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Life and writings of Rafinesque / prepared for the Filson Club and read at its meeting, Monday, April 2, 1894, by Richard Ellsworth Call. Call, Richard Ellsworth, 1856-1917. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-46-26946886 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Life and writings of Rafinesque / prepared for the Filson Club and read at its meeting, Monday, April 2, 1894, by Richard Ellsworth Call. Call, Richard Ellsworth, 1856-1917. J.P. Morton, Louisville, Ky. : 1895. xii, 227 p. : 2 ports., 3 facsims. ; 33 x 26 cm. Coleman Bibliography: p. 133-214. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1992. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN02168.04 KUK) Printing Master B92-46. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Rafinesque, C. S. (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840. le et; As' Xei \ : tt "-g FROM THE "ANALYSE DE LA NATURE." I 4w, 54 11 FILSON CLUB PUBLICATIONS iO. I) THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF RAFINESQUE Prepared for the Filson Club and read at its Meeting Monday, April 2, 1894 By RICHARD ELLSWORTH CALL, M.A., M. Sc., M.D. Member of the Filson Club LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY JOHN P. MORTON AND COMPANY frinters to the 3itzon fl1uB i 895 COPYRIGHTED BY RICHARD ELLSWORTH CALL 1895 TO THE MEMORY OF C1onotanfine Samuef Rafiteque NATURALIST This page in the original text is blank. PREFACE. THIS memoir had its inception in an attempt to clear up certain matters connected with the synonymy of a large and important group of fresh-water mollusks the Unzonzdo. A number of very remarkable facts con- nected with the personality of its subject were thus incidentally learned. As the collation of data proceeded the facts gathered seemed of sufficient importance to group them for presentation to the literary and scientific world, in the hope that a better and more intelligent understanding of this eccentric naturalist might result. A number of impressions were forced upon my attention as the work proceeded; among other conclusions reached was LUh one tnat Rannesque had not been treated always fairly by his contemporaries. Resulting from this was the conviction that many naturalists now living have formed opinions concerning the nature and value of Rafinesque's work, which appear to me to be quite erroneous. In the hope that some of these misappre- hensions might be corrected the task of writing his life, which is quite a labor of love, was undertaken. Preface. The Filson Club, an organization devoted primarily to the collection and preservation of original matter connected with the history of the State of Kentucky, has, since it recognizes Rafinesque as the first resident professor-naturalist within the limits of the State, been particularly interested in this memoir, and its aid has been freely extended in the matter of sumptuous publica- tion. The intelligent interest and historical enthusiasm of Colonel R. T. Durrett, Lb. D., the President of the Club, wvas early enlisted in the project, partly for the reasons above given and partly because of personal interest in the career of a most remarkable mnan. He freely offered access to his superb and unrivaled library of Ken/uckt;7na, without which courtesy much, which now appears, must long have remained unknown. During the progress of this work numerous courtesies have been extended, and by various persons. To these especial thanks are due. Profl-ssct howard Mf. Ballou, of the Louisville Manual Training High School, spent many days in the various libraries of Boston and Cam- bridge in abstracting and verifying certain bibliographic natter; to his interest and zeal this portion of the brochure owes very much indeed; he has also rendered invaluable aid in proof-reading as the several signatures came from the press. Doctor G. Brown Goode, Assistant vi1 Preface. Director of the United States National Museum, Doctor Charles S. Sargent, Director of the Arnold Arboretum at Jamaica Plains, Mr. C. E. Faxon, of the same institu- tion, Honorable Thomas Meehan, of Philadelphia, and W. H. Venable, LL. D., of Cincinnati, have all contrib- uted valuable aid. Doctor Goode especially has cour- teously furnished all the references to the rare Specchio delle Scienze, and has also verified others; he further has looked over the proofs of part of the bibliographic portion as they came froni the printer, and has made numerous valuable suggestions. I desire to make especial mention of the aid afforded by Miss Johanna Peter, of T exinLgtonI, who kiiudly unuertook tne laborious task of a careful search through the Lexington Library, rich in old Kentucky books and newspaper files, and thus led to the discovery of many useful items. Mr. Alexander Griswold kindly photographed the pages for the plate illustrating the Floriula Ludovczazna; Doctor William T. Durrett did the same with the page for the plate from the Fishes of the River Ohio. Mrs. Asa Gray has courteously allowed the use of the letter to De Can- dolle, from among the letters left by Doctor Asa Gray, which is herein reproduced. To Doctor B. L. Robinson, Curator of the Herbarium at Harvard University, thanks are due for the opportunity to photograph the portrait V11 viii Preface. of Rafinesque, which forms the frontispiece in the "Analyse de la Nature," and which subserves the same purpose in this volume. To all these gentlemen and other helpers most cordial thanks are extended. Several important items connected with rare books were searched for and given me by Mr. Sidney M. Ballou, of Harvard University, for which grateful acknowledg- ment is tendered. The portrait of Rafinesque, from the Wisconsin Historical Society, was permitted presenta- tion through the generous courtesy of Honorable R. G. Thwaites, the Secretary. To our publishers especial acknowledgments are due for the pains taken to secure perfection in the sumptuous form of publication adopted. Their work needs no commendation. To the naturalists of America this brochure is sub- mitted in the hope that it will at least aid in placing its remarkable subject in his proper place in the history of natural. science in this country. Whether all will acquiesce in the conclusions reached is really a matter of very small moment. If there shall result an intelli- gent estimate, favorable or otherwise, of the writings and botanical or other scientific work of Rafinesque; if those who have known him only through misinformation furnished by contemporaries, who, in all cases, were not wholly disinterested investigators, shall now have oppor- Preface. ix tunity to consult his published work, and shall be able, through it, to approve or condemn his course; if the tendency to ignore all of his work because some of it was peculiarly bad shall give way to a more generous treatment, then, the time required to collect and arrange the scattered matter which constitutes the bibliographic portion of this volume, and to present for inspection the whole course of an active though largely misdirected life, will be amply repaid. It is not true, notwithstand- ing that the editor of a well-known scientific journal has but just editorially so declared, that recent identifications of Rafinesque's species "will be ultimately set aside, when a more critical spirit prevails among species zo6lo- gists"; on the contrary, outside of certain editorial rooms there prevails that spirit of honor and fairness which demands that these claims shall be recognized. The position thus editorially assumed is, in itself, a complete justification for the expenditure of the time and means involved in presenting, to men of science, this resume of the work and life of Rafinesque. RICHARD ELLSWORTH CALL. THE FILSON CLUB, LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY, 7 JANUARY, 1895. This page in the original text is blank. ANALYSIS. Introductory . Birth and Early Life .......... First Visit to America. ......... Ten Years in Sicily.ly......... Second Visit to the United States,. First Visit to the Falls of the Ohio, The Visit to Henderson ......... From Henderson to the Mississippi, . . . First Visit to Lexingtong.. ....... Rafinesque at Transylvania University, First Object Teacher in Kentucky .. Rafinesque as a Lecturer, ........ From 1825 to i840..... . . . . The Six Per Cent Savings Bank, . The Death of Rafinesque, ........ Disposition of the Property of Rafinesque, The Personal Appearance of Rafinesque, . The Portraits of Rafinesque, ....... Rafinesque's Scientific Writings ..... Scientific Work in Sicily, ........ Scientific Work in Lexington ...... The Fishes of the Ohio ..... Rafinesque's Work in Conchology,. PAGE I .. . . . . '4 23 .. . . . . . . . . 24 29 ........... . .. . . 30 .. . . . . . . . . 32 ............. . . . . . . 42 ......... . . . - -243 . .... . . . 55 ...... . . . . . .. 58 ........ .. . . . . ... 3 0 ............. . . . . . . 67 ........ ... 73 ........ ........ . --74 .. ..... . .... - -- 88 . . .. ... . . ... 905 . ......... 96 .......... 96 Analysis. Rafinesque's Work in Botany,. The Florula Ludoviciana, Other Botanical Work, . . . Archeologic Work, ......... Literary Work from 1825 to i840, . . Rafinesque's Literary Style, ..... Rafinesque and Evolution....... Medals, Diplomas, and Other Honors, Rafinesque's Name in Nomenclature, Bibliography. Summary of Publications, . Bibliographia Incerta,. Bibliotheca Rafinesquiana, . The WVi11 off Rafinesque ....... PAGOP ....... . . . . . . .. .. 103 ....... . . .. . . .. .. 104 .. . . . . . . . ... .....107 ....... . . . . . . .. .. 114 ... .... .. . . . I2 .122 126 ...................129 ..3.1... . . . . . . 131 .... . . . . . . . . I33 ... .. . . . . . . . 207 ... .. . . . . . . . 208 .... . . . . . . . . 209 ... .. . . . . . . . 21.c xii THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. THE difficulties with which students of science meet, especially when far removed from the great centers of scientific learning and culture, are often not appre- ciated at their full value. Familiarity with the work of others in the same fields is impossible to many; sympathetic interest on the part of others is unknown; fruitful methods which result from the successful expe- rience of others are unheard of; means of publication of facts of value and of especial scientific importance on first discovcry are euLirely wanting. Then, too, it often happens that communities which are far removed from the great urban centers have little appreciation of the life and work of the student of Nature, who is always open to the suspicion of mental derangement, or at least of being charitably regarded as "eccentric". Far more noticeable is this unfavorable feature in a country yet quite primitive. In such regions the indus- The Life and Wri/ings of tries and minds of the people are concentrated upon the single problem of making the unwilling earth yield an abundant store, or else directed to that other task of reclaiming a virgin forest and establishing a center of urban life and activity. Mental and scientific pursuits under these conditions receive little attention and less encouragement; in some unexplained manner it often happens that those who attempt to promote these objects meet with decided opposition. Such opposition is based chiefly upon the idea that matters of any sort, to be of value, must have reference solely to the real present and find expression in money values. Rare indeed is it, in these early communities, to find any adequate conception of the value of the work and time spent in the collection of plants and animals, of bugs and of fishes, of fossils and of clams. What matters it that one should know the life history of a single nocuous insect, or that he have full knowledge of the ways best to protect fishes in maintaining their existence in our streams Is not a bug, a bug, and a gar-pike, a gar-pike, for all that So say they all! And stranger still, let such matters become subject for legislative appropria- tions, and those who most directly are concerned stand in armed neutrality or else in aggressive opposition. Such is the common fate of propositions connected with 2 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 3 the development of natural resources when the State is asked to aid. It follows from these considerations that one can not give a jvst estimate of the life and work of a man unless one regards well the times in which he lived, the prevail- ing enthusiasms or their lack, the public knowledge on matters of this sort, the public appreciation of their value, and the other conditions of social and educational environment of which the scholar and student of men, or of language, or of Nature, is not wholly independent. The beginnings of scientific life in Kentucky were in just such surroundings as these pictured, and long remained unchanged. In such primitive scenes, though trained in an old and cultured community, the most active period of a most eventful life was passed; in estimating its value to us and to the State all these facts must have weight. BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque [Schmaltz] was born in Turkey in Europe, in Galata, a suburb of Constanti- nople, October 22, I783. He was of French - German descent, his father being a French merchant of Mar- seilles, while his mother,' though born in Greece, was Died at Bordeaux, x831. The Live and Writings of of German parentage, from Saxony. The mercantile enterprises of his father reached to distant lands and often necessitated his absence from home for long periods at a time. There would seem to be but little question but that matters connected with his father's business ventures and their recital in the home of the lad had something to do with determining his future bent toward travel. The family was not a large one;- Rafinesque had one only sister, who became a Mrs. G. Lanthois, of Bordeaux, whose name was never mentioned by our author save once, and a younger brother, Anthony Augustus. From the circumstance that Rafinesque speaks of this brother as his younger brother some have inferred that there was an older member of the group of sons, but if so it nowhere appears in any of his writings. More of the family is not known. The younger brother drops out of the record after i805, having gone to France from Philadelphia, and thence to Sicily, and nothing further is known of him. Of the mother very little is known, but from the fragmentary items connected with the earlier education of Rafinesque it would appear that she was a most intelligent woman, and had great concern for the proper education of this son. The absence from home of the father natu- rally placed almost the entire care of this phase of the 4 Constanfine Samuel Rafinesque. 5 boy's home life in his mother's hands, and she seems to have performed her duty well and conscientiously. Rafinesque says that in one of the numerous country seats about Marseilles he first became conscious of his existence, and there he received his first education. In his own words: "It was there among the flowers and fruits that I began to enjoy life, and I became a Botanist. Afterwards the first premium I received in a school was a book on Animals, and I became a Zoologist and Natu- ralist." There are some who profess to see in this state- ment that Rafinesque had too high an appreciation of his powers, since a young man, or, rather, a mere boy, such as he then was, could have been neither a botanist nor a zoologist. Perhaps, however, the just interpretation will be the one Rafinesque himself intended, namely, that these books determined his career and that he dated his interest in scientific matters from that time. In I793 his father died, a victim to the yellow-fever epidemic of that year which made such waste of life in Philadel- phia, whither the merchant Rafinesque had gone to escape the English cruisers. The recollection of this fact afterward cost the son much trouble in a similar epidemic which obtained in Philadelphia, after Constan- tine had himself become a resident of that city. A Life of Travels and Researches in North America and South Europe, etc., p. 6. The Life and Writings of The four years from I792 to I796 were passed in residence with his mother near Leghorn, in Italy, whither she had gone through fear connected with the excesses of the French Revolution. He had previously been taken to several other places by his parents, and this fact, coupled with his later travels, gives the raison d'9Ire of the French couplet which graces the title page of his "Life." It reads: "Un voyageur des le berceau, Je le serais jusqu' au tombeau... During his residence in Italy his education was di- rected by private teachers, and geometry, geography, history, drawing and the English language engaged his attention. He developed a taste for reading, and found the greatest pleasure in books of travel, greedily devouring them all. He declares, probably in hyperbole, "Before twelve years of age I had read the great Uni- versal history and one thousand volumes of books on many pleasing or interesting subjects." It was while he dwelt at Leghorn that he began regular herborizations, in I795, and commenced the formation of a herbal. From what he himself relates it would appear that dur- ing this period he was allowed the fullest liberty and gave full bent to his whims or wishes, and read and studied what he pleased. He congratulates himself that Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. he had wasted no time on dead languages, "but had spent it in learning alone and by mere reading ten times more than is taught in the Schools." In I796 Rafinesque was taken to Genoa, and the journal of this tour constituted his first essay of the kind. In making mention of this journal he remarks that he had done the same ever since by notes or journals. His residence varied for the next few years between Genoa, Pisa, and Marseilles, during which period his training was successively in the care of his mother and grandmother, but was completed by himself. During these years also he continued his botanical studies and "read every kind of books, good or bad; but happily I knew how to distinguish them." To his studies he now added natural and moral philosophy, chemistry, and medicine. It is not to be understood, I take it, from these remarks of Rafinesque about the direction assumed by his stud3et--wui1k at t'is time that he means to imply he had mastered these branches. He was an indefati- gable reader and no doubt read every thing in the way of books that came to hand, and books on these subjects were among the number. In a curious and naive way he tells us about his nature studies in the neighborhood of Marseilles, where his botanical walks gave him much pleasure. He appears first of all to have devoted him- 7 The Life and Wriziigs of self to the study of plants, but also gave much attention to other branches of natural history. He says: "I had made to myself a small garden in a wild and remote place. I began the study of Fishes and Birds, I drew them and collected Shells and Crabs. Daudin, of Paris, who published then a natural history of Birds, was my first correspondent among the learned, and I communicated to him some observations on Birds. I drew maps, copied those of rare works, and took topographical surveys; these were my first essays in geography." In reading Rafinesque's account of a hunting episode which took place near Leghorn in i802, one will be struck with the similarity of his experiences and those recorded by Charles Darwin, England's great naturalist. Rafinesque says: "I began to hunt, but the first bird I shot was a poor Parus, whose death appeared a cruelty to me, and I have never been able to become an unfeel- ing hunter." Darwin had the same feeling for animals, even the very lowest, and never allowed himself to harm them wilfully or know'-1,;. The year i802 marked, in the spring, the end of the youthful home life of Rafinesque. There appears in the record no evidences of interest in matters which should prove attractive to a boy of his years. Whether he ever had any fondness for boyish sports and games, Vide Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Vol. I, p. 28, i887. D. Apple- ton Co., New York. 8 Constantine Samnuel Rafinesque. 9 whether he had much enjoyment in the association with other youths, whether these facts had not great influ- ence in determining his attitude toward social events in after years can all be but matter of conjecture. In recounting the facts connected with his early life Raf- inesque omits very many important things which we should enjoy knowing, but enough is told us to explain the system or rather the lack of system in his studies. Perhaps this will explain the apparent want of those closer habits of application which characterize the best work of men of science. The record simply discloses that he essayed every branch of natural science, read omnivorously, made copious notes, formed ideas which were often vague and never afterward matured, and always had before him the travels and work of the great men of his own and preceding decades; it appears, too, that he fondly imagined himself about to become, or that he had already become, a gceaL traveler. it is really believed that this period of great mental activity and developing powers of observation, for such it cer- tainly was, had he been firmly guided by some master hand, would have given the world one of its greatest naturalists. But the lack of codrdination of powers led to habits, both of thought and literary effort, that had a serious influence, in after years, on his life and work. 2 o0 The Life and Writings of FIRST VISIT TO AMERICA. Rafinesque first came to the United States, in com- pany with his younger brother, Anthony Augustus, in the spring of i802, "provided with an adventure and many letters of introduction". He landed in Philadel- phia April i8th. With a mind keenly awake to nat- ural objects it is not surprising that at once he again began the study of Nature, probably with fresh ardor born of new surroundings and a novel flora. Scarcely had he landed in his new home before he began botan- izing, and found a cruciferous plant which had passed under the name of Draba verna; he considered it new and bestowed upon it the name of Draba americana. Whether a formal description of this plant was ever written by Rafinesque I know not; it is not mentioned in Watson's "Bibliographical Index to North American Botanv", which contAi-ns' manyi other names fnrmUl+ted by Rafinesque, so it is to be presumed that he never presented it in such form. But he remarks of this species that "the American Botanists would not believe me; but Decandole has even since made with it the new Genus Erophila! This is the emblem of many Watson, loc. cit., p. 62, regards both the genus and species of DeCandolle as synonyms, and retains the name of Draba verna. Cons/antine Samuel Rafinesque. discoveries of mine of which ignorance has doubted, till science has proved that I was right." To us, at this time, the interesting fact connected with the find- ing of this specimen and supposed new species lies in the evidence which it affords that Rafinesque was for- ever wedded to his loves, the flowers. Here he was, at the age of eighteen, in a new land, on fortune bent, in the midst of strangers who spoke a strange tongue, yet he at once turned to the woods and fields, a real student of Nature, and averse to any thing else. The Philadelphia business relations of Rafinesque were those which eventually determined his coming to Kentucky some eighteen years afterward. While in that city he came into relation with the Cliffords, owners of the vessel which brought him to America; also here he met the brothers Tarascon, formerly of Marseilles, whose names are familiar to all students of early Kentucky 1historv. At this time Rafinesquce was busied w-ith me,- cantile pursuits, occupying a clerkship, but filled all his leisure with botanizing in the vicinity of Philadelphia. He declares that during this period he minutely de- scribed all the plants found, a task quite characteristic of the man! He had already determined upon follow- ing the footsteps of his father, and devoted himself to mercantile pursuits, prosecuting his Nature studies in The Life and Writings of hours of leisure, but withal with serious intent. But now came again the yellow fever, in the summer of i802, of which Rafinesque writes: "Being much afraid of this disorder, which had deprived me of a father, I left the city and took refuge in Germantown; where I had the good luck to be invited by Col. Forrest, a Friend of Horticulture, to dwell with him, and travel with him to collect Plants." This gave him a summer of travel and botany, for the scourge which he sought to escape did not disappear until the following October. A considerable number of excursions about Germantown, some of which extended into New Jersey and over East- ern Pennsylvania, were made during this period. While these were nothing more than botanical tramps, such as the veriest tyro is compelled to take who desires an acquaintance with the flora of any locality, Rafinesque dignifies them by the name of "journies"; in this pecul- iarity he shows in a remarkable manner the influence of his early reading. If not yet such, he surely would be a veritable Marco Polo or von Humboldt! During this stay in Philadelphia Rafinesque had frequent opportunity to visit the botanical gardens of Marshall and Bartram, the former of which was not far awav at West Chester. Attention will again be directed to these gardens in connection with a certain 1 2 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. experience of Rafinesque at Lexington, in Kentucky, years afterward; the reader will then remember that all about Marseilles; where Rafinesque had spent much of his boyhood life, are to be found botanical gardens in which he must often have been as student and collector. But the summer spent in plant-hunting and other scientific work, very congenial to the disposition of Rafinesque, had unfavorably disposed him toward a business life. The irksome quiet of the office had been relieved by a summer with the birds and flowers, and to his duties he returned with laggard feet. Not only did he not like the close confinement incident to a clerkship, but it may even be supposed that the emoluments of such a position in that early day were certainly not in excess of those of the present time; surely in such career those ever present dreams of wide travel and learned books could never become fact. n 4 R unesque resigned his position in favor of his brother, of whom he makes no other mention for all this time, and became secretary to a gentleman by the name of Gernon. This position was also abandoned early in the spring of the following year; the place was one "of no advantage", and then he could not withstand the allurements of the forests and fields. His whole time was now given to the collection of the plants and 13 The Life and Wrifings of animals about the city, and also of those of the neigh- boring States. He extended his tours into Maryland, Virginia, and Delaware, for he had already foreseen that it was but a question of short time until he should leave America. He made the most of his opportunities and gathered large numbers of all things collectible. Thus passed the period until January, i805, when both he and his brother, "who would follow" him, set sail for Italy. In May he became a resident of Sicily. TEN YEARS IN SICILY. "This lovely Island" was reached after a delightful voyage, its presence having been foretold "by the ema- nations of orange blossoms, carried far at sea in the night by the land breeze." Says he, further, " The mountains were smiling with flowers and verdure, they invited me to climb over them." He was now twenty- two years of age, enthusiastic, energetic, habitually care- less both of his person and his methods of study, and about to enter upon a scientific career of the greatest moment. Here he began that extensive series of pub- lications, record of which has been attempted in the accompanying bibliography. This brother died at Havre, I826, I4 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. It is materially unfortunate, to our mind, that Raf- inesque does not, in his "Life of Travels", enter some- what more into detail respecting his home life in Sicily. But one will search in vain for a single word on these topics. There seems to have been abundant reason for not mentioning these matters, for Rafinesque married, in i809, a Sicilian woman by the name of Josephine Vaccaro, a woman who does not appear to have been suited to the kind of life the naturalist had marked out for himself. It is more than probable that this marriage was never consummated in legal form. In his will, from which alone this information is obtained, he says: "While residing in Sicily I deemed myself law- fully married . . . although the decree of the Council of Trent forbade our regular marriage." The two infer- ences which may safely be drawn from this statement are, first, that the Sicilian whom he espoused was a Roman CathLUliC in religious faith, and, second, that legal or religious rites were never solemnized. In i8ii a daugh- ter, Emily, was born to the couple, and in i814 a son, Charles LinnPeus. The boy died the following year, i8i5. Neither child is mentioned by Rafinesque in all his writings; in his will alone we find the first intima- tion of paternity and of parental solicitude. Of the DiVide Appendix, where this will is given in full. i6 The Life and Writings of daughter no information other than that which is given in this document has been attainable. The consort of Rafinesque, on receiving the news of his shipwreck in i8i5, "suddenly married Giovanni Pizzalour, a comedian," and dissipated the property which Rafinesque had left in her hands. All that is further known of this woman is the opinion in which she was held by Rafinesque, who, in his will, declares her to be "unworthy", and directs that his executors shall not allow her "a single cent"; he also directs that no part of his property should be paid to his daughter Emily "until she leaves altogether and separates from" her mother. Emily, influenced no doubt by the theatrical relations of the new family bonds, became a singer in the Palermo Theatre. She was the mother of an illegitimate daugh- ter, Henrietta Winston, by one Sir Henry Winston, for the maintenance of which grand-daughter Rafinesque was uulo cel-a i r the baroulct woulJd Trip. heterfre)m- St .4. V I 4f,4AC _ j , _ . mends her, in his will, to his nephew, Jules Rafinesque. The last known of Emily was the simple fact of resi- dence in Naples in I833. With this period of Rafinesque's career there is little of direct interest to us. First and all the time he was a naturalist; though his real concerns here were of a business character. It would appear, from his account Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. of these years, that he was reasonably successful in business enterprises, for he states that "by trading in the products of the island" he made his first personal fortune. It is curious to note that some of his ventures were along the line of economic botany, for his trade lay in the manufacture of squills for the European and American markets. Rafinesque first taught the Sicilians many things of this sort, thus proving himself, though unwillingly, another Latinus to this beautiful island. He became quite familiar with the whole island, and seems to have devoted himself assiduously to the study of every form of life within its area. All the ten years he spent here were full of toil and study. They were, on the whole, very happily passed, though many of his business employments were heterogeneous and peculiar. At one time connected with the United States legation as secretary or chancellor to Minister Gibbs, at another the manager of a successful brandy-stiii for a company of gentlemen, next a candidate for a State position which he never obtained, editor of a magazine, naturalist and collector always, these were the occupations with which he filled the ten years of Sicilian life. He became per- sonally and by correspondence known to many of the scientific men of Europe, and with some of them he had very pleasant relations. Swainson, the English nat- 3 I7 The Life and Wri/ings of uralist, was stationed for some time in Sicily, and with him Rafinesque had the most intimate and cordial coop- eration. They collected and studied and wrote together. On one occasion, when the vicissitudes of business pre- vented personal attention on the part of Rafilnesque, Swainson supervised the printing, at Messina, of one of his friend's books, "The Index of Sicilian Ichthy- ology ". During these years, too, the habit of mind engendered by indiscriminate reading and delving into every thing natural bore its proper fruit; for a time he worked at volcanic rocks and eruptions, anon found recreation and employment in tracing the remains of ancient settlements, hunted plants, drew and described them, collected fish, secured large numbers of shells, assisted Swainson in hunting insects, worked on the reptiles, and withal kept up a voluminous correspond- ence with other naturalists in France, in America, and in Ittlyo ITn truth theme ten years were very b ones, an estimate of the work of which is offered in its proper place. His experiences with the natives of his chosen home do not appear to have been of the most pleasant character. In his description of Sicily occurs almost the only epigrammatic writing I have ever noted in Rafinesque's works; says he, "she offers . . . a fruitful soil, a delightful climate, excellent productions, perfidious men, deceitful women." I 8 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. I9 SECOND VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES. In i8i5 Rafinesque left Sicily and Europe forever. During the later years of his Sicilian residence, affairs, from a business and literary standpoint, had not pro- gressed satisfactorily; he apparently did not regret the fact of leaving that famous island. The voyage began in July and ended in November. Adverse weather con- ditions met the vessel as soon as the Mediterranean was cleared; the good ship suffered the ordeal of a severe Atlantic storm, was damaged and compelled to seek a haven in the Azores. The Island of St. Michael thus by an accident became an object of botanical interest to Rafinesque. He collected thereon, observed the volcanic rocks, drew some of the objects found, and so turned a seeming misfortune to the best account possible. The story o'f the landing Of Rafnesque in A-crica for the second time reads like a romance, and though there are many who profess to doubt its exact truthful- ness I must confess to the most complete credulity in its essential correctness. I have so long read and studied this man, am so familiar with his character, which was open and honest, have so great an admiration for that part of his life which was unclouded by mental misfor- The Life and Writings of tune that I will, I am sure, be pardoned for expressing thus strongly my belief in the truth of the story of shipwreck. It appears to me that the incident is ex- tremely important in weighing certain facts of his after life. It was midnight of the second of November, i8i5, in a dense fog, on Race Rock, off Fisher's Island, at the eastern end of Long Island Sound, that the good ship, which had brought Rafinesque and his possessions across the Atlantic in safety, went down. Striking on the rocks, her keel was entirely torn away, and when a swell landed her beyond the rocks she rapidly filled and sank. Down with her went the results of years of toil and of labor, both mercantile and scientific. To quote the lan- guage of the sufferer: " I had lost everything, my fortune, my share of the cargo, my collections and labours for 20 years past, my books, my manu- scripts, mv drawings, even mv clothes . . . all that T nocseP-ed except some scattered funds and the Insurance ordered in England for one third of the value of my goods." I can imagine the condition of this man under these circumstances. I can see him walking the streets of New London "in a state of utter despair". Here, in this misfortune, and resulting from it, began that mental DiVide "A Life of Travels ", etc., pp. 48, 49. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. condition which made his scientific work in later years subject of the severest criticism. He was still a young man, it is true, having seen but thirty-two summers, but those who have studied character will agree that this misfortune affected him as it might but one in a thou- sand. Of this loss he writes as follows: "Some hearts of stone have since dared to doubt of these facts or rejoice at my losses! Yes, I have found men, vile enough to laugh without shame at my misfortune, instead of condoling with me! But I have met also with friends who have deplored my loss, and helped me in need." Rafinesque appears never again to have known pros- perous business adventures. He belonged to that large class of men, from this time, who imagine that the hand of every other man is against them. Leaving New London, Rafinesque went to New York, where, pending the settlement of his insurance claims in London; he found warm friends. With Dr Samuel L. Mitchill, with whom he had enjoyed a correspondence while yet a resident of Sicily, and to whom he had sent numerous scientific, chiefly botanical, papers, he found friendly greeting and a helpful friendship. The neces- sities of making a livelihood led him to accept the position of private tutor in a wealthy family by the name of Livingston, residing on the Hudson; therein 21 The Life and Writings of he taught Italian, drawing, and botany. It is more than likely that the introduction which Mitchill gave Rafinesque to New York literary society helped him to this place. But before spring he resigned this post because the family desired to spend the winter in the South. He again became a child of fortune. As soon as spring had sufficiently advanced he devoted his time to geology and to the collection of the plants which grew about New York. The summer following he went as far north as Saratoga, and spent several weeks at the series of falls which are so famous in East-central New York. In a similar manner was passed the long period of the four following years. Then he went to Philadelphia, oin business bent, and again met his old friend John D. Clifford, known to all students of Ken- tucky history, who was and had been for some time a resident of Lexington. In him he found a warm and syptii2 friend ,t and a as pers.uade to v.ri sit -'.y ... IA,V L.3J 9.LL- West, which then meant Kentucky. The summer of i8i8 finds the monotony of Rafin- esque's life varied by a journey over the Alleghanies and down the Ohio, which he descended from Pittsburg in a flat-boat. He was one of a party of several men, who traveled by day and rested by night. This must have suited the taste of Rafinesque, who could thus give the 22 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. greatest possible attention to his loves, the flowers and the fishes and the mollusks. During his long residence in Sicily he had done much work on the fishes of the Mediterranean, and no doubt he found ample opportunity in the long days of slow movement down the Ohio to arouse again his intelligent love of these forms. FIRST VISIT TO THE FALLS OF THE OHIO. The party with which Rafinesque reached Louisville found its haven at the Falls. At Shippingport he was "received with open arms" by the Messrs. Tarascon, formerly of Marseilles and next of Philadelphia, who now operated a large flouring-mill at that place. For two weeks he remained there, and one who has ever seen the rich molluscan life of the Falls of the Ohio at low water might understand what busy weeks these were. Rafinesque spent the time "stuldying the fishes and shells of the river, of which I made a large collection, drawing them on the spot at the same time. I was sur- prized to find them nearly all new: this rendered my researches still more important and interesting.". Shippingport is now within the corporate limits of the city of Trouisville, at the foot of the Falls of the Ohio. 23 The Life and Wr-iings of THE VISIT TO HENDERSON. Extensive botanical and other collections were made by Rafinesque all the way from Louisville to Henderson; the trip being made by day, that he might better study the plants and fishes and shells. Arrived at Henderson he sought John J. Audubon, the ornithologist, to whom he had a note of introduction and with whom he remained several days. Rafinesque says " some days"; Audubon himself says "three weeks". In this connection, perhaps better than in any other, reference may be made to an episode which Audubon has recorded of Rafinesque. With some reluctance, in this place, is the incident again related, not because it will have harmful effect in judging the work of Rafin- esque, but because it must needs detract much from the fame of Audubon, whose reputation for strict truthfulness was never of the best among those who knew him. It serves to explain some features of the great ornitholo- gist's life and strengthens the unfavorable opinion which some entertain of him; it serves also to throw light upon the plain, straight - forward, trusting character of Rafinesque. When the story is read between the lines the effect on the reader would appear to be most favorable to the victim, 24 Constantine Sainuel Raflnesque. 25 Audubon introduces Rafinesque as the " Eccentric Naturalist ", the humor of which has so appealed to very many writers that they have been constrained to reproduce the episode without much interest in the man it most affects. Audubon nowhere gives the name of his victim, but it is understood that the "M. de T." is none other than Rafinesque. The account runs as follows: "' What an odd-looking fellow!' said I to myself, as, while walk- ing by the river, I observed a man landing from a boat, with what I thought a bundle of dried clover on his back. 'How the boatmen stare at him! Surely he must be an original!' He ascended with rapid step, and, approaching me, asked if I could point out the house in which Mr. Audubon resided 'Why, I am the man,' said I,' and will gladly lead you to my dwelling.' The traveller rubbed his hands together with delight, and drawing a letter from his pocket handed it to me without any remark. I broke the seal and read as follows: 'My Dear Audubon -I send you an odd fish, which you may prove to be undescribed, and hope you will do so in your next letter. Believe me always your friend, B.' VL"5i al' ate Sirnplicity oIL vi wuousdnau, 1 asked the bearer where the odd fish was; when M. de T. . . . smiled, rubbed his eyes, and with the greatest good humor said, 'I am that odd fish, I presume, Mr. Audubon.' I felt confounded and blushed, but contrived to stammer an apology. "We soon reached the house, when I presented my learned guest to my family, and was ordering a servant to go to the boat for M. de T.'s luggage, when he told me he had none but what he brought on his back. He then loosened the pack of weeds which Vide Ornithological Biography, Vol. I, pp. 4,55-460. 4 26 The Life and Writings of had first drawn my attention. The ladies were a little surprised, but I checked their critical glances for the moment. The naturalist pulled off his shoes, and while engaged in drawing his stockings, not up, but down, in order to cover the holes about the heels, told us in the gayest mood imaginable that he had walked a great dis- tance, and had only taken a passage on board the ark, to be put on this shore, and that he was sorry his apparel had suffered so much from his late journey. Clean clothes were offered but he would not accept them, and it was with evident reluctance that he performed the lavations usual on such occasions before he sat down to dinner. " He chanced to turn over the drawing of a plant quite new to him. After inspecting it closely, he shook his head, and told me no such plant existed in nature:-for M. de T. although a highly scientific man, was suspicious to a fault, and believed such plants only to exist as he had himself seen, or such as, having been dis- covered of old, had, according to Father Malebranche's expression, acquired a 'venerable beard.' I told my guest that the plant was common in the immediate neighborhood, and that I would show it to him on the morrow. 'And why to-morrow, Mr. Audubon Let us go now.' We did so; and on reaching the river I pointed to the plant. I thought M. de T. had gone mad. He plucked the plants one after another, danced, hugged me to his arms, and exultingly told me that he had got, 'Not merely a new species, but a new genus.' " When it waxed late, I showed him to the apartment intended for him during his stay, and endeavored to render him comfortable, leaving him writing materials in abundance. I was, indeed, heartily glad to have a naturalist under my roof. We had all retired to rest. Every person I imagined was in deep slumber, save myself, when of a sudden I heard a great uproar in the naturalist's room. T got up, reached the place in a few moments, and opened the door, when, to my astonishment, I saw my guest running about the room naked, holding the handle of my favorite violin, the body of which he had Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 27 battered to pieces against the walls in attempting to kill the bats, which had entered by the open window, probably attracted by the insects flying around his candle. I stood amazed, but he continued running around and round, until he was fairly exhausted; when he begged me to procure one of the animals for him, as he felt convinced they belonged to a 'new species'. Although I was con- vinced to the contrary, I took up the bow of my demolished Cremona, and administering a smart tap to each of the bats as it came up, soon got specimens enough. " M. de T. remained with us for three weeks and collected multi- tudes of plants, shells, bats, and fishes. . . . We were perfectly reconciled to his oddities, and finding him a most agreeable and intelligent companion, hoped that his sojourn might be of long duration. But one evening, when tea was prepared, and we expected him to join the family, he was nowhere to be found. His grasses and other valuables were all removed from his room. The night was spent in searching for him in the neighborhood. No eccentric naturalist could be discovered. Whether he had perished in a swamp, or had been devoured by a bear or gar-fish, or had taken to his heels, were matters of conjecture; nor was it until some weeks after, that a letter from him, thanking us for our attention, assured me of his safety." ot thish innident, o charingly told, ; is mscirg, its popularity with other writers full well attests, but it contains certain internal incongruities that lead one to suspect that it is grossly exaggerated. Particularly does this impression grow on one who reads carefully that portion, omitted here, which recounts the famous bear and cane-brake episode. There could have been but one purpose in Audubon's mind, and that was to The L /e and Writings of make the hero of the episode as ridiculous as possible. The story never found its way into print until Rafinesque had for some years ceased to be a resident of the State, and even then, in its original form, dared not name him as the real hero! But this failure to name Rafinesque makes the turpitude of Audubon the greater. And add to this another episode in itself far less harmful than the bat story, but infinitely more disreputable in its nature and results, and the reader of Rafinesque has just cause of complaint. Audubon played upon the credulity of his guest, who had implicit confidence in him as a brother naturalist. The host simply lied to Rafinesque, and seeing him eagerly accept the proffered bait still further abused his confidence and did a most unmanly act, one which has caused great annoyance and loss of time to succeeding naturalists. Audubon drew figures of some impossible fish, giving them gaudy coloration and glowing descriptions, and supplied Rafinesque with what purported to be notes of fact; all of these Rafinesque duly copied into his own note-book. Furthermore, the host described to his guest impossible limpet-like shells, said to live in the Ohio, and these were likewise carefully noted. Later, Rafinesque used these so-called facts as the bases of new genera and species; then Audubon employed the data known only to himself to make Rafinesque ridic- 28 Constantine Sanuel Rafinesque. 29 ulous. I have long had a suspicion that Audubon had taken the whole naturalist world into his confidence, in many of his bird biographies, and that some of his facts would sometime result in romances. The more I know of him and his methods the more I am convinced that this is true. But, in this case, a guest was made the innocent victim of misplaced confidence in his host; and the host in the ryle of a confidence man never inspires faith. Men to whom Audubon told the tale, attempting to justify it as a joke, have used the facts to the detriment of the fair fame of Rafinesque.t FROM HENDERSON TO THE MISSISSIPPI. Rafinesque left Henderson and the home of Audubon for a journey to the mouth of the Ohio, which point he reached as the farthest point in all his western travels. On his way he passed through New Harmony, Indiana, which was then one of the great scientific centers of the New World. In that quiet town on the Lower Wabash Vide Contributions to North American Ichthyology, I, p. 6, 1877. Also, Rafinesque, by David Starr Jordan, in Popular Science Monthly, Vol. XXIX, No. II, p. 217, June, 6886. tThe following are the names of fishes bestowed upon the "drawings communicated by Mr. Audubon ": jD.rca M.g.undata, A 'ntrus cailiops, Pogostoma leucops, Calostomus anisop/urus, Catostomus niger, Catostomus fasciolaris, Catostomus () megastomus, Pylodictis limosus, Accip eser mactos- tornus, Dinectus trulcatus. The Lfe and Writings of dwelt Say, and Owen, and Maclure, and LeSeuer, names all yet held, and deservedly, in the highest honor. He did not long remain in that retired place, the foundation principles of which impressed Rafinesque with its Uto- pian character. Much of the return journey from the mouth of the Ohio was accomplished on foot, "having found the horse too fatiguing ". His destination was Lexington, but he went by way of Louisville in order that his collections might be put in the care of his friends, the Tarascons, and by them transmitted to Pitts- burg. Rafinesque had not yet knowledge of the fact that he would become a resident of Kentucky. His only care was to make as large collections as possible and get them safely away to Philadelphia. FIRST VISIT TO LEXINGTON. It was a roundabout way that carried Rafinesque to Lexington on his first visit. The towns of Shepherdsville and Frankfort were visited and several side excursions taken. At length he reached Lexington and found his former Philadelphia friend, Clifford. This visit and the kindness of his reception, together with the opportunities for study and collecting that seemed to present them- selves, coupled with the persuasions of his friend, deter- 30 Cons/antine Samuel Rafinesque. mined Rafinesque to come to Kentucky, and this he did after a visit to Philadelphia to "settle my concerns and withdraw from trade ". The chief fact that influenced him to this decision appears to have been the promise of Clifford to secure for him an appointment to a professor- ship in Transylvania University. Clifford was himself an enthusiastic geologist and indefatigable collector; he had amassed a considerable collection of fossils, and these helped Rafinesque in reaching a decision. More- over, Clifford looked with great favor on the scientific work of his guest, and one may well be sure that the guest appreciated this fact. Already Rafinesque had been made aware of the hostile feeling that many men of science entertained toward him, for to some of them he had shown himself a formidable rival. The visit to Philadelphia again gave Rafinesque occa- sion to know something of the perfidy of man and especially, it may be supposed, of Sicilians. He had intrusted certain of his business adventures to a Sicilian, who proved false to his trust and bankrupted and defrauded him of all his earnings. Finally, however, a start westward was made, business affairs left behind, goods shipped, and for the third time Rafinesque crossed the Alleglianies. The journey began in May, i8i9, and ended in the heart of the bluegrass region of Kentucky Th e L ife and Writings of in middle summer. Rafinesque found the University in the midst of vacation, and hastened to join Clifford, who was spending the summer in scientific recreation in the country. RAFINESQUE AT TRANSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY. The institution to which Rafinesque had now come had a stormy career. It was the outcome of an act of the legislature of Kentucky which had amalgamated two earlier and rival schools, the fact having been consum- mated in I 798. The two institutions whose fortunes were thus joined were the Transylvania Seminary, estab- lished in I783 by the Virginia Legislature, and the Kentucky Academy, established by the Presbyterians in I796. Considerations of economy, on the one hand, and the evident fact that rivalry such as theirs would only re-ult in permanent invjry to both schools, on thie other led to the amalgamation. The University was now under the celebrated Holly rtgime, its president, the third to hold the office, being the Reverend Horace Holly, LL. D. Rafinesque became connected with this school in the fall of i8i9, and at a time when there were internal dissensions. To this untoward condition must be added the fact that he was a stranger, of foreign birth and 32 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 33 with foreign air, and, further, there must be considered the fact that his chair was new and counted of but little importance. Those were the days of a classical education, purely and simply, and there was no interest in any other roots than those of Latin and Greek origin or in leaves of other sort than those which had the cabalistic signs of men who thought and wrote two thou- sand or more years ago. He who could quote freely and at length from Horace or Juvenal, or could see in Pindar and Demosthenes meanings of which they them- selves never dreamt, was the educated man. It mattered not how little he might know of gravitation or of dynamics, of bugs or of plants, if only he knew our ancient Latin friends; his education was then complete. Amid literary surroundings such as these Rafinesque now found a home. It would be difficult indeed to find another degree of literary difference so marked as that et-wen Jxadirnesque and his assu ociuatu Pf.s.T.1 were, in tastes and pursuits, as unlike as men could be; It needs only in support of this statement that attention be called to the character of the articles which constitute the bulk of the Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, published at Lexington, about this time. Its pages contain many labored literary articles, and not a few philosophical ones, in which classical training ran amuck through all the fields of knowledge, compelling attention to its demands to the exclusion of all else. The political articles, which appeared from time to time, continually refer to Greece and to Rome, to Xerxes, to Iannibal, to Epictetus, to Cxsar, and to Augustus. 5 4The L fe afnd Wrihngs of their intercourse was necessarily a continual contrast of ideas and theories determined, on the one hand, by effete philosophical systems, and, on the other, by hasty generalizations based upon incomplete knowledge of natural surroundings. It was, in epitome, a renewal of the long-continued warfare between the classics and science, without that tempering of zeal and expression which is so characteristic of real culture or of exact knowledge. Rafinesque brought to the Kentucky metrop- olis of that day the habits of thought and views of State polity which were the outgrowth of his foreign birth and residence. From Sicily to Kentucky was indeed a great change; little wonder is it that he did not speedily adapt himself to these new conditions. Evidently, his real place among his colleagues must be estimated along other lines than those which found ex- pression through his associates in Transylvania Univer- sitv. The beginning of the Kentucky life of Rafinesque was marked by a signal misfortune. With Clifford he was planning numerous excursions, one at least of which con- templated a visit to Arkansas, when Clifford succumbed to a sudden fatal illness. In this blow Rafinesque lost the only man whom, as I believe, he ever loved. In vain will you search his published writings for ex- pressions of regard for others, whether men or women; 34 Cons/an/ine Samuel Rafinesque. the only name mentioned tenderly and with evident regard is that of Clifford. Of all the men with whom Rafinesque came in contact Clifford alone seemed to enter into the life of the naturalist, and the influence of that association was greater than all the world beside. The seven years of life at Lexington were very busy ones for Rafinesque. He made many excursions, some of which extended into Tennessee, and during which nearly all the accessible portions of Kentucky were visited. He made most extensive collections, chiefly in conchology and botany, though he neglected no branch of natural science. Numerous papers were written, and many of them published; at the same time he attended to the ordinary duties of the class-room. He was the secretary of the Kentucky Institute, the first scientific society formed within the State, and one of the first, if not the first, west of the Alleghanies. Doctor Horace HollyT was the P.esident of the nTstitte, befre Which a number of persons, and Rafinesque most of all, read scientific papers. Some of these were afterward printed in the Czncinnati Literary Gazette. The exploration and mapping of the ancient monuments which are near Lexington were accomplished during these years. But the most remarkable work of all was the preparation of the Ichthyologia Ohiensis, which has caused such 35 36 The Life and Writings of criticism from students of American fresh-water fishes. More will be said of this remarkable book in another place. Attention has previously been directed to the Botanic Gardens with which Rafinesque was acquainted at Mar- seilles, and to those of Bartram and Marshall near Phila- delphia. One of the ambitions of his life was the foundation of similar gardens at Lexington. To accom- plish this he spent much time and developed a wonder- ful amount of energy. In i823 he brought the matter to the attention of the State legislature, at Frankfort, with such success that the senate passed the bill to establish the proposed garden at Lexington; the house refused its sanction and the bill failed to become law. Though disheartened by this result Rafinesque did not wholly despair. He undertook the private solicitation of funds, the scheme contemplating the formation of a joint stock company. His friends and nthers inter- ested in the undertaking succeeded so far as to get the projected garden incorporated. Ground was purchased within the village of Lexington; planting was begun; The Kentucky RePorter of the issue of Monday, November 22, 1824, has editorial mention of the purchase of the land for this garden. The location was the upper end of Main Street, and comprised ten acres. A Mr. Harper was the treasurer of the company "on whom the stockholders are expected to call and pay the ist and 2d installments on their shares." Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 37 but many who had subscribed failed to meet their obli- gations and the attempt was at last entirely abandoned. His dreams were never realized. He says of the under- taking, long after its collapse, "I never owned an acre of ground; this garden would have been my delight: I had traced the plan of it, with a retreat among the flowers, a Green-house, Museum and Library; but I had to forsake it at last, and make again my garden of the woods and mountains." Nothing of historic importance grew out of the enterprise; nor could such result have been expected in this inland village at such an early day. Aside from Rafinesque there was probably not a single person in Lexington who knew any thing of the real nature and cost of these enterprises; nor did he, seemingly, remember the existing untoward conditions under which the enterprise was bound to end in failure. The scheme could not appeal to the cupidity of those to WILO S'LOALX was VollICIU, iU uvury Ulakl PaLL iii L weunt in to stay from the very nature of things. Scientific interest was impossible in men trained to other habits of thought, nor were the times ripe for the expenditures of considerable sums of money in a community still contending with a virgin forest for the very mastery of the fields themselves. The episode, however, serves a useful purpose in that it emphasizes the influence on The Life and Wrilings of the life of Rafinesque of the surroundings of his boy- hood days. In connection with the attempt to secure favorable legislative action in the matter of the Botanic Garden a serious illness resulting from exposure to a prevailing epidemic enters into the record in such manner as to illustrate another side of Rafinesque's life. He says: "I took the measles then prevailing, and was very sick on my return to Lexington; but I recovered in spite of the Physicians, by taking none of their poisons, anti- mony and opium, while many died in their hands." Clearly Rafinesque had little regard for the disciples of XEsculapius! According to the account contained in the "Life of Travels", with the governing body, or better, perhaps, the executive head at Transylvania, Rafinesque did not enjoy the most pleasant relations. Doctor Horace Hoxv;i _h rsdnt, Jid no 'oo I-wI-itl _ fvur u n ie .Lkky, LLL Lt iL.U JL, UIU IUOL IU WILI iavI L"Ila natural sciences, and having himself no especial training in them was not prepared, perhaps, to appreciate their importance. Nor were the relations which Rafinesque sustained toward his associate professors more cordial. He complains that they intrigued one against another, There does not seem to be sufficient warrant for this statement of Rafin- esque. General and ex-Senator George W. Jones, of Dubuque, Iowa, who was a 38 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. and that there was little " subordination among the students ". It can not be positively stated that the frequent and long excursions, which Rafinesque made while a professor at Transylvania University, were allowed to interfere with his lecture appointments or his other class-room work, but it would seem incredible that they did not. He was engrossed in his field-work, surrounded with a flora both new and beautiful, a circumstance in itself calculated to appeal strongly to the heart of the naturalist; shells and fishes totally unknown and often unique furnished addi- tional inducement to relieve the weary monotony of the class-room. It even may be surmised, with strong degree of probability, that some of the dissensions of which he speaks were to be referred to this probable interference for their origin. But among the causes, whatever else they may have been, must be considered that of a certain autocratic bearing and distaste for the opinions of others which is said to have been quite characteristic of him. student in Trausylvania University, and who was graduated in I825, writes me in answer to enquiries on this subject as follows: " I never knew of any dis- agreements between the professors in Transylvania University, but I recollect how bigotted religionists in Lexington and in Kentucky persecuted President Holly and drove him from the head of the institution in i826, then the most distinguished in the whole world.... The university went down and was an irreparable loss to society and to learning from the moment President [Holly] left the institution." 39 The Life and Writings of He was widely read and kept in touch with most of the work of his day, but he does not seem to have clearly interpreted all of his authors. In another place will be found an estimate of his literary style which, as attested by the very voluminous bibliography published from Lexington, was none too clear; he delved in every field of knowledge, and covered in his reading and his writings almost every field of research. Subjects meteor- ological, geological, botanical, chemical, veterinary, astro- nomical, philological, theological, engaged his attention, and were all made matter for several memoirs. He even attempted poetry, sometimes in Latin, or French, or English. These facts simply attest the work of a mind devoid of the power of concentration. That these peculiarities were known to his associate professors is certain; that this knowledge had some influence in determining their judgments of him is equally evident. in 1823 Rafinesque undertook a considerable journey across Middle Kentucky and into Tennessee, reaching the Tennessee River. The unsettled character of the country only prevented him from making the journey westward to the Mississippi. On the return trip he visited Mammoth Cave, of which he says, "I spent one day to survey it, and found it very different from the printed exagerated accounts, but yet wonderful 40 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. enough." Lexington was reached in July, and in August and September the regions of Eastern Kentucky, as far as Cumberland Gap and the Falls, to Pine Mountain, were explored. This journey was the last that Rafinesque made within the bounds of Kentucky. While resident at Lexington Rafinesque had perfected a "patent and Divitial Invention," which, in i825, prompted a journey to Washington to take caveats and patents. This is described in the following language: "This Invention consisted chiefly in rendering Bank Stock and Deposits and Savings circulable by divisible Certificates; which will one day be certainly adopted. . .." This has always been the basis of the claim of Rafinesque that he was the inventor of the coupon system now so common on bonds and similar instruments. It was on the return from this journey that he "found how the President of the University had behaved" in his absence. He censured that h offcial in no measured term; said 'he "I returned to Frankfort and to Lexington, . . . To evince his hatred against sciences and discoveries, he had broken open my rooms, given one to the students, and thrown all my effects, books and collections in a heap in the other. He had also deprived me of my position as Librarian and my board in the College. I had to put up with all this to avoid beginning law suits. I took lodgings in town and carried there all my effects: thus leaving the College with curses on it and Holly; who were both reached by them soon after, since he died next year at sea of the Yellow fever, caught at 6 4I 42 The Life and Writings of New Orleans, having been driven from Lexington by public opinion: and the College has been burnt in i828 with all its contents. But Clifford's cabinet was saved (like mine) by being removed previously like mine, and is now partly in Cincinnati and partly in Philadelphia. This was a lucky escape." FIRST OBJECT TEACHER IN KENTUCKY. During the time that Rafinesque occupied the chair of modern languages and the natural sciences in Tran- sylvania University, was introduced west of the Allegha- nies the modern method of object teaching. During the three winters from i823 to i826, among other duties he lectured on medical botany to the students in the medical department, giving his course with "exhibition of specimens ". In this he was far ahead of the teachers of his time, and introduced a method which now every- where obtains among competent instructors. It will probablv never be known what led to this action on the part of President Holly, but it would appear to have some relation to absenteeism on the part of Rafinesque. It is but just to the memory of the famous Transyl- vania University President to say that always Rafinesque had received cordial welcome to his home. The following facts appear Lo controvert the opinion Rafinesque had formed of the President; they are quoted from a letter I have received from an inmate of the Holly household, by permission: " He [Rafinesque] was a great admirer ef Doctor Holly and came frequently to the house to talk on subjects of interest to him. He was never an inmate of the house although his face was a familiar one there. . . . He wrote verses, English, and Italian, and Latin, I think, and brought them to find an audience with us...." Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 43 In still another matter he appears to have antedated some more modern observations, as may be gathered from the following facts: "He often lectured to the students in College and in a most entertaining manner to the great delight of his audiences. His lecture on the ants was peculiarly instructive and interesting, caus- ing many of the students to laugh heartily when he gave us the history of ants, especially when he described them as having lawyers, doctors, generals and privates, and of their having great battles and of the care by physicians and nurses of the wounded, etc., etc.... " I would now give any reasonable sum to hear him repeat one of his lectures that I listened to in Transylvania University." Skilled indeed must have been the mind that could fix facts like these in such manner that they endured for seventy years! RAFINESQUE AS A LECTURER. Much of the time of Rafinesque in the University was employed in teaching the modern languages, in which he again was the pioneer of the West. Transylvania University, through him, has thus a remarkably impor- tant place in the history of higher education west of the Appalachians. But it would appear that the professor and naturalist, notwithstanding the wide range of his scientific investigations and the great number of papers `General Geo. W. Jones, in lilt., Aug. 25, 1894. 44 The Life and Wrifings of prepared for the press, still had some leisure which he desired employed. To fill the full measure of his desires he formed and conducted classes in the modern languages outside the college walls; he lectured on scientific sub- jects to the people of Lexington; he gave instruction in botany to all that desired it. In illustration of the wide range his activities acquired, the following notices from various numbers of the Kentucky Reporter pub- lished during i82i and i822 may serve: " TUITION." "Prof. Rafinesque Teaches the French Italian and Spanish Lan- guages, in the University and gives also private lessons to the ladies in town." " He will give private instruction in the University or in town in the following branches -Elements of useful knowledge, Botany, Geometry, Map-Drawing etc." (Kentucky Reporter, January 15, i821.) Later, in the spring of the same year, when the plant life of the region was about to awaken for the new otanical yeai-, he 'iihus advertised: " PROFESSOR RAFINESQUE Will begin to deliver his Course of Botany as soon as a class shall be formed:-he invites those who are willing to attend it to apply to him immediately." " He continues to give private instruction in the French Italian Languages etc. Also in several branches of other knowledge." Sometimes during this period Rafinesque essayed the lecture platform. As in his writings, so in his lec- Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 45 tures to the public a very wide range was given to his subjects. He was not often on the lecture platform, but there are several mentions of lectures in the Kentucky Reporter for the years 1820 to i822 that are interesting, inasmuch as they show us how he occupied some of the leisure of college life. Among these notices the following are characteristic of the man: " TRANSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY. Professor Rafinesque will deliver a Public Lecture, introductory to a course of Medical Botany Medical Mineralogy Medical Zoology c, in the Chapel of the University, on Wednesday next, 2ist Nov. at I2 o'clock. The Medical Professors, Students etc. are invited to attend as well as the ladies and gentlemen of Lexington." " If the weather should prove unfavorable it will be postponed to the next Saturday at the same hour." (Kentucky Reporter, Novem- ber i9, i821.) The next year his public lectures appear to have taken an entirely different direction. They then seemed to have been suggested by his studies on the matter which was finally included in his historical works or works on ancient nations. The psychological tendency of his researches is evident from the notices which are here reproduced: "A PUBLIC LECTURE." "On the Human Mind will be delivered (weather permitting) on the 22nd of April, Monday next, at I2 o'clock in the Chapel of Transylvania University by Prof. Rafinesque as an Introductory to The Life and Wrifings of a course of Lectures on the Natural Moral History of Man Kind. " The Ladies and Gentlemen of Lexington are invited to attend." (Kentucky Reporter, April i5, i822.) The only mention of a lecture accompanied by a fee for admission is found late in the year i822, and, like the last preceding, the address belonged to the realm of metaphysics. The notice runs as following: "LECTURES ON PRAENOLOGY." "Professor Rafinesque will deliver a discourse by request on Phraenology Craniology the Analysis of the Human Mind, on this evening at 7 o'clock in the Medical Room. "Admission Fifty Cents. Tickets to be had of Mr. McNitt, at the lecture room at Mr. Deveins." (Kentucky Reporter, December i6, I822.) Curiously enough there never occurs any reportorial or editorial notices of any of these lectures; there is absolutely no means of ascertaining any thing relative Lt LhUeir rctVL11io Un LIy e touwniispeople. iNur, among the frequent "letters" to the editor in either criticism or praise of the various departments of the University, and such letters were numerous, for these were stormy times in University matters, have we found a single one which mentions, to say nothing of being chiefly concerned with, Rafinesque's work or the department of science over which he presided. It would appear that he toiled 46 Cons/anfi/e Samuel Rafinesque. along alone, with little of counsel or of help. Unap- preciated he certainly was, his quaint ways and habitual obliviousness of his surroundings subserving that end. Rafinesque was a frequent contributor of "open let- ters" and short articles to the Lexington newspapers, and some of these are quite quaint and interesting. He always seemed to believe that the general public felt as much interest in natural history details as he himself did; perhaps, however, the fact that many rare and little known forms of animals were brought to his notice by the curious around him explains an interest which he thought was general; in this way, perhaps, his own interest he came to believe was common to all who read the newspapers. A single example will serve to indicate the nature of these newspaper contributions, none of which are deemed of sufficient importance to constitute a portion of the bibliography given in this volume. From several articles the following is selected: "THREE NOTICES OF NATURAL HISTORY." " Br PROP. C.,S. RAFINESQUE." "I r. The singular rare animal, lately killed in Ohio county in this state described in the last Argus as a Leopard is by no means the African but the American Kaguar (Felis onca of Linneus) which is found all over S. America Mexico. It has sometimes been seen in Louisiana the state of Missisipi but had not yet wandered so far north, 47 48 The Life and Writings of " 2. I have lately discovered in the neighborhood of Lexington the real Scull-cap or Scutellaria laten flora so much extolled in New York against the bite of mad dogs or hydrophobia. It grows along the branches of S. Elkhorn near Wm. Bryan's, 5 m. S. W. from town. I shall be ready to show specimens of it to anybody willing to know the plant cultivate it. "3. If anybody living on the banks of the Ohio Kentucky, or other streams where the muscle Shells are common wishes to estab- lish a manufacture of Real Pearls I shall be willing to communicate to them all the different processes needful to the purpose of com- pelling the Muscles to form their Pearls, for a small consideration, or for a share in the profits. The capital needed for such a man- ufacture is a convenient place from 50 to i00. The profits may amount to from ioo to ioooo in a year, according to the size of the Pearls produced." " PR. C. S. RAVINUSQU" (Kentucky Reporter, September 6, I820.) Rafinesque had, in previous years, formed the acquain- tance of President Jefferson, whom he had visited at his Monticello home. The interest of Jefferson in matters scientific was well known to Rafinesque, who had often written him personal letters. Also during these years in Lexington he frequently wrote open or published letters to persons of celebrity, among whom were Cuvier, Banks, De Candolle, Bory, and others. Three of these letters are preserved in the Kentucky Reporter for the dates 22d and 29th August and 6th September, i820. They are so very characteristic of the man that they should be useful in undertaking an estimate of his _ Jr7 - wv KvSosv/C " st zdY ,7 ZGCo Ju - 4 C Y /v.4. os ct X 'v7 0w, ,'TC2 0 Sg t a , wSt4-Hys-a4WA_,qg .fi4 / 7/22-flX f KE Jo v - f i v a e t G-V A tW. 1 4_ 1 t 5a=C4 tvv RFNEQET E ADLE [ Reduced one-fourth.] This page in the original text is blank. Constanfine Samuel Rafinesque. 49 mental life. These three are addressed, "To the Hon- orable Thomas Jefferson, Late President of the United States." The first is an introductory one, of a column and a half length, "On Alleghawian Records "; the second constitutes a " Description of the Alleghawian Monuments In the neighborhood of Mount Sterling, Montgomery Co. Kentucky"; the third, a column and half long, has the following title: "On some Allegawian Implements etc". The mounds or works are quite fully described in these letters, as well as their probable uses, or better, perhaps, the uses which Rafinesque supposed they had subserved; the same treatment was accorded the implements. FROM I825 TO 1840. Rafinesque left Lexington and Kentucky in June, i825, taking with him all his possessions. He left Transylvania University of his own accord, driven to desperation by the treatment accorded his collections. He turned his footsteps eastward; his work west of the Alleghanies had ended. So far as is known he never visited again the regions to the west. As first, in i802, so now, in i825, he at last made Philadelphia his home. It is impossible to follow with very much detail the last fifteen years of his life, The facts are too little 7 The Life and Writings of known and have, so far as known, too great likeness to warrant minute statement. He continued his numerous excursions to the very last, and during these journeys always explored new regions. These few years sufficed to take him to nearly all the Middle Atlantic States and furnished him with very many opportunities to study the mountain flora of the northern Appalachians. Some of his larger works were composed in great part during these last years, and a number of them were published. From the time he left Transylvania University he ex- perienced considerable difficulty in getting his numerous papers published; very many of them never would have seen the light in printed form, were it not that he es- sayed the establishment of one or two literary and scien- tific periodicals. These, like his earlier adventure of similar nature in Sicily, came to sudden ends, through failure of subscribers to pay, and through failure of publishers to print without cash payment. Some litcr- ary enterprises, extensive in nature, for which he was not well equipped either in training or in means, were projected, and some, like his "Tellus," were to compass the whole world in their scope. This last ambitious project was partially consummated, and is represented by two volumes, printed in Philadelphia, in i836. The widest possible range of subjects is included within his 50 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. St writings of these years, testifying strongly to his ina- bility to concentrate his mind and work. The most interesting fact connected with this por- tion of the career of Rafinesque is his attempted appli- cation of his medical information to the treatment of consumption. He has commonly been regarded as a "quack" during this part of his life. However he was far from such in fact. There is the essential distinction, first of all, that Rafinesque really believed in his medi- cines and in his treatment. In his will may be found a paragraph to which attention is directed in this con- nection. For some years he had made and advertised a medicine, sold in several forms, to which he gave the name of "Pulmel," and concerning the virtues of which he wrote a book. His methods, then novel -and Rafin- esque always seemed to be in the lead in novelties- were not at all unlike those now adopted by respectable firms for the advertisement of their own nostrums. He published a number of statements of cures, reliefs, and similar matters, just as is now done under cover of the certification of a reputable physician. While it is prob- able his decoctions and pills and powders possessed very little therapeutic value, it is not quite clear that they were less valuable than many that now are heralded, world- wide, as possessing virtues and powers that are incredible. The Life and Wrifings of It should also be remembered that Rafinesque was driven by the necessities of a poverty almost unspeakable, in the midst of a city of plenty, to do some things with his "Pulmel" which he probably never would have done under any ordinary circumstances. The determination to owe no man anything; to secure the publication of his books; to get and arrange new plants and other nat- ural history objects; to complete the exploration of the northern Alleghanies, were all-controlling motives with him. It was not sordid gain that drove him to medical concoctions, but a sincere desire to get by fair means, in an honorable way, the opportunity to do good and be of service to mankind. I believe that Rafinesque did good as he understood and felt it; that he had a nature sus- ceptible of appreciating kindnesses, and that, in his way and to the best of his knowledge, he was of a philan- thropic mould. OI this particular episode in the life of Rafinesque it would be well, perhaps, to allow him to speak. He says : "Having cured myself completely in i828 of my chronic com- plaint, which was the fatal Phthisis, caused by my disappointments, fatigues, and the unsteady climate; which my knowledge in medical botany enabled me to subdue and effect a radical cure: I entered into arrangements for establishing a Chemical manufacture of veg- etable remedies against the different kinds of Consumption. This Life of Travels, p. 87. 52 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 53 succeeded well. I introduced also a new branch of medical knowl- edge and art. I became a Pulmist, who attended only to diseases of the lungs, as a Dentist attends only to the teeth. Being thus the first Pulmist, and perhaps the only one here or elsewhere. This new Profession changed my business for awhile; yet enabling me to travel again in search of plants or to spread my practice, and to put my collections in better order, publishing many pam- phlets, c. "In i829 I gave a public proof of my art, in printing a small book called the Pulmist or the art to cure the Consumption, and many hundreds of individuals, whom I have cured or relieved are another striking proof of the beneficial results of my new practice." Rafinesque did not entirely abandon pedagogy when he left Kentucky. In the winter of i826-27 he lectured on physical geography and natural history in the Franklin Institute, and afterward, during part of i827, was "pro- fessor of Geography and Drawing in the High school of This book, the full title of which will be found in the bibliography accompanying this sketch, was caustically reviewed by the editor of " The Western Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences," Volume III, i830, ArS7 TR, ACC Theo rpvewe i inrlided in st qeriec lhestdd 11The- Penplt-e Doctors," which deals with books of a character similar to that of Rafinesque. The most remarkable thing connected with the review lies in the fact that its author, Doctor Daniel Drake, had never seen the volume! He says, p. 417: "We have not had the advantage of seeing the Professor's 'doctor book,' the title of which is prefixed to this article, but his circular lies before us...." I have no defense for Rafinesque's foolish book, with the contents of which I am familiar, but I can not enter too strong a protest against treatment of this sort, and against reviews by reviewers, who have never seen the works of which they write. But this method has not been confined to the doctors, evidently, as a perusal of some of the articles in the " Rafinesquiana" herewith published will abundantly testify. The Lafe and Writings of 54 the same Institution." In September of the same year he left this post, and so far as known never again entered a class-room as instructor. Ill health seriously interfered with all his manifold occupations, but he still kept on writing, amassing notes, publishing fragmentary articles, and devoting not a little time to inventions and to his medical business. THE SIX PER CENT SAVINGS BANK. Probably the most interesting business adventure of Rafinesque during these later years was the proposal, elaboration and establishment of a kind of savings bank which he called the Divitial Institution and Six Per Cent Savings Bank. This institution had been a favorite scheme for quite ten years before final organi- zation. The men who went into the scheme were all men of small holdings; wealthy people would nave nothing to do with it. It paid stockholders six per cent, and loaned money at the same interest rate. The first year of its operation the bank divided a dividend of nine per cent among the stockholders. How money could be borrowed at six per cent, loaned at six per cent, and current expenses be paid, does not appear, unless, indeed, "the commissions, fines, and casualities", Constan/ine Samuel Rafinesque. which he mentions, proved a prolific source of income! Many similar institutions were proposed and established at this time in Philadelphia, but Rafinesque lumps them all together and declares that they were all gambling institutions. The bank was still in existence at the death of Rafinesque, but nothing can be learned of its real history. It is not a little singular that the earliest and the latest business ventures of Rafinesque alone appear to have succeeded. All the rest is a record of continuous failure. THE DEATH OF RAFINESQUE. The closing scenes in the life of this man are of the saddest nature imaginable. He lived in the most abject poverty on Race Street, Philadelphia, in a garret, sur- rounded by his books, minerals, plants and other loved naitura-l Ahiebs. He shunned the company of Others- and had no, or but few, real and tried friends. Scientific recluse that he was in these days, there were none to care for him and help him in time of want. His scientific loves were still strong, and he struggled along in the unequal battle with fortune in the face of a disease which had no relief save in death. The end came in 1840, when, alone in his crowded garret, in a poor quarter of the great city, he died of cancer of the stomach. 55 The Life and Wrifings of Language can not adequately portray the emotions that arise as these words are written. Here was a man who for years had loved and wooed that coy goddess whom we call Nature; a man who had the soul to appreciate both her richness and her profligacy; whose varied for- tunes, both in letters and in means, seem as the details of a romance; he had at last paid the penalty of being a part of that same Nature. He died without a word to cheer him, without a tear shed for him. Rafinesquel The name had gone to every land where science is cul- tivated. Rafinesque! The name had been bandied about in jest and contumely by those who should have hailed him as brother. Rafinesque! Dead! He yet lives and will live as long as plants shall be studied and classified; as long as fishes shall unwittingly fall in the net of the searcher; as long as the waters of the West shall give life to mollusks; as long as changing stream or fleeting cloud or moving star shall bear a message to men. Long may the name of him who studied them all and loved them all and understood them all be revered by those who regard the labors of the pioneer! Rafinesque had been dead to the world of brightest minds for some years. The experiences through which he had passed, which involved some of the saddest that come to men, had so broken him that there is little 56 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 57 question but that he was not of sound mind during these latest years. He was not, however, the irrespon- sible madman some would have us believe; rather, his was monomania, and took the direction of descriptions of new forms of animal and plant life. But, more than this, his defect was that peculiar form of monomania which believed only in himself; which saw in his own work a value that does not always attach to it; which made him neglect the work of others, or, if it were noticed, impelled him to caustic and unwise criticism. It is related of his burial, that when a few men, what- ever the motive that prompted them may have been, learned of his death and assembled to give the dead decent entombment, his landlord refused permission of burial; he hoped to find a market for the body in a medical school, and thus obtain the rental Rafinesque could not pay when living. The body had been locked : - ____ J :: -41.,:_ -.1.:1. 1 1.tIL . .1 ,. LU" a JVVW aUJVULkiAs L11ctL, LI 1 I"ItIL Ut4at'lU J.aU LULU, LiIt door was forced open in the presence of his last and faithful friend, Doctor William Mease, and an under- taker by the name of Bringhurst; and what remained of Rafinesque was let down by ropes into the back yard and then conveyed to its resting-place. This statement was first published in the Philadelphia Ledger Supple- ment, May 5, I877. It is reproduced entirely in the American Naturalist, i877, Vol. XI, pp. 574, 575. Vide " Rafinesquiana " at the end of this volume. 8 The Life and Writings of The unfortunate naturalist lies buried in Ronaldson's Cemetery, Ninth and Catherine streets, Philadelphia. In i86i the place was marked by a plain board slab on which was painted simply "C. S. R." To-day the spot where he was buried is unmarked. DISPOSITION OF THE PROPERTY OF RAFINESQUE. All that Rafinesque possessed in the world is summed up as personal property in the items of his will. When it was learned that he was dead and that his property would be sold at public auction, there was an unseemly haste on the part of some persons to get possession of his treasures, whatever they were. Eight dray loads of books and natural history collections comprised the mass of his "estate". They went to the auction rooms of the city and were publicly sold, in violation of the provisions of his will, which required private sale. There is no intimation in the return of the executors that any attempt was made to comply with its requirements. His manuscripts on archaologic subjects were bought by Professor S. S. Haldeman, and eventually found their way, most of them, into the hands of Brantz Mayer, of Baltimore, formerly consul for the United States to Mexico. Thence many finally reached the United States Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 59 National Museum at Washington, where some are still preserved. The National Museum possesses also several note-books in which are recorded Rafinesque's observa- tions during some of his numerous travels; in addition, there are an unpublished paper on the fishes of New York and Pennsylvania, and the manuscript of a pro- posed "Conchologia Ohiensis," Many of the archeologic manuscripts of Rafinesque eventually found their way into the hands of Squier and Davis, the authors of the immortal "Ancient Monu- ments of the Mississippi Valley". Such parts as suited their purpose these gentlemen employed in its compi- lation. Most of this work of Rafinesque on the ancient peoples of America seems to have disappeared from view in Baltimore. The collections of Rafinesque had suffered much from neglect and inability properly to care for them. Labels were lost and misplaced; indeed most of the mineral and conchologic materials were entirely without labels, and were sold for mere trifles. The botanical collections were badly injured by mice and other vermin, and were in sad condition; most of the plant collection sold as waste paper. A few good specimens were secured by Mr. Isaac Burk, and by him presented to the University of Penn- sylvania, where, it is to be presumed, they still are. A The Life and Wrifings of considerable collection of plants, named and studied by Rafinesque, may be seen in the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris, where they form a portion of the Herbier Durand. Mr. William Hembel presented to the Philadelphia Acad- emy of Natural Sciences that portion of the herbarium of Rafinesque which contained the plants on which were based the descriptive portions of the Medical Flora. These descriptions are said to possess very great value to-day, and it is very agreeable to know that the plants are still in existence. They, together with other valuable European and Oriental plants, had been purchased at the sale of the estate of their owner. A collection of Annelides, or marine worms, made by Rafinesque, also found its way into the Philadelphia Academy's collec- tions. The rest are gone forever; that they really possessed value is uncertain. The books which Rafinesque left appear to have been especially the quest of the greedy purchasers who attended the sale. Some were sold at private terms, as the will directs that all should be, but most of them went at public auction. The return of the executors, appended to the will, demonstrates that the Medical Flora, pub- lished in two volumes, had certain value. One man, a tiide "A Notice of the Origin, Progress, and Present Condition of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia." By W. S. W. Ruschenberger, M. D., I852, p. 27. Cons/a ntne Samuel Rafinesque. physician, "took eight copies ", another took "a lot ". The books are now much sought after and possess a certain intrinsic value which did not then seem to be appreciated. The final settlement of the estate left it indebted to the administrator in the sum of fourteen dollars and forty- three cents. Rafinesque appears to have been despoiled of his rights in nomenclature while living; he was despoiled of his possessions when dead. THE PERSONAL APPEARANCE OF RAFINESQUE. There are living very few persons who have seen Rafinesque. But since interest always attaches to the physique of remarkable men, the attempt was made to obtain descriptive accounts from such as still might be alive. In this matter there has been a certain measure of success. The portraits which accompany this work Wii disciusea UL'Lt-: I tCb L. The published description of Rafinesque by Audubon has long been the only source of information as to his personality, and is reproduced here because chronologic- ally the first. Audubon writes as follows: "A long loose coat of yellow nankeen, much the worse of the many rubs it had got in its time, and stained all over with the juice Vide Ornithological Biography, Vol. I, p. 456. 62 The Life and Writings of of plants, hung loosely about him like a sack. A waistcoat of the same, with enormous pockets, and buttoned up to the chin, reached below over a pair of tight pantaloons, the lower part of which were buttoned down to the ancles. His beard was as long as I have known my own to be during some of my perigrinations, and his lank black hair hung loosely over his shoulders. His forehead was so broad and prominent that any tyro in phrenology would instantly have pronounced it the residence of a mind of strong power. His words impressed an assurance of rigid truth, and as he directed the conver- sation to the study of the natural sciences, I listened to him with as much delight as Telemachus could have listened to Mentor." In regarding this description it should be remembered that Rafinesque had reached Henderson after a long and varied journey down the Ohio. The " ark ", in which he last had voyaged, had not the means of polite toilet making; soiled clothing and unkempt beard, in a river village of Kentucky, in i8i8, should have excited neither comment nor wonder. A delightful and authentic account of Rafinesque, not as a rambling collector merely; hut Ps a college pro- fessor, has been furnished me by one whose mother knew Rafinesque. The account is given exactly as it came to the writer. Says this lady: "There are few persons now living who remember Professor Rafinesque. My mother, then a girl of ten or twelve years of age, recalls him distinctly, and describes him, as did all I have ever heard speak of him, as a most eccentric person; his extreme 'absent- Miss Johanna Peter, of Lexington, in lilt. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 63 mindedness' contributing to his foreign ways to make him pecul- iar. His students were not slow to perceive that he made an excellent target for their practical jokes, and having but small esteem in those days for natural science as compared with class- ical attainments, they showed him little respect. His lecture room was the scene of the most free and easy behavior, made possible by the total absorption in his subject of the lecturer, who was always totally oblivious to his surroundings when occupied with his favorite pursuits. In appearance Professor Rafinesque was small and slender, with delicate and refined hands and small feet. His features were good and his eyes handsome and dark, or apparently so from the long, dark eye-lashes. His hair, which he wore long, was dark and silky. He went into society while in Lexington and was a good dancer but had no companions, being totally abstracted, usually, with his own thoughts and having no conversation, although he spoke good English, save on his favorite topics of botany, etc. On these he was an enthusiast. He was a clever draughtsman and often made sketches of persons in his company. Mrs. Holly, the wife of the President, took a motherly supervision over this lone, friendless, little creature, while at Transylvania University, and saw that he ate his dinner, that the mud of his various expeditions was removed from his garments, that his hair was combed and his face was washed nq often na-v nr al1 of three p-iculars woukl ue for- gotten by the oblivious scientist.... For my own part I always felt sorry for poor Rafinesque, because he was a stranger and because all the young people made jokes at his expense. These he is said never to have noticed apparently, but I believe a man of his fine mind must have felt more than he showed. At any rate he appreciated kindness that was shown him although he knew none of the arts that make a man popular. He was well known to my grandmother and to my great-grandfather, Samuel Meredith, who then lived at this old country place, "Winton," where I am writing. Rafinesque often walked here from Lexington, The Life and Writings of seven miles, in search of specimens which he found in North Elkhorn creek and to investigate the ancient Indian forts which traverse this farm." A second valuable account has been furnished by General George W. Jones, of Dubuque, Iowa, who was a student in Transylvania University from i82I to i825. He writes: " I recollect the learned Professor Rafinesque perfectly well and his physiognomy and general appearance are now visible to my mind's eye. He was in personal stature about the size and appear- ance of my deceased friend, the late John Quincy Adams, but I think he had a full suit of hair and black eyes. . . . Professor Rafinesque had a room in College proper, and was a man of peculiar habits and was very eccentric, but was to me one of the most interesting men I have ever known." And again, in a letter replying to questions con- nected with the genuineness of one of the portraits of Rafinesque, which is published in connection with this memoir, General Jones writes: " I do not think that either of the pictures of Professor Rafin- esquet represents him correctly as I remember him when I knew him as Professor of Natural History in Transylvania University, in Lexington, Kentucky, from i82I to July, 1825. The photograph is certainly a better likeness than the other picture. I never saw him Letters dated August 25 and August 30, I894. tThese were a photograph of the painting of Rafinesque in the Wisconsin Historical Society, and said to have been made by the celebrated Jouett, and the portrait of Rafinesque published by the Popular Science Monthly in April, 1892. The Popular Science Monthly portrait appears to have been copied, Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 65 dressed so finely or so fashionably as this photo represents, for he was an extremely eccentric man in his dress, as well as in his manners, and was always the object of ridicule by the younger students of the University. They would fill his room with smoke from cigars at night when he would leave it. I was always very intimate in the family of President Holly and know that Professor Rafinesque was always a favorite in his house and especially with Mrs. Holly, who was one of the most excellent and charming, intel- ligent ladies that I ever knew." Still another account, kindly furnished by one who often saw him and to whose home Rafinesque frequently came, differs in some minor details from the preceding. This account says: "As I recall the old man he was a small, peculiar looking Italian, with a large, rather bald, head and stooping figure, very scientific, absorbed in his books and his bugs, his researches and his writings, a genius with many peculiarities and not much dignity. . . . I don't know where or how he got his meals. His room was in the College building and was a curiosity, filled with butterflies and bugs and all sorts of queer things. The students played tricks upon him, and the ;ungui1, a;;;ul byU hiU fui1Uiy was).. it: b=WCUULO me an amiable gentleman, an innocent, inoffensive sort of man, hardly appreciated at the time...." A single other account, by a former student at Tran- sylvania University, may prove of use in relation to the without credit, and with some modifications, from the one published in Pot- ler's American AMonthly, Volume VI, 1S76. The last mentioned was made fromm a painting owned by Doctor William Kent Gilbert, of Philadelphia. This painting is a reproduction of the portrait of Rafinesque which fornis the frontispiece to the "Analysis of Nature". 9 .Nke L6fe and Wriings of physique and habits of Rafinesque. For it I am in- debted to the courtesy of Judge Belvard J. Peters, of Mt. Sterling, Kentucky. He says: "I was a member of the graduating class of i825, with Geu'l G. W. Jones, in the Transylvania University, Kentucky. I remember Professor Rafinesque, and my recollection is he was a man of low stature, not mnore than 5 feet io inches in height, strongly built, and capable of great physical force; his head rather larger than usual, square shoulders but not stooped, dark grey eyes, and dark hair. While there wsas nothing in his countenance inviting to stran- gers, there was absolutely nothing forbidding. His face was far from being ruddy; but pale or perhaps wan is the best word, indicat- ing to me that his color was the result of hard study, for he was a great student. He seemed to nme to be careless of his style of dressing, indeed, his clothes never fitted him and appeared to have been made for some one else and lie got them by accident. I think he was not a cheerful man. I have no recollection of having ever seen him enjoy a hearty laugh (as we Kentuckians would say). He was an eccentric mnani, doubtless as much so as any account you have of him represents him to have been. I never heard, and do not believe, that his relations with Prest. Holly, or any of his on1legc11P, were ilnnlpAnt T never ___ nor dId ever hTer of any such trouble. Prest. H., as I understood, was a Unitarian and Professor Bishop was a Scotchman and Presbyterian of the straightest sect, and but little intercourse [existed] betwcen them. Prest. Holly was the victim of persecutions of Presbyterian and Baptist preachers, the first named the most bitter. They never ceased their war upon him until they forced him to resign in the Spring of 1827, and he was elected President of the New Orleans College, and in July, I827, he took yellow fever, on shipboard, going from New Orleans to Boston, and died 3Ist July, i827. His body i In lit., dated Septembl)er 2.1, 1894. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 67 was committed to the deep, 'the Scholar's cloak was his winding sheet, the ocean his grave, and the towering rocks of the Tortugas his monument.' . . . But to quit this episode and return to the Professor. i do not remember ever to have heard hinm lecture. He was professor of Geology, but I think Botany was his favorite study. He spent inuch time in the mountains of Kentucky and in investi- gating the quality of the different soils and their adaptability to the production of various plants. vegetables, etc." From these facts it would appear that, for some reason, Rafinesque had changed his feeling of friendliness into one of hostility to Doctor Holly, and that this new condition was not justified. The account Judge Peters has so kindly furnished helps us to understand the wonderful physical force which must have been Rafin- esque's, for he toiled always and without apparent rest. No ordinary physique could have endured such cease- less activity, performed such arduous journeys, collected such numbers of natural objects, prepared so many arti- cles for publication, and filled so completely the post of professor. He most certainly was a man of indomitable will, of unbounded enthusiasm, of great energy. These are his virtues. On them we are content to rest his case. THE PORTRAITS OF RAFINESQUE. The portraits of Rafinesque, which we present in this volume, have an interesting history. The frontispiece represents the author of the "Analyse de la Nature" as he The Li/e and Wri/ings of appeared in Sicily, in i8io, and, therefore, at the age of twenty-seven years. It is a reproduction of the portrait of Rafinesque which constitutes the frontispiece of that volume. On it was based the painting owned by Doctor William Kent Gilbert, of Philadelphia, which is repro- duced by Chase in his sketch of Rafinesque in Potter's American AMonthly, previously mentioned. The portrait as there presented loses some of its charm and its unique character. The picture is a very interesting one in that it so well shows some of the peculiar features thus early developing in the mental life of the naturalist. The wide range which his studies and his activities already had assumed is indicated by the ornamentation of the plate. Modelling his work after Linnoeus he sought to establish it on probity and philosophy. They con- stitute the foundation stones of the character which he hoped to build. The birds of the air, the animals and plhtq nf die fields,, the fishes- atid molusks of Lli waters, are all included in the illustration as reminders of the diverse directions in which his energies had been expended. He was a merchant, and the son of a mer- chant; he had been a traveller; and so, in the offing, there appears a ship under full sail. A happy conceit this, if we only pardon the bit of personal vanity which it implies. 68 FROM THE PAINTING BY JOUETT IN THE WISCONSIN HISTORICAL SOCIETY'S COLLECTION. 7, 1 0,1( 1,.,A This page in the original text is blank. RAFINESQUE'S SCIENTIFIC WRITINGS. This page in the original text is blank. Rafinesque's Scientific XWritings. U NDER the most favorable circumstances it often becomes very difficult properly to estimate the scientific work of a pioneer in natural science. And when that work consists largely of papers printed in scattered magazines, some of which do not possess a dis- tinctively scientific character, the task becomes doubly difficult. In the case of the work of Rafinesque it is not only that he published in magazines of this ephem- eral character, but that his work pertains to two conti- nents, which makes the final estimate extremely difficult. His papers are now rare, notwithstanding the great liberality with which he distributed them among scien- tific men. He disdained beautv and conventinnlit y ignored typographical art, and his larger works, books, and extended memoirs, were printed mostly in small and cheap editions, and none of them may be regarded justly as fair exhibitions of the book-maker's art. Rafinesque's literary activity began in i803, when he published his first paper, a work devoted to notes on certain birds, which he had seen in Peale's Museum, I0 7he L fe anid WErifings of in Philadelphia, and extends uninterruptedly until I840, the vear of his death. The number and character of his papers differ in such marked manner that there may be recognized, justly, three separate periods, during each one of which his work had a distinguishing char- acter. The first mnay be said to comprehend all the published work of Rafinesque during his Sicilian resi- dence; the second, and also the period of most valu- able literary effort, will include the years of residence in Lexington; the third, the period of vagaries, will comprehend the fifteen years of second residence in Philadelphia. Under these three major classifications, then, we will attempt an analysis of his scientific writings. SCIENTIFIC WORK IN SICILY. The work of Rafinesque on the fishes of the Medi- terranean Sea, ill that portion which borders Sicilvy was the first of its kind to possess any, really scientific, value. Many new species and genera of fishes were discovered by him; and the results of considerable of his ichthyologic work are still held to be valid. This work was accomplished while Rafinesque was yet a young man. He had gone to Sicily fired with a love for every thing natural; his zeal had been intensified 74 Constantine .Samvte Rafinesque. 75 by a few years' residence in the United States, during which period he was associated with our earliest natu- ralists, who had, at least, that enthusiasm which always results from work in a virgin field. His new surround- ings were full of incentives to work; his early training had disposed him to wide observation; successful busi- ness ventures had provided means for travel and collec- tion; a famous naturalist, Swainson, was with him, to encourage and to help. Add to these the fact that the fishes and shells, the plants and the animals of the land were unknown, or, if known, were not fully understood, and the extraordinary character of much of Rafinesque's work will be explained. In the midst of a profligate Nature he saw, on every hand, subjects for note and formal memoir. During this period of his scientific life those discursive habits of thought, which must result from a training such as he had received, rendered less exact a pen that otherwise might have done valuable service in the cause of origiual iihuiaii kilowledge. The published work of Rafinesque on the Sicilian fishes departed widely from the accustomed methods of study and classification, which had obtained in Europe, and especially among the French savants. He made careful notes, that is as careful as Rafinesque ever made, of the objects he described, from the fresh and living The Life and Wri/ings of specimens. The markets and the fishermen furnished his materials. He borrowed, from the work of others, information and facts as suited his purposes; he was not always as careful to give full credit, as is the modern writer, to the sources of his information. This sub- jected him to severe criticism; yet, be it remembered, little had previously been learned concerning his field of work. Cuvier, a great naturalist, but one who was entitled also to the appellation of "closet naturalist" more justly, perhaps, than any other man of his day, finds fault with Rafinesque for divers reasons. The criticism which he offered is the first severe one that had occurred in contemporaneous literature. He said of Rafinesque's "Indice d'Ittiologia Szcilzana". " He has besides entered in his catalogue, without examination, all the species given by Laceped6 and Linnaus as belonging to the Mediterranean, which has caused him to reckon several which are purely imaginary, and this extends even to his genera: thus his Aodon, taken from LacepedW, is the Raie cephalop/ere; his Macro- rha,77,c tri.... From -, fue a_ .. i; ih c astzL3LaS. He has greatly multiplied the genera, and sometimes on slight grounds; so that, without reckoning those which are not inhabitants of the Mediter- ranean, there arc I39; and yet, notwithstanding his readiness to make these divisions, he has not done so in circumstances in which it would be imperatively commanded by the laws of classification. He leaves, for instance, the anchovy in the herring genus, and the plaice in that of the sole; while of the single Linnean genus SZqualus he has made sixteen." "These two works are, nevertheless," con- Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 77 tinues Cuvier, " very worthy of attention, on account of some original ideas, and of the descriptions and figures of the fishes themselves, which are to be found nowhere else. The author also has paid attention to the Sicilian names of most of his species." Of this work of Rafinesque on the fishes of Sicily, perhaps no better judge could be found than Swainson himself, the companion and friend of Rafinesque. He was familiar both with the objects described, and the conditions under which they came to the hand of their nomenclator. Says Swainson, in a defense of the work of Rafinesque: 'The year i8io was remarkable in the annals of our science for the appearance of two important works on the ichthyology of the Mediterranean; one was by M. Rafinesque Schmaltz,t subse- quently Professor of Natural History in Lexington, U. S ; the other, relative chiefly to the fishes of Nice, was from the pen of M. Risso. The first of these is of much importance; and from particular circumstances, will claim more of our attention than would at first appear necessary. M. Rafinesque's Sicilian works are now become so very scarce (the greater part of the unsold copies having been lost at sea), that few naturalists will have the power of consulting them. His chief ichthyological work is a synopsis of 'New Genera and Species of Animals and Plants' found by the author in Sicily; Quoted by Swainson in Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, Vol. I, p. 6o, 1838-1839. t Rafinesque says, in his " Life of Travels ", p. 34: " Prudent considerations had already induced me to add the name of Schmaltz, my mother's name, to my own and to pass for an American." These considerations are, properly, to be connected with the Sicilian and French wars of his time. Tr/lC Life and I'i1)'i/ngs of 78 and this was followed by a pamphlet entitled 'hIdi'c d'IRtiologia Siciliana'. The details of the new views of M. Rafinesque, in regard to classification, are too long to be inserted in this volume, but they will be occasionally adverted to. The faults that have been dwelt upon in these two works are such as all authors, even M. Cuvier himself, is not exempt from; they seem to us, in short, too trivial for the notice of the historian, and too general to be affixed to any one author in particular. We freely admit that M. Rafinesque (then living, as we were, in a remote part of Europe, cut off, by the late war, from all intercourse with the Continent) was not well informed upon the current and almost daily discoveries going on there; and that some few of his species, then supposed new, were really not so: but who is exempt from such errors, if errors they are or how are such co-incidents to be prevented, when naturalists, in distant places, and unknown to each other, are working at the same time on the same subject On the other hand, it must not be concealed that M. Rafinesque anticipated, by nearly ten years, a very large proportion of the generic and subgeneric distinctions subsequently taken up in the Regne Animal, in the first edition of which it is clear that its learned author was totally unacquainted with the works above mentioned, or that he was unconsciously repeating, under new names, a considerable number of the genera and subgenera long before established in the volumes of Professor Rafinesque. It would have been well had these unintentional errors been rectified in the second edition, or in the general ichthyological work of MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes; but they are not so; and naturalists will judge how far this is consonant with common justice, or with that law of priority which is the only safe-guard to the reputation we all covet. The generic characters of Rafinesque are as simple and intelligible as those of Linnaeus, and the derivation of their names strictly classical and euphonious. In regard to the majority of "'Mentioned above in the extract relating to Cuvier's criticisms. [R. E. C.] Cons/anfine .Samiel Rafinesque. 79 those species which have been termed 'imaginary', or inaccurately described, our firm conviction is, that nearly all, eventually, will be as fully established as those of the best known in our systems. We have formed this opinion, not from theory, but from actual obser- vation, and from having verified, in many instances, the validity of Rafinesque's characters. The truth is, that Sicily is perhaps the richest field for the ichthyologist, of any yet explored in the Medi- terranean, in whose warm and prolific waters, washing the tranquil shores of so many islands, an immense variety of fish are constantly found. Besides these two works, more especially devoted to the ichthyology of Sicily, many other papers by the same author are scattered in the periodical publications of Palermo; and he has also given a most original and valuable account of the fishes of the great river Ohio." The same writer gives additional information, in the form of a foot-note, that is quite useful in determining the character of Rafinesque's methods during the time he studied the fishes of Sicily. Says he: " In further justification of the opinions here advanced, it may be proper for me to state that I had the pleasure of M. Rafinesque's 6ut.et:y, Uuiing Lhe Gliie ycain Uti my uaflkael UIuce1 ill oicm'I , from i807 to i8io, and again in i8I2, when we were both at Palermo, prosecuting our botanical and ichthyological researches together. Circumstances have hitherto prevented me from giving them to the public; but an extensive series of drawings and descriptions, made from the life, of the Sicilian fishes, not only confirms the accuracy of M. Rafinesque, in many instances where he has been charged with error, but affords strong ground for believing that one half of the Sicilian species, said to be found also in the Atlantic Ocean, Britain, etc., are, in reality, quite distinct. M. Rafinesque, unfortu- 80 The Life and Wrizngs of tiately, was unable to publish more than a synopsis of his ichthyo- logical discoveries; and his figures, being very slight, are often not calculated to clear up those doubts which the brevity of his descrip- tions sometimes creates; nevertheless, to one who examines the species on the spot, in a fresh state, there are few which may not be identified. M. Cuvier often asserts that all M. Rafinesque's species were described from preserved specimens, but this is an error- they were all taken from the life. We both used to frequent the fish-markets, and we procured all our specimens there, or from fishermen who were in our employ. I was frequently urgent with my friend to preserve, at least, such as were the most remarkable of his new genera, anticipating the incredulity that has since been attached to them; but this advice, unfortunately, he never adopted. The greater part of those which I examined, after being drawn and described, were thrown away, or eaten; a military life not being suited to the formation of such collections; but manv of those species met with near Palermo, were preserved in spirits and sent to the British and Zoological Museums; few, however, of these are now in existence. One cause, perhaps, of the errors of M. Cuvier regarding the Mediterranean fishes, may be that he had only examined preserved specimens, either distorted by stuffing, or bleached and shrivelled by alcohol; so that it becomes often difficult to recognise the most common species. If I have dwelt too long n- narc Ac JA anii caiiUiU ieadUi win; excuse me; it has originated in my desire to do adequate, though tardy, justice to one whose whole life has been devoted to science, and who has been singularly unfortunate in his worldly concerns; who, notwithstanding his eccentricities, has a kind and benevolent heart; and whose labours have never been appreciated as I think they deserve." It is with some marked degree of pleasure that, to this favorable estimate of Swainson on the value of Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. Rafinesque's work, there is to be added the statement that, almost yearly, in some one or another of the scientific journals and periodicals, or in the proceedings of learned societies, occasional recognition is accorded to some of the genera established by Rafinesque's Sicilian work. Gradually the real, underlying facts are coming to be known, and when known there are not wanting men to do him justice. A feeling quite distinct from that which prompted the adverse criticisms of Cuvier is apparent in the work even of those who refuse to allow him his names; they attempt, at least, to understand the work which this pioneer in Sicilian ichthyology had accomplished. The study of the fishes of Sicily is almost the sole zoological work of real and lasting value performed by Rafinesque while a resident of that country. It formed the ground-work of the whole subsequent superstructure; it was the first one to illustrate the forms described. It partakes of the fault common to all the natural history work of the time, in that the generic and specific diag- noses are brief, and altogether unsatisfactory, when meas- ured by modern standards. But it was a pioneer study; it became the real foundation of all that followed it. One of the more interesting facts connected with this work of Rafinesque consists in the circumstance that II 8i [he Life (ind Writings of he early recognized the artificial character of the Lin- nean system in use in the classification of plants. He was a close student of Jussieu, upon whose system most of his own botanical work was based. During the period of these Sicilian publications Rafinesque pro- posed various arrangements and methods of classifica- tion, not alone of plants but of all organized bodies. It hardly need be said that these systems were not checked by that wide observation, and by that careful comparison of material, gathered from all the quarters of the globe, which alone could make a system of per- manent value. His schemes experienced the same fate that all systems, which are based upon limited obser- vation, must have befall them. They are regarded now as scientific curiosities. Of these Rafinesque's Prznczpes Fondamentaux de Somzologze, etc., and his Ordini El/ro- logici o Definirionz Ordini, etc., easily have the first place. Numerous articles of similar character may be noted in the Specchio delle Sczenze, etc.; the Analysis of Na- ture, or Survey of the Universe and the Organzzed Beings, is an elaborate attempt of the same import. Another literary venture of Rafinesque, in this period of Sicilian residence, was the proposed reprint or reissue of the Panphyton Sziulunm of Cupani. This famous and rare work was found by Rafinesque in the library Cons/antine Samuel Rafinesque. of the Jesuit Fathers, at Palermo. With the design of making it more accessible to others he had the entire work copied "on oil paper at great expence". Some- thing like one hundred and twenty of the seven hun- dred plates he had engraved; most of them were devoted to the illustration of Sicilian plants. The work was never completed; all that is known of the venture is the statement by Rafinesque, in his "Life of Travels", that these plates wvent down in the Race Rock ship- wreck off New London. The idea of a complete copy of this work, made in the manner described, seems to have had its inception in another plan of Rafinesque to monograph the natural history of Sicily entirely and completely. Most of the leisure of the ten years' resi- dence in the island was devoted to the collection and study of natural objects with the one purpose, ever in mind, of some day completing this self-imposed task. In some certain sense this will account for the wide range over which his studies and writings, at that time, extended. Much of his work finally found its way into print through the medium of various scientific journals, and through the medium of the journal which Rafinesque himself established, and carried to the comple- tion of the second volume, the Specchio delle Sczenze, etc. Writing on many subjects, and without monographic The Life and Writings of care, it is not wonderful that many papers published during this time possess so little real value. An episode of considerable interest occurred in the last year of Rafinesque's Sicilian residence. It was the reception of his first diploma of membership in a learned societv. The Academy of Natural Sciences of Naples bestowed the honor. The item is insignificant in itself, but it seems to have aroused a desire in him for other similar honors. The method by which some of these doubtless were secured may be gathered from a letter by Rafinesque, published a few years since.' This letter is here presented in full, not only for the reason above assigned, but also because it indicates that Rafin- esque had in mind, for the cryptogamia at least, an extensive work on American plants, and thus helps to a further understanding of the wide range of his literary efforts. The letter runs as follows: PALERMO, Tan. 28, Trn DOCTOR M. CUTLER. Dear Sir: -I had the pleasure to receive last month, via Mar- seilles, your esteemed favor of 8th May last, and being the first that reached me from you since I am in Europe, you may easily conceive how gratifying it has been. I perceive by it that you had formerly wrote me and sent me some plants via Leghorn, which both never came to hand, and I regret it exceedingly, but have no Life, Journal, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, L,. D. Vol. II, pp. 3I1-314. i888. Robert Clarke Co., Cincinnati. 84 Consfanhte Samuel Rafinesque. 85 doubt but that the next parcel you have the goodness to promise me will make up that loss. " I feel very sorry for the disorders you have experienced and regret that, conjointly with some business, they have prevented you to arrange your herbarium and favor us with another essay on the plants of New England, but trust that God will grant you health and leisure to accomplish both, and hope that you will at least favor me with the catalogue and descriptions promised; they will be gratefully acknowledged and mentioned when I shall publish my travels and essays on the Nat'l Hist. of the Plants of the U. S., and expect soon to receive the plants you mention to prepare, one of which you say is a new genus, and if it be correct I am willing to name it Cutlera, and alter the other plant named so. I trust you will renew occasionally, or at least once every year, sending me a large parcel of plants; you know already most of those I want, but to refresh your memory you will find hereunder the names of the principals, as well as the names of the plants lost in the passage, which I don't doubt you will have the goodness to collect for me this season. My friends, Messrs Dawes, Ingersoll, etc., of Boston, who propose returning to Sicily this year, will by my desire acquaint you with the time of their departure. Any Captain coming from Salem to Palermo, and they are many in the course of the year, will also willingly take charge of such things for me, and in default you may address any package or letter to my friends here-under mentioned in several ports of the Mediterranean. "In return of your kindness, and according to your desire, I now send you a parcel of Sicily plants, to which I join a few specimens of n. sp. of American plants, such as I can conveniently spare. Here-under you have the particulars of same. I hope they will prove acceptable. Among the Sicilian plants there are many new sp. I have discovered. I am sorry to say I have no curious seed to join to them at present. I inclose three copper plates of as many new American criptogamic Genera Carpanthus, Volvaria, 86 The Life and Wrifings of and Aedyeio. I get many others engraved here, and intend they should make part of an essay on the natural history of American fungi, that I shall publish in more peaceable times. I shall make it a point to forward you my productions. I contemplate a natural history of all the vegetables ini America, and perhaps the animals likewise, and whatever communications on those beings you may choose to make will he highly acceptable. "My leisure is now wholly engaged in investigating the Nat. history of this Island, which I likewise contemplate to achieve, and I am already very far advanced with the plants, Birds, Fishes, and Mollusks, and I shall soon begin the remaining classes. " It has always been my wish to be associated to some American philosophical or botanical Society or Academy, and I suppose it would not be very difficult to be aggregated as Corresp'd Member through your means; and in case it should not be so easy as I conceive, please to point out to me the means to become such. If communications, presents of books or Natural curiosities, should be necessary before or after, I am willing to send such as you will think most proper. Your particular attention to this will infinitely oblige me. "Please to mention what new books or discoveries have been published in America on any part of Natural history. "If your friend Mr. Wm. Peck, or any other gentleman, would also enter into a Botanicai Correspondence with me, it would be very gratifying for me. Pray what has the Erica returned to some Andromeda or Dabcecia or what " I remain, truly, Your most obedient servant, C. S. RAFINUSQUE SCHMAITZ, Chancellor of the American Consulat, Palermo. " P. S. I could not get the parcel of plants ready for this oppor- tunity, but I shall send them by another, the William Gray, that sails for Salem in fifteen days, and the Super., Mr. Waldo, will take charge of them." Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. The circle of acquaintance with men of science, which Rafinesque assiduously sought ever to widen, included very many of the foremost naturalists of Europe. Dtir- ing his Sicilian residence he corresponded with very many of the men who have been famous in French annals of science; his acquaintance with the naturalists of Italy appears also to have been cordial, and quite complete. Wherever he could get a new plant, find a new shell, obtain new information, there Rafinesque sought and made acquaintances. In this way it hap- pens that so many of the names of men who have achieved renown in the annals of European science during the earlier portions of this century find a place in the personal memoirs of Rafinesque. That, in after years, they withdrew from these relations finds an explanation solely in the fact that in his published writings he was not always careful to give proper credit for information so derived, or in the fact that these relations became strained from the attempt to turn them to purely personal ends. Whatever may have been the real cause, but few of all the scientific men with whom Rafinesque corresponded, during his Sicilian residence, remained to him in the role of true friends. Swainson alone, in England, defended him to the last; on the Continent there was left not one. 87 The Life and Wrifings of SCIENTIFIC WORK IN LEXINGTON. The student of American science will find most of interest in that portion of Rafinesque's scientific work which was accomplished during his residence in Lex- ington. In some respects this period of activity was marked by certain features which were identical with those that had determined his Sicilian work. Rafin- esque was the first naturalist to investigate at all fully the natural history of the Ohio Valley. He found an exhaustless and virgin field. A wealth of life, of every sort, was in constant notice in field, in wood, in stream. The larger and most common food fishes alone were known, and these were, for the greater part, without scientific name. Only an occasional mollusk, which had found its way to the cabinets of Europe from the hands of the earlier French residents along the valley, or the few forms wh Say had discovered, were known to science. The birds and larger mammals had been made known, but in the fields where Rafinesque had worked longest and best there was a wealth of new and unde- scribed forms. The temptation to publish, while yet the nondescripts found had been but too carelessly studied, was so great that a flood of scientific papers proceeded 88 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 89 from the pen of our author. These were printed in various magazines, some scientific and some literary; others found a place in the proceedings of learned societies; still others were projected in book form; many were promised but never were realized. The first teacher of science west of the Appalachians, with numerous objects brought to him, either through curi- osity or real interest, concerning which he had opinions to express, occupying a newly established science chair in the only western university, it is little wonder that Rafinesque found so much to interest him in all direc- tions, and that he came to be a kind of Sir Oracle in the Kentucky backwoods. The nature of the papers printed during this active period of seven years will be gleaned best from the accompanying bibliography. Two works in particular deserve especial mention in this connectionon. They ; reAthe "; hc Gof the R:.eh .,. _ __9- an w.- J s ta " V -A- all -L - Dx :-,- Ohio ", and "A Monograph of the Fluviatile Bivalve Shells of the River Ohio ". These works were pub- lished about the same period, one as a serial in the Western Revzew and Miscellaneous Magazzne, at Lex- ington, and the other as a monographic article in the Annales Generales des Sczences Physique, at Brussels. 90 The Life and Wrifzngs of THE FISHES OF THE OHIO. The series of papers on the fishes of the Ohio was also issued in separate form, the volume being made up of oversheets from the magazine mentioned. The title given was the "Ichthyologia Ohiensis ". A new brief introduction precedes the paper, which was wanting as it appeared in the Western Revzew, but in all other respects the work is identical. Since this book has been the subject of a most various comment, and since it affords a good index to the characteristic literary style of Raf- inesque, it will be proper to give it more than a passing mention. Add to this the fact that it was the first work ever written on the Ohio River fishes, and has thus become the groundwork for all succeeding investigations, and it will be granted that full data respecting this re- niarkable book will be justified in this connection. The "Ichthyologia Ohiensis" is now an extremely rare volume. Very few copies are known, less than a half dozen in all. The writer suc'eefled in tracing a copy fi-om the library of the late Doctor Robert Peter, of Lex- ington, Kentucky, through the hands of Robert Clarke, of Cincinnati, to the Newberry Library, of Chicago. Not only did this institution refuse to allow us to make a photographic copy of the title-page, to illustrate this work, but even refused to allow us to see the book. Application made at the Librarian's desk elicited only the information, first, that the book was not in the library, and, second, when confronted by the Librarian's own letter to us acknowledging possession, we were informed that " the book could not be seen ". It is felt that this statement is due to others, who may some time wish to consult rare books, in order that time and means should not be wasted in a fruitless journey to Chicago. FROM THE "FISHES OF THE RIVER OHIO." Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, 1820. This page in the original text is blank. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 9I The title-page of this volume furnishes a good illus- tration of the encyclopaedic character which was given to all title-pages during the early part of the century. Its full reading is as follows: Ichthyologia Ohiensis I or I Natural History I of the Fishes Inhabiting the I River Ohio I and its Tributary Streams, Preceded by a physical description of the Ohio and its branches by C. S. Rafinesque, ! - Professor of Botany and Natural History in Transylvania University, Author of the Analysis of Nature, c., c., member of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New York, the Historical Society of New York, the Lyceum of Natural History of New York, the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia, the Ameri- can Antiquarian Society, the Royal Institute of Natural Sciences of Naples, the Italian Society of Arts and Sciences, the Medical Societies of Lexington and Cincinnati, c., c., I - I The art of seeing well, or of noticing and distinguishing with accuracy the objects which we perceive is a high faculty of the mind, unfolded in few individuals, and despised by those who can neither acquire it, nor appreciate its results. I - I Lexington, Kentucky, I printed for the Author by W. G. Hunt, (price one dollar). i 1820. (One volume, 8vo, pp. go.) The title-page reverse has the following: These Pages I and the Discoveries which they contain in one of the principal Branches I of Natural History, I are respectfully Inscribed I by the Author I To his fellow-labourers in the same field of Science I Prof. Samuel L. Mitchill, M. D. I who has described the Atlantic Fishes of New York, I and to I C. A. Le Sueur, I who was the first to explore the Ichthyology of the Great American Lakes, etc. I In Token I of Friendship, Respect, and Congratulation. The Life and Wrifings of In this way this remarkable book was launched. Many of the descriptions of fishes which it contains are still regarded as good; they are, of course, charac- terized by exceeding briefness, and must, many of them, be read in connection with the generic characters which precede them. There was certainly no opportunity of checking observations by the work of others, because the field was wholly unexplored and its fauna entirely unknown. It was impossible that errors of more or less moment should not enter into a book written piecemeal as this one was. It is also quite evident, to any one who has seen any of the fishes of the Ohio, that most of the descriptions are based upon actual observation. But it is also to be remembered that the descriptions were mainly made from the fresh and living specimens-in exact imitation of the method adopted by the same author in his work on the fishes of Sicily. These descriptions were placed in his note-books and after- ward utilized in the preparation of the serial papers without the check afforded by comparison of specimens. Also, facts were collected after the publication of some of the parts in the Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, and these were then introduced, sometimes with change of the original names. A few forms had already been characterized in the American Monthly 92 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 93 Magazzne; these species were not always kept distinctly in mind by Rafinesque. The result is a blending of characters and names that has caused very much con- fusion among students of American fresh-water fishes. Add to these the forms, described as new or made the basis of new genera, that had been "communicated by Mr. Audubon" and the chief elements of uncertainty are understood. Numerous attempts have been made to determine the exact fishes which Rafinesque had before him in writing his notes; of these a record of varying success has been made. President Jordan, Messrs. Copeland, Girard, Cope, and L. Agassiz, at different times and for different rea- sons, have attempted to settle these matters. While the results are not altogether satisfactory, many names have been definitively fixed; while a few others have been abandoned. Among the latter are the names of the 1ietitou'l; 1i1,e' tliP drownrc end mi-u-ic, Ofwhc Mr. Audubon had given to Rafinesque "for a practical joke", victimizing all future science far more than they did Rafinesque. Professor Louis Agassiz wrote,t in i854: "Nothing is more to be regretted for the progress of natural history in this country than that Rafinesque did not put up some- A list of these forms will be found on page 29, antea, in foot-note. tWide American Journal of Science, 2d series, Vol. XVII, p. 354. 94 The Life and Wrizings of where a collection of all the genera and species lie had established, with well-authenticated labels, or that his contemporaries did not follow in his steps, or at least preserve the traditions of his doings, instead of decrying him and appealing to foreign authority against him. Tracing his course as a naturalist during his residence in this country, it is plain that he alarmed those with whom he had intercourse, by his innovations, and that they preferred to lean upon the authority of the great naturalists of the age, then resid- ing in Europe, who, however, knew little of the special natural history of this country, than to trust a somewhat hasty man who was living among them, and who had collected a vast amount of information from all parts of the States, upon a variety of objects then entirely new to science. From what I can learn of Rafin- esque, I am satisfied that lie was a better man than he appeared. His misfortune was his prurient desire for novelties and his rash- ness in publishing them, and yet both in Europe and America he has anticipated most of his contemporaries in the discovery of new genera and species in those departments of science which he has cultivated most perseveringly, and it is but justice to restore them to him, whenever it can be done." To this opinion should be added that of Doctor Charles Girard, who, writing two years later, says: ". . . We find the laudable desire of attempting to bring back into use the long-forgotten genera of Rafinesque, which fell into disuse because of their own imperfection, and if they have not passed into the common nomenclature of the day it was owing to their defect more than to the partiality of naturalists; for we may well imagine how any one would feel when rebuilding another's work, as little known to the author as to the commentators them- selves. 8-Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Phila., VIII, i65-213, 1856. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 95 "And yet, for my part, I have always looked upon the resto- ration of Rafinesque's genera and species as highly desirable, as soon as they had once been proposed and introduced into science as names. But in order to do justice to the scheme, it was neces- sary to the undertaking that one should go to the very ground covered by Rafinesque himself during all seasons of the year, to enable us to discriminate between that which Rafinesque really observed and that which is imaginary." The most serious, and at the same time most suc- cessful, attempt to ascertain precisely what fishes Rafin- esque had before him in making his descriptions is that of President David S. Jordan in his "Review of Rafin- esque's Memoirs on North American Fishes", in which will be found a careful and well-considered attempt to settle these important matters. While later the results were modified slightly, this work stands as a faithful and judicious attempt to place Rafinesque in his proper relation to the work of his contemporaries and succes- sors I- ws7 t1te firstsy A c3 __ oiir nc 1vr extends, the only attempt at identification which has been made from personal study within the region in which Rafinesque had fished. All the rest, or nearly all, were attempts made to understand, from alcoholic materials, descriptions which were originally drawn from fresh specimens personally taken by Rafinesque, or Bulletin U. S. National Museum, No. IX, I877. The Lfie aand Wri/ings of obtained from fishermen. The writer of the " Ichthyo- logia Ohiensis" had often depended on memory without the check of careful notes, and in other cases had described scientifically, from the stories of others than Audubon, fishes which never existed. Eliminating these forms, which are relatively few in number, there yet remains a rather large list of fishes that well attests the accuracy of Rafinesque's observations and his power of specific diagnosis. The "Ichthyologia Ohiensis" will therefore stand as the groundwork of the ichthyological literature of the great valley of the Mississippi, throughout which very many of the forms that it described now range. RAFINESQUE'S WORK IN CONCHOLOGY. Almost equally with the work accomplished among the fishes does Rafinesque's work in the molluscan group rank as fundamental. In the extensive papers published in the Journal des Physique et Chimie, etc., of Paris, Rafinesque for the first time called atten- tion to the great wealth, in the western waters, of animal life in this branch of zoology. Not only did he discover many forms unknown to other naturalists, but he described them well. He even saw the wide 96 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 97 diversity that existed among the great family of the Unionidcz and attempted to render the group more intelligible by instituting many subdivisions. That these were always of value could not now be main- tained; but later students, unwilling to institute sub- genera, have found it necessary to investigate these mollusks under a natural grouping, each division of which is headed by some well-known typical form. The fact that Rafinesque actually made these divisions may well be pardoned, therefore, in the light of the great diversity of form which the Ohio Unzonzd, present. Rafinesque visited the Falls of the Ohio for the first time in the late summer of i8i8. The water was low, as it usually is at that season, and myriads upon myriads of fresh-water univalves, of the family Strepomat ida, were in the shallows and pools. The numbers of shells of this group, which may be seen in a single pool, is incredible to one who never has made a visit to the locality. They are of various and beautiful coloration or markings; to Rafinesque, who saw them for the first time, they must have had an irresistible charm. Few of the naturalists of America had seen more than the half score of species found in the eastern States; these western forms were practically unknown. They consti- tuted the subject of extended notice in the Brussels 13 98he Life and Wri/ings of Annales, and so this work becomes of historic impor- tance to the student of mollusca. Only recently there has been made an attempt to interpret Rafinesque's descriptions and figures from abundant material col- lected at the Falls of the Ohio, and the results appear to be commensurable with those reached by the students of the fishes. There are, indeed, the same short and often faulty diagnoses, the same disregard of formal notes that should have been made on the spot, the same crudity in generalization that affords just subject of criticism to the student of fishes. But Rafinesque's conchologic nomenclature appears to be better under- stood than does that of his fishes; at least this is true outside of the family of Unionida. In this connection the remark made by President Jordan, in his report on the Fishes of Ohio, may be quoted as especially appli- cable to the work which Rafinesque did in the mollusca: T may c that worsquc's ark as a WuVle ib Dad enough, and bad in a peculiarly original and exasperating way, but that it is much better than some of its critics have considered it, and that the trouble it has occasioned in nomenclature is due to a large extent to causes not inherent in the character of the work. A certain amount of conservative odium always attaches to a writer who attempts to form natural genera out of time-honored artificial combinations." Geological Survey of Ohio, Vol. IV, Zo6logy and Botany, p. 741, 1882. 98 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 99 I do not think that Rafinesque has always received fair treatment at the hands of American conchologists. He has been traduced, and in one instance, at least, a concerted attempt has been made to ignore his work and to reflect on his scientific reputation. From these facts it has resulted that others have been influenced in forming their opinions of his work, not having the opportunity, assuming that they had the inclination, to 'My library contains a small pamphlet, with the following title: "Cata- logue I of the I Unios I Alasmodontas, and Anodontas I of the I Ohio River and its Northern Tributaries, I adopted by the I Western Academy of Natural Sci- ences, I of Cincinnati, January, i849. I Cincinnati; I Printed by J. A. ' U. P. James. - I ". This small catalogue of nineteen pages recognizes sixty-seven species of these three subgenera. Of these species three of Unio are cred- ited to Rafinesque; a large number of the other names which he gave to forms are listed under the synonymy of various species described by other writers, notably Say, Hildreth, Barnes, and Lea. This pamphlet had its origin in a determined attempt to recognize none of Rafinesque's species. A very interesting fact connected with its design lies in the mention of a similar matter by Dr. Lea, who says (Synopsis of the Family Unionide, i870, p. xxx,) that the Ohio naturalists, Hildreth, Kirtland, Ward, Buchanan, and Clark, also uanuc OuL a ibis iu wuich Iiey gave one species only to Rannesque out of a total of one hundred and nineteen! It is a fact of great moment to note that possibly these gentlemen, who were interested as descriptive naturalists in this same group, may have rendered not a fair judgment. It is also important to note that Rafinesque's descriptions appear to have been drawn so accurately that these gentlemen could recognize them, and place them as synonyms under names which they and their friends had attempted to es- tablish. It will always be considered by future students that this treatment of Rafinesque was unfair, unjustifiable, contrary to the true spirit of science, and inimicable to the best interests of knowledge. The final classification of the Unionida has yet to be made. Ioo The Life and Writings of obtain information at first hand. Even Mr. Lea, who reviews the matter with some detail in his Synopsts of the Famzly Unionzidae, edition of i870, does not seem to be entirely free from prejudice, notwithstanding that he declares he "studied his [Rafinesque's] works faithfully, without prejudice, and certainly without profit, losing much time ineffectually ". In short, it would appear that Mr. Lea's explanation of his treatment of Rafin- esque's species is less an attempt to unravel the diffi- culties of the matter, and do justice to all concerned, than an attempt at a justification of a method which entirely disregarded the work Rafinesque had accom- plished. One can not but feel that, if more generous impulses had prevailed among the naturalists who wrote from I825 to 1870, much of the difficulty in the way of recognition of the species established by Rafinesque and others would have been avoided. Jealousies of the most pronounced character entered into the matter. and a general wrangle ensued which eventually involved nearly all the conchologists of this country. In the discussions which resulted, Rafinesque and his views were quite lost to sight. Only of late years his claims have been advanced again. Both Mr. Say and Mr. Conrad, well known for work on the members of the family Unionida, have published lists in which some of Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. WI0 Rafinesque's names are made a leading term, but the unfortunate fact remains that these lists were in part the result of the antagonisms which prevailed among the earlier conchologists. Each felt, or fancied, that he had not received proper consideration at the hands of Mr. Lea, and so there resulted some forced recognitions of Rafinesque's species, in the hope that Mr. Lea's names would fall into synonymy. This very unpleasant episode in American malacology would better be passed in silence were it not that it must come into observation when the final revision of the Unionida is undertaken. The results reached by Rafinesque in fossil con- chology do not possess the value which attaches to his work in recent shells. Many of the genera charac- terized by him are faulty in so many particulars, and have such imperfect description, that, if quoted at all, they are relegated to tables of names of inserta .7.-TX . JC2.AIL H -- one, a very omimvn gen-us, IirEum One Devonian, known as Strop homena, yet remains, of all Rafinesque described, to indicate that he did some work in the brachiopoda. Among corals his Devonian genus Zap hrentis yet stands and represents almost the sum of his studies in the ccelenterates. The great majority of his generic and other names bestowed upon fossils at one time or another has been shown to be valueless. I02 The Life and Writings of In respect to land shells Rafinesque's names have fared far better. A number of his genera are still recognized, and are in common use. Since most or all of the work which he did in this branch was unique for its time, and since his aptitude for forming generic names was most happy in the matter of the choice of the terminology employed, it is with pleasure that one chronicles the fact that many yet stand in the various systems. Among them are Trzidopszs, Mesodon, Steno- trema, and Mesomphzx, all of which are happy expres- sions of conchologic facts. Considered as a whole the conchologic work of Raf- inesque was remarkably well done. The forms on which he based his nomenclature were not myths, but were actually under observation. If some of them must be abandoned, it is in keeping with the rules of priority most rigidly applied; some are names given to groups that had alreadv been characterized. blut the feet was unknown to their author. He, first among many, suc- ceeded in regrouping, in some rational and natural manner, forms of most divergent character that before had constituted heterogeneous assemblages; he was, in this matter, far ahead of his contemporaries, and the fact must ever remain as a singular proof of his acumen. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. RAFINESQUE'S WORK IN BOTANY. One of the most striking facts in connection with the botanical work of Rafinesque consists in his con- stant onslaughts upon the artificial classificatory systems of his day. Especially is this marked in his reviews of the work of others. In these papers he spares not, and herein lies one chief cause of the disrepute into which he early fell among American botanists. He was bold to a fault; he was quick to see new relations; he was not always careful to work them out to the satis- faction of others, but insisted on their adoption without the formality of a rigid demonstration. In this way his propositions came to be regarded as dangerous innova- tions, for American science was yet under the domina- tion of the masters in Europe. Closet naturalists abroad directed the iTivestiorto-rS of tlhis country what g-tuipig-5 to accept and what relations to recognize. Of the genera and species established by Rafinesque, and that are recognized in Gray's Manual of Botany, there are thirteen genera, eight subgenera, and sixteen species. With advancing years others will be added, and the full sum of tardy justice eventually will be reached. There only intervenes, preventing speedy rec- I03 The Life and Writings of ognition, that doubtful rule that accepts a well - known and long-recognized name in lieu of one less well known but previously described. However convenient such a rule may be to the systematist in botany, it is mani- festly one which is capable of being applied with great linjustice. THE FLORULA LUDOVICIANA. This work, on account of its remarkable nature, and because it has justly subjected its author to severest censure, deserves more than passing notice. Like very many others of the works of Rafinesque, this one has a piece-meal ensemble that is quite characteristic. It is "respectfully inscribed to Dewitt Clinton, LL. D., Gov- ernor of the State of New York, President of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New York, and president of many other learned and benevolent societies, etc., etc." A preamble of five pages states the sources of information for the matter contained and the reasons for publishing the work. The justification for the book, in Rafinesque's mind, may be found in the following statement from the preamble: In perusing this Flora, I was astonished to find, among many blunders in nomenclature and classification, several accurate descriptions and valuable additions to the knowledge of plants, their geography, utility and natural history. Having, therefore, compared with attention all his descriptions with the Floras of North I04 CTI t m W Z . VTI toT o ; m a ; ' ' ci P WI co -T I t :S0: : SXcQ 0 C) ;V0A it t S o ,A 5 :i XV VX E t iXf w i tx 4 W 4 This page in the original text is blank. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. America of Michaux and Pursh, I became convinced that a great number of new genera and species, unknown to those authors, were described by Robin." That any marked scientific value could attach to a volume prepared as Rafinesque arranged this one is im- possible. That part of the " Florula Ludoviciana " which is thus based upon Robin's work comprises pages I2 to I28. To this part of the book there are three indices; the first, an "Index of Louisianian vulgar names", all of which are, naturally, French; second, an "Index of New Genera and Sub-Genera"; and lastly, an "Index of Old Genera". Pages I29-i55 are devoted to a "Sup- plement" and "Additions" based upon the works of Pursh, Bartram, Michaux, and others; this is designed to include all the plants unknown to Robin, which were mentioned by these authors. Not the least remarkable feature of the book is that portion which fills pages I57-i65, and is occupied with "An Appendix to the Trees and Shrubs of Louisiana" based upon an entirely different publication than Robin's. This work was by William Darby,j and has, in a chapter on statistics, The title of Robin's book is as follows: Voyages dans l'interieur de la Louisiane, de la Floride Occidentale, et dans les isles de la Martinique et de Saint-Dominque, pendant les Annes i802, i803, 1804, 1805 et I8o6. Paris. I807. (3 Vols., 8vo.) The botanical portion is the " Flore Louisianaise ", Vol. III, PP- 313-551. t A I Geographical Description I of the I State of Louisiana, I the Southern part of the I State of Mississippi I and I Territory of Alabama: I presenting I A I4 IO5 The Life and Wridngs of many references to the indigenous forest trees of various parts of the State. On pages 300, 30I, and 353-356 are two formal lists, with both English and Latin names, of trees that form the basis of the supplement of Rafinesque in his Florula. The last few pages of Rafinesque's book are concerned with advertisements of his books and papers already published, and to be published, as well as mention of some still in hand. Taken altogether the volume is a most curious botanical olla podrida. The descriptions of Robin, as he himself states, were all based upon the living plants; he made no col- lections; nor were his notes submitted to any competent botanist. That he actually saw the plants he indicates, and to which he gave the French provincial names, is without question the fact, but he nowhere describes these plants technically. Nor is it at all likely that he pos- sessed the ability to do so. The Latin diagnoses of Rafinesque, therefore, must be regarded as pure fabri- view of the soil, climate, animal, vegetable, and mineral I productions: illus- trative of their natural physiognomy, I their geographical configuration, and relative situations; I with an account of the character and manners of the I inhabitants. I Together with A Map, I from actual Survey and Observation, projected on a scale of ten miles to an inch, of I The State of Louisiana, and adjacent countries. - I Second Edition, enlarged and improved. I - By William Darby. I - [Extract of five lines, in French, from the Memoire de M. De Vergennes sur la Louisiane.] I - I New York. I Published by James Olmstead, I Sold also by B. Levy Co. Booksellers, New Orleans. J. Seymour, printer. I - I 8I7. [8vo., map, pp. I-XII (i, Map) I3-356. (3).] Io( Constanhne Samuel Rafinesque. cations which have neither scientific value nor authority. His book takes its proper place as a literary curiosity; it will, at the same time, remain a monument to the most foolish episode in his botanical career. OTHER BOTANICAL WORK. The penchant for genus-making, which was so marked in Rafinesque, seems to have had full swing in his botanical nomenclature. Not only did he emphasize minor differences, but he even closely scanned the descriptions of others, and, without seeing the plants themselves, erected on these formal written or printed diagnoses his own generic names. That he was often wrong could be said with truth; but that he was often right is equally true. He had little sympathy with the artificial systems that prevailed during the early part of the century. He saw relationships that others were unwilling to grant him. In his reviews of the published work of other authors he employed his characteristic methods to an alarming extent; some of the genera which observers proposed he threw out of his system, on the ground that he had himself originally described them under other names. That this method should bring upon him the severe criticisms of those whose work he treated thus is by no means surprising, but his I07 The Life and Wrifings of rejoinders were not always of a courteous nature. On this matter Doctor Gray, reviewing Rafinesque's botani- cal writings, in i84I, wrote as follows: " It is indeed a subject of regret, that the courtesy which prevails among the botanists of the present day, (who are careful to adopt the names proposed by those who even suggest a new genus,) was not more usual with us some twenty years ago. Many of Rafinesque's names should have been adopted; some as matter of courtesy, and others in accordance with strict rule. But it must be remembered, that the rule of priority in publication was not then universally recognized among botanists, at least as in present practice, (the prevalence of which is chiefly to be ascribed to the influence of De Candolle;) the older name being preferred cateris paribus, but not otherwise. It is also true, that many scattered papers of Rafinesque were overlooked by those who would have been fully disposed to do justice to his labors, had they been acquainted with them; and a large portion of the genera proposed in his reviews of Pursh, Nut/all, Bigelow, c., were founded on their characters of plants which were doubtfully referred to the genera in which they were placed, or were stated to disagree in some particular from the other species." There is opportunity for some careful botanical stu- dent permanently to place the Rafinesquian genera into their true relation to the work of others. Whether the results will be largely valuable does not matter; it has now become a simple question of priority and of justice. The work of a man who has been grossly neglected will American Journal Science, Vol. XL, p. 234, 1841. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. need to be carefully revised; many of his dried speci- mens and illustrations of genera still are to be found in the herbaria of Europe and America. The task will be less difficult in this than in any other branch which Rafinesque cultivated, for he was first of all other things a botanist, and accomplished in that subject his most valuable work. In other directions little or nothing anywhere remains to help the student of science in forming a judgment. The best collection which illus- trated his work in the Unionzd-, that of Mr. C. A. Poulson, of Philadelphia, has been scattered long since, and there exists no other which would have given the aid possible in that one. But many dried plants with original Rafinesquian names still exist, and these should be examined; then should the rules of priority rigidly be enforced. Rafinesque's botanical work extended over the whole vJLv-A W. J As.. 6- LCA. , C. I. 1 S. - A6.5.. ALL JUAIAL short papers appeared from time to time, in every possible medium of publication. These never were collected by their author, and there exists to-day no complete collation in any library in the world. Some of the work he did on Kentuckv plants was not pub- lished under his name, though the most of that work found its way to the scientific public through a variety IO9 IIo The Life and Wri/ings of of avenues. The single exception, which is impor- tant, is the first, or almost the first, list of Kentucky plants, published by Doctor Henry McMurtrie, in his "Sketches of Louisville", in i8i9. This volume con- tains an appendix called " The Florula Louisvillensis sive Plantarum Ca/alogus vicinitate urbzs, Henrzio M'Murtrie, M. D.," and comprises pages 207-230. The name of Rafinesque nowhere is mentioned in connection with this catalogue, though he was credited with lists of the shell-fish and the fishes given on pages 62-66. But a writer in the Western Review and Miscellaneous Maga- zine, Volume II, page go, speaking of the list of plants as "a pretended view of the vegetables of that section of the country", states that McMurtrie was indebted to Rafinesque for the names and classification of his plant list! Certain it is that the list contains some of the Rafinesquian genera, and thus shows some acquaintance of which had been published at that date. Sketches I of I Louisville I and its Environs; I including among a great variety of Miscellaneous Matter, a I Florula Louisvillensis; I or, A Catalogue of nearly 400 genera and 6oo species of Plants, that grow in the vicinity of the Town, exhibiting their Generic, Specific and I Vulgar English Names. I By H. McMurtrie, M. D., etc. I . . . I - To Which is Added I an appendix, I Containing an accurate Account of the Earthquakes experienced here from I the i6th December, i8ix, to the 7th February, i812, extracted prin- I cipally from the Papers of the late J. Brookes, Esq., I - I First Edition. I - I Louisville, I Printed by S. Penn, prin. Main-Street I z8i9. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. Among the best of the drawings which Rafinesque made of plants, usually in outline only, were those of his earliest attempts essayed while still a resident of Sicily. These plates were all lost in the shipwreck, only one ever appearing. There exists in the library of the New York Academy of Science, in a volume of botanical wood-cuts, a collection of plates by Rafin- esque. On the margin of the first plate is written: "The following are the proofs of plates lost in my ship- wreck of i8i5." On the back is written: "Collection of 29 plates and 46 figures of New Genera and Species of plants from N. America, discovered by C. S. Rafin- esque in i802-i804. Published in i807, i8o8, and i8I4. These plates never published -only proofs of plates lost in i8iS, thus they are a unique collection. Depos- ited in the Lyceum at the foundation in i8I7, by the author. N. B. The Phyllepidum alone was published in the Encycl. Journal of Sicily, i8I4." Whether these plates and figures will serve to distinguish the American plants described as a result of the first visit to the United States must be left to the professional botanists to de- termine. Rafinesque's drawings of plants were all, so far as we have seen them, in outline. Perhaps the best Volume C, Shelf D, Case No. 36. I II The Life and Writings of examples are to be seen in the Medical Flora, the one hundred plates of which are all in outline, but are very characteristic and accurate. The plants are easily recog- nizable from the drawings, but are deficient in matters of detail. None of the drawings made by him to illustrate zoological subjects at all approach these plates of plants in accuracy and value. In short, however, Rafinesque could not be said to have made even clever drawings of the plants which he named and described. His reputation as an artist rests on a very insecure foundation.' Summarizing the facts in the botanical writings of Rafinesque, it would appear that he, among the first, clearly saw that many plants, which had been forced into specific and generic relationship, were really either separate forms or types of new genera; that his oppor- tunities for wide collection rendered it clear that new groupings must be made, though in this he antagonized the workers of his time. It also appears that foreign authors and collectors frequently found plants with the generic relationships of which they were not themselves Very few of Rafinesque's general drawings have been preserved. An interesting instance, however, may be seen in the Medical Repository, Vol. XVIII, in a letter by a Mr. Gratz. one of the former owners of Mammoth Cave, relating to a mummy said to have been found in the Cave; the draw- ing from which the engraving was made was by Rafinesque. II2 Constan/me Samuel Rafinesque. entirely satisfied; in their various systematic arrange- ments these aberrant forms were noted, of course. These plants of znsertae sedzs Rafinesque assumed to group, and he established for them new generic appellations. In the great majority of instances he never saw the plants themselves when he thus attempted to establish a new genus, but based his work on the descriptions of the students from whom he borrowed. It also appears, whether from ignorance or from indifference does not here matter, that he gave names to plants already well known, thus needlessly complicating the literature of botany. These are his chief defects. On the other hand there is to be considered an insight into natural group- ings which was far ahead of that of others of his time; a love for Nature that amounted to a passion; a generosity in the distribution of his plants and his papers that few have emulated; a laudable ambition to be regarded the first naturalist of his time. These are all commendable. It is sad to reflect that the high ideals, which he had before him in early manhood, were fated to non-realiza- tion. His botanical work demonstrates that he was the creature of an unfortunate environment, the victim of an unbalanced training, the intellectual scientific problem is . Of hs day. I5 II3 7Ie Life and Wri/nigs of ARCHEOLOGIC WORK. During the period of Lexington residence Rafinesque devoted much attention to the mounds and other evi- dences of prehistoric peoples in the Ohio Valley. About Lexington, in Fayette County, are several examples of mounds, to the study of which he gave much time. It is not known that the modern methods of careful exploitation were employed by him; probably he simply surveyed and located the mounds he discovered. His attention had been directed to these interesting and re- markable earthworks during a journey in Ohio, where for the first time he saw them. From that time on, wherever he went, his close attention was directed to these objects. In the appendix to his work on the "Ancient Monuments of Kentucky", published in Mar- shall's History, is an enumeration of the sites of an- cient towns and prehistoric monuments and similar works. In a summary, at the end of the enumeration, Rafinesque states that he had already, in North America, ascertained five hundred and forty-one sites of towns, of which one hundred and forty-eight were in Ken- tucky. In the same summary he says that before his time only twenty-five sites and one hundred monuments II4 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. were known in Kentucky; he then states that by his labors the entire list for North America had been increased to one thousand eight hundred and thirty, of which five hundred and five are in Kentucky. Many of these most certainly were not artificial constructions; some were the residual products of erosion; in short, they were natural features. Very little of the work which Rafinesque professed to have accomplished in this branch of inquiry was ever printed. Such memoirs as he did present, and which are listed in the bibliography accompanying this sketch, possess but very little value. Indeed, the whole subject has practically been developed since his day. Then, too, the various earthworks were in process of exact location and of description from the standpoint of the curious; it has remained for a later coterie of students to ap- proach the question along lines which are purely scien- LIL. )A'- La . V -.J. I -.c,'JJL "o IVJA LJ_AIL, IL"6 LLO. L "a.LY of the mounds, which Rafinesque listed elsewhere than in Kentucky, were natural elevations rather than artificial works. There is no record that he ever opened a single one of them, or ever dreamed that this method alone could produce such valuable results as are now known to attach to it. Such of these mounds as can une- quivocally be classed among artificial earthworks are II5 The Life and Writings of probably few; of the whole number but forty-one are credited to Rafinesque by Professor Cyrus Thomas, and some of these are probably listed twice, inasmuch as the boundary lines of certain counties have changed since the original enumeration by Rafinesque, and this has resulted in some confusion regarding identity. It is, h1owever, exceedingly creditable to his acumen and general interest in whatever had a scientific facies, that he, at that early day, should have made a list of works of this sort and thought them worthy of permanent record. Some of them he mapped or surveyed, making copious notes at the time. These facts, thus gathered, have been utilized by subsequent writers. In Squier and Davis' "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley"t are a number of plates of mounds and other earthworks derived from the unpublished manuscripts of Rafinesque. On page xxxvi of the V Vide Catalogue of Prehistoric Works east of the Rocky Mountains. pp. 89-102. Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. i89i. tSmithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. I, i848. The following plates in this work are based upon the surveys and drawings of Rafinesque: Plate IX, No. 3, Ancient Work near Lexington, Kentucky; Plate XII, No. 1, Stone Work on Duck River, Tennessee; Plate XIII, No. i, Works on Flat Run, Bourbon County, Kentucky; Plate XIV, No. 3, Ancient Work, Fayette County, Kentucky; Plate XXXVIII, Ancient Work on the Etowah River, Alabama (Georgia); Plate XXXII, No. 6, Ancient Work, Montgomery County, Ken- tucky; Plate XXXIII, No. I, Ancient Work near Mount Sterling, Kentucky, on Brush Creek, Montgomery County. I I6 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. I I7 preface of that rare and valuable volume may be noted the following remark: "It will be observed that several plans and notices of ancient works are presented in the succeeding chapters, upon the authority of the late Prof. C. S. Rafinesque. This gentleman, while living, devoted considerable attention to the antiquities of the Mississippi valley, and published several brief papers relating to them. His notes and plans, for the most part brief, crude, and imperfect, at his death found their way into the possession of Brantz Mayer, Esqr., of Baltimore, late Secretary of the American Legation to Mexico. . . . His notes are principally important, as indicating the localities of many interesting monuments, rather than as conveying any satisfactory information concerning them." It is difficult properly to characterize this critique of the work of Rafinesque without doing an uninten- tional injustice to the memory of the distinguished authors of the "Ancient Monuments," but it hardly appears to do Rafinesque full justice. It does not rec- ognize the fact of his inexperience in studies of this character, nor does it consider that this branch of inves- tigation was very far from being reduced to a scientific method in his day. It fails to measure his work by the standards of his time and the status of his subject, but applies modern methods of criticism. His notes may have been brief, his work crude, his deductions not always sound, his information not always complete; granted all these, yet time has shown the essential accu- The Life and Writings of racy of his facts, time has developed value for these observations, if they only have served to indicate to more observing minds and to more skillful surveyors the locations of new and important prehistoric works. With the location of certain now well-known ancient monuments, and with their fair delineation, the really valuable portion of Rafinesque's archaeologic work may be said to end. The extensive memoirs which he pro- jected, and some of which he partially executed and published, possess very little archeologic vAlue indeed. It is quite clear that Rafinesque was not well equipped for investigations of this sort. The opportunity to let the imagination run riot, because there is so little check of real fact in certain lines of ethnologic investigation, afforded to him the means of attempting some of the wildest vagaries. His ideas were not checked by facts but proceeded along lines which were impossible of dem- onstration. It would 'e hard to nnd a inore valueless and unscientific treatment of ethnologic questions than that in his "Ancient Annals of Kentucky", in Marshall's History, or those found in his "American Nations etc", if, indeed, one except the works of John Haywood and Josiah Priest! One of the shorter papers of Rafinesque, published in the Cincinnati Literary Gazette, the "Biog- raphy of the American Solomon", called forth a severe The Cincinnati Literary Gazette, No. 22, May 29, p. 170, i824. Constantzne Samuel Rafinesque. II9 critique from David G. Burnett, some time president of the Lone Star State, who also furnished the Gazette a series of articles on the Indians of Texas. Perhaps it would be quite sufficient to say, in brief, that the work done by Rafinesque in this field possesses so few of the elements of permanency and of value that it can not be quoted as authoritative nor depended upon as exact by any modern author. His claim to scientific recognition would surely fail if it rested on his arch- aologic work. LITERARY WORK FROM 1825 TO 1840. When Rafinesque left Kentucky, in the fall of i825, the period of his most valuable scientific work came to an end. From that time his literary efforts partake more and more of the character of vagaries. His life now became a series of disappointments and constant strug- gles with poverty. Every man's hand appeared to him to be against him; a certain misanthropy, which had developed, became very marked and dominated all his work. If he failed in any enterprise his "secret foes" accomplished it; if his books were not issued to him fresh from the press without payment, and were therefore held back, it was "the secret machinations of enemies" 120 The Life and Writings of that accomplished it. In such frame of mind as this Rafinesque passed the last fifteen years of his life, and under such an incubus of distrust did he prepare and print his later works. It is little wonder, therefore, that they are now sought after, not for any scientific value which they may possess, but for the fact that they are really literary curiosities. One alone of all his works, published during those fifteen years, has in it the ele- ments of perpetuity, and that is the "Medical Flora". This work of two volumes possesses real value, and stands as his best monument for all this period. His literary work was never entirely abandoned, though it was seriously interfered with by business ventures of one or another sort; with these were entangled several patent schemes relating to steam-plows, incombustible dwellings, sub-marine steamboats, and the like, which, of late years, have been realized by other and competent inventors. What the real nature of the literary work of this period was, a glance at the appended bibliography will disclose. It covered the usual wide scope of subjects, and was characterized by the usual looseness of style and piece-meal ensemble. Perhaps the best illustration of the valueless work of this latest period is "The Genius and Spirit of the Hebrew Bible", a book without a single redeeming literary feature. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. The botanical work of Rafinesque, during this last period, was mainly in the establishment of various new genera of plants, a large number of which were pro- posed. He had planned a thousand new ones, as he announces in his Flora Telluriana, but most of them were based upon the work of others, and not on the plants themselves. Many short papers, proposing new species of plants, or erecting new genera, appeared from time to time, but always in cheap and ephemeral form. His articles were usually short, and poorly written; he had lost the facile pen of his earlier life. He yet trav- eled everywhere, and yet collected largely of every thing that grew. He yet kept note-books, yet planned stu- pendous literary undertakings. Nothing appeared long to receive his undivided attention. He abandoned a subject after brief treatment, only to take it up again and complete his observations thereon at another time. Attempting lrery npi-se of human thought. writing on almost every subject known to men, planning but never executing, undertaking only to abandon, distrustful al- ways, ever indefatigable, living only to publish, withhold- ing money from necessities that he might present to the world of scholars some new book or pamphlet, what wonder that the literary efforts of this period are esti- mated to be of so little value! i6 I2I I22 The L6/e and Writings of RAFINESQUE'S LITERARY STYLE. The reader of Rafinesque will find few attempts at rhetorical effect. His style is singularly loose and unsci- entific. His thought is not always sequential; his facts are not always clearly presented. There are frequent lapses from grammatical laws, seen particularly in the relation of singular verbs and plural subjects, or the contrary. When he essayed formal description in natu- ral history Latin, the ablative absolute and the nomi- native independent are hopelessly confused. And yet, notwithstanding these defects in style, there is a certain directness and vigor which are refreshing. Especially is this true of those parts of his writings which may be regarded as controversial. His printed works abound in contractions, but most often of the two words genus and species; he commonly wrote " G." for the one. and "Sp." for the other. Rarely did he spell his numerals, but usually employed the Arabic symbols. These facts give to his pages a peculiar appearance, and may be regarded as distinctive. To enable the reader to form some fair opinion of Raf- inesque's best literary style the following extracts, from the "New Flora of North America," Part I, Introduction, Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. are given at some length. Doctor Asa Gray, who also quotes them, does so with the remark that in them Rafinesque "draws a lively picture of the discomforts, as well as the enjoyments of a travelling naturalist ". They certainly are both vivid and true to nature: "During so many years of active and arduous explorations, I have met of course all kinds of adventures, fares and treatment. I have been welcomed under the hospitable roof of friends of knowl- edge and enterprise, else laughed at as a mad botanist by scornful ignorance.-Such a life of travels and exertions has its pleasures and its pains, its sudden delights and deep joys mixed with dangers, trials, difficulties and troubles. No one could better paint them than myself, who has experienced them all. Let the practical botanist, who wishes like myself to be a pioneer of science, and to increase the knowledge of plants, be fully prepared to meet dangers of all sorts in the wild groves and mountains of America. The mere fatigue of a pedestrian journey is nothing compared to the gloom of solitary forests, when not a human being is met for many miles, and if met he may be mistrusted; when the food and collec- tions must be carried in your pocket or knapsack from day to day; when the fnre is not only q(-nty hilt sometimes worse; when vou must live on corn bread and salt pork, be burned and steamed by a hot sun at noon, or drenched by rain, even with an umbrella in hand, as I always had. Musquitoes and flies will often annoy you or suck your blood if you stop or leave a hurried step. Gnats dance before the eyes, and often fall in unless you shut them; insects creep on you and into your ears. Ants crawl on you whenever you rest on the ground, wasps will assail you like filries if yvo touch their nests. But ticks, the worst of all, are unavoidable whenever you go among bushes, and stick to you in crowds, filling 124 The Life aad JiTrifings of your skin with pimples and sores. Spiders, gallineps, horse-flies, and other obnoxious insects, will often beset you, or sorely hurt you. Hateful snakes are met, and if poisonous are very dangerous; some do not warn vou off like the Rattle-snakes. You meet rough or muddy roads to vex you, and blind paths to perplex you, rocks, mountains, and steep ascents. You may often lose your way, and must always have a compass with you as I had. You may be lamed in climbing rocks for plants, or break your limbs by a fall. Vou must cross and wade through brooks, creeks, rivers and swamps. In deep fords or in swift streams you may lose your footing and be drowned. You may be overtaken by a storm; the trees fall around you, the thunder roars and strikes before you. The winds may annoy vou: the fire of hcaven or of men sets fire to the grass or the forest, and vou may be surrounded b) it unless you fly for your life." But the true botanist and the student and lover of Nature has the ascendancy in the end; that Rafinesque felt this, and that he had often realized it is very clear from his description of the counterpart of the toils and dangers just enumerated. Says he:+ " The pleasures of a botanical exploration fully compensate for these miseries and dangers; else no one would be a travelling botanist, nor spend his time and money in vain. Many fair days and fair roads are met with, a clear sky or a bracing breeze inspires delight and ease, you breathe the pure air of the country, every rill and brook offers a draught of limpid fluid. What delight to meet with a spring, after a thirsty walk, or a bowl of cool milk out New Flora of North America, Part I, Introduction, p. II, et seq. t Ibidem, p. I4, et seq. Quoted from Gray in American Journal of Science, Vol. XL, 184I, pp. 223, 224. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. I25 of the dairy! What sound sleep at night after a long day's walk; what soothing naps at noon under a shaded tree near a purling brook. Every step taken into the fields, groves and hills, appears to afford new enijoyments. Landscapes and plants jointly meet in your sight. Here is an old acquaintance seen again; there a novelty, a rare plant, perhaps a new one, greets your view; you hasten to pluck it, examine it, admire, and put it in your book. Then you walk on thinking what it might be, or may be made by you hereafter. You feel an exultation, you are a conquerer, you have made a con- quest over Nature, you are going to add a new object or a page to Science.-To these botanical pleasures may be added the anticipa- tion of the future names, places, uses, history, c. of the plants you discover. For the winter, or season of rest, are reserved the sedentary pleasures of comparing, studying, naming, describing, and publishing." There are occasional idioms in his composition, and these are constant reminders of foreign parentage and education, yet occurring often enough to cause us to be patient with the grammatical faults of Rafinesque. On the whole his English is very good; but the brevity of his descriptive work renders strict compliance with es- tablished usage quite impossible. The chief fault in his scientific writings consists in extreme brevity of descrip- tion; evidently his original descriptions were hastily drawn, many or most of them in the field, and these formed the bases of his future published work. In this way may be explained very many crudities; they are verbatim renditions of original field notes. The Life and Writings of The writings of Rafinesque should be regarded from the literary standpoint of his time, in the field which he cultivated. Natural history was not then the impor- tant branch of culture it is now; it was not cultivated by men of classical training, or but rarely so; the men who worked at natural history problems did not always possess the advantage of the drill and refinement then supposed to pertain solely to the languages. If these facts be remembered the judgments formed concerning the style of Rafinesque will be generously modified; final opinions will on the whole prove to be quite compli- mentary. RAFINESQUE AND EVOLUTION. The wide acquaintance of Rafinesque with the physi- cal conditions under which plants grow, and with the evident relationships which exist between physical factors and the forms of plant life, seems to have resulted in some views concerning species, varieties, and so on, that entitle him to distinction as an evolutionist. It is not meant by this that he had a carefully formulated system of evolutionary development in mind; it is in- tended to be understood as implying that he did, how- ever, clearly see one of the important factors in that far-reaching philosophic doctrine. From an early period I26 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. I27 in his study of natural forms he had conceived certain opinions regarding the natural relationships of so-called species and varieties; these he first expressed, though in very crude form, in i8I4, in his work on Somiology. Toward the latter part of his life he appears to have arrived more definitely at that form of evolution which may be said to find its best illustration in Lamarck. He had not, apparently, thought out any connected philosophic system of development; he had caught only a glimpse of the great truth. Nor do his expressions of his views bear evidence of having investigated, closely and continuously, the problems only the outlines of which he saw before him. Perhaps, allowing him to speak for himself, it is better that one suppose him a Lamarckian rather than a Darwinian. Darwin's great work was in progress, and had been for many years, though unknown to Rafinesque when he wrote, in i833, as follows: "I shall soon come out with my avowed principles about G. and Sp. partly announced in i8I4 in my principles of Somiology, and which my .experience and researches have ever since confirmed. The truth is that Species and perhaps Genera also, are forming in organized beings by gradual deviations of shapes, forms and organs, taking place in the lapse of time. There is a tendency to deviations and mutations through plants and animals by gradual DVide Herbarium Rafinesquianum, p. ii and p. 15. 1833. 128 The Life and Wrifings of steps at remote irregular periods. This is a part of the great universal law of perpetual mutability in everything. "Thus it is needless to dispute and differ about new G., Sp. and varieties. Every variety is a deviation which becomes a sp. as soon as it is permanent by reproduction. Deviations in essential organs may thus gradually become N. G. Yet every deviation in form ought to have a peculiar name; it is better to have only a generic and specific name for it, than 4 when deemed a variety." These opinions appear to us to warrant the assertion that Rafinesque was an evolutionist. This is a remark- able fact for his time, when nearly the whole world of science yet maintained the fixity of species and the immutability of genera; a time when those purely arti- ficial yet convenient divisions of the student of living forms, unknown to Nature itself, called genera, were thought to be the result of express creative fiat. While Rafinesque's belief appears to result from actual obser- vation of botanical facts, he had nowhere elaborated his views, nowhere presented them as a complete system, nowhere given evidence that he was capable so to do. It rather would seem to be a kind of happy inspiration, such as sometimes come to men, that guided him in his groping search. It may be that this thought was upper- most in his mind when he described so many new forms on slight data; if they were not yet species they surely would be such in time! Constan/ie Samuel Rafinesque. MEDALS, DIPLOMAS, AND OTHER HONORS. The scientific work of Rafinesque earned for him recognition from many learned societies. Among them were the Academies of Science of Zurich, Vienna, and Bruxelles; the Reale Accademia delle Scienze, e Belle Lettere, Naples; Societe de Geographie, Paris; the Ly- ceum of Natural History, New York; the Literary and Philosophical Society, New York; the Medical Society of Lexington, Kentucky; the Medical Society of Cincinnati, Ohio; and other lesser organizations. The earliest one of these to confer membership, or a diplonia, on him was the Natura Curiosorum, of Bonn. Rafinesque says that this society conferred on him the degree of Doctor Catesby, I. e., named him to fill the position styled for, or in honor of, that celebrated traveler. The Socit6 de Geographie gave him its gold medal, in i832. for two memoirs on "The Primitive Negroes of Asia and North America", but these essays were never published.t This was Mark Catesby, English naturalist, born about i68o, died in 1749. He was the author of an early work on the zoology of America, published under the title, "'The Natural History of Carolina, Florida andl the Bahama Islands, c." London, 1731-1743. tThe present whereabouts of this medal is unknown. In 1876 it was ill possession of Doctor William Kent Gilbert, of Philadelphia. An illustration of it may be seen on page 99 of Potler's American Monthly, Vol. VI, No. 50, 17 I29 The Life and Writings of Transylvania University conferred on him the degree of Master of Arts, July i0, i822. He had been elected to membership in the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences in February, i8i6. His membership in the New York Lyceum of Natural History dated from the time of organization, he having been one of its founders. Notwithstanding the fact that formerly, more than now, it was customary to bestow honors of this sort on learned men wvithout the very close scrutiny which now obtains, it must be clear that the early scientific work and acquaintance of Rafinesque had gained for him substantial reputation. These societies all would not have given him an election or other distinction without at least some examination into his claims. That they gave the honors is some evidence of deserv- ing merit. 1876. It has been erroneously stated that this medal was sold for old gold to the United States Mint, at Philadelphia. This inaccurate statement may tic ",a.; -upun L1th .".; 1114 d4L ile adUCtIOU sale, or private saie, ot Katinesque's effects the medal was "valued at the United States Mint", but was not sold to it. From the will of Rafinesque it will be seen that he highly prized it, and had hoped it would remain in possession of the family Rafinesque. ' This fact is gleaned from the Aenzturki, Repor/er, of July I5, 1822. This was a newspaper published at Lexington, files of which were examined through the courtesy of Colonel Reuben T. Durrett, of Louisville. It may be interestin, to know that several other persons received this degree at the same time, to wit: Robert Jefferson Breckinridge, a graduate of Union College; William Gibbs Hunt, a graduate of Harvard University; John Thomas Mason, a graduate of William and Mlary College; Robert R. Barr, James G. Trotten, and John M. McCalla, alumni of Trausylvania University. I30 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. RAFINESQUE'S NAME IN NOMENCLATURE. It is often customary for scientific investigators to compliment other students by affixing their names as specific ones in the description of plants or animals belonging to the groups which they have especially cultivated. More rarely now than formerly is this done. While no attempt has been made to collate all the forms named after Rafinesque, but very few have been found which have been so characterized. Englemann named a cactus for him - the Opuntza rafinesquzz: A single genus of fossils has likewise received his name-the Rafinesqulana of Hall, for a group of Brachiopoda found in the Upper Silurian. A single Devonian coral has been named after him, the Zaphrentis rafinesquzi Davis. Among fishes there was the name Scaphirhynchus rafin- esquiz Heckel; though described in I835 this form is now known by the name of Scaphirhynchus platirhynchus Baird, described in I850. For what sufficient reason the name was changed we have been unable to discover. In conchology Rafinesque's name has yet to appear in specific application. Not more than two or three other instances of its use would probably occur on careful search. I3 I The Life and WrIitings of It is certainly not due to any fault of Rafinesque that he obtained but little recognition in the adoption of his personal name in botanical literature. At least twice he himself sought to establish the genus Rafin- esquzaz; the first instance occurring when he appropri- ated the Lotus jiznnatus as the type of a new genus- Rafinesquz;, but the plant was later found to be a true Hosackzai. The next plant selected was Gardoquia hookerz, which he also named Rafinesquz;2. The first in- stance was based on Lotus Pznnatus of Hooker, Botanzcal Magazzne, t. 2913. This he called Rafinesquia (or Flun- dula) comosa. The description thereof may be seen in the Flora telluriana, 2, 96; it is now known as Hosacki;2 bzcolor. The second case was based upon the beautiful genus of labiate plants so well developed in the mountain region of Chili and Peru. This plant was selected after the first one employed had been shown to be well known; along with its description occurs an amusing defense of his attempt to fix his own name in nomenclature. The Rafinesqula recognized by the present generation of botanists is a genus of Comvposztcv, and includes but two known species, the Rafinesqula calijornzca and Rafin- esquz;a neo-mexicana; this genus, of small geographic dis- tribution, occurs only in the southwestern United States. 'Vide Flora Telluriana, Pt. III, p. 6, i836. I32 BIBLIOGRAPHY. This page in the original text is blank. Bibliography. THE simplest arrangement, that of chronologic se- quence, has been adopted in this register of titles by Rafinesque. No attempt has been made to apply rigid bibliographic rules; but the ends of lines in book-titles are indicated by light, vertical lines; inaga- zines and journals are indicated by italicized titles; volume and page references and title verbiage have been compared, in large part, in galley-proof, with the orig- inal sources. In all cases the mistakes and misprints of the orig- inals, together with all lapses from grammatical correct- ness, have been retained. Also, many matters ordinarily deemed of small or of no importnve ,such as mntainnc and verses on title-pages, have been reproduced. The object has been to present such a faithful transcript of the title-pages that the reader might catch and study all peculiarities in style or in expression, and from the physiognomy of various title-pages be enabled to reach conclusions that would be, in a measure, original. Throughout are occasional notes calling attention to T1he L fe and Writings of certain facts or factors that have been deemed of use to accomplish the same result. It is hoped that this list, which has been somewhat carefully prepared, will prove useful to men of science who are interested in the his- torical phase of their special subjects. Those who are somewhat familiar with the writings of Rafinesque will not find, in this bibliography, certain titles which are quoted by him in one or another of his papers, and which they must have noticed. It appears to have been a custom with him to prepare formal papers and forward them to journals, magazines, and societies; this constituted "publication" in his conception, and some of these memoirs and essays are quoted by him as having appeared. It is often quite difficult indeed to separate these titles from those which really were printed; but where specific journals are mentioned by him it is quite easy to make the discrimination. A case in point is a paper on "The Chinese Nations". said bv Rafinesque to have been published in the Knickerbocker Magazine for i834. The article never appeared. Simi- lar instances might be multiplied; it is only necessary that extreme care be employed lest these fictitious works and titles shall mislead others who may desire a more intimate personal acquaintance with the late epoch of Rafinesque's literary career, the period of vagaries. 136 Constantne Samuel Rafinesque. I37 I. Notice sur deux nouvelles especes des genres picoides et turnix de Pile I de Java, decrites a Philadelphie, dans le cabinet de M. Peales I par le C. Rafinesque. (Bulletin des Sciences, I par la SociRt Philomatique, I Paris, Vend6miaire, an ii de la R6pub- lique. No. 67, p. I46.) [I803-1 This constitutes the earliest title by Rafinesque con- cerning which I am able to give any definite information. The Bullezn was published in Paris, from I79I to I805. 2. Notice stir une hirondelle et un figuier de l'ile de Java, decrits a Philadelphie, dans le museum de M. Peales, par le C. Rafinesque. (Bulletin des Sciences, I par la Societe Philomraique. I Paris, Brumaire, an xi de la Republique. No. 68, p. I53.) [I803.] 3. Canvass-Back Duck and its Food. Extract of a Letter from Mr. C. S. Rafinesque to Dr. Mitchill, dated Philadelphia, Sept. 7, I804. (In MWedical Repository, 2d Hexade, Vol. II (No. 2), p. 208. New York, 1804.) 4. Additions to Michaux's Flora of North-America. In a Letter from Mr. Rafinesque, to Dr. Mitchill, dated Palermo, in Sicily, 8th August, I805. (In Mfedical Repository, 2d Hexade, Vol. III, pp. 422, 423. New York, I8o6.) i. Sicilian Quarantines. (Extract from a letter to Dr. Mitchili, dated Palermo, February 25, I8o6. In Medical Repository, 2d Hexade, Vol. III, p. 442. New York, I806.) 6. Manifesto della Pamphysis Sicula sive Historia Naturalis Ani- malium, vegetabilium, et mineralium quae in Sicilia vel in circuitu ejus inveniuntur, opus incaeptum a P. Franc. Cupani in Panphyto Siculo, continuatum ab Anton. Bonanno Ger- vasi, Jos. Steph. et Franc. Chiarelliis, et ab C. S. Rafinesque- Schmaltz locupletatum, etc. Palermo, I807, tab. r. i8 3he Life and Writings of Quoted from the "Specchto delle Sczinze," etc. The work itself was never published. Rafinesque says of it: "The book thus announced was never published, though it would have done mnuch honor to Sicily, and brought to publicity the entire Panpby/on Sicuium, with all the plates, about 700 in number." The "Prospectus" alone was issued. 7. Prospectus of Mr. Rafinesque Schmaltz's two intended Works on North-American Botany; the first on the new Genera and Species of Plants discovered by himself, and the second on the Natural History of the Funguses, or Musbroom-Tribe of America. (In Medical Repositoriv, 2d Hexade, Vol. V, pp. 350-356. New York, 1808.) 8. Essential Generic and Specific Characters of some new Gen- usses and Species of Plants observed in the United States of America, in I803 and i804. By Mr. C. G. Rafinesque Schmaltz. In a communication to Dr. Mitchill, dated Palermo, Sept. ist, 1807. (In Mfedical Repository, 2d Hexade, Vol. V, pp. 356-363. New York, i8o8.) 9. Notice on the Medical Properties of some North-American Plants: addressed to Dr. Mitchill by C. S. Rafinesque Schmaltz. (In M4edical Repository, 2d Hexade, Vol. V, pp. 423, 424. New York, i8o8.) io. Cinquanta figure di nuovi Generi e nuovi Specie di Piante degli Stati Uniti di America, del Sign. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz. Palermo. i8o8. Title quoted from the "Sjccchio delle Sczenze," etc. Of this work the plates only were printed. 138 Consant/ne Samuel Rafinesque. I39 ii. Sei vedute ad acqua forte d'antichita Siciliane fatte incidere dal Sign. C. S. Rafinesque. Palermo. i8o8. This title is quoted from a bibliographical notice on page I4V, Vol. I, of the Specchzo delle Scienze. A plate of "Ruined Pillar in the Elorin-road" (title in Italian, French, and English) is reprinted in this magazine at page 148. 12. Sur les proprietes mddicales de quelques plantes de l'Amdrique Septentrionale; par M. Rafinesque Schmacty [Schmaltz], traduit du Medical Repository de New-Yorck; par M. Warden, Consul americain. (In Desvaux's journal de Botanique, Vol. I, pp. 126-128. Paris, i8o8.) 13. Description des Plantes tronvues dans les Etats-Unis d'Amerique, en I803 et I804, par M. Rafinesque-Schmaltz, communiqu6e d M. Mitchill, membre du Senat des Etats-Unis, et un des Rdacteurs du Medical Repository de New-Yorck, dans un lettre datee de Palerme, i septembre I807; traduite du Medical Repository, vol. 5, p. 356, avril i8o8; par M. Warden, Consul am6ricain. (In Desvaux's /ournal de Botanique, Vol. I, pp. 2I8-234. Paris, i8o8.) 14. Prospectus de M. Rafinesque Schmaltz, relatif a deux ouvrages sur la Botanique du Nord de l'Amerique; traduit du Medical Repository de New-Yorck, vol. 5, p. 350, par M. N. A. Desvaux. ( In Desvaux's Jozrnal de Botanique, Vol. II, pp. I66-I78. Paris, i8o0.) i5. Caratteri I di alcuni nuovi generi I e nuovi specie I di animali I e piante della Sicilia I con varie osservazioni sopra i mede- simi. I - I Opuscolo del Sig. C. S. Rafinesque Schmaltz - Palermo I i8io. I Per le stampe di Sanfilippo. I - Con Approvazione. [80. pp (4) I-I05 (I), pll. xx (77 figures).] Dated "Palermo, Aprile I, 18I0." 140 The Life and Writings of Rafinesque says of this book: " It would not be proper to praise one's own production, so it must suffice to say that in this classical work ('opera classica') are described 24 new species of Birds and Reptiles, 5i new genera and I54 new species of Fishes, 2i new genera and i88 new species of Plants, terrestrial and marine, all observed in Sicily and undescribed ('inediti'). It would be rare good fortune to be able to effect else- where in Europe such an aggregate of discoveries and new Creatures: nevertheless this is only the least part of the Author's observations, and is simply a prelude to that which he expects to give to the world when the times are more propitious to Science. He has nearly ready for the press a Fauna and Flora of Sicily, both class- ical works which will be brought to light as soon as he is appointed to one of the Professorships which he is seeking." One of these professorships was that of the Chair of Botany in the University of Palermo, which had been filled by Professor Tineo. Both Rafinesque and Bivana became candidates, but the choice fell on Tineo's son. The other professorship sought was that of the Chair of Agriculture and Economy, in the same institution. This was finally filled by a "Clerk of a Minister of State", and Rafinesque never attained the desired preferment. i6. I.dice d'TLi;luugia Siciliana I ossia I Catalogo Metodico dei Nomi Latini I Italiani, e Siciliani dei Pesci, che I si Rinvengono in Sicilia I Disposti I Secondo un Metodo Naturale I eseguito I da un Appendice che contielne la Descrizione di alcuni nuovi Pesci Siciliani I Illustrato da due Piance. - Opuscolo del Signore I C. S. Rafinesque Schmaltz - Messina I Presso Giovanni del Nobolo I Con Approvazzione I i8i o. (8vo, pp. 1-70, pI. 2.) Notice of and extracts from this work may be found in Isis, Band 22, Heft 5, pp. 534-538. Leipzig. 1829. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. I4I 17. Progress in American Botany. A letter from C. Rafinesque Schmaltz, Esq., of Palermo in Sicily, to Dr. Mitchill, dated May 30, i809. (In Medical Repository, 3d Hexade, Vol. 1, p. 297, New York, i8io.) i8. Statistica Generale I di Sicilia I De' Signori I D. D. Giuseppe Emmanuele Ortolani I avvocato e mineralogico I e Constantino S. Rafinesque Schmaltz I negoziante e naturalista I in due parti I Nella prima si descrive il Fisico della Sicilia, I nella seconda il suo Morale. I Palermo I i8io 1 Dalia reale stamp- eria. I (8vo, pp. 49, with two maps.) Rafinesque remarks: " The Moral Statistics of Sicily.-( 'Il morale delta Sicilia'). The second and more important part of this useful and innocent work, was fully approved by the Royal and Ecclesiastical censors ('revisori reg] e chiesiastici'), nevertheless its printing was prohibited by a timorous Neapolitan cabinet-minister, because it discussed the con- dition of the government, the customs service, the army, the public institutions c of Sicily. The authors intend, however, to print it as soon as we are in the enjoyment of the liberty of the press." In the " Specchzo " for February, i8I4, p. 8o, it is said: "It is proposed to send to the press the second part of the 'Statistica de Sicilia.'-The 'Statistica Morale' which includes the geographical, constitutional, political, commercial, economic, historical, literary, c descriptions of Sicily, by Signori Ortolani and Rafinesque, with a map of ancient Sicily and two plates or views, in one quarto volume, at the price of 8 'lari' (I2 'tari' for the two parts) to be paid on delivery, if before printing there are ioo subscriptions. " It would be futile to praise such a book, but it should suffice to say that the last Parliament ordered an exact census of the Island. 142 The Life and Writings of The authors were the first to conceive such a plan, and had completed it in i8io. They had no access to official documents, and were forbidden to print the book, although it had been approved by the censors. In our feeble judgment it will be of value to all citizens." 19. An Essay on the exotic plants mostly European, which have been naturalized, and now grow spontaneously in the Middle States of North America. By C. S. Rafinesque Schinaltz. [I)ated Palermo, ist Apr., irSio.] (In Mfedical Reposi/orV, 3d Hexade, Vol. II, pp. 330-345. New York, T8 1ii.) 20. Botanical information concerning two Families of Plants. I. Spe- cies of the genus Callitriche. II. North American species of the genus Potamogeton. (In Afedical Repository, 3d Hex- ade, Vol. II, pp. 407-409. New York, i8mi. A letter to Dr. Mitchill, dated Palermo, Apr. i, i8io.) 21. Cento venti tavole del Panphyton Siculum di Cupani, nuova- mente fatte incidere col ritrato di Cupani, dal Sig. C. S. Rafinesque-Schnmaltz. Palermo. Folio. 1812. pp. . Title quoted from the "Specchino delle Sczenze," etc. Doctor Goode, who gives me this title, also quotes the following information: The famous Panphyton Siculum' of Cupani is a book so rare that perhaps only four copies exist in Sicily and Europe. The author of this reprint has had the copy in the library of the Jesuit fathers in Palermo exactly copied at great expense. This contains 650 plates but he has had only I20 engraved, selected specially with the purpose of making this precious work more generally known." 22. Description de quelques Vedgetaux de Sicile et des Etats-Unis: par Rafinesch [Rafinesquel Schmaltz. (Desvaux's journal de Botanique, Vol. III, pp. 235, 236. Paris, I813.) Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. I43 23. Champignons des Etats-Unis. (Desvaux's Journal de Botanique, Vol. III, pp. 236, 237. Paris, I813.) This paper, devoted to the mushrooms, is one of the very few botanical papers of Rafinesque which deal with cryptogams. 24. Specchio delle scienze I o I giornale enciclopedico di Sicilia deposito letterario I delle moderne cognizioni, scoperte, ed osservazioni I sopra le scienze ed arti I E particolarmente sopra la Fisica, la Chimica, la I Storia Naturale, la Botanica, l'Agricoltura, la Me- 1 dicina, il Commercio, la Legislazione, l'Educa- I zione, ec. - I Tomo primo I prima annata e primo semestre. Instruire utilement, est le but oui j'aspire. I- I Palermo Della Tipografia di Francesco Abate Qm. Domen- ico. I814. (Large 8vo, pp. 1-2I6. 2 pI.) The first volume of this rare work consists of the first six numbers of the "Mirror of the Sciences," with the following dates of publication: Number I. i Gennaro I814. pp. 1-44. Number II. i Febbraro 1814. pp. 45-80. Number III. i Marzo 1814. pp. 81-II2. I tavola. Number IV. IAprile i814. pp. II3-148. I tavola. Number V. i Maggio I8I4. I49-I80. Number VI. i Giugno i8I4. I81-2I6. Volume two consists of Numbers VII to XII, and ends the work. The title of the second volume is somewhat different, so that it deserves recognition as a distinct bibliographical unit. It is as follows: I44 The Life and Wrifings of 25. Specchio delle scienze I o I gioruale enciclopedico di Sicilia I deposito letterario I delle moderne cognizioni, scoperte, ed osservazioni sopra le scienze ed arti I E particolarmente sopra la Fisica, la Chimica, la I Somiologia, l'Agricoltura, la Medi- cina, la Legis- lazione, etc. I Scritto dal Signore I C. S. Rafinesque i I Tomo secondo I prima annata e secondo semestre. I Instruire utilement, est le but ou' j'aspire - I Palermo I della Tipografia di Francesco Abate Qm Domenico. I I814. (Large 8vo. pp. I-I92 ().) Number VII. i Guglio i814. pp. 1-32. Number VIII. i Agosto i8I4. pp. 33-64. Number IX. i Settember i814. pp. 65-96. Number X. i Ottober I814. pp. 97-128. Number XI. i November i8I4. pp. 129-i60. Number XII. i December i8I4. pp. x6l-192(). The title-page reverse of Volume I has the following note, fixing the chief part of the work on Rafinesque. The note reads: "Tutte quelle scoverte ed Osservazioni che in questo Giornale non porteranno un nome particulare d'Autore saranno proprie del Sig. C. S. Rafinesque Schmaltz." This publication, designed to compass the widest range of physical and natural science, appears to have been modeled upon the " Medzcal Repository " of Doctor " The Medical Repository, comprehending Original Essays and Intelli- gence relative to Medicine, Chemistry, Natural History, Agriculture, Geography and the Arts; more especially as they are cultivated in America; and a Review of American publications on Medicine, and the Auxiliary Branches of Science. Conducted by Samuel Latham Mitchill and Edward Miller," This title was for the year i8ii. Cons/an/ine Samuel Rafinesque. Samuel Latham Mitchill, with which Rafinesque was familiar. He had contributed a number of articles to Doctor Mitchill's journal, itself a magazine of the broad- est character. Rafinesque, as editor of the "Specchzo", appears to have been almost the sole contributor. The journal is mentioned in the "Precis des Decouvertes et Travaux Somiologiques" on page four, as follows: "J'ai entrepris depuis le commencement de cette annee la redaction d'un Journal letteraire (le seule en son genre ici) dont je publie un numero tous les mois, sous le titre de Specchio delle Scienze o Giornale Enciclo- pedico di Sicilia etc ". With the end of the year it ceased to exist. To Doctor G. Brown Goode, Assistant Secretary of the National Museum, I am indebted for the full title of this work. He has also kindly made from it the list of separate titles, which are here given. The last number of the second volume is wanting in the Smith- SvJVau T ib anJ Loui has supplied the data from other sources. The articles by Rafinesque are as follows: ( ) Manifesto [della " Specchio delle Scienze " I. L pp. 34. This is dated Palermo, September I5, i813. "It is a very elaborate plan for an encyclopedic journal, which the editor hopes may become world-wide in its influence" (Goode). 19 145 I46 The Life and Writings of (2) Osservazioni sopra il clima (lella Sicilia. I. pp. 3-6, 45-47, 8I-84. (3) N\uova Veduta, o Divisione dello Studio Metodico dell'Istoria Naturale. I. pp. io, ii. (4) 0 Quadro del Metodo Sinottico di Somniologia. I. pp. 1 1-15. (5) Descrizione d'un nuovo genere di Pesce. Lep/opus peregrinus. I. pp. i6, 17. (6) Sopra due nuovi Alberi del Monte Etna. I. pp. 17, i8. [ Beluda e/nensis, n1. s.; Spartium cinensis, n. s.] (7) Osservazioni sopra la Pioggia terrosa seguita in Palermo nel Mese di Marzo, 1813. I. pp. I8-20. (8-Io) Dicefilo. No. 1, I, pp. 21-23; No. 2, I, pp. 59-62; No. 3, Vol. II. pp. 33-39. "Three essays on prison reform, published under the section of the journal headed ' Legislazione' with many references to the svstem in the United States and to a description of the Prisons of Philadelphia and New York, translated from the tracts of LaRouche- foucauld de Liancourt. This is the work catalogued in Rafinesque's French Bibliography under the title 'Dicefile, ou l'Ami de la Justice"' (Goode). ( i i ) Quadro della Letteratura Siciana nel principio di questo secolo 6 Raguaglio dell' Opere stampate in Sicilia dal I8oo a tutto il T9T I nn 13-Al3 ( 12) Memorie sopra le Riforme chi richiede l'Agricoltura Siciliana. I. pp. 48-51. ( 3 ) Paragone di alcuni Stabilimenti, Instituzioni, ed Usi economici 6 politici d' Inghilterra e di Sicilia. I. pp. 51-53. (14) Definizioni delle nuove Classi naturali diVegetabili. I. pp. 53, 54. [Eltroginia, Mesoginia, Endoginia, Sinfoginia, Angioginia, Gim- noginia, Faneroginia, Crittoginia, Algolia, Micolia.] (i5 ) Illustrazioni di Materica Medica Siciliana [Essempio Zologico.- Grapsus fluviatilis]. I. pp. 55-58. Constanfine Samuel Rafinesque. I47 ([6) Seguito del Quadro della Letteratura Siciliana nel principio di questo Secolo 6 dal i8oo al 18I2. I. pp. 72-75, I08-I 10. (17) Neogenito Esotico o Definizioni di cento nuovi geileri di Piante Esotiche. I. pp. 86-88; 11s-1'7; I56-I58; I92-I95. [Phemeran/hus, Phyllepiduin, Valentlana, Kinia, Radiana.- Bonannia, (Geanthuis, Prychanthus, Triclisperma, Viviania. - Bivonea, C-rafordia, W'Vilsonia, Petagnia, Edwardia . Tenorea, [Jexorima, Vireya, Plenckia, 1)icarphus.] This article, continued through several numbers, had one plate illustrating Phyllepiddum squarrosum. ( i8) Osservazioni microscopiche fatte . . . in Agusto I812. pp. 88-90. [Describes a new conferva, Art-hrodia linearis, and two new minute animals, Xanemus vibroides and Paramcecihan dioxinum.] ( i9) Seguito del Quadro della Letteratura Siciliana, etc. I. pp. I08-i 10. (20) [Quadro degli] Ordini Eltrologici 6 Definizioni degli Ordini della prime Classe delle Piante, L'Eltrogynia. I. pp. II3-II5. (2I) Seguito delle tre Illustrazioni di Materia Medica Siciliana. 2. Esempio Botanico-Asphodelus ramosus. I. pp. 130-I34. (22) Seguito del Quadro della Letteratura Siciliana del i8oo al i812. I. pp. 140-143. (23) Addenda agli Ordini Eltrologici. I. p. 148. The orders are finally fixed in the "Addenda" as fol- lows: "Sotto-Classe Po lygy n ia. i. Ord. Rhodanthia. 2. Ord. Perimnesia. 3. Ord. Adnantheria. Sotto-Classe Eltran dria. 4 Ord. Axanthia. 5 Ord. Monospermia. 6 Ord. Plyrontia. 7 Ord. Isandria. 8 Ord. Spyridia. 9 Ord. .Monostimia. io. Ord. Polymesia. i i Ord. Isostinia. 148 The Life and bWrings of Sotto-Classe Symphandria. 12 Ord. Adelphidia. 13 Ord. Omoplitia. 14 Ord. Perimonia. 15 Ord. Cjteanthia. i6 Ord. Peritalia." (24) Quadro ragionato del Commercio attivo della Sicilia, e di suoi generi d'esportazione, [I. Parte. Produzioni Minerali.] I. pp. 149-153. (25) Esempio del Metodo Sinottico di Botanica, illustrato nel primo Ordine della prima Classe. I. pp. 154-I56. (26) Osservazioni sopra le Stagioni, e le Pioggie in Sicilia. I. pp. I58-I6I. (27) Fine del Quadro della Letteratura Siciliana dal I8oo al I8I2. I. pp. I72-175- (28) Nuova Divisione del Globo Terrestre. I. pp. I8I-I84. (29) Nuova Divisione geografica della Sicilia. I. pp. I84-I87. (30) Fine delle tre Illustrazioni di Materia Medica Siciliana del Sign. C. S. Rafinesque. 3. Esemnpio Mineralogico.-Succinum elec- tricum. I. pp. I87-I9I. (3 ) Descrizione del Buph/halmum crassifolium, nuova specie di Pianta delle vicinanze di Palermo. I. pp. I91, I92. (32) Suplemento al Quadro della Letteratura Siciliana. del i8oo al 1812. I. pp. 207-210. The second volume, the title of which is given above, pontfn4" Ola f'N11n'W;- g'virce (33) Nuova divisione delle Acque del nostro Globo. II. pp. 3-5. (I. Parte, Talassografia. II. Parte, Dimnografia. III. Parte, Potamografia.) (34) Descrizione di una nuova pianta Siciliana, Saponaria Sicula. II. PP. 7-9. (35) Quadro delle Instituzioni letterarie e scientifiche della Citta di Londra nel I8I3. II. pp. 9-I3. (36) Popolazione della Sicilia. II. pp. I3-16. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. I49 (37) Quadro della Letteratura Siciliana nel I8I3. II. pp. 27-29; 60-62; 91-94; 123-126. (38) Osservazioni sopra gli Animali Polistomi, ed un nuovo Genere di essi, Polactoma. II. pp. 4I-43. (39) Analisi di un Opuscolo Soiniologico francese, titolato, Prcis des Decouvertes des travaux somiologiques di C. S. Rafin- esque, Palermo, 1814, 55 pagini, 8 pic. II. pp. 43, 44. (40) Una Osservazione di Nosologia vegetabile. II. p. 45. (41) Definizioni di due nuove species Siciliane del Genere Hesperis [H. rubestris H. fasciculata.] II. pp. 46-47. (42) Economia pubblica. Quadro dello Studio metodico di questa Scienza. II. pp. 47-50. (43) Prodromo di Erpetologia Siciliana. II. pp. 65-67; I02-104. (44) Seguito delle Osservazioni microscopiche si veda il Tom. I., num. 3, pag. 88. II. pp. 68, 69. [Volvox fuscus n. s.; Volvox ovalis, n. s.; Mfonas punctum, n. s.; Zomorphus ocellalus, n. s.; Cercaria bispinosa, n. s.; Cercaria verticilloides, n. s.; Vorticella bidentata, n. s.] (45) Definizioni di due nuove Specie Siciliane e frutescenti del genere Brassica. II. pp. 69, 70. [Brassica montana, n. s. and Brassica crispa, n. s.] (46) Analisi di un opera francese di Storia Naturale. II. pp. 70-72 (47) Abbozzo di una nuova Teoria o Classificazione dei Colori. II. (48) Pensieri sopra l'Oreologia ossia lo Studio delle Montagne. II. pp. 76-78. (49) Scoperta di un intiero Mammonte in Siberia. II. pp. 86-88. [Elephas mammonteus, n. s., described.] (50) Osservazioni sopra le migrazioni dei Pesci. II. pp. 97-100. (5I) Descrizione di un Nuovo Genere di Pesce Siciliano. Nemo- chirus eryjh'/hrop/rus. II. pp. 100-102. (52) Descrizione di un nuova genere di Fungo Siciliano. Endamatus albus. II P. o05. I50 7he Life and Writzigs o/ (53) Notizia dei niinerali e fossili delle vicinanze di Nicosia in Sicilia. II. pp. 105-108. (54) Descrizione delle Cave Antiche di Nicosia, Sperlinga, etc. II. pp. .:o8-I I0. (55) Osservazioni sopra le specie Siciliane del genere Phoca. II. pp. 129-131. [Discusses Phora and describes Ag/ophema, n. g.; Se/opoda, n. g.; Parthenoopa, n. g., and Aglophema mnacu/a/a, n. s.; Selopoda fusca, n. s.; Parthenopa leucogaster, n. s.] (56) Descrizione di due nuovi genere di Meduse Siciliane. II. pp. 13I, I32. [Styripus, i. g., and Pteros/oma, n. g.] (57) Arrivo delle Lodole [skylarks] vicino Palermo nell' autunno. II. pp. 132-I34. (58) Descrizione di una nuova specie di Afarrubium [M. saxatile]. II. pp. 134, I35. (59) Osservazioni sopra il Rumex linaria di Linneo. II. pp. 135, 136. (6o) Nuova Malattia Vegetabile. II. p. I36. (6i ) Memoria sopra i Venti in Sicilia, le Aure diurne, ed il Scirocco. II. pp. I42-I46. (62) Penseri sopra le Comete di un anonimo inglese. II. pp. I48, I49. (63) [Nota sopra gli] Caratteri delle specie di due nuovi generi di Cuveri. II. p. I53 (64) Quadro dei Generi di Molluschi pteropodi dei Signori Peron e Lesueur. II. pp. I53-155. [This article has the following new genera: Hypterus, n. g.; Sarcopterus, n. g.; Heteroptera, n. g.; Abretia, n. g.; Cteniurus, n. g.; Dicroptera, n. g.] (65) Quadro della Letteratura Siciliana nel I814. II. pp. I55-I58. (66) Definizioni di 36 nuovi generi di Animali marini. II. p. i6i. [Not seen.] Conslan/ine Samuel Rafinesque. I5I (67) Due ambigue produzioni marine. II. p. i66. [Not seen.] (68) Enumerazione di I4 spugne di Sicilia. II. p. I68. [Not seen.] 26. Pr6cis I des Decouvertes et Travaux I Somiologiques I de Mr. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz. I entre i8oo et i814 I Ou choix raisonne de ses principales Decouvertes I en Zoologie et en Botanique, pour servir I d'introduction a ses ouvrages I futurs I De Linne le g6nie il a choisi pour guide. - I Pal- erme I Royale Typographie Militaire. j 1814. 1 Aux depens de l'Auteur. j (24mo. pp. 55.) This work was in the form of a letter to the botanist Persoon. 27. Principes Fondamentaux I de I Somiologie I ou I les loix de la nomenclature et de la I classification de l'empire organique ou des animaux et des vegetaux I contenant les Regles essen- tielles de l'Art de leur I imposer des noms immuables et de les I classer m6thodiquement I par C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz. - Palerme j - De l'Imprimerie de Franc. Abate, j aux d6pens de l'Auteur. I i8I4. (8, pp. 50 +). 28. Sur les Ouvrages de M. Rafinesque-Schmaltz. (Desvaux's Jour- nal de Botanique, Vol. IV, pp. 268-276. Paris. 1814.) This paper was a reprint of the botanical portion of the "Precis des Decouvertes." 29. Chloris Xtnensis I o j le Quattro Florule dell'Etna, I opuscolo del Sig. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz. I Palermo, Dicembre I8I3. I Destinato per essere inserito I nella I Storia Naturale Dell'Etna, j Del Can'co Recupero, I dal suo degno nipote I il Can'co Tes're D. Agatino Recupero I Di Catania. I Catania. I8I5. (4to. pp. I5.) I52 The Life and Writings of This work formed a portion of Recupero's Natural History of Mt. Etna, the "Storia Naturale e Generale dell'Etna." It was issued in advance of the completed work, and is now very rare. 30. Analyse I de la Nature ou I Tableau de L'Univers I et I des Corps Organiss I - par C. S. Rafinesque I De l'Institut des Sciences naturelles de Naples, et I de la Socit6 Italienne des Sciences et des arts. L - la Nature est mon guide, et Linn6us mon maitre. I - Palerme I 18 I - Aux d6pens de l'Auteur. (8Vo., pp. 224.) The frontispiece of the "Analysis of Nature" is a portrait which is believed to be the original of the painting from which the Popular Sczence Monthly por- trait was taken. The volume is now among the rarest of all of Rafinesque's writings. 3'. Circular Address I on I Botany and Zoology; I followed by the prospectus of two periodical works; I Annals of Nature I and Somiology of North America. I By C. S. Rafinesque, I of the Roval Institute of Natural Sciences of Naples, I and of several other learned societies I in Europe and America. - I Chi fa quanto puo, fa quanto deve. I - I Philadelphia: I Printed for the Author, by S. Merritt. ! 74! south Second street. I . . .I i8i6. I (I2mO., pp. 36.) Two editions of this pamphlet, one a I2mo and the other an i8mo, were issued for free distribution. 32. Prcis des decouvertes somiologiques ou Distribution methodique de tours les corps de la nature. Palermo. i8i6. Cons/antine Samuel Rafinesque. I53 I have never seen this work, the title of which is quoted from Rafinesque himself, and do not know whether it is another issue of the earlier work of sim- ilar title of i8I4. The date of publication is two years later, but identity is more than probable. 33. [Review of] Barton's " Flora Philadelphica Prodromus, etc." (American Mfonthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. I, No. 5, pp. 356-359. New York. 1817.) Rafinesque claims, in this review, a number of species previously published by himself. 34. Museum of Natural Sciences. By C. S. Rafinesque, Esquire. I. Description of the Tubipora Striatulae, a new species of Fossil from the State of New-York. (American Mont/dy M.ifaga2izne and Critical Review, Vol. I, No. 5, pp. 359, 360. New York. 1817.) Slrzilu/a is a misprint for s/rzatula, which is spelled correctly in the article. 35. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] 2. Specimens of several new American species of the genus Aphis. (American Monthly 4 LfA. - ;hLU .;i., 'tcw , v Us. .L, MIU. 3, FF. 6Uw, juI. avCW York. 1817.) 36. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] 3. New species of Mammifers, noticed in the Notes to the (Tableau methodique des Mammi- feres) Methodical Picture of the Mammifers, by D. Desmarets, in the 24th and last volume of the French New Dictionary of Natural History. Paris, i804. Translated and improved, by C. S. Rafinesque. (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. I, No. 5, pp. 361-363. New York. I817.) 20 The Life and Wri/ings of Defines the genus Mazama. Describes Galago minu- tus, Canis leucoxurus, Castor europeus, (Cervus melanopus, Mazama bira and Mazania p1ta. Of these several are simply removed from another genus. 37. [Review of] A Manual of Botany for the Northern States, com- prising generic descriptions of all Phenogamous and Crypto- gamous plants to the north of Virginia, hitherto described, c, c. Compiled by the Editor of Richard's Botanical Dictionary. Albany. Webster Skinners. I817. T2mo. ppt i64. (Amer- ican Mfonlhep Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. I, No. 6, pp. 426-430. New York. I817.) This reviews very harshly the first edition of Eaton's Botany. The review begins thus: "The work before us, has no higher claim than to the title of a mere compilation; but compilations are sometimes very useful when properly and skilfully executed, and this manual professing utility as its avowed object, it may be incumbent to examine how far this desideratum has been attained. It is ushered under the patronage of the members of the Botanical Class in Williams' College, Massachusetts, for whose use it appears to have been compiled, and whose thanks are offered to the author for his pains. While it must be highly gratifying to observe that as many as sixty-three students have signed that address, and attended the lectures on mineralogy and botany, delivered by the author in that College, and while they express their gratitude towards him in terms highly commendable, it may be proper to hint, that students are not in general the best judges of what is most useful in their pursuits. What they deem such, may often prove otherwise, and they are but seldom enabled to detect the errors of their teachers, while they are taught to consider them as doctrines and truths." 154 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 155 38. Museum of Natural Sciences. By C. S. Rafinesque, Esquire. 4. Dissertation on Water Snakes, Sea Snakes and Sea Serpents. (American M1onthly M1agazine and Critical Review, Vol. I, No. 6, pp. 431-435. New York. 1817. Reprinted, with same title, in The Philosophical M11agazine and Journal, London, Vol. LIV, pp. 361-367. 1819.) Describes Ophinectes n. g., Na/rzxr, n. g., and new species as follows: Natrzix dorsalzs, Platurus laurent/, Hydrophi's cyanura, Pelamis scihneideri, Pelamis margin- atus, Pelamz:s fuscatus, Ophinec/es cznereus, Ophinec/es VZrzdis, Ophznec/es litleus, Ophinectes cerulescens, Ophi- nec/es versicolor, Ophzinectes macula/us, Ophinectes punc- tatus, Ophinectes crythrocepha/us [misprint for erythro- cephalus], Ophinec/es dorsazis, and Ophinectes major. 39. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] 5. Extracts from the Journal of Mr. Charles LeRaye, relating to some new Quadrupeds of the Missouri Region, with notes by C. S. R. (American Xonthly kMagazine and Critical Review, Vol. 1, No. 6, pp. 435-437. I817.) [Corvus [cervus] macrurus, n. s.; Canis chlorobs. n. s. : Cervus mrn- anurus, n. s.; Melesium pratense, n. s.; Felis misax, n. s., and Lynx aureus, n. s.] 40. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] Botany. 6. Neogenytum Sicu- lum, or Descriptions of four new genera of Dicotyle Sicilian Plants. (American illonthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. I, No. 6, pp. 437-439. I8I7.) 4The description of this form is the very briefest that I remember ever having seen in a work on natural history. It reads: " 2. sp. Platurus laurenti Raf. Tail obtuse." Constanfine Samuel Rafinesque. 48. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] 13. Second Decade of unde- scribed American Plants. (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 2, pp. II9, I20. I8I7.) 49. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] 14. First Decade of new North-American Fishes. (American Monthly AMagazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 2, pp. 120, 12r, I817.) 5o. [Review of] American Entomology, or Descriptions of the In- sects of North America, illustrated by coloured figures from drawings executed from nature, by Thomas Say, c. (Amer- ican Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 2, p. 143. 1817.) Rafinesque does not give this book by Say a very complimentary notice. He says, among other things: "The United States can at last boast of having a learned and enlightened Entomologist in Mr. Say. Those who have preceded him . . . have merely been collec- tors . . ." He then proceeds to complain of the cost of the publication, saying, "we are offered an elegant specimen of typography: but the price of it is two dollars. For that sum we have forty pages (of which twelve are quite blank) and six coloured plates, contain- ing only eight species (whereof five are new) while they might have included sixty . . ." etc. 51. [Review of] Descriptio uberior Graminum et Plantarum Cala- mariarum Americae septentrionalis, indigenarum et circurum. Auctore D. Henrico Muhlenberg, etc. (American Monthly JMag- azine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 2, pp. I43, I44. 1817.) 157 156 The Life and Witings of 41. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] 7. Description of seven new Species of Sicilian Plants. (American MontAly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. I, No. 6, pp. 439, 440. 18I7-) 42. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] 8. Florula of the White Moun- tain of New-Hampshire. (American Monthly Afagazine and Critical Review, Vol. I, No. 6, pp. 440-442. 1817.) 43. Museum of Natural Sciences. By C. S. Rafinesque, Esq. 9. Synopsis of four New Genera and ten new Species of Crustacea, found in the United States. (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. I, pp. 40-43. 1817.) 44. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] io. First decade of undescribed American Plants, or Synopsis of new species, from the United States. (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. I, pp. 43, 44. I817.) 45. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] ii. Descriptions of seven new genera of North American Quadrupeds. (American Monthly ,1Mag,,razine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. I, pp. 44-46. 1817.) [YlMazama, Diplostoma, p. 44; Geomys, Cynomys, Anisonyx, My- nomes, p. 45; Lynx, p. 46.] 46. Survey of the progress and actual state of Natural Sciences in the United States of America, from the beginning of this century to the present time. (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 2, pp. 8I-89. 1817.) This article was to be continued, having surveyed but a portion of the field, but the design was never completed. It is a very masterly piece of work. 47. Museum of Natural Sciences. 12. Description of the Ioxylon Pomiferum, a new genus of North American tree. (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 2, pp. iI8, 119. I817.) The Life and Wrifings of 52. Florula Ludoviciana; I or, I A Flora I of the j State of Louisiana. -t Translated, revised, and improved, from the French of C. C. Robin, I By C. S. Rafinesque, I Of the Royal Institute of Naples, the Academy of Natural Sciences of I Philadelphia, the Literary and Philosophical Society of New- I York, the Lyceum of Natural History of New-York, I c. c. c. Author of the Analysis I of Nature c. c. c. I - Quand les mati- riaux sont imperfaits, I'idifice ne peut pas lire complet. - I New-York: I Published by C. Wiley Co. I No. 3 Wall-Street. i8I7. I Price One Dollar. (8vo, pp. 178.) This is the volume which first of all his works has led to and justified the severe criticisms which have been visited upon Rafinesque. The work is based upon a list made by a French traveler, C. C. Robin, who jour- neyed through Louisiana and Florida in i802- i8o6. Returning to Paris he published in the following year, I807, in three volumes, his observations and notes. Robin was not a botanist, nor indeed is there any thing in his work that would indicate more than a passing acuan taneno with naturalo cbjcts. Nexvertheles he log ists, in an appendix, Vol. III, pp 3I I - 525, F/ore Louisianzase, a number of common plants, many of which could not possibly have been correctly identified. From the list so made up "was fabricated, by Rafinesque, a fancy work called Florula Ludovzczana". It may be further said that Rafinesque was never within a thousand miles of the region included in this volume. The book must go I58 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. I59 down to history as a monument to an uncontrolled love of genus-making. It marks the beginning of the period of the decadence of the influence of Rafinesque among his contemporaries. I know of but one copy in Kentucky, and that one belongs to the library of the late Doctor Robert Peter, of Lexington. 53. Museum of Natural Sciences. 15. Introduction to the Ich- thyology of the United States. (American JMonth/y Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 3, pp. 202, 203. i8i8.) 54. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] i6. Descriptions of two new genera of North American Fishes, Opsanus and Notropis. (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 3, pp. 203, 204. I818.) 55. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] I7. Second Decade of new North-American Fishes. (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 3, pp. 204-206. i8r8.) 56. [Museum of Natural Sciences.] i8. Third Decade of new Spe- cies of North-American Plants. (American Mffonthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 3, pp. 206, 207. i8i8.) 57. [Review of] Pursh's " Flora Americana Septentrionalis ". (Amor- ican Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 3, pp. 170-176. Also, in continuation, Vol. II, No. 4, pp. 265-269. i8i8.) 58. [Review of] Bigelow's "Florula Bostoniensis". (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. II, No. 5, pp. 342-344. i8i8.) r9. Second Memoir on the Genus Aphis, containing the Description of 24 new American Species. By C. S. Rafinesque. (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. III, No. 1, pp. I5-x8. I8i8.) i6o The Life and Writings of 6o. [Review of] Elliott's " A Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia ". (American Monthly Mfagazine and Critical Review, Vol. III, No 2, pp. 96-ioi. i8i8.) 6i. [Review of] Eaton's "An Index to the Geology of the Northern States, with a transverse Section from the Catskill Mountains to the Atlantic, etc." (American Mfonthly M1agazine and Critical Review, Vol. III, No. 3, pp. 175-I78. i8i8.) 62. [Review of] Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Vol. I, Part I, c. (American Mfonthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. III, No. 4, pp. 269-274. i8i8.) 63. Discoveries in Natural History, made during a Journey through the Western Region of the United States. (American Monthly Magazine and critical Review, Vol. III, No. 5, pp. 354-356. i8i8.) This is a letter to Samuel L. Mitchill, President, and the other members of the New York Lyceum of Natural History, and was dated from Louisville, Kentucky, July 20, i8i8. 64. Further Discoveries in Natural History, made during a Journey throughi the Western Region of the United States. (American A/onth/i' .Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. III, No. 6, pp. 445-447. I18) I,"j Lfuscuil" cutui-us, "'ri. i s",C. That part of this paper which deals with the descrip- tions of new bats has been reproduced in the Bulletin U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 43, Appendix, p. i83, i893, by Doctor Harrison Allen. 65. Discoveries in Natural History made during a Journey through the Western Region of the United States. (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. IV. No. 1, pp. 39-42. I818.) Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. i6i This and the title immediately preceding were letters to the New York Lyceum of Natural History, through Doctor Mitchill. 66. General Account of the Discoveries made in the Zoology of the Western States in i8i8. (American YMonthly Mlagazine and Critical Review, Vol. IV, No. 2, p. 107. i8i8-) 67. Description of three new genera of fluviatile Fish, PomAoxis, Sarchirus, and Exoglossum. By C. S. Rafinesque. Read Dec. ist and 8th. (,Journal Academy Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Vol. I, Part II, pp. 417-422. With one plate. i8i8.) 68. A Journal of the Progress of Vegetation, near Philadelphia, be- tween the 20th of Ferbuary and the 20th of May, i8i6, with occasional Zoological Remarks. (American Journal of Science, Vol. I, ist Series, pp. 77-82. New York, x8i8.) 69. Description of a New Species of North American Marten (Mus- tela vulpina). (American Journal of Science, ist Series, Vol. I, pp. 82-84. i8i8.) This paper was republished in The Philosopzcsal AMagazzne and Journal, London, Vol. LIII, pp. 4II, 4I2. 1819. 70. Natural History of the Scytalus Cupreus, or Copper-head Snake. (American journal of Science, ist Series, Vol. I, pp. 84-86. i8I8.) 7r. Descriptions of Species of Sponges observed on the Shores of Long-Island. (American Journal of Science, ist Series, Vol. I, No. 2, pp. 149-I51. z8i8.) 72. Memoir on the Xanthium maculatum, a New Species from the State of New-York, c. (American Journal of Science, ist Series, Vol. I, No. 2, pp. I5I-I53. i8i8.) 21 i62 The L6fe and Writings of 73. Description of a New Genus of North American Fresh-water Fish, Exoglossum. (American Journal of Science, Ist Series, Vol. I, pp. 155, i56. i8i8.) 74. New Genus of American Grasses, (Diploea barbata). (American Journal of Science, Ist Series, Vol. I, pp. 252-254. i8i8.) 75. Prodrome de 70 nouveaux Genres D'Animaux d6couverts dans l'interieur des Etats-Unis D'Amerique, durant l'anne i8i8. (Jour. de Physique, de C iemie et D'Iiistoire Nature/le, et des Arts, etc. Paris. Tome 88. i8i9. pp. 417-429. See also, Isis, Litterarischer Anzeiger, pp. 236-244. Jena, i820.) 76. Description and Natural Classification of the Genus Floerka. (American Journal of Science, ist Series, Vol I, No. 4, p. 373. i8i9.) 77. Descriptions of Three new Genera of Plants, from the State of New York. Cylactis, Nemopanthus, and Polanisia. (Amer- ican Journal of Science, ist Series, Vol. I, No. 4, p. 377. i8I9.) 78. Notice on the Myosurus Shortii. (American Journal of Science, ist Series, Vol. I, No. 4, p. 379. i8i9.) 79. Thoughts on Atmospheric Dust. (American Journal of Science, ist Series, Vol. I, No. 4, pp. 397-400. 18I9.) 8o. [Review of] Nuttall's " The Genera of North-American Plants, etc." (American M11onthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. IV, No. 3, pp. i84-I96. i8i9.) 8i. Result of the Botanical Discoveries made in the Western States by C. S. Rafinesque. (American M1onthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. IV, No. 3, pp. 207, 208. i8i9.) 82. Description of a New Genus of Fluviatile Bivalve Shell, of the family of Brachiopodes; Notrema Fissurella; in a letter to Dr. S. L. Mitchill, Prof. of Nat. Hist., c, New-York. (American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. IV, No. 5, p. 356. I819.) Constant/ne Samuel Rafinesque. i63 83. On some new Genera of American Plants. Extract of the third Letter of C. S. Rafinesque, to Mr. Decandolle, Professor of Botany at Genevra, and author of the new Species Plantarum, dated Philadelphia, 25th Feb., I819. Translated from the French. (Anerican .lon/hly A/agazine and Critical Review, Vol. TV, No. ;5, pp. 356--358. 1819.) x4. On the introduction and cultivation of the Tea-Plant, in three Letters frorn C. S. Rafil-esque, Esq. to the Hon. S. L. Mitchill. Read before the Lyceum of Natural History, Feb. 8, i819. (American Ufon/hly fagoaZine and (Critical Review, Vol. IV, No. 5, pp. 382-384. 1819.) 8s. Letter to the Editor of the American Monthly Magazine, on the Date-Tree, or Palm. By C. S. Rafinesque. (American Mfonthly Magazine and Critical Review, Vol. IV, No. 6, pp. 465-467. i8i9.) 86. Prodrome des nouveaux Genres de Plantes observ6s en 1817 et i8i8 dans l'interieur des Etats-Unis d'Amerique. Par C. S. Rafinesque, Professeur de Botauique et d'Histoire naturelle dans l'Universite de Lexington. (Journal de Physique, etc., Vol. LXXXIX, pp. 96-I07. Paris. Aout, i8i9.) Describes fifty genera. Contribution dated from Phil- aueillla, .VJdy 1 1 Q 1.. 87. Descriptions De onze Genres nouveaux de Mollusques, publies en 1814. (Jouer. de Ph ysi/ue, etc. Paris. Tome 89, p. 150. 18 9.) 88. Remarques critiques et synonymiques sur les Ouvrages de MM. Pursh, Nuttall, Elliott, Jorrey, [Torrey], Barton, Muhlenburg, etc., sur les Plantes des Etats Unis. (Journal de Physique, etc., Vol. LXXXIX, pp. 256-26i. Paris. Octobre, I819 Ninety items. Dated Philadelphia, May I, i819.) The Life ahd Wrzilings of 89. On the different Lightnings observed in the western states, by C. S. Rafinesque, Professor of Botany and Natural History in Transylvania University. (Wes/ern Review and Miscellaneous Mag-azine, Vol. 1, No. i, August, pp. 60-63. Lexington, i8i9.) This paper describes ten species or varieties of light- ning in a style which some suppose closely approaches the formal modes of plant description. It has subjected its unfortunate author to remarkably severe criticisms, but mainly from those who never have seen the paper itself. I have read the paper with the greatest care, more than once, but I fail to find in it more than an attempt to describe the various phenomena connected with electrical displays. In no case has a name of a binomial character, either Latinized or not, been bestowed upon a single variety said by Rafinesque to have been observed by him. So many misleading things have been said about this paper, some of them copied by interested persons, that justice requires the truth to be told. I have seen no mention of this paper hy the rrtic sacve where introduced by the explanatory remark, "said to have described in natural history style ". It is time this fiction was destroyed. Nearly all the remarks which Rafinesque makes have reference solely to the direction of the discharge and to the character of the spark, whether deflected or straight or bent or forked. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. i65 It is not claimed by the compiler that the paper has either scientific merit or value, but that it has been used unfairly in detraction. go. Botany of Kentucky; On its Principal Features. (Weslern Re- view and Miscellaneous Magazine, August, Vol. I, No. i, pp. 92-95. i8i9.) A number of typographical errors occurring in this paper are corrected in an erratum on p. I28. gi. On the Salivation of Horses. ( Wf'eslern Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, October, Vol. I, No. 3, pp. i82-i84. 1819.) 92. On the Oil of Pumpkin Seeds. [An open letter to Dr. C. L. Seeger, Northampton, Mass.] ( Western Review and Miscellane- ous Magazine, October, Vol. I, No. 3, pp. i85, i86. i8i9.) 93. Descriptions of Two New Shrubs from Kentucky, etc. (Western Review and Miscellaneous Mlfagazine, November, Vol. I, No. 4, pp. 228-230. i8i9.) [Betula rueestsis, Cornus obliqua.] 94. Descriptions of Two New Species of Foxes from the Western States. (WMestern Review and Miscellaneous Mlagazine, Vol. I, November, pp. 234-236. 18i9.) [Canis melanurus. C. /evtmrnmS.1 95. Natural History of the Fishes of the Ohio River and its Trib- utary Streams. WIestern Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, Vol. I, pp. 305-313, December. i8i9.) [Introduction to the Fishes and first part of the description of the Ohio river.] This paper with the several same titles following were collected and published in a separate volume in i820. See the Ichthyologza Ohiensis. The Life and Wrifings of 96. On A Remarkable Ancient Monument near Lexington. (Western Review and A'Iiscellaneous Magazine, Vol. I, No. 5, pp. 3I3, 314, December. I8I9.) 97. Description of the Silures, or Catfishes of the River Ohio. (Quar- terly Journal of Science, Literature, and Arts, Royal Institution, London, Vol. IX, p. 48. 1820.) 98. Description of the River Ohio. (Western Review and Miscellane- ous Magazine, Vol. I, No. 6, pp. 361-377, January. 1820.) This paper is a continuation of the Introduction to the Fishes of the River Ohio. On page 368 the de- scriptions of the fishes begin. 99. La Divinite: Ode Sacree, A Echo et Chorus Responsif. (West- ern Review and Miscellaneous Mlagazine, Vol. I, January, pp. 383, 384. I820.) Ioo. Fishes of the River Ohio. (Western Review and Mfiscellaneous Magazine, Vol. II, February, pp. 49-57. 1820.) ioi. Monthly Results of Meteorological Observations, made in Lex- ington by Professor Rafinesque. (Western Review and Mis- cellaneous Magazine, Vol. II, February, pp. 57, 58. i820.) I02. Monthly Results of Meteorological Observations, made in Lex- ington by Professor Rafinesque. (Western Review and Mis- cellaneous Magazine, Vol. II, March, pp. I22, 123. i820.) 103. Fragments D'un Poeme sur la Femme. (Western Review and Miscellaneous Mfagazine, Vol. TT, March, pp. T27, T28. T820.) 104. Fishes of the River Ohio. (Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, Vol. II, No. 3, pp. I69-I77, April. 1820.) i05. Monthly Results of Meteorological Observations, made in Lex- ington by Professor Rafinesque. (Western Review and Mis- cellaneous Magazine, Vol. II, April, pp. i85, i86. i820.) Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. io6. Fishes of the River Ohio. (Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, Vol. II, No. 4. pp. 235-242, May. 1820.) 107. Description of the Ancient Town near Lexington. In a letter to Caleb Atwater, of Circleville, Ohio. (Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, Vol. II, No. 4, pp. 242-244, May. 1820.) io8. Fishes of the River Ohio. (Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, Vol. II, No. 5, pp. 299-307, June. i820.) io0. Monthly Results of Meteorological Observations, made in Lex- ington by Professor Rafinesque. April and May. (Western Review and Miscellaneous Afagazine, Vol. II, June, pp. 3I0-312. I820.) I xIo. Remarks on the Geology of the Valley of the Mississippi. (Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, Vol. II, July, pp. 321, 322. I820.) [Discomphites, in foot-note on page 326.] This is a note prefacing a geological paper by J. D. Clifford, who had published a similar paper in an earlier number, but had died before the appearance of a second one. xii. Fishes of the River Ohio. (Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, Vol. II, July, pp. 355-363. 1820.) 112. Monthly Results of Meteorological Observations, made in Lex- ington by Professor Rafinesque. ([iestern Review and Mis- cellaneous Magazine, Vol. II, July, PP. 374, 375. i820.) I13. On the Upper Alleghawian Monuments of North Elkhorn Creek, Fayette county, Kentucky. [Letter to Caleb Atwater, Circleville, Ohio, dated July I2, i820.] (Western Review and .Miscellaneous Magazine, Vol. III, August, pp. 53-57. 1820.) The foot-note, page 326, proposes Discomphites for Maclurite. i68 The Life and Wri/ings of 114. Monthly Results of Meteorological Observations, made in Lex- ington by Professor Rafinesque. (W1'estern Review and Mis- cellancous Magazine, Vol. III, September, pp. 124-I27. i820.) [This title includes the observations for July, August, Sep- tember, 1820.] These records are the very first ever made in Kentucky in a more or less scientific and careful manner. Their examination shows them to have been kept in the true method of more recent times. Many of them contain notes on the flowering of plants and similar matters. ii5. Fishes of the River Ohio. ( Western Review and Mliscellaneous Magazine, Vol. III, October, pp. i65-I73. i820.) i i6. Fishes of the River Ohio. (Wlestern Rleview and Mfiscellaneoues Magazine, Vol. III, November, pp. 244-252. i820.) This paper concludes the series devoted to the fishes, which was separately published from oversheets, with the title next following: i7. lchthyologia Ohiensis I or I Natural History I of I the Fishes nl1httint, fate v Ox yes Ossv siiu its riIUUaIly SLIemil, Preceded by a Physical Description of the Ohio and its Branches. I - I By C. S. Rafinesque, I Professor of Botany and Natural History in Transilvania University, etc, etc. i Lexington, Kentucky: I printed for the author I By W. G. Hunt. I (Price one dollar.) I - I820. (8Vo, pp. I-9o.) This little work, which is now very rare, has been the cause of much misunderstanding among naturalists ' For full title see p. 91. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. who have devoted themselves to fishes. It is from the same type as the several papers above enumerated, and was issued in a very small edition. i i8. Prodrome d'une Monographie des Rosiers de l'Am6rique Septen- trionale, contenant la description de quinze especes nouvelles et vingt varieties. (Anna/es Generates des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome V, pp. 2I0-220. i820.) I i9. Sur le Genre Houstonia et Description de Plusieurs Especes Nouvelles. (Annales Generates des Sciences Physiques [Brux- elles], Tome V, pp. 224-227. i820.) 120. The Western Minerva, or American Annals of Knowledge and Literature; a Quarterly Journal to be published in Lexing- ton, Kentucky. Un peu de tout. Prospectus. (Kentucky Re- porter, October x6, i820.) This is the title of a journal, planned by Rafinesque, of which the first number was published in January, i82I. Of the edition, the size of which is unknown, RillF:5r uderthrobe repi-n -l,, -C.- A A' him the remainder of the edition without payment, and the whole, with the exception of the three copies secured by Rafinesque, was destroyed. Later, in one of his publi- cations, Rafinesque advertises one of these for sale, at a valuation of five dollars, remarking that it was " a unique copy." For several weeks the Kentucky Reporter had published a column advertisement of this proposed 22 i69 The L-afe awd Jrifings of journal, which was a marvel of promise. A list of some forty-four articles " already prepared" and destined for publication in the new journal fills about one fourth of the space. Of them the following titles may stand as fair examples: "The Morality of Truth "; "Theory of the Emanation of Beings"; "Theory of the Intellect- ual World "; "The Pandoceist, or thoughts on every- thing"; "Enquiries on the Heavenly Spheres "; "The Harmony of the Worlds"; "Descriptions of New Ani- mals and Plants"; "Letters on the Antiquities of Ken- tucky "; "The Chemical Art of Making sugar with wood "; "Description of ioo Mvodes of Grafting Fruit Trees "; "New Treatment of Consumption "; "New Theory of Love or the harmonics of Sympathy"; "On the Infinite Calculation of Space and Time", etc., etc. It is really fortunate that the journal failed to secure subscribers! The Kentucky Reporter of January 28, i821, has a notice that "the publication of the Journal is suspended if not abandoned. Hereafter, should a better subscription list be procured, and arrangements more suitable to the success of such a work, be made by the editors, due notice will be given. Ill the meantime those who have paid their subscriptions in advance shall have them refunded." This "Western Minerva" should not be confounded with the literary journal of similar name, 170 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. started in Cincinnati, in i826, by Francis and William D. Gallagher. 121. Prodrome d'une monographie de Turbitolies fossiles du Ken- tucky. (Annales Genera/es des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome V, pp. 231-235. 1820.) This paper was explanatory of a joint work to be undertaken in conjunction with J. D. Clifford, whose death appears to have been the chief cause of its aban- donment. It is one of the two joint titles known to me in connection with Rafinesque's writings. 122. Monographie des Coquilles Bivalves Fluviatiles de la Riviere Ohio, Contenant douze Genres et soixante huit Especes. (Anna/es Generales des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome V, Pt. I3, pp. 287-322. i820.) This work was republished in i845, with three plates, in Chenu's Bibliotheque Conchyliologique, Series I, Tome 3, 8vo, pp. 30, Paris. It also formed the basis of Poulson's translation mentioned below, which was published, without the plates, in 1832. I23. Remarques sur les rapports naturels des genres Viscum, Samo- lus et Viburnum. (Annales Genera/es des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome, V, pp. 348-351. i820.) 124. Tableau Analytique des Ordres Naturelles families naturelles et genres, de la classe endogynie sous-classe corisantherie. (Annales Generales des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome VI, pp. 76-89. i820.) I7I 1 72 The Life and Wri/ngs of 125. Remarques sur le Genre Eustachya, avec une Nouvelle espece. (Anna/es Gencrales des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome V7I, pp. 97, 98. I820.) 126. Sur les animaux philostomes et Porostomes. (Annales Genera/es des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome VI, pp. 359-364. I820.) 127. Remarques sur quelques Erreurs en Ichthyologiques. (Annales Genera/es des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome VI, p. 369. 1820.) 128. Remarques sur le genre Jeffersonia. (Anna/es Generales des Sciences Phi'siques [Bruxelles], Tome VII, p. i8. I820.) 129. Stir le nouveau Genre Enemion. (Annales Genera/es des Sciences P/i'siqucs [Bruxellesi, Tome VII. p. i8. 1820.) I30. Nouveau caractere de (d'Irillium. (Annales Generales des Sci- ences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome VII, p. I9. 1820.) 13!. Stir queiques Animaux hybrides. (Annales Generales des Sci- ences Pkh'siqucs [Bruxelles], Tome VII, pp. 85-88. I820.) This impossible account was founded solely on state- ments made by others, some of whom were neither intelligent nor honest. Rafinesque was victimized. .J2. (JIllelciaLure Synandrique, ou descriptions des diferens modes d'union parmi les etamines. (Annales Generales des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome VII, pp. I01-I07. I820.) I33. Sur les genres Tridynia, Steironema, Lysimachia, etc. (Ann. Genera/es des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome VII, p. 192. I 820.) 134. Sur le genre Manis, et description d'une nouvelle espece, Manis leonyx. (Annales Generales des Sciences Phvysiques [Bruxelles], Tome VII, pp. 214, 215. I820.) Constan/ine Samuel Rafinesque. I73 135. Genres Chetyson, Stylyphus etc. (Annales Genera/es des Sci- ences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome VII, p. 387. I820.) 136. Sur les Explosions orageuses. (Annales Genera/es des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome VII, p. 388. i820.) 137. Alluvions fluviatiles. (Annales Genera/es des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome VII, p. 388. i820.) I38. Sur le Knops-Hills du Kentuky. (Annales Genera/es des Sci- ences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome VII, p. 388. i820.) 139. Description d'une Araignee qui constitue un Genre nouveau (Tessaops). (Annales Genera/es des Sciences Physiques [Brux- elles], Tome VIII, p. 88. I821.) I40. Remarques sur les Convolulacees, etc. (Anna/es Generales des Sciences Physiques [Bruxelles], Tome VIII, pp. 268-272. I821.) 141. Ueber eilf neue Sippen von Mollusken, aufgestellt I8I4. (Isis. Lillerarischer Anzeiger, pp. 244-247. Jena. I820.) 142. Enquiries on the Galaxy or Milky-Way. (Western Review and Miscellaneous Mlagazine, Vol. III, September, pp. II7-I24. 1820.) This paper is introduced by general astronomic re- marks. I43. Annals of Nature I or I Annual Synopsis I of New Genera and Species of Animals, Plants, c. I discovered in North Amer- ica: ! I by C. S. Rafinesque, I Professor of Botany and Natural History in Transylvania University, at Lexington I in Kentucky, and Member of several Learned Societies in the I United States and in Europe, c. I - Exertion un- folds and increases knowledge. I - I First Annual Number, for I820. I - I Dedicated to Dr. W. E. Leach, I of the British Museum, London. [Text follows.] (8vo, pp. i6. I820.) I74 The Life and Wrifings of The portion of this paper which deals with certain new bats is quoted in full by Doctor Harrison Allen in his Monograph of North American Bats, Bulletin U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 43, i893, p. i84. I44. Sur Plusiers Nouveaux genres de Mollusques. (Journal de Pki'siquc, dc la Clitmie, etc., Paris, Tome LXXXVIII, p. 417. 1820.) I45. Monthly Results of Meteorological Observations, made in Lex- ington by Professor Rafinesque. (ft'eslern Rev;iew and Mfis cellaneous Magazine, Vol. III, January, p. 375. I821.) This title includes the Observations for the months of October, November, and December, i820. I46. Description of a Fossil Medusa, forming a new Genus, Trian- isites cliffordi. (American Journal of Science, ist Series, Vol. III, pp. 285-287. I821.) I47. Beschreibung einer fossilen Medusa, die eine neue Sippe bildet: Trianisites. (Isis, Heft 7, p. 749. Jena. i823. Litterarischer Anzeiger.) This is a translation of the article in Silliman's Journal, Vol. III, 2, i821. 148. Clio No. I. Ancient History of North America. (The Cincin- nati Literary Gazette, Vol. I, No. 8, February 21, pp. 59, 6o. I824.) I49. Neophyton No. I. On a new tree of Kentucky forming a new genus Clandrastus Fragrans. (The Cincinnati Literary Ga- zette, Vol. I. No. 8, February 2I, p. 60. i824.) Constan/ne Samitel Rafinesque. 175 150. Neophyton No. II. On the Genus Collinsia, and two new species of it. (The Cincinnati Literary Gazette, Vol. I, No. X r, March I3, p. 84. 1824.) 15i. Clio No. II. Ancient History of America. Monuments of the State of Ohio. (The Cincinnati Literary Gazelle, Vol. I, No. 14, April 3, pp. 107, io8. i824.) 152. Clio No. III. Ancient History of North America. On the Mexican Nations. (The Cincinnati Literary Gazette, Vol. I, No. 19, Mlay 8, pp. 146, I47. 1824.) 153. Clio No. III.-Concluded. (The Cincinnati Literary Gazette, Vol. I, No. 20, May i5, p. 155. 1824.) I54. Clio No. IV. Ancient History of N. A. Biography of the American Solomon. (The Cincinnali Literary Gazette, Vol. I, No. 22, May 29, p. I70. 1824.) i5. Clio No. V. To the Editor of the Literary Gazette. On Naza- hual, the Nabijos and Comanchees. (The Cincinnati Literary Gazette, Vol. I, No. 26, June 26, p. 202. I824.) This article of two columns, addressed to the editor of the Gazetle, gives the authorities for facts mentioned in Clio No. IV, which had been attacked by Burnett, as mentioned in the preceding sketch of Rafinesque's life. Doctor Venable says: "It is written without acrimony and states that 'although the demand' (in Burnett's card) 'was anonymous and indecorous, therefore unworthy of notice: since it has been admitted into your pages, it requires a short notice'". In lit., August 15, I894. The Life and Writings of i56. [Review of] Dr. Martin Ruter's Hebrew Grammar. (The Cin- cinnati Literary Gazette, Vol. I, No. 2I, May 22, pp. i6i, i62. 1824.) This review is signed only with initials, and is dated from Transylvania University. It is curious and inter- esting as showing something of Rafinesque's linguistic attainments. Doctor W. H. Venable gives a brief history of this book of Ruter in his "Beginnings of Literary Culture in the Ohio Valley", p. I94. 157. Neophyton No. III. On a new medical plant, Prenanthes opi- orina, and a new kind of opium-opiorine. (The Cincinnati Literary Gazette, Vol. II, No. 2, July IO, pp. IO, II. I824.) This paper was read before the Kentucky Institute, of which mention has been made, February II, i824. i58. Neophyton No. IV. On the new genus Lophactis. (The Cin- cinnati Literary Gazette, Vol. II, No. 4, July 24, p. 28. I824.) I59. Somiology, ou les lois de la Nomenclature et de la Classification des Vegetaux et des Animaux. (i824.) I have been unable to obtain any more definite in- formation either as to form or place of publication. i6o. Ancient Annals of Kentucky; or Introduction to the History and Antiquities of the State of Kentucky. (Marshall's His- tory of Kentucky, Vol. I, pp. i-ix-47. I824.) Oversheets of this work, or chapter, were collated and published under the title given next below. On page 3 I76 Cons/anfine Samuel Rafinesque. I77 is a curious, though useless, ethnological and philological table of the primitive nations and languages. Four words (Heaven, Man, Land, and Water,) were used to form this table, which possesses no real linguistic value. i6i. Ancient History, I or I Annals of Kentucky; I with a Survey of the Ancient Monuments I of North America I And a Tabular View of the Principal Languages and Primi- I tive Nations of the Whole Earth. I By C. S. Rafinesque, A. M., Ph. D., ! Prof. in Tran. Uni. I Sup't. of the Trans. Bot. Garden I Sec'y of the I Kent Institute, and member of the following Socie- ties: I Imp. Nat. Cur. of Bonn: Lit. Phil. Soc. of New York, Imp. Econ. Soc. of Vienna, Lyc. of Nat. hist. of New York, R. Inst. of Sciences of Naples, I Ac. of Nat. Sc. of Philadelphia, I It. Ac. of Arts and Sciences, I Antiq. Soc. of Tennessee, I Lin. Soc. of Paris; Med. Soc. of Cincinnati, Amer. Antiq. Soc.; Med. Soc. of Lexington, I Histor. Soc. of New York, c, c, c, I (Numquam otiosus.) I - I Frank- fort, Kentucky. I I Printed for the Author. I I824. (8vo, pp. I-39 [I].) This work consists of the oversheets of the article used by Marshall in his "History of Kentucky". The second page contains a dedication of the work to "Alex- ander de Humboldt, in token of the high value set upon his researches in America". I62. Clio No. VI. On the Panis Language and Dialects. (The Cincinnati Literary Gazette, Vol. II, No. 7, August I4, pp. 50, 51. I824.) i63. Clio No. VII. On the White-Tribes of America, etc. (The Cincinnati Literary Gazette, Vol. II, No. 23, December 24, p. 178. i824.) 23 178 The Life and Wrifings of i64. Clio No. VIII. On erroneous criticism. (The Cincinnati Literary Gazelle, Vol. III, No. 12, March ig, pp. 89, go. 1825.) This article constitutes a reply to a rather unfavor- able review, conceived in a semi-humorous vein, of Raf- inesque's "Ancient Monuments and Ancient History of Kentucky ". The review to which it is a reply may be found in the Cincznnati Literary Gazette, Vol. II, Decem- ber 25, i824, pp. 203, 204. i65. Neogenyton, or indications of Sixty-six new genera of plants of North America. By C. S. Rafinesque, Professor of Botany and Natural History in the University of Lexington in Ken- tucky. Dedicated to Professor Decandolle of Geneva. [Lex- ington] (8Vo, pp. 4. i825.) Rafinesque says, at the beginning of this brochure, "Some of these plants were indicated last year, i824, in the Catalogue of the Botanic Garden which I have tried in vain to establish in Lexington". i66. Useful Inventions. (The Cincinnati Literary Gazette, Vol. III, No. 9, February 26, pp. 66, 67. i825.) i67. Outlines I of a General History of America I By C. S. Rafin- esque I Second Chronological Part I - I Colunal An- nals I of the I Antillary or West Indies I Islands I also Guyana and Brazil I besides the Boreal and Austral Islands I or the whole of America I except I Spanish America and North America - I From I492 to I775. I Begun in Philadelphia, in October i827. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. This is an unpublished manuscript, forming a book of two hundred and eighty pages, all in the handwriting of Rafinesque. The title was kindly transcribed by Doctor Goode. The work is preserved in the Library of Congress, at Washington, and is one of several man- uscripts left by him. It is one of Rafinesque's general historical works projected but never completed. i68. Medical Flora; or M wIanual of the Medical Botany I of the United States of North America. Containing a selection of above ioo figures and descriptions of Medi I cal Plants, with their names, qualities, properties, I history, c,: I and notes or remarks on nearly I 500 equivalent substitutes. I In two volumes. I I Volume the first; I A H I with 52 plates. I - I Medical Plants are compound Medicines pre- pared by the hands of Nature, c. Med. Princ. 3Y. I - I By C. S. Rafinesque A. M. Ph. D. I --I Philadelphia: Printed Published by Atkinson Alexander. No. II 2 Chestnut Street. i828. [Vol. II. i830.] Vol. I, pp. (4) i-Xii, 1-268, pll I-52. (i828) Vol. II (Volume the Second with 48 plates) Phila. Published by Samuel C. Atkinson i (1830). pp. 1-276. p11 53-IO. This work, which possesses real value, was dedicated to Doctor Torrey, Doctor Short, and Stephen Elliott, Esq. The matter is alphabetically arranged, and embellished with plates which are in outline and printed in green ink. A considerable number of copies were purchased by individuals at the auction sale of the effects of Raf- inesque. 179 i8o The Life and Wrihngs of 169. Price One Dollar. I The Pulmist; I or, I Introduction to the Art of Curing and Preventing the I Consumption I or I Chronic Plhthisis. I A Medical Essay, including a new and better Distinc- I tion of its Causes, Kinds, Remedies, Diets, I and other Peculiarities. I - I The Consumption is not an in- curable disease; but its reme- I dies are to be chiefly con- veyed to the lungs by breathing I or inhalation - i io. I By Prof. Rafinesque, Ph. D. Pulmist. I Professor of Prac- tical and Medical Botany, Natural and Civil I History, c, c. I Author of the Manual of Medical Botany of the United States, the I Analysis of Nature, and 50 other works or phamphlets. I Member of the Medical Societies of Cincinnati and Lexington; the Philadelphia I Society and Lyceum of New York; the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- I phia; the American Antiquity Society of Worcester and Nashville; the Kentucky I Institute, c; and of several learned Societies of Europe, in Paris, Bruxelles, Vi- I enna, Bonn, Florence, Naples, c. I - Philadelphia: I Printed for the Author, I By C. Alexander, 112 Chestnut street. + - I1829. (8vo, pp. 72, I fig.) This curious work has no scientific medical value. During these years, which were among the saddest of d., 1 ' rAct ,v f t .,1sl,,.-' 1f0 -,, rrv v.,.caA t th practices that now commonly attach to medical charla- tans. Two extracts from this book will serve to show that his methods were not at all unlike those adopted at the present day. On page 8 he writes: "My dislike of every appearance of empiricism, and my wish to avoid censure, induced me to conceal myself under the name Constanfine Samuel Rafinesque. i8i of MEDICUS; and thus for two years I have often prac- ticed, with some restraint, and under many disadvan- tages ". And, again, page 69, "I have avoided to publish venal certificates and recommendations of its [pulmel ] effects, in order to shun the appearance of empiricism. I have merely published in the Saturday Evening Post, the medical statements of six or seven cases and cures, and I now add here those of as many more, in as brief form as possible ". The quotation from page iio on the title page indicates an understanding of the "germ theory of disease" quite unusual for his time. 170. Eight Figures, I Twenty-five Cents. I - I American Manual I of the I Grape Vines I and the I Art of making Wine: I in- cluding I An Account of 62 Species of Vines, with nearly 300 Varieties. An account of the Principal Wines, Ame I rican and Foreign. Properties and uses of Wines I and Grapes. Cultivation of Vines in America, and I the Art to make good Wines. With 8 figures j - I By C. S. Rafinesque, A. M. Ph. D. Professor of Natural History, Practical and Medi- i cal Botany, c. in Philadelphia; Member of I twelve learned societies in America I and Europe; Author of many I works, c. c. c. - Let every Farmer drink his own Wine. i - I Philadelphia: I Printed for the Author. I - I i830. ' (pp. 64. and one page "additions to this manual"; 2 plates with 8 figures of grape-leaves.) Eight drawings illustrate this work, which is made up of oversheets from volume two of the Medical Flora. It comprises the whole of the article on Vztzs. The cover of the brochure has certain additions to the text. i82 The Life and Writings of 171. Enumeration I and Account of some remarkable I Natural Ob- jects in the Cabinet I of Professor Rafinesque, in Philadel- phia, I being Animals, Shells, Plants I and Fossils, collected by him I in North America, between I i8i6-i831 I by C. S. Rafinesque I Professor of historical and natural sciences I Philadelphia. I William Sharpless, Printer I No. 2 Decatur Street. I 9 pl1. I83I. A manuscript copy of this work exists in the Zoolog- ical Library of Harvard University. 172. Continuation of a Monograph of the Bivalve Shells of the River Ohio, and other rivers of the Western States (Pub- lislhed at Brussels, September, 1820). Containing 46 species, from 76 to I21. Including an Appendix on some Bivalve Shells of the Rivers of Hindostan, with a Supplement on the Fossil Bivalve Shells of the Western States, and the Tulo- sites, a new Genus of Fossils. Philadelphia, October, i831. 173. First Number, For the Spring of i832. I With two figures, I Melissa and Mammoth Cave. I Atlantic Journal, I and Friend of Knowledge; I A cyclopedic Journal and Review I of universal science and knowledge: I Historical, Natural, and Medical Arts and Sciences: I Industry, Agriculture, educa- tion, and every kind of useful knowledge: I with numerous figures. i -- I Editor, C. S. Rafinesque, I Professor of His- torical and Natural Sciences, and Member of several I learned societies in Paris, Brussels, Vienna, Naples, Bonn, I New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Lexington, c. - I Knowl- edge is the mental food of man. - I Contents of No. i. I [List of 36 articles] j Philadelphia: I Published Quarterly at the office of the Atlantic Journal, I No. 59 North Eighth Street, and Dobson's Bookstore, No. io8 Chesnut Street; where subscriptions are received. I Price One Dollar, per Annum in advance, or Two Dollars for twelve numbers. I William Sharpless, Printer, No. 2. Decatur street. I i832. (I2MO, pp. 212.) Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. i83 This publication was projected on a very broad basis, including, in its scope, "historical, natural and medical arts and sciences: industry, agriculture, education, and every useful information ", as the reader is informed on the title - page. Eight numbers are believed to have appeared, at irregular intervals. Of these we have seen a copy of the first number, in the library of Colonel R. T. Durrett; the additional numbers have been noted and abstracted in the library of Harvard University. The work comprises a total of some two hundred and twelve pages, and is mainly made up of short articles by Rafinesque, with an occasional item added by some other writer . It is curious rather than valuable. Follow- ing are the contents of the complete periodical, so far as Rafinesque is known to have contributed to it. In Number i: (r) Latent Knowledge. p. i. V\ irct T Ptffr to nl , n t lver e 4aqitcc of A A - r -j --rv ---- ica, and the Glyphs of Otolum or Palenque, in Central America. pp. 4-6. (3) Tabular View of the American Generic Languages, and Origi- nal Nations. pp. 6-8. (4) The Atlantic Nations of America. pp. 8-io. (5) Results of the Experiments of Recluz on the Fixed Oils. pp. 12, 13. (6) Confirmation of the Important Discovery of the property of Sulphur in Trees to destroy all Insects preying on them. pp. 13, I4. T84 The Life and Wri/ings of (7) Melissa Officinalis, or Balm. pp. 14, 15. (8) A selection of 24 out of ioo new species of Plants of North America sent to Europe in i828 by C. S. Rafinesque. pp. i6-I8. (g) On the Large Wandering Tygers or Jaguars of the United States. pp. i8, i9. ( io) On the North American -Couguars. p. i9. ( iI) Extracts from A Second Series of Zoological Letters written to Baron Cuvier, of Paris, by Prof. Rafinesque, in x831. pp. 19-22. ( 12) Description of the Sperlerpes or Salamander of the Caves of Kentucky. p. 22. ( 13) History of China before the Flood. pp. 22-26. (14) Early Colonization from China by Sea. p. 26. (I5) The Caves of Kentucky. pp. 27-30. This paper has a cut of the entrance to Mammoth Cave. (i6) Geological Strata of Ohio and Kentucky. pp. 30, 31. (I7) Gold Mines of North America. p. 3I. (i8) Plan of a New Trading Voyage of Industry and Science. pp. '2-tX . (i9) Fragment of a Philosophical Poem on Knowledge. p. 36. In Number 2, Summer of i832: (20) Second Letter to Mr. Champollion on the Graphic Systems of America, and the Glyphs of Otolum or Palenque in Central America. Elements of the Glyphs. pp. 40-44. (2I) Primitive Origin of the English Language. pp. 44-48. (22) The Fundamental Base of the Philosophy of Human Speech, or Philology and Ethnology. pp. 48-5I. Constantne Samuel Rafinesque. i85 (23) On the Zapotecas And other Tribes of the State of Oaxaca. PP 5 1-56. (24) The Domestic Animals of Mankind and the American Nations. PP. 56-6i. (25) On the Moles of North America and two new species from Kentucky. pp. 6i, 62. (26) Description of a New Otter, Lutra Concolor from Assam in Asia. p. 62. (27) Couguars of Oregon. pp. 62, 63. (28) Description of a new Eagle from South America, Aquila dicronyx, or Macarran Eagle. p. 63. (29) On the Salamander of the hills of East Kentucky. S. lurida. pp. 63, 64. (30) Description of two new genera of Soft Shell Turtles of North America, by C. S. Rafinesque. Apalone and Mesodeca. pp. 64, 65. (3I) Extracts of a Series of Geological Letters to Prof. Al. Brong- niart, President of the Geological Society of Paris. pp. 65-67. (32) Remarks on the Silicious Fossils of North America. (Trans- lated from the French.) pp. 67-69. (33) Remarks on the Geodes and Geodites. pp. 69, 70. ( 34) On the Cavulites and Antrosites. pp. 70, 7i. (35) On the Genera of fossil Trilobites or Glomerites of North America. pp. 71-73. (36) On the Salses of Europe and America. pp. 73, 74. (37) On the Lamellites N. G. of American Fossils. p. 74. (38) Licks and Sucks of Kentucky. pp. 74-77. (39) Description of a new cherry tree from the Oregon Mountains. p. 78. (40) Account of 2 N. Sp. of Dionea or Venus fly trap. pp. 78, 79. (41) New Plants from Bartram's Botanic Garden. pp. 79, 80. (42) Some Antiquities of Ohio. p. 8i. (43) Economy or Science of Wealth. p. 8i. 24 i86 The Lzfe a-zd [I/nzinzgs oJ In Extra of Number 3, September, i832: (44) Scientific Travels of the Editor in i832. p. 85. (45) The Primitive Black Nations of America. pp. 85, 86. (46) Savings' Banks at Baltimore. p. 89. In No. 3, Autumn of i832: (47) The American Nations and Tribes are not Jews. pp. 98-IoI. (48) The Cradle of Mankind or the Imalaya Mountains. pp. IOI-105. (49) Oreology. Relative Age of Mountains. p. I05. (5o) Geological Survey of the Alleghany Mountains of Pennsylvania, in i8i8, from West to East. PP. I05-I09. (5i) Description of some of the fossil teeth found in a Cave in Pennsylvania. pp. i09, IIO. (52) Remarks on the Monthly Journal of Geology and Natural Science of G. W. Featherstonaugh, for May i832 (but only published in July). pp. 110-I14. (53) On the false Rhinoceroides of Featherstonaugh and Harlan. pp. II4, II5. (54) Geology of the Feroe Islands. p. i i6. (55) Arcibites Rhombifera, a new Encrinite, from the Cabinet of Dr. Cohen, of Baltimore. p. ii6. / 5 T /ra 4 b, a ;.swat cniaiv sI.. . 1il, Aii ai l .rxi1aIny Mountains of Pennsylvania. pp. i i 6, 117. (57) Ancient Chronology of the Onguys or Iroquois. [A review.] pp. I17, 1I8. (58) Vocabulary of the Yarura Language. p. ii8. (59) New and Rare Plants of Maryland near Baltimore. p. 1i9. (6o) Six New Firs of Oregon. pp. I19, I20. (6i) On 3 N. Sp. of Clintonia. p. 120. (62) On 3 N. Sp. of Eriocaulon. p. 121. (63) On 3 New Water Salamanders of Kentucky. p. 12I. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. i87 (64') A new Tubular fresh water shell of the Alleghany mts. pp. 121, 122. (65) Fossils of Sherman Creek. p. 122. (66) Atlantic Review. p. 122. In Number 4, Winter of I832: (67) The Last Indians of New-Jersey. p. I28. (68) Description of an ancient Mexican Historical manuscript. pp. 128-I30. (69) Table of the successive Dynasties and Incas of Peru. pp. 130-I32. (70) American Languages. Wahtani or Mandan. pp. 132, I33. (71) Languages of Oregon. Chopunish and Chinuc. pp. 133, 134. (72) Vulgar names of fossils and petrifactions in North America. p. 137. (73) Ancient Volcanoes of North America. pp. 137-I40. (74) Oolites of North America. pp. 140, 141. (75) The Fishes of the United States. pp. I41, 142. (76) New Fossil Shells of Pennsylvania. pp. 142, 143. (77) Stratipora and Flexulites. N. G. p. I43. (78) New Lizard from Kentucky. pp. I43, I44. (79) Twenty new genera of Plants from the Oregon Mountains, c. pp. i44-146. (8o) Account of 32 N. Sp. of plants from Florida. pp. 146-148. (8X) On 3 Sp. of Typha. pp. 148, I49. (82) Two New Genera of Umbelliferous Plants from Kentucky. p. 149. (83) On 12 N. Sp. of Plants from Illinois, c. pp. I49-I51. (84) On I7 N. Sp. of Plants from Upper Canada, c. pp. 151, 152. (85) Vernasolis, a New Genus. p. 152. (86) Lophactis N. G. pp. I52, 153. (87) On 4 N. Sp. of North American Tulips. p. 153. i88 The Life and Wrifings of (88) New Plants of the Alleghany Mts. pp. 153, 154. (89) Odatelia N. G. of N. American Bivalve fluviatile shell. p. I54. In Number 5, Spring of i833: (go) American Travellers. Who have written their travels pp. I55-I57. (9I) Alleghanies Mountains. pp. 157-I6I. (92) The Patagons. pp. i6i-I63. (93) N. G. Cauloma. Raf. p. i63. (94) Principles of the Philosophy of new Genera and new species of Plants and Animals. (Extract of a letter to Dr. J. Torrey, etc.). pp. 163, I64. (95) N. G. Scandianus. Raf. pp. 164, i65. (96) On 3 N. G. of Land Shells from Buenos Ayres in South America. ps. i65. (97) On 5 New Fresh Water Shells of Bengal and Assam in Asia. pp. i65, i66. (98) Commercial Enterprise. p. i66. ( 99) Account of the Botanical Collections of Professor C. S. Rafin- esque. pp. i69, 170. In Number 6, Summer of i833. ('oo) Epidermic Varieties of Mankind. pp. 171, I72. (ioi) Complexions of Mankind, c. pp. 172, 73. (I02) Affinities of the English Language with the African Lan- guages and Dialects of Egypt, c. pp. I73-I75. (103) Sorex dichrurus. N. Sp. of Shrew. pp. I75, I76. (Io4) Florula Texensis. Dicotyl. N. Sp. New Dicotyl Plants of Texas and Arkansas, in my Herbarium. pp. I76-179. (105) G. Dodecatheon or Meadia. pp. 179, i8o. (io6) New Amer. Subterranean Plants. pp. i8o-i82. (107) Pleuradena Coccinea. N. G. of Mexican Shrub from Bartram's Garden. p. i82. Constan/ine Samuel Raflnesque. i89 (io8) Orospodias Corymbosa, or Wild Cherry, of Oregon Mts. p. 182. (zo9) Incombustible Architecture, Or Fire Proof Buildings of all Kinds, built as Cheap as any combustible buildings. By C. S. Rafinesque, Professor of many sciences, Architect, Draftsman, c. pp. i83-i86. 174. Atlantic Journal.-Extra of No. 6. Herbarium I Rafinesqui- anum. I Prodromus.-Pars Prima, I Rarissm. Plant. Nov. I Herbals: or Botanical Collections of C. S. Rafinesque, Pro- fessor of Botany, c, c, c. I First Part. I Very Rare New Plants chiefly from Oregon, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Illi- nois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Florida, Apalachian and Alleghany Mountains, in North America. Besides Russia, Siberia, Syria, Arabia, Candia, Sicily, Italy, Egypt, Magellania, c, elsewhere. Collected or acquired between i8oo and i832. I The Labor of a Whole Life! I Philadelphia: i833. I Price one dollar. (12mo, pp. 48.) This small pamphlet contains the following separate articles: (I io) Account of the Botanical Collections of Professor C. S. Raf- inesque. pp. 3-I0. (i ) Principics of the Phivulphy of new Genera and new species of Plants and Animals. (Extract of a letter to Dr. J. Torrey, of New York, dated ist Dec., I832.) pp. II, 12. (II2) Natural Classification of Plants. pp. 12-I5. (I13) Extracts from Botanical Letters to Decandolle, Agardh, and Arnott, in i830, 31, 32, 33. pp. i6-20. ( I 14) Florula Texensis. pp. 20-26. ( Ii5) G [enus] Dodecatheon or Media. pp. 26-29. ( I i6) G [enus] Kuhnia, revised. pp. 29, 30. ( 1I7) G [enus] Helichroa. Raf. i825. pp. 30-32. I90 The Life and Writings of The second part has the following: (i i8) Chronological Index of the principal Botanical Works and Discoveries published by C. S. Rafinesque. pp. 33-37. ( i9) Index of the Florula Mandanensis of Bradbury and Rafin- esque, published in i8I7 and in i820, with Notes and addi- tions. pp. 37-4I. (I20) Monograph of the Species of G. Samolus, in my Herbarium. pp. 4I-43. (I21) Genus Cypripedium. pp. 43, 44. (I22) Genus Spiranthes. pP. 44, 45. ""John Bradburv, born August 20, 1768, died 1823. The grave of this famous botanist is in the cemetery at Middletown, near Louisville. This naturalist made a journey up the Missouri river, two thousand nine hunldred miles above New Orleans, in iSii. Extensive collections of plants were made; of these some were shipped to England, with the intention of describing the rarer forms. But it appears that his confidence was violated and the collec- tions were submitted, in advance of his return, "to a person of the name of Pursh, who has published the most interesting of my plants in an appendix to the Flora Aine,-ica Sc'ptentrionalis." (1814.) Bradbury published in his book,t "Travels in the Interior of America, in the Years 1809, i8io, and i8iI," on pp. 335-338, a catalogue of the more rare and valuable plants found. This I have carefully compared with the list which Rafinesque gives in his Florulda iMlandanensis, but only very few are the same. There is here an interesting matter connected with these plants; were the nanaes given by Rafinesque be- !ouwLUC upou plallts aiready namied by Bradiuury or did Kafinesque publish first and anticipate the names assigned by Pursh In any event there is very little evidence that Rafinesque used the Bradbury list, as he did those of Robin and Darhy! tTravels I in The Interior of America, I in the I years iSo9, m8io, and i8ii; I including I A Description of Upper Louisiana, I together with I The States of Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, I and Tennessee, I with the I Illinois and western Territories, I and containing I Remarks and Obser- vations I useful to I Persons emigrating to those countries. I - By John Bradbury, F. L. S. London, I Corresponding Member of the Liverpool Philosophical Society and Honorary Member of I the Literary and Philosophical Societies, New York, United States, America. I - I Liver- pool: I Printed for the author, I By Smith and Galway, I and published by Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, London. I - 1 1817. (8vo, pp. 1-12 [Errata], 9-364.) Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. t9I (123) G. Jeffersonia and Podophyllum. p. 46. (124) Fasiculus florula Oregonsis. pp. 46-48. (125) Florula Apalachensis. (Dicotyl. Fasciculus I.) p. 48. In Number 7, Autumn of i833: (126) Scientific Travels of C. S. Rafinesque, in 1833. pp. i87, I88. (127) Elevations of land and water, mountains and hills in the State of New York. pp. 188-191. (128) Some essential views of Geology, by Dr. Hebbert and Rafin- esque. pp. ig9-i95. (129) Some remarks on the Ruins of Otolum near Palenque. pp. I95-197. (I30) History of Austral America. pp. 197, 198. (I3I ) Chontal or Tzendal Vocabulary. p. i98. 132) Gypsies of America. pp. I98, i99. (I33) N. G. Vgramela and Peltimela. p. I99. (34) On the Custard-apples or Aunona triloba and glabra. pp. 199, 200. (I35) Expexis. N. G. of Water Plants. p. 200. (I36) Substitutes for Tobacco. pp. 200, 201. ( I37) Huge Water Volcano. pp. 201, 202. ( 138) Improvements in Navigation. p. 202. (139) Chemical Manufacture, of Professor Rafinesque. (An adver- tisement, in the first person.) p. 202. In Number 8, Winter of I833: (I40) The Luminous Meteors of I833. pp. 205, 2o6. (141) Chronological Index of the principal Botanical Works and Discoveries published by C. S. Rafinesque. pp. 206-208. (I42) Geology and Physical features of the Atlantic Plains of North America. pp. 209-211. (I 43) Valedictory. pp. 2II, 2I2. The Life and Writings of It will readily be noted that this publication has absolutely no scientific value. The full lists of notes and articles by Rafinesque have been given with the sole hope of thus furnishing additional basis for a judgment concerning the value of his later work. 175. A I Monograph I of the I Fluviatile Bivalve Shells I of the River Ohio, containing I Twelve Genera Sixty-eight Species. I - Translated from the French of C. S. Rafinesque, Prof. Bot. and Nat. Hist. in Transylvania University. - I Phil- adelphia: I J. Dobson, i08 Chestnut Street. 1 x832. (I2mO, pp. i-vi, 7-72.) I, pl. unio verrueosa Ref. This is an English translation of Rafinesque's earlier work on the shells of the Ohio River, published by his friend Poulson, of Philadelphia. A favorable review by Doctor Harlan, afterward a bitter enemy, may be found in the AMonlhlj American Journal of Geology, Vol. I, No. 8, Pp. 372-375, February, i832. I76. Visit to Big-Bone Lick, in i821. By C. S. Rafinesque, Professor of Historical and Natural Sciences, etc. (The Monthly Amer- ican Journal of Geology and Natural Sciences, Vol. I, No. 8, February, pp. 355-358. i832. A critique, with additional information, of an article by William Cooper, in numbers four and five of the same journal. Cooper gives a most excellent map of the locality. 192 Cons/anf/ne Samuel Rafinesque. I93 177. Le Pulmist I ou I Introduction a l'Art de Gu6rir I et de Pr6venir I La Consomption I ou I La Phthisie Chronique; I (Traduit de l'Anglais) I Par M. le Dr C.-S. Rafinesque, I Professeur d'his- torie naturelle et de botanique I mndicale a Philadelphie, I Auteur du Manuel de Botanique Medicale des ktats-Unis, de l'Analyse de la Nature, etc., etc. I Membre des Soci6t6s mddicales de Cincinnati, de Lexington et de Phi- I ladelphie, du Lycee de New-York, de l'Academie des Sciences I natur- elles de Philadelphie, de la Soci6te des Antiquities amri- caines I de Worcester et de Neschville, de l'Institute de Ken- tucky et de plu- I sieurs Soci6tes savantes de l'Euope, A Paris, Bruxelles, Vienne, I Bonn, Florence, Naples, etc. I La consumption n'est pas une maladie incurable; mais les remedes a y appliquer doivent principalement etre I ports au poumon par la respiration ou l'inhalation. I (Le Pulmist, n. i io.) I - I Paris. I Imprimerie de Dezauche, I Faub. Montmartre, No. i. - - I833. (8vo, pp. xix, 123.) 178. Letter to Mr. Champollion, on the Graphic Systems of Amer- ica, and the Glyphs of Otolum, or Palenque, in Central America. (In "American Antiquities and Discoveries in the West", 4th Ed., by Josiah Priest. pp. ir8-124. 1834.) This is a reprint of Rafinesque's article in the A/lantzc journal and Friend oj Knowledge. 179. Ancient Languages of the first Inhabitants of America. First Letter to Mr. Champollion, on the Graphic Systems of Amer- ica, and the Glyphs of Otolum or Palenque, in Central America. (In "American Antiquities and Discoveries in the West", 4th Ed., by Josiah Priest. pp. 309-3I3. I834.) Reprinted from the Atlantzc journal and Friend of Knowledge. The letter is dated from Philadelphia, Jan- uary, i832. 25 '94 The Life and Wlriings of i8o. Primitive Origin of the English Language. (In "American Antiquities and Discoveries in the West ". 4th Ed., by Josiah Priest. pp. 3i6-323. i834.) i8i. [Review of] Ancient Chronology of the Onguys or Iroquois Indians. By David Cusick. (In "American Antiquities and Discoveries in the West", 4th Ed., by Josiah Priest. pp. 336-338. 1834.) i82. Evidence that a Nation of Africans, the Descendants of Ham, now inhabit a District of South America. (In "American Antiquities and Discoveries in the West", 4th Ed., by Josiah Priest. pp. 340-342. i834.) i83. A I Life of Travels I and I Researches j in North America and South Europe, or I Outlines I of I The Iife, Travels and Researches I of I C. S. RAFINESQUE, A. M. Ph. D. I Professor of historical and natural scien I ces, member of many learned societies in I Europe and America, I author of many works c, I containing I His travels in NORTH AMERICA and I the SOUTH Of EUROPE; the Atlantic I Ocean, Mediterranean, Sicily, Azores c, I from i802 to i835,-with sketches of his I scientific and historical researches, c. I - Un voyageur ds le berceau, I je le Serais jusqu'au tombeau I - I Philadelphia, Printed for the Author I By F. Turner, No. 367, Market Street, i836. I Price Seventy-five cents. (I2mo, pp. I-148.) This book is now quite rare, and, like some other works by its unfortunate author, seems to have been grossly misinterpreted. Almost all we know of the per- sonal history of Rafinesque is derived from this work. To many it has appeared to be little more than the Consfca/ine Samuel Rafnesque. product of an overweening vanity, which is further supported by the fact that the narrative is constantly in the first person. It is well, however, to remember that this book was originally written in the form of personal reminiscences to his sister, in whom Rafinesque appears to have taken great interest. This will explain the constant use of the pronoun of the first person. The book is exasperating in a very peculiar way, since very many facts which we wish to know most are omitted entirely. The work should be read by every one desiring to form a just estimate of Rafinesque's earlier scientific work. i84. Bulletin of the Historical and Natural Sciences. No. 3. Phil- adelphia, May, 1836. pp. 17-24. 24mO. A copy of this Bulletin, which is but one of a series of advertising pamphlets " distributed gratis ", may be seen bound in with "The American Nations", of which it !c a. pound;JcLLL3"2'a dU Da'-ma, L)ULUU.L rublic Library. A number of these tracts appeared at differ- ent times, irregularly, but are consecutively numbered; they possess no real value. i85. The World, I or I Instability. A Poem. I In twenty parts. I With notes and illustrations. I I - I Philadelphia London: I 1 836. (8vo, pp. I-248.) I95 I96 The Life and Wrzilings of The name of the author does not appear on the title- page nor elsewhere in the volume, but he has in another place confessed authorship; its origin, however, is other- wise unmistakable. i86. The American I Nations; I or, I Outlines of A National History; of the Ancient and Modern Nations I of North and South America. I I First number or volume Generalities and Annals. Philadelphia, I 836. (I2mo, pp. 260.) Second number or Volume " Origin and Researches." (pp. 292.) Each volunie has a second title-page as follows: The American Nations; I or I Outlines of their I General His- torn, I Ancient and Modern: I Including the whole history of the earth I and mankind in the Western Hemisphere; I the Philosophy of American History: the Annals, traditions, Civilization, I Languages c of all the Ameri n can Nations, Tribes, Empires I and States. I With Maps, Plates, Views, and Plans of Monuments, I Tables, Notes, and Illustrations. I First [Second] Volume I [ Philadelphia; I C. S. Rafin- esque, iio North Tenth St. i- 1836. Of this work., planned to comprise twelve volumes, but two volumes were printed. N, o maps, plates, or illustrations appear. The work was dedicated to "the Society of Geography of Paris." It is a curious assem- blage of facts and quotations, many of which have no bearing on the general subject of the work. Very odd anthropologic relations are assumed without basis of real fact. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. '97 187. First Part. Introd. Lexicon, c I =- New Flora I and Botany I of I North America. I Being a supplemental flora, I To the Various Floras and Botanical Works of Michaux, I Muhlen- berg, Pursh, Nuttall, Elliot, Torrey, Beck, Eat- I on, Bigelow, Barton, Robin, Hooker, Riddell, Darling- I ton, Schweinitz, Gibbs, c. I Besides the general works of Linneus, Wildenow, I Vahl, Vitman, Persoon, Lamark, Decandole, Sprengel, I Jus- sieu, Adanson, Necker, Lindley, c. Containing I nearly 500 additional or revised New Genera, and i5oo I additional or corrected New Species, illustrated by I figures in AUTIKON BOTANICON. I By C. S. Rafinesque, A. M.-Ph. D. I Prof. of Botany, the historical and natural sciences- I Member of many learned Societies in Paris, Vienna, I Bonn, Bruxelles, Bordeaux, Zurich, Naples, c. and I in Philadelphia, New York, Cincinnati, Lexington, c. I -I The Floral wealth in this wide land concealed, I Will be at last by learned care revealed. I I Philadelphia. I Printed for the Author and Publisher. I i836. This work was published in four parts as follows: New Flora and Botany of North America. Part First. Intro- ductory Lexicon, Monographs, etc. i836. (8vo, pp. I-ioo.) New Flora and Botany of North America. Second Part. Neo- phyton. i836. (8vo, pp. 96.) New Flora and Botany of North America. Third Part. New Oylvd. i0ju. (ovu, pp. 96.) New Flora and Botany of North America. Fourth Part. Neo- botanon. I836. (8vo, pp. II2.) In the title of the third and fourth parts the word "great" instead of "general" is employed in describing the "works" of the various authors named. The lines From the prospectus we learn that the work was to have consisted of six parts. i98 The Life and Wrifings ofJ are broken in a slightly different manner, but the phrase- ology is otherwise identical. i88. First Part I of the I Synoptical Flora Telluriana, I Introduction Classification, I With new Natural Classes, Orders and fami- I lies: preamble of the 2000 New or revised Gen- I era and Species of Trees, Palms, Shrubs, Vines, I Plants, Lilies, Grasses, Ferns, Algas, Fungi c. I from North and South America, Polynesia, I Australia, Asia, Europe and Africa, omitted or I mistaken by the authors, that were observed or I ascertained, described or revised, collected or I figured, between 1796 and 1836, 1 By C. S. Rafinesque, A. M. I Prof. of Botany, historical and natural scien- I ces-member of many learned Societies in Paris, Vienna, Bruxelles, Bonn, Bordeaux, I Zurich, Naples c. Philadelphia, New York, I Cincinnati, Lexington, c. -I To observe and compare, to correct or approve By good names and new facts that convince and improve. - I Philadelphia: I Printed for the Author I By H. Probasco, No. i 9, North Fourth St. I i836. (8vo, Pt. I., pp. I04; Pt. II, pp. 112.) i89. Autikon Botanicon. I Incones Plantarum Select. Nov. vel Rar- iorum, I plerumque Americana, interdum African. I Europ. Asiat. Oceanic. c. I Centur. XXV. - Botanical Illustra- tions I by Select Specimens or Self-figures in 1 25 Centuries of 2500 1 Plants, Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Lilies, Grasses, I Ferns c, chiefly new or rare, doubtful or in- I teresting, from North America and some other I regions; with accounts of the undescribed, notes, I synonyms, localities c. I In 5 parts of 5 Centuries each of text with 25 Volumes folio of Self-figures. I By C. S. Rafinesque, Prof. of Botany, the Historical and Nat- I ural Sciences, member of many learned So- I cieties in America and Europe, author of I many botan- ical and other works c. I Part First, Cent. I to V. I (The best -botanical figures are the objects themselves) I- I Philadelphia. I Collected, ascertained and described between I I8I5 I840. Cons/anf/ne Samuel Raftuesque. I99 Text of 500 objects and articles. Phila. 1815-i840. (8vo, pp. 72.) Second Part. Centuries VI-X. Phila. i8r5-1840. (8vo, pp. 68.) Third Part. Centuries XI to XV. Phila. i8i5-1840. (8vo, pp. 6o.) The work has consecutive pagination from I to 200. There are no figures. It ended with the third part and is one of the incomplete works of Rafinesque, and further illustrates his mental vacillation. 190. Safe Banking, I including I the Principles of Wealth; I being an enquiry into the principles and I practice of safe and unsafe banks, or I monied institutions in North America, I the defects of the American banking I system and legislation, c. I By C. S. Rafinesque, I A. M.-Ph. D. Prof. of Historical and Nat- ural Sciences, I member of I5 learned Societies in America and I Europe, Author of 50 Works.-Founder of the I Divitial Institution of North America, and I many other useful Insti- tutions, c. I - I Every Bank liable to risks or losses and to sudden calls I is Unsafe.-Every Bank liable to neither is Safe. I - Philadelphia: I i837. I Printed by order and at the expense of the I Divitial Institution of North America, I and PC CCUt Saviiiugo-Bauk. (121110, pp. 136.) I9i. Alsographia I Americana, I or an American Grove of new or revised I Trees and Shrubs of the Genera Myrica, Caly- cauthus, Salix, Quercus, Fraxinus, Populus. Ti- I lia, Sam- bucus, Viburnum, Cornus, Juglans. Aes- I culus c, with some New Genera, Monographs, I and many new Sp. ill 330 articles, completing 1 I405 G. and Sp. as a continuation of the SYLVA TELLURIANA and North American Trees , Shrubs. I - I I Philadelphia. I i838. I Price One Dollar. (8vo, pp. I-76.) 200 The Life and Writings of 192. The Ancient Monuments I of I North and South America. second edition, I Corrected, enlarged and with some additions, I By C. S. Rafinesque, A. M.-Ph. D. I Professor of Historical and Natural Sci- I ences, Member of many Learned Societies in I Philadelphia, New York, Lexington, Cinlcin- I natti, Nash- ville, Paris. Bordeaux, Brussels, I Bonn, Vienna, Zurich, Naples c, the Amer- I ican Antiquarian Society, the North- ern An- i tiquarian Society of Copenhagen c. I The massive ruins the arts and skill unfold I Of busy workers, and their styles reveal, I The objects and designs of such devisers: I In silent voices they speak, to thinking minds I They teach, who were the human throngs that left I Uplifted marks for witness of past ages. I Philadelphia I i838. I Printed for the Author. (8vo, pp. 1-28.) There was never a "first edition" of this pamphlet printed, as might be justly inferred from this title. The matter comprised in this paper appeared in the journal named in the following title. The "Additions" comprise pages 25 to 28, and contain some curious matter. The addition "ii" is particularly interesting reading. It runs --r_111 "In my work on Historical Palingenesy or the restoration of ancient nations and languages presumed lost, I have been able to restore many of all the parts of the world (but chiefly America and Europe) in the same manner as I once did for the Haytian nation and language, whereby many historical links will be evolved and traced. My process is similar to that of Cuvier and the modern Paleontologists, who restore extinct animals by fragments of their bones. I do the same with extinct languages by fragments of their words and elements, discovered and put together." Constantie Samuel Rafines que. 20I 193. Researches on the Antiquities and Monuments of North and South America. (American Museum, No. i, September, 1838. Baltimore.) This paper originally appeared in a periodical which commenced a new series of the North American Quar- terly Magazzne, a literary monthly periodical undertaken by Brooks and Snodgrass. The original paper has not passed under inspection, but the title is quoted from the second page of the pamphlet named in the pre- ceding reference. 194. Celestial Wonders and Philosophy, or the Structure of the Visible Heavens, with hints on their Celestial Religion and theory of Futurity. Philadelphia. i838. (i6mo, pp. 136.) Book not seen; quoted from Gray's review of the botanical writings of Rafinesque, which see. 195. Bulletin of the Historical and Natural Sciences. By C. S. Rafinesque, A. M., Ph. D. Philadelphia. (Spring of i838. No. 7 pr 37-18) This is an advertising sheet, and is mentioned here because it contains a list of Rafinesque's other works and so may prove useful. I96. Genius and Spirit I of the I Hebrew Bible. I Including the Biblic Philosophy of I Celestial Wisdom, Religion and Theo- I logy, Astronomy and Realization, I Ontology and Mythology, Chro- no- I metry and Mathematics. I Being the First Series of Bible Truths, I Ascertained and Explained by the I true restored 26 202 The L fe and Writings of names and words in Eng I lish Letters, of the Religious and Philoso I phical Conceptions of the OBRI or He- I brew Language relating thereto, that are I found in the MKRE or Hebrew Scrip- I tures, with their meanings and deriva- I tions: whereby the real ancient OBRI I knowledge is restored and found to agree I with the highest modern Knowledge. I By C. S. Rafinesque, A. M., Ph. D., I Prof. of Historical and Nat- ural Sci- I ences, of Languages and comparative I Philology- Member of many learned j Societies in Europe and America- Au- I thor of many Works-Founder of the I Central Uni- versity of Illinois c. I Printed for the Eleutherium of Know- I ledge and Central University of Illinois c. I Phila- delphia. I I838. (I22mo, pp. 1-264.) This work is very clearly that of a man who has lost the power of acute perception and correct ratio- cination. It is very curious and odd, but without the least value from any possible standpoint. 197. Sylva Telluriana. I Mantis. [sa] Synopt. [ica] j - I New Gen- era and Species I of Trees and shrubs of North America, I and other regions of the earth, I Omitted or mistaken by the Bntnaiienl Ail- I thnrc Pnd Cnomniler or not nroperlry classified, I now reduced by their natural affinities to the proper natural orders and tribes. I By C. S. Rafinesque, A. M. -Ph. D. Prof. of Botany, the Natural and Historical Sciences, Member of Many learned Societies, in Paris, Bordeaux, Brus- sels, Bonn, Vienna, Zurich, Naples, c.-Philadelphia, New York, I Lexington, Cincinnatti, c., author of many I works. I Being a supplement to the Flora Telluriana. J - I (Trees and Shrubs are the Ornaments of the Earth) I j Phila- delphia: Printed for the Author and Publisher. - 11838. (8vo, pp. I-i84.) Cons/an/ine Samuel Rafinesque. 203 i98. American Manual of the Mulberry trees; 25 separate species, 30 varieties; history, c. with hints on procuring silk out of the bark. Philadelphia. 1839. (12mO, pp. 96. [Not seen.]) 199. The I Pleasures and Duties I of Wealth. I By C. S. Rafinesque. I A. M.-Ph. D. I I I - - I Philadelphia: I Printed for the Eleutherium of Knowledge. j - I840. (8vo, pp. 1-32.) 200. The Good Book-Number I I (300 Figures) - Amenities of Nature I or annals of I Historical and Natural Sciences, 1 Chiefly on Zoology, Botany, Geology, Agro- I nomy, Ethulog- raphy, Philology c . . . Organ- j ized beings and fossils, Nations and Languages. I with iooo figures. I By C. S. Rafin- esque A. M.-Ph. D. I Professor of those Sciences c. I - I Philadelphia I January I840. I Subscriptions 5 in advance for io numbers I-single numbers one dollar each. This is the title as given on the cover of the volume. The title given on the title-page is quite different, but as it is sometimes quoted it is here given in full. It runs as follows: The Good Book, I and Amenities of Nature, I or Annals of Historical and Natural I Sciences. I Containing Selections, of observations, resear- I ches and novelties in all the branches of Phy- I sical and Historical Knowledge, with Letters I of E AlsLiicinit u'u zwoulUgy, BotLUny, j Agronomy, Geognosy, Ethnography . . . or Or- I ganized Beings and Fossils, Nations and Lan- I guages. By C. S. Rafinesque A. M.-Ph. D. I Prof. of Historical and Natural Sciences, Languages c, member of i6 Learned Societies I in Europe and America, author of 220 Works, I Pamphlets, Essays and Tracts . . . I - I The works of God to study and explain, Is happy toil and not to live in vain. j - I Philadelphia ji840. I Printed for the Eleutherium of Knowledge. (8vo, pp. 84.) The Life and Wrifings of The contents are all by Rafinesque, and are as follows: Prospectus. p. 2. Introduction. pp. 3, 4. (i ) Classification of the Natural Sciences and Objects. pp. 5-12. (2) Eutaxy. Theory of Classification and the new science of Eutaxy or Methodology. pp. 12-16. (3) Analogies. The Circle of Natural Objects, or collective affin- ities and analogies of corporeal forms-a new Science. pp. i6-i9. (4) Botany. On a new natural class of plants, the Antines or Endantines. pp, 19-23. (5) Botany. The natural family of Carexides. pp. 23-28. (6) Zoology and Geology. The Adelostomes and their geological formations, with 45 figures. pp. 28-36. [Figures not printed in this volume.] I (7) American botany, remarks on the Flora of North America by Torrey, Grey, and Nuttal. pp. 37-44. (8) New Flora and Botany of North America or a Supplemental Flora, to all the botanical works on the United States, by C. S. Rafinesque. pp. 44-47. (g) New Trees and Shrubs of North America. pp. 47-49. (io) Scadiography or ioo G. of Ombelliferous plants chiefly new, with their types c. pp. 49-6i. I i) On the S Genera Torreva c. pp. 6i-63. 12) On the 3 Genera of Cephalopodes, Ocythoe, Todarus and An- isoctus. pp. 63-65. 13) Ditaxopus paradoxuis, a new Fossil G. of Cephalopodes, discov- ered i8i9. Figure 54 and 55, shell and animal. pp. 66, 67. 14 ) The new Quadrupeds of North America, described in my Atlan- tic Journal of i832. pp. 67, 68. i5) Etymology of the Origon Mountains. p. 68. (x6) Historical and Ethnographical Palingenesy c. pp. 68-70. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 205 (17) Monument of the Atlantes, with an inscription 4000 years old- with figures 62 to 68. pp. 71-76. (i8) The Graphic Systems of the Ancient American and Chinese Nations. pp. 76-8i. (ix9) Agronomy. Oils of India. pp. 8i, 82. (20) Useful trees and plants of East Indies. pp. 82, 83. ( 2 I ) Additions and Index. pp. 83, 84. 201. Monographie des I Coquilles I bivalves fluviatiles I de la Riv- iere Ohio par M. C. S. Rafinesque, I Professeur d'Historie Naturelle a l'universite transylvane de Lexington I [Cut] I Paris. I A. Franck, Librarie Editeur i- .845. (8vo, pp. I-50. [Frontispiece.] pll. I-III.) 202. The I complete writings I of I Constantine Schmaltz Rafinesque I on I recent and fossil I conchology. I - I Edited by I Wm. G. Binney, and George W. Tryon, Jr., I Members of the Acad- emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. - I New York: I I 864. (8vo, pp. I-96, I-7 [I] pl. IP) (From the Annales Generales des Sciences Physiques, Bruxelles, LXXX, LXXXI, LXXXII.) 203. Remarks on the Physical Geography of North America. By C. S. Rafinesque. Philadelphia, April, i840. (Journal of the Royal Geographical Socicty, Vol. XI, p. i65. London, i841.) Th.Uis lb a posumuous publcation, the only one by Rafinesque with which I am acquainted. It consists of thirty numbered paragraphs. The author divides the country into eight great regions, beginning: "i. The Boreal, or region of the lakes. 2. The Atlantic, or region of the littoral plains," etc., etc. Each of these regions is described in detail; there is a plea for the retention The Life and Writings of of the " true or Indian names " of every thing; also, there is given a list of the aboriginal names of the mountains; and the general ignorance of all other geog- raphers on the subject is lamented. Not a few refer- ences occur relating to former geographic work by himself, including a mention of his map of the Ohio river, made in I8i8. The samne volume contains, at the end of the above- mentioned article, some editorial notes which collectively constitute a brief summary of "some Remarks on New Colonies, communicated to the Royal Geographical Soci- ety, by the same author, but not published, as the paper contains little that is new ", etc. An interesting fact connected with this essay on physical geography is that the plan had been revolved in the mind of Rafinesque for many years. In a column advertisement of the pro- posed "Western Minerva", printed in the Kentucky Re- nor/er for October i6, i82o, is the title of this article, wxhiel h ld then been nrepnared Pnd wacs "in hand for publication ". It is the last one ill the list of works and memoirs by a remarkable though eccentric man. 206 Constantine Samutel Raflnesque. 207 SUMMARY OF PUBLICATIONS. A summary of this register will serve to indicate very clearly the general bibliographic character of Raf- inesque's work. There are relatively few books and pamphlets; magazine articles include by far the greater number of his titles. The following arrangement will present these facts at a glance: Magazine articles ..1.......... . r44 Books and Pamphlets........ . . 39 Rafinesque's Magazines ........ . . 3 Original articles in last ........ . 233 Manuscripts.............. . I Total titles ............. . 420 To this summary may be added: Reprints. .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . I'7 Translations.............. . 7 Books from oversheets ......... . 3 Grand total........... . . 447 A further classification by subjects will serve to show the very wide range over which the scientific work of Rafinesque extended. Among these papers botanical sub- jects, with one hundred and forty-one titles, take preced- ence; zoological papers and pamphlets come next in order with some one hundred and twenty titles, of which The L fe and Writings of those that relate to ichthyological matters are in excess. A singular fact is next apparent in that historical, rather than scientific, subjects appear to have received atten- tion, there being thirty-nine papers which may be so classed. Poems, with four subjects, one of which conm- prised some two hundred pages, presents the smallest number of titles. BIBLIOGRAPHIA INCERTA. a. The Cosmonist. (Twenty Numbers of articles under this title in the Kentucky Gazette, 1822.) The files of the Kentucky Gazette, which were formerly complete and in the Lexington Library, have suffered so much at the hands of unscrupulous visitors that nearly all that portion which comprised the years i821- i825 has been removed from the library. There is now no complete copy known. The missing portion contained the numbers of the Gazette in which these articles oI Rafinesque appeared. ft. The Mexicans in i830. Said by Rafinesque, in his "Life of Travels", to have been published in i83I. It has been impossible to learn more of the paper. 208 Constanfine Samuel Rafinesque. 209 BIBLIOTHECA RAFINESQUIANA. Anonymous. Review of "The Ancient Monuments of Kentucky". (In The Cincinnati Literary Gazette, Vol. II, December 25, pp. 203, 204. 1824.) [Editorial] Audubon, John J. "The Eccentric Naturalist ". (In Ornithological Biography, Vol. I, pp. 455-460. i832.) Agassiz, Louis. "Notice upon a Collection of Fishes from the Southern bend of the Tennessee river, in the State of Alabama". (American Journal of Science, 2d Series, Vol. XVII, pp. 297 el seqq. I 854.) Allen, Harrison. "A Monograph of the Bats of North America". (Bulletin of the United States Museum, No. 43, pp. i83, i84. I893. Same matter in Monograph of North American Bats, in Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. VII, pp. xvi, xvii. i864.) In these titles are reproduced the descriptions of bats published by Rafinesque in The American Monthly Magazine and in "The Annals of Nature." Binney, Wm. G. and Bland, Thomas. " Note on Mesodon leucodon, of Rafinesque ". (Annals New York Lyceum of Natural History, Vol. IX, pp. 294, 295. i870.) Under this title are given, without any attempt at completeness, a list of works from which facts connected with either Rafinesque or his scientific work may be gleaned. The list will be found to comprise papers of a varying and wide range of criticism. 27 210 The Life and Wrihngs 01 This title also mentions a manuscript work by Raf- inesque, never published, under the title of Conchologia Ohiensis. Brendel, Frederick. " Historical Sketch of the Science of Botany in North America from 1635 to i840 ". (American Naturalist, Vol. XIII, pp. 764, 765. 1879.) Call, R. Ellsworth. " Note on the Genus Campeloma of Rafinesque." (American 2Naturalist, Vol. XVII, pp. 603-608. i883.) Call, R. Ellsworth. " On the Genus Campeloma Rafinesque, with a Revision of the Species, Recent and Fossil." (Bulletin Wash- burn College Laboratory of Natural History, Vol. I, pp. 149-i65. i 886.) Chase, Theodore R. " Constantine Schmaltz Rafinesque ". (Potter's Amterican Monthly, an Illustrated Magazine of History, Litera- ture, Science, and Art, Vol. VI, pp. 97-I01. i876.) Collins, Lewis. History of Kentucky. (Contains a short sketch of Rafinesque. See Vol. II, pp. 201, 202. Edition of i882. Rafin- esque's list of the sites of ancient monuments in Kentucky is reproduced on pp. 392, 393.) Conrad, Timothy A. " Synopsis of the Family of Naiades of North America." (Proceediings Philadelnbiq Aendpmv of Notiitr1 q:i- ences, Vol. VI, p. 243 et seqq.; also, ibidem, p. 499. i853.) Copeland, Herbert E. "A Neglected Naturalist". (American Nat- uralist, Vol. X, pp. 469-473. i876.) Dall, William H. "Some American Conchologists." (Proceedings Biological Society of Washington, Vol. IV, pp. 114-117. i888.) Featherstonhaugh, G. W. Professor Rafinesque. (American Monthly Journal of Geology and Natural Science, January, Vol. I, No. 7, pp. 328, 329. i832.) Consfan/fne Samnlle/ Rafnesque. 2II Featherstonhaugh, G. W. " Review of Monograph of the Bivalve Shells of the River Ohio. Translated from the French of Pro- fessor Rafinesque, by C. A. Poulson, Esq." (American M1fonthly Journal of Geology and Natural Science, February, Vol. I, No. 8, pp. 372-375. 1832.) Ferussac, A. E. J. P. J. F. d'Audebard de. "Observations sur les Naiades ". (Mag-azine de Zoologie, Numbers 59 and 6o. 1835.) Garman, S. "The Generic Name of the Pastinacas, or Stingrays." (Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. VIII, pp. 221-224. i885.) Gill, Theodore. "On the Relations and Nomenclature of Stizoste- dion or Lucioperca ". (Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. XVII, pp. 123-I28. 1894.) Girard, Charles. " Researches upon the Cyprinoid Fishes inhabiting the Fresh-waters of the United States, west of the Mississippi valley, from specimens in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution ". (Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. VIII, pp. I65-2I3. x856.) Goode, G. Brown. "The Beginnings of American Science. The Third Century." An Address Delivered at the Eighth Anni- vIs3ary OfA.wts 'JIAW; pound;JV1Vr4LA D3VL1uCLY i VV d.LI1LLUU1. Fru- ceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. IV, pp. 25, 26, 37 and 66. i888.) Gray, Asa. "Notice of the Botanical Writings of the late C. S. Rafinesque ". (American Journal of Science, ist Series, Vol. XL, pp. 221-241. i841.) H. H. (Anonymous). Letter to Editor of the Philadelphia Ledger, dated 5th May, I877. (Printed also in the American Naturalist, Vol. XI, pp. 574, 575. i877.) The Life and Writings of This is a very inaccurate account, full of misstate- ments, by some one who intended well. Haldemann, S. S. "Notice of the Zoological Writings of the Late C. S. Rafinesque ". (American Journal of Science, ist Series, Vol. XLII, pp. 280-291. i842.) Harlan, Richard, M. D. " Fauna Americana; I being I a Description I of the I Mammiferous Animals I inhabiting North America. 1 1825." (See Introduction, p. viii, and Appendix, pp. 302- 309.) Haven, Samuel F. "Archeology of the United States, or, Sketches Historical and Bibliographical of the Progress of Information and Opinion Respecting Vestiges of Antiquity in the United States." (Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. VIII, Article I, pp. 39-41. i856.) Jordan, David S. "Contributions to North American Ichthyology, No. I. Review of Rafinesque's Memoirs on North American Fishes ". (Bulletin United States National Museum, No. IX. I877.) Jordan, David S. " Report on the Fishes of Ohio." (Geological Survey of Ohio, Vol. IV', pp. 737-741. 1882.) jordan, David ci. " ote on the Scientitic Name of the Yellow Perch, The Striped Bass, and other North American Fishes." (Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. VIII, pp. 72, 73. i885.) Jordan, David S. " Identification of the Species of Cyprinidae and Catostomidae, Described by Dr. Charles Girard, in the Proceed- ings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for i856." (Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. VIII, pp. Ii8-127. I885.) Constan/ine Samuel Rafinesque. 213 Jordan, David S. "A Sketch of Constantine Schmaltz Rafinesque ". (Popular Science Monthly, Vol. XXIX, pp. 2I2-22I. i886. Same article reprinted in Science Sketches.) Jordan, David S. "Note on the 'Analyse de la Nature' of Rafin- esque." (Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. X, pp. 480, 481. I887.) Jordan, David S. "On the Generic Name of the Tunny." (Pro- ceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, p. I8o. 1888.) Jordan, David S., and Gilbert, Charles H. "On the Synonymy of the Genus Bothus Rafinesque". (Proceedings United States National Museum, Vol. V, pp. 576, 577. i882.) Jordan, David S., and Gilbert, Charles H. " Note on the Nomencla- ture of Certain North American Fishes." (Proceedings United States National Museum, Vol. VI, p. iio. i883.) Keep, Josiah. " Eminent Naturalists." Part II. (West American Scientist, Vol. II, pp. 99-I02. i886.) Kirtland, Jared P. " Descriptions of the Fishes of Lake Erie, the Ohio River and their Tributaries." (Journal Boston Society of Natural History, Vols. III, IV, and V. i840-i846.) Lea, Isaac. "Synopsis of the Eamiiy Unionidae ". (4th E;dition, i870, pp. xxviii-xxx. Vide, also ibidem, 3d Edition, p. xx, i852.) Lea, Isaac. " Rectification of T. A. Conrad's 'Synopsis of the Family of Naiades of North America, etc.'" (Proceedings of the Phil- adelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, Vol. VII, p. i el seqq., and p. 236 el seqq.; also, new edition, pamphlet, pp. I3-25. 1872.) LeConte, John. " The Vines of the United States." (Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, Vol. VI, p. 270. x853.) [Not seen.] The Life and Wridngs of Meehan, Thomas. " Rafinesque ". (Philadelphia Public Ledger Sup- plement, February i8, i89i.) Squier, E. G., and Davis, E. H. "The Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley ". (Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. I, preface, p. xxxvi. 1847.) Swainson, William. " The Natural History and Classification of Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles, or Monocardian Animals ". (In Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, Vol. I, pp. 60-63. 1838, 1839.) Tryon, George W. "A Sketch of the History of Conchology in the United States." (American Journal of Science, 2d Series, Vol. XXXIII, p. i6i, et seqq. 1862.) Venable, W. H., LL. D. Sketch of Rafinesque. (In "Beginnings of Literary Culture in the Ohio Valley," pp. 167, i68. 189i.) APPENDIX. THE WILL OF RAFINESQUE. This page in the original text is blank. The Will of Rafinesque. (1First Page) HE last will and testament of Constantine Samuel Rafinesque T of Philadelphia. My own autograph Will written on the ist May i833 at the Eve of my departure for a journey in the Apalachian Mts of Caro- lina, Tenessee Alabama. i. I leave my immortal Soul to the Creator preserver of the Universe, the Supreme Ruler of Millions of Worlds moving through space, to be sent to whatever world he may deem fit, according to his wise laws. 2. I wish my body if possible to be burnt rather than buried as I do not want to contamine the Earth by decay, nor be a cause of desease to other men. My ashes if they can be collected I wish to be deposited in a Urn, to be kept with my Collections. 3. The whole of my property is personal, and consist, chiefly in Scientific Collections, Books, Patents, Secrets and Claims. The whole of which except what shall be hereafter mentioned I leave to my beloved only Sister Gergette Louisa Rafinesque, now married to Paul Lanthois of Bordeaux in France, and to my beloved only Daughter Emily Louisa, to be equally divided between them, but at the conditions hereafter specified. 4. While residing in Sicily, I deemed myself lawfully married from i 8o9 to i 8I5 to Josephine Vaccaro, although the decres of the Council of Trent forbid our regular marriage. In i8i i was born my Daughter Emily, and in i8I4 my son Charles Linneus, who died in i8i5. But on hearing of my shipwreck in i8x5, Josephine 28 218 The Life and Writings of suddenly married Giovanni Pizzarrone a Comedian, and dissipated the property I had left in her hands. She also refused to send me my Daughter, for whom I sent in i8i6 I817 two Brigs in succession to Palermo, the Indian chief the Intelligence. Where- fore I have ever since refused to notice her, and do not leave a single cent of my property to her, as she has another family by a living husband. C. S. RAFINUSQUR, my true will) (Second Page) 5. Moreover as she lives at the expence of my daughter Emily, whom she has compelled to ascend the stage as a Singer, I direct that no part of my property shall be paid over to Emily, until she leaves altogether separates from her unworthy mother, her share being kept in trust for her by my Sister the interest to be supplied for Emily own personal use only, until the death of her mother, when she may receive her share entire. 6. I order that my Library, Books, Maps, Engravings, Drawings, Collection of Shells, fossils, minerals, and other objects of Natural history, as well as my Herbals or Botanical Collections, besides my apparel, Drugs, medicines, Pulmel, Syrups, Balsams and every other personal property of mine (except my manuscripts and own draw- .gs,) So coldAt tprivrntE qnle in America or Europe bv the Executors of my will, and the proceeds employed as follows. 7. To print and publish all my manuscripts, drawings, sketches and maps (unpublished at my decease) in the cheapest form either in America or Europe in English or french, unless the copyrights can be sold. These posthumous works of mine to be sold at an advance of ioo per cent, and 5oo copies at least to be printed. The proceeds of the copy rights or sales are to form the fund of my inheritance, to be equally divided between my Sister and daughter. 8. I entrust the publication of these posthumous works, among which the principal are to be my i. History of the American Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 2I9 Nations, 2. My travels and researches since i8oo 3 Tellers or history of mankind, 4 Monuments of America. 5 Poem on Insta- bility, 6 My Autobiography c, to my nephew Jules Rafinesque if he is able willing, or else to Prof John Torrey of Newyork and Prof Jacob Green of Philadelphia: directing them to publish in succession all what is suitable for publication, and I grant them as a reward One hundred copies of such works, or one fifth of the whole number published (being 50 each if two are employed in this task) or if the copyrights are sold by them I grant them ten per cent commission on the same for the trouble (C. S. RAFINESQUE, my true will) (Third Page) of preparing them for the press. 9. The Secret of the Pulmel and other medicaments for the Consumption, I enjoin to my Executors not to divulge, but either sell it or pass it under seal into the hands of my Sister, to be by her used as her own, requesting her to give one fourth of the profits to my daughter Emily. io. I direct my Executors to sell my patentright of the Divitial Invention if possible, and sue all the Bankers and Savings Banks who have stolen it in part or compromise it pass the proceeds to my heirs as above stated. ii. I direct them also to sell all my Caveats Secrets, relating tn Aquatiott Raih.vP'", Nnviation of Snhallown. WaTite, Steam P!nioher Rail Wheels, Artificial Leather, Incombustible Architecture c, and every other Invention of mine, the proceeds being disposed of as above. 12. I forgive all my foes and those who have stolen my property at various time, beginning with those who embezzled my father and uncle inheritance. But I direct my Executors to endeavour to collect all debts due to me, of which a list will found with vouchers. 220 The Lie and Wridngs of 13. If any body has thought himself wronged by me, I ask their pardon. I never did any thing wrong willingly, but being beset by knaves and Rivals may have been compelled to act some- times in a way not exactly as I should have chosen, had I been fairly dealt with by others. 14. I do not owe any thing of any account, have lately dealt always in cash, there is no Bills against me, and any one presented would be spurious. There may be some old claims against me by my defunct brother Anthony, but it was unfounded as my Letters to him prove, and if his son Jules brings it on, he will hereby be unfit to be my publisher. Some old claims in Sicily and Newyork by Pinistri Roulet, if brought forward must be compromised much reduced, as my lawsuit with Pinistri evinces the shallowness injustice of this claim, Roulet accts are also mostly wrong, both besides are obsolete out of law course. In justice they ought to take as offsetts the similar claims for io,ooo I have on Lafleche, Lanfiar, Blodget, Cramer Spear, Thomas Smith, Trampylo Univry Botanic Garden c, or at least accept my works in paymt of any real compromise balance. C. S. RAFINUSQUE my own will) (Fourth Page) i5. I direct my Executors to withdraw, claim publish my memoir on Materials for hist of America sent in i825 to the Academy of Sciences of Boston for a premium of ioo, both of which have been withheld stolen from me, as the Letters of Mr. Everett proves. Also my memoir on a Peaceful Congress of Nations sent in i831 to the Peace Society of Newyork for the premium of 500 offered not yet awarded, if it is not the successful one and publish it with my other posthumous works. Transylvania University is evidently intended here. From this item it may he inferred that Rafinesque claimed an unpaid salary balance. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 22I i6. Whereas all the learned Societies of America directed by a base feeling of jealousy in some members have never valued nor encouraged my labors in Science, I leave them nothing, and direct to sell none of my collections to them unless a better price can not be obtained in Europe: where I recommend selling to public institutions rathan than private individuals. I7. The gold medal awarded me by the Soci of geography of Paris, I leave to my nephew Jules Rafinesque, at the condition to keep it forever in the family of Rafinesque as a honorable record of a reward of merit. x8. I leave to my neice Laura Rafinesque, a wedding present at her choice or a necklace of the value of one hundred francs to be paid to her on her wedding day, and leave her besides a set of all my works published or posthumous to be given her at once. x9. I request my sister (particularly if she has no children) to leave equaly at her death, all her share of my inheritance to Jules and Laura, or their children. If Emily should die before me, I leave her share to Jules Rafinesque, requesting him to allow some- thing to Henrietta Whinston Daughter of my Emily by Sir Henry Whinston, whom I also recommend to the care of my Sister, if her father does not provide for her. 20. If my Sister dies before me, I leave her share to Jules Laura Rafinesque to be equaly divided between them; but if they should at any time bring on against me or mv Estate the tunfniinded claims of their defunct father, I withhold from them the whole, and all the beneficial clauses of this will in their favor, and substitute to them my Daughter Emily. 21. If the proceeds of my Estate, posthumous works, patents and Inventions should exceed the sum of ten thousand Dollars or fifty thousand francs: I direct that the excess whatever it is, may be put at compound interest in a Savings Bank for the benefit of the first Female Orphan School C. S. RAPINESQUE my own will) 222 The Life and Writings of (Fifth Page) that shall be established in the United States, as near as possible upon the plan of Girard's Orphan College for Boys. And if none is established within ten years after my decease, I give the same excess to the first Free Library that shall be established in fire proof buildings in the United States. 22. I name as Executors of this my last Will and Testament, Prof: John Torrey of Newyork, Prof. Jacob Green of Philadelphia, Peter A. Browne Esq of Philadelphia, Dr. James Mease of Phila- delphia J. H. McCulloh Jr. of Baltimore, and the Consul of France in Philadelphia for the time being, or any three of them that may accept the trust, if three should think fit to decline it. 23. I recommend the care, selection publication of my man- uscripts relating to travels and Botany to John Torrey chiefly; those on Zoology Sciences chiefly to Jacob Green, those on Geology and onyetology chiefly to Peter A. Brown, and those on History, Antiquities Languages chiefly to J. H. McCulloh. 24. I conclude by stating explicitly that I wish all the clauses of this Will, to be understood in their plainest obvious meaning and sense, without cavil nor quibble, but as equity and justice should decide and require. Written, Done, Executed and sealed by myself, being in perfect health of body and mind. In witness whereof I have signed this at every page and at the end propose to deposit the same at the public office for registering Wills In Philadelphia this first of May i833. L S C. S. RAFINESQUE (this is my own autograp will) Addition. I add Dr. James Mease of Philadelphia to my Ex- ecutors publishers of my works giving him the general super- intend of it as I know his fitness for this task Codicil. I vouch and aver that the claim of Maclure against me has been settled by me by my shipment of Plants c. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. 223 2. That the claim of Atkinson is cancelled by my offsets, the mistakes in his previous accts the withholding the ioo plates of the Medical flora worth 300, whereby he is largely in my Debt 3. that my claim on the Estate of Z. Collins is just and must be pursued recovered by law or compromise C. S. RAFIN9SQUJ SUPPLIMENT, ADDITION CODICIL TO MY LAST WILL OF 1833 Whereas since the date of this Will I have had the misfor- tune to lose my Sister Georgette Louisa Lanthois born Rafinesque who was to have been my sole heir, I hereby confirm the whole of my said will except what relates to her, and I substitute for my heirs Jules Rafinesque my nephew son of my late brother Anthony Rafinesque, and Laura Rafinesque his sister and my niece, besides Emily Rafinesque my natural Daughter to be all all three my joint and absolute heirs, each in one third, of my estate, chattels, properties and claims But whereas my nephew niece Julius Laura Rafinesque are minors, whatever will belong to them shall be held in trust by my Executors until they are of age, the interest alone being paid thcun tjii themii. Anl whereas my Daughter Emily has been bereft from me and is in the power of rapacious relations (unless she should be married by this time) it is my will that only the interest of her share to my estate should be paid to her during her whole lifetime, and the principal should revert at her death to Julius Laura Rafinesque. The Consul of the two Sicilies in Philadelphia can inform on Emily who is now in Naples. Julius Laura are in Paris. Whereas Mr. Peter Browne has neglected my business, I strike him off from the number of my C. S. RAFINESQUE 224 The Life and Writings of (Second Page) Executors and appoint in his stead my friend Dr. Samuel Betton of Germantown. Wherefore the three Executors of my will should be Dr. James Mease, Prof Jacob Green Dr. Samuel Betton. But if one of them should decline to serve I substitute the french Consul for the time being, if another should decline I substitute the Consul of the two Sicilies for the time being, and if all three should decline, the third to be appointed by the Court. I particularly confirm the obligations imposed upon the Exec- utors of my will, to have my valuable Collections properly sold and rather in Europe than in Anierica, where they will fetch a better price. I want them to be offered first to the Museum of Natural history of Paris at a fair mutual valuation and also the obligation to publish all my manuscripts, the works thereof forming part of my estate when printed like my other Works. I recomend again to my nephew Jules the care of my man- uscripts works. If any msst of mine is neglected by my Ex- ecutors, he may call for all what I have written in books loose sheets, and may thereof draw what materials he may deem worthy of publication. I aver that I owe not one cent to any body, having always paid cash for everything lately, but that many owe me largely, and that I have many claims to settle, whereof Schedules will be found in my Books, Pulnel Book, Natural Collections Book. Even my Sister or rather now her husband Paul Lanthois owes me a settlement of account for many articles Sent for Sale to them at Bordeaux received. C. S. RAFINESQUE (Third Page.) After ten years trials and delays, I succeeded this year to establish in May, the Divitial Institution of North America, and Six per cent Savings Bank, which is a beneficial useful Institu- tion. It has been assailed at the outset by the violent opposition Cons/anfine Samuel Rafinesque. 225 of the gambling Institutions trying to be set up who have bribed some of my friends given me all the trouble they could. My uneasiness of mind on that score has been great hurtful to my health, finding I could find so few to act honestly to the public along with me. If I should die before I can put in full successful operation which requires one year, I leave it in the hands of the few friends who partake my honest meaning, my two joint trustees Peter Brutte Christopher Marshall may admit another equally honest carry on the Institution under the printed Rules published regulations I aver that the whole of my Expences to form mature this Institution since I825 has over Three hundred Dollars my expences from March to June abt 6o, besides the printing. These expences were to be paid me in shares are yet to be. None but those that can show their certificates signed by me are entitled to them as paid, as the Letter p was put in the Books to some Np not paid. The above is the last Codicil Supplement to my will, in witness whereof I have written the whole myself and signed sealed it, and mean to deposit it in the office of the Probate of Wills of Philadelphia Philadelphia the 15th June 1835 C. S. RAFINESQUE (Fourth Page) Additional Codicil I further add and solemnly declare that the late award of 173 made in my favor by the Arbitrators in my claim on Collins' Estate is less than is justly due me, if the Administrator appeals this claim must be pursued to the utmost and papers found to prove 306 and beyond I recommend com- promise in all cases to my Executors in cases of disputed claims and to avoid litigation expences. 29 226 The Life and Writings of Whatever in my will in this Codicil may be found dubious must be construed according to the dictates of equity honesty. Done in Philadelphia the i6th June 1835 C. S. RAFINUSQUE CITY AND COUNTY OF PHILADA SS. REGISTER'S OFFIcE Nov. i6. i840 Then personally appeared Samuel Hood James Henry Horn on their oaths did say that they were well acquainted with C. S. Rafinesque, deceased the Testator in the foregoing Will three Codicils named in his life time are acquainted with his handwriting having seen him write his name as well as other matters, that they have viewed the foregoing Will and Codicils and that as well the body thereof as the signatures C. S. Rafin- esque thereto subscribed are all of the proper hand writing of him the said C. S. Rafinesque to the best of their knowledge and belief Sworn and subscribed before me the date above. SAm HOOD I. B. SZWAIL JAMES HENRY HORN Depy Register NOvumBER 28th, i840. I do swear that as the Executor of the foregoing Last Will and Testament and Codicils thereto of C. S. Rafinesque, deceased I will well and truly administer the Goods and Chattels, Rights and Credits of said deceased agreeably to law and that I will comply with the provisions of the law relating to Collateral Inheritance Sworn and subscribed before me the date above and Letters Testamen- tary granted unto him. JAMES MEASE I. B. SEWALL ) Depy Register Cons/anfine Samuel Raft nvesque. 227 COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA, t CITY AND COUNTY OF PHILADELPHIA. ) REGISTER'S OFFICE, September 13th 1894. I, Wm. G. Shields, Register of Wills and ex-officio Clerk of the Orphans' Court for the City and County of Philadelphia, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, do hereby certify the foregoing to be a true and accurate copy of the last Will and Testament and three Codicils thereto of C. S. Rafinesque, deceased, together with the probate thereof upon which Letters Testamentary were granted unto James Mease on the 28th day of November, A. D. i840, as the same remains on file and of record in this office. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set __ my hand and official seal at Philadelphia L. s. the date above. L.. WM. G. SHIELDS Register of Wills and ex-officio Clerk of Orphans' Court.