pleasant). back of (for behind), balance or remainder (for rest), behave (for behave well, as in "Behave yourself"), funng (for strange or remarkable), posted (for informed), put in (for spent, as "I put ill a whole day studying"), quite (for somewhat. Quite means entirely, wholly. "Quite a few" Peans nothing ). Common colloquialisms are the contractions can't, don't hasn't, isn't, aren't, -won't, (for 'will not), shan't, mayJn t, mui.stn'l, mightn't. couldn't, wouldn't, shouldn't, oughtn't, didn't, and the like. Oly a l(l sta(landa keeps these forms from replaeilng the un- vontraeted forms. 251. Avoid improprieties-good English words used in the wrong-1 sense. An impropriety may arise either from the use of a word as a wrong part of speech or t'romn its use with an incorrect meaning. (a) A word that belongs to one and to only one part of speech should not be used as another part of speech until good usage has sanc- tione(d the change. Transference of grammatical function (deriving verbs from nouns, nouns from adljectives, etc.) is a process of langaage building by which the vocabulary of the English language has been widely extended. It is still possible, so far as grammar is concerned, to make a verb from practically any noun in our language [the absence of distinctir e inflec- tional terminations for the parts of speech in English largely accounts for the ease with which a verb assumes substantive function, and a noun, verbal use] ; but we (lo not use new verbs made in this way unless the economy of the language demands them. Applying the ancient principle of anallogy, popular language is today, to cite a single example, making a vigorous effort to spread the use of the unnecessary verb loan, and is giving up the use of the proper verb lend. Many nouns newvly made from verbs and many verbs recently made from nouns, that have not yet been recognized by the usage of formal language, have good standing iii the colloquial language. (Nouns Used as Verbs) 7eo inance. to wlit-', t ) post. COLLOQUIALLY GOOD (Verbs Used as Nouns) .1 tn!, a go, a drirc. Many neo-formations of this sort that are commonly heard are tabooed in both the colloquial and the fornmal language. BAD (Verbs Used as Nouns) A combine, ani inrite, (r steal, a raise, a feel,, a think, a fir. (Nouns Used as Verbs) To suicide, to suspicion, to (ultu re, to f-isoorel, to gesture, to neighbor. (Adjectives Used as Nouns) A heman, r oeal ("I took vocal from lhim"). (Nouns Used as Adjectives) Plenty, as "Corni is plent- this Y'ear." Improprieties (a) is grammar DICTION 213 214 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION (Nouns Used as Adverbs) Place (as in some place for somewhere), plenty (in "plenty good enough"), days (for "during the day"), nights, mornings, afternoons, evenings. (Adjectives Used as Adverbs) Real good, some better, to improve con- siderable. (Adverbs Used as Adjectives) The above remarks, a near-by house. (Reflexive or Intensive Pronouns Used as Simple Pronouns) Himself, myself, yourself, as "A friend and myself went . . . " (Prepositions Used as Conjunctions) Like (See 238), except (for unless), without (for unless). Improprieties (b) Words should be used with strict regard to their exact shades (b) in meaning of meaning. Careless expression ranges from the vulgar confusion of learn and teach to the failure to observe the slightetI difference in meaning that exists between annoy and irritate. Sharpness of distinc- tion between words closely related in thought becomes blunt in the practice of speakers and writers who have no regard for preciseness of meaning. The list that follows gives examples of vulgar confusions and also records some of the words most commonly used without regard to their exact meanings. Some of the distinctions are more finely drawn than others. The most offensive confusions are printed in capitals. ACCEPT-EXCEPT. Accept means to re- ceive; except means to make an exception of. Acceptance-acceptation. Acceptance is the act of accepting; acceptation is the ac- cepted meaning of a word. Access-accession. Access means (1) "out- burst," (2) "admission," (3) "way of entrance"'; accession means (1) "the eoming into possession of a right," (2) "an addition." Acts-actions. Acts usually means "things done ";actions,-' ' the processes of doing." Adherence-adhesion. Adherence refers to moral relations; adhesion, to physical. We speak of the adhesion of glue to wood, of the adherence of a man to certain princi- ples. AFFECT is a verb; do not confuse it with the noun EFFECT, or with the verb EFFECT, meaning "to bring about," "to cause." Say, "'The new order will have a beneficial effect on the school. It will affect nearly every student, and, we believe, it will finally effect a complete change in their attitude." Aggravate - irritate - annoy - provoke -tantalize. To aggravate is to intensify, to make worse; the other words are all somewhat alike in usage. The following sentences vill illustrate their correct meanu- ings: "He aggravated his sickness by eat- ing the forbidden dainties that had tanta- lized him. " " He was annoyed by the barking of the dog. Soon he became irri- tated, and finally he was provoked to drive the dog away." ALL,-EACH-EVERY-both-the whole. Both refers to two persons or things acting together; each refers to two or more per- sons or things, taken one by one; every refers to various members of a group, taken together; all refers to the total number of persons or things; the whole refers to something that is considered as one thing-not an aggregate of units. "Both of the brothers were present, and each of them had a new hat. " "Every mnan present was a Democrat." "All of the men had votes." "The whole asseni- bly applauded.'" These sentences illustrate the correct use of these words. Allude to-mention-refer to. To allude to is to refer to indirectly; to mention is to refer to directly. When Milton speaks of the corrupt shepherds in " Lycidas, " he alludes to the clergy, but he does not men- tion any of the corrupt clergymen. Refer is a more general word than either of the others. the preposition; besides for the adverb. Besides as a preposition may mean "in addition to. " RIGHT: "Besides all this, there are other reasons" or "There are other reasons besides." Beside cannot be used as an adverb. BETWEEN. See AMONG. BOTH. See ALL. BOUND-DETERMINED. Bound for de- termined or sure is an American provin- cialism. CAN-MAY. Can denotes power to act; may denotes permnission. RIGHT: You may go to the theater, hut I doubt whether you can get a seat. Can but-cannot but. Cal but means "can only"; cannot but means "cannot do oth- erwise than.' RIGHT: I can but try, and you cannot but agree that my chances are good. CAPITAL-CAPITOL. Capitol is a build- ing, the seat of government; capital a principal city. RIGHT: The capitol stands at the head of Congress Avenue in Austin, the capital of the state. Celebrated-notorious-famous. Notorious means "famous or celebrated for some evil quality.'" We speak of a notorious gambler, a famous or celebrated preacher. Choice. See alternative. Claim-maintain Claim should not be used in the sense of maintain when there is no question of the maintenance of a right. Compensate. See atone. Completeness - completion. Com1pleteness is "'the state of being complete'"; conn- pletion, "'the act of making complete." COMPLIMENT - COMPLEMENT. Com- plement is "'that which is needed to com- plete, " as " The company received its complement of soldiers.'" Compliment is an expression of praise. Condone. See atone. Continual-continuous. Contiv uous means "without cessation"; continual, "occur- ring in close succession." RIGHT: He was continually making speeches; in fact lhe once spoke continuously for six hours. COUNSEL-COUNCI:L. A council is a body of advisers; counsel is advice; a counsel is a legal adviser. Custom-habit A custom is an act volun- tarily repeated; a habit is a custom con- ALONE-ONLY. Alone has the meaning "unaccompanied" and should be distin- guished from only which means "no other. " AMBIGUOUS: I found him alone disturbed by the news. It can be done by him alone. Alternative-choice. Do not use alterna- tive when more than two choices are under consideration. One cannot properly have four alternatives. AMONG-BETWEEN. Between refers to two persons or things; among, to more than two. Annoy. See aggravate. ANXIOUS-DESIROUS. Tho not use anx- ious when you mean simply desirous. In anxious there is always the idea of solici- tation, or at. least of very strong or earnest desire. RIGHT: I am anxious to go. I am desirous of seeing the president. I am anxious to see the president immediately on a life and death matter. APPEAR-SEEM. Appear is physical, ex- ternal in meaning; seem is mental. RIGHT: The forest appears to be impene- trable. This does not seem to me to be advisable. APT-LIABLE-LIKELY. Apt means (1) "capable or skilled" ("The child is apt to learn''), (2) "having a natural tendency toward' (" Iron is apt to rust"); liable expresses weakness, dlefect, or obligation. RIGHT: We are liable to injury. We are liable to be injured. He is liable for the debt. Likely refers to probability ("It is likely to rain"). ASPECT. See PHASE. Assert-state-declare--contend. To as- sert is to declare in the face of implied denial; to state is to say with elaboration and detail; to declare is to say publicly and emphatically; to contend is to state in the face of opposition. See also claim and maintain. Atone for-compensate-dondone. Atone for means "make amends for" (an insult or injury); compensate, '"to pay for'"; and condone, "forgive, wink at, over- look. " RIGHT: He atoned for the wrong he had done me, and he compensated me for the money I had lost. I was then ready to condone his conduct. Beside-besides. As a rule, use beside for DICTION 215 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION tinued until it develops into a tendency or inclination. RIGHT: Ill customs by de- grees to Imbits rise. Declare. See assert. Degrade-demean. To demean oneself means to behave oneself, not to degrade or lower. See also behove 204. DEPOT-STATION. A station is a place where trains stop, or an edifice for the housing of passengers; a depot is a place where goods are stored or collected. DESIROUS. See ANXIOUS. DETERMIXZD. See BOUND. Deitract-distract. To detract is to take away something from the credit of a per- son or thing; to distract is to draw the at- tention to a different object. RIGHT: His unpleasant manner detracted from his ability as a speaker. He was distracted by so manv noises that he could not study. Discovery-invention. One discovers what is already in existence; one invents some- thing new. Distract. See detract. EACH. See ALL. EACH OTHER-ONE ANOTHER. Each other should be used for two persons or a group considered by twos. Onte another is used for more than twvo. Elder-older. Oldcr is much the more usual of the two forms, cider being confined to such expressions as my elder brother, my tlder sister. The same distinction holds Mith eldest and oldest. EMIGRATION - IMMIGRATION. Emi- 'oration is "migration from a country"; inrnmigration, "migration to a country." EFFECT. See AFFECT. Engage in-indulge in. Do not say " They indulged in conversation." Indulge in means to "'give free course to oneself.'" One (an indulge in drinking, but one e)n- gages in conversation. EVERY. See ALL. EXCEPT. See ACCEPT. Expect-suppose. To expect is to look for- ward to in the future; to suppose is to as- sume to be true. Falseness-falsity. Falseness usually im- plies moral blame; falsity does not. We speak of the falseness of a traitor; of the falsity of an assumption. Famous. See celebrated. Farther-further. Distinction between the forms is not always observed. Farther usually has the idea of distance; further is often used figuratively for "something in addition." We say "Three miles farther (or further)" or "'The speaker remarked further that . . . " FEWER-LESS. Less refers to amount. fewer to number. RIGHT: If there weie less wealth in the country, there would he fewer rich men. Further. See farther. GOOD-WELL. Good is an adjective; well is an adjective or adverb. Good refers to quality, as "a good man,'" "'a good rule"; well (adj.) refers to the state of health, as " I am well " or " I am feeling well." Well (adv.) means "in a good or proper manner. " Do not say, "'I feel good" unless you mean that you feel like a good person. Habit. See custom. HANGED-HUNG. Clothes are hivig on the line; men are hanged on the gallows. HEALTHY - HEALTHFUL-wholesome. RIGHT: Wholesome food and healthf id exercise keep him healthy. HUNG. See HANGED. Identity-identification. Idcnitity is "the state of being the same'"; identification is "the act of determining what a given thing or a given person is. " We speak of the identity of two geometrical figures: of the identification of the dead body. IMMIGRATION. See EMIGRATION. IN-INTO. Use in for place where; in1o0 for place whither. RIGHT: He went ito, the house and remained in his room for several hours. Indulge in. See engage in. Invention. See discovery. Irritate. See aggravate. KIND. See PHASE. LAST-LATEST. The latest style will not be the last; there will be new ones next year. Lates t refers to time; last to time or space. Latest is relative, meaning "up to the present time''; last is absolute. RIGHT: Browning's last volume of poems was called Asolando. The Laureate's latest volume of poems appeared last month. He lives in the last house on this street. "This is the last word in hats" is slang. 216 DICTION LAY-LIE. Lay is transitive; its past is laid. RIGHT: I lay the book down now in the same place that I laid it yesterday. Lie is intransitive; its past is lay and its jst participle, lain. RIGHT: He lies here just as he has lain for three hours. He lay in the same place for three hours yesterday. LEARN-TEACH. To teach is to impart knowledge; to learn is to receive instruc- tion. WRONG: He learned me to speak German. RIGHT: I learned to speak German. le taught. me to speak German. LET-LEAVE. To let is to permit; to leave is to let remain. "To leave go" is nonsense. LOSS. See FEWER. LIABLE. See APT. LIE. See LAY. Like-love. Love expresses affection; like, taste. We love our parents, but like music, or art, or salad. LIKELY. See APT. Love. See like. Luxurious-luxuriant. Luxurious meansl ''given to luxury'"; luxuriant, ''super- abundant in growth or production.'" We speak of luxuriant vegetation but luatrious living. Maintain. See claim. MAY. See CAN. Mention. See allude to. Notorious. See celebrated. Observance-observation. We speak of the observance of a law or of an anniversary; of the observation of stars. Older; oldest. See elder. ONE ANOTHER. See EACH OTHER. ONLY. See ALONE. PARTY-PERSON. A party is a person or group of persons taking part in something. Do not use it loosely for person. PHASE-ASPECT-KIND. Phase used in the sense of kind is vulgar, as in "'I will see all phases of life. ' The indiscriminate use of the word for aspect has made it a ' rubber-stamp " word; e.g., " I have looked at all phases of the proposition." Practical-practicable. Practicable means "'feasible, capable of being done or used "; practical means " not theoretical. " PRINCIPAL-PRINCIPLE. Principal is a noun meaning "'a chief officer'" or an adjective meaning "'chief.'" We speak of the principal of a school or (f the principal buildings of a city. A principhl is " a fundamental truth' or I':s settled rule of .action. " RIGHT: This is not in accord with the p)rit(ciJplc, of logic. He is a maln of high moral prio ciples. PROPOSE-PURPOSE. To piorpoxe is to intend, to propose is to bring forward an idea, to suggest. RIGHT: I purpose to be in the city tomorrow and I pru))oxe that you join me. PROPOSITION-PROPOSAL. A poorposi- bi a is 'a statenwiit of a j udginent or plan ' '; a proposal is " ' a presentationi or statemnent of a definite oler.'' RFGHT: "After debating the proposiiiou for sonie time, the company subuiitted propools to the city, which were later aceeptefl.' We speak of a geometric ro)positiomp and of a proposal of miarriage. In vulgar speech proposition is used to inean nlirJig. Provoke. See aggravate. PURPOSE. See PROPOSE. Refer to. See allude to. SEEM. See APPEAR. SET-SIT. Sit is intransitive (" I sit in the chair''). The past is sat andil the past participle sat. RIGHT: I sat here ves- terday. I have sat here for three hours. Set is transitive. The principal p)alrts are: set, set, set. RIGHT: I set the chair by the table in the sanie place as I set it yes- terday and have set it for the past year. Set ean be used intransitively in the sense of "to settle." RIGHT: " It will take a alay for the cement to set.'' SHALL. See 5 183, 184, 185. SHOULD. See k 183, 184, 185, 186. Significance -signification. Signifiea nce m e a n1 s 'importance " ' significat ion, " meaning. We speak of the xsigniificance of a niovnenent or an anct; ot the siginifiea- tion of a word. SIT. See SET. Specie-species. Specie u den us gold and silver. Specics eaTns "'kind.'" Its sin- gular andi plural are identical. State. See assert. STATION. See DEPOT. STATUE-STATUTE-STATURE. Statue is an image; statute, a law. Stature refers to a person 's physical size. RIGHT: 217 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION " I Mutilation of this statue is forbidden by a recent statute." "He is of a command- ing stature." Stimulus--stmulation-stimulant. Stimu- Zus is that which produces stimulation, or quickened activity. A stimulant is a con- crete, often an alcoholic, stimulus. The plural of stimulus is stimuli. Suppose. See expect. TEACH. See LEARN. Testimony-verdict. A verdict is "a deci- sion made by a body of men or a judge "; testimony is "the expression of individual belief or judgment." Verdict. See testimony. WELL. See GOOD. WHEN-WHILE. When refers to a point of time; while to a period of time. RIGHT: " While I am gone you may have my horse if you will return him when I come back." The whole. See ALL. WVLL. See 226, 227, 228. WOULD. See 226, 227, 228, 229. 2. EFFECTIVENESS A. SPECIFIC AND GENERAL MEANINGS IN WORDS Specific and general words 252. General ideas must be expressed by general words: reptiles, war, and riches, for example, are, however, so wide in their inclusive- ness that they have to the ordinary reader only a vague and far-away meaning. The general idea is brought home to the usual person by the special case, and the specific word is usually more effective than the general term. Habitual indirectness of expression shows muddiness or timidity of mind. To say that a man is rich is tantalizingly vague; to say that a man has an income of 100,000 a year is to tell us some- thing definite about him. EXAMPLES (General and Vague) Success is usually measured in terms of money and social position; mankind cares only for individuals who have acquired a large income and who have established themselves in the social world. Success is, however, frequently attained at the sac- rifice of honor and happiness. (More Specific) Whether John Smith is a success or not depends, in Tarboro, upon whether he is making five thousand more this year than he did last year. His neighbors' regard for him-and for any of the other vil- lagers-is measured by his pence and by his wife's parties. When you look closely at John Smith of Tarboro, or at John Smith of the whole world, you cannot help wondering how hard a bargain he has driven with his conscience; certainly Mrs. John Smith wears a "twelve-pound look" under that new bonnet. B. FORCE IN THE USE OF WORDS 253. Avoid the use of more superlatives or words expressing high degree than you absolutely need to convey your meaning. For a super- lative to be effective, the reader must feel that it is sincere and that it Overuse of superlatives 218 does not exaggerate. The use of too many superlatives is destructive of all force in expression. Be particularly sparing in your use of very. Avoid also modifying your adjectives by such words as wonderfully, awfully, splendidly, and gorgeously, unless they mean exactly what you wish to say. The following adjectives have been stripped of their original force by exaggerated use: beastly, beautiful, deadly, elegant, fascinating, fine, ghastly, gorgeous, horrid, jolly, nasty, nice, splendid, stunning, sweet and weird. These words have exact meanings and they should be used when this meaning is to be expressed, and at no other time. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) The speech was splendid. (2) You looked awfully sweet in that stunning new dress of yours. It was simply gorgeous. (Improved) (1) The speech was enjoyable [or well- delivered, or inspiring, or eloquent-what- ever exactly you may mean]. (2) [Perhaps this had better be left unsaid entirely.] 254. In avoiding overstatement, do not acquire the timid habit of Qualifying qualifying every statement you make. words Particularly liable to abuse are sort of, kind of, about, nearly, as it were, so to speak, and the like. The trouble with a word that needs a kind of or sort of is that it is not sufficiently exact. Avoid the general use of apologetic expressions. such as it seems to me or I think. 255. Avoid redundancy-the use of superfluous words or phrases. a. Redundancy in grammar occurs when a part of a construction, already complete, is repeated. 1. An example of grammatical redundancy is the double negative, such as "I haven't never seen him." Probably the most frequent use of the double negative by partly educated students is in the expression "There isn't but one." But (in the sense only) is negative in meaning and should not be used with another negative. Say "There is but one" or "There is only one." 2. The negative idea in hardly has become so weak in popular speech that it is frequently reinforced with another negative; e.g., "HHe couldn't hardly do it." Two negatives in this case are unnecessary. Say "He could hardly do it." 3. When the conjunction that is separated from the subject and predicate which it introduces, it is often carelessly repeated. EXAMPLES (Bad) He promised us that, if we would do our work faithfullv for the next two weeks, that we should have a holiday. (improved) He promised us that, if we would do our work faithfully for the next two weeks, we should have a holiday. Redundancy (a) In grammar DICTION 219 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 4. In careless writing, redundant use of prepositions in clauses of time is also common. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) It was on the fifteenth of June when the graduation exercises were held. (2) His wife had died but a few months before when he wrote. (Good) (1) It was on the fifteenth of June that the graduation exercises were held. (la) It was the fifteenth of June when the graduation exercises were held. (2) His wife had died but a few months before he wrote. (2a) His wife had died but a few months before the time at which he wrote. 5. There is a growing tendency to tag an unnecessary up to many English verbs; to verbs with which it is joined, up gives an intensive or completive meaning; but constant use of up as a verbal-suffix when there is no reason for adding it to the simple verb, as open up, figure up, etc., is wearing away its useful function. A similar tendency is notice- able with the verbal suffix out, as in the expression to lose out. EXAMPLES (Redundant) (1) It is too much trouble to figure up the cost of this improvement. (2) He intends to open up a law office if he loses out in his present campaign. (Improved) (1) It is too much trouble to figure the cost of this improvement. (2) He intends to open a law office if he loses in his present campaign. 6. Often a sentence beginning with the reason is is made redundant by the addition to the sentence of a causal phrase or clause. (Bad) (1) The reason is because we have been too busy. (2) The reason for the delay is on ac- count of the strike on the road. (3) The reason is due to the fact that there has been an unavoidable delay. (b) In words EXAMP ES b. Redundancy in words occurs the meaning of a word is repeated. Avoid saying "The play is over with," "outside of the house," "off of the floor," "from whence," "from thence," "help from admiring," "'on one day," "funeral obse- quies." Particularly bad are such combinations as "The practice is resorted to universally ,(Improved) (1) The reason is that we have been too busy. (2) The reason for the delay is that there has been a strike on the road. (3) The reason is that there has been an unavoidable delay. when the meaning or a part of by all"; "They were reciprocally happy in each other"; or "They are both alike in this respect." The absurdity of the last sen- tence can be seen from the stock example, "Jim and Sam are both alike, especially Sam." 220 256. Avoid tautology-the needless repetition of thought. EXAMPLE (Bad) The oelelerated and widely known scholar delivered all address filled with deep learning and erudition. NOTE 1.-Poor public speakers are commonly of the false opinion that force is added to their discourse by arranging their verbs, nouns, and adjectives in synonym pairs and triplets. Tautology 257. Avoid wordiness, or verbosity-the use of more words than Wordiness necessary for the adequate expression of thought. A writer may mar his style by the use of single wordy phrases, or his whole composition may be marred by constant extravagance in words. Do not use such expressions as "I had occasion to be witness of" when you mean "I saw." EXAMPLES (Wrordy) During the year that I was privileged to spend at Harvard near the great centers of learning and the sacred shrines of our early history, I took occasion to attend religious services at the most famous of Boston's justly renowned churches. (Better) During my year at Harvard I attended the services of the most famous Boston churches. For other examples of wordiness see 262 on Fine Writing. 258. Avoid using a word in two senses in the same sentence or within a short space. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) Please return my horse as soon as I return. Use of word in two senses (2) I couldni't get up courage to get U) and investigate. 259. As a rule, avoid the repetition of a word Or phrase even in the same sense within a short space. Do not write such a passage as this: In the second place, athletics helps to prepare for the struggle for existence so that we may be among the "fittest." Ath- letics gives a person self-control, will- power, and moral as well as physical, courage. For instance, did you ever see a successful athlete who could not control his temper Bad temper is seen only in the amateur athlete, not in the veteran. Then too, athletics gives us ease and grace of movement. Lastly, athletics gives . . . It is likely that complete recasting will be necessary before such a passage can be made readable. NOTE 1.-In the attempt to avoid repetition do not go to the oppo- site extreme and strain for synonyms, or use pronouns when the ref- Repetition Straining for Synonyms DICTION ''' 21 222 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION erence is ambiguous or obscure. Truth and clearness are more impor- tant than variety. The student probably finds the greatest difficulty in his attempts to obtain variety in the reports of athletic games and of happenings about the campus. To fill this need, a whole set of far-fetched synonyms has been invented. Baseball slang is particularly rich in such words. A ball is a "sphere" or a "pill"; a pitcher is a "mound artist." Other examples will occur to all students. Nicknames of states or cities fill a large part of the usual reports of games. They become very tiresome even on the sporting page, and they should not be used at all in a literary context. It is going too far to say that a game should be reported without the technical terms used in the game, but the skillful reporter even of a baseball game can avoid the worst forms of straining for synonyms. EXAMPLES (Bad) The twirler for the Gophers was a good mound artist, but he couldn't put the pill past the Badger's aggregation of sluggers. (Improved) The pitcher for Minnesota was a good one, but he was unable to strike out the Wisconsin team. 260. Avoid expressions that have been so much overused that they have become trite. A few of the most common of these expressions that find their way into students' themes are: all in all all nature seemed in all its phases along these lines applauded to the echo the arms of Morpheus with bated breath beggars description the briny deep the broiling sun in a brown study completed the scene the devouring element doomed to disappointment downy couch drove like Jehu everything went along nicely in evidence a factor in fair sex fatal affray favor with a selection finny tribe fistic encounter flushed with pride more forcible than polite golden locks goodly number the grim reaper had the privilege happy benedict the happy pair imbued with in our midst was an inspiring sight irony of fate did justice to the dinner last but not least led to the altar the light fantastic along the line of long-felt want lost in thought as luck would have it Trite expressions DICTION imoon, in all its glory nestled among the hills the officiating clergyman on this particular day order out of chaos partook of refreshments pearly teeth a perfect specimen poor but honest in a pleasing manner the proud possessor the psychological moment queenly form ran like a deer raven hair rendered a vocal selection was the recipient of reigns supreme replete with interest rich as Cresus social function someone has said no sooner said than done specimen of humanity from this standpoint swan-like neek the table groaned those present tired but happy in touch with in the words of the poet untiring efforts waited in breathless suspense wended their way wondrous fair words fail me 261. Do not use quotations or proverbs that by overuse become hackneyed. Avoid such outworn expressions as: Absence makes the heart grow fonder Art is long and time is fleeting Barkis is willin' The best laid plans of mice and men Better late than never Born to blush unseen Busy as a bee The cup that cheers Dan Cupid Do not let your angry passions rise Drapery of his couch Drown his sorrows in a cup Eat, drink, and be merry Far from the madding crowd Fleshpots of Egypt Foot-prints on the sands of time Fools rush in Frailty, thy name is woman Full many a flower is born to blush unseen The glass of fashion The green-eyed monster Heart whole and fancy free Hell is paved with good intentions His better half Hitch your wagon to a star Honesty is the best policy Hope springs eternal have Hackneyed quotations The ills that flesh is heir to In the spring a young man's fancy It is better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all Kind hearts are more than coronets Merry as a marriage bell Method in his madness Monarch of all I survey Motley crowd The moving finger writes Never put off till tomorrow that wl!ich you can do today Not wisely but too well Observed of all observers Patience on a monument Plain living and high thinking Poor but honest Sadder but wiser The sleep of the just Straight and narrow way From the sublime to the ridiculous The sweat of his brow A thing of beauty Time and tide wait for no man Waste its sweetness on the desert air Wee small hours Where ignorance is bliss 223 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Fine writing C. APPROPRIATENESS IN THE USE OF WORDS 262. "Fine-writing," over-decoration of phraseology, is the most obviously insincere of all forms of affected expression. EXAMPLE After two hours ot terrific magnificence and awe-wrapped splendors, the storm spent its mighty fury; a blessed calm set- tled in a halo of God-given peace, where erst the elements had battled; and night asserted once more her sway of blessed solace and rest, and crept forth with noise- less tread; placing here and there on the bosom of darkness a myriad host of glim- mering, stars, she made the whole dome above look like Heaven's own vase, filled by angels with glistening flowers of softest trembling light, indicative of the radiant splendors that would gem our lives, when the storms of earth are o'er. 263. Avoid the use of the historical present unless the narrative is sufficiently vivid to make the use spontaneous. The historical present in one of the boldest of figures and, as is the case with all figures, its overuse makes a style cheap and ridiculous. EXAMPLE Neck and neck they ran till they reached the home stretch. Suddenly Jones lunged forward as if he had been shot from be- hind. Inch by inch he creeps past Stew- Poetic diction Euphemism art; he grits his teeth, and with one final effort pushes himself across the tape, win- ner of the great race. The whole passage should be put in the past tense. 264. Avoid poetic diction in prose. As a rule, students have a correct feeling against the use of poetic diction in prose. Occasionally, however, such words as perchance, clime, ere, oft, 'tis, or oftentimes occur in students' themes. 265. As a rule, do not employ euphemism-the softening or veiling of an expression to avoid the use of words that seem objectionable or coarse. Say went to bed, not retired; leg, not limb; died, not passed away. Facts that are really vulgar or coarse may well be veiled under a euphemism. D. EXPRESSIVENESS IN THE USE OF WORDS Connotation 266. Be careful in using a word that it has the correct tone. To their logical significations words add associative meanings: some words are homely; some are poetical; some are pompous; some are out-worn; some are humorous; some are phonetically ugly. Stump, for instance, has a homely suggestion; casual reader is worn-out; equine is pompous; ween, sheen are poetical words. The word fist has a humorous and pug- Historical present 224 nacious connotation. We cannot say that a lady held a flower in her fist, though this was once good usage. Many words that were perfectly respectable in Shakespeare's time have taken on connotations that give an unpleasant or humorous impression to the mod- ern reader. See Greenough and Kittredge, Words and Their Ways in English Speech, chapter xiv. NOTE 1.-Two or more wvords that have the same or practically the same meaning may be of entirely different suggestive value. Leap has a more dignified association than jump; slay is more formal than kill; lucky is more homely than propitious; chubby is more intimate than round-faced; in formal diction friend takes the place of the more familiar chum; skedaddle is more foree- ful and more p)icturesque than depart. 267. When you use a figure of speech, be sure that it is consistent Figures of throughout. Avoid the mixed metaphor. speech EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) A sea of upturned faces was watch- ing the bulletins, shouting and hissing as eaeh new return came in. (2) He took the stumip), I)latformi in hland. 268. In prose, avoid accidental rimes or near-rimes. Accidental rimes EXAMPLE (Bad) Most men come to colle-e for the )1llrose MAY aequiringfl knowledize. 269. Grouping like sounds close together in prose composition Succession of produces an unpleasant effect. Attention is taken from the idea and like sounds put upon the repetition of the soundl. EXAMPLES (Bad) (1) Constantly remembering the broad branching of the subject must make it interesting. (2) I think about this usually eiitirely unsuccessfully. (3) Education is the foundation of the civilizati(mn of every nation. (4) He sits in soleniin silence on a dull, ,lark dock. DICTION 225r This page in the original text is blank. MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 22 DICTION CORRECTION ERROR I i I 228 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION ERROR CORRECTION I i i i I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION 229 (0 0ltlE('T[ON :- - __ _ _ K 4- ERROR - - - -11 ---- ---- I I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION CORRECTION i -j I T i f I- 230 ERROR MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION CORRECTION 1 1 ERROR II 231 232 MNlANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION ERROR CORRECTION -I T 1. p MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION ERROR CORRECTION -I .4 I1- - -- - -- - - - - - - - X - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - S -- - - - - - - - - - 233 234 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION ERROR CORRECTION I _ - _ _- i- I i i iI _ A_ I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION CORRECTION F- ERROR 235 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION CORRECTION 236 ERROR MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 237 DICTION CORRECTION ERROR I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION CORRECTION 238 ERROR MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 239 DICTION CORRECTION ERROR MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION CORRECTION 240 ERROR I I I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 241 DICTION CORRECTION ERROR MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION DICTION CORRECTION 242 ERROR i I VI. CLASS NOTES AND WORD LISTS The following pages should be divided by the student into two parts: (1) Class Notes and (2) Word Lists. In the former he can keep whatever notes are given him in class. In the latter he can keep lists of new words which he may meet in reading or elsewhere, and which he may wish to keep for reference. This page in the original text is blank. MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 245 I 246 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION _________________________________________________________________ .1 __________________________________ I _ _ _ _ _ J p.. i - : - - I 247 248 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 1 p. 4- - - l I l i MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 249 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 7' 250 I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 251 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION -=A 1 252 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 253 ___________________ _.._ _____________ 254 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 7 ________________________________________________________________________________________- I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 255 ----. ------ --o MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMNIPOSITIMN 256 I i - --I- i i i i I I I I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 257 - = - 258 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION __________________________________________________________________ I ___________________________________________________________________________ I - MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION 259 I __. _ _ __ _ I I I iI I I i i I I MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FORENGLISH COMPOSITION 260 I Ii I I I I INDEX The numbers refer to sections. The follo not been indexed: 81, 106, 189, 243, 246a, 261. A and an, choice between, 200 .1 ichile, 98 Abbreviations, 47, 103-105 . lborc, 247, 251a Absolute phrases, comma with, 206 IAccept, 251b Acceptance, acceptation, 251b Access, accession, 251b Accompanied by, 172 .1 cordingly, position of, 154; punctuation before, :16 n 1 Active linked with passive voice, 149 Acts, actions, 251b .4. D., 103 n 1 Ad., 247 Address on letters, 6 Adherence, adhesion, 251b Adjective clauses. punctuation of, 15; kinds ot, 121 Adjective or adverb, choice of, 208. 209 Adjectives, 200-210 Adverbial clauses, 16, 121c Adverbs, 200-210 Affect, 251b After all, comma with, 17 Aggrarate, 251b Agreement of verbs with subject, 211-219 Ain't, 247 All, 251b .111 orer, 245 .111 right, 98 All the farther, 247 Allow, 245 Allude to, 251b Allusions and quotations, list of books on, 4 .A Imost, poSitioii of, 145 Alone. 2511) A IeCadyit, 98, 107 A.lso, pos!ition of, 154; punctuation before, 36 nl Alitcrnatire, 251b .A lthough, 107 Altogether-, 107 A.M., 104 Ambiguous number, 184 ; ambiguous reference, 1 sS AXmerianaisms, 244 Among, 251b Amount, 205 An and a, choice between, 200 And, punctuation before, 12, 36; overuse as a conjunction, 130 And which, 149d, note 1 And-ha bit, 130 n 2 Anglicisms, 244 Annoy, 251b Anticlimax, 160 A-ing sections, consisting of lists of words, have Antithesis emplhatic, 158 Antithetical expressions, comma with, 22 An.xious, 251b Any, number of, 196; any day, 210; any one, 198 Anybody, 107 Anyone, any one, 108; number of, 198 Anything, 107 Apology, quotation marks as, 70 Apostrophe, use of, 64-66 A ppear, 251b Appositives, case of, 194; conuia with, 19 Appropriateness in use of words, 262-266 Apt, 251b Archaisms, 241 Aren't, 250 Article, use of, 200-201 As, case after, 193 ; punctuation with, 39'. weak use of, 253; confused with than, 205 As it were, 246b, 255 As to, construction after, 237 As wcell as, 215 Aspect, 251b Assert, 251b Athletics, 183 Atlases, list of, 4g Atone for, 251b Auto, 242 Autobiographies, list of, 31 Auxiliary verb omitted, 234 A.iomatic, 206 Awfully, 212 Awkwardness In sentenc-es, 1643-169 Back of, 250 Baggage, 244 Balance, 250 Balance, error in, 141); balanced sentence, 122, 159 Bank on, 247 Baseball language, 259 n 1 Baseba ll, 107 Basketball, 107 B. C., 103 n 1 Ileastly, 254 Beautiful, 254 Beet, beet-root, 244 Behave, 250 Beside, besides, 251b Besides, punctuation before, 36 n 1 Between, 236 Bible, punctuation of quotations from, 6T n 1; references to capitalized, 89 Bibliographies, list of, 4d Bike, 242 Biographies, list of, 31; collections of, 4e Blame on, 247 262 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Blunder. coninia, 13, 172 Body of letters, 6 Booking-clrk, 244 Both, 2:3!), 25i1b; both. and, position of, 145 n 2; both alike, 255b Bound, 2M1b Brackets, use of, 77-78 Break in thought, dash to inldicate, 52 Burgle, 242 But to introduce consecutive statements, 168; punctuation before, 12, 36 But nhich, 149d By hook and by crook, 246 Calaboose, 245, Calculate, 245 Can, 2,11. Can but, cannot but, 251b Can't, 250 Capital, capitol, 251b Capitalization, 83-9.3 Caret, use of, 79 Case, apostrophe sign of possessive, 64; before gerund, 232; of pronouns, 186-194; of nouns, 176-1T9 Celebrated, 2511 Change of construction, 204-206; of point of view, 148 Chemist, 244 Choice, 251b Cinema, 244 Claim. 251b Classic Drama, list of, 3e; classics, list of, 3h Clauses, punctuation of restrietive, 15-n 1; punc- tuation of non-restrictive. 15; adverbial, 16, 121c; adjective, 15, 121b; noun, 121a; com- pound sentence, punctuation of, 12, 13, 36, :37; subordinate made coordinate, 130; cooirdi- nate written as sentence. 1 29; summarizing, set off by dash, 55; redundancy in temporal, 256a; near to governed word, 142': when not to use elliptical, 141: linked with word or phrase, 149d Clearness, dash for, 52; separation by conuna for, 28; in sentences, 136-151 Climax emphatic, 160 Clime, 264 Close of letters, complimentary. 6 Coherence, definition of, 1:16; in sentences, 136- 151; violations of, 137-151 Collective nouns, number of, 181 College subjects, capitalization of, 93 Colloquialisms, 250 Colon, use of, 40-43: general principles of use, 40; followed by dash, 41 n 2, 58, 61 Combined consonants not to be divided, 114 Combine (noun), 251a Comma, use of, 7-34; comma blunder, 13, 172 Comparison, indefinite, 137; of adjectives and adverbs, 202-206 Compensate, 251h Complement, compliment, 2511 Complement, sentence as, 174 Completeness, completion, 251b Complex sentence, 121: punctuation of, 14-16, 38 Compliment, complement, 2511h Complimentary close of letters, 6 Compound sentence, 120; punctuation of, 8, 12- 13,36-37; compound subjects, 211 Concertize, 242 Conclusire, 206 Conditional verb phrase, tense of, 224 n 1 Condone, 251b Conductor, 244 Confliction, 242 Confusion in agreement, 214 Conjunctions, 238-239J; in compound sentence, 12, 13, 36 Conjunctive adverbs, effect on punctuation of compound sentence, 36 n 1 Connotation,- 2(6 Conscience' sake, 177 Consequently, pun(tuation before, 36 n 1 Considerable, 251a Consonants, syllabic division between doubled, 113 Construction, errors of, 171-175; change of, 149- 151; redundancy in, 255a Continual, continuous, 251b Contractions, apostrophe with, 65 Contrasted elements, comma with, 22-24 Cohrdinate adjectives, use of comma with, 9; clauses written as sentences, 129; clauses made subordinate, 134; use of comma with coirdi- nate elements, 8-1:3: use of comma with two coordinate groups. 8; coordinate relation not evident, 132; coordinate relation wrong, 131 Copula omitted, 234 Corrections, brackets with, 77 Correlatives, position of, 145 n 2 Corporations, names of, 211 D 2 Couldn 't, 250 Council, counsel, 251b Culture (verb), 251a Current facts, books on, 4f Custom, 251b Cute, 247 Dangling participles, 139-140 Dash, use of, 52-63 Dates. (lash with, 60; punctuation of, 31; rep- resentation of, 99 Day's icork, 177 Deadly, 253 Dear, in salutations, 6 Declare, 251b Definite persons or things, capitalization of ref- erences to, 92 Definition, quotation marks for word accompa- nied by, 72 Deity, references to, capitalized, 89 Demean, degrade, 251b Demonstratives, 200-201 Depot, 251b Desirous, 251b Determined, 251b Detract, 251b l)ialo,'ue, punctuation of, 67 n 3 Diction, 240-269 Dictionaries, list of, 4b Didn't, 250 Died, 224 Dining-car, 244 Direct address, comma with. 20: colon with, 42 INDEX Direct quotation, quotation marks with, 6T Discard (verb), 251a Discov ery, 251ib Disputed forms of word-division, 108 Disremember, 245 Distract, 25,11) Division of words. 9)8, 107-108 Doctress, 242 Ilon't, 250 Dot/i, 241 Double negative, 2.55a; double possessive, 179: double quotations, punctuation of, 68 Doubled (onsona n ts, syllabic division between, Doubling of final consonant, 95 Doubt, exclamation point for, 50; question mark to express, -51 Dr., 103 n 1. 104; English practice with, 48 n I D)rama. classic, :le; modern English, 3f; modern foreign, :g Drive, 251 Druggist, 244 E, treatment of final. 96 Each, all, 251b : number of, 196 Eac/h other, 2511) Editorial, 244 Effect, 2511b Effect, dash for rhetorical. 62 Effectiveness in diction, 252-270 E.g., 103 n 1: punctuation with, 39 Ei and ie, rule for, 94 Eithier, 198; either . . . or, position of, 145 n 2 Elder. 25.1b F'lectirc, 24!) Elegant, 258: Elemuents in contrast, coninia with, 22-24 Elevated riuiltiiiy. 244 Ele rator, 244 Ellipses, comma with, 25; undue, 146-149 Elliptical clauses, when not to use, 141: pardti- cipial phrases, 147; sentence, period at end of, 45 n 1: titles, 141 n 1 Else, punetuation before, 36 n I E'migr'tioni, 251b Emphasis. definition of, 152: in sentence, 1 52- 165;: devices. 153:-16 ; italics for, SO Emphatic word or phrase, dash after, .56 Encyclopedias, list of, 4a End of sentence emphatic position, 155 Enthuse1., 242 Entire, 151 El-e, 265 Esq., 103 n 1 Essays. list of, 3j Etc., 11 n 1, 103 n 1 Euphemism, 266 Ever, position of. 145 : aiid anon, 2461) Every, all, 2511); number of, 196 Every so often, 247 Everybody, 107 Everyone. 197 n 2: number of, 196; and every one, 108 Except (conj.), 251a: and accept, 251M Exclamation point, use of, 49-50; exclamation point for emphasis, 164 Exclamatory sentence, punctuation of, 49 n 1 xrpect, 245, 251b 263 Expletive it, agreement with, 217: expletive there, agreement with, 218; unemphatic, 15,3 Explanations, colon to introduce, 4: Explanatory words, semicolon with, :i1) Expressiveness in use of words, 266-26!) Fall asleep, 246b Falseness, falsity, 251b Famous, 251b Fareirell, 107 Far-fetched synonyms, 259 n 1 F'arther, 251b ItasCiaating, 254 Faultless, 206 Faulty placing of modifiers, 142-145 : reference, 137-141 F'aror, 245 Fewer, 2511h Figure of speech, 268 Figurative linked with literal expression. 14!)- Figures in representation of numbers. 99-1)12; marking divisions put in parentheses. 7. Film, filmize (verbs), 242 Finance (verb), 25t1 Final consonant, doubling of, 95; e, dIropping ,f, 96; y treatment of, 97 Fine, 253 Fine writing, 262 First rate, 247 First worll in quotation to be capitalizedl 1, word in sentence tt, le capitalized. 84 Fist, 266 Fix, 250 Football, 107 For, punctuation before, 12, 36 ; toi introduce consecutivet statements. 168 F'or example, for instance, punctuation with, 1T, 39 Force in the use of words, 2.5:1-261 Foreign words, italics for, x1:; use of. 24:: Foreign word order, 24); Form of manuscript, 6 Formal social notes, 6(; statements, colon lhefore, 41 Formula a, b, and( e, 11, 36 n 2, 1.50 Fortunately, columa with, 17 Footnotes, abbreviations in, 105 Fragmentary sentences, 171 Friend of inine. 2461b From thence, froni wheneC, 235b Fundamental, 20); Funeral obsequie-s, 25,,1, Funny, 250 Further, punctuation before, 3i6 1 : a mid far- ther, 251b Furthermore, 17 Gasoline, 244 General truth, tense of. 220 : untruth. tense of, 220 n 2: words, 252 (eants, 247 Gerund, case before, 2:12: phrases, agreenuent of, 140 n 1 Gesture (verb), 247, 251a Oh, not to be divided, 114 Ghiastly, 253 On, not to be divided, 114 Good use, 240-251 264 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Goeth, 241 Gorgeous, gorgeously, 253 Gotten, 241 Grammar, 170-239 Grammatical function, transference of, 251a Greek classics, 3e, 3h Guard, 244 Guess, 245 Gym, 247 Habit, 251b Hackneyed quotations, 262 Had better, had rather, 246b Hadn't ought to, 224 exc. 1, 247 Handwriting, 6 Hanged, 251 b Happily, comma with, 17 Hardly, position of, 145; use of, 255a Hasn't, 250 Hath, 241 Headings of letters, 6; of paragraphs, dash after, 58. Healthful, healthy, 251b Help but be, 247 Help from doing, 255b Hence, punctuation before, 36 n 1 Her, possessive case of, 186 Hers, 64 Herself, 107 Himself, 107 His, 64 Historical facts, manuals of, 4f Historical present, abuse of, 263 Histories, list of, 31 Hon., 103 n 1 Horrid, 253 House numbers, 99 "House that Jack built" construction, 166 How do you do 246b However, punctuation with, 17, 36 n 1; position of, 154 Human (noun), 251a Hung, 251b Hyphenated, list of words to be, 106 I to be capitalized, 88 I think, 254 Idea, reference to, 137 Identity, Identification, 2511 Idiom, 7On2, 246 I.e., 103 n 1; punctuation with, 39 le and ei, rule for, 94 Illustrations. colon to introduce, 43 Immigration, 251b mproper comparisons, 206; ornissions, 233 n, into, 251b In fact, comma with, 17 In his defence, 178 In order, 98 In our midst, 245b In regard to, in respect to, construction after, 237 In short, comma with, 17 In spite, 98 In the thick of it, 246 Inanimate things, possessive case of, 177 Inasmuch, 107 Including, 215 Indeed, comma with, 17 Indefinite comparison, 137 n 4 Indentation of paragraphs, 6b Indexes to magazines, 4d Indirect questions, punctuation of, 51 n 1; quo- tations, punctuation of, 14 n 3, 67 n 2 Indulge, 251b Infinitive, case of subject and predicate of, 190-: linked with participle, 149a; or participle linked with verb, 149b; perfect, 224; sign to be repeated, 131 n 1 ; split, 169 Inside, 107 Inside address on letters, 6a Invention, 251b Inversions, comma with, 26 Invite (noun), 251a Interjection, comma after, 29, 49 n 2; exclama- tion point after, 49 Interpolations, brackets with, 77 Introductory and parenthetical participles, comouua with, 17 Irregular plurals, 180 Irrelevant modifiers, 127 Irritate, 251b Isn't, 250 Isolated numbers, treatment of, 102; words and letters, italics for, 82 It, expletive, 217; indefinite, 1:17; possessive cast- of, 186 It don't, 219 It is me, 189 It seems to me, 254 Italics, use of. 80-82 Items, colon before lists of, 41; in tabulations. period after, 46 n 1 Its, 64 It's, 64, 186 Itself, 107 Jolly, 254 Just, position of, 145 Kind, 251b Kind of, 254; kind of a, 247 Last, latest, 251b Last, the, 198; summer, 210; Wednesday, 210 Latin classics, 3e, 3h Latter, the, 198 Lay, lie, 251b Le, final, combined with preceding consonant, 11.5 Leader, 244 Learn, 251b Leave, 251b Less, 251b Let, 251b Letters (of the alphabet,, used as appositives of words, italics for, 82; marking divisions put in parentheses, 75 Letters (correspondence), 6a; bibliography of, 3i Liable, 251b Lie, lay, 251b Lift, 244 Like, love, 251b; not a conjunction, 238, 251a Like sounds, succession of, 270 Likely, 251b Likewise, punctuation before, 36 n 1 Limb, 265 Literal linked with figurative expression, 149e INDEX Loan (verb), 251a Locate, 250 Loose sentence, 123 Luggage, 244 Luxuriant, luxurious, 251b M., 103 n 1 Mad, 250 .Magazine Indexes, list of, 4d Many a, 246; many a one, 197 Margins, 6b Mathematics, 183 May, can, 251b Mayn't, 250 Measles, 183 Mention, 251b Mercy's sake, 177 Messrs., 10:3 n 1 Metaphor, mixed, 267 Mgr., 103 n 1 Mightn't, 250 Miscellaneous sentence errors, 166-169 Mlle., 103 n 1 IMM., 103 n 1 Mme., 103: n 1 Modifier with verb in past tense, time, 221; ir- relevant, 239; faulty placing of, 142-145 Modifying word near modified word, 201 Money, representatiton of sums of, 100 Monosyllables not to be divided, 116 Months, names of, to be capitalized, 90 n 1 Month's study, 177 Moreover, 107; comma with, 17; punctuation be- fore, 36 n 1; position of, 154 AMood, use of subjunctive, 231 Mlost, 247 Motion picture, 244 Motor (verb), 242 Mr., Mrs., 103 n 1 ; English practice with, 48 n 1 MS., 46 Mumps, 183 Mustn't, 250 Myself, 107 Namely, punctuation with, 39 Names of persons, mlodels for punlctluation of, 34 Nasty, 254 National use, 243-246 Natural order, emphatic position of vords out of, 157 Near by, 98; near-by (adj.), 251a ANcarly, 254; position of, 145 Neighbor (verb), 251a Neithcr, number of, 19G Neithr . .. .ov, pwi)tionJ) of, 145 n 2 Nevcr, 247 Nevertheless, 107; punctuation of, 17, n0 n 1 position of, 154 New words, 242 News, 183 Newsy, 242 Nest June, 210 Ng not to be divided, 114 Nice, 250, 254 Nicknames of states, 259 n 1 No., 104 No less than, 215 No one, 197; number of, 196 265 Nobody, 107 Nominative absolute, 246 Non-restrictive clauses, 1211) ; punctuation of, 15 Nor, punctuation before, 12, :3O Not, position of, 145; not a whit, 246b: not but one, 256a Not only . . . but also, position of, 145 u 2 Nothing like, 247 Notion, reference to, 137 Notorious, 251b Notwithstanding, 107 Noun clauses, 121a Nouns, 176-184 Novels, list of older English and American, 3n; list of recent English and American, ::b; list of foreign, 3c Now, comma with, 17; temporal use of, 17 n 1 Nouadays, 107 Number, ambiguous, 184; of pronouns, 195-196; representation of, 99-102 Numbers, house, 99; isolated, 102; multiples f, 182; ordinal, 99 n 1; punctuation of, 33; series of, 101 O to be capitalized, 88 Object of action, possessive case not to be used for, 178 Object of preposition, case of, 191. 2:35 Objective after copulative verb, 189 Objective genitive, 178 Obscri ance, observation, 251b Obsolete words, 241 Of any, 204, 247; of course, comma with, 17 Off of, 255b Oft, oftentimes, 264 Older, oldest, 2511) Omissions, comma with, 25; dash to indicate, 63; improper, 233 On my account, 178; on the contrary, comma with, 17; on the one hand . . . on the other hand, position of, 145 n 2; on the other hand, comma with, 17; on one day, 255b One another, 251b One, indefinite, 197 One day, 210 Oneself, one's self, 108 Only, alone, 251b; position of, 144 n 1 Onto, 250 Optional, 249 Or, connecting subject, effect of, 212-213; punc- tuation before, 12, 36 Ordinal numbers, 99 n 1 Otheruwise, punctuation before, 36 n 1 Ought, 224, exc. 1; oughtn't, 250 Ours, 64 Out of his head, 24(;b Outlines of themes, 6a Outside, 107; outside of, 255b Outside address tn letters, 6a Over, 246b; over with, 255b Overhead railwcay, 244 Pairs of words or phrases, 23 Pants, 242 Paper and handwriting, 6b Paragraphs, indentation of, 6b; quotation marks with, 69 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Parentheses, punctuation with, 30, 76; use of, 74-76; overuse of, 133; within parentheses, brackets for, 78 Parenthetical participles, comina with, 17; ex- pressions set off by comma, 17 ; by dash, 54; by parentheses, 74 I'articiple, linked with infinitive, 149a: or infini- tive linked with verb, 149b; use of present, 225 Participles, agreement of, 140 n 1; dangling. 139)- 140 IParticles, introductory and parenthetical, comma with, 17 Party, 251b Passed aicay, 265 Passive voice, misuse of, 230; linked with active, 204 Past perfect tense, use of, 22:1 Per, 247a; per cent, 47, 108 Perchance, 264 Perfect, comparison of. 206 n 1 Perfect Infinitive, 224 Period, use of, 45-48 Periodic sentence, 124, 161 Periodicals students should know, 5 Person, a, number of, 196 Petrol, 244 Ph not to be divided, 114 Phase, 251b l'hilosophical works, list of, 3k Phone, 242 Phrase of time, preposition omitted from, 210: linked with clause, 149d(; near to governed word, 143 Phrases, commas with absolute, 18; two modify- ing sanie word, 144 Physics, 183 Piano, 247 Piece, 245 P. M., 104 Places (adv.), 251a Places, punctuation of names of. 32 Plenty (adv.), 251a; (adj.), 2.51a Plural subjects, 211 Plurals of nouns. 180-184; unusual, 180: apos- trophe with unusual, 66; of pronouns with sin- gular antecedent, 196 n 1 Poetic diction, 264 I'oetry, list of, 3e; quoting of, 6b; use of period in quoted, 48; first word in line to be capital- ized, 86 Point of view, change of, 148 Possessive case of nouns, 176-179; apostrophe sign of, 64; before gerunds, 2:12 Posted, 250 Practical, practicable, 251b Precision in use of words, 252 Predicate of Infinitive, case of. 190 Predicate noun, when or where-clause as, 173; verb not to agree with, 216 I'refixes make sepprate syllables, 111 Preposition, case of object of, 191, 235; omitted from phrase of time, 210; governing several objects to be repeated, 151 Prepositions, 235-237 Prerequisite, 249 Present participle, use of, 225: present perfect tense, 222; present use, 241-242 Principal, principle, 251b Principal verb omitted, 233 Prolonging effect of other mnituuation marks, dash for, 61 Pronouns, 185-199 Proper adjectives to be capitalized, 90 Proper nouns to be capitalized, 90 Propose, purpose, 251b Proposal, 251b; proposition, 247, 251b Proven, 241, 247 Pioviding, 247 Provincialisms, 245 Provoke, 251b Punctuation, 7-93; with comma, semicolon, and colon, tabular view of rules of, 44 Purpose, 251b Put in, 250 Put to death, 246b Q.v., 103 n 1 Qualifying words, 254 Quantity, expressions of, number of, 182 Question mark, use of, 50 Quite, 250; position of, 145 Quotation, direct, capitalization of, 85; indirect, capitalization of, 85; quotation marks with di- rect, 67; quotation marks, comma with, 30; use of, 67-73; quotations and allusions, list of iooks on, 4c; colon before. long, 41; comma with, 14; double, 68; punctuation of indirect, 67 n 2 Raise (noun), 251a Raised, 245 Real (adv.). 251a Reason is, the, completed by causal construction, . 255a Recherche, 243 Reciprocally . . . in each other, 255b Reckon, 245 Redundancy, 255 Refer to, 251b Reference, ambiguous. 138: faulty, 137-141; to ain idea, 137; to preceding sentence at begin- ning of sentence, 156; of pronouns, 137-138; reference books, list of, 4; references, dash be- fore, 59 Repetition, undue, 259; of articles and demon- stratives, 201 Representation of number, 99-102 Resolutions, beginnings of, capitalized, 8T Restaurant-car, 244 Restrictive clauses, 121b1; punctuation of, 15 n 1 Retired, 265 Rev., 103 n 1 Rhetorical effect, dash for, 62; principies in the sentence, 125-169; question, 16.3 Right smart, 245 Rime in prose, accidental, 268 Ruination, 245 Run, 247 Salutation in letters, 6a; colon after, 42 Same, same as, 247 Sarcasm, exclamation point for. 50 Scarcely, position of, 145 School subjects, capitalization of, 9.3 266 INDEX Scientific works, list of, :k Seasons, names of, not to he capitalized, 90 n 1 Seem, 251b Seldom ever, seldom or ever, 247 Selection, 247 Semicolon, use of, 35-.39 Sentence, definitions, 118-124; definition of, 118; kinds of, 118; simple, 11i; comIxpoun(dI 120; complex, 121 ; balanced, 122 : loose, 12;: peri- odic, 124; structure of, 118-169; test of, 118; fragmentary, 171; semicolon in simple, 138; semicolon in complex, 38; period at end of, 45; as subject or complement, 1T4; tabular view of punctuation of, 44 Separate, words to be written, 98 Separation of preposition from object, 167; of subject fromn verb by comma, 27 ; of similar words by commna, 28 ASet, sit, 251b Series, use of comma in, 10-11; of numbers, 101; of paragraphs or stanzas, quotation marks with, 69; a, b, and c, 11, :36 n 2, 150 Shakespeare, quotations from 67 n 1 Shall and will, 226-228 Shan't, 250 Shape, 250 Ship's side, 177 Should and iwould, 226-228 Shouldn't, 249 Short stories, bibliography of, 3d Show up, 250 Sick, 50 n 1 Side-heads, dash after, 58 Signatures, period after, 46 Significance, signification, 251h Simple conjunctions, punctuation of clauses of compound sentence without, :36; semicolons be- fore, 37 Simple sentence, 119; semicolon in, 38 Since (adverb), 246b; punctuation before, 12, 36 Singular nouns with plural form, 183 Sit, 251b Skedaddle, 245 Slang, 248 Slang (verb), 242 So, 120d, 247; punctuation before, 3d n 1; fenil- nine, 137 n 4 So to speak, 254 Social notes, formal, 6a Some, 247, 251a Some day, 210 Somebody, 107; number of, 196 Someone, 108, 196 Something, 10T Somewchat, 107 Sort of, 254; sort of a, 247 Span's breadth, 177 s'pecie, species, 251h Specific words, 252 Spelling, 94-98 Spick and span, 246 Splendid, splendidly, 253 Split infinitive, 169 St., 103 n 1 Stanzas, quotation marks with, 69 State, 251b Statements, colon with formal, 41 Station, 251b 267 Statue, statute, stature, 251b Steal (noun), 251a Still, punctuation before, 36 n 1 Stimulus, stimulation, stimulant, 231b Straining for synonyms, 259 n 1 Stunning, 253 Subject of infinitive, case of, 190; sentence as. 174; separated from verb by commnia, 27 Subjects of themes, 2 Subordinate relation, wrong, 1:5 ; clauses imade coordinate, 130; elements, comma with, 14-16 Subordinating conjunctions to be repeated, 151 n I Subordination of coordinate clauses, 134; for em- phasis, 162 Succession of like sounds, 269 Stuch, 247 Suffixes make separate syllable, 111 Suicide (verb), 251a Sumnuarizing clauses set off by dash, 5.5 Sundown, sunup, 245 Superlatives, overuse of, 254 Supplementary readings, list of, :3 Suppose, 251b suspieioa (verb), 251a Swceet, 253 Syllabication, 109-116 Symbols for correction of themes, 1 Syntax, elements without, 175 Tabular view of punctuation, 44 Tabulations, use of dash with. 57 Take (for study), 250; take in, 250; take stoek in, 247 Tautology, 257 Teh not to be divided, 114 Teach, 251b Technical matter, abbreviations In, 105 ; techni- cal terms, 249 Tell good-bye, 245 Temporal phrase, preposition omitted from, 211) Tense of verbs, 220-229 Testimony, 251b 7'h not to be divided, 114 'Than, case after, 19::; and as confused, 205 Than, ichom, 19:3 That (adv.). 251a; indefinite, 137 n :; mil- properly repeated in long sentence, 255a That is, comma with, 17; punctuation with, :39; colon equivalent to, 41 n 1 That there, 247 The ones, 247 The reason is completed by casual construction, 255a Thee, 241 Theme outlines, 6c Thcmselres, 107 T'hen, comma with, 17; punctuation with tempo- ral use of, 17 n 1; punctuation before, :34; n I There, 218 Therefore, punctuation of. 17, :26 n 1 ; position of, 154 These kind, 207 They (indefinite), 137 n 1 This (adv.), 251a; this afternoon, 210 ; this here. 247 Tho.se (indefinite), 137 n 2 MANUAL AND NOTEBOOK FOR ENGLISH COMPOSITION Those kind, 207 Thou, 241 Though, comma with, 17 Through ("I am through"), 245 Thus, punctuation lefore, 36 n 1 Ticket-agent, 244 Time clauses, redundancy in, 255a; time modifier with past tense, 221 'Tis, 264 Title, underscoring of, 6b Titles, important words to be capitalized, 91; quotation marks for, 71; punctuation of, 34 To and fro, 246b To be sure, comma with, 17 Together, 107 To their credit, 178 To wit, 39 Today, to-day, 108 Together with, 215 Tomorrow., to-morrow, 108 Tonight, to-night, 108 Too before past participle, 246c Tote, 245 Trite expressions, 261 Truth, tense of general, 220 Try (noun), 251a; try and come, 246b Turn the tables, 246b Two bits, 245 Two thoughts in sentence, 126 Unbeknown, 247 Undivided words, 107 Underhanded, 247 Underscoring of title, 6b Under the circumstances, 246b Undue ellipsis, 146-149 Unidiomatic modifiers, 246 Unique, 206 Unity in sentence, 126-135: in simple sentence. 127; in compound sentence, 128-135; In com- plex sentence, 134-135 Universally . . by all, 2.55b1 Unless, 251b Unnatural syllables, 110 Unusual words, quotation marks as apology for, 70; plurals, 180 Ugly, 250 Up, redundant, 255a Use 9f word in two senses, 258 Vague reference, 137 Varsity, 247 Verb linked with infinitive or participle, 1491, Verbosity, 257 Verbs, 211-234 Verdict, 251b Very, 253; before past participles, 246c Violation of idiom, 246 Viz., 103 n 1, 39 Vocal (noun), 251a Vocatives, comma with, 20 Voice of verbs, 230 Vulgarisms, list of, 247 Wait on, 247 Want in, -eant out, 245 Wl'atch out, 245 llater'8 edge, 177 Ways, 247 We, editorial, 199; indefinite, 197 Week, ulays of, to be capitalized, 90 Weird, 253 Well, 251b Went to bed, 265 Whatever, 107 When, 135, 251b When-clause as predicate noun, 173 Whenever, 107 Where-clause as predicate noun, 173 Whereas, punctuation before, 12, 36 Wherever, 107 Whether or no, 246b Whichever, 107 While, 251b, 135 n 1; punctuation before, 12, ; Whilom, 241 Who and whoever attracted into objective case, 188 Whoever, 107 Whole, the, 251b Whose, 64 Will and shall, 226-228 Wire (verb), 251a With, 215 Without, 251a Wonderfully, 253 Won't, 250 Word linked with clause, 149d Word-division, disputed forms of, 108 Word-groups, possessive case of, 176 Wordiness, 257 11 orst kind, 247 Would and should, 226-229 Wouldn't, 250 Writer, the, 199 Wrong subordinate relation, 135 Wrong coordinate relation, 131 V, treatment of final, 97 Yclept, 241 Ye, 241 Yet, punctuation before, 12, 36 You, possessive case of, 186; indefinite, 197 You all, 245; you was, 219 Yours, 64 Yourself, 107, 251a 268