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History of the Lutheran churches in Boone County, Kentucky : together with sketches of the pastors who have served them / H. Max Lentz. Lentz, H. Max. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-78-27212099 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. History of the Lutheran churches in Boone County, Kentucky : together with sketches of the pastors who have served them / H. Max Lentz. Lentz, H. Max. P. Anstadt, York, Pa. : 1902. viii, 130 p.,  pages of plates : ill. ; 23 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1993. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN02818.07 KUK) Printing Master B92-78. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Lutheran Church Kentucky. Lutheran Church Clergy Biography. REV. H. MAX LENTZ. A HISTORY OF THS Lutheran Churchce il Boone County, Kcntacky TOGETHER WITH Sketches of X Pastors Who Have Served qlkem With Miany Illustrations REV. H. MAX LENTZ PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR YORK, PA. P. ANSTADT SONS I902 This page in the original text is blank. To the many Boone County friends who for more than ten years stood lovingly and loyally by the writer, and about whom will cluster pleasant memories while life shall last, these imperfect lines are affectionately Vetcateb This page in the original text is blank. PREFACE. PREFACE. LOCAL history often lacks appreciation. Valuable records are often neglected or even destroyed and the people who make history are careless in preserving facts for the future. The brief sketches here prepared are the outgrowth of some articles published in a parish paper, and running there through a series of a few years. There have been changes and additions, but the importance of such work was made manifest by the labor involved in gathering material for the articles for the Banner. The book has been printed with special reference to its acceptance with those who continue the service of the Master in the Boone County work, where so much of value has been accomplished in the past. The work there does not show up great in figures, but in comfort and strength for the weary toilers in the vineyard there has been much done, and the churches of that region have been vast powers for good in the lives of the citizens. The work has been a labor of love and we have tried to accomplish it at odd moments in a busy life. The publi- cation has been made possible by the cooperation of the following: Mrs. E. V. Rouse, Messrs. M. P. Barlow, J. W. Crigler, J. B. Dixon, W. E. Dixon, D. B. Dobbins, B. A. Floyd, Wm. E. Glacken, Wm. G. Graves, G. 0. Hafer, Frank Hossman, R. C. McGlasson, B. C. Sur- face, E. H. Surface, J. S. Surface, E. K. Tanner, J. H. Tanner and M. M. Tanner. No one is more conscious of the defects of the work than the writer. His study of the whole subject has given him some advantage in that line. Some of these defects he could not remedy and others must be allowed because further expense could not be incurred. Naught has been put down except in love, and we have endeavored to handle facts in such a careful way that in the future the sketch might prove of value to others who desired to make further investiga- tion. The larger part of the cuts have been furnished by various friends, and we have received much kindness and encouragement from former pastors and other friends, for all of which we desire to express grateful appreciation. CHRISTMASTIDE, 1901. V. This page in the original text is blank. CONTENTS. CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. CHAPTER II. CHAPTER III. CHAPTER IV. CHAPTER V. CHAPTER VI. CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER VII. VIII. IX. X. CHAPTER XI. CHAPTER XII. CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. XXII. XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII. CHAPTER XXVIII. CHAPTER XXIX. Introductory, The Emigration to Kentucky, The Organization of Hopeful Church, The Pioneers and their First Pastor, The First Communion, a New Constitution and a New Church, The Death of Father Carpenter, His Successor and His Family, The Pastorate of Rev. Jacob Crigler, Conclusion of Father Crigler's Pastorate, The Pastorate of Rev. John Surface, 'The Second Vacancy and Its Supply by Rev. Daniel Summers, - - - - The Pastorate of Rev. D. Harbaugh, The Pastorate of Rev. D. Harbaugh (Con- tinued), The Pastorate of Rev. J. G. Harris, The Pastorate of Rev. W. G. Harter, The Pastorate of Rev. Thomas Drake, The Pastorate of Rev. W. A. G. Emerson, The Pastorate of Rev. S. B. Hyman, The Pastorate of Rev. W. C. Barnett, The Interregnum at Ebenezer, The Pastorate of Rev. A. J. Dou glas, - - The Vacancy of 1884, - - - The Pastorate of Rev. \V. H. Keller, - The Pastorate of Rev. H. Max Lentz, The Pastorate of Rev. S. E. Slater, - The Parsonage, The Joint Council, Public Worship, Music, Sunday Schoolsand the Burial of the Dead, - Woman's Missionary Society and Young Peo- ple's Societies, Synodical Relations and Relation to Other Denominations, PAGE. 9 13 I 6 I9 25 28 33 36 40 44 46 49 53 57 6o 63 66 69 77 80 84 87 91 105 Io8 'II 115 1 22 1 2 7 V11. ILLUSTRATIONS. ILLUSTRATIONS. PAGE. Rev. H. Max Lentz, Frontispiece Mrs. Susannah (House) Tan- ner, - - - - 8 Joel Tanner, - - - 8 Ephraim Tanner, - - - 19 Simeon H. I'anner, - - 19 Jeremiah Carpenter, - - 2 1 Mrs. Julia Ann (Rouse) Car- penter, - - - 2 1 W. E. Carpenter,- - - 22 Mrs. Mary F. Dixon, - - 23 Mrs. Susan Dixon, - - 23 Abel Carpenter, - - 24 W. V. Crigler, - - 30 " Old Kentucky Home," - 32 Silas Joshua Rouse, - - 36 Jacob Baxter Crigler, - 37 Jacob William Rouse, - - 37 W. 0. Rouse, M. D., - 38 Miss Ora E. Rouse, - - 38 Rev. John Surface, - - 40 Noah Surface, - - - 41 Benjamin Cornelius Surface, 41 John Silas Surface. - - 42 Eli Harris Surface, - - 42 Benjamin Tanner, - - 45 Rev. David Harbaugh, - 47 Rev. J. G. Harris, - - 54 Rev. Thomas Drake, - 61 Rev. W. A. G. Emerson, - 64 Rev. W. C. Barnett, - - 70 Rev. D. H. Bauslin, D. D., - 73 Rev. G. M. Grau, D. D., - 74 Rev. F. M. Porch, D. D., - 78 Rev. A. J. Douglas, - - 8i Rev. Lloyd Douglas, - - 83 PAGE. Rev. W. H. Keller, - - 88 Rev. Francis M. Keller, - go J. C., Lentz, Rev. D. S. Lentz, E. J. Lentz and Rev. A. W. Lentz, - - - 94 Rev. H. Max Lentz and family, - - 95 Jacob Lentz, - - - 96 Rev. E. K. Bell, D. D., - 97 Welcome Home, - - 98 Rev. H. Max Lentz, - - 99 Pastor's Birthday, - - 100 Rev. S. E. Slater, - - - 105 James M. Utz, - - - l09 M. P. Barlow, - - - I II The Joint Council, - - 1 I 2 Frank Hossman, - - - JI3 W. E. Glacken, - - '13 Rev. C. W. Sifferd, D. D., - I I6 Mrs. Isabel Frances (Rouse) Deiph, - - - I19 Fred. Shaffer Brittenhelm, - I9 Capt. W. H. Baker, - - 120 Mrs. Mary Serena Lentz, - 122 Mrs. Mallie Beemon, - 123 Mrs. Emma V. (Tanner) Rouse, - - - - 123 Mrs. Mary (Tanner) Surface, 124 Mrs. S. D. Surface, - - 124 Mrs. Laura M. Lentz, - - 125 Mr. and Mrs. Ezra K. Tan- ner, - - - - 126 Mr. John Cyrus Tanner, - 129 Mrs. Emily Frances (Crigler) Tanner, - - - 129 Rev. W. H. Davis, - - I30 vii. A History of the Lutheran Charches in Boone County, Ky. CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTORY'. 12Y LANGUAGE, colonial connection and other ties of strength, V the dominating influence in this country has been English, but the German influence has been of no mean proportions. The Ger- mans closely followed the English in point of time and numbers and equalled them in heroic endeavor and later in devoted loyalty to the independence of the colonies. Among the earliest of these German colonists were a few Alsatians and Palatinates who had started to Pennsylvania and who after many hardships during their voyage, had been purchased by Governor Spottswood and sent by him to his settlement on the Rappahannock River in Virginia, which he called after them Germanna. These were recruited by a small band of Palatinates from North Carolina who had escaped massacre there and now came to Virginia to cast in their lot with their breth- ren. 1'hese families were Protestant and had left their native land because they were required to deny their faith. They had received encouragement and some help from Queen Ann and now they re- solved to try new homes in a strange land. They founded a church at Germanna. which they called Hopeful Church, as expressive of their feelings that the faith should be preserved and the Augsburg confession be held as a lasting exposition of the truth of God's word. There is some difference of opinion as to who was the first minister to these people. Some think Rev. Gerhard Henkel was their first pastor, and indeed that he was the first German pastor in Virginia. On the other hand it has been maintained that Rev. Henry Hoeger was their first pastor and the following extract seems to favor that view very strongly. 030ONE COUNTY HISTORY. From the letter book of the Venerable Society in England for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, we obtain the fol- lowing document headed- CASE OF THE GERINIAN FAMILIES IN TIHE YEAR I 720. "The case of thirty-two Protestant German Families in Vir- ginia humbly showeth :-That twelve Protestant German families consisting of about fifty persons arrived April I7, in Virginia, and were therein settled near the Rappahannock River. That in 1717, seventeen Protestant German families consisting of about four score persons came and settled down near their countrymen. And many more both German and Swiss families are likely to come there and to settle likewise. That for the enjoyment of the ministries of religion, there will be a necessity of buildin, a small church in the place of their settlement and of maintaining a minister who shall catechize, read and perform divine offices among them in the German tongue, which is the only language they do yet un- derstand. That there went indeed with the first twelve German families one minister named Henry Hoeger a very sober and honest man of about seventy-five years of age, but he being likely to be past service in a short time they have empowered Mr. Jacob Christopher Zollicoffer of St. Gall, Switzerland, to go into Europe, and there to obtain, if possible, some contributions from pious and charitable Christians toward the building of their church and bringing over with him a young German minister to assist the said Mr. Hoeger in the ministry of religion and to succeed him when he shall die; to get him ordained in England by the Right Reverend Lord Bishop of London, and to bring over with him the Liturgy of the Church of England, translated into High Dutch, which they are desirous to use in public worship. But this new settlement, consisting of but mean persons, being utterly unable of themselves both to build a church and to make up a salary sufficient to maintain such a minister, they humbly im- plore the countenance and encouragement of the Lord Bishop of London and others, the Lords, the Bishops, as also the Venera- ble Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts that they would take their case under their pious consideration and grant their usual allowance for the support of a minister and if it may be to contribute something toward the building of their church. I O PASTORATE OF' REV. JOHN CASPAR STOEVER, SR. , And they shall ever pray that God may reward the be- neficence both here and hereafter." Later, about 1727, came John Caspar Stoever, Sr., as their pastor, and by him a second church was built some distance from Germanna, and this church, which was called Hebron, gradually absorbed all the German strength. Colonel Byrd in his visit to General Spottswood in I732, speaking of Ger- manna, says, " The famous town consists of Col. Spottswood's enchanted castle on one side of the street and a baker's dozen of ruinous tenements on the other where so many German families had dwelt some years ago, but are now removed some ten miles higher up the fork of the Rappahannock to land of their own. "r Stoever was its first pastor, and he with two of the mem- bers, Michael Schmidt and Michael Holden, went to Europe in I 734 to collect a fund for the endowment of the church. In this they were very successful, not only obtaining a large amount of money, /3,oo, but also a valuable library for the use of the pastors. One third of the money was used to pay the expense of the voyage and for collecting, another third was used in build- ing a frame chapel and the purchase of farm lands, and the other third was used to purchase slaves to cultivate the lands."+ A candidate for the ministry, George Samuel Klug, offered to return with them as an additional pastor, and he was or- dained for the work in St. Mary's Church, Danzig, August 30, 1736. The young minister proceeded to his new home with one of the laymen. Stoever remained in Germany, most of the time with John P'hilip Fresenius, at Darmstadt, for the purpose of completing the collections, and finally died at sea on his return in 1738. Much could be written about the history of these early fathers but the most important part of their history could not be written even if we had full data. Their hardships, temp- tations and struggles and triumphs are known only to one who kept all their tears in a bottle. The Pennsylvania Synod, at its session in Lancaster, Pa., in June, 1784, was petitioned by the Lutherans in Rockingham, Shenandoah and Frederick counties in Virginia to ordain Paul Henkel as a pastor for them or to ex- Meade's Old Churches and Families of Virginia. Vol. II. pp. 75 if. -Meade's Old Families of Virginia. Vol. IT. p. 75. .'Amnerican Church History. Vol. IV. p. i85. I I 12 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. tend his license to act in that capacity. He was followed by Rev. William Carpenter, who became pastor in I 787, and when he removed in I8I3, Rev. Paul Henkel, who was then at New Market, again became pastor of Hebron Church. Pastors Kurtz, Goering and J. G. Butler had often preached in both Hopeful and Hebron churches on the Rappahannock and the Rapidan.t- tSee Ratterman's History of Hopeful Church in Boone County, Ky. PASTOLRATE OF' REV. W.M. CARPlENT IEIR. CHAPTER II. THE EMIGRATION TO KENTUCKY. THE first settlement in Boone county was made at Peters- 1 burg, then called Tanner's Station, from the Rev. John Tanner, the first Baptist preacher in this part of the State. The settle- ment was made on his lands by a company from Pennsylvania, some twenty years earlier than the settlement from Virginia, which was followed in a few months by the organization of Hopeful Church. Boone county was settled within a few years after the first settlement of the state at Harrodsburg and Boons- borough. The times were still in great confusion, and the great events of the recent years were fresh in mind. Kentucky had been known as Transylvania, and there had been many difficul- ties of various kinds, which only partly ceased when the Tran- sylvania colony had been given up and the country organized as a county of Virginia, and called Kentucky. About this time the State of Franklin was formed out of the territory now known as Tennessee. The state was poor and there was little or no money. It was enacted that a pound of sugar should be worth a shilling, the skin of a raccoon or a fox a shilling three pence, a gallon of good rye whiskey two shillings six pence, a gallon of peach brandy or a yard of good linen three shillings, etc. A bear skin, otter skin or deer skin was to be worth six shillings. Much merriment was caused by this, and it was claimed that at least this currency could not be counterfeited, but it was not long before a bundle of otter skins were found to be coon skins with otter tails sewed on them. : The leading currency of Virginia was tobacco, and the most valued property was the slave. The early servants, as a rule, were not Africans, but whites, who from poverty or crime had History of the People of the United States. McMaster. Vol. 1. p. 264. I , BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. fallen into slavery. Indeed we have seen that some of the Ger- man fathers, starting for Pennsylvania, were sold for their pas- sage, and thus they came to Virginia, and their descendants af- terward to Kentucky. At one time (167I) there were three white servants to one black in Virginia. Later white slavery was dis- continued, and the bondage of the blacks was made perpetual. Kentucky was organized as a separate territory in 179o, and was admitted as the second state in the Union in 1792, and our church history proper opens a few years later. Rev. Wi'm. Carpenter, then pastor at Madison, Va., made a journey to KentUcky in 1804. His journal now before us records the expense at eighteen pounds, or say ninety dollars, bUt he is silent as to the object of his visit. As several families from Vir- ginia moved here the year afterward, we are, no doubt, right in assuming that he came to Kentucky on a tour of investigation, and that those who came twelve months later came with his approval and likely at his suggestion. Rev. I). Harbaugh, in his history of Hopeful Church, says that On the 8th of October, i 8o, the following brethren and sisters left Madison, Va., viz:-George Rouse, Elizabeth RouLse. John House, Milly House, Frederick Zinimerman, Rose Zimmer- man, Ephraim Tanner, Susanna 'Tanner, John Rouse, Nancy Rouse, and Elizabeth Hoffman. Thev, with their lamilies, arrived in Boone Co. the 25th of November, 1805. It is difficult for us at this time to conceive the trials and the hardships of these early pioneers. 1 hey could bring but a small part of their meagre possessions wvith them and they must submit to a long, slow and dangerous journey. They gathered with their grreat Conestoga wagons on the banks of the Rapi- dan, and first went to New Market, Va. Thence they traveled down the Shenandoah valley until they came to the Holston river, and they followed up that until they struck the path that Daniel Boone had made throuoh the forest from North Carolina to Lexington, Ky. From Lexington they took the ridge route (now Lexington Pike) to Kennedy's Ferry (Covington). -The greater part of the country was then a perfect wil- derness. These families, however, were furnished with cabins, with the exception of George Rouse, who pitched his tent in the dense forest, not far from where Hopeful Church now stands. Burlington, the county seat of Boone County, consisted of a few 14 TrHE EMIGRATION To KEN'rUCKY. 1 5 houses, a log court house, and a log jail. Florence had no ex- istence. Where Covington is now situated, there was a farm and orchard. Cincinnati consisted of two brick and two frame houses with a number of log cabins." Here amid the beech forests, these hardy pioneers set them- selves to work to help bring about the great results of the after years. A History of the Ev. Luth. congregation of Hopeful Church, Boone Co., Ky. A discourse delivered at Its 48tli anniversary, Jan. 6, 1854. BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. CHAPTER III. 'THE ORGANIZATION OF HOPEFUL CHURCH. jS soon as the brethren had erected their cabins, they resolved, though destitute of a good pastor, to hold religious meet- ings in private families. The first meeting was held at George Rouse's, at the close of I805, or at the beginning of i8o6. The meetings were conducted in the following manner: after a suitable hymn, one of the brethren offered prayer, after which Ephraim TIanner read a sermon, selected from Rev. Schubert's sermons. After the sermon, the exercises were concluded with prayer and singing. These exercises were conducted in the Ger- mant langagc an d kep t up regularly, unless Providentiall pre- vented, eve,' Sabbathz for nearl eight years, or until October i813. The old church in Madison Co., Va., was composed of both Lutheran and Reformed members, and it was uniformly the cus- tom at that time for the Lutheran and Reformed members to worship in the same church. Indeed there was so little differ- ence between them at some places, that it is an old story that the only way you could tell them apart was by the Lutherans saying - Vater unser" and the Reformed "I unser Vater." When Ephraim Tanner wrote father Carpenter for advice, he sent them a constitution and advised them to organize a church, which they did January 6, i8o6. We have the old Ger- man constitution with its signatures of the fathers before us. Yellow and worn with age, we handle it tenderly, for it is a doc- ument of precious value. Rev. H. in his discourse translates it entire and we give his excellent translation: " We, the undersigned, living in Boone County, State of Ken- tucky, members of the Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Re- formed Church, unite in the following articles of agreement for our government:- I. - We will unite in the establishment of public worship in our midst, according to the Protestant faith, and by God's help we will continually uphold it. i6 T'HIE ORGANIZATION OF HOPEFUL. CHURCHI. 2. We will unite in the erection of a small house, which shall be regarded as a union house of worship, in which we will unitedly worship God. 3. "One of us, for whom it is most convenient, shall give an acre of ground upon which said house shall be built. And this acre of ground, with all that shall be built thereon, or that per- tains to it, shall forever belong to this united congregation and their successors ; so that he who gives it shall not have the power to sell it to any other person. 4. -To prevent discord and offenses, no one shall be per- mittecl to conduct public worship in the house owned by us, un- less he is a regular Lutheran or Reformed minister. 5. - We will assemble ourselves every Sabbath or as often as circumstances will permit. and by reading a sermon and with singing and prayer we will strengthen one another when we have no pastor. 6. -We will unite in inviting a worthy minister, at least once a year. or oftener if possible, to preach the Word of God to us, according to the foundation of the prophets and apostles, and administer the holy sacraments for wvhich we will reward him according to our ability. 7. -It shall be the duty of each one belonging to this con gregation to lead an orderly, Christian. and virtuous life; to ab- stain from all gross sins, such as cuirsing, swearing, card-playing, drunkenness, and all such ungodly actions. 8. "Should any one be guilty of any of the above sins, which may God in his mercy prevent, then the remaining breth- ren shall have the power and it shall be their duty to deal with him according to the directions of our Savior: Matt. xviii. 15-17. " The above articles shall remain unchanged until all the members, or at least a majority of them, shall deem it neces- sary to alter or amend them. "Adopted on the 6th day of January i 8o6, George Rouse, Ephraim Tanner, John Rouse, John House, Fred. Zimmerman, Michael Rouse, John Beemon, Jacob Rouse, Daniel Beemon, Simeon Tanner." 1 7 I8 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. Five of these brethren came in I 805, and five came later. George Rouse gave an acre of ground on which to build a church, and accordingly in 1807 they built a cabin church. "It was a cabin church in reality, built of unhewn logs. The roof and door were made of clapboards; the floor with puncheons, and the seats were made of saplings. An opening was made at each end by sawing out some logs for windows. These were always open, that is, without sash or lights. They had neither stove nor fire-place in it, and yet they met for worship during the winter. Such were some of the inconveniences and privations of our fathers and mothers." Harbaugh's Historical Discourse pages 6-7. The Tanner family has had a large I= t place in the pioneer development of the church and Ephraim Tanner and his de- scendants have wielded the larger part of that great influence. His wife, Mrs. Susannah Tanner, was born in Madison County, Virginia, November 20, 1784, and died in Boone County, December 12, I870. She was among the early settlers of this county, coming here with her husband, Ephraim Tanner, ini 1805 The world owes a large debt of grati- tude to the sturdy pioneers of those early days who by great sacrifices and MRS. SUSANNAH (HOUSE) TANNER labor prepared the way for better things in our time. Mother Tanner was a woman of character and influence in her own day and her influence continues to increase as the years move along. She was the mother of fourteen children. They became a large and growing influ- ence in the community and their de- scendants to-day are numbered by scores, while by marriage they are re- lated to practically everybody in this vicinity. The quiet, pious, industrious character of the parents has descended to the generations following and Mother Tanner's character may well be held dear for long years to come while all _ about us are beheld the influences she _ helped to put in motion. JOEL TANNER. Joel Tanner is past ninety-four years of age and while he is unable to travel far he is still active about home and is in good health for one of his years. He was for long years an active member at Hopeful Church, but for some time he has been unable to get to church; but he has never lost his interest in the church and he remains true to his profession of 4 faith. Ephraimn is ten years younger, but he is fully as feeble as his elder brother. He was also very active in the church until recent years. Moses Tanner was the most recent of the brothers to pass away. He died January 2, 1895, when more than EPHRAIM K. TANNFR. seventy-six years old, and left a precious memory as he was noted for a sincere____________ Christian man. Simeon, another brother, died April I, 189I, aged 85 years, 4 months and 3 days. He left a large Z family most of whom are active mem- bers in one or another of the Boone County churches. He had been an active and faithful member for years and was a leader in prayer and song, and when near death's door he had his sons sing and his pastor read and pray with him. His widow under a burden of years and heavy affliction survived him a few years and kept her faith firm amid all the trials of suffering and infirmity. SIMEON H. TANNER. DESCENDANTS OF REV. WM. CARPENTER. CHAPTER IV. THE PIONEERS ANI) THEIR FIRST PASTOR. THE men who signed that first constitution were devoted and faith- 1 ful, and surely these hardy pioneers, here on the frontier holding weekly services for nearly eight years without a pastor, are worthy of much honor. Jacob RouLse had been a soldier all through the Revo- lutionary war, and no doubt others of them who were younger were heroes too, for they all made brave soldiers of the cross. Ephraim Tanner, who was then not forty years old, had written to Father Carpenter in Va., for a constitution and advice about organ- izing a congregation, and when they began services, he usually read the sermon. He was a man of strong character and far reaching in- fluence. Simeon Tanner, who signed the constitution at the same time, was his brother. Jacob, Aaron and MIoses 'Fanner, who united later, were his brothers, while by his sisters he had a wide circle of re- lations. Elizabeth married Solomon Hoffman; Susan became the wife of Joshua Zimmermann; Annie married Benj. Aylor; Jeminia. Henry Aylor; and Nellie married the Rev. Jacob Crigler. He had fourteen children, Rhoda, who married Wm. Aylor, lien- jamin, Frances who married AuLgustus Carpenter and afterward an Adylotte, Simeon, Joel, Enos. Caleb, Joshua. Ephraim, Moses, Su- sannah who married Eli Carpenter, Aaron, Cornelius, and Mary who married Noah Surface. These nearly all, or possibly all, united with the church, and some of them became very useful members. Many interesting things are told of -Uncle Ben," who was decidedly active and faithful. Joel, Ephraim and Mary are still spared though the youngest is nearly three-score and ten. All the rest have gone to their final rest and reward. The three remaining are all faithful mem- bers at Hopeful, and we hope they may -go late to heaven." From the first it was resolved that they would have a regular minister, at least once a year, to administer the sacraments, and Rev. Wm. Carpenter, of Madison, Va., came here at least twice for that puLrpose. In October, 18I3, he moved here and became their first reg- 19 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. ular pastor. He was born in Virginia, May 20th, 1762. When only sixteen years old, he entered the army and served as a soldier until the close of the Revolution. He seems to have studied theology un- der the Rev. G. Henkel. and, as he was a member of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, it was likely he was ordained by that body. His ordina- tion must have been satisfactory, for he was called upon to minister in Episcopal pulpits without question !! He was a man of good education and worthy character. We have before us a system of theology which he likely copied from his in- structor, but there were many reasons for believing that he was a good scholar and a sound Lutheran. He was somewhat quiet and dignified, but lie always had a pleasant greeting for every one. There must have been much of the soldier militant in his appearance as he wore knee breeches and gold buckles as long as he lived. He was a man of means, but very kind to the poor, and the very soul of honor. At one time. going to his crib, lie discovered a neighbor there stealing corn. When he saw the preacher coming. he was greatly frightened and began to empty his sack in a hurry. " Hold on ! Hold on!" cried the parson, waving his cane at the frightened neighbor. "You surely would not come here for corn unless you needed it. Now fill your sack and go along, and when you need corn again, come and ask me for it, and don't try to steal it." At another time a man by the name of Jacobs who lived in the village of Covington, was trying to buy corn, and he learned that Father Carpenter had corn for sale, so he sent a man out over, or rather /hroug/h the mud roads to get corn, with instructions to pay his price. On arriving he said, -Have you any corn to spare " ' Yes, sir," was the reply. "I came out to buy some." "Have you got the money to pay for it " said Father C. Yes sir, I have." Well, then, you cannot get any corn here. If you have money, you will have no trouble in getting corn. I must keep my corn for poor people who have no money to buy." It is said that he would sell only a small quantity (two bushels and a half) to one person, and that before his death, he burned about 300.00 worth of notes given for corn, that the makers of the notes might never be pushed for payment. When he came to Kentucky he moved to the place where his grandson, Columbus Carpenter, now lives, and there was his home until he died, Feb. Io, 1833, aged 70 years, 8 months and 20 days. His eldest son was Jeremiah Carpenter, who was born August 15, 1795. lie married Julia Ann Rouse who was two years his jun- 20 D)ESCENI)AN'r1S OF REV. WAL. CARPENTERf. : Iheior and that faithful couple and their descendants have performed a very im- - _-_1 Ciportant part in the development of the churches. Jeremiah Carpenter was a charter member of Ebenezer Church and he was one of the first delegates to the Miami synod. Through a long and useful life he gave himself with zeal to a worthy service. He died January 4, 1 n868 but his worthy wife who has left a very pre- ciouis memory did not depart this life until April 15, 1875. William Eli Carpenter was a son of Jeremiah Carpenter. H e was born Feb. 9, ci81rn9. lI ie was married in his twentieth year, NOV. 22, 1838, to Su- sannah Tanner. They had seven chil- dren, six girls and one boy. One of JEREMIAH CARPENTER. these, Susan Alice, died in infancy, an- other, Mrs. Emily Lampton, died Jan. i, 1870, in her twenty-second year, and the others, Mrs. Amanda Rice, Mrs. Mary F. Glacken, Mrs. Arminta Conrad, Jerembiah Carpenter,- and Mrs. H-attie Denady are still living in Boone County. NMrs. Susannah Car- Ipenter died Jan. io, i856, and seven years later, March 9, 1863, hle married Lucy Ann Smith. By this union there were four children. Two died when quite small, the others, James Carpen- ter and Mrs. Lucy Hearne are still liv- ingr. Almost the entire relationship are members of the Lutheran ch1urch and most of them members of Ebenezer congregation a lar, e majority of whose members are of his descendants and near relations. H-I was a charter member of Eben- ezer ChUrch which was formially organ- ized only a fewv days after his first wife's MRS. JULIA ANN (ROUSE) CARPENTER. 2 1 BOONE COUNT\' hISTORY. death. His father was the first on the roll and the two were the largest contributors to the building of the church, he leading his father by twenty-five dollars. W. E. CARPENTER. He was a man of great industry, and wonderful perseverance in all his undertakings. He was an active, prominent and useful member of the church and his descendants can rear no better monument to 22 I)ESCENI)ANTS OE REV. WM. CARPENTER. ___________________c_____ II's memiory than to keep the church prosperous which was so dear to his heart. Two sisters, Mary F. and Su- san, married William and Henry Dixon. They and their husbands all became ac- tive members of Ebenezer Church, bUt they have all passed away except Henry Dixon, who at a ripe old age Is still an folnd gnerols hspialitiv a indanshei nonan s teemed by a wide circle of friends. Mr.Mary F. Dixon died at her home iRihodKyArl2 7, 1898, agyed 66 years, 6 months, and 26 days. Shie was brouight up in the fear of God and the faith of the Luitheran church, and when only sixteen years of age she was married to Henry Dixon, with whomi she lived in happy wedlock for _______________more than fifty years. HIer husband and six children survive her, viz. Mrs. MRS MAY F DION. Julia, Smith, Mrs. Virginia Dobbins, Mrs Efi Hcyrff, ndW.E. Dixon,__ of Rchwod; rs. dahSurface, of Gnowdr, nd . E Dionof Lima- , ,mitPov wa awoman of mostexcllet Crisiancharacter and higly stemedby ll hoknew her. Shewasa aitfulmeberofEbenezer Chich nd grat elpandcomfort to her astr ad t otersand always. boreworty tetimoy toherfaith by a conistntlife and conversation. She was known far and wide for her cheer- ful and generous hospitality and she never seemed more happy than when entertaining her friends. She had not been in good health for some years and her last illness was long and pain- full, but she never murmured or corn- plained. She- was conscious of her MRS. SUSAN DIXON. 23 BOONE COUNTY' HISTORY. approaching end and gave her last greeting andl consolation to the family and friends. T1'he ministrations of love or the skill of the physicians did not seem to cure or much alleviate her pain and her useful life was crushed out by suffering and her spirit sought a sweeter rest with its Giver. Mrs. Susan II. Dixon, another faith- ful sister who was I raised in the same Christian home,died 1 November 26, i900, aged 62 years, 4 months and i 8 days. She had been forj some time in poor health but she never shirkecl duty and she was a kind. devoted and faithful woman, devoted to her chil- dren and loyal to her c h u r c h arid her I;EtU ; By friends. S i x chil- dren surxive her, I three girls and three boys, Mrs. Hattie Wailer, of the Ve- rona neighborhood, Misses Mary and Virginia Dixon. and John 1., H. Ph., and Jerry Dixon. of Cres- cent. All except the first and last named are members of Eb- enezer Church. John B. Dixon has long been a member of the council, and he has ever been active and faithful in the discharge of his offi- ABEL C4RPENTER. cial duties. Abel Carpenter, a brother of WAilliam Eli, is the oldest living grandson of Rev. William Carpenter. I I e was born Dec. 26, i 824, and he is therefore in the seventy-eighth year of his age. I I e has long been a Christian man of exemplary character and he is now living near Florence, where in a quiet, honorable way he is passing the evening of life, awaiting the home where sorrows never come. 24 A NEW CONSTITUTION. CHAPTER V. THE FIRST COMMUNION, A NEW CONSTITUTION, AND A NEW CHURCH. THE first recorded communion was held on "Holy Whit- 1sunday, I814." We copy the list, spelling and all: Christoph Zimmerman, LIx. Maria, Daniel Beemon, George Rausch, ux. Elizabeth, John Rausch, ux. Nancy, Friederich Tanner, Jemima Tanner, John Beemon, ux. Peggy, John Hauss, ux. Milley, Joshua Beemon, Friederich Zimmerman, ux. Rosina, ILayanna Christler, Aaron Tanner, Benjamin Aylor, ux. Anna, Jacob Hauss, Ux. Susanna, Rosina Rausch, Nancy Christler, Susanna Barlow, Elizabeth Hofman, Jacob Rausch, ux. Anna, Amey Rausch, Mol- ley Rausch, Peggy Hauss, William Carpenter, ux. Polly. Summa 33. At the next communion held on Whitmonday, i815, the fol- lowing were received by confirmation: Wm. Rausch, Abraham Rausch, John Crisler, David Crisler, Jonathan Carpenter, Jeremias Rausch, Elisha RaUsch, Polly Otterbach, Julianne Rausch, Julianne Carpenter, Polly Hofman, Elle Hofman. At the congregational meeting held Jan. 6, i815, a new and much longer constitution was proposed and adopted. It breathes throughout a spirit of devotion and piety, and deep and abiding loyalty to the Lutheran church. Provision was made to elect three deacons every three years, and at that first election, Daniel Beemon, George Rouse, and Ephraim Tanner were elected for three years. At the expiration of that time, Ephraim Tanner was re-elected and Jacob Holsclau and Ephraim Utz were elected to serve with him. At the next election in 182I, two others were elected to serve with Ephraim Tanner, viz: Jacob Rouse and John House. No other officers were provided for when the constitution was first adopted. Not only was the new constitution explicit as to the duties of the pastor and the deacons, or the vorsteher, as the Germans ap- propriately called them, but it also said some very plain things about the duties of members, as for instance the following: " He must model his life according to the Christian ordinances, and if he deviates therefrom, he must be cheerfully corrected. Every 25 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. one must contribute according to his means as God has blessed him, whether it be much or little for the maintaining and carrying forward of God's work in the congregation. Through the mercy of God, we should avoid all gross sins and vices, such as cursing and swearing, lying and cheating, carnal sins, fornication and adul- tery, drunkenness, immoral plays, gambling, obscenity, horse-racing, as also hatred, enmity, strife against neighbors, and all other sins and vices, forbidden in the word of God, and offensive to a true Christian; and he shall lead a consistent, pious, industrious, Chris- tian life, through which the doctrine and church of Jesus Christ will become beautified and adorned." On the 6th of January, 1823, at a congregational meeting held at the house of Jacob Rouse, the question relative to the building of a new church was taken up for consideration. When Father Carpenter spoke upon this subject, he became so deeply affected, that he gave vent to his feelings, burst into tears, and said: ' Alle bauen gUte Haeuser und lassen Gott in der Huette wohnen!" "All build good houses and let God live in the tent." This had such an effect upon the brethren, that they at once resolved to build a new church. Therefore, in the summer of 1823, a log church was built. It was 25 by 25 feet in the old style with an end gallery and a high pulpit. This old church is now on the farm of E. 0. Rouse and is used as a barn, having lately been re- roofed and otherwise repaired. The constitution of I815 was signed as follows: William Car- penter, Daniel Beemon, George Rouse, Ephraim Tanner, Christo- pher Zimmerman, Frederick Tanner, Jacob Rouse, Benjamin Aylor, John House, John Rouse, John Beemon, Aaron Tanner, Simeon Tanner, Michael Rouse, Jeremiah Carpenter, William Rouse, Sr., Abraham Rouse, John Crisler, David Crisler, Jonathan Carpenter, Jeremiah Rouse, Elisha Rouse. It was, of course, written in German, and it was so used until I846, when an English translation was made by Noah Surface. The services were conducted exclusively in the German language until i824, when Father Carpenter began to use English half the time, in preaching, and soon English was used altogether. Father Carpenter would gladly have used English sooner, but the Sprach- Harbaugh's History. 26 CATECHIZATION AND BAPTISM, geist, which we sometimes call with a somewhat oritund euphem- ism, conservatism, was very strong, and he was very careful not to force matters and thus bring trouble. Thousands in our country are now being lost to our church by similar tenacity-holding on to a strange language that must sooner or later give way to the language of the land in which we live. If this were the place for discussion of the subject, various things could be said. The manner of conducting services then was very much as at present, except of course there was no organ. Stress was laid upon catechization, which was conducted in both German and English, and as English catechisms could not conveniently be se- cured, they had some printed in Cincinnati, which cost twenty- five cents apiece. Abraham Beemon is the first recorded baptism, but closely following is a long list of those who afterwards became useful citizens and faithful members in the church. Few, if any of the fathers seem to have neglected to consecrate their children unto God in his appointed way. It was usual then, as in early Bible times, when a family was converted, for the whole family to be baptized at once, and there is still in the congregation a mother who thus presented at one time six children for baptism, the youngest being only six weeks old. 2 7 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. CHAPTER VI. THE DEATH OF FATHER CARPENTER, HIS SUCCESSOR ANI) HIS FAMILV. ON the ioth of July, 1832, Father Carpenter wrote a letter 0 to the Rev. Jacob Crigler, of Berlin, Pa., in which he says : 4 I have now been preaching the blessed gospel for a space of for- ty-five years, this last spring. I was about twenty-five when I began, and am now a little upwards of three score years and ten; and according to the course of nature and my feelings, I cannot possibly hold out much longer. We may indeed expect the ordinary blessings of divine Providence, but cannot expect miracles. I have often had heavy thoughts about my little con- gregation here in the wilderness." He then urges the Rev. Ja- cob Crigler to come and take charge of the congregation, stat- ing that if he could not come directly, it would still give him great satisfaction if he could have a well-grounded hope that he would come in a few years. In speaking of a communion sea- son in the letter, he says: "On Whitsuntide we had the sacra- ment in our church, and I had the pleasure of seeing your old father-in-law, your two brothers and their wives at the commun- ion table, but too many of the members stood back that I could have wished to have seen there. There were only twenty-one communicants, and a few years back I had as many as sixty- two." In less than a year afterwards, Feb. 18, I833, Father Car- penter went to his rest and reward, and his faithful labors on earth were closed forever. Dr. Wolf in his excellent book,t in speaking of the faithful- ness and zeal of the early fathers in the church says: 1Thus rolled the wave of missionary operations till it reached, before the close of the century, the very summit of the Alleghenies, but the mountains themselves form no barriers to the spread of the Gospel. And weak and poorly organized as was the church, the aggressive spirit of Christianity moved it to follow Harbaugh's History. tThe Lutherans in America. p. 31 I. 28 I.EV. WI L1LAM CARPENTrER AND IlIS SUCCESSOR. 29 the streams of immigration and to plant the cross on the wild prairies of the West. One of the noblest of these pioneers was Rev. Wm. Carpenter, who, after serving for twenty-six years the old Hebron Church in Madison County, Va., followed a colony of his own congregation to Boone County, Ky. This little band had kept up religious meetings in their humble cabins for eight years, when Mr. Carpenter paid them a visit to catechize the children and to administer the sacraments. He felt constrained to cast his lot among them, and for twenty years, to the close of his life in 1833, he exercised his ministry in that remote re- gion." (Dr. WX. does not seem to be aware of previous visits, and of the building of the cabin church in i807. See Chapter III.) After the death of Father Carpenter the church was vacant for about fourteen months. The Rev. Jacob Crigler moved here in April, 1834. Jacob Crigler, or "Kreigler," as he still spelled his name in 1826, (see minutes of WVest Penn'a Synod) was the son of Aaron and Catherine Crigler, and was born in Madison Co., Va., Jan. 1 5, 1778. Before coming to Kentucky he had been pastor for some years in Berlin, Pa., where he was one of the founders of the WVest Penn'a Synod, which was organized at Berlin, Pa., Sept. 9th, I826. The Synod then embraced all the territory west of the Susquehanna river, and had but twenty-five clerical members, seventeen of whom were present at the organ- ization. Now the West Penn'a Synod embraces but four coun- ties, Adams, York, Cumberland, and Franklin, and has 97 minis- ters and 23,056 communicant members, while on its former terri- tory there are three other synods belonging to the General Synod, with i69 ministers and 32,745 communicants, besides thousands of active Lutherans who belong to the other general bodies. Father Crigler was first married to Lydia Utz, on her eight- eenth birthday, Jan. I5, I799. She died July 15, i8o5, leaving him with two children, Silas and Eleanor. A third child. Enoch, died a month before his mother, when only four months old. Silas Crigler married Catherine Zimmerman, Oct. 23, 1836. He and his wife both were members of Hopeful Church, but before his death he moved to Morrow County, Missouri. Eleanor Crigler was married to Alexander H. Philson, of Berlin, Pa., March I2, 1829, and she was a member of the Luth- eran Church at that place throughout her useful life, which closed July 23, 1871, when her age was 71 years, X I months, and 23 days. 29 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. Father Crigler was married a second time Sept. 20, i8o8, to Nellie Tanner, daughter of Frederick Tanner. She lived until Feb. 1 2, I855, when she fell asleep, aged 66 years, 4 months and 4 days. They had twelve children, Noah, Lydia, who married Joel Tanner; Mary Ann, who married Henry Rouse; Julia, who mar- ried Aaron Crigler, son of Lewis Crigler; Susan, who married William Rouse; Harriet, who marrried Rev. Jacob Straffer; Aaron Frederick, Catherine Jane, and Martin Luther, both of whom died before they were six years old; Philip MN1elancthon. William Yager and Emeline Philson, the only one born in Boone County, where she died July 27, i85 i, when not yet seventeen years old. All the children who came to years of maturity became active members of the Lutheran church. All of them were members in this charge, but Mrs. Harriet Straffer for many years before her death, which occurred recently in Cincinnati, held her member- ship in the First Lutheran Church of that city. For some years before his death, William Y. Crigler lived in Harrodsburg, Ky., but he remained an active member at Hopeful Church until his death, Feb. 20th, 1894. always endeavoringc to come back once a year, at least, to communion and contributing regularly to the church's support. Only one of his children. Philip Melancthon, is still living. He is a faithful member of Hopeful Church and when younger never missed a service without some imperative reason. For long years his was a familiar figure as he rode on horseback to and from church. W. Y. Crigyler, who was born in Berlin, Pa., Sept. 15, 8i31, was con- firmed in Hopeful Church Jan. 27, i856. He died in Harrodsburg,, Ky., Feb. 20, i894. He was an esteemed citizen of Florence for many years and not only served the church in various official ca- pacities, but by faithful service and ex- cellent character contributed much to her success. After moving away he re- tained active membership in Hopeful w. v. CR101 ER. -so REV. WILLIAM CARPENTER AND HIS SUCCESSOR. 31 Church though generously helping every worthy cause where he lived. Two brothers of Father Crialer. Lewis and Nicholas Crig- ler, moved to Boone County before he did; and shortly after he came, two others, Joel and Jonas Crigler, moved here. A sister, Mrs. Annie Soures, moved here also, but remained only a short while before going to Indiana. BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. us 0 I- 0 .j 0 32 PASTORATE OF REV. JACOB CRIGL.ER. CHAPTER VII. THE IP.\kSTO1ATE OF I'HE REV. JACOB CRIGLER. AFTrER the arrival of Father Crigler, the first communion was celebrated Oct. 26th, 1834, at which time there was a total of sixty-nine communicants, twelve of them being confirmed on that day as follows: Aaron Crigler, Jacob Zimmerman, William Rouse, James Crissler, Henry Tanner, Caleb Tanner, Annie Tanner, Nancy Rouse, Levitha Crissler, Melviny Rouse, Lucinda Crigler, .and Eli Carpenter. The record is made for the first time in English, and at the next annual meeting, Jan. 6, i835. the minutes are recorded in English, though it is stated that the discipline was read in German. Dr. Wolf, in speaking of the General Synod, says, - It sought to embrace the whole church. It united the wisdom, piety, ability and energy of the church, north, south, east and west, and by the concentration of all her resources for ob- jects to which no individual synod could have been competent, it was able to provide in large measure for the wants and pros- perity of the whole church. "A warm spiritual life coursing through all. the arteries of Christ's body, and wise leaders directing it, there was a rapid expansion of the church's borders as well as of her influence and power. Following the steady flow of population, missionar- ies organized new congregations on the territory now embraced in Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. These, thotiih widely scattered, were united into a new synod in 1835, under the ti- tle of the Synod of the West." This synod was organized by a convention held in Louis- ville, Ky., Oct., I835, with the following officers: Pres.. Rev. Ja- cob Crigler, Florence, Boone Co.. Ky.; Sec'y, Rev. Wm. Jenkins. Thompson's Creek, Bedford Co., Tenn. ; Treas., Rev. Geo. Yeager. Jeffersontown, Jefferson Co., Ky. The next session of the synod The Lutherans in America. pp. 360-I. 1) 1) 34N()N E CO(UNTY HI.ST'ORY. was held in Hopeful Church beginning Oct. 211d, 1836. On the day previous, the preparatory services were attended to, on which occasion the Rev. Ezra Keller, (Missionary from East, P a.,) preached in the English language, upon Rev. iii. 16. He was fol- lowed in the German language by the Rev. Mr. Schwartz, who preached from Rom. viii. 10-1 7. It was a scene of peculiar in- terest to witness ' at one view around the communion board, ministers of Jesus who reside and labor in seven of these United States, who solemnly attested the reality of the relis ion of our Lord Jesus Christ. Truly many can say, Such a. sight our eyes never beheld before. May the Lord of the harvest send forth more laborers until the wilderness and solitary places shall rejoice." The Rev. Daniel Scherer, of Hillsborough, 1ll., was a mnem- ber of the synod, and with his delegate he set out from there to reach Hopeful Church, but after riding upwards of a hundred miles, they were compelled to desist and to return home in con- sequence of the great rains and the rivers becoming impassable. As Father Crigler had organized the first Sunday School in Somerset Co., Pa., viz., that at Berlin, Pa., Jan. 1st: 1825, it is not surprising to find the following in his report to Synod: " I know from a long experience in life, that Sabbath Schools are of great utility in the church. Children are to become fathers and mothers in the church when we shall have gone to render an account of our stewardship, and Sabbath Schools are the means in the hands of the Almighty to prepare them for this great station to which they are destined. I would therefore recommend to the brethren to exert their influence, and use all necessary means personally to establish such institutions wherever it can be done." In the same report he says, "The signs of the times connected with our own experience proclaim that perilous times are at hand; and if we wish our church to ,rowv, and her branches to spread over the fer- tile valley of the West, it will undoubtedly require UNION. CON- CENTRATION OF EFFORT, AND DECISIVE ACTION. I hope the brethren will duly consider this subject, and give it that attention which it demands." At the same meeting of Synod the committee on the state of religion have the following item in their report. II Kentucky.t See Minutes of the Synod of the West. tSee Minutes of the Synod of the West. 34 PASTORATE OF REV. JACOB CRIGLER. "In this state the prospects of the church are certainly favor- able. Upwards of forty years have elapsed since the germ of Lutheranism was planted in Kentucky. For want of a sufficient number of ministers of the' proper spirit, to water and rear it up, it was allowed to languish. In and about the city of Lexington. a considerable congregation had once been established, through the faithful labors of our Rev. Father Carpenter, who is now no more; but having been left destitute for many years, it has dwindled away, until at this time, no more than a few scattered members can prob- ably be found. It is believed, however, that a faithful man of prop- er qualification, with a little foreign air, might yet be the means of doing considerable good among that neglected people. "In Boone county, where Father Carpenter, but several years ago, departed this life, and where he had labored with unremitted faithfulness for many years previous to his death, the cause had greatly suffered for want of English preaching, in the introduction of which the Rev. Father had many difficulties to encounter. Since our Bro. Crigler has located here, this evil is obviated; and although many ignorant and wrong prejudices exist against the cause in the minds of some ignorant and bigoted sectaries; yet it is to be hoped, that this and every other obstacle will. in due season, be overcome, and that the sun of prosperity will soon beam upon this part ot the Lord's vineyard." 35 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. CHAPTER VIII. CONCLUSION OF FATHER CRIGLER'S PASTORATE. a4S we have already seen, Father Crigler was the first pres- lident of the Synod of the West, and he was an active and useful member of that body for nine years. He was president of the Missionary society of that synod in i841 when it was resolved, in connection with the _____ iLutheran Syn aodof 0h English lAxSutheran Synod of t h l l lwWto help support the Rev. Abram Reck as a mis- sionary in Cincin- nati. From his ef- forts in that work alone have come results great enough to crown his name in great honor. He was at the same time car- rying on faithfailly the work of his own pastorate, and we notice from the comnosa n d other records that there was activity and abundant church life. He was a faith- ful, active, and pro- gressive poll :r, and he was heartily in favor of English srieS ui nday Schools, Mission- ary activity, Tem perance and Sab- bath observance. All of these things were much spoken against in his day, SILAS JOSHUA ROUSE, as some of them are opposed in cer- Limaburg, Ky. tamn churches yet, and even by some in the work hie has left to be carried on by others. However, then as now, the greatest difficulty was not in dealing with open opposition, but in overcoming fatal indiffer- ence which quiets the nerves of so many while the deadly opi- ate brings on its lasting sleep. In the minutes of the annual meeting, January 6, i836, we find the following: 36 PAST'ORATE OF REV. JACOB CRIGLER. Resolved, That the door on the east side of the meeting house be removed to the south end, and a win- dow put in where the door now is, and the benches so arranged as may suit the house best. Resolved, That the window at the south end of the house be put in the wvest side. Resolved, That a bucket be pro- cured and a place be prepared whereon it maycibe placed with water for the people to drink during the time of meeting. Resolved, That Ben, a black boy, be employed to open the doors and the fires, fetch the water, sweep the JACOB BAXTER CRIOLER, house, etc., etc., and that he receive Hebron, Ky. two dollars a year for his services. (The next year A. F. Crigler was sexton for the same amount- the last in the old church.) Resolved, That the management for the repairing of the meeting house, etc., be given into the hands of the church council and that they employ some person to do the work on the best terms they can. Whether the repairs were attended to or not, the old church did not give satisfaction ; for at the next annual meeting, "1much was said" and a spe- cial meeting was appointed for March 4, i183,t consider the subject of building a new church. At the spe- cial meeting it was decided to build at once, the walls to be of brick, size 35 x 50 feet. JACOB WILLIAM ROUSE, The bricks were made on the lot Llimaburg, Ky. 137 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. near the church, and beside the work donated, the treasurer says in his final report that he paid out altogether in money 15S7.28/4. That building is the one still in use without material changes except that a vestibule and bell have been added in recent years. Father Crigler closed his labors as pastor of the charge in February, n842. The next year, in October, I1843, the Synod of the West met again in Hope- ful Church. The president in his report to that synod says: "Our venerable Bro. Crigler, having left his chargre in Boone Co., Ky., in care of Bro. John Surface, informed ie by letter, dated January d, 1843, of his having organ- ized two new congregations, one in ___________________________Portsmouth. 0., and the other fifteen miles distant, at the Furnaces Hbere W. 0. ROUSE, M. 0. he seems to be laboring with the pros pect of considerable usefulness among the German imigrantsh May the Lord reward his faithful and self-denying labors with ain abun dant harvest of immortal souls."was__ He took an active part in the organization of the Miami synod at Xenia, 0., October, 1844, being chair- man of the called convention. About that time he retired to his farm. near Florence, where he lived until July 14. 1847, when he died in the triumphs of the Christian faith. " He being dead yet speaketh." Quite a number of Father Crig- ler's descendants became active and useful m e m b e r s of the different churches of the county, and there was a large number of others who were related to him. in various ways____ and many of the same name who were among the best people of the same MISS ORA E. ROUSE. 38 PASTORATE OF REV. JACOB CRI(G LE. 39 churches. 'We give cuts of S. J. and J. Wr. Rouse, who were grandsons of Father Crigler. For a long time they lived in Limabulrg, Ky., and having adjacent farms they kept a general store together. TIhey held their membership at Hebron church and they were usually in official position there, and they were also regu LIlar attendants at Hopeful church. S. J. Rouse died in May. 190[, when nearly sixty years of age. He was a man of (devoted and Godly life and had a great influence for good in the commu11nity where he lived. He always took anl active inter- est in every good work and wvas a Christian who stood by his convictions wvith a devotion that knew no wavering. His brother, J. WV. Rouse. is still living- and is an active and faithful official in the church and a man of worthy example in all walks of life. His two children, Dr. Hi. 0. Rouse and 'Miss Ora E. Rouse, are also loyal miembers at Hebron wvhere both have been active in service for the Master. Dr. Rotuse is now a prosperous phyL sician in Burlincgton, Ky. J. B. Crigler, a soin of Aaron and Mrs. JUlia Crigler, has long been very regular and active in church work. BOONE COUNTl' HISTOMY. CHAPTER IX. THE PASTORATE OF THE REV. JOHN SURFACE. THE Rev. John Surface succeeded Father Crigler in the pas- 1 torate. He was born Feb. i i, I 799, in Shenandoah County, Vir- ginia; and when six weeks of age was consecrated to the Lord in holy baptism, by the Rev. Paul Henkel. His parents were Adam and Mary M. Surface, who, for many years, stood in reg- ular connection with the Lutheran church, and were exemplary Christians. When a boy of five years, he moved with his parents to Warren County, 0., where wlas his home the rest of his life, though in later years he served churches in various localities, be ning pastor in Boone County for nine years a n d six months. He was mar- ried to Miss Mary Wimmer, Aug. i6, 1817, by the Rev. John Hart, and in this union they were blessed with thirteen children, eight sons and five daughters. On e son, Noah Surface, came to Boone County and took a prominent and use- ful part in the work of the church. Four of the children pre- ceded him in death, five others have since died, and four are still living: REV. JOHN SURFACE Noah Surface, Gunpowder, Ky.; Silas D. Surface, Little, 0.; Cornelius B. Sur- face, Springboro, 0.; and Mrs. Sarah A. Sellers, Lyons, Ind. He had early religious convictions, but hearing a certain minister say in a sermon, that the best period to seek the Lord was between eighteen and twenty-five years of age, he did not unite with the church by confirmation until May 20th, 1820. Subsequently he entertained doubts of his acceptance and true 40 PASTORATE OF REV. JOHN SURFACE. conversion and he passed through quite IN a struggle, studiously reading God's word and praying much and earnestly, and fully realizing later the blessings ofpardon and joy. When about twenty-five years old, he was seriously impressed with the duty of preaching the gospel. His life had been spent on the farm and in the K blacksmith shop and his education was limited, but with great energy along with his labors at the anvil, he devoted all his leisure time to reading and study. ;After a course of study for about four years under the advice and counsel of 'Kthe Rev. Henry Heincke, in the mean- time exercising his speaking talents in prayer meeting and exhortation, he sus- NOAH SURFACE. tained an approved examination, and was licensed to preach the gospel by the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Ohio, June 28, i829. For a few years he diligently con- tinued his studies and preached at some points in Warren County, 0. but 2 without any regular charge. In 1834 he gave himself more fully to the work, and during the remainder of his life he was ' abundant in labors," visiting many destitute places, organizing nie teen congregations, and faithfully dis- pensing the blessings of the gospel. He began his labors in the Boone County charge in Feb., i1842. He never 2 moved his family here, but had regular _ services once a month, except one year when he came for regular appointments twice a month. Early in his ministry here he had an interesting revival of re- ligion, and during his pastorate he re- I__ ceived sixty-eight persons into church membership. BENJAMIN CORNELIUS SURFACE. 41 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. ..._ The Synod of the West held its session in Hopeful Church in i843, but Father Surface was not a member of that body. He retained his member- ship in the Ohio Synod, and he was one of the charter members of the Miami Synod, organized in 1844, and its first treasurer. zeSoon after the Synod was organ- ized, some evil disposed persons raised a slanderous report reflecting upon his i 5 honesty, and a committee was ap- 'pointed by his request to investigate the matter. After searching and thor- ough inquiry, the committee reported and the Synod unanimously adopted the following: Resolved, That it is the unanimous opinion of this body, that JOHN SILAS SURFACE. Bro. Surface is entirely innocent of the charge of dishonesty which common report has brought against him, and that he is fully entitled to the confidence and esteem of the church, as a man of unimpeachable in- tegrity and good Christian character. Resolved, That Synod sincerely sympathizes with Brother Surface, in the great calamity of having his reputation unjustly aspersed by the tongue of slander. There was some friction after this about entirely different matters, and he was instrumental in organizing the Sa- lem Synod, which held one session, but which for various reasons had no con- tinued existence. Ample explanations and apologies were made to Father Surface, and he retained active mem- bership in the Miami Synod throughout life, and he continued as pastor here until August, i851. The statistical results of his minis- ELI HARRIS SURFACE. 42 PASTORA'rE OF IREV. JOHN SURFACE. try are as follows: He baptized 4I9, lectured 151 times, preached 1842 sermons, received into church fellowship 310 members. He had a strong physical constitution, and for many years had good health, but in his late years he was afflicted with rheumatism, several months before his death he had an attack of palsy, and af- ter recovering from that, he became subject to dropsy, from which, after much suffering for nearly two months, he died in the triumphs of faith, Feb. 6th, i866. About twenty minutes before he died he said, - The time of my departure is at hand." Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit." The descendants of Father Surface settled in Ohio or rather continued to live there as he did not move his family to Boone County. Later one of his sons, Noah Surface, came to Boone County. He was born in Warren County, Ohio, April I5, i826. His ancestors for generations were devoted Lutherans. His great grandfather being a man of considerable means in Virginia, sold his possessions and moved West, and the Continental money proving worthless he lost everything he had. His wife also died, leaving him alone with a family of children, one of them an in- fant and others of them small. Still he always asked God's blessing upon the pot of mush which was their daily fare, and reared his children, as did his sons after him, in the fear of the Lord. Noah Surface received all his early training in German, but when he was some sixteen years old, he was instructed by the Rev. George Sill in English and he not only committed to mem- ory the plan of salvation in Luther's Smaller Catechism, but also all the proof passages. He united with the church in 1843. In 1845 he moved to Boone County and was married to Miss Mary Tanner, June 9, 1845. He was elected chairman of the annual meeting at Hopeful in I848, when only 22 years old, elected deacon in 1853 and elder a few years afterward. His Sunday School work will be mentioned at another place. He enjoys the somewhat rare distinction of hav- ing all his sons, sons-in-law, daughters, and daughters-in-law active members of the Christian church and nearly all of them Lutherans. His three sons have been almost continuously in official posi- tion in the churches for many years; among the most regular attend- ants and faithful workers in the entire county and there are no more delightful homes for the pastor to visit, as they are all inter- ested in the welfare of the church and all work and pray for the success of the work and the wide building up of the great Kingdom. 43 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. CHAPTER X. THE SECOND VACANCY AND TIlE SUPPLY BY REV. D)ANIEIL SUINIMERS. A FTER Father Surface resigned the charge was vacant until March, 1852. In November, i85i, Prof. M. Diehl, of Springfield, O., who was president of the Miami Synod, arranged with the Rev. Daniel Summers, who was then a student at Wittenberg College, to come to Boone County as a supply. He had just recovered from a serious spell of sickness and was not yet very strong, but he agreed to come and it was arranged to meet him in Covington. Uncle Ben" Tanner went down after him but for some reason started home before Mr. Summers got across the river so that he was under the necessity of walking out to Florence. That was before there was anv railroad south from Cincinnati, and he met a great many droves of hogs along the way and he had to give them the road. Several times their drivers eyed him closely and asked whose hogs he had taken down. Finally he arrived at Florence more dead than alive, but af- ter a good night's rest he went to the church and preached, not expecting to return ; but at the close of the service, " Uncle Ben," Jonas Crissler and others asked him to make another ap- pointment in two weeks, as they had no pastor and were anxious for preaching, He got ad Z'nlernim license from Prof. Diehl, so that he could administer the sacraments, and continued to sup- ply until March, I852, when the congregation became united enough to elect a pastor. During the Christmas vacation in i 85I, he came down and preached day and night in the church and private houses, and by the second Sunday the people became very much interested and begged him to continue the meeting. But his - barrel" be- ing only a small keg then, and not very full at that, he had preached out, and as an excuse to get away, he insisted that the rules of the college would not allow him to remain away any longer. They told him that he could not cross the river as there was no bridge then, and the frozen river was passing through a thaw. Monday morning - Uncle Ben" took him to 44 THE SECOND VACANCY AND SUPPLY. Covington. Great crowds of people were on both sides of the river. The ice was not broken but from one side to the other the ice was moving down. He gave -Uncle Ben" the slip and started across. The people looked as though they thought he was either a hero or a fool. He got across in safety, but in an hour the ice broke and showed there was good reason to make the people look at him in amazement while he was walk- ing across. In two weeks he had a new sermon, and he contin- ued to make regular visits for two months more, the congregation paying his travelling expenses for his services. The sexton fur- nished his own wood and kept the church for six dollars a year! No one associated with the work of Hopeful Church has ever been more widely known or more highly esteemed than " Uncle Ben" Tanner, as he was familiarly called, who died February 27, 1875, when lacking less than a month of being seventy-five years old. He was by common consent acknowledged to be a model Christian. No one called in question his religious character, and now that he has been dead so long, he is still very widely remembered. He was very active for many years, always at church and at every other place of duty. He was for a long time an official, superintended the Sun- K day-school, led the prayer meeting and took an active part in all the work of the church. His pastor, Rev. W. C. Barnett, closed an account of him, as follows " His last days were pecul- iarly blessed, calm as the serenest morn. He gave the most specific directions in regard to his burial-where the graye should be; the coffin should be plain no hearse, a common spring wagon should be used. This was to rebuke the inordinate tendency for display, as at the present seen, even in burying the dead. He talked of his end with _ the same composure that would come into conversation about a common journey." BENJAMIN TANNER. 45 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. CHAPTER XI. THE PASTORATE OF REV. D. HARBAUGHI. KEV. David Harbaugh was born in Franklin County, Pa., about one mile west of Pen Mar. Nov. 29th, 1823. His parents were George and Anna (Snyder) Harbaugh. He came to Ohio in 1840 and united with the Lutheran church under the pastoral care of Rev. John B. Reck, at Canal Dover, O., Sept. I2, I841. He went to school at New Hagerstown and later at Wooster and taught school for two terms in Tuscarawas County and two in Seneca County, 0. He went to Springfield, O., July I2th, 1845, when Rev. A. Helwig, Rev. A. S. Link, and Rev. R. C. Black commenced their studies with him under Dr. Ezra Keller. He went to Pennsylvania in the spring of 1847 and for six months collected money to aid the First Lutheran Church of Springfield, in the completion of their church. He travelled as financial agent of Wittenberg College for two years, closing that work in August, i850. He was licensed to preach the gospel at Canal Dover, O., by the English Synod of Ohio, May Ist, I849, and ordained by the Wittenberg Synod at Bucyrus, O., Sept. 23rd, i851. His first charge was in the vicinity of Springfield, composed of " Mt. Zion" and "1 South Charleston " churches. Having accepted a call to Boone County, Ky., he left Springfield with his family March 2nd, I852. They dined with Rev. W. H. Harrison in Cincinnati and some of the brethren of Hopeful Church took them and their goods that day yet to Mrs. Ephraim Tanner's house about one mile west of Florence. He says :-- On the next day, our good brother, A. F. Crig- ler, who had gathered some of the necessaries of life, came to us with ham, flour, corn-meal, butter, lard, eggs, potatoes, etc., for all of which he and the people received our hearty thanks." He at once took earnest hold of the work and laid solid foundations for the important work he accomplished in a few years. He preached his first sermon from Mal. iii. 16 and fol 46 PASTORATE OF' REV. D. HARBAUGII. lowed it a week later by a more formal introductory sermon from Is. lviii. i. He held his first communion May 9th, when seventy-two communed. June I 2th, he organized a class of cate- chumens when twenty-nine gave in their names. Indeed the sum- mer was crowded with matters of interest, some of which we will mention again, the organization of a Sunday School at Hopeful, the death and funeral of Joshua Zimmerman, a Sunday School celebration when Prof. Diehl and Rev. W. H. Harrison were present and ad- dressed the children, and other events. The night after the celebra- tion, they were to have preaching at Hopeful, but owing to a heavy rain only ten were present. A good prayer meeting was held, after which Bro. Harbaugh ler ad Lovll F with P. A. Schind- ler and Lovell F. Tanner started on horseback for the I home of the latter. The night was darkj and they became bewildered in the woods and twice returned to the churche Finam they threw down the fence and went through the fields and reached Bro. Tanner's home about i i p. m., wet and sick. He began his first pwro tracted meeting at Hope- ful Nov. 12th, and continued until De- Icember 6th, i852. during which time the members of the church were j g r eatl y revived, back sliders re- -"claimed, and many sinners converted REV. DAVID HARBAUGH, to God. The Holy Spirit was present Colorado Springs, Colo., I with m a n i f e s t power, and the meetings were solemn and impressive. The order was as a rule exceedingly good, but on one occasion a young man was present who did not behave very well. Bro. Harbaugh endured it for a little while and then remarked: "I never correct any one for misbehaving in church, because I read of a minister who did and he was told after the service that he had reproved an idiot. I am afraid that if I correct any one, I will do the same thing: for no one but an idiot is likely to misbehave in church." That quieted the young man completely and there was no further whispering dur- ing that meeting. 47 140ONE COUNTY HISTORY. On Saturday morning, Nov. 27th, i852, after an earnest sermon by the pastor, from Matt. x. 32, the following persons were received by confirmation: Lucinda F. Rouse, Christian E. Rouse, Martha V. Crigler (Stephens), Harriet E. Crigler (McGlasson), Eliza F. Crigler (Aylor), Sarah A. House, Rosean E. Rouse (Barnett), P. M. Crigler. W. A. Crigler, Robert Crigler. In the evening he received Jacob Tanner, Jr., and Thomas P. Crissler. Next day there was a very solemn and interesting communion, when eighty-six approached the Lord's table. On Monday, the 29th, others united with the church. By baptism: Lydia Craven (Utz), Frances J. Tanner, Lucy A. YoUell. By confirmation: Pauline Rouse. Susan Carpenter and Melvina Tan- ner. The next day. Nov. 3oth, the following were received by con- firmation: John G. Tanner, Andrew Tanner, Jonas Rouse, Mary Utz. Dec. 4th, others came into the church, viz.: Virginia Crissler (Clore), Julia F. Crissler. \Vm. Crigler, and Michael House. As noted above, the meeting closed Dec. 6, the pastor having preached seventeen sermons, Rev. D. Summers fifteen, Rev. W. C. Barnett seven, Rev. J. Schauer six, Rev. XW. H. Harrison one, and Rev. Mr. Leonard one. Of the thirty-four who united with the church, the pastor writes, "About three-fourths were members of the catechetical class, and those who were most studious and attentive were the first to be con- v'icte'd and converlted." And we doubt not they remained most stead- fast and faithful. The pastor was not installed until the following year, May ist, 1853, but he was ever diligent and faithful and abund- ant in his labors. Jan. 6th, 1854, the forty-eighth anniversary of the congregation, he preached a memorial sermon from i Sam. vii. 12, "Hither/o ha/h the Lord helped us." At that time there were I54 adult members, and 134 infant members, six weekly prayer-meetings, and four Sunday Schools, attended by about 200 scholars. That sermon was published and has furnished many interesting items for this history. 48 PASTORATE OF TIHE REV. D. HARBIAUGH. CHAPTER XII. TrlE PASTOrRATE OF THE REV. D. HARBAUGIT. (Continued.) 1HE year i854 was one of the most eventful in the history of the 1 Boone County Charge. As noted in the last chapter, special anniversary exercises were held January 6th. On the 9th of the same month, a committee appointed to erect a parsonage held a meeting, and by the 23rd the pastor was out soliciting funds with which to build. A. F. Crigler, Elisha Rouse and William Rouse, each agreed to lease the church an acre of ground for a parsonage, and on that lot of three acres of ground near Limaburg, where WV. R. Rouse now lives, the pastors lived for about thirty years. January 2ist, Hebron Evangelical Lutheran Church was organ- ized in the home of John J. Crigler, near Hebron, where Walter Crigler is at present living. Sixteen members were enrolled as fol- lows: Jonas Crissler, J. J. Crigler, Fielden Rouse, A. F. Crigler, Thomas P. Crissler, Jacob Tanner, W. A. Crigler, Elizabeth Crissler, Julia F. (Crissler) Tanner, Virginia L. (Crissler) Clore, Belinda Crigler, Eliza F. Crigler, Jemima (Crigler) Tanner, Jemima Rouse, Rhoda Crigler, Mary F. Tanner. Several other members were soon added, and the first Sunday after the new church was dedicated, John WV. Crigler and Aaron Irving Crigler were received. The former has rendered long and use- ful service to the congregation, being at present deacon and treasurer. The latter studied at Wittenberg College and Seminary, and after some years of ministerial service in the West, died at a comparatively early age. John J. Crigler, his father, uncle and foster father of John W. Crigler, at whose house Hebron Church was organized, was a devoted and faithful member of the church. After studying under the direction of Rev. D. Harbaugh and Rev. J. G. Harris, his successor, Brother Crigler was licensed to preach the gospel May i9, i856, by the Synod of Kentucky. In i858 he removed to Sullivan County, Mo., where he preached more than ten years, doing a great deal of mission- ary work. In I874 he became pastor of Johnston's Grove Church, 49 BOONE COUNTY 111TORN'. Storey Co., Iowa, and during his stay there organized and supplied the Marshall and Grundy County pastorate. The next year he was compelled to resign on account of ill health, and he died March I ith, i877, at the residence of his son, Rev. A. I. Crigler, in Knoxville, Ia., aged 65 years, i l months and i I days. One who was there says: - The last hours of the departed were profoundly impressive. Such calmness and entire reliance on Jesus in that hour that tests our faith as wvas experienced and manifested by this old soldier of the cross,' speak louder than sermons, and whisper in sweeter tones than David's harp of solemn sound: Be ye wise unto salvation,' 'Be ye also ready.' " On the i3th of February, 1854, Brother Harbaugh started for Virginia to visit the old mother church near Madison, and to solicit funds for the new church at Hebron, Ky. On the cars near Culpepper he entered into conversation with a gentleman who was acquainted with some of the Kentucky friends and their relatives in Virginia. He manifested true Southern hospitality, and gave Brother Harbaugh a horse to ride to his destination from Culpepper. The reception in Virginia was cordial, the pastor, Rev A. P. Ludden, giving all the encouragement he could. Rev. Harbaugh preached his historical dis- course in old Hebron Church in Virginia, giving them an account of their daughter, Hopeful Church, and the grand-daughter Hebron, not yet a month old! He also preached a sermon on " Benevolence" in the afternoon of the same day, and the following week he took sub- scriptions from the members to the amount of 130, and the trustees held a meeting and kindly voted him 400 more. He left Virginia March i, and returning via Washington, Balti- more, Hanover, Gettysburg and Waynesboro, he visited the old stone house where he was born, near Pen-Mar, and preached in Harbaugh's Church (Reformed) on the very spot where he used to play " corner- ball" when he was a boy. After visiting relatives at Lancaster, Pa., and Bellefontaine, Ohio., and attending an oratorical contest at WVittenberg College, he reached home in Kentucky, March i6, i854. He moved into the new parsonage June 2ist, and July I5th the corner-stone of the church at Nebron was laid, the Rev. W. H. Harri- son, of Cincinnati, preaching the sermon. In the early autumn, accompanied by Brother John J. Crigler, Brother Harbaugh made a missionary tour to Dearborn County, Ind. On their return October 2nd, when crossing the Ohio River at Taylorsport, the boat sprung 50 PASTORATE 0F TIlE REV. 1). IIARKIIIAU(GI. a leak and Bro. Crigler advised him to mount a horse, which he did, but when he saw no hope of getting out, he let the horse go. He went under the water once, but on coming up seized a plank which had floated from the boat, and working it under his arms, kept above water until two men came in a skiff and took him to shore. When they were safe on land, wet and chilly, they shed tears of joy and thanked (;od for their deliverance. Hebron Church was dedicated December 3, 1854, Prof. F. WV. Conrad, D. D., preaching the sermon and raising nearly 400 to pay the remaining indebtedness. Rev. D. Summers was present and preached in the evening. That was a joyful day for the Lutherans in Boone County ! Before Brother Harbaugh had reached home from his trip to Vir- ginia, a convention was held in Jeffersontown, Ky., for taking into consideration the propriety of forming a new synod. He wrote a letter to the convention favoring the new synod, and he attended the first meeting which convened in Louisville, May XI, 1854. He was elected the first treasurer of the new Synod of Kentucky and was authorized to procure a seal. Brother John J. Crigler was his lay delegate. The next year, May i8-22, I855, the Synod of Kentucky met in Hopeful Church, the opening synodical sermon being preached by Rev. P. Glenn. Brother H. was then elected secretary and he and Brother J. J. Crigler were both elected delegates to the General Synod. Previous to that meeting of synod he had resigned the pastorate and Rev. J. G. Harris was chosen as his successor. He preached his farewell sermons June 3rd, I855, at Hebron, from 2 Cor. xiii. i i, and at Hopeful from Acts xx. 3I. He was one of the most active, faithful, and efficient pastors the charge has ever had. He was faithful all along the line of Christian service, and the worthy resolutions of the Ken- tucky Synod at its first meeting. urging the pastors to preach on " Benevolence," and the people to practice temperance, were, no doubt, inspired by him. June i ith, Brother A. F. Crigler took Rev. Harbaugh and his family to Cincinnati. They attended the closing exercises of the Miami Synod at Hamilton, Ohio, and the General Synod of Dayton, stopped at Springfield and Bellefontaine, Ohio, and reached Mendota, Ill., June 22, I855. There Brother Harbaugh was very active and efficient in service, superintending the building of the Lutheran Church and also Mlendota College. He served the Board of Trustees as financial agent 5 I 52 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. and treasurer, and he was for a while president of the institution. Such was the prosperity of the school that according to the last cata- logue published before its removal to Carthage, it numbered one hundred and sixty-two students. While at Mendota he did missionary work at nearly a score of near-by towns. Afterwards he served the congregation at Waterville, Kansas, a number of years, also the Hebron Church which he organ- ized near Waterville. He moved to Colorado Springs in i890, since which time he spent one year as missionary among the Rocky Moun- tains, traveling that year 15,541 miles, and preaching regularly in three places. He is now living in retirement, but taking a deep interest in all things pertaining to the welfare of the church and praying for the glory of the Kingdom and the coming of the King. PASTORATE OF REV. I. (. HARRIS. CHAPTER XIII. THE I'AST)ORATE OF REV. J. G. HARRIS. fEFORE Rev. D. Harbaugh had left the charge, Rev. J. (G. Harris, D of Tippecanoe City, O., had been chosen as his successor. Rev. Harris was of a Levitical family, being a great-grandson of Rev. Nicolaus Kurtz, and a grandson of Rev. Jacob Goering, both prom- inent among the pioneers of Lutheranism in York, Pa., where Bro. Harris was born, Feb. 14, I817. He received his early education at the academy in York, and entered the junior class of Pennsylvania College half advanced in i839. He graduated from the Theolog- ical Seminary at Gettysburg, Pa., in I842, was licensed to preach a few weeks after by the Maryland Synod, and ordained a little later in Ohio. His first pastorate was in Bellefontaine, O., two years; then in Shanesville, Tuscarawas Co., five years; Wittenberg College, two years; Tippecanoe City, six years; from there he came to Boone Co. in i855. In Tippecanoe City he lost two children from scarlet fever, and sUffered much from malaria, but the Kentucky atmosphere soon drove the poison from his system and he was ready for active service. April 8, i854, twelve of the brethren who were members at Hopeful Church, somewhat restless for various reasons, but mainly objecting to Rev. Harbaugh's views in favor of temperance, met at the Tanner school house and discussed the advisability of organiz- ing another church. They passed a series of resolutions, but decided not to withdraw from Hopeful Church at that time, but ' to proceed to collect funds and erect a house of worship on a corner of Enos Tanner's land, near Stevenson's mill." Another meeting was held at the same place May 20, 1855, when 615 in subscriptions were reported, and it was resolved to -build a house as soon as practicable, the size of MIt. Zion, only two feet higher." Bro. Harris held special services at Hopeful, January, i857, and succeeded in bringing about a good condition in the entire church. Ebenezer Church was organized with eleven members Jan. 22, i856. 531 54 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. Mar. 3oth, of that year, the church was dedicated, Rev. J. Borns preaching the dedicatory sermon. Rev. Borns also assisted at special services at Hebron the following winter when it was so cold that on his return home he walked across the Ohio river on the ice. At the meeting of the Synod of Kentucky, in Harrison Co., Ind., May, 1856, Rev. Harris was elected president and served two years. He was elected president again in i86o, and served two years more. May 30, i86i, the Kentucky Synod again met in Hopeful Church when Bro. Harris, as president, called attention to the " serious troubles that have arisen in our political horizon, designed, no doubt, by an over- ruling Providence, as a merited chas- tisement for our in- dividual and n a- tional sins." Thus the grim spectre of war t hrew its shadow every- where, but at the close of the min- utes we find this recorded: "Al- though this convo- cation of Synod was attended by brethren from dif- ferent states and counties, yet our deliberations were c h a racterized by th e utmost love and courtesy." P r e v ious to this time there had been some trouble again with Eben- ezer Church and it had withdrawn from the charge, and at a called meeting of the "t male members July 2, l859, they t elected Rev. John Surface as their pastor for one year. At the end of that time he was re- elected, but June REV. J. U HARRIS. I 5, i 8 6 i, Rev. Harris was again elected pastor and that church came back into the charge. The pastor was a pious and devoted man and despite the evil effects of war, things moved along very well. A pious woman who was not a Lutheran but a member of another Christian church, lived on the road between Hopeful and Ebenezer Churches. She often entertained the pastor, and one summer morn- ing after service at Hopeful he caine to her and asked if she expected to go home for dinner. She replied in the affirmative. He said, itI believe I will go with you," and she told him to come ahead. Her husband was at home, and he was by no means so careful in observ- 54 IPAS'I'ORAT' E ' 1FREV. J. (. HARRIS ing the Sabbath as she was, so she told her son who was driving to hurry uip and get home ahead of the preacher. Sure enough, when they arrived at home the husband was mowing the yard. The good woman told him to hurry and change his clothes as the preacher was coming. He made an effort to obey his spouse, but being very warm from his work, he only succeeded in getting his shirt over his head and there it stuck. The woman was busy with her own affairs and did not hear his yells at first, so that his temper rose higher than his temperature before she found him and he needed cooling off before the preacher came. Rev. Harris himself wrote us concerning some incidents of his pastorate, and we close this chapter in his own words. Duringr my last two years in Boone the civil war raged, and hos- tile companies and armies swayed back and forth over the charge. As an illustration: One Sunday afternoon I rode over to fill an ap- pointment at Ebenezer at the time of Gen. Kirby Smith's advance on Covington and Cincinnati. Although there were scouts at every cross road, I escaped their vigilance. No person was at the church. As I stood at the door, I saw a woman coming out of a house near a saw- mill opposite, and cried out: 'Ho! are you all dead here ' ' No; ' replied she; 'but we might as well be dead, for we have received no- tice to pack up and clear out, as the Confederates are going to make a stand on this ridge against the Union army movement from Law- renceburg.' Then came good old Benjamin Tanner, and then faith- ful Noah Surface. After a little consultation, we thought it best to go home and abide the result. "Happily the expected battle was not fought, consequently there was no grand display of fireworks and slaughter. Our churches were not desecrated and ruined by the soldiers of either party. " I left Boone in i863 because the horizon looked so gloomy, and dangers from scouting parties became so numerous that my wife's friends insisted that we should come home. Oh, the blind folly and madness of war! May the cannon's roar Be heard no more, But peace with her olives crowned, O'er all, and everywhere abound. "I believe there were as good people among the patriarchs of the Lutheran church in Boone thirty years ago as could be found any- 55 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. where. Tell their children and grand-children: 7That to be good is t1/e orgy zay to be hnappy. Righ-lteousness is Ike bcginnin, g Ike end, d the perfection (of wisdom. "Weak and weary with asthma, I am now travelling the eightieth mile of my earthly pilgrimage. My only hope is, 'I am a sinner saved by grace.' ' Father Harris died at his home near Bellefontaine, O., Dec. 14, 1900, aged 83 years, and io months. His pastor, Rev. S. S. Adams, in writing of his departure paid him the following worthy tribute: He became pastor of the Boone County, Ky., charge, serving them eight years and three months, the last two years of which were during the perilous times of the Civil XWar, when both hostile armies swayed back and forth over the territory of his congregation. His soul was often overwhelmed with anxiety, not only for the welfare of his country, but also for his own personal safety. Finding that his health was greatly impaired, and his usefulness to the church curtailed, he returned again to Bellefontaine, O., his first charge, and engaged in farming in order to meet the wants of a numerous family, composed of a wife and eleven children, nine of whom at present date still survive. In all these years since Rev. Harris had been in the active work of the min- istry, he had manifested great interest in all the great undertakings of the church. He was a man of deep piety and great learning. Being for years very hard of hearing, he largely lived with his books. He read the Hebrew and the Greek with as much ease as the English. He was no doubt one of the finest linguists in the State. Nearly all the members of the family are actively identified with the Lutheran Church. The funeral services were held on Monday, December I7, in the Lutheran Church at Bellefontaine, where more than fifty years ago he had laid the foundation. Services were conducted by Rev. S. S. Adams, assisted by Rev. J. W. Goodlin, D. D. Rev. Harris had selected Psalm cxix. 75 as the text for the sermon: " I know, 0 Lord, that thy judgments are right and that thou in faithfulness hast afflicted me." A good man has gone to his reward. In the presence of a large assemblage of relatives and sympathizing friends he was laid in the beautiful cemetery at Bellefontaine. where sleep Howbert and Brickley, who with him had been faithful ministers of the Gospel of Jesus Christ in the Lutheran church. 56 PASTORATE OF REV. W. C. HARTER. CHAPTFER XIV. THE PASTORATE OF REV. W. G. HARTER. THERE was no long vacancy after the resignation of Rev. J. G. 1 Harris, but Rev. V. G. Harter was chosen as his successor, dur- ing the latter part of the year 1863, and in January, 1864, he was on the ground at work. Brother Harter was born in Barnwell district, S. C., September 25, i8i i. His father died when he was a boy of only eight years of age. After various trials of a spiritual as well as temporal kind, he entered the classical school at Lexington, S. C., in the spring of I834, to prepare for the ministry. The next year, he entered the theological department of the same school, under the care of Rev. Dr. Hazelius, and graduated in 1837. He was ordained to the Christian ministry Nov. 13, 1838, in St. John's Church, S. C., by Dr. Hazelius, who was then president of the South Carolina Synod. 1 I is ministry for years to come was passed in North Carolina where he was very useful, though not without serious difficulties. Six years previous to his com- ing to Boone County, he accepted a call to the chUrches at Jefferson- town, Ky. After a useful ministry of six years in Jefferson County, he accepted a call to the Boone County charge, and began his work here with great promise. Though pastor but little over seven months there had already been about fifty accessions to the church, and he had won the confidence and esteem of the entire charge. His educational advantages had been few, but he had a voice of great power, that helped give force to what he had to say, and by faithfulness and Chris- tian zeal, he was capable of great usefulness in the ministry. However, his ministry was brought to a very sudden and sorrow- ful close. He was in vigorous health and active service, and preached one Sunday with great acceptance, but being taken with a severe dysentery, the next Sunday, July 3i, i864, he died in the 53rd year of his age and the 26th year of his ministry. Though death came so suddenly, he was not unprepared for it, and much as he delighted in his work, and much as he would like to have been spared to his family, he rejoiced in the prospect of being with his Savior. Rev. Dr. 5/7 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. Sprecher of Wittenberg College came down and preached his funeral discourse from Phil. i.23. He was the last delegate from the Kentucky Synod to the General Synod, and there seems to have been no meeting of the Kentucky Synod after his death. Years after there was talk of reviving that synod, and the joint council of this charge passed resolutions favorable to such a course, and recommended the pastor to help bring about the result, but nothing came of the effort, and the churches of Ken- tucky now all belong to synods in other states. The Sunday School convention of Jefferson County, where Brother Harter was so well known, on hearing of his death passed a series of suitable resolutions, which we append in full, as a suitable tribute to his memory. TRIBUTE TO THE LATE REV. W. G. HARTER. WH IIEREAS, intelligence has been received by this convention that the Rev. XV. G. Harter has recently died at his new home in Boone County, Kentucky, therefore. Resol-ved. That this announcement fills our hearts with profound grief. His zeal and influence as one of the founders and foster-fathers of this convention ; his judgment and prudence as a counsellor; his interest in its proceedings, and joy in its success; his uniform kindness and courtesy, and his hospitality as a man and as a pastor greatly endeared him to us, and his memory shall be precious; and, when in addition to these special claims to a tribute from us, we think of his dignity and gravity so befitting the bearer of a solemn and mighty message to sinners; the guilelessness and sincerety so plainly stamped upon the face as to command universal confidence; his force, clearness and earnestness as a speaker; his wide influence in his denomination, and the need of such men in the church at this time, we see a mystery in this providence which is "past finding out." Rcsolved. That we sincerely condole with his bereaved family, but would remind them that God is the father of the fatherless, and the widow's friend. Resolvcd. That a copy of these resolutions be sent to his family, and also to his late congregation, and another to his former parishon- ers in Jeffersontown, Ky. PASTORATE OF REV. \W. (G. HARTER. 59 Resolved. That we now pray for his family, and also implore that God, who is burying his workmen, will still carry on his work. THlEO. BROWN, President. W. H. BULKLEV, WV. S. SEDWICK. Never was a pastor more universally esteemed by his people, and there was a deep sympathy for his family, which sustained so great a loss. The church paid them the salary for the remainder of the year. His widow, Mrs. Charlotte E. Harter, is now living in Bay City, Mich. The children are all still living and their addresses are as follows: Mrs. Laura Hughes, Alabama. W. 0. F. Harter, Covington. Ky. Mrs. Minnie Mathis, Early Branch, South Carolina. George E. Harter, Dayton, Ohio. Mrs. Margaret Duncanson, Springfield, Ohio. Mrs. Carrie McPherson, Bay City, Michigan. BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. CHAPTER XV. THE PASTORATE OF REVI. THOMAS DRAKE. THE early fathers of the churches were all from Virginia, and those 1 who were still living and their descendants very naturally sympa- thized with the South during the Civil War. Quite a large number of Boone County people entered the Southern army, and though there were differences of opinion, the work of the charge had moved along very well. The pastors had been calm and judicious, and for the greater part of the time the charge had belonged to the Synod of Kentucky, which never distinguished itself by any resolutions of bitter denunciation of any political party of any section. After the death of Brother Harter the Rev. Thomas Drake was called as pastor, and after a comparatively short vacancy he was on the ground at work. The Rev. Thomas Drake was born near Pittsburg, Pa., while his parents, George and Jane (Ruckman) Drake, were en route overland in i8io from Pennsylvania to Southern Ohio. His early childhood was passed on the Scioto River, four miles northwest of Circleville. His mother was an ardent Baptist, and when young. Drake was old enough she sought to bring him into her denomination; but he refused to believe in immersion, and it is a tradition of the family that he boldly withstood her. When about sixteen years of age he apprenticed him- self to one Corbett, near Kingston, Ohio, from whom he learned the tanning trade. Mr. Corbett was a Presbyterian, and taught his apprentice the Westminster Catechism. But when the time came for his final examination before the Session, his heart failed him, and he would not accept predestination as they taught it. About 1828 or I 830 he began work in a tannery at Tarlton, Ohio, where he met his future wife, Hannah Augusta, whom he married in i844. His wife being a Lutheran, under the pastoral care of the sainted Little he learned to know and love the great Church of the Reformation. He then began a mercantile life at Adelphi, Ohio, and while thus engaged he became conscious of a call to the holy office of the ministry. With no education save that of the common schools of his day, and with no theological training other than that received from Pastor Little, he 60 PASTORATE OF REV. THOMAS DRAKE. began preaching the gospel of reconciliation. He was licensed to preach by the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Miami at its Cincinnati convention in 1852, and subsequently ordained at Zanesville two years later. His first regular pastorate 'was Christ Church at Hamburg, Fairfield County, and the Plain congregation in Pickaway County, Ohio. For nearly eleven years he served this large parish. The two congregations grew to four, and several churches were built. During the Civil War he acted as provost marshal of Fairfield County. In the fall of 1865 he accepted a call from the Boone County (Ky.) charge. The Miami Synod had passed some severe resolutions, and there was naturally a little suspicion that a preacher from Ohio might not prove very acceptable; so one of the brethren took it upon himself to inform Brother Drake that the prevailing political sentiment was strongly in favor of the South, and that while he could hold any senti- ments he pleased, he must be careful not to engage in any denuncia- tion. He urged the preacher not to accept the call extended him unless he could keep reasonably quiet on politics. Brother Drake assured him that he would be all right on that subject; but he no doubt found it harder to restrain his sentiments than he supposed, and soon there was some feeling. A little later a Baptist minister from Ohio preached in Boone County, and he volunteered the information that Brother Drake had been a provost marshal. The Jews may have had no great love for a publican, but still their feeling was deep-seated affection compared to what the majority of the peo- ple of Boone County felt toward a provost marshal. Many citizens of the county hadd been arrested and imprisoned by them, and the feeling against them was more bitter than against any other class. Everything was soon in confusion, and at Ebenezer there was an especially bitter fight against the pastor. However, he had some warm friends in the charge, and despite the fact of great disaffection and a greatly reduced support, he decided after his first year to stay on-for the sake of his friends, as he expressed it. After nearly another year of fruitless effort he came to the conclusion that he would REV. THOMAS DRAKE. 62 1BOONE COUNTV HISTORY. quit, and the end of the year I867 found the charge again vacant, and with more war feeling than existed during the war itself. Brother Drake returned to Somerset, Ohio, in 1867, where he preached for nine years. While pastor here his wife died, and having no family of his own he made his home with his adopted daughter, Mrs. Isaac Weaver. Visiting his sister in Indiana, he occasionally preached at Terre Haute. He returned to Circleville about 1887. The closing years of Brother I)rake's life were largely spent in social reforms. He was an ardent advocate of the principles of the Good Templars, and an honored member of the Odd Fellows. He died in February, 1892, and lies buried in Forest Cemetery, Circleville, Ohio, where he had many friends, and pleasant recollections cluster about his memory. PASTORATE OF' REV. W . A. G. EMERSON. CHAPTER XVI. TIIE P'ASTORATE OF REV. W . A. G. EMERSON. THERE was but a short vacancy after Rev. Thomas Drake re- 1 signed. The corresponding secretary, Noah Surface, was soon at work and in his report to the Joint Council he speaks of writing to Rev. Jacob Steck, Rev. Geo. Link and Rev. W. A. G. Emerson. The latter was chosen as pastor of the charge and he came to the work in the latter part of i867. Bro. Emerson was born in Leesburg, Va., July 14, i8i6. When about grown to manhood, he came to Ohio, and he was living there, near Washington, in Guernsey County, when he decided to wed \Vinifred Catherine Adkins. Accordingly, they went to Wheeling and were married December 25, I835. Ne taught school for sev- eral years, and was licensed to preach by the East Ohio Synod in i848. He preached within the bounds of that synod until his call here in i867. At the annual meeting of the Hebron congregation, January 4, i868, he was elected chairman. Among the other proceedings it is recorded that "We intend holding a Jubilee in this house on Sab- bath evening next, and have an address from our worthy and new pastor on the subject of the Reformation; and Bro. Emerson is re- quested to make an effort to secure sufficient funds to pay our in- debtedness." A few weeks later, at the meeting of the Joint Coun- cil, Bro. Emerson himself introduced a series of resolutions, as fol- lows: \VHEREAS, The Lutheran pastorate in Boone County, Ky., stands in an isolated condition, remote from any other Lutheran congregation or charge, and WHEREAS, In order to promote success in church enterprise, there must be unity of action and oneness of effort, and \VIIEREAS, It is written in God's Holy Word, -Behold how good and pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity !" Therefore, 6 ,1 BOON6E COUNTY HISTORY. RESOLVED, That we the members of the Joint Council of said charge bury- ing the past in the sea of forgetfulness, hereby pledge to each other our mutual love ; and with united prayer and Chris- tian effort, we will labor in and out of season, to repair the waste places of Zion and advance the glory of God in our midst. RESOLVED, That so far as in us lies we will, when a special effort is put forth in any one of the congregations of our charge, in the name of our God, con- centrate our efforts in that direction. RESOLVEti, That we will use our in- fluence to induce others of our brethren to do likewise. No records were kept of baptisms, communions, etc., but there were quite a number of additions to the church and REV. W. A. 0. EMERSON. many who then united are among the faithful ones to-day. Doubtless the troubles of former days lingered to some extent and there were soon some little items of friction. At the meeting of the joint Council, Feb., i869, a pretty strong res- olution was passed and the pastor admonished that if it did not suit he could resign. At the meeting of the Council in August, Bro. Emerson presented the following: "Brethren and Fathers of the joint Council of the Boone County Evangelical Lutheran charge, I hereby tender my resignation as your pastor to take effect on or before Oct. i, i869. W. A. G. Emerson, Pastor. " This brief document was promptly accepted and the deacons were instructed to make as prompt settlement as possible. Bro. Emerson was a speaker of much power and his sermons were good. He had rendered the Lutheran church valuable ser- vice in the East Ohio Synod. He built the first Lutheran church in Ashland, Ohio, where there is now an excellent church and a strong congregation. After his resignation here, he united with the Methodist church and preached at Germantown, Ky., then in Mer- cer County, and afterward at Augusta. Later, he united with the 64 PASTORATE OF REV. W. A. C. EMERSON. 65 Lutheran church again, and was contemplating the active work of the ministry in that denomination, when he suddenly died at Ashland, O., Nov. II, i879, where his wife also died Feb. 2, 1896, in the eighty-fourth year of her age. They had eight children. four boys and four girls, who are all still living. James Emerson, Mt. Carmel, Northumberland Co., Pa., John Emerson, Chicago, Ill., Mrs. Mary E. Tanner, Gunpowder, Ky., Mrs. Maria L. Hardy, who was first married to Thomas K. Jacobs, Mrs. Virginia Irene Foulk, Ashland, O., Alfred Edwin Emerson, St. Elmo, Ill., Mrs. Esmeralda (Rella) Coburn, Augusta, Ky. BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. CHAPTER XVII. TIlE I'ASTORATE OF REV. S. 1s. IHYMAN. f S soon as the resignation of Brother Emerson was accepted, steps were taken to secure another pastor, and at a called meeting in Hopeful Church, February 12, 1870, Rev. S. B. Hyman was elected. At the meeting of the Joint Council in the same church February 26, arrangements were made to receive the new pastor, and Joel Tanner, of Hopeful, Jacob XV. Rouse, of Hebron, and William Dixon, of Ebenezer, were appointed a committee to meet Brother Hyman in Cincinnati and move him to the parsonage near Limaburg, which was to be papered and otherwise improved, by a committee consisting of Jacob Tanner, Jonas Rouse and Joshua Tanner, assisted by WV. Y. Crioler. A resolution was passed to advance Brother Hyman's mov- ing expenses and by reading the action of the council one would infer that was to be in addition to the 52I.00 subscribed on salary, but the council at a later meeting decided that not to be the case, and that was one bone of contention between them and the pastor. Just previous to the calling of the pastor, at the annual meeting of Hebron congregation, January 2, 1870, it was decided to repair that church and instructions were given under nine specifications for the work. IThe seventh required " a new pulpit of the latest style." S. J. Rouse, WV. WVarner and T. A. Crigler, were appointed a committee "to solicit and circulate subscriptions." It was also, "Resolved, that the sisters of Hebron Church are hereby authorized by the male members of Hebron Church to superintend the chandeliers, pulpit and carpeting the altar, aisles, c., c., and raise funds for the same." "Sisters L. Riddell, A. Conner, Rosa E. Rouse and Mary F. Tanner" were appointed a committee to carry into effect the authorized work. At a later meeting, April i6, 1870, W. A. Crigler, T. P. Crissler and Jacob Rouse were appointed a committee for the purpose of visit- ing a meeting of the Hopeful members to consult in regard to moving the parsonage. At the congregational meeting of Hopeful Church, January 6, i87o, a request was made for such action on the part of both Hebron and Ebenezer Churches, but the Ebenezer records do 66 PASTORATE OF REVT. S. B. HYMAN. not mention the matter. Hopeful Church was also repaired at this time at an expense of nearly two hundred dollars, E. D. Crigler, T. A. Utz and W. Y. Crigler being the committee. Ebenezer Church was also painted about the same time. As noted above, Rev. Samuel B. Hyman was chosen pastor in February, 1870, and he soon moved here from Indiana, where he had been preaching for a few years though he had previously been pastor in Kentucky, at Jeffersontown. He was born in Amherst County, Virginia, July ii, i840. He embraced religion under Rev. Peter Shickel, in Botetourt County, Virginia, in I859. He entered the "Army of Virginia" from Roanoke College in April, i86i. After four months in Old Capital prison, Washington, D. C., he took the oath of allegiance March 28, i864. Rev. J. G. Butler, D. D., then looked after his interests for a time, giving him private instructions and pro- viding for his entrance in the seminary at Gettysburg in September, i865. He was licensed to preach by the Olive Branch Synod at Pecksburg, Ind., August 25, i866, and ordained by the same body at Jeffersontown, Ky., in i867. He first served a charge in Nelson and Bullitt Counties, Ky., and then he served the Jeffersontown charge. He then went to Indiana, whence he returned to Boone County in 1870. He was here but a short time until there was " trouble in the camp." There were various petty disputes. none of them on very serious matters, but things soon took a very serious turn and at a called meeting of the members of the charge held in Hopeful Church, September io, I870, the following action was taken: WHEREAS, the Rev. S. B. Hyman has treated this charge shame- fully as a minister of the gospel. therefore, Resolved, That this called congregational meeting discharge him from any further services as pastor and declare this charge vacant. Brother Hyman was much troubled by his war record which he felt disqualified him for the best service in the North where the Luth- eran strength lay, and he concluded to try service in the M. E. church, South. Accordingly he attended the annual conference at its meeting in Covington and he was assigned to Warsaw, Ky. He moved to his work, but claimed to have great difficulty in accepting the situation as he could not be a Methodist. After preaching a few sermons he was smitten with personal afflictions which he took for an indication that his course was wrong, and he accordingly returned and begged to be reinstated in the work of the Boone County charge. But 67 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. the brethren here did not feel very kindly to him and did not put a very charitable construction on the motive of his going or his return- ing, so that he was compelled to go elsewhere for a pastorate. He soon received a call to Lisbon, Iowa, and he was received into the Iowa Synod. After doing well in Iowa for three years, he returned to Jeffersontown for two years. Thence he moved to Oregon, Ill., but his war record was again a source of trouble and he soon moved to Lyons Station, Ind., where he served as pastor for seven years, when he removed to Springfield, O., to educate his children. Here he did some supply work and after a few years he was called to Lawrence, Kansas. After a year's service there he organized a church at Leaven- worth. Kansas. He gave that work up in July, i889, since which time he has had no connection with the Lutheran church. Serious charges were preferred against him and there arose some dispute in regard to their presentation so that he declined to appear. The synod took summary action and he was deposed from the ministry. Since that time he seems to have lived a very creditable life and he is now preaching for a sister denomination in the state of Arkansas. When we were preparing this sketch he wrote us a very kind note and he seems to cherish no resentment for the rather summary way in which he was treated in Boone County. Some of his friends have spoken words of earnest praise concerning him and we will be glad to hear of his continued success and well being until he shall lay aside the burdens of life to hear the Master's "' well done." 68 PASTORATE OF REV. W. C. BARNETT. CHAPTER XVIII. TIHE I'ASTORATE OF REV. W. C. BARNETT. S soon as Rev. S. B. Hyman's resignation was accepted the charge began to take steps to secure another pastor. In the winter of i871, it was decided to rededicate Hebron Church, after the re- pairs were finished of which mention was made in the last chapter. and Rev. Dr. Stelling, of Dayton, O., and Rev. W. C. Barnett, of Butler, Ind., were to conduct the dedicatory services. The church had been extensively repaired, a tower erected and a bell purchased, the entire cost being over Iooo. For some reason Dr. Stelling did not come and the house was not dedicated at that time, but Bro. Barnett was on hand, and preached with acceptance. He was invited to remain and preach the next Sunday at Hopeful Church, which he did, and at a called congregational meeting at Hopeful Church, Dec. io, i870, he was elected pastor. At the annual meetings of Hopeful and Hebron in January, there was mention made of the call, and it was reported that sufficient sal- ary had not been subscribed and further effort was recommended. At the February meeting of the Joint Council, there was a rising vote taken as to whether Bro. Barnett should become pastor and the vote was unanimous for him. Bro. Barnett himself was then present and as he was to stay a few days, a called meeting was held at Hopeful, Wednesday morn- ing, March i. After a sermon by Bro. Barnett, a business meeting was held, and the first thing was another vote which was also favora- ble to Bro. Barnett. After this third call there were some resolutions and the chairman of the Joint Council, M. C. Norman, wrote out the following call: - This is to certify that at a congregational meeting of the Boone County, Ky., charge, held on Dec. IO, i870, the Rev. W. C. Barnett was unanimously elected pastor of this charge, and that his election was ratified and confirmed on this the first day of March, 187 I, with a salary of Six Hundred Dollars and moving expenses and use of parsonage and grounds." Caleb Carpenter, Jacob Tanner and Joshua Tanner were ap- 69 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. pointed a committee of conveyance to bring the pastor from the city to the parsonage. E. D. Crigler. B. C. Surface, Jacob Tanner, J. W. Rouse, Joshua Tanner and Enos Tanner were appointed a committee to collect some suitable provision and provender for our pastor on or about the time of his arrival." Bro. Barnett came to the work in April, 187i. He was born near Chambersburg, Pa,, Dec. 7, i823. He was early sent to school, though the free schools did not open until he was about fourteen years of age. When he was seventeen years of age his father senthim to a classical school at Greencastle, Pa. There he attended catechetical instructions under Rev. Peter Sahm and united with the church in Sep- tember, n845. e who w the Rev. C. Lep- l who winthen pastor at Frost- Iburg, Md., was on a visit to some rel- atives in Green- castle and he in- sisted on young Barnett going to Wellersburg, Pa., which was also one of his preaching points, and taking charge of the schools there, and at the same time superintending the S u n d a y School. He taught there that winter and was impressed with the duty of enter- ing the ministry. He had some in- clination to go west and in Au- gust, I 8 4 6, he started for Witten- berg College, at Springfield, 0. But one wing of the college build- ing w as erected REV. W. C. BARNETF and that was not plastered, so that it required much effort to keep warm, or rather to keep from suffering from cold, though there were plenty of forest trees about for fuel. He had many interesting experiences while at school, and during a vacation his attention was called to Bellefontaine, 0., by a Presbyterian friend. On the insistence of Dr. Keller, he preached there several times and thus became the means of establishing our church there which has grown to be an excellent congregation. When his course at Wittenberg was completed, he was given ad in/er/im license by Rev. A. J. Weddell, who was then president of the Miami Synod, and he took charge at once at Lewisburg, 0., where he 70 PASTORATE OF REV. WV. C. BARNETT. 7 I preached for four years at an annual salary of a little over two hun- dred dollars. He was licensed by the Miami Synod in 1849 at Day- ton O., and he was ordained the following spring at Lancaster. While pastor at L., he had a debate with Rev. Andrew Henkel of the Ohio Synod on Lutheranism. That plan surely had some advantage over anonymous attacks in the church papers. Rev. A. Reck was his predecessor. They were missionaries without missionary aid. Some of the leading members were from Boone County, Ky. In October, i852, he received a call to Millville, 0., where he labored for four years, and then being called back to Lewisburg, he returned to his first charge and remained there until the spring of 186I when he ac- cepted a call to Wapakoneta. When at Millville and at Lewisburg the second time he held public debates with the Universalists, and gained a marked victory in each case. When last at L., he also or- ganized the church at Brookville and in other ways had good success. During the winter of i86o, he was requested to come to WNapa- koneta to hold a series of meetings as the church there was vacant. He received a call to become pastor there and though the people at Lewisburg were loth to give him up, entreated him to remain, and of- fered him a larger salary than he was to receive at W., he felt that he ought to go and accordingly moved there in the spring of i86i. When on the train going to his new field of labor, he heard of the firing on Fort Sumter and he had the war excitement to contend against. He took no politics into the pulpit, but it was known that he was a Democrat, and there were many people there as at other points North who thought that a man could not be a Christian and a Democrat at the same time, and in the South it was the same way, only the boot was on the other foot and Christianity had changed its politics. The fact is there are a few people in both localities yet, who think there is a little flaw in the orthodoxy of the man who differs from them in pol- itics. Near the close of his fourth year the political excitement had reached a white heat and he was voted out. However, the more in- telligent and active part of the congregation stood by the pastor and they formed a separate organization and continued the work. He had the active support of many worthy people and he preached there with great acceptance for four years more when he accepted a call to But- ler, De Kalb County, Indiana. That was a good charge and after serving it for two and a half years we find him moving to Boone County where he took charge the first of April, 1871. BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. The committees appointed to arrange for Brother Barnett's com- ing seem to have attended to their work very well and in due time he was on the ground and things were moving along smoothly. At the end of the year, however, the same old trouble of salary came up and the deficit troubled the Joint Council for three years. The pastor waited patiently and worked faithfully and though that deficit was always present it never gave serious trouble and its worry grew less as the years passed along. In a little over a year after Brother Barnett came, at the Joint Council meeting in August, i872, fourteen of the male members of Ebenezer Church petitioned for one morning service a month, desiring that Ebenezer should have the same preaching privileges that Hebron would have. The petition was regarded as a " serious matter" and action was deferred until the next meeting of the Joint Council in February, 1873, when action was taken and the petition was denied. The brethren of Ebenezer, however, were granted the privilege of withdrawing from the charge if they desired to take that course and they availed themselves of the privilege. They arranged their own services independent of the other two churches and did not return into active union with the other churches in the support of a pastor for eight years. They were formally received back into fellowship of the joint Council at a meeting held at "Florence Cross Roads School House," Limaburg, July 2, i88i. The other two churches continued their support of Brother Barnett and they seem to have been quite active in their Christian duties. The members were noted for integrity and a large part of the members prayed in public and lived consistent therewith. Special services were held at first for some years in November or early December, but later in the pastorate they were held in January or February. XWhen the call was extended to Brother Barnett, he was a member of the Northern Indiana Synod and he did not change his membership. The charge continued in the Miami Synod and sent a delegate to its meetings, but of course the Miami Synod did not like the arrangement well and soon called the pastor to account for not changing his synod- ical relationship. He reported the following: " My reason for not uniting with the Miami Synod at its late meeting is simply, that I was nmos/ pleasantly situated in my present connection, and I have a number of relatives living in that locality, whom I desire to visit once a year. 72 PASTORATE OF' REV. W. C. BARNETT. and that is a pleasant season for such visitation. And my charge though connected with the Miami Synod is not within its bounds. I like the Miami Synod; she is my mother; in her I was licensed, and was a member for twelve yeats. I have been disconnected over ten years ; in that time, of course, many changes have taken place in the Synod and many there are strangers now. Truly, WV. C. Barnett. " This quieted things a little, and a few years afterwards h e united with the Miami Synod and retained his membership un- til he went into the bounds of the Synod of Middle Tennes- see. I n October, 1879, the Miami Synod met in Ti eca noe City, O., Rev. D. H. Bauslin, pastor. A short time after that conference met or was to meet i n H ebro n Church. Pastor Bauslin not hay- ing been away to synod, con- cluded to go to conference but REV. D. H. BAUSLIN, D. D. most o f t h e brethren with one accord began to make excuse, so that only three others were on hand: viz., Rev. J. C. Zimmerman, now deceased, Rev. J. Hinderer, also now deceased, and Rev. G. M. Grau. The program was quite full and covered a wide range of topics, and the few brethren present thought they would fill a small part and go home; but Hebron had killed the fatted calf and was in no mood to sanc- tion an early adjournment. They were rather inclined to throw the whole responsibility on the young brethren present. They had them take turns in eating and speaking, and as they kept a good audi- ence and plenty to eat right at the church all day, the records in both lines were badly broken. The speakers turned with graceftil facility from one subject to another until they had fairly covered the entire field of theology, and had eaten enough to make good their mental loss when they ad- journed. 73 BOONE COUNTrY HISTORY. During this conference, a Woman's Missionary Society was organ- ized with Mrs. Barnett, the pastor's wife, as president. She was an active, noble Christian woman, but the society had hard lines and its REV. G. M GRAU, D. D. president died in about a year and thus its career was completely closed. Previous to the meeting of conference at Hebron, the pastor had resigned but at a called meeting of the Joint Council it was decided ___ ------ - , 74 : 1:11IIjI ,; - e A A -I:: I PASTORATE OF REV. W. C. BARNETT. not to accept the resignation, and he continued to serve as pastor until April, i88i, when he moved to Dickson, Tenn. Brother Barnett was a noted hunter and had even more than the ordinary Kentuckian's fondness for good horses. He usually hunted a great part of the time when holding special services and sometimes when the chase was a little exciting he was kept late and the brethren would go on with the meeting, praying and singing until the pastor would come. He would set his gun in the corner and preach some sermons of great power. His patient, persistent work did much good and his influence will be felt for a long while in the charge where he labored for ten years, brought over one hundred and twenty-five into the church and accom- plished an amount of good that can only be known in the day of final account. Brother Barnett served the church at Dickson, Tenn., for seven years. Soon after his resignation there he moved to Archer, Neb., where a son was residing and he made his home. In i898 he went to Tennessee on a visit to friends and relatives and while there the sum- mons came which called him home. We close this sketch with the following items from the minutes of the Olive Branch Synod, of which body he was a member at the time of his death: MEMORIAL OF REV. W. C. BARNETT. The deceased brother departed this life in Dickson, Tenn., on July 27th, 1898, in his 75th year. The death of a fellow worker reminds us of the fact that the night cometh, and we should be ready to report to the Master. A brief review of the life of an associate is fitting and profitable both as a tribute of memory and as a lesson of the value of character and the importance of faithfulness. These we may learn from the failures as well as the success of others. With such feelings we turn to the career of our departed brother. He was naturally gifted with a bright mind, which was trained by a limited education that fitted him for public speaking, and he was especially delighted in controversial sub- jects, making his mark as a debater. His social nature was strong, and drew around him many followers in civic circles as well as in the church, and would have made him, under favorable circumstances, a widely influential person. His ministry was exercised in places in Kentucky, Ohio and Tennessee, where he labored with varied success, the results of which 75 76 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. the records of the last day will show. The reverses and disappoint- ments incident to human life fell heavily upon him in domestic affliction and privation, which he bore with patience, and in a ripe old age he was called to the church triumphant. Our sympathy is extended to the members of the family, whom we commend to the consolations of our Heavenly Father. INTERREGNUM AT EBENEZER. CHAPTER XIX. THIE INTERRE(NUMI AT EBENEZER. 4S noted in the last chapter, the Ebenezer congregation withdrew L' from the Boone County charge in 1873 and remained in an iso- lated condition for eight years. The congregation thought they ought to have preaching one morning in the month, which they could not get in connection with the other churches. The departure was made by consent of the other congregations but it did not meet the approval of the Miami Synod and at their meeting at Tarlton, Ohio, in 1873, they passed the following reso- lution: Resolved, That, in the judgment of the Synod, a dissolution of the Ebenezer congregation from the Boone County charge must result detrimentally to their best interest; therefore, we recommend that said congregation do not discontinue their relations to that charge. Ebenezer seems to have had no delegate at that meeting of the synod and there is no intimation either on the records of the congrega- tion or of the synod that they ever did send any one to represent them before synod. No attention was paid to the resolution and the synod seems to have taken no further notice of their defection. Brother J. W. Crigler was the delegate of the charge at that meeting of synod and as the pastor belonged to another synod, he was the only representative present. For the next three years there was no one from the charge present at synod, although Noah Surface was elected delegate in 1875, and wrote a letter to synod and was excused; and small contri- butions were sent each year. In I878, Rev. Barnett and his delegate, E. D. Crigler, both appeared at Brookville, Ohio. But to return to Ebenezer. The records are silent concerning the preachers of those years, but during most of the time the congrega- tion was supplied with preaching at least once a month and several special meetings were held when services were conducted for a week or two at a time. Rev. Thomas Drake was the first pastor or supply and he preached for two or three years. Rev. Jacob Steck, then in business in Covington, now deceased, preached some, as did also Revs. C. Stroud, Ephraim Miller, A. M. Barrett and F. XI. Porch. /77 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. Rev. C. G. Heckert preached a few times and there were doubtless others. Rev. C. Stroud had considerable difficulty here and there were some serious reflections made upon his conduct. In i879, he requested the synod to drop his name from the roll and he would give up the ministry. In i886, when the synod met in Hopeful Church his name was restored to the roll, but he has never accepted a call because of age and infirmity. He has plenty of means and lives in dignified re- tirement at Springfield, Ohio. Rev. Ephraim Miller had formerly been pastor in Cincinnati and after leaving spent some years in the active ministry. Rev. A. M. Barrett was a student at Springfield. He was after- wards pastor of the important church at Freeport, 111. From there he removed to the western part of Iowa and accepted a call to a Presby- terian church. Rev. C. G. Heckert is now rendering the church active and useful service as professor in Wittenberg College, Springfield, Ohio, and managing editor of the Luthieran World. Rev. F. M. Porch is now the efficient pastor of St. Paul's Church, Louisville. He also was a student at Springfield, Ohio, while supplying Eben- ezer. He would vary his college board by country excursions and found much enjoyment in faithful ministrations in country work. He held special services in October, i88o, and besides adding a number of new members to the church he greatly revived the work of the entire congregation. At that time he received a Mary F. Dixon, Virginia S. Dixon (Dobbins), Alice S. Rice, Laura Swet- nam, W. E. Dixon, Thomas Rice, Amanda Rice, Mary S. Rice (Surface), Emma Rice (Conner), and Lulu V. Car- penter (Hearne). Two, Alice S. Rice and Laura Swetnam have gone to their home in glory, the others all remain ac- tive members to the present and add much to the strength and usefulness ofRE.FM.PCHD.,LoivleKy the church. RV .M OCI .0 oivle y 78 INTERREGNUM AT EBENEZER. 79 There was much appreciation of Brother Porch's effort and there was a general desire, which was backed very materially by some of the faithful members of means, who have since gone to their reward on high, to have him become a permanent pastor. He gave the matter earnest consideration, but the final decision was to go elsewhere and the congregation soon arranged to come back again with Hopeful and Hebron Churches in the one charge. The pleasant memories of Brother Porch's work caused the pas- torate in I897 to send for him to come to Boone County and assist in some special service. He accordingly came in August of that year and remained from August 2-12 and preached to crowded houses. The people heard him with marked interest and there was a pleasant time with much encouragement though there were only two accessions to the church, James Dobbins and Miss Jennie Dixon. Since that time our friend has become Doctor Porch and he continues his work at Louisville, with fidelity and success. BOONE COUNTY HISTORV. CHAPTER XX. THE PASTORATE OF REV. A. J. DOUGLAS. THE Hebron Council met in a few days after Bro. Barnett's resigna- 1 tion took effect, and the members present discussed the vacancy in the charge, and decided to attend a called congregational meeting at Hopeful Church, June i i. Members of the Ebenezer Council were also present at that meeting and there was some discussion on the subject of uniting the three churches in one charge again. The Hebron Council decided not to take action until the congregation had been consulted, and after that Hopeful meeting, a Joint Council meet- ing was called to meet at Florence Cross Roads (Limaburg) School House, July 2, i88i. At that meeting there was a good attendance of the different councils, Jacob Floyd, E. D. Crigler, Moses Tanner, Austin Beemon, B. C. Tanner and Jonas Rouse, from Hopeful; T. P. Crissler, T. A. Crigler, W. J. Crigler, W. L. B. Rouse, S. J. Rouse and A. F. Crigler, from Hebron; and S. H. Tanner, Enos Tanner, D. B. Dobbins, W. B. Craven, and L. S. Conrad, from Ebenezer. Although Hebron was a little slow to give up a morning service, it was agreed that Ebenezer should become a mem- ber of the charge and have one morning service a month. Previous to the above meeting all the churches had held meetings and taken a vote on calling a pastor. Ebenezer had cast the largest vote of all and it was unanimous for Rev. A. J. Douglas. The other churches had cast smaller and divided votes, but Rev. A. J. Douglas received three fourths of the entire vote and he was promptly called as pastor. He accepted the call and began work in the charge in Nov., I88I. Rev. A. J. Douglas was born in Richland County, Ohio, March 22, 1827. His early life was spent on the farm. After attaining a fair common school training, he left home when he was nineteen years of age to acquire an academic education. He first attended Vermilion Institute at Hayesville, Ohio; but as his means were limited he soon had to stop and teach a while. In this way he gained a very good training, closing his school attendance by a year at Wittenberg Col- lege where he was in 1849-50. In the fall of 1850 he took charge of So PASTORATE OF REV. A. J. DOUGLAS. the schools of Upper Sandusky, Ohio, and taught there very success- fully for two years. As he had determined to make the legal profes- sion his life work, he then turned his attention to the reading of law at Mansfield, Ohio, where three years of diligent study well fitted him for successful practice. In a short time, however, he was induced by an uncle, Jacob Wolff, to take charge of Wartburg Seminary which he had just established near Coesse, Ind. After eighteen months of suc- cessful teaching, he resigned his position and resumed the practice of law at Columbia City, Ind. He soon had good practice and attained great popularity, being elected one term as representative and one term as state s e nato r. During his successful career at the bar, he felt called to preach. Af- ter preaching for a time, the congrega- tion requested for him ad i'der'im Ii- cen se, which was im- mediately g r a nted. He continued to re- s id e a t Columbia City un tilI he was called to Boone County. Besides preaching he served for some years as principal of the schools and several terms as superintend- ent of public schools. In i88i, the Mi- ami Synod met in Hopeful Church and soon after B ro. Douglas was on hand and began work, but from the start there REV A J DOUGLAS seems to have been some difficulty in arranging the work of the charge. At a meeting of the Hebron Council, Nov. 5, i88i, the following report was presented: " Your committee on pastor of this charge begs leave to report that the Rev. A. J. Douglas is in the charge as pastor and does not agree to preach for Hebron Church. A. F. Crigler, com." At the meeting of the Joint Council, in Feb., 1882, it was agreed that Hebron Church might get preaching wherever desired and the other two churches secured the services of Bro. Douglas " for the year." Annual elections then and at some other times seem to have been customary here and elsewhere, but the custom at practically all points was very short lived in the Lutheran church. Bro. Douglas was an interesting speaker and his preaching was very acceptable to the church members and very attractive to many others: for he was fresh and original as a thinker and eloquent as a speaker. However, his path was not all covered with roses. Besides the tangle with Heb- BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. ron, there was some difficulty with Noah Surface, the Superintendent of the Hopeful Sunday School. There was a noticeable difference in their interpretations of the Sunday School lesson which led to a disa- greement that was finally carried to Synod for adjustment. The Mi- ami Synod, at its meeting in Cincinnati, Oct., i882, referred the matter to a committee which made the following report, which was adopted: "Your committee would respectfully report, that the paper placed in their hands was a letter from Bro. Noah Surface, a member of the Hopeful congregation of the Boone County charge. In this letter it is claimed by Bro. Surface that he has been charged with teaching in the Sabbath School incorrect doctrine, and in consequence of the doctrine taught, was accused as a disturber of the peace of the church; and, therefore, ordered by the council to desist or withdraw as Sabbath School Superintendent. " Bro. Surface prays this body to determine whether his doctrine taught in the Sabbath School is, according to its understanding of it, in harmony with the teaching of the Bible and the standards of the Luth- eran Church. He further prays this body to determine whether the course of the church council was regular in its proceedings against him. "Your committee would say, that they cited before them the com- plainant, and also Bro. Dutton Crigler, a member of the council of the Hopeful congregation, and Rev. Douglas, pastor in charge. And from the statements given by these brethren, youi committee inferred, and so report, that the doctrine taught by Bro. Surface is not out of harmony with the teachings of the Bible and the Lutheran Church. And further, they report that the proceeding of the council against Bro. Surface was a little irregular. "Your committee are of the opinion that most of the difficulty was brought about by a little misunderstanding, and advise that the matter be regularly and amicably adjusted. J. F. SIIAFFER, S. A. ORT, G. M. GRAU." Bro. Douglas continued to serve the charge for more than a year after the meeting of the Svnod at Cincinnati. There was no serious trouble between Hebron and the pastor, or the charge. He preached several funeral sermons there, but never served there as pastor. However, the church kept up its regular relation with the charge in other respects. The council of Hebron continued to meet with the Joint Council and planned for the general good of the charge. The ,So I'ASTrORATE OF REV. A. J. DOUGIAS. request of Hebron to have preaching for itself was granted and they ar- ranged with Rev. XV. S. Hoskinson, who was then a student at Witten- berg Seminary, Springfield, O., to sup- . ply them with preaching. His usual practice was to preach once a month himself, and then to get some other student to preach once every month. In this way both the church and some preachers had a wide variety of experi- Since leaving Kentucky, Brother Douglas has been active in the minis- try all the time except about one year, from June, 1893-April, I894, when he was disabled by paralysis. He has served charges at Monroeville, Ind., Carey, Ohio, Horeb, Ind., Silver Lake, REV. LLOYD DOUGLAS. Ind., La Otto, Ind., and now again at Monroeville, Ind., which makes the third time he has been called to his present charge, He has promised his present people to remain with them as long as he is able to preach. He is now seventy-four years old but has not reached the "dead line" yet, as he is still preaching three times every Sunday. His helpful wife also has good health and continues her useful ministrations. His daughter Lura is married and living in Yellow Springs, 0. The elder son, Lloyd Douglas, is a young man of fine promise and most excellent character. He is now about entering the regular work of the gospel ministry, being a member of the senior class in Wittenberg Theological Seminary. He is already a very acceptable speaker and in both character and attainments he promises to be a useful man. The younger son, Clyde Douglas, who was only a babe when his father left Kentucky, is taking a special course in electricity and he is progressing well. BOONE COUNTY II [STORY. CHAPTER XXI. THE VACANCY OF I884.; No steps were taken to secure a successor to Brother Douglas, until the regular meeting of the Joint Council at Hopeful Church, Feb- ruary 23, 1884. Then the brethren seemed to look their difficulties squarely in the face and resolve to improve the condition of church affairs. Ebenezer had returned to the charge only a few years before, Hebron had remained in connection, but had acted for herself in secur- ing preaching services independent of the other two churches, and Hopeful had passed resolutions looking to her separation from the charge; but the Joint Council had declined to consider the resolution presented to that body, deciding it out of order and further considera- tion had caused them to leave the matter in abeyance for a time. Now that the charge was vacant, there was a disposition to heal old sores and, if possible, secure a pastor on whom all could agree. But alas, after a few good resolutions, the Joint Council decided to have four preachers on four successive Sundays to preach, with a view of select- ing one of the four for pastor. They selected four worthy men, none of whom would likely be a party, knowingly, to such an arrangement; but it seems likely that all came to preach at the time designated. Of course there was no choice from such an arrangement, and the Coun- cil was again at sea. Special meetings followed thick and fast. Be- sides trying to secure a pastor there was a great amount of controversy as to what was best to be done about the parsonage. It was thought best by most of the brethren that the parsonage be moved from its lo- cation near Limaburg, to some place near Florence. Joshua Zimmer- man had donated a lot for parsonage purposes where the present building is located, but the charge had no good title to the ground where the old parsonage stood and if there was a removal there would be loss. Then it was a question whether the charge could not buy cheaper than build. So at one meeting a committee was appointed to repair the old parsonage and at the next a committee was appointed to see if a house could be bought in Florence. The last cnmmittee reported the house they were to examine as not suited for a parson- age, while the price was excessively high. Then they arranged to 84 VACANCY OF 1884. rent a house and W. E. Carpenter who was appointed for the purpose, rented a house in Florence for one month for ten dollars, with the refusal of it for a longer time. In the meantime, after hearing many men and voting often, it was decided to call Rev. J. R. Shoffner, who was then in Tennessee, but afterwards, in i89i, died in Wilkesbarre, Pa. There seemed good reason for supposing he would accept and the president of Miami Synod reported the charge as probably supplied on the strength of the call, but after considerable correspondence and expense, the matter was dropped and efforts were made to secure some one else as pastor. The agitation concerning the parsonage kept well to the front. At a meeting at Hopeful Church, October 18, i884, the following action was taken: WHEREAS, There has been considerable talking about our parsonage and the location of our preacher, therefore, Resolved, That we, the Joint Council in session, agree to repair our parsonage in good order and when a preacher comes to visit, that he be shown the place for him to live, and stop all our talk about the parsonage and attend to our church duties. Resolved, That a committee be appointed at once to have the work done before the cold weather and that each church circulate sub- scriptions to raise the required amount. Resolzed, That a committee of three be appointed to solicit funds and do the work. At the next meeting, held in the same church, Nov. 29, 1 884, the following resolution was adopted: Resolved, that we build a house on the Hopeful Church lot near Florence, with the understanding that if Hebron or Ebenezer at any time decide to withdraw from the charge, that the remaining congre- gations pay to them for improvements on said lots in proportion to their subscription in building the same, the improvements to be valued by three competent men. The following committee was appointed to solicit funds: Hopeful, A. J. Utz and M. L. Rouse; Ebenezer, Eli Carpenter and Lewis Con- rad; Hebron, Jacob Tanner and G. 0. Hafer. At a meeting at Hopeful, December 27, i884, A. J. Utz reported 269.oo, M. L. Rouse, 240.00, Lewis Conrad, 240.00. The other members had not secured any subscriptions. January 6, at a meeting at Hopeful Church, a committee was ap- pointed to receive plans. adopt one and arrange for building a parson- 85 86 BOONE COUNTV IHISTOIRY. age. Lewis Conrad, Eli Tanner and A. F. Crigler were appointed as that committee. That was the last meeting of a very busy year. There had been much correspondence, and there had been eight or more preachers on the ground with heavy expense and much talk, but still no pastor and no parsonage, though the charge seemed to be fully aware of the need of both. They had agreed to pay about twice as much salary as they had been accustomed to pay and had promised and done much along other lines, but there seemed little success and many discouragements. However, they were not cast down, and difficulties had their usual ef- fect of arousing determination. PAFTORATE OF REV. WV. It. KELLER. 8- CHAPTER XXII. '[TI" PAS'I'OR'EO' OF RE\'. WV. 11. KELLER. d FT ER much delay and many meetings, Rev. At. H. Keller was elected pastor at a meeting held at Hopeful Church, Nov. 29, 1884. But matters were by no manner of means yet settled. B. A. Floyd was appointed secretary and after much correspondence and several meet- ings of the joint Council, he was instructed to go to Indianapolis and try to arrange matters with Bro. Keller to have him come to Boone County as pastor. The charge, seemingly wearied by the long delay and very desirous of having a pastor, had agreed to give a salary of 8so.oo, to pay the moving expenses of the pastor and pay rent for him until a new parsonage could be finished. Bro. Floyd was to make an immediate journey to Indianapolis and explain the condition of af- fairs " and to make arrangement with Bro. Keller in the best way and manner." A few days after, Feb. 7, 1885, the secretary made his re- port to the Joint Council and it was decided that Bro. Keller was to move as soon as possible. William Henry Keller was born in Knox County, Ohio, Septem- ber I7, 1840, of pious German parents who had moved from Pennsyl- vania about ten years previously. From Ohio they soon moved to what was then frontier country in Northern Indiana, and set themselves earnestly to the work incident to building up homes in an unsettled country. The future pastor had very limited school privileges, but he was carefully instructed in the Bible and catechism as was customary among the Lutheran fathers. By that method many Torthy and heroic followers of our Lord were trained for their lives of great usefulness. In i863 he was married to Miss 0. J. Conley and six children blessed this happy union. They are at present located as follows: AIrs. Amy Rhoades, Indianapolis, Ind., Rev. Ezra Keller, the present popular and successful pastor at Hillsboro, Ill., Mrs. Della Baughman, Newville, Ohio, Rev. F. 1\MI. Keller, in the Senior class of Wittenberg Seminary, at Springfield, Ohio, Miss Nellie Keller and Ross Keller, with their mother at Brookline, Mo. Bro. Keller served as a soldier in the Federal army one year dur- ing the Civil War and after faithful service in many conflicts he came BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. home to be a zealous soldier of the cross. He pursued studies look- ing toward the ministry under Rev. Wm. Waltman, a venerable minis- ter of Northern Indiana. He entered the ministry in i870, and served the Albion charge in Northern Indiana about two years. From there he removed to Marion County, Indiana, near Indianapolis, and after four years of faithful service he transferred his labor to another charge nearby, in the same county, and remained there seven years. In this latter work, known as the Ebenezer charge, he removed a heavy debt, and bought and paid for a parson- age property and I saw in many ways his labors crowned i A with success. He came to t the work in Boone County in the high- est pitch of its g r e atest enthusi- asm. The charge agreed to pay him k about twice the salary they had everpadndte agreed to treat himg generously in other respects, while they had the greater part of the funds sub- scribed for a par- sonage to be built at once. The sub- scriptions amount- ed to 820.00, and it was resolved that a house should be built for iooo.oo, and the following committee was ap- pointed to look af- tethe wor k: Hopeful Church, Joel Tanner, Eli Tanner and J. M. Utz; Hebron, A. REV. W. H. KELLER. F. Crigler and T. A. Crigler; Eben- ezer, Eli Carpen- ter and Lewis Conrad. At a later meeting, March 2 1, I 885, it was decided to make the house above the foundation cost Iooo.oo and a special committee was appointed to solicit funds and build a cellar and foundation. This committee consisted of E. L. Rouse, E. H. Snyder, John W. Utz, Ezra K. Tanner, Levi L. Tanner and W. L. B. Rouse. They were instructed to receive Ax money, work or material." There had been much controversy and some years of waiting to get the new parsonage started and there were many little items not fully decided when the work was begun. There was dissatisfaction with the plans and arrangements on the part of some and they with- drew their subscriptions, but the committee was instructed to go ahead 88 PASTORATE OF REV. W. H. KELLER. with their work. This they did, and though the subscriptions and ac- counts have not been preserved, the committee in their final report to the joint Council state the entire cost to be as follows: Cost of cellar, 85.oo. Cost of study on east side, 75.50. Cost of main building, 1087.78. The committee received by sUbscription 661.oo and the remainder was paid from time to time by special efforts, the last pay- ment being made in i89i, when all debts of every kind were all paid. The parsonage was ready for use in August, i885, and until that time Bro. Keller was located in the old Carpenter Homestead on the Lex- ington Pike, not far from Ebenezer Church. Bro. Keller began his services as pastor in March, i 885, and- there was at once notable improvement in the work of the charge. In Oc- tober, he received the following as members of Ebenezer Church: J. C. Conrad, Wm. H. Conrad, Wm. A. Rice, Wm. E. Glacken, T. E. Dixon, H. P. Dixon, Ed. E. Rice, Effie E. Dixon, J. E. Keller, Lena Tanner, Eli Conrad, Maggie M. Rice, Maggie M. Ross, George Rice, Elbert L. Glacken, Carrie D. Conrad, and Emma A. Tanner. Bro. Keller was a preacher of much ability and power and his pulpit ministrations were more than usually acceptable, while he was active in every good word and work. By studious application he made amends for lack of early education and he forced attention by his active and aggressive work. However, the promises made to him with enthusiasm when he became pastor were hard of realization and when the time for payment came there was difficulty in meeting obli- gations that caused some misunderstandings. The work, however, prospered, and Bro. Keller continued as pastor for three years. There had been manifest development and increased efficiency in the work of the charge. After resigning the work here, Bro. Keller served the mission at Loudonville, Ohio, for two years. Then he removed to Litchfield, Ill., which was his last pastorate. After a few years of faithful service there, his health began to fail him, and after weary suffering and pain he was compelled to resign the work and retire to Brookline, Mo., where he died Nov. 25, i897, aged 57 years, 2 months and 8 days. He served in various official capacities with great acceptance and was a delegate to the General Synod when he was almost unable to travel because of the approach of the final illness that took him to his reward. The record of his life is not yet completed, for his twenty-five years of consecrated service in the ministry have put influences at work which will not be silenced until the Judge of all shall close all accounts and 89 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. call all nations before Him for the final decision from which there can be no appeal. Two of his three sons have entered the Lutheran ministry. The older of them, Rev. Ezra Keller, is the pastor at Hillsboro, Ill., where he has been for several years. He married Miss Lena Tanner, of Florence, Ky., and is therefore closely related to Boone County in more ways than one. A new church has been built at Hillsboro since he was pastor there and the reports of his work have been favorable, but when the author wrote him for some favors in connection with this work the following note was received: Hillsboro, Ill., November II, I90i. Dear Brother Lentz :-Yours received. In reply will say that I have no modern cut of my physiognomy and no picture handy, so will have to forego the pleasure of appearing among the illustrious. My condition is also described in the past tense of the first three words of a famous poem by Tennyson. So a weighty financial reason is also an argu- ment with me. With kindest regards to you and yours I am Very truly, EZRA KELLER. From this it is a little difficult to tell whether hard times have struck the place or whether the brother is suffering from some hepatic trouble or whether he has become somewhat ashamed of hisantecedents and the work in IBooneCounty generally. It seems to us that he is like Artemas Ward, slightly " sarkastikle." The other brother is Rev. Francis M. Keller, of the senior class of Wittenberg Theological Seminary. He is a young man of fine promise and a great favorite . wherever known and he will without doubt faithfully help his elder brother to carry on the great work of their father. He lost his books and clothing in the fire which a year ago destroyed Witten- berg Seminary building, but he never lost heart or courage and he continues his conscientious work and he is laying R the foundations for a noble life. REV. FRANCIS M. KELLER. PASTORATE OF REV. H. MAX IENTrz. CHAPTER XXIII. THE PASTOrRATE OF REV. H. MAX LENTZ. There was some misunderstanding about the time when the resignation of Bro. Keller was to take place, and after a vain ef- fort to settle it at home, the matter was taken to synod for adjust- ment. The congregation promptly complied with the decision of synod, borrowed money and settled with Bro. Keller and took im- mediate steps to secure another pastor. The first plan pursued, was to have some one preach a trial sermon and see how much could be secured and then to extend a call on that basis. After a few efforts of that kind it was de- cided to take a standing subscription for salary, each one agreeing to pay a certain amount annually for any one who might be called as pastor, and to continue to pay it as long as he might continue in the service of the charge. This is the theory under which the charge is still working, though a few deacons take annual subscrip- tions, and a few members-claim the right to do as they like about paying anything, without any regard for the wishes of the majority of the congregation or the charge. Numerous letters were written and a number of ministers preached for the charge. Some of these came with a view of ac- cepting a call if all wvas satisfactory, and in several instances calls were extended; but, before a favorable decision was reached, some objec- tion stood in the way for one side or the other. Only in one case, however, did the difficulty lie with the charge and that was because the pastor-elect did not wish to move to this state, which was, of course, necessary for efficient service. In the meantime, arrangements were made with the students of Wittenberg Seminary, at Springfield, O., to supply the charge with preaching at least once a month. The corresponding secretary seems to have been a busy man. For more than a year men continued to come and go, but no one was called who decided to come and remain, though many gave encouragement while on the ground. One visiting brother, who preached first at Ebenezer, was met at the train by a young member and on the road home many features of the work were 91 130ONE COUNTY HISTORY. discussed. Among other things, the minister wished to know whether the people liked loud preaching, as he had come prepared to give them what was wanted. He was told that they liked it loud, and ac- cordingly, when the brother let loose at Ebenezer, all the country around was notified that something unusual was going on at the church. Some persons declared they could distinctly hear him a mile away. Thus the man who was anxious to please became a laughing stock and the charge was still vacant. Candidating is usually considered a very poor business and some ministers have such an aversion to it that they will not even go to a vacant charge and preach with any notion of being called as pastor. But now as on some former occasions there were some who took ad- vantage of a vacant charge to further other ends. Men who wanted to visit Kentucky, who wanted to visit relatives near or on the way to Kentucky, who wanted to see Cincinnati, were all surpassed by a brother from a distant state who made a good impression here and received a call which he said he would likely accept but never did. He charged nothing for his services but requested the charge to pay his travelling expenses from home and back, amounting to twenty-four dollars, which they cheerfully did; but when it is known that he preached for two or more other vacant charges on the same trip, it is readily seen that he was playing vacancies for all they were worth, and making a comfortable living while scouting around. After much other correspondence, a card was addressed to Rev. H. Max Lentz, who was then financial secretary of Carthage College, and arrangements were made with him to come and preach one Sun- day with a view to accepting a call. After the dates were fixed and the arrangements all made, he received a second card saying that they had decided to give his dates to another man from the South. The conduct seemed a little strange but not much was thought of it for awhile, when other word was received stating that the appointments had not been filled by the man for whom they had been reserved, and that now other appointments would be made for him if desired. His friends and his wife urged him to make no further appointments, but advice was neglected, dignity was set aside and the appointments were made. Afterwards it was learned that the cause of Punic faith was sectional, and decided preference was given to the man from the South, the secretary not knowing that his Western correspondent was a Southern man. Conditions have changed greatly in the last ten 92 PASTORATE OF REV. H. MAX. LENTZ. years and it is not likely that such an occurrence will ever happen again. The appointments were made in the month of March and the roads at places were practically impassable, and when J. P. 'Fanner took the preacher to Ebenezer Church he stopped driving at Mt. Zion Church, the end of the pike, and the rest of the distance, something over half a mile, was made on foot through the fields. That was Sat- urday night and owing to some misunderstanding the service was not expected at that time and no one was at church. -Uncle Noah" Sur- face and John WV. Hogan and their families were found in their homes and an appointment was left for the next Monday night. The services were held Sunday morning at Hopeful and at night at Hebron, which was reached only with great difficulty, S. J. Rouse taking the speaker some fifteen miles or more around to get a better road than the three miles it was necessary to travel by the usual road. Previous notice had been given, and at each church after preaching a vote was taken and at the close of service at Ebenezer a canvass of the entire vote was made and a call extended to Rev. H. Max Lentz to become pas- tor. He was at that time acting financial secretary of Carthage Col- lege and had about completed a canvass of the territory of the institu- tion and was ready to accept a pastorate. He accordingly decided to accept the call, his pastorate to begin April i, i890. The new pastor was the eldest son of Jacob and Catherine Lentz, and was born near Statesville, in Iredell County, N. C., April 20, 185i. In early life his father had moved to Statesville, but in a few years he moved to Catawba Bounty on a farm where he remained six years. There, in i86i, the subject of this sketch had a spell of typhoid fever and his mother after a long and severe illness died of the same disease. In the autumn of i862, his father married again and removed to Alex- ander County, where he has resided continuously since. His father and mother were both of Lutheran parentage and themselves faithful members of that communion. Three of the five brothers of his mother were Lutheran preachers, Revs. Caleb, Alexander WV., and David S. Lentz. The first died in i863, A. WV. is still preaching and resides at Penbrook, Pa., while D. S. is suffering from nervous prostration and is living in Altoona, Pa. Both have rendered much worthy and faith- ful service to the church and if this were the place we would take de- light in paying some small tribute to these worthy men and others from the one small congregation in N. C., whence within a few years came seven preachers of the gospel. The other brothers are faithful 93 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. laymen, the eldest, E. J. Lentz, living in Wilkesbarre, Pa. and the other, J. C. Lentz, living on a farm near Statesville, N. C. Jacob Lentz, the father, was born near the old historic Organ Church in Rowan County, N. C., and he was a man of more than ordi- nary force of character. In his youth he had small advantages, but he i. J. C. Lentz, Statesville. N. C. 2. Rev. D. S. Lentz, Altoona, Pa. 3. E. J. Lentz, Wilkesbarre, Pa. 4. Rev. A. W. Lentz, Penbrook, Pa. made the most of his opportunities and triumphed over the difficulties that beset his path. The subject of this sketch was the eldest of eight children and while his lot was not a bed of roses, he was always encouraged to educate himself, which as a rule he was glad to do. Schools and school facilities were very inferior where his boyhood was spent, but he gathered a little knowledge. When he was fifteen years 94 I I PASTORATE OF REV. H. MAX LENTZ.5 old he had the chance to attend an academy four full miles from home and he went one session of one hundred days, walking back and forth each day and attending ninety eight days of the term. At a later day he had the opportunity of attending again, but after a trial of a few days he decided it was too far to walk and he did not attend until arrangements were made for him to board in the vicinity of the school. He taught school several terms and went a few terms to Catawba High School at Newton, N. C. In the fall of i874, he entered Penn- REV. H. MAX LENTZ AND FAMILY. i. Luther Hualpha Lentz. 2. Marv Katherine Lentz 3. Ruth Lenore Lentz. 4. Rev H. Max Lentz 5. John Max Lentz. 6. Mrs. Laura M. Lentz. sylvania College, at Gettysburg, Pa. He graduated from the college there in I878 and from the seminary in i88i. He was licensed by the Maryland Synod at Westminster in i88o, and ordained by the Synod of Northern Illinois at Davis, Ill., in i881. At the close of his sem- inary course it had been arranged that he was to go to Mt. Morris, Ill., as a supply for four weeks. The church there was vacant and af- ter he had preached there two Sundays he was elected pastor and con- tinued in service until March i, i883. The pastoral relation was very pleasant. He arrived there in rather an embarrassed condition. His trunk went astray at Chicago and was sent to Mt. Morris, Mich. He 95 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. had on a very rusty suit and had no sermons or sketches of sermons, everything of that kind being in his trunk which was not recovered for over a week. After preaching the second Sunday, he was elected as pastor and continued in that relation until March i, 1883. The old parsonage, which was poorly located on account of the re- moval of the church, was sold and a large debt still remaining on the new church was paid in full, though it was X, E irather trying to the already exhausted n l l 1 lcongregation. The church was painted and made a very desirable home. The work was somewhat discouraging on account of many persons selling and going farther west, but at no time was there any serious difficulty or any fric- JACOB LENTZ. tion. The pastor married Miss Mary S. Long, June 20, i882, and a most delightful reception was given the new couple when they returned to the work a few weeks later. The following year an urgent call to Eureka, Kansas, was accepted and work there was to begin March i, 1883. The young pastor had never been beyond the Missouri River, but had heard a vast amount about the great west. He was somewhat disappointed in the country and his work and he found that even there people were still going - farther west." There was little that was fixed or permanent, and there was a recklessness and indifference on every hand that had a very depressing effect. There were also local difficulties not very pleasant and besides this the pastor's wife had poor health which seemed to be attributable to the locality. It is true the work kept up and even moved forward, but with much discouragement. He resigned and accepted a call to Fairfield, Ia., where he began work November I, 1884, He remained at Fairfield tintil he accepted the call to Boone County, though he resigned the pastorate to take effect April i, I888, and served as financial secretary for Carthage College until March 31, I889. The college had passed through great trials and it had been fearful!y mis- represented on its own territory and a great part of his work was to set things right, which he had some reason to do as he had been well 96 PASTORATE OF REV. H. MAX LENTZ. acquainted with the work and workers there for years and had been in official connection with the college as vice-president of the Board of Trustees. While working for the college a second call was received to Mt. Morris, Ill., and the call would likely have been accepted but for a fine business opening which was urged upon him at the same time. When, however, it came to the final decision, he could not get his own consent to stop the work of the ministry of his own motion and he continued its duties at but little more than half the salary he could have received at other congenial employment. Work in the Boone County pastorate was to begin April i, I890, but as the time was short to settle up affairs and get moved, a supply was agreed upon for the first Sunday and Dr. Ort, president of Wit- tenberg College, was asked to send a supply from the seminary to preach one sermon for ten dollars. The people came together, but there was no supply and there was no word from Wittenberg and there has never been any word of any kind since. The pastor was forgiven and thus came out the gainer, and the next Sun- day he was on hand him- self and made a pleasant start in the work, which continued for more than ten years. The pastor and - his family were kindly re- ceived and through all the years of h i s pastorate there was no cessation of E that kindness. The pas- tor was installed Thurs- day, May 23, i189o, Revs. E. K. Bell and J. A. Hall, of Cincinnati, preaching;4 the sermons at Hopeful Church. A bounteous din- ner was served i n the REV. E. K. BELL, D. D. 97 0 a cc2 0 r c2 O U3 .Z r. 0 . = . uj, PASTORATE OF REV. 11. MIAX L.ENTZ.9 grove between the services of the morning and the afternoon. Regu- lar preaching services were held twice a month at each church and some special services were held annually and the interest of the churches looked after in the line of pastoral duty. In September, 1892, the pastor was called to part with his wife, who had greatly en- deared herself to many friends. After a short but very severe illness she passed away, leaving her bright home, her husband and three small children, when she was in the prime of life and the height of her use- fulness. There was sympathy and help by the people and a devoted sister, Miss Addie Lentz, came from N. C., while a niece, Miss Katie Lentz, who was already present, remained. October 25, 1894, the pastor was married to Mrs. Laura M. LaMotte, of Taneytown, Md., the widow of the late Rev. D. M. LaMotte, of Woodsboro, Md. She was kindly received and the work continued as before. REV. H. MAX LENTZ. From photograph taken in I895. 99 PASTORATE OF REV. H. MAX LENTZ. On April 20th, i896, which was the forty-fifth birthday of the pas- tor, a large number of the friends spent the day at the parsonage. Large supplies were brought with them and a bounteous dinner was served and a most delightful time was had. The nearby pastors were invited and it was arranged that the pastor's youngest child should be baptized that day by Rev. E. K. Bell, D. D., who was then pastor in Cincinnati. Dr. Bell missed the last train out but he did not let that bother him, as he went to a livery, and securing a team, drove out in time for the ceremony. Mr. E. P. Porter, the photographer of Florence, in the afternoon took a picture of some of those present and the cut on the opposite page is a reproduction of it. Those in the picture are: Friends at Pastor's forty-fifth birthday celebration, April 20, i896. I, H. F. Utz; 2, Mrs. H. F. Utz; 3, Mrs. Mallie Beemon; 4, Miss Alma Brown; 5, S. J. Rouse; 6, Mrs. Eli Rouse; 7, Walter Crigler; 8, Noah Surface; 9, Mrs. Mary Surface; io, Mrs. Wm. G. Graves; iI, Thomas Rice; I2, T. L. Swetnam; I3, Mrs. Amanda Rice; 14, Mrs. Mary Glacken; I5, J. S. Surface; i 6, Mrs. Lucinda Weaver; I 7, Mrs. Emma Acra; i8, Mrs. Emma V. Rouse; i9, Mrs. J. W. Rouse; 20, Mrs. Maria Clore; 21, Mrs. Alice Crigler; 22, Mrs. Agnes Wittenberg; 23, Wm. G. Graves; 24, Rev. E. R. Wagner; 25, Rev. E. K. Bell, D. D.; 26, Rev. G. G. Clark; 27, T. J. Brown, Sr.; 28, Rev. J. M. Bramkamp; 29, Eli Rouse; 30, E. H. Surface; 3I, Mrs. Ella Tanner; 32, Mrs. S. D. Surface; 33, Mrs. T. J. Brown; 34, Mrs. H. Max Lentz; 35, Rev. H. Max Lentz; 36, Mrs. G. G. Clark; 37, Mrs. J. M. Bramkamp; 38, Mrs. WV. H. Davis; 39, Mrs. E. H. Surface; 40, Mrs. Viola Wolf, 4I, Mrs. Rosa M. Quick; 42, Mrs. Nellie Garnett; 43, Mrs. Ezra Keller: 44, Mrs. Minta Aylor; 45, Miss Ora Rouse; 46, Benjamin Clark; 47, Miss Mary West; 48, Mrs. Harvey S. Tanner; 49, Miss Louisa Brown; 50, Rufus Tanner; 5I, Miss Mary Lentz; 52, Miss Irilla Tanner; 53, Miss Ruth Clark; 54, Miss Ruth Lentz; 55, Miss Gladys Rouse; 56, Miss Olive Brown. In February, i897, the work suddenly ceased for a time and it looked as if it would never be resumed by the pastor then in charge. He was taken with a severe case of pneumonia, and the physician gave little hope of recovery. Many friends were assiduous in their care and there was a wide and helpful sympathy. After some rest and a trip south the pastor was ready for duty again and had the hearty co-oper- ation of his people. In I 896 he had begun the publication of a parish 1IO '11, I 11 t I i I j f !,I I, 030ONE COUNTY HISTORY. paper and after having it published in Pittsburg, Pa., for a year and a half he decided to establish a small job office and have it printed at home. Prof. J. H. Craven, of Verona, had been doing a little job work and he became also partly interested in the office in Florence. Later the paper and office were removed to Erlanger and the monthly was changed to a weekly paper of a local nature. Prof. Craven now gave it his entire time and J. F. Houston had in the meantime become associated with them. The monthly had been well patronized, but the starting prospects of the weekly were not bright and all parties inter- ested concluded that it would be best to discontinue, which was not done, however, before pastor Lentz had agreed to give part of his time to the management of the Lutheranf 'or/d, which was to be removed from York. Pa., to Cincinnati, 0., and be edited by Rev. E. K. Bell, 1). D. The first edition of the Worl;/d under the new management was published in Cincinnati, September 15, i898. The printing outfit at Erlanger was sold at a sacrifice as none of the interested parties had any further use for it, and the pastor continued to act as office editor and business manager for the Lutheran World. Dr. Bell soon resigned in Cincinnati and removed to Mansfield, 0. He remained there but a few months and then accepted a call to Baltimore, Md., and severed his connection with the paper. The pastor thus became editor and manager of a weekly paper with the office ten miles from home while serving a widely scattered pastorate. He pushed the work as best he could, but it is needless to sav that both interests suffered some. The paper had to be run on a very narrow and very unsatisfactory basis as the editor alone was responsible for all bills and he could make no ventures, even if they were likely to prove success- ful, as he might not be able to carry them through. Rev. D. H. Baus- lin, D. D., the present able and indefatigable editor of the paper, and Rev. L. S. Keyser, D. D., were regular contributors and a few others did occasional work. The mailing list, the correspondence, the accounts and bills, in short all the office work together with editorial writing and the locals and personals and the making up of the paper all were in the hands of the editor without any clerical help whatever. He secured a key to the building in which the office was located and fre- quently he would be there for hours at work before the other workers had entered the building. Owing to a lack of convenience of trains he often had difficulty in trying to make things come out right at the home and the office both. There was abundance of work and then there was some worry to mix with it. As editor he had too much 102 PASTORATE 0)F REV. HI. MAX LENTZ. respect for his brethren not to wish to have their good opinion and he knew he could not worthily edit a paper so handicapped. Then there was more or less financial worry and constant effort to keep things going well. The paper had made enemies in its past career and they were inclined to make things warm at times, and then there were con- troversies in the church and some persons seldom contributed without giving a whack at some one, and the editor had to bear the blame. Sometimes even peaceable things were perverted to base uses. Then on the other hand while the people of the pastorate had always stood loyally by him, there were some who had no hesitancy in saying things if they could get a hold, and a few of them were insisting that the pas- tor was greedy of gain and, therefore, he was trying to do everything to make money, when as a matter of fact his extra work was not help- ing him out of any financial troubles. Early in October, i900, a call was received to become pastor at Shepherdstown, WV. Va., and the call was accepted. Both the work on the paper and the pastorate were resigned, and November i the work in the new pastorate was begun. Thus closed a pastorate of ten years and seven months filled with varied experiences, but always carried along with harmony and good will. Florence was not favored with good schools and a growing fam- ilv of four children made it seem wise to make a change, and as the advantages at Shepherdstown were superior it seemed providential to have a call there, and it was accordingly accepted; but we had stood beside the Kentucky friends for years in sunshine and storm and we had mingled our tears and our laughter so long that it seemed very hard to part after the decision had been made. The pastorate was the longest since the time of Father Carpenter, and there had been a free mingling until every home seemed homelike to the pastor and all the tender. memories of the deep sorrows and joys of the swiftly speeding years came up afresh at the thought of parting. There were no "farewell" sermons preached. That would not have been pleasant for pastor or people, but the thought that they were together for the last time could not be kept from obtruding itself and there was many a tremor in song and speech, and after the ser- vices a paroxysm of weeping which could not be restrained. Strong men sobbed their good-byes and there seemed to be no distinctions in the good wishes that went along with the pastor to another field. In a quiet way the work of the charge had moved smoothly along during all the years. There had been some notable improvements about the parsonage property and there had been some improvement 103 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. at each of the churches. Financial affairs had been well kept up and it is only a plain statement of facts due to all concerned to say that there had been no other such period of ten years in the churches' his- tory. The offerings for benevolence were far from what they ought to be, but they were more than double of any preceding decade, and that without counting the contributions of the Woman's Missionary Society, organized in i890, which added materially to the amount given, for the enlargement of the Lord's work. One hundred and fifty-five members were added to the church, nearly all by adult baptism and confirmation. The larger part remain faithful and some of them are now leaders in church. The population is very settled and there is not much shifting around or removing. from the work. The friends were as kind in getting the pastor away as they had been in receiving him. His goods were all hauled to the train and well packed without any charges of any kind, and every possible thing was done to make his last days as pleasant as any had been, and when night came on October 20, I900, the last farewells were said and the train plunged out into the darkness, bearing away the workman while his work remained behind. 104 PASTORATE OF REV. S. E. SLATER. CHAPTER XXIV. THE PASTORATE OF REV. S. E. SLATER. AS soon as the resignation of pastor Lentz was presented to the Joint Council, they began to take into consideration the desirabil- ity of getting an- other pastor. B. A. Floyd was7 elected a delegate to the Miami Syn- od to meet in Troy, O., October. 1900, and though the pastor was still in charge, his resig- nation had been accepted, to take effect at the end of that month, and he was looking out for the future. Af- ter some corre- l spondence and a few visits, a vote w _was taken on two brethren at once. inju dicious thing to do tas a verasy have resulted in a long division, but the minority sub- mitted more grace- fully than is usual Rmm under such circum- stances, and the p astor-elect prov- ing himself a most acceptable man, the work of the charge was soon in good working order and v e r y thing was moving along at s e. at pleasantly. Rev. Samuel RV .E LTR Edgar Slater, the new pastor, was born of Virginia ancestors, at Haley Station, Tenn., August 0i, 1859. He entered Pennsylvania College, at Gettysburg, Pa., in i88i, and graduated with honor there in i885. He then took a three years' course in the Theological Seminary at the same place and graduated in i888. He was licensed to preach by the West Pennsylvania Synod at its session at Newville, Pa., in I887, and he was ordained to the holy office of the ministry by the East Ohio Synod, at Millersburg, 0., in i 888. His first charge was in Guernsey and Noble Counties, Ohio, with his home at the village of Buffalo, and he was pastor there for about I05 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. two years. He was faithful to his duties as preacher and pastor and it was universally regretted when he left, as he was regarded as a young preacher of much promise. He went from there to Harlan, Ind., where he served three churches for a short time. In i89i he resigned and accepted a call to Burkittsville, Md., and Oc- tober I 5th of that year he married Miss M. M. Grubb, of Harlan, Ind., and they have made the further journey of life happily to- gether. He was here, as usual, faithful in his work, and served three churches altogether on the -House" estate, which has since become somewhat famous because of agitation looking to the an- nulling of the title of the present possessors, the refusal of the United States authorities to allow further agitation and the sharp reference made to the matter by a noted author in one of the most famous books of recent fiction. After a pastorate of nearly five years at Burkittsville, Brother Slater resigned, the resignation to take effect Feb. 23, 1896, and he was called to Blairsville, Pa. That charge had been vacant about one year when he went there, but he quickly rallied the people about him and did splendid work there for a little over two years. Then he accepted a call to Hunting- don, Pa. After a service there of fifteen months he resigned and went to his old home at Haley, Tenn., and in a short time he was called to the Boone County churches. He began his labors there as pastor January I, 190I. He was very kindly received by the people and his work moved off pleasantly from the start, even though that start was made at a season of the year very unfavorable for work in that section. As the year wore along there was increased interest and after holding special services in all the churches during the early fall, he had the pleasure of recording forty- four additional names of those received as communicant members of the church for the first year of his pastorate. The members received are a substantial gain to the working force of the charge and they will doubtless give new impetus to all parts of the work of the church. Mr. Slater is a preacher of great power and he brings the truth home with great directness and masterly appeal, and he backs up his preaching by a worthy Christian character which has well sustained him wherever he has labored, and there is every reason to predict for him a long and successful pastorate in the growing churches of Boone County. The active fathers of other years have passed away, but they have left noble sons who are capable in every way to carry on the work laid down by the fathers. No community anywhere can boast 106 PASTORATE OF REV. S. E. SLATER. I07 of more substantial citizens and while there is room for growth, there is every element needed to inspire hope and cause a faithful worker to press on with zeal. The old divisions have all passed away and for years the churches have all worked harmoniously together and the fu- ture is rich with promise without being burdened with serious cares. BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. CHAPTER XXV. THE PARSONAGE. IN the early history of the churches land was cheap and there would have been no difficulty about getting the pastor a home, but Father Carpenter was a man of considerable means and he secured a large farm on which he lived. Indeed, as there was no stated salary at that time, a farm would have been practically a necessity. He had a large body of land of virgin soil in the fine beech woods near the pres- ent town of Florence. He also had a family of boys and slaves to clear and till his lands so that he never lacked for the comforts and he never craved the luxuries of life. Father Crigler, his successor, had just inherited a number of slaves from Madison County, Virginia, and he secured a farm by Hopeful Church and, like his predecessor, lived more independent than a king. It is well that he was thus situated, as the salary was very small and there were many hardships on the frontier which were only safely met by self-denial and persistent effort. Father Surface never moved his family to Boone County, but made his long journeys from Ohio on horseback. When Pastor Har- baugh came to the work the matter of a parsonage was soon agitated and three of the brethren, A. F. Crigler, William Rouse and Elisha Rouse, each agreed to set aside an acre of ground for parsonage pur- poses and accordingly the three acres were set aside and a parsonage built in 1854. It was located on the North Bend Road just above Limaburg, or Florence Cross Roads, as it was then called, and the pastors continued to reside there for about thirty years. It was sev- eral miles to the post office or store, but about midway between Hopeful and Hebron Churches. The latter was organized the same year the parsonage was built. There were vast stretches of wood land about the parsonage which in later years were a consideration with Pastor Barnett, who was very fond of hunting. As the years went by, the stores and post office came nearer, but the parsonage was on a wretched road and poorly located, and when it needed repair removal was agitated. A great hindrance to removal io8 THE PARSONAGRE. was the fact that the churches had no title to the land and as soon as there was another parsonage they would lose the title to their property. Joshua Zimmerman, who had been a very active member of Hope- ful Church, died in i852, and he had willed to the church three acres of ground on which to build a parsonage. It was located on the edge of his farm which was by the town now known as Florence. When the early settlers came, there was no town there. It was laid out in 1820 by Wilhelm Wilheut (afterwards written Wilhoit), Heinrich Cris- ler (properly Kreusler) and Jacob Kohner (Conner) and was only at first known as the -Cross Road." The next name was given by an old man, Benjamin Reiss, by whom it was called -Pole Cat" as there was a den of cats near by which gave the place a smell as well as a name. In i825 Dr. Madden, who was an active local politician, set- tled here and he called it Maddentown. In 1828, Conner married a Crissler and as he was the chief property owner of the place he gave it the name of Connersville, but as there was already a place of that name in the state, in Harrison County, it became necessary when they wanted a post office there to change the name again. So the place was incorporated in the year i 830 with the name of Florence, which it has continued to bear uninterruptedly to the present, though of recent years it has had the soubriquet of " Stringtown on the Pike" bestowed upon it by one of its most famous sons, John Uri Loyd, the famous chemist and7 noted author, who formerly played bare- footed in its streets and went from here to Cincinnati where he has made name and fame. The land given by Mr. Zim- merman was a very good location for a parsonage and it is said he had it in mind to do even better than he did, but his generosity was restrained by other parties. Talk of removing the parsonage never took any very definite shape until Rev. W. H. Keller was called as pastor and he would not accept the call with- out an agreement to build a new par- sonage. He even declined to move into JAMES M. UTZ. log BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. the old parsonage until a new one could be built, and that was a wise move, as complications arose about building, and it is rather certain that if he had been in the old parsonage the matter would have been allowed to drag along without a change. Pastor Keller moved into the old Carpenter homestead on the Lexington Pike and remained there until the new parsonage was ready to be occupied in August, 1895. The committee to look after the work of building was com- posed as follows: Joel Tanner, Eli Tanner, J. M. Utz, A. F. Crigler, T. A. Crigler, Eli Carpenter and Lewis Conrad. Cuts of Joel Tanner and Eli Carpenter appear elsewhere and on the preceding page we give a picture of J. M. Utz, who is a son-in-law of Joel Tanner, and who was quite an active member of the committee. He united with Hopeful Church, April I4, i866, and has since been an active member of the church, holding official position several terms. His wife and four children are all members of Hopeful Church. A committee to build a foundation and cellar and to solicit funds was also appointed as follows: E. L. Rouse, E. H. Snyder, John W. Utz, Ezra K. Tanner, Levi L. Tanner, and W. L. B. Rouse. A small barn was also built at that time for the pastor's use. For other partic- ulars the reader is referred to pages 85 and 89. After pastor Lentz took charge several smaller buildings were erected and the barn enlarged by adding twelve feet so that a shed for vehicles could be had. A garden was also provided and in i899 a porch was built in front of the parsonage at a cost of more than eighty dollars, chiefly through the efforts of " Uncle Noah Surface," who solicited the funds and did con- siderable work and supervised the whole affair. It will ]ong remain as one of the monuments of his zeal and fidelity in church work. He attended to the whole work and brought in a full itemized report show- ing where every penny was received and to what purpose it was ap- plied. The parsonage is a very suitable home for the pastor, and though some of its arrangements might be better it is creditable and comfortable. 1 I0 THE JOINT COUNCIL. CHAI'1ER XXVI. TlHE JOINT COUNCIL. At first Hopeful Church had only three deacons for officials but later elders were added and when the other churches, Hebron and Ebenezer, were organized they elected elders and deacons also and arrangements were made for them to meet in joint session. The pre- ceding pages show that they did not always have harmonious sessions, but in the main they got along very well together. When the writer took charge the _ joint meetings were held regularly twice a year, the last Saturday in February at Hope- fu1l Church and the last Saturday in August in either Hebron or Eben- ezer Church, the meetings b e i n g h elId alternately. At the August meeting there wvas always a great feast and a pleas- ant l ay spent to- gether, but in Feb- ruary they were a c c u s t o m e d to meet without lunch and adjourn some- time in the after- noon and go home for dinner. That was changed in a few years and the custom prevailed at all meetings to have great abun- dance of provisions furnished by the brethren of the church where the meeting was held. and the meetings M. P. BARLOW. were great social occasions as well as gatherings for business. Twenty-one regular meetings were held during the one pastorate and there was never any contention or any trouble of any kind, but the utmost harmony and good will prevailed. For a few years the trustees have been' received as members of the different councils and they have also met in joint council. The business has ever been conducted in a strictly business way and everything is done decently and in order. At the last regular meeting during the pastorate of H. Max. Lentz, the joint Council was I I I .0 4 .0t . N v o 3 m c4 .E oi 00 0 v 4-. z.. Vt - = . . Z54t . 0 0 q C4 o X e N 0 NC . P4, pi t .S, THE JOINT COUNCIL. composed as follows: Hopeful. Elders: John L. Rouse and N. C. Tanner. Deacons: B. A. Floyd, J. S. Surface, M. P. Barlow and Jeremiah Beemon. Trus- tees: J. H. Tanner, H. F. Utz and G. C. 13arlow. Hebron. Elders: T. P. Crissler and S. J. Rouse. Deacons: W. L. B. Rouse, J. W. Crigler, Win. G. Graves and R. C. McGlasson. Trustees: G. 0. Hafer, Wl. R. Rouse and T. A. Crigler. Ebenezer. Elders: Thomas Rice and D. B. Dobbins. Deacons: E. H. Sur- face, M. M. Tanner, J. B. Dixon and W. E. Dixon. Trustees: J. WV. Hogan, B. C. Surface and W. E. Glacken. B. A. Floyd has been chairman for many years and E. H. Surface was sec- retary for a long while, but he was at FRANK ROSSMAN. last relieved at his own earnest request and his brotherJ. S. Surface, was elected in his stead. M. P. Barlow was selected as treasurer, as successor to T. E. Dixon. Many of these had loyally stood the I test of service for years before the writer S had entered the charge, but a number of them united with the church during his pastorate and became officially con- nected with the work. The first of these was Frank Hossman, who was elected a deacon at Hebron, and he has always been an active member of that) church. M. P. Barlow was soon after elected a deacon at Hopeful and he was for a time the youngest member of the joint Council. Among others who accepted similar responsibilities were Louis Thompson, H. F. Utz, L. L. Tanner (received by w. E. OLACKEN. I I I 130ONE COUNTY HISTORY. letter; had formerly been a member but had removed to Missouri), T. J. Brown, Wim. G. Graves and R. C. McGlasson. The cut we give of the Joint Council was taken at a special meet- ing held at Hopeful Church, October 6, i9oo. All the members were present except W. E. Glacken and T. P. Crissler. The former is an active and growing member at Ebenezer and we are glad to be able to give a picture of him here. -Uncle Tommy" Crissler, as everybody has known him for years, has been in long service at Hebron and had been a member at Hopeful before Hebron Church was organized. Our sketch is defective in not having a cut of him, as he has had an active and honorable part in the work of the charge for many years. During 190i two pleasant meetings were held and the council, which is now working harmoniously with Rev. S. E. Slater, is com- posed as follows. Hopeful Church. Elders: J. L. Rouse and Ezra K. Tanner. Deacons: Jeremiah Beemon, B. A. Floyd, J. S. Surface and M1. P. Barlow. Trustees: H. 0. Rouse, G. C. Barlow and H. F. Utz. Hebron. Elders: J. XV. Rouse and J. W. Crigler. Deacons: MV. L. B. Rouse, WV. G. Graves, Frank Hossman and R. C. McGlasson. Trustees: G. 0. Hafer, T. A. Crigler and W. R. Rouse. Ebenezer. Elders: Thomas Rice and D. B. Dobbins. Deacons: E. H. Surface, J. B. Dixon, M. M. Tanner and W. E. Dixon. Trus- tees: J. WV. Hogan, B. C. Surface and W. E. Glacken. 11I4 PUBLIC WORSHIP. CHAPTER XXVII. PUBLIC WORSIIII', MUSIC, SUNDAV SCHOOLS AND THE BURIAL OF THE DEAD. IN the early history special days received some notice and the first organization was effected on - Drei Konig's Tag " I 8o6. The church year seemed to have been noticed to some extent and some communions are recorded as having taken place on Whitsuntide. Later very little reference was had to the church year or to any of the church festivals except Christmas, and the observance of that was led bf the world which wants a holiday at that time. At one time many of the members owned slaves and these all claimed a week at Christ- mas, and there was a vast amount of celebration, though not very much religious observance. Ordinarily there were two services a month at each church and two communions a year. When the writer went to the work he thought surely Easter, at least, ought not to pass without recognition. He appointed communion service at Hopeful for Easter Sunday, and there was one buggy there besides his own. The day was fair enough, but the roads were well nigh impassable. Some men walked through the fields in heavy boots, but the congrega- tion was decidedly small. Pastor Slater has now decided to try to make a change, and as there has been some improvement in the roads of recent years, he may have partial success, but there is not likely to be a very large attendance at winter communion. The move, how- ever, is a proper one and the pastor deserves success in carrying it out. The churches are isolated and very few of the members have ever worshipped in other Lutheran churches and no distinctively Luth- eran service has ever been used. For a brief while, during the pastor- ate of the writer, a part of the old Washington service was used, but it never had much favor and it was very properly discontinued. As there were but two regular services a month at each church and the roads and weather interfered much with regular attendance through the year, it seemed only right to use the general custom of special services to try to edify believers and reach outsiders. That had been a general custom in the past and the writer continued it and thus held thirty-two meetings while he was pastor, ranging from two to four weeks in length. He usually did the preaching himself and in I1 I BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. I 890, when he preached for a month at Hebron, when it was often rainy and bad, he missed but one night's service, or rather but one night, as there was no service, and he drove home every night except one. Two horses were used, and both were doubtless glad when the meeting was over. The brethren from Cincinnati would sometimes come out and preach an evening or so, and Rev. Dr. Bell, Rev. J. S. Simon, Rev. D)r. Ziegler, Rev. Dr. Wagner, Rev. G. G. Clark, Rev. J. M. Bram- kamp and Rev. F. C. Longaker rendered assistance in this way at one time or another. Besides these, Rev. Ezra Keller, Rev. F. G. Got- waid, Rev. J. Kent Rizer, and others rendered a similar service for a sermon or two when pres- ent by visit or by request. A few times help was se- cured for practically an entire meeting. Rev. S. E. Greena- walt and Rev. L. S. Keyser were each present for about a week, and in 1894 Rev. C. W. Sifferd preached very arc- ceptably fo r t two wte eok s at Hope- gav Ch ury He preached to crowded houses at night and we visited through the day in rather a sopcial way, and' ever did two work- ers put in a fort- night with greater enjoyment and with very good results. As the pastor was just recovering from an ilines when he, 'Wished to begin his. meetings in a897, all three churches secured help. Rev. C. We. Sif erd, D. D., helped a ga in at Hopeful C h u rch, and another delight- REV. C. W. SIFFERD, D. D. ful time was had. Rev. F. M. Porch was present at Ebenezer to which reference is made in Chapter XIX, and Rev. J. S. Simon assisted at Hebron. Brother Simon usually returned home during the day and did not get to see the people so much at short range, but he gave them very able ser- mons in the most excellent way and helped to edify those present. Rev. D. S. Lentz came to the parsonage in 19goo and helped with the special services at Hopeful and Hebron Churches, while at the same time being a very pleasant visitor. The meetings were always conducted along similar lines. They were preceded by a season of prayer and singing and then there was a I 1 6 PUBLIC WORSHIP. 1 17 sermon and frequent appeals to the unconverted to unite with the church. Organs were early introduced, but not without some opposition which has long since died away. The music at Hebron has been helped at times with a cornet, but as a rule the organ has been the only help to the voice. From the first the singing was led by a pre- centor, or chorister, and there was no organized choir, and that plan has been practically continued to the present, and in the absence of special music the plan has many merits and produces the best of results with as little trouble and annoyance as any system we have ever seen tried. During recent years, B. A. Floyd at Hopeful, Jacob Tanner and Wal- ter Crigler at Hebron, and M. L. Tanner at Ebenezer, have rendered faithful and acceptable service, while E. K. Tanner has often been Sun- day School chorister and has helped very materially at other times as a substitute in church, especially at Ebenezer. The churches have never had more faithful organists than some of those in active service. M iss Mollie Conner, Mrs. \Walter Crigler and Mrs. H. F. Utz deserve spe- cial mention among those who never missed a service when it was possible to be present and rendered faithful and prompt service. Mrs. Effie Hograffa formerly rendered similar service, but of recent years for various reasons could not be so regular. Many other faithful workers deserve special mention for services rendered the church at no small sacrifice to themselves, but the mention must wait for the time of the reward which may be slow, but it is sure to come. It is true in Boone County, as in all other counties, that those who need preaching most have the greatest number of absences against them, but there are enough faithful ones to give the pastor much encouragement. The regulars are needed everywhere, those who will attend at all times and try in every way to reclaim a lost world and glorify their Redeemer. For many'years after the church was first organized there were no Sunday Schools, but after the young people began to speak English there was a demand for such schools, and A. F. Crigler, Noah Surface and others took an active interest in the matter, while even previous to the organization of Hebron Church there had been a school in that vicinity. Peter Schindler, who was there for a time, was the first su- perintendent, and Jacob Tanner served in that capacity for a great many years, and was known far and near as a worker in that school. Noah Surface organized and carried on schools at Union and Walton and he was an active and persistent worker for many years. Indeed he is still a very regular attendant and he does not allow his zeal to cool on account of increasing years. A long list of faithful attendants BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. and teachers might be mentioned, but it would not cover then all the real heroes in the work carried on so faithfully. For some years there was a school at Ebenezer Church for a few months of each year, but in later years it has been abandoned altogether. The other churches continue their schools, Hebron for about nine months an- nually and Hopeful for six, and the rest of the time is used for hiber- nating. The work under such circumstances must of necessity be desultory or fragmentary and unsatisfactory, but it is not without some good results and it needs to be kept up faithfully in the hope that the future may have even better things in store. The tendency through- out the country for the lands to come into the hands of a few large landholders, instead of in the possession of an independent middle class, has been slower in its work in Boone County than in most places, but the tendency is showing itself and that with disadvantage to every phase of Christian work, but to none with greater emphasis than to the Sunday School. We cannot here go into all the causes, but any one who has kept his eyes open and his mind informed in recent years cannot fail to notice in this tendency one of the greatest foes to the welfare and happiness of the people, and to the success and efficiency of the country churches. The great value of the country churches has been too little understood and appreciated. Most of the eminent men in business and public life have come from the country, and almost without exception they received their training in the country churches and Sunday Schools. The present prevalent tendency to have all the lands, or at least a large part of them, owned by a few men, and to have the work all done by machinery, and much of it run by men with little more care for moral questions than has the machinery itself, bodes no good for the church at large. It is well to keep courage and faith and every true follower of Christ needs to be faithful unto the end, but it is not wise on the other hand to be blind to manifest tendencies or to be indifferent in the effort to counteract them. For many years after the first church was erected, the dead were buried in private grounds, usually in some spot on the old homesteads. As a result graves are scattered all about the country, and some of them are turned into pasture fields and most of the places where the dead were buried are very much neglected. The old burial ground where Father Carpenter was buried was used extensively, but for years it was greatly neglected. A few years ago it was partially cleaned up and a fence was put around it, and it has some chance of being preserved for a while yet. The general tendency is to neglect I I 8 BURIAL OF THE DEAD. I1 these old burial places, and it is only a question of time when they will be in complete decay. In later years the idea of a church burying ground wvas agi- tated. and in i868 a charter was granted for a cemetery at Hopeful Church. Ground was purchased and laid off in lots, and these were sold as in cemeter- ies kept for profit, but the money was retained to improve the cemetery and enlarge it from time to time as might be necessary. This fund now amounts to over one thousand dollars and the inter- est plays no small part in keeping the ground in repair. At Hebron Church ground was also secured and a cemne- tery laid out in much the same way, and a large number of persons have been -buried there. At Ebenezer there is no MRS IABE FANCS ROUE)DELH.chartered cemetery, though some friends MRS IABE FANCS ROUE)DELB.there have offered to give generous help if such a work were undertaken. A pri -______ ___ vate burying ground near the church has -__ a large number of graves and it is likely to be further enlarged. The usual cus- torn is to have a sermon in church in connection with burials, though in many k cases, especially where interment is to be in a private ,round, the service is in the home, or in some cases, for various reasons, omitted altogether, though this is seldom the case wvith believers. Sad but precious memories cluster about the resting places of the departed and it seems very fitting that they should rest near the altars where they have worshipped, until the changed bodies shall be called from the dust. The writer conducted over one hun- dred funerals while he was pastor of the Boone County churches, and the burial -___ __ places show that former pastors had FRED. SHAFFER BRITTENIHELM. I I 9 120 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. reqtiently the same sad duties to perform. A. F. Rouse was the only member of the council among that number, but a number of devout and faithful members went to their reward. The pastor was seldom CAPT. W. H. BAKER. disabled or away from his work, but in the brief periods of absence there were always one or more victims of death. Mrs. Fannie Delph died March 21I, 1897, while the pastor was recuperating in North Car- olina. Funeral services were conducted by Rev. E. R. Wagner, Ph.D., BURIAL OF THE DJEAD). of Cincinnati. Mrs. Delph was a great sufferer but never complained. She was quiet and faithful in her Christian duties and though afflicted with cancer for three years, she never revealed the sufferings or the cause thereof until she was no longer able to wait upon herself. Then she gave full directions about everything and expressed herself as ready to go whenever called. Many of those who passed away were young in years, some of them only tender buds in the garden of the Lord. Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Surface were rendered childless in a period of a few years by the loss of three precious children from their home on earth, and others suLf- fered similar losses, though the strokes were not so oft repeated. Mr. and Mrs. WNm. Brittenhelm, of Walton, lost a little child June 30, 1898, when only thirteen months old. Mrs. Brittenhelm was a daughter of Benjamin F. Tanner, of Crescent, a member of Ebenezer Church. The last twelve years have furnished a large angelic choir and the increase above is constant while one friend after another departs from the scenes of earthly activity. We give on the preceding page the cut of another, who, although he was not a member of the Lutheran church, was well known by nearly all the members and was a personal friend to a great many. Capt. WV. H. Baker was a man prominent and influential in Boone County for a great many years. He was elected sheriff of the county when he was not yet twenty-four years old and he was ever after active and influential in political affairs of the county. In 1892 he helped to or- ganize the Erlanger Bank, and was its successful president until his death, in January, i90i, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. I 2 1 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. CHAPTER XXVIII. WOMAN'S MISSIONARY SOCIETY AND YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES. A S previously noted, a missionary society was organized in the pastor- ate of Rev. W. C. B3arnett, but it existed but a very short while and has left no records. In 1890, the matter was agitated again and several meetings were appointed to consider organization, but only four persons came together. The third appointment brought only as many as the first, but there had been changes so that in three meetings of four each there had been eight per- sons present. It was determined at the third m eetingby the advice of the pastor to or- ganize, and the or- ganization wvas ac- cordi ngcly u nder - taken August 20, I1890. Mrs. M. Rena Lentz was elected president; Mrs. Line TFanner, \vice-pre sident; Mrs. Mallie Bee- m 0 n , treasurer; Mrs. Emma V. (Tanner) Rouse, recording secre- tary, and Mrs. Liz- zie (Hogan) Con- rad, corresponding secretary. It wvas decided to meet twice a month and to try to have -the society at once in working s h a p e; and, at the firs meeting, August 30, there were fif- l teen members. The number continued to increase until at the close of the first year the society had twenty-six ac- MRS. MARY SERENA LENTZ. tive and six honor- ary members.. The meetings were all appointed at Hopeful Church, but the design was to have one society for all the churches. Ebenezer mem- bers joined almost proportionately the same as Hopeful, but only one member, Mrs. Mary J. Graves, belonged to Hebron ,though a few male members of the church were honorary members. A separate society at Hebron now might be an advantage to all concerned. It I 922 MISSIONARY SOCIETY. would take little from the other society and might Stimulate it to a little more of its former activity. Mrs. Lentz, the first president, had previously organized new societies at Mt. Morris, Ill.,and Fairfield, Ia., where she had been the first president and had pushed the work with zeal. She took hold of the work here with much earnestness and as the work was new it naturally excited some interest as well as opposition and no years of effort were more fruitful than the first ones to which she gave persistent ef- fort. At the end of two years she was asked to lay her cares aside and, going fefrom the friends and the work she I loved, to join the ransomed throng MRS MALIEBEEON. above. There were many expressions MRS MLLIE EEMONof sympathy for the living and esteem for the dead. We give here a brief extract from an old friend who, knew her well for many years and was ______ associated with her in the first society she helped to start. "It seems but a short time since she was wvith us and we esteemed her highly,-but a few fleeting, years and now she is gone. How mem- ory travels backward over the pathway recalling here and there little bits of conversation, grave and gay quiet mo- ments when each read the other's heart and knew what wish was dearest; long, bright days when she went in and out among us, the center of Christian gen- tleness and womanly sweetness !We I had many tastes in common-we ad- mired the same flowers, we loved the same friends ; today she dwells where j____________ friends are always constant, amid the fadeless flowers of immortality. Dear, MRS. EMMA V. (TANNER) ROUSE. BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. patient, faithful woman-I shall al- ways be glad that I knew her-her voice was ever ready to aid with hope- ful, cheering words, her hands were always waiting to lift another's burden. Serena! how well her name suited her-dear, gentle, serene spirit, sing- ing today with the ransomed." Mrs. Line Tanner became president after the death of Mrs. Lentz and served for over two years. She continued faithful in the work and yet retains her membership and interest. Mrs. Beemon was the first and Nnd Antearnte only treasurer the society has had and she still retains her membership and interest in the work. Mrs. Emma Tanner, who a little nd h dlater was married to S. J. Rouse, took MRS. MARY (TANNER) SURFACE. a very active interest in the society from its organization and often helped it ,out of financial stress by generous help. IMcers. "Dink" Surface was one of the active charter members of the society, and "Aunt Media" Tanner never al- lowed anybody to work more faithfully than herself, and the same might be said -of her activity in other phases of the work of the church. Aunt Mary Surface, Mrs. Ada Surface, Mrs. J. W. Hogan, Mrs. E. H. Surface, and a number of ,others were active members of the so- ciety. There was a large number of the members who did not attend the meet- ings with much regularity, but many of them still took interest in the work and helped in various undertakings to increase the much needed funds in the great work of the society. The society MRS. S. D. SURFACE. 124 MISSIONARY SOCIETY. did not " sit and sing itself away" in any stage of its existence, but was always awake to the object of its existence even though there was often far too much neglect of the meetings of the society. In the early part of i895, Mrs. Laura M. Lentz, who had come to take an active and faithful part in the work of the pastor, became president and she served in that capacity until her removal to Shepherdstown, W.Va. The meetings had usually been held at the church, but as they were poorly attended she appointed them at various other places, but despite every effort there was a small attendance as there had been for some years and continues until the present. The attendance never was large but in the earlier years it had more of regularity and a revival of in- terest is much needed to enlarge and continue the noble work accom- plished du r i bn g these few years. There h as been contributed for benevolence a total of 640. The good to be accomplished by such an amount cannot be measur- ed by any of the records of time. A steady, active, prayerftl interest on the part of the faithful members of the church can do still greater things in the yearsto come and the great har- vest can only be known when the reapers are all gathered h o m e and the workers shall come bring- ing their sheaves with them. The writer sev- eral times made the v e suggestion that the young people of MRS. LAURA M. LENTZ. Hebron organize a young people's so- ciety and meetings were held for a time without any regular organization, but in Novem- ber, i 895, the society was organized as a Luther Alliance of Christian Endeavor and the society has held regular meetings ever since and now has a membership of fifty-five. The religious meetings are held every first and third Sunday evening at 7:30 and the social meetings are held on Saturday evening preceding the second Sunday of the month. The present officers are: Miss Grace Bullock, president; WN. 0. Hafer, vice-president; Miss Neva Hafer, recording secretary; Walter Crigler, corresponding secretary ; Edgar Graves, treasurer; J. B. Crigler, warden. I 2 5 6BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. MR and MRS. EZRA K. TANNER. MRS. MEDIA TANNER. The meetings are well attended and the interest keeps up well. There have been some small contributions but the society has never developed its benevolent spirit very much, though it has served a very useful purpose in some other directions. A similar society was organized at Hopeful a little later, but it had only a short and not very active life. The conditions there are, nothing Jike so favorable as at Hebron and it is not likely that a society could do much there for some years yet, unless changes are faster than usual, though there seems to be marked improvement in the work there during the first year of the new century. 126 RELATION TO OTHER DENOMINATIONS. CHAPTER XXIX. SYNODICAL RELATIONS AND RELATION TO OTHER DENOMINATIONS. f2ATHER CARPENTER was a member of the Ministerium of Penn- sylvania and he retained his connection with that body. Father Crigler was a member of the West Pennsylvania Synod when called, but he became a member of the Synod of the West, which was organ- ized at Louisville, Ky., October, I835, and he was elected the first president. When Father Surface became pastor in I842, he was a member of the Ohio Synod and retained his membership with that body for a few years, until the Miami Synod was organized in I844, when he cast his lot with that synod and was elected its first treasurer. In I854, when a meeting was called at Jeffersontown, Ky., to consider the propriety of organizing a new synod, Pastor Harbaugh was absent on a visit to Virginia and other points east. He, however, wrote the brethren a letter favoring organization and two months later, May I I, i854, he was present at Louisville at the first meeting of the Ken- tucky Synod, and he was elected the first treasurer. The next year, May, 1855, the Synod of Kentucky held its second meeting at Hope- ful Church. When the Synod of Kentucky disintegrated during the Civil War, the congregations came back into the Miami Synod, but when Pastor Barnett took charge he declined for a time to connect himself with the Miami Synod and he created in the minds of some prejudices which were by no means entirely removed when he after- wards was united with the Miami Synod where the congregations con- tinued to belong. When pastor Lentz took charge there were those who still wished the churches could belong to some Southern synod as the churches and the pastor were not supposed to have rightful standing in the Miami Synod. A few years convinced them of the error of that belief as their pastor was cordially received and kindly honored and the churches treated with every courtesy, so that the synodical relation is most congenial and harmonious in every way. The Lutheran Churches continued to use the German language after its use had generally ceased in other churches and Hopeful was long known as the "Dutch" Church. The worthy and substantial 12 7 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. membership won esteem and the other churches laid aside any unrea- sonable prejudices they may have had and epithets were not bestowed upon the Lutherans in later years. On the other hand the large num- ber of Baptists in the county and the fact that some of the pastors made no effort to cultivate a Lutheran spirit and the further fact that some of the members were ashamed of their "Dutch" (German) origin led the churches in great measure to try to be "like the other churches." Many parents neglected the baptism of their children and advocated non-Lutheran if not un-Lutheran customs of various kinds. Many speak of baptism as "sprinkling," having taken their cue from immersionists who speak of "baptism" and -sprinkling" and lead Lutherans to do the same, whereas if they are to be consistent and use slang names or worse they should say " baptism" and "dipping." It is not very generous of either party to use terms of reproach, but surely the Lutheran who would rightly appreciate his church ought to love his church and its customs and be proud of its origin and its work. They were not all of the opinion of Father Harbaugh who had said in his sermon, "We are of German origin and we are proud of it. Our forefathers came from the land of Luther and we are their pious sons. We are not like an ungrateful child who denies or despises his mother." Catechization and anything distinctive of Lutheranism had little favor with the majority and there has usually been the desire to have the order of worship and the methods of work as near like the other denominations as possible without any reference to historical relations. With all this there is much Lutheran love and loyalty and there is wholesome piety and a devoted service on the part of many which makes a pastor feel that he has Aarons and Hurs to hold up his hands. Some of the most active members of the churches have been re- ceived from other denominations and there is a friendly feeling for all faithful servants of Christ. There is not much moving around and the charge sustains comparatively few losses in that way. Some years ago Mr. and Mrs. John C. Tanner, active members of Hebron Church, moved to Erlanger, and they have always taken an active part in the work of the church there. For some years they held their membership in the Methodist Church, but in i896, according to previous promise, they united with Hebron Church again by letter. They have not been able to attend at Hebron much, but they feel at home among kindred and friends there and their hearts are in that work. They are related to a large number of other workers in that and Hopeful Church. I2 8 RELATION TO OTHER DENOMINATIONS. There has been some controversy at times, but usually the rela- tions between the Lutheran and the other churches of Boone County have been very cordial, and friendly in every way. During the pastor- ate of the writer, there were many changes in most of the pulpits about him; but for eight years Rev. W. H. Davis was pastor of the neighboring Presbyterian churches and the relation with him and his people was ever very pleasant and mutually honorable. He was a man of marked scholarship and great consecration to his work. He had a few strong sermons on the subject of "Scriptural Baptism" and at one i b MR. JOHN CYRUS TANNER. MRS. EMILY FRANCES (CRIGLER) TANNER. time when there was a series of meetings in progress at Hopeful Church, he had promised to come and preach on that subject. The affair was advertised, and on the appointed evening there was a very large crowd present. Among others who were attracted was Rev. G. W. Watkins, who believed that immersion and immersion only was true baptism. Brother Davis not putting in an appearance, the pastor was somewhat embarrassed, as he had made no preparation himself, and in his ex- tremity he appealed to Brother Watkins to preach. He consented, but asked, with a twinkle in his eye, whether he should preach on the subject of baptism. He preached a most excellent discourse and ever held a warm place in the affection and esteem of the congregation. 129 BOONE COUNTY HISTORY. After all, the subjects of agreement are many among Christian people of every kind and a little patience and forbearance will allow them to get alongr together very pleasantly. This ought not to involve or imply any sacrifice of principle. Our own church ought to be dearer than any other and we ought to learn to love her doctrines land life and cherish them as among the dearest things of earth.v Lteant z Th w evote. d f tand lal churches which are deotyped ad ptya ito the teachings of the historic church, which practice cate- chetical instruction and Christian nur- ture and discipline, adsteadfastly ad- here to the customs and teachings of the fathers will deserve and receive as cor- dial recognition from others as they will by sacrificing every- thing distinctive that they may be " like others." The glory of the L ut h eran church has been to exalt Christ and his ordinances a Kd to bring, the individual into a saving rela- tion of faith to the blessed Savior. Her type of piety is of the faithful, persist- ent kind, which is REV. W. Hi. DAVIS. not raised up by an emotion to-day, which has burned out by to-morrow. She believes in cultivating the solid and substantial traits of character, and she has a mission in the world, a grand and glorious mission, which will never be carried out until the church militant becomes the church triumphant and the great hosts of the King shall possess the kingdom. I 30