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Guide manual to the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-75-29578970 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Guide manual to the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky Printed at the Glasgow Times Office, Glasgow, Ky. : 1876. 38 p. ; 18 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1994. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN03900.03 KUK) Printing Master B92-75. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Mammoth Cave (Ky.) Caves Kentucky. / -A Ti, .i H ', AI V _ HAS_ ffi in \_ iN.wd I I I This page in the original text is blank. a Jill'de TO THM U C)F 11ETTYOEY GLASGOW, KY.: PRINTED AT THE GLASGOW TIMES OFFICE. 1876. INTRODUCT ION. - To THE CAVE BAND. The Cave Band, by study and long practice, have adopted their music to the different avenues of the Cave, the effevt of' which, particularly on Echo River, is peculiarly enchantinz. CAVE COSTUME. The proper costume for a gentleman consists of a jacket, heavy boots, a cloth cap and woolen pants. The Bloomer or Turkish dress is the proper costume for a lady. It may be plain, or fancifully trimmed to suit the wearer. When trimmed in lively colors, which is alwvavs advisable, the effect is beautiful, particularly it the party be large. Flannel or cloth is the proper material. 14 must be borne in mind that the temperature Of the Cave is utty nine degrees. Every lady carries a lamp, and in no case. except that of illness, should she take a gentleman's arm It is fatiguing to both parties, and exceedingly awkward rn appearance. LOCATION The Mammoth Cave is situated in Edmonison County, Ky. ninety-five miles south of ]Louisville, or half way between Louisville and Nashville; and is accessible by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which passes within seven miles of the Cave, at Cave City, where convevances are in readiness to convey passengers to and from the Cave. The Cave Hotel is capable of accommodating twohundred visitors. The rooms are furnished in the best style, and the table is not surpassed by that of any hotel in the Union. Attached to the hotel isbea- magnificent ball-room, which is fitted up in the most approved manner. The scenery in the vicinity of the Mammoth Cave is almost without a rival. Green River, with its towering cliffs, is but a few hundred yards from the hotel, and affords good fishing and pleasant bcat excursions, which, together with the mai- nificent grounds, promenades, swings, etc., attached to the hotel, conspire to render a visit peculiarly attractive. A GUIDE M-NUAL OF THE MAMMOTH CAVE OF KENTUCKY. O ENTRANCE TO THE CAVE. HE ENTRANCE to the Cave is one hundred and ninety-four feet above Green River, and is about twenty-five feet in height, by about thir- tv in width, oN-e-. which may b3 seen, at all seasons, a mist or feg, which, wher'. the -xtel nal air is warmer than that of the Cave, is produced bv the condensa- tion of the moisture of the fbrewer shy the reduced temperature of the Matter. COl the contrary, when the temperature of the external atmosphere is less than that of the Cave, the n!oistu1b of the air of the latter is condensed in a similar manner. When the temperature of the outer air is the same as that of the Cave, no fog or cloud is observable at its mouth. The entrance to the Mammoth Cave, at an early period of its history, was situated about half a mile from its present location, constituting what is now called the mouth of Dickson's Cave. This cave ter- minates within a few feet of the mouth of the Mam- moth Cave, but there is at present no direct commu- nication between the two. The voice of a person at 4MMAMMOTH CAVE. the end of Dickson's Cave, can be distinctly heard at the entrance of Mammoth Cave. The present entrance to Mammoth Cave was form ed, and its communication with Dickson's Cave cut off by the disintegrating action of the water of the spring, which discharges its contents from the ceiling, at the mouth of the former, and which caused the Cave at this point to fall in-thus establishing a new entrance, and shortening the length of the Cave by about half a mile. Dickson's Cave differs little in size and appearance from Proctor's Arcade, in the M1ammoth Cave. RESPIRATION OF THE CAVE. The Mammoth Cave breathes once a year. That is to say, in summer, or when the temperature of the external air is above that of the Cave, the current sets from the latter to the former. In other woIrds, the Cave is the entire summer in making an expira- tion. On the other hand, when the order is reversed, or the temperature of the outer atmosphere is below fifty nine degrees, the Cave makes an inspiration, or draws in its breath which it a'complishes during the winter. The respuratory mceharissn of the Cave ceases to operate, or, to carry out the metaphor-it holds its breath-when the nreercurg in the ther'mom- eter stands at fifty nine degrees in the outer air; which is the average temperatur,-e f all parts of the Cave, winter and summer Hensce ia, is frequently observed, in the spring and fall, that there is no mnotion of air in eitheir direction at the mouth of the Cave. On entering the Cave for a few hundred yards, in summer, when the temperature is at or near 100 de- grees, the air rushes out with such force as frequently to extinguish the lamps. Passing into the Cave for about a half mile, however, the motion of air is barely perceptible at any time, from the fact that the main avenue enlarges so rapidly that it plays the 4 MA'MMO'H CAVA. part of a reservoir, where a current of air, from any direction, is speedily neutralized. If a current of air blows from without, inward, and is below fifty- nine degrees, it does not pass more than a quarter of a mile before it is brought up to that point. Air above the average temperature of the Cave never blows into it. Thtis it will be observed that a change of seasons is unknown in the Mammoth Cave; and day and night, morning und evening, have no existence in this subterranean world. In fact, there is an eternal sameness here, the like of which has no parallel. In manv parts of the Cave, time itself is not an element of change; for where there is no variation of temnperature, no water, and no light, the three treat forces of geological transformation cease to operate. ATMOSPHERE OF THE CAVE. The proportions of oxygen and nitrogen bear the same relation to each other in the Mammoth Cave that they do in the external air, The proportion of carbonic acid gas is less than that observed in the atmosphere of the surrounding country, upon an average of many observations. In the dry parts of the Cave the proportion is about 2 to 10,000 of air; in the vicinity of the rivers, something less. Not a trace of ammonia can be detected in those parts of the cave not commonly visited. The amount of the vapor of water varies. Thus, in those avenues at a great distance from the rivers, upon the walls and floors of which there is a deposit of nitrate of lime, the air is almost entirely destitute of moisture, from the hygroscopic properties of that salt. and animal matter mummifles instead of suffering putrefactive decomposition. And for the same reason, no matter what state of division the disintegrated rock may attain, dust never rises. In portions of the Cave remote from the localities in which the bats hyber- nate, no organic matters can be recognized by the MAMMOTH CAVE. most delicate tests. Not a trace of ozone can be detected by the most sensitive reagents. From what has been stated, it will be observed that the atmosphere of the Mammoth Cave is freer from those substances which are calculated to exert a depressing and septic influence on the animal economy than that of any other locality of the globe. This great difference is observed by every one on leaving the Cave, after having remained in it for a number of hours. In such instances, the impurity of the external air is almost insufferably offensive to the sense of smell, and the romance of a "pure coun- trY ail," is forever dissipated. What diseases would be benefitted, or rendered worse, by resorting to the Mammoth Cave Consumptives, at one time, resorted to the Cave, and, as might have been anticipated, with fatal results. Several of them died there, and all of them soon alter exposure to the external air. One patient did not see the light of the sun for a period of five months. Short trips are attended with advantage, but a Cave-residence is speedily fatal. I know of no inflammatory disease that is rendered. worse by a resort to the Mammoth Cave. On the contrary, short and easy trips have been known to effect a cure in chronic dysentery and diarrhea, where all other measures have failed. In all those diseases where absolute silence, and the total exclusion of light are indicated, the Cave, above all other places, possesses pre-eminent advan- tages; for nowhere else have we these conditions combined. The only condition in which risk is incurred is during the menstrual period. Serious, and even fatal results, have been the consequence of inattention to this fact. The temperature of the Mammoth Cave is uni- formly fifty-nine degrees, winter and summer, which, in connection with -the remarkable purity of its at- 6 MAMMOTH CAVE. mosphere, will account for the fact that individuals are enabled to undergo such an unusual amount of physical exertion in it. It is not an uncommon occurrence for a person in delicate health to accom- plish a journey of twenty miles in the Cave, without suffering from fatigue. who could not be prevailed upon to walk a distance of three miles on the surface of the earth. HOW THE MAMMOTH CAVE WAS FORMED. The agencies concelned ill the tormation of the Mammoth Cave, may be divided into Chemical and Mechau ical. CHEMICAL AGENCIES. There can. be no doubt but that the solvent action of water holdingf carbonic acid in solution, was the primary agency concerned in the formation of the Cave. Thus, the limestone, or carbonate of lime, which constitutes the strata of rock through which the Cave runs, is not soluble in water until it com- hines with an additional proportion of carbonic acid, by which it is transformed into the bicarbonate of lime. Ia this way the process of excavation was conducted, until communications were established with running water, by which the mechanical agency of that fluid was made to assist the chemical. The little niches and recesses which are observed in various parts of the Cave, and which seem to have been chiseled out and polished by artificial means, were formed in this manner; for when these points are closely examined, a crevice will be observed at the top or back of them, through which water issued at the time of their formation, but which has been partially closed by crystals of carbonate of lime, or gypsum. At the time these niches were forming, water flowed through the avenues in which they are found. Examples of the action we have been de- scribing, may be seen in Spark's Avenue, leading to the Mammoth Dome. 7 MAUINOTHI CAVE, The grooves which are observed in rock over which water is, or has been flowing, are also formed. by the solvent action of water containing carbonic acid; for in all such. instances, the water has no solid matter in suspension. Examples of this kind of action may be seen in operation in Mammoth and Gorin's Domes; and evidences of its former action may be observed in Lucy's Dome. What are termed the "pigeon holes," in the Main Cave, are cut out of the solid rock- in the same manner. When water, holding the bicarbonate of lime in solution, drops slowly from the ceiling, by which it is exposed to the air sufficiently long to allow of the escape of one equivalent of carbonic acid gas, the lime is deposited in the form of the proto-carbonate of lime. If the deposit occurs in such a manner that the accumulation takes place from above, downward, in the f.. rm of an icicle, it constitutes what is termed a stalactite; but if it accumulate from below, up- ward, it is called a stalagmite. Stalactites and stalagmites frequently meet in the center, and be- come cemented, by which a column of support is formed. Many instances of this kind are to be found in Gothic Arcade and Fairy Grotto. If the limestone which forms the stalactite is per- fectly pure, it will be white or semi-transparent; if it contains oxyd of iron, it will be of a red or yellowish color. When a stalactite is black, it contains the black oxyd of iron. The stalagmitic cinders in Vul- can's. Smithy, and the grapes in Martha's Vineyard, are colored with black oxyd of iron. Another agency which contributes in. part to change the appearance of the Cave, is the efflores- cense of the sulphate of soda or Glauber-salts, and the crystallization, of. sulphat of. lime or plaster of Paris. The sulphae, of. lime, which is known under the names of gypsum, plaster of Paris, soeaite, alabas. MAMMOTH CAVE. ter, etc., exerts a much greater influence in disinte- grating the rock than the sulphate of soda. The avenues in which gypsum occurs are perfectly (iry; differingc in that respect from those which contain stalactites. When rosettes of alabaster are formed in the same avenue with stalactites, the water which formed the latter, has for ages ceased to flow, or they are situated far apart, as the former can not form in a damp atmosphere. The force exerted by gypsum in the act of crystallizing, is about equal to that of water when freezing, for when it crystallizes between ledges, or strata of rock, they are fractured in every direction, as instanced in Pensacola Avenue and Rhoda's Arcade. The formation of nitre is due, in part, to the decomposition of the remains of bats and other animals, but it must not be forgotten that lime-stone rocks are never entirely destitute of nitrifiable niat- ter. The nitric acid which enters into its composi- tion may, in some measure, be derived from the atmosphere. The kind of nitre that is found in the Cave is the nitrate of lime, which, when re-acted upon by the carbonate of potash is transformed into nitrate of potash or common saltpeter. This was the course pursued by the saltpeter miners, when that substance was manufactured in the Cave in 1812-14. The nitrate of lime is found in the dryer parts of the Cave but is not discoverable till the earth which contains it is lixiviated. MECHANICAL AGENCIES. The mechanical agencies concerned in the excava- tion of the Mammoth Cave are trifling when com- pared to the chemical. They are instanced in the transportation of gravel, sand, and clay, ifrom one part of the Cave to another, and in the abraded appearance presented by the rock composing certain avenues. Thus, it is possible to tell the direction which the water ran in most of 9 MAMMOTH CAVE. the avenues and the rapidity of its motion, by ob- serving the points at which gravel, sand, and clay are deposited, and the order in which they come. For example, the points at which gravel is deposited indicate a rapid current; where sand is found the movement was slower; and where clay occurs the water was almost or quite stationary. At one time water rushed with great force through Fat Man's Misery, for in Gxeat Relief, which is just beyond, washed gravel occurs; still farther sand is found, which is succeeded by clay, showing that the current was in the direction of Echo River. Before the mechanical agency could have exerted any appre- ciable influence, the chemical must have been in operation thousands of ages. The loose rocks that are scattered on the floor of many of the avenues, have fallen from the walls and ceiling, but in many instances the points from which they were detached are indistinct, from the fact that the rugged surface from which they have fallen is either smoothed by the action of water, or covered by crystals of the carbonate or sulphate of lime. In those parts of the Cave where no rocks have fallen, the floor presents the appearance of the bed of a' river, and is covered with gravel, sand, or clay, according to the rapidity of the flow of water at the time of the deposit. No rocks have fallen since the discovery of the Cave. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CAVE AND GREEN RIVER. There is an interesting relation subsisting between Mammoth Cave and Green River. Thus, there can be no doubt but that Green River has cut out the bed or channel through which it runs, for on ascending its banks on either side for a distance of not less than three hundred feet, a plain is reached, which is not succeeded by a valley, estab- lishuig conclusively that it has worn its bed to its 10 MAMMOTH CAVE. present level by the mechanical and chemical action of water, and that the avenues of the Cave were cut through with nearly equal pace; those near the surface of the earth being formed first, and the others in regular order from above downward; the avenues through which Echo and Roaring rivers run being the lowest and last formed. Both of these rivers are on a level with Green River, with which there is a subterraneoust'communication. As Green River con- tinues to deepen the valley through which it runs, the avenues of the Cave will continue to descend, until the springs which supply Echo and Roaring rivers cease to flow, when the avenues through which they run will become as dry as Marion's Avenue, which at an early period in the history of the Cave, contained the most beautifnl subterranean river in the world. THE: MAIN CAVE. After leaving a small archway near the mouth of the Cave, the sides of which are walled with rock, which the saltpeter manufacturers obtained from the floor at this point, and which is called the Narrows, the visitor enters the Main Cave, which is six miles in length, and which varies from forty to one hun- dred feet in height, and from sixty to three hundred feet in width. THE ROTUNDA. The Rotunda is entered on leaving the Narrows. The ceiling is about one hundred feet high, and its greatest diameter one hundred and seventy-five feet. The floor is strewn with the remains of vats, water- pipes, and other materials used by the saltpeter miners, in 1812. The wood of which they are made shows no indications of decay. To the right of the Rotunda, Audubon's Avenue leads off for about half a mile, to a collection of stalactites. During the winter, millions of bats hybernate in this avenue. 11 MAMMOTH CAVE. At the entrance of Audubon's Avenue small cot- tages were built fifteen years ago, for the residence of persons afflicted with consumption, under the impression that they would be benefited by a uni- form temperature. The idea that consumptive pa- tients could be cured by a residence in the Cave, must have resulted from a total misconception as to the .nature of phthisis, as it is well known that the absence of light will develop the scrofulous diathesis, and cause a deposit of tubercles in the lungs. The truth of this position was established in the cases of those who resorted to the Cave for relief; inas- much as three of them died there, and the majority of those who remained any considerable length of time, died within periods varying from three days to three weeks after leaving it. Those patients who remained in the Cave three or four months, presented a frightful appearance. The face was entirely blood- less, eyes sunken, and pupils dilated to such a degree that the iris ceased to be visible, so that, no matter what the original color of the eye might have been, it soon appeared black. Although persons who are affected with consump- tion are rendered much worse by a residence in the Cave, they need not be deterred from making short excursions in it, for when not carried to such a degree as to occasion fatigve, they are always attend- ed with advantage. Over-excitement of the brain, and incipient insanity, would undoubtedly be bene- fiteds by a Cave residence. Here absolute silence can be obtained, which cannot be had anywhere else. and which is the great desideratum in brain affec- tions. It is surprising how rapidly the night influ- ence is felt in the Cave, which is indicated by pallor of the cheeks, yawning, and an irresistible tendency to sleep. Persons who first visit the Cave are not, as a general thing, thus affected, because of the novelty of their situation, and the many objects which attract their attention. This tendency to sleep is not due 12 MAMMOTH CAVE. to any impurity of the atmosphere, for the propor- tion of carbonic acid is even less than it is in the outer air, but is referable solely to the complete silence and total absence of light. It is perhaps the only place where a person can count the pulsations of his own heart by listening to its beat; in fact, the pulsations of the hea't of another person can be counted at the distance of several feet. Thunder is never heard in the Mammoth Cave, and at gentleman who was in it at the time a shock of an earthquake was experienced on the surface of the earth, did not perceive it. The Rotunda is situated under the dining-room of the Cave Hotel. METHODIST CHURCH. On leaving the Rotunda, and passing huge over- hanging cliffs to the left, which closely resemble the cliffs of the Kentucky River, after which they are named, the Methodist Church is entered. It is eighty feet in diameter, by about forty in height. Here, from the gallery or pulpit, which consists of a ledge of rocks twenty-five feet in height, the Gospel was expounded more than fifty years ago. The benches, or logs, occupy the same position which they did when first placed in the Church. GIANT'S COFFIN-ANT EATER, C. After leaving the Gothic Galleries, which lead to the Gothic Avenue, of which we will have occasion to speak further on, the Grand Arch is -entered, which leads to the Giant's Coffin. This arch is about fifty feet high and sixty wide. To the left of the path leading to the Giant's Coffin are found two immense rocks, many tons in weight, which have fallen from above, and are stand- ing in an upright position. The Giant's Coffin is a huge rock, forty feet long, twenty wide, and eight in depth, and at the point 13 MAMMOTH CAVE. from it is viewed, presents a striking resemblance to a coffin. It has been detached from the side of the avenue against which it rests. The avenue at the foot of the Giant's Coffin leads into the Deserted Chamber. On tho ceiling, a little to the left of the Giant's Coffin, and looking into the Deserted Chamber, is the figure .of an ant-eater. It is composed of the effloresdense of black gypsum, and rests upon aback ground of white limestone. The resemblance of the figure to the animal after which it is named, is complete. A short distance beyond the Giant's Coffin, in the Main Cave, after passing what is called the Acute Angle, a group of figures is observed on the ceiling, which is termed the G.ant, Wite and Child. These figures are in a sitting posture, and the Giant ap- pears to be in the act of Passing the Child to the Giantess. They are also composed of black gypsum, which rests on a white background. Still further on, the figure of a colossal mammoth may be observed on the ceiling. From the Giant's Coffin to the mouth of the Cave, wheel tracks, and the impression of the feet of oxen may be seen, which were made nearly fifty years ago. The earth, at the time these impressions were left, was moist, as mosi of it had been lixivated in the manufacture of saltpeter, but at the present time it is perfectly dry, and almoet of the consistency of stone. From the Acute Angle to the Star Chvmber, seve- ral stone cottages, which were formerly inhabited by consumptives, are still standing. THE STAR CHRAIBER. The Star Chamber is situated in the Main Cave. It is sixty feet in height, seventy in width, and about five hundred in length. The ceiling is composed of 14 MAMMOTH CAVE. black gypsum, and is studded with innumerable white points, which, by a dim light, present a most striking resemblance to stars. These points, or stars, are produced, in part, by an efflorescense of Glauber's salts beneath the black gypsum, which causes it to scale off; and in part by throwing stones against it, by which it is detached from the white limestone. In the far extremity of the Chamber, a large mass has been separated, by which a white surface is exposed, termed the Comet. When the guide takes the lamps and descends behind a ledge of rocks, by which a cloud is made to pass slowly over the ceiling, it is difficult to divest one's self of the idea that a storm is approaching. It needs but the flash of lightning and the roar of thunder to make the illusion complete. After producing the storm illusion, the guide dis- appears with the lamps, through a lower archway, several hundred yards in length, leaving the visitor in total darkness, and re-appears at the eastern ex- tremity of the Star Chamber, holding the lights in advance, which, as he slowly elevates them from the cavern from which he rises, produces the illusion of the rising sun. With the exception of Echo River, the Star Cham- ber is, perhaps, the most attractive object in the Cave. FLOATING CLOUD UOOM. The Floating Cloud Room connects the Star Chamber with Proctor's Arcade. The clouds are produced by the scaling off of black gypsum from the ceiling, by an effloreseense of sulphate of soda beneath it, by which a white surface is exposed. They appear to be drifting from the Star Chamber over the Chief City. The Cloud Room is a quarter of a mile in length, and in height and width corresponds with the Star Chamber. 15 MAMMOTH CAVE. PROCTOR'S ARCAIDE. This is the most magliificent natural tunnel in the world. It is a hundred feet in width, forty-five in height, and three quarters of a mile in length. The ceiling is smooth, and the walls vertical, and look as though they had been chiseled out of the solid rock. When this tunnel is illuminated with a Bengal light at Kinney's Arena, which is its western terminus, the view is magnificent beyond conception. Kinney's Arena is a hundred feet in diameter and fifty feet in height. From the ceiling, in the center of the Arena, there projects a stick, three feet in lenogth and two inches in diameter. It rests parallel with the ceilina, and is inserted into a creviqe in the iock. How it was placed in its present position is a difficult question to settie, inasmuch as it could not have been inserted in the position it occupies by ar- tificial means. WRIGHT'S ROTUNDA. After passing the S. Bend, which has no particula' points of attraction, Wright's Rotunda is entered. This rotunda is four hundred feet in its shortest diameter. The ceiling is from ten to forty feet in height, and is perfectly level, the apparent difference in height being produced by the irregularity of the floor. It is astonishing that the ceiling has strength to sustain itesif, for it is not more than fifty feet froni tile surface of the earth. Fortunately the Cave at this point is perfectly day, and no change of any kind is transpiring in it, otherwise there might be some risk of its falling in, as evidences of such occur- rences are to be found in the surrounding country. When this immense erea is illuminated at the two extremes, simultaneously, it presents a most magnifi- cent appearance. At the eastern extremity of the Rotunda, is a col- umn, four feet in diameter, extending from the floor 16 MAMMOTH CAVE. to the ceiling, termed Nicholas' Monument, after one of the old guides. The Fox Avenue communicates with the Rotunda and S Bend. It is about five hundred yards in length, and is worth exploring. A short distance beyond Wright's Rotunda, the Main Cave sends off several avenues or branches. That to the left leads to the Black Chamber, which is one hundred and fifty feet wide, and twenty in height, the walls and ceiling of which are inDrusted with black gypsum. It is the most gloomy room in the Cave. There are two avenues leading off to the right. The far one communicates with Fairy Grotto, which contains a most magnificent collections of stalag- mites. It is a mile in length. The other avenue communicates with Solitary Cave, at the entrance of which there is a small cascade. THE CHIEF CITY. The Chief City is situated in the Main Cave be- yond the Rocky Pass. It is about two hundred feet in diameter and forty in height. The floor is covered at different points with piles of rocks, which present the appearance of the ruins of an ancient city. From the Chief City to the end of the Main Cave, a distance of three miles, there are several points at which the appearance which this avenue presented when filled with running Water, may be observed, where the overhanging cliffs closely resemble those in the Pass of El Ghor, of recent formation. The Main Cave is terminated abruptly by rocks that have fallen from above. It must not, however, be supposed that this is the end of it, for there can be no doubt that it was closed at this point in the same manner as Dickson's Cave was terminated, and that the removal of the obstructing rock would open 17 MAMMOTH CAVE. a communication with a cave of the same size as the one we have been attempting to describe. THE LONG ROUTE. On entering upon the Long Route, the visitor leaves the Main Cave at the foot of the Giant's Coffin, and passes into the Deserted Chamber. The distance from the mouth of the Cave to the Mael- strom, which is situated at the end of the Long Route, is nine miles. The trip is generally accom- plished in about twelve hours. THE DESERTED CHAMBER. The Deserted Chamber is the point at which the water left the Main Cave to reach Echo River, after it had ceased to flow out of the mouth of the former into Green River. In other respects it is not of particular interest. WOODEN BOWL CAVE. The Wooden Bowl Cave is next in order. It re- ceives its name from the fact that a wooden bowl, such as was used by the Indians in early times was tound in it when it was first discovered. The Cave itself is the shape of an inverted wooden bowl. Black-Snake Avenue, which enters the Main Cave near the stone cottages, communicates with Wooden Bowl Cave. It receives its name from its serpentine course and black walls. IARTHAL'9 PALACE. Martha's Palace is entered by passing a steep declivity and pair of steps, called the Steeps of Time. The Palace is about forty feet in height and sixty in diameter. It is not particularly attractive. SIDE-SADDLE PIT AND MINERVA1' DOME. The Side-Saddle Pit, over which there rests a dome sixty feet in height, is reached by passing through what is called the Arched Way, the walls, floor, and ceiling of which bear evidence that it was 18 MAMMOTH. CAVE. once the channel of running water. This pit is ninety feet deep, and at its widest part about twenty feet across. Minerva's Dome is situated about twenty feet to the left of the Side Saddle Pit. It is fifty feet in height and ten in width. It is a miniature repre- sentation of Gorin's Dome. The Dome and Pit have been cut out of the solid rock by the solvent action of water containing carbonic acid in solution. They are still enlarging. The aperture leading to the Pit presents the out- lines of a side-saddle, hence the name. BOTTOMILESS PIT AND SHELBY'S DOME. The Bottomless Pit, paradoxical as the statement may appear, is but one hundred and seventy five feet deep. Its width varies from fifteen to twenty feet. A substantial wooden bridge, termed the Bridge of Sioghs, is thrown across it, from which it may be viewed in safety. Shelby's Dome, which is sixty feet in height, rests directly over the'Bottomless Pit. The Pit and Dome have been formed, and are still enlarging by the same causes that excavated the Side-Saddle Pit. REVELER'S HALL. On leaving the Bottomless Pit, a room is entered, which is about twentv feet in height and forty in diameter. Here it is the custom of visitors to rest for a short time and discuss the terrors-of the Pit. This is generally followed by the bringing forth of the potables, when the health and safety of all parties are dulv swallowed. THE SCOTCHMAN'S TRAP. After passing through a low archway, about four feet in height, termed the Valley of Humility, the ceiling of which is smooth and white, and appears as though it had been plastered, the Scotchman's Trap is entered. The Trap is a circular opening, through 19 MAMMOTH CAVE. which it is necessary to descend, about five feet in diameter, over which is suspended a huge rock, which, if it were to fall, would completely close the avenue leading to Echo River. If, however, this opening were to close, there are three ways by which an escape might be effected. Thus: there is an avenue beyond it, which enters the bottom of the Bottomless Pit, from which a person might be drawn .by means of ropes; another means of escape would be by Bunyan's Way, which leads into Pensacola Avenue; and a third by Spark's Avenue and Mam- moth Cave. A short distance beyond the Scotchman's Trap, in what is termed the Lower Branch, there occurs a curiously shaped rock, named the Shanghai Chicken, from its fancied resemblance to that animal. FAT MAN'S MISERY AND GREAT RELIEF. Fat Man's Misery is a narrow, tortuous avenue, fifty yards in length, which has been cut out of the solid rock by the mechanical action of the water. The lower part of the avenue varies in width from a foot and a half to three feet, and the upper part from four to ten feet. In height it varies from four to eight feet. Contrary to the general impression, there never was a man too large to pass through Fat Man's Misery. Great Relief, which is entered on leaving Fat Man's Misery, varies in width from forty to sixty feet, and in height from five to twenty feet. From the ceiling immense nodules of ferruginous limestone project. On the floor of Great Relief, the direction of the current of water that filled these avenues can be traced. Thus, at the side next Fat Man's Misery, it is strewn with gravel, inear the center sand occurs, and still further on mud is deposited; demonstrating thejfact that it flowed into Echo River. 20 MAMMOTH CAVE. The avenue termed Bunyan's Way, passes directly over Great Relief, and enters it a short distance from Fat Man's Misery, by which communication is es- tablished with Pensacola Avenue. RIVER HALL AND BACON CHAMBER. River ]fall extends from Great Relief to the River Styx. It varies in width from forty to sixty feet. The Bacon Chamber is situated to the right of River Hall. It receives its name from the fact that small masses of rock project from the ceiling, which in size and appearance reeemble bacon hams. They were formed by the solvent action of water charged with carbonic acid, when the lower portion of them rested against a stratum of rock which has since been detached. The avenue which leads to the Mammoth Dome and Spark's Avenue, takes its origin in the Bacon Chamber. THE DEAD SEA. About forty feet below the terrace which leads to the Natural Bridge, is a collection of water, fifteen feet deep, twenty wide, and fifty feet in length, term- ed the Dead Sea. It is quite as gloomy in appear ance as its celebrated namesake. When the Cave was first discovered, the Dead Sea was passed on the terrace over its left bank, which, however, was attended with great danger. RIVER STYX AND THE NATURAL BRIDGE. The River Styx is one hundred and fifty yards long, from fifteen to forty in width, and in depth varies from thirty to forty feet. It has a subterra- nean communication with other rivers of the Cave, and when Green River rises to a considerable height, has an open communication with all of them. Tne Natural Bridge spans the River Styx, and is about thirty feet above it. When the far bank of 21 MAMMOTH CAVE. the River Styx is illuminated with a Bengal Light, the view from the Natural Bridge is awfully sublime. LAKE LETHE. Lake Lethe is one hundred and fifty yards long, from ten to forty feet wide, and in depth varies from three to thirty feet. The ceiling of the avenue at this point is ninety feet above the surface of the Lake. Lake Lethe extends in the direction of the avenue, the floor of which is covered by it. Visitors in taking the Longf Route, cross it in boats. THE GREAT WALK. The Great Walk extends from Lake Lethe to Echo River, a distance of five hundred yards. The ceiling is forty feet high, and the rocks which compose it present a striking resembance to cumulous clouds. Then are composed of white limestone. The. floor is covered with vellow sand. A rise of five feet water in Echo River overflows Great Walk, and gives a depth of water sufficient to allow the boats to pass from Lake Lethe to Echo River. There are times when Great Walk is filled with water from the floor to the ceiling. In fact it is not an uncommon occurrence for the water to rise to a height of sixty feet in Lake Lethe, by which the iron railing on the terrace above the Dead Sea is entirely submerged. This great rise of water is pro- duced by a freshet in Green River. ECHO RIVER. Echo River extends from Great Walk to the com- mencement of Silliman's Avenue, a distance of three- quarters of a mile. The avenue at the entrance of Echo River, under ordinary circumstances, is about three feet in height, but immediately beyond that point, to the end, averages about fifteen feet. It varies in width from twenty to two hundred feet, and in depth from ten to thirty feet. 22 MAMMOTH CAVE. When there has been no rise in Green River for several weeks, the water in Echo River becomes remarkably transparent, so much so in fact, that rocks can be seen ten and twenty feet below the sur- face, and the boat appears as though it were gliding through the air. The connection between Echo and Green rivers, is near the commencement of Silliman's Avenue. When Green River is rising, Echo River runs in the direction of the Great Walk; when it is falling, the current sets in the opposite direction. When Green River is neither rising nor falling the water of Echo River runs slowly in the direction of Silliman's Avenue, and is supplied from springs in the Cave. At such times the temperature of it is 59 degrees. When the water of Green River flows into Echo River, at a temperature higher than that of the Cave, a fog is produced, which in point of density is not inferior to that off the banks of Newfoundland. Inexperienced persons have been lost in the fog on Echo River. A rise of three feet water in Echo River will close the avenue through which it runs near its entrance, which, however, does not cut off all communication beyond it, as there is a small avenue, called Purga- tory, commencing at the end of Great Walk and terminating in the avenue of Echo River, about a quarter of a mile from the landing in Silliman's Avenue. A rise of eighteen feet water, however, fills the avenue of Purgatory, and cuts off all communi- cation with the outer world. Among the great curiosities of the Cave may be mentioned the eyeless fish and crawfish of Echo River. The fish are a peculiar species, and are viviparous, or give birth to their young alive, and do not deposit eggs, after the manner of most other fish. They have rudiments of eyes, but no optic nerve, and are therefore incapable of -being affected by the most 23 MAMMOTH CAVE. intense light. The eyeless crawfish give birth to their young in the same manner as those provided with eyes. Both the fish and crawfish are perfectly white. Ordinary fish and crawfish are sometimes washed into the Cave from Green River. Frogs are also sometimes washed into Echo River, and may be heard croaking to the echo of their own voices. The eyeless fish prey upon each other. In shape they resemble the common catfish, but rarely exceed eioght inches in length. SILLIMAN'S AVENUE. Silliman's Avenue is a mile and half long, and extends from Echo River to the pass of El Ghor. It varies in height from twenty to forty feet, and in width, from twentv to two hundred feet, The walls and ceiling of this avenue are rugged and water-worn. It is undoubtedly of recent formation, as compared to other parts of the Cave. The objects of interest in Silliman's Avenue, come in the following order: 1. Cascade Hall is two hundred feet in diameter, and twenty feet high. It receives its name from a small cascade that falls into it from the ceiling. The avenue which leads to Roaring River, takes its origin in Cascade Hall. 2. Dripping Spring is a pool of water that is sup- plied from the ceiling. Stalactites and stalagmites are found at this point. 3. The Infernal Region receives its name from the fact that the floor is composed of wet clay, and is ex- ceedingly irregular. It is almost impossible to pass over it without receiving a fall. 4. The Sea Serpent is a tortuous crevice in the rock over head, that has been cut by running water, the layer of rock that formed the floor of it having been detached. 24 MAMMOTH CAVE. 5. The Valley Way-Side is a small avenue leading off from Silliman's Avenue, and returning into it a short distance further on. It presents several beau- tiful points, and is worth exploring. 6. The Hill of fatigue is hard to climb, but is not otherwise worthy of note. 7. The Great Western is an immense rock, many times larger than any vessel, the end of which closely resembles the stern of a ship. The rudder' is turned to the starboard side. 8. The Rabbit is a large stone which closely re- sembles the animal whose name it bears. 9. Ole Bull's Concert Room is situated to the left of the avenue, it is thirty feet wide, forty long, and twenty high. When Ole Bull made his first tour through the United States, he visited the Cave, and performed in the room which has received his name. 10. Silliman's Avenue is named in honor of Prof. B. Silliman, Sen., of Yale College. RHODA'S ARCADE AND LUCY'S DOME. Rhoda's Arcade, which arises in Silliman's Ave- nue, a half mile from the Pass El Ghor, is five hun- dred yards in length, and from five to ten feet in height. The walls and ceiling are incrusted with the crystals of gypsum and carbonate of lime, of great brilliancy and indescribable beauty. The floor is covered with white crystals of limestone, and is unobstructed by fallen rock. In point of beauty there is no avenue superior to this. Lucy's Dome is reached by passing through Rhoda's Arcade. It is about sixty feet in its great- est diameter, and over three hundred in height, being the highest dome in the Cave. The sides appear to be composed of immense curtains, extending from the ceiling to the floor. THE PASS OF EL GROR. The Pass of El Ghor resembles Silliman's Avenue, 25 MAMMOTH CAVE. but the cliffs composing its walls present a more wild and rugged appearance. It is about two miles in length. The objects of interest in this avenue present themsel es in the following order: 1. The Hanging Rocks look as though they were on the point of falling and closing the avenue over which they are suspended; but no rock has been known to fall from the walls or ceiling in any part of the Mammoth Cave, since its discovery. 2. The Fly Chamber receives its name from the fact that crystals of black gypsum, of the size of a common house-fly, project from the ceiling in great numbers 3. Table Rock is twenty feet long, and projects from the left side of the avenue about ten feet. It is about two feet in thickness. 4. The Crown is six feet in diameter, and is situa- ted on the right side of the avenue, about ten feet from the floor. It closely resembles the object after which it is named. 5. Boone's Avenue leads off to the left. It has -been explored for about a mile, but nothing further is known as to its extent or dimensions. 6. Corinna's Dome rests directly over the center of the avenue. It is forty feet high and nine wide. It was formed by the solvent action of water, which entered it through a fissure at the top, when the Pass of El Ghor was filled with water. Had it been formed after the water had left the avenue, there would have been a pit beneath it, as shown at Shel- by's Dome and the Bottomless Pit. 7. The Black Hole of Calcutta is situated on the left side of the avenue, and is about fifteen feet deep. 8. Stella's Dome is two hundred and fifty feet in height, and in general appearance resembles Lucy's Dome. It is reached by passing through a small 26 MAMMOTH CAVE. avenue, which enters the left wall of the Pass of El Ghor. 9. The Chimes consist of depending rocks, which, when struck, emit a musical sound. 10. Wellington's Gallery is not attractive. 11. Hebe's Spring is about four feet in diameter, and a foot and a half in depth, the water of which is charged with sulphureted hydrogen. Fifteen years ago there was no sulphur in this spring, and at the present time, when it has been undisturbed for seve- ral hours, pure water may be dipped from the surface, and sulphur water from the bottom; indicating the fact that it is supplied with sulphur water at the bottom, and pure water near the surface, which come from entirely different sources. 12. Eyeless crawfish have been found in Hebe's Spring. 13. A half mile beyond Hebe's Spring the Pass of El Ghor communicates with a body of water, the extent of which is unknown, called Mystic River. MARTHMA9 VINEYARD. The avenue which contains Martha's Vineyard is elevated twenty feet above the Pass of El Ghor, and is reached by ascending a ladder near Hebe's Spring. The walls and ceiling of Martha's Vineyard are studded with stalactite nodules of carbonate of lime, which are colored with black oxide of iron, which, in size and appearance resemble grapes. A stalactite three inches in diameter, and extending from the floor to the ceiling, is termed the Grape Vine. A large stalagmite projects from the right wall a few inches from the floor, and is termed the Battering Ram. ELINDO AVENUE AND THE HOLY SEP. ULCHRE. Elindo Avenue arises directly over the Pass of El Ghor. It presents no points of special interest, 27 MAMMOTH CAVE. except that the avenue, which leads to the Holy Sepulchre, which is situated directly over Martha's Vineyard, and which contains a fine collection of stalactites, arises in it. WASHINGTON HALL AND SNOWBALL ROOM Washington Hall is sixty feet wide, twenty high and one hundred in length. This point is generally reached between twelve and one o'clock, and is the place selected as the dining room. Cans of oil are also kept in this room, from which the lamps are replenished. Although the lamps are capable of holding oil sufficient to burn ten hours, the depots for it are so arranged, that they can be filled every five hours. Marion's Avenue, which arises in Washington Hall, leads to Paradise, Zoe's Grotto, and Portia's Parterre. These avenues will form the subject for a future chapter. The Snowball Room is situated between Washing- ton Hall and Cleveland's Cabinet. The ceiling is studded with white nodules o'f gypsum, which vary from two to four inches in diameter. The atmos- phere of the room is too damp for the gypsum to assume the forms of flowers and filaments, as it does in Cleveland's Cabinet. The resemblance of these nodules to snowballs is complete. CLEVELAND9S CABINET. Cleveland's Cabinet is a mile and three quarters long, sixty feet wide, and from ten to twenty feet in height. The walls and ceiling of this avenue are literally lined with alabaster flowers of every conceivable variety, and indescribable beauty. On entering Cleveland's Avenue, the objects of special interest present themselves in the following order: 1; Mary's -Bower is fifteen feet in height, and 28 MAMMOTH CAVE. forty in length, the walls and ceiling of which are covered with rosettes of gypsum. 2 The Cross consists of two crevices in the ceiling which intersect each other at right angles, and which are lined with flowers of the plaster of Paris. It is about eight feet in length. 3. The Mammery Ceiling is formed of nipple- shaped projections of gypsum. 4. The Last Rose of Summer is about eight inches in diameter, and is of snowy whiteness. It rests against the ceiling in the center of the avenue. 5. The Dining Table is fifteen feet wide and thirty long. It consists of a flat rock that has been de- tached from the ceiling. 6. Bacchus' Glory is an alcove, three feet in height, and five feet in length, the whole interior of which is lined with nodules of gypsum, which, in size and form, resemble grapes. It is situated to the left of the Dining Table. 7. St. Cecilia's Grotto is remarkable for the size of the stucco flowers found in it. 8. Diamond Grotto is lined with crystals of selen- ite, which, when a light is waved to and fro in front of them, sparkle like the gem after which the grotto is named. 9. Charlotte's Grotto is the terminus of Cleveland's Cabinet. The walls are covered with fibrous-gypsum. 10. Cleveland's Cabinet is named in honor of Prof. Cleveland, the distinguished mineralogist. ROCKY MOUNTAIN AND DISMAL HOLLOW. The Rocky Mountain is one hundred feet high, and is formed entirely of rocks that have fallen from above. On the top of Rocky Mountain there is a stalagmite, two feet high, and six inches in diameter, termed Cleopatra's Needle. 29 0MAMOTH CAVIL On the far side of the Rocky Mountain is a gorge seventy feet deep, and one hundred, termed Dismal Hollow. The Cave, at the Mountain, divides into three branches. That to the right leads to Sandstone Dome, which is interesting from the fact that the stone of which it is composed indicates that the top of the Dome is very near the surface of the earth. The branch to the left communicates with Groghan's Hall. The central one is termed Franklin Avenue, and extends from Dismal Hollow to Serena's Arbor. FRANKLIN AVENUE AND SERENA'S ABBOR. Franklin's Avenue, as before stated, extends from Dismal Hollow to Serena's Arbor, a distance of a quarter of a mile. It varies in length from thirty to sixty feet. It has a wild and gloomy appearance. Serena's Arbor is twenty feet in diameter, and about forty in height. The walls and ceiling are covered with stalactitic cornices, columns, grooves, ogees, etc., many of which are semi-transparent and sonorous. GROGHAN'S HALL AND THE MAELSTROM. Groghan's Hall, which constitutes the end of the Long Route, is about seventy feet wide and twenty high. The left wall is covered with stalactitic forma- tions, which are white and semi-transparent, and of great hardness, fragments of which are worked into ornaments. The Maelstrom is a pit, which is one hundred and seventy-five feet deep and twenty wide. There are avenues leading from the bottom, which may be seen when a light is lowered into it, but which have been imperfectly explored. A peculiar kind of rat is sometimes found in Groghan's Hall, as well as other parts of the Cave, which is a size larger than the Norway rat. The head and eyes resemble those of the rabbit, and the so MAMMOTH CAVE. 31 hair of the back is like that of the gray squirrel, but that of the legs and abdomen is white. Cave crickets and lizards are also found there. The Cave crickets are about an inch long. The body is yellow, striped with black. They are provided with large eyes, but seem to direct their course mainly by their antennae or feelers, which are enor- mously developed. They are sluggish in their move- ments, and, unlike other crickets, observe an eternal silence. The Cave lizards vary in length from three to five inches. The eye is large and prominent. The body is yellow and dotted with black spots, ancl is semi- transparent. They are sluggish in their movements. The abundance of animal life at this point would seem to indicate that there is a communication with the surface of the earth at no great distance. Bats are found in all parts of the Cave. GOTHIC ARCADE. The Gothic Arcade is entered from the Main Cave by ascending a flight of steps, fifteen feet in height, to the right of the Gothic Galleries. The objects worthy of note are the following: 1. The Seat of the Mummy consists of a niche in the left wall of the avenue, about forty yards from the steps, just large enough for a human being to sit in. The body found in this niche was that of a female Indian, dressed in the skins of wild animals, and ornamented with the trinkets usually worn by the aborigines. A few feet distant, the body of an Indian child, attired in a similar manner, was dis- covered in a sitting posture, resting against the wall. They were both in a state of perfect preservation. There can be no doubt but they wandered into this avenue, and becoming bewildered, sat down and died in the position in which they were found. A person lost in the Mammoth Cave, without any MAMMOTH CAVE. hope of escape, would undoubtedly die in a very short time. That this is the case, the history of those who have been lost in it would seen to prove. Thus, on one occasion a gentleman wandered from his party, when by some accident his lamp was ex- tinguished. In endeavoring to make his escape, he became alarmed, and finally insane, and crawling behind a large rock, remained in that position for forty-eight hours; and although the guides repeated- ly passed the rock behind which he was secreted, in search for him, he did not make the slightest noise, and when finally discovered, endeavored to make his escape from them, but was too much exhausted to run. In another instan ce a lady allowed her party to get so far in advance that their voices could no longer be heard, and in attempting to overtake them, fell and, extinguished her lamp, when she became so terrified at her situation that she swooned, and when discov- ered a few minutes afterward, aud restored, was found to be in a state of insanity, from which she did not recover for a number of years. Not a year passes but the guides have to go in search of persons who have been foolhardy enough to leave their- party, and who in every instance become speedily bewildered, and when discovered are in the act of crying, or at prayer. In such cases the guides are overpowered with kisses, embraces, and other demonstr ations of gratitude. The proper course for persons to pursue when lost in the Cave, is for them to remain in the place where they first became confused, and not to stir from it until rescued by the guides. They will not have to wait more than, from three to ten hours from the time at which they should have returned to the hotel. 2. A short distance from the Seat of the Mummy is a large stalactite which extends from the floor to the ceiling, termed the Post Oak, from its fancied 32 MAMMOTH CAVE. resemblance to a variety of oak-tree that grows near the Cave. 3. The First Echo is the name given to that part of Gothic Arcade which passes over Pensacola Ave- nue, the floor of which when forcibly struck, emits a hollow sound. 4. The Register Room is about three hundred feet long, forty wide, and from eight to sixteen in height. The ceiling is white, and as smooth as though it had been plastered. In this room hundreds of persons have displayed their bankruptcy in everything per- taining to good breeding and taste by tracing their obscure names on the ceiling with the smoke of a candle. 5. Gothic Chapel is a large room, the ceiling of which appears to be supported by gigantic stalactites, which extend to the floor. When a number of lamps are hung upon these columns, this room presents a beautiful appearance. 6. Vulcan's Smithy is a room the floor of which is covered with stalagmitic nodules, colored with black oxide of iron, which resemble the cinders of a black- smith's shop. 7. Bonaparte's Breastworks consist of a ledge of rocks that have been detached from the side of the avenue against which they rest. 8. The Arm Chair is formed by the union of sta- lagmites and stalactites. 9. The Elephant's Head is a large stalagmite which projects from the left wall of the avenue. 10. The Lover's Leap consists of a rock which pro- jects about sixteen feet over a pit which is seventy feet deep. 11. Elbow Crevice is fifty feet in height, from three to five in width, and twenty in length. It is another Fat Man's misery on an enlarged scale. 12. Gatewood's Dining Table is a flat rock which 33 MAMMOTH CAVE. has been detached from the ceiling. It is about twelve-fbet long tnd eight wide, and is named after one of the saltpeter miners. 13. Napoleon's Dome is fifty feet high, and from twenty to thirty wide. It was formed 'in -the same manner as, and resembles Corinna's Dome, in the Pass of El Ghor. 14. Lake Purity is-a pool of perfectly transparent Water, situated directly under Vulcan's Smithy. A half mile beyond Lake Purity the Gothic Arcade terminates in a dome and small cascade. THE LABYBINTH AND GORIN'9 DOME. The Labyrinth is entered from the Deserted Cham- ber, by descending a pair of steps. It is a narrow, rugged causeway, and the only object of interest -in it, is the figure of the American Eagle on the left wall. Gorin's Dome is reached by passing over a small bridge and ascending a ladder, ten feet in height, in the labyrinth. It is viewed from a natural window., situated half way between the floor and the ceiling of the Dome. It is about two hundred feet in height, and sixty feet across its widest part. The far side presents a striking resemblance to an immense cur- tain, which extends from the ceiling to within forty feet of the floor. Gorin's Dome was formed in the same manner as the Side-Saddle Pit. When the far end of the Dome, which is reached by passing through a small avenue to the right, is il- luminated by a Bengal light, the view is terribly sub- lime. There are avenues which communicate with the top and bottom of the Dome. When -Echo River rites, the floor of the Dome is covered with water, in which eyeless fish are sometimes caught. Gorin's Dome bears the name of its discoverer. 34 MAMMOTH CAVE. PENSACOLA AVENUE. Pensacola Avenue is about a mile in length, from eight to sixty feet in height, and from thirty to one hundred in width. It is entered from Revelers' Hafl The following are the subjects worthy of examina- tion: 1. The Sea-Turtle is about thirty feet in diameter.. The rock of which it is composed has fallen from the ceiling. 2. The Wild Hall in size and appearance resembles Bandit's Hall. Bunyan's Way, which communicates with Great Relief, enters Pensacola Avenue at this point. 3. Snowball Arched Way receives its name froim the fact that its ceiling is covered with nodules of gypsum, like those in the Snowball Room. 4. The Great Crossing is the point at which four avenues take their origin. 5. Mat's Arcade is fifty yards long, thirty feet wide, and sixty in height. Between the floor and ceiling there are four beauti- ful terraces, which extend the full length of the Arcade. There is a collection of beautiful stalactites, called- the Pine-Apple Bush, in Mat's Arcade. 6. The ceiling and walls of Angelico Grotto are in_ crusted with crystals of carbonate of lime. Pensacola Avenue terminates about a half mile be- yond Angelico Grotto, in a low archway. SPARKE AVENUE AND MAM11IOTH DOME. Spark's Avenue extends from the River H1ll to, Mammoth Dome, a distance of three quarters of a mile. The objects of interest in this Avenue are the foil_ lowing: i: Bandit's Hall is sixty feet long, and forty wide, 35s MAMMOTH CAVE. the fioor of which is covered with large rocks that have been detached from the ceiling. To the right of Bandit's Hall is an avenue of great extent, which has not been fully explored, called Brigg's Avenue. 2. Newman's Spine is about ten feet in length, and consists of a crevice in the center of the ceiling, which is the exactimage of a cast of a gigantic back-bone. 3. Sylvan Avenue extends from Spark's Avenue to Clarissa's Dome, and is about three hundred yards in length. This Avenue contains a number of ferrugi- nmis limestone logs, which vary from five to fifteen inches in diameter. Some of them appear to be ohopped in half; others have lost a portion of bark, displaying a white surface of petrous wood; and oth- ters again look as though they were in a state of par- tial decay. Anywhere else, these masses of stone would be taken for petrified wood. Clarissa's Dome is entered at its base. It resem- bles Gorin's Dome, but is much smaller. 4. Bennett's Poiiit is directly opposite Sylvan Ave- nue, where the Avenue turns at an acute angle to the right. The floor of the avenue at this point is covered with yellow sand. 5. Bishop's Gorge is a low and narrow part of the avenue which is passed with difficulty. Spark's Avenue is named in honor of Mr. C. A. Sparks, of New York. The Mammoth Dome is viewed from a terrace about forty feet from its base. It is two hundred and fifty feet in height, and in appearance closely resembles Gorin's Dome, but is more than five times as large. At the left extremity of the Dome, there are five large pillows cut out of the solid rock, called the Corinthibn Columns. The awful sublimity of this Dome, when strongly MAMMOTH CAVE. illuminated, exceeds anything ever pictured to a mind frenzied by opium or hasheesh. The Mammoth Dome is still enlarging. ROARING RIVER. The Avenue which conixpunicates with Roaring River is entered at Cascade Hall, and is a half mile in length. Roaring River resembles Echo River in size and appearance, but has a louder echo. There is a cascade which falls into it, from which proceeds roar- ing sounds, and from which it has received its names. Eyeless fish and crawfish are found in Roaring Riv- er, as well as sunfish and black crawfish, both of which are provided with eyes. MARION'S AVENUE Marion's Avenue is about a mile and q half long, and arises in Washington Hall It varies from twenty to sixty feet in width, and from eighty to forty in height. The floor is covered with sand, and the walls are composed of white limestone, which resembles ce-- mulous clouds. The far end of the avenue divides ina- to two branches, that to the right leading to Paradise and Portia's Parterre, and that to the left to Zoe's Grotto. The walls and ceiling of the avenue termed Para- dise, are covered with gypsum flowers. There is a dome in Paradise Avenue, which is composed of sand- stone. It is called Digby's Dome. Portia's Parterre is entered from the left wall of Paradise Avenue. It is a half mile in length, and contains the same kind of flowers that are found in Cleveland's Cabinet. It was discovered about two years ago, and is commonly known as the New Dis- covery. WHITE'S CAVE. The entrance to White's Cave is situated about half a mile from the Cave Hotel, and although it is really 37 -38 MAMMOTH CAVE. a part of the Mammoth Cave, yet there is no direct comrnunication between the two. It is remarkable for the beauty and variety of the stalactites and stalagmites that are found in it, and is well worth exploring. White's Cave is about five hundred yards in length CONCLUDING REMARKS. There are about one hundred and fifty avenues in the Mammoth Cave that have been explored, many of which, however, are never entered by visitors, and which, consequently, we have not attempted to de- scribe. The total length of all the avenues has been estimated at one hundred miles, which probably falls far short of the actual distance. It must not be sup- posed, however, that the Cave has been fully explored, for there are hundreds of avenues that have never been entered, much loss explored, many of which, we have every reason to suppose, are as large as any have been examined.