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Kentucky: mother of governors / by John Wilson Townsend. Townsend, John Wilson, 1885-1968. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-82-27254900 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Kentucky: mother of governors / by John Wilson Townsend. Townsend, John Wilson, 1885-1968. Kentucky State Historical Society, Frankfort, Ky. : 1910. 50 p. ; port. ; 24 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1993. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN02839.08 KUK) Printing Master B92-82. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Kentucky Biography. KENTUCKY HISTORICAL SERIES EDITED BY MRS. JENNIE C. MORTON This page in the original text is blank. Kentucky: Mother of Governors U JOHN WILSON TOWNSEND Kentucky: Mother of Governors By JOHN WILSON TOWNSEND Author of "Richard Hickman Menefee" "Kentuckians in History and Literature" "The Life of James Francis Leonard" Etc The Kentucky State Historical Society Frankfort, Kentucky 1910 This page in the original text is blank. Editor's Introduction HIS, THE FIRST volume of the Kentucky 0 Historical Series-a series just inaugur- ated by the Kentucky State Historical Society-is a study of Kentucky initiative in the United States as exemplified in these more than one hundred sons of our Commonwealth who have served as Governors of other States and territories. Mr. Townsend has realized that the list is the important thing, and he has made an earnest effort to have it complete. For this reason he has been content with sketches in miniature of each executive, knowing that, had he attempted anything like an adequate notice of each man, his paper would have become an octavo. The Editor of this series believes that "Kentucky: Mother of Governors" is a creditable piece of work; something new under the Kentucky history sun; and well suited to be the first in a series of books that the Kentucky State Historical Society will issue from time to time. MRS. JENNIE C. MORTON The Kentucky State Historical Society Frankfort, Kentucky This page in the original text is blank. Author's Prefatory Note _a HIS PAPER IS the result of a summer 0 day's browsing in a public library. The writer was bent on being amused, but he was amazed to find that so many Kentuckians had served as governors of other states and territories. This amazement grew into genuine interest and, for more than two years, at different times, the writer developed the theme until he had it in some sort of shape for a paper. Though only completed in its present form, "Kentucky: Mother of Governors" has been read before the Filson Club, of Louisville, and the Ohio Valley Historical Association; and it was published some months ago in The Register, and in the third annual report of the Ohio Valley Historical Associa- tion. This list may not even now be complete, but, if it is not, the writer here abandons the task as unfinishable-for him. JOHN WILSON TOWNSEND The Kentucky State Historical Society Frankfort, Kentucky 26 September, 1910 This page in the original text is blank. To L. M. 0. of Kentucky This page in the original text is blank. Kentucky: Mother of Governors V IRGINIA, THE MOTHER of Presidents; i J Kentucky, the mother of Governors! And it is in a larger, truer sense that Kentucky is the mother of Governors, than it is that Virginia is the mother of Presidents. It has been many years since the Old Dominion furnished a President-and she has furnished but five in all- while the Bluegrass State has been making governors for her sister States since the Republic was founded. Indeed, the time has come for Virginia to relinquish her famous title to her sister, Ohio, the mother of eight presidents. To be exact, Kentucky has given one hundred and five executives to twenty-six Commonwealths or territories. This count, however, regards a Ken- tuckian and a term of office as synonymous; but it does not include Justice John Boyle, who declined the governship of Illinois territory in 1809; nor William 0. Butler, who refused to govern the territory of Nebraska in 1855; nor James Birney, son of the great James Gillespie Birney, who was Lieutenant-Governor of Michigan in 1860; nor Governor Moses Wisner, of Michigan, who died in Kentucky; nor does it include the brilliant Jesse D. Bright, Lieutenant-Governor of Indiana in 1841, and a citizen of Kentucky for many years. By a Kentuckian the present writer means a native son; an adopted son who has lived at least 15 Kentutcky: Mother of Governors. ten years in Kentucky; one who has lived but a few years in this State, a sojourner; and one who was educated in whole or in part in Kentucky, the college claim. Under these four heads-although, perhaps, admitting that the first two are the only legitimate claims a State can hold upon a man or woman, and that the last two are merely interesting-the theme will be considered. The Kentuckians who were to the manor born will be discussed first, beginning with Missouri, because it is generally known that more sons of Kentucky have occupied the gubernatorial chair of that State than of any other. Missouri Lilburn W. Boggs was born in Kentucky in 1798. He saw much real service in the War of 1812; and he settled in Missouri in 1816. Boggs prepared him- self for the governorship by serving several terms in the Missouri Legislature. He was elected Governor in 1836, and his administration is noted for the vigor with which he put down the Mormon outbreaks. Several years before his death, Governor Boggs removed to California, where he died in 1861. The next Kentuckian to win the governorship was Thomas Reynolds, who was born in Bracken county, Kentucky, March 12, 1796. He studied law and, at the age of twenty-one years, he emigrated to Illinois. In 1828 he removed to Missouri, where he was soon sent to the Legislature. In 1840 Reynolds was elected Governor, and a few months before the expiration of his term he committed suicide. The eighth Governor of Missouri was John C. Edwards, a Kentuckian-born. Edwards was edu- cated in Tennessee and he then emigrated to Missouri. In 1845, at the age of thirty-nine years, he was elected Governor-one of the youngest men who ever held the office in Missouri. At the conclu- sion of his term, Governor Edwards removed to California, in which State he died in 1888. Claiborne F. Jackson was born in Fleming county, Kentucky, in 1807, and removed to Missouri at the age of twenty-five years and enlisted for ser- vice in the Black Hawk War. He was elected Gov- 17 Kentucky: Mother of Governors. ernor of the State in 1860. He was a Southern sympathizer and he allowed his enemies to drive him from the State Capitol, ana the Legislature to depose him from his office. Governor Jackson died at Little Rock, Ark., late in the year 1861. Missouri's seventeenth Governor, Benjamin Gratz Brown, was born in Lexington, Ky., May 28, 1826. He was graduated from Transylvania and Yale Universities. In 1851 Brown emigrated to Missouri, where he spent the subsequent twenty years in journalism, law, and duelling. In 1863 he was elected to the United States Senate. Brown served four years in the Senate and, in 1870, he was elected Governor of Missouri. Governor Brown was Horace Greeley's running mate for the Presidency in 1872, and after his defeat he resumed the practice of law in St. Louis, in which city he died in 1885. He was the most interesting man who has ever governed Missouri, we should say. Silas Woodson, a native of Knox county, Ken- tucky, was Brown's successor in the executive chair of Missouri. Woodson was a farmer's boy, attending the county schools of his day, and finishing his education with a desultory study of the law. At the age of twenty-one, he was admitted to the bar. The few years following he spent in the Kentucky Legislature and as a circuit attorney. In 1849 he was a delegate to the third Kentucky Constitutional Convention. A few years later, Woodson removed to Missouri and, in 1872, he was elected Governor. He died in St. Joseph, Mo., October 9, 1896. 18 Kentucky: Mother of Governrf8. Charles H. Hardin, the nineteenth Governor of Missouri, was born in Trimble county, Kentucky, in 1820. His father was preparing to quit this State at the time of the son's birth, so Charles celebrated his first birthday in Missouri. He began the practice of law at Fulton, Mo., in 1843. Thirty years later- then a man of wealth-he handsomely endowed Hardin Female College at Fulton. In 1874 Hardin was elected Governor of Missouri. Thomas T. Crittenden was born in Shelby county, Kentucky, in 1832, and he was graduated at Centre College, Danville, in the famous class of '55. He studied law at Frankfort under his celebrated uncle, John J. Crittenden, and he then went to Missouri to practice. In 1880 Crittenden was elected Governor of Missouri. He successfully eradicated the Jesse James gang during his administration. At the expiration of his term of office, he resumed the practice of law in Kansas City. Governor Crittenden died only a few months ago. The twenty-third Governor of Missouri, David R. Francis, first saw the light in Richmond, Ky., October 1, 1850. At the age of sixteen years, Francis went to St. Louis. After having finished his educa- tion, he engaged in the commission business. He was elected mayor of St. Louis in 1885 and, four years later, began his term as Governor. Governor Francis was Secretary of the Interior in Cleveland's second Cabinet and, in 1904, he served as president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Governor 19 Kentucky: Mother of Gaverno'rs. Francis is one of the most representative citizens in the Mississippi Valley. Governor Francis' successor, William J. Stone, was also born in Richmond, Ky., in 1848. At the age of fifteen years, he removed to Columbia, Mo., and completed his education at the State University there. In 1892 Stone was elected Governor of Missouri, and six years ago he was sent to the United States Senate to succeed that other distin- guished son of Kentucky, George G. Vest. Here we have ten native Kentuckians who have been governors of Missouri. 20 Illinois On February 3, 1809, Illinois territory was organized and, twenty days later, President Madison appointed Nathaniel Pope secretary of the territory. Pope was born in Louisville, Ky., in 1784, and he was graduated from Transylvania University in 1806. He shortly afterward settled as a lawyer in Ste. Genevieve, Missouri-a little town that also attracted Henry Dodge, afterward Governor of Wisconsin, and George W. Jones, afterward United States Senator from Iowa. On April 25, 1809, Pope took the oath of office as secretary of Illinois terri- tory and, as Governor-elect Edwards did not reach the Capitol until June 11, Secretary Pope was acting Governor from April 25 to June 11-nearly seven weeks. Pope was the territory's delegate in the Fourteenth and Fifteen Congresses, and from 1818 until his death at St. Louis, in 1850, he was United States Judge for the District of Illinois. The fifth Governor of Illinois, Joseph Duncan, was born at Paris, Ky., in 1789. Duncan served gallantly in the War of 1812, and in 1818 he removed to Illinois. In 1834 he was elected Governor of the State. At the conclusion of his term, Governor Duncan returned to Jacksonville, Ill., where he sperrt the remainder of his life. Governor Duncan's successor, Thomas Carlin, was born near Frankfort, Ky., in 1789-the same year that gave his predecessor birth. When Carlin was eleven years of age, his family removed to 21 Kentucky: Mother of Gouernors. Missouri and later to Illinois. He served his adopted State as Governor, and died in 1852. The eleventh Governor of Illinois was a Ken- tuckian to the core, Richard Yates, born at Warsaw, Ky., January 18, 1818. Yates received part of his academic training at Georgetown College, George- town, Ky., and then graduated in law at Transyl- vania. He removed to Illinois to practice. In 1858 Yates took the stump for Lincoln against Douglas for the Presidency. He was elected Governor of the State two years later and he is famous as the "War Governor" of Illinois. At the close of his term Governor Yates resumed the practice of law. He died in St. Louis, November 27, 1873. Governor Yates' son, Richard, was the twenty-fourth Governor of Illinois. Illinois' twelfth, fourteenth and eighteenth Governor was one man, and a Kentuckian, Richard J. Oglesby. He was born in Oldham county, Ken- tucky, July 25, 1824. Left an orphan at eight years of age, he went to Illinois in 1835, where he attended school for a short time. Oglesby studied law and was admitted to the bar. At the close of the Mexican War-in which he took a splendid part-he attended a law school in Louisville for a year and then went to California as a forty-niner. Oglesby rose to the rank of general in the Civil War. A thrilling, timely speech made him the logical candidate for Governor of Illinois in 1864, and he was elected by a magnifi- cent majority. His second term as Governor was interrupted by his election to the United States 22 Kentucky: Mother of Governors Senate. In 1884 he was for the third time elected Governor. Governor ("Uncle Dick") Oglesby died at Elkhart, Ill., April 24, 1899. John M. Palmer, thirteenth Governor of Illinois, was born in Scott county, Ky., in 1817. When he was fifteen years old, his father removed to Illinois. Palmer was unable to complete his college course because of the lack of funds, but he studied at home and was admitted to the bar in 1839. He was a brave soldier during the Civil War, and in 1868 he was elected Governor of Illinois, succeeding Oglesby. He had the great Chicago fire of 1871 to handle during his administration. In 1891 Palmer was sent to the United States Senate and, five years later, he made the race for the Presidency on the gold Democrat ticket. His running mate was the old Kentucky Governor, General S. B. Buckner. Of course, they were overwhelmingly beaten. Governor Palmer died at Springfield, Ill., September 25, 1900. Some eight years ago his autobiography appeared. Shelby M. Cullom, sixteenth and seventeenth Governor of Illinois, was born in Wayne county, Kentucky, in 1829. When a boy of tender years, he removed to Tazewell county, Illinois. Cullom studied law and he was early elected to the State Legislature. In 1864 he was elected to Congress, and he has been a member of that body ever since, except the six years he served as Governor (1876-1882), and a short time he was engaged in the banking business. Senator Cullom's solid, practical mind appeals to all men. 23 Indiana Among the States that have been governed by Kentuckians, in point of numbers, Indiana ranks third. The fourth State Governor of Indiana was James B. Ray, a native of Jefferson county, Ken- tucky. Ray studied law and was admitted to the Cincinnati bar. He later removed to Indiana, where he was elected Governor in 1826. Governor Ray made an able executive, being especially interested in the internal improvements of the State. He died in Cincinnati in 1848. Henry Smith Lane, Indiana's thirteenth Gov- ernor, was born in Montgomery county, Kentucky, in 1811. He was educated in his native county and, in 1834, he removed to Indiana. Lane was elected Governor in 1860, but he had served only four days when he was sent to the United States Senate. Senator Lane died in Crawfordsville, Ind., June 18, 1881. The twenty-third Governor of Indiana, Claude Matthews, was a native of Bath county, Kentucky, born in 1845. A few years after the death of his mother, his father married the second time and removed his family to Maysville, Ky. Matthews prepared for college and entered old Centre at Dan- ville, graduating in 1867. In the following year he went to Indiana. Matthews was elected Governor in 1892. He was a Free Silver Democrat and a prominent candidate for the presidential nomina- tion in 1896. But Mr. Bryan's glittering "cross of 24 Kentucky: Mother of Governors gold" so dazzled the delegates' eyes, and his piercing "crown of thorns" so punctured all previous booms, that the gifted Kentuckian was as one with Richard Parks Bland, better known as "Silver Dick," and a Kentuckian-born. Governor Matthews died in In- dianapolis, August 28, 1898-the last Kentuckian to govern the Hoosier State. 25 Ohio One of Ohio's greatest men was Thomas Corwin, a native of Paris, Ky., born in 1794. When "Tom," as he always was called, was but four years of age, his father removed to Ohio, where the son studied law and was admitted to the bar. In 1830 Corwin was sent to Congress, where his eloquence and wit won him a national reputation. He served in the House for ten years, when he was elected Governor of Ohio by a large majority. In 1844 Corwin was elected to the United States Senate, and six years later President Fillmore made him his Secretary of the Treasury. He served another term in Congress before his death, which occurred at Washington, December 18, 1865. Ohio's thirty-fifth Governor, Richard Moore Bishop, was born in Fleming county, Kentucky, in 1812. At the age of thirty-six, Bishop went to Cincinnati to enter the grocery business. In 1859 he was elected mayor of Cincinnati and, in 1877, he was chosen Governor of the State. Governor Bishop was a prominent member of the Church of the Dis- ciples for many years. He died in 1893. 26 Kentuckians-Bom in Other States Benjamin J. Franklin, who was appointed Gov- ernor of Arizona during the second administration of President Cleveland, was born in Germantown,. Ky., in 1839. His early education was gained in the public schools of Kentucky, after which he entered Blethany College in West Virginia. Governor Franklin taught school in his early manhood anti later practiced law in Minnesota and Kansas. Dur- ing President Cleveland's first administration, he was selected for diplomatic service in China and at the close of this service he went to Arizona and settled in Phoenix, shortly before his appointment as Governor. Franklin was Governor of the terri- tory from 1896 to 1897. He died in Phoenix in 1898 and is buried in Rosedale Cemetery. His official report to the Secretary of the Interior, issued in 1896, contains much valuable matter relating to the history and conditions of Arizona. Arkansas territory was formed in 1819, and General James Miller, a New Hampshire hero of the War of 1812, was appointed as the first territorial Governor. Robert Crittenden, of Logan county, Kentucky, was made secretary and acting Governor until General Miller reached the capitol, a village called Arkansas Post, established by John Law, of Mississippi bubble fame. Acting Governor Critten- den convened the first provisional Legislature, by proclamation of July 4, 1819, and it was in session for seven days, or from July 28 to August 3. General 27 Kentucky: Mother of Gomernors. Miller did not reach the Post until Christmas, 1819, so Crittenden served as Governor for about a year. Late in the year 1820, the capitol was moved to Little Rock. The sixth Governor of Arkansas was Henry M. Rector, who was born in Louisville, Ky., in 1816. He was educated by his mother and in the Louisville schools. Rector removed to Arkansas when a young man and, in 1860, he was elected Governor. He had served but two years when the State Supreme Court declared his seat vacant. Governor Rector died some years ago. Another native of Louisville, Thomas J. ChurchiII, was the thirteenth Governor of Arkansas. He was educated in Louisville and served in a Kentucky regiment during the Mexican War and he also saw much service in the Kentucky campaign in the Civil War. In 1880 Churchill was elected Governor of Arkansas. Only one Kentuckian has ever been elected Gov- ernor of Colorado: John Long Routt, a native of Eddyville, Ky., born in 1826. Routt's father died when he was very small, and when he was ten years old his mother removed to Illinois, where the son was educated and taught a trade. He served under General Grant gallantly in the Civil War and Presi- dent Grant appointed him Governor of Colorado territory in 1875. Governor Routt prepared the territory for statehood, which was granted, in 1876, and the people immediately chose him as the first State Governor. In 1883 Governor Routt was elected 28 Kentucky: Mother of Governors. mayor of Denver, and seven years later he was again chosen Governor. He now resides in Denver. David S. Walker, seventh State Governor of Florida, was a native of Logan county, Kentucky. He was educated in a Kentucky private school and then removed to Florida. Walker was elected Gov- ernor in 1865, and he served three years. He died in Tallahassee, Fla., July 20, 1891. The fifth State Governor of Idaho was Frank W. Hunt, born at Newport, Ky., in 1861. He was educated in the Newport schools and then went to Idaho in 1888. Hunt served in the Spanish- American War and, at its close, he entered politics. In the fall of 1900 he was elected Governor of Idaho and served until January, 1903. Governor Hunt was an able executive, always urging his people to take deep interest in agriculture and commerce. He died at his home in Boise in 1906. The twenty-third and twenty-fourth Governor of Kansas, Edward W. Hoch, was born in Danville, Ky., in 1849. Hoch was educated at Centre College. He then spent three years as a reporter on a Lex- ington newspaper, when he resigned and went to Kansas to engage in journalism. He was elected Governor of Kansas on the Republican ticket in 1905 and re-elected in 1907. Governor Hoch's home is in Topeka, Kansas. The thirteenth Governor of Louisiana, Robert C. Wickliffe, was born in Bardstown, Ky., in 1820. He graduated at Centre College, Danville, at the age of twenty years. Wickliffe's poor health drove him 29 Kenturky: Mother of Governors. to Louisiana shortly after his graduation. In 1856 he was elected Governor of the State. Governor Wickliffe was an able lawyer, which aided him greatly in his work as Governor. He died at Shelbyville, Ky., April 18, 1895. He was an uncle of former Governor J. C. W. Beckham, of Kentucky. Joshua Baker, Louisiana's military Governor from 1867 to 1868, was a Kentuckian-born. Baker was a small boy when his family removed to Louisiana. He studied law in that State and then returned to Kentucky to practice his profession. Governor Baker died in Connecticut in 1886. Willis A. Gorman, the second territorial Governor of Minnesota, was born near Flemingsburg, Ky., in 1814. He spent much of his early life in Indiana. Gorman served as Governor of Minnesota (1853- 1857). He fought gallantly in the Civil War. He died at St. Paul, Minn., May 20, 1876. Green Clay Smith, Montana's second territorial Governor, was a native of Richmond, Ky., born in 1832. He was graduated at Transylvania University and began the practice of law in Covington, Ky. He was early in the Kentucky Legislature. In 1866 President Johnson appointed Smith Governor of Montana territory, and he did much to prepare the territory for statehood. About 1870 Governor Smith became a minister of the Baptist Church. He died in Washington, D. C., June 30, 1893. The seventh territorial Governor of Montana was Samuel T. Hauser, a native of Falmouth, Ky. He was educated in Falmouth and soon emigrated to 30 Kentucky: Mother of Governor. Missouri and then to Montana. Hauser erected the first silver mill ever in Montana. President Cleve- land appointed him Governor of the territory in 1885 and he served for two years. Governor Hauser's successor was an old Ken- tucky Governor, Preston H. Leslie, born in Wayne county, Kentucky, in 1819. In 1871 Leslie defeated Mr. Justice John M. Harlan, now of the United States Supreme Court, for Governor of Kentucky. At the close of his term, he practiced law for a few years and then went to Montana. Leslie, like Hauser, served as Governor of Montana but two years (1887-1889). In 1894 President Cleveland appointed Leslie United States District Attorney for Montana. He died in Helena, Montana, in 1907. Montana's third State Governor, Robert B. Smith, was born in Hickman county, Kentucky, in 1854. He was educated in the Kentucky schools, taught in this State and he was admitted to the Mayfield, Ky., bar. In 1882 Smith moved to Montana. He served for four years as United States District Attorney for Montana and was elected Governor in 1896 on the Fusion ticket. The present Governor of Montana, Edward L. Norris, was born and reared in Cumberland county, Kentucky. Some twenty years ago he went West, locating in Montana. He was a member of the State Senate and afterwards Lieutenant-Governor. When Governor Toole resigned, Norris became acting Governor. In the autumn of 1908, he was elected Governor on the Democratic ticket. Governor 31 Kentucky: Mother of Governorm. Norris, accompanied by members of his staff, was in Kentucky several months ago re-visiting the scenes of his youth. He is noted as a lawyer. The fifth territorial Governor of Nebraska, William A. Richardson, was born near Lexington, Ky., in 1811, and died in Quincy, Ill., in 1875. He was educated at Transylvania University, studied law, and then removed to Illinois. He subsequently served in the Illinois Legislature and in the Mexican War. He was sent to Congress in 1846, and in 1858 was appointed territorial Governor of Nebraska and served several months. In 1863 he was elected to the United States Senate to fill Stephen A. Douglas' unexpired term. The last territorial Governor of Nebraska was Alvin Saunders, born in Fleming county, Ky., July 12, 1817. Saunders left Kentucky at the age of twelve years for Illinois. From 1861 to 1867, he served Nebraska as Governor. He was much loved by the people of Nebraska and he was later sent to the lower house of Congress. Governor Saunders died in Omaha, Neb., in 1899. Joseph Clay Styles Blackburn was born in Wood- ford county, Kentucky, October 1, 1838. He gradu- ated from Centre College in the class of '57. In the following year he began the practice of law in Chicago. After the war between the States, in which he served, he resumed the practice of his profession in Versailles, Ky. In 1870 Blackburn began his political career as a member of the Kentucky Legis- lature. In 1875 he went to Congress and served 32 Kentucky: Mother of Governors. in both branches, with the exception of a short period, until March, 1907. On April 1, 1907, Presi- dent Roosevelt appointed him a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission, in charge of the De- partment of Civil Administration in the Canal Zone, and it was Governor Blackburn for the next three years. Recently President Taft appointed Maurice Hud- son Thatcher, formerly State Inspector and Exam- iner, and a poet of no mean ability, as Blackburn's successor. Governor Thatcher was born in Butler county, Kentucky, a man of the people who has done things for years. The twenty-fourth Governor of Tennessee was Albert S. Marks, who was born near Owensboro, Ky., October 16, 1836. At the age of nineteen years, Marks went to Tennessee and began the study of law. He served in the Civil War and, in 1878, he was elected Governor of Tennessee. Governor Marks died in Nashville, Tenn., November 4, 1891. Governor Marks' successor, Alvin Hawkins, was a native of Bath county, Kentucky. When he was only five years old, his family removed to Tennessee, where he was educated and taught a trade. He later taught school and read law. Hawkins held several fine offices before he was elected Governor of the State in 1880. Governor Hawkins died in 1905. Another Kentuckian who governed the Volunteer State was Benton McMillan, a native of Monroe county, Kentucky, born in 1845. McMillan was educated at Kentucky University, now rechristened with its famous name, Transylvania. He began the 33 Kenturky: Mother of Gorernors. practice of law in Tennessee in 1871. For twenty years McMillan represented his district in Congress. In 1899 he was elected Governor and re-elected in 1901. Governor McMillan's home is Carthage, Tenn. The first provisional, American Governor of Texas was Henry Smith, who was born in Kentucky in 1784. Smith spent his youth in this State and then emigrated to Missouri. From Missouri he went to Texas, being elected Governor in 1835. In the fall of the next year, he declined the presidency of the republic of Texas, and Sam Houston was elected, with Governor Smith as Secretary of the Treasury. Governor Smith was a forty-niner to California and he died in Los Angeles, March 4, 1851. John Ireland, a native of Hart county, Kentucky, was the seventeenth Governor of Texas. At the age of twenty years, he served as deputy sheriff of Hart county. He shortly afterwards began the study of law and was admitted to the bar of Munfordsville, Ky. In 1853 Ireland settled in Texas, and, after having served on the State Supreme Court, he was elected Governor in 1882; and the people approved his administration by re-electing him. Governor Ireland died in San Antonio, MNarch 5, 1896. Two Kentuckians have been Governors of Utah: Eli H. Murray and Caleb W. West. Murray was born in Breckinridge county, Kentucky, September 12, 1844. He fought in the Union Army in Ken- tucky during the Civil War. In 1866 he was ap- pointed United States Marshal for Kentucky and he held this office for ten years, when he became 34 Kentucky: Mother of Governor manager of the Louisville Commercial. President Hays appointed Murray Governor of Utah in 1880, and President Arthur re-appointed him, but he re- signed in 1886 during the first Cleveland administra- tion. Governor Murray vigorously opposed polyg- amy and the demands of the Mormon Church. He died in 1896. West also was born in 1844, in Cynthiana, Ky. He was educated in his native town and practiced law there for many years. He was appointed Gov- ernor of Utah territory in 1886, succeeding Murray, and he was re-appointed seven years later, serving until the State Government was organized, June 6, 1896. The remainder of his life was spent as a special agent for the United States Treasury. Gov- ernor West died in San Francisco in January, 1909, and his remains were brought to Kentucky for inter- ment. While nine Virginians have been Governors of Kentucky, only one Kentuckian has been Governor of the Old Dominion-John Floyd. He was born in Jefferson county, Kentucky, and graduated in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania when twenty-three years of age. He settled in Mont- gomery county, Virginia, to practice his profession, but he was soon drawn into politics, being elected Governor in 1830. Throughout his administration, he opposed the prevalent doctrine of nullification. In 1832 South Carolina voted for Governor Floyd for President. He died at Sweet Springs, Va., August 15, 1837. 35 The Adopted Sons This completes the list of the native born Ken- tuckians; we must now go back to Missouri and consider the adopted sons. The first adopted son of Kentucky to rule Missouri was'Benjamin Howard. In 1807 Captain Meriwether Lewis succeeded General James Wilkinson as Governor of the terri- tory and, when he died in 1809, Benjamin Howard was appointed as his successor. Governor Howard was born in Virginia, but his father was one of the early settlers at Boonesboro, Ky. At an early age, Howard represented his county in the Kentucky Leg- islature and, in 1807, he was a member of the Lower House of Congress. He resigned in 1809 and emi- grated to Louisiana territory to accept the governor- ship. In 1812 the territory of Orleans became the State of Louisiana, and the territory of Louisiana became the territory of Missouri. Governor Howard was continued in office and he thus became the first territorial Governor of Missouri. He served until 1813, dying in St. Louis, September 18, 1814. William Clark, second territorial Governor of Missouri, was born in Virginia in 1770, the brother of General George Rogers Clark. At the age of fourteen years, William Clark became a citizen of Kentucky, settling at the Falls of the Ohio, now Louisville. He became a noted Indian fighter and soldier. 'In 1804 Clark removed to Missouri, and, in the early spring of that year, he joined Meriwether Lewis in the famous exploring expedition from St. 36 Kentucky: Mother of Golvernor8. Louis to the Columbia River. This epoch-making trip lasted two years and it was in a large measure successful because of Clark's knowledge of Indian life. President Madison appointed him Governor of Missouri territory in 1813, and he held the office seven years. In 1820 Missouri was admitted into the Union and, in the same year, Alexander McNair defeated Clark for Governor. Governor Clark died at St. Louis in 1838. The first and only territorial Governor of Illinois wasvNinian Edwards, born in Maryland in 1775, but who removed to Kentucky when twenty years old. In this State Edwards studied law and was elected to the Legislature. He later hela several judgeships, among them a seat on the Court of Appeals bench, being, in 1808, Chief Justice. In the following year he was appointed Governor of Illinois territory, and he served nine years, or until Illinois was admitted into the Union in 1818. He was at once elected as one of the first two United States Senators from Illinois. At the expiration of his senatorial term, Edwards was appointed minister to Mexico, but he was recalled. In 1826 he was elected the third State Governor of Illinois. Governor Edwards died at Belleville, Ill., July 20, 1833. The fourth and last territorial Governor of In- diana wae1Thomas Posey, a Virginian-born, but a Kentuckian by a residence of some fifteen years. President Madison appointed Posey territorial Gov- ernor of Indiana, and he held the office until the 37 Kentucky: Mother of Governors. territory was admitted into the Union in 1816. Governor Posey died in Illinois in 1818. - Ratliff Boon, a native of Georgia, was the second State Governor of Indiana. When a boy, Boon emi- grated to Kentucky with his father, and in Danville he learned the gunsmith's trade. He spent twenty years of his life in Kentucky, married a Kentucky woman, and in 1809 he removed to Indiana. Ten years later, Boon was elected Lieutenant-Governor with Jonathan Jennings as Governor, and when Jennings resigned Boon filled his unexpired term of three months. Governor Boon afterwards served many years in Congress, dying in Missouri in 1844. v Noah Noble was born in Virginia in 1794, but he was brought by his parents to Campbell county, Kentucky, when a babe in arms, and in that county he was reared and educated. A few months after he had reached his majority, he removed to Indiana. In 1831 Noble was elected Governor and he served six years. Governor Noble continued the internal improvements inaugurated by Governor Ray, but he was never able to obtain a united support from his subordinates. Allen Trimble, a native of Virginia, served as the eighth and tenth Governor of Ohio. Trimble was brought to Lexington, Ky., when he was but one year old. The next twenty years of his life was passed in Lexington and he then removed to Ohio. He was acting Governor of the State in 1822 and, four years later, he was elected Governor and re- 38 Kentucky: Mother of Governors. elected in 1828. In 1832 Governor Trimble retired from active life and died in 1870. The third territorial Governor of Arkansas was John Pope, a native of Virginia, who came to Ken- tucky when a boy. In this State he studied law and opened an office in Lexington. In 1829 he was ap- pointed Governor of Arkansas territory and he served for six years. At the expiration of his term, Governor Pope returned to Kentucky, in which State he died July 12, 1845. Florida's second territorial Governor.'Willliam P. Duval, quit Virginia for Kentucky at the age of fourteen years, finally finding his way to Bardstown, Ky., where he studied law and was admitted to the bar. Duval was soon elected to Congress from Ken- tucky-his boyish ambition. In 1822 he was ap- pointed Governor of Florida territory and he served eight years. Governor Duval was the friend of Washington Irving and of James K. Paulding, both of whom wrote of him in their books. He died in Washington, D. C., in 1854. Iowa's second territorial Governor' John Cham- bers, was a native of New Jersey, but he removed to Mason county, Kentucky, at the age of thirteen years. Chambers was educated in Kentucky and he also studied law in this State. For many years he represented his Kentucky district in the Lower House of Congress. In 1841 Chambers was appointed Governor of Iowa territory and he served for five years. Upon the expiration of his term, 39 Kentucky: Mother of Governors. Governor Chambers returned to this State and died at Paris, Ky., in 1852. The fourth territorial and first State Governor of Michigan,, Stevens Thompson Mason, was born in Virginia in 1812. He was brought to Kentucky at an early age, and was reared and educated in this State. So, save for this accident of birth, Mason was a Kentuckian. At the age of nineteen years, he was appointed secretary of Michigan territory; and upon the death of Governor Porter, he became acting Governor of the territory and he served one year. In 1836 Mason was unanimously elected as the first State Governor. In 1840 he went to New York City to practice law, and he died there three years later. A monument to Mason's memory was erected in Detroit in the summer of 1908 and it was unveiled by his famous sister, Emily Virginia Mason, who has but recently joined the choir invisible. Miasiaippi's twenty-sixth Governor, James L. Alcorn, was a thorough-going Kentuckian. He was born in Illinois, but he came to Kentucky when a mere lad. In this State he was educated. For five years, Alcorn was sheriff of Livingston county, Kentucky, and in 1843 he was in the Kentucky Legis- lature. In the next year he removed to Mississippi with his Kentucky wife. Alcorn took a notable part in the Kentucky campaign during the Civil War. He was elected Governor in 1869, but soon resigned to take a seat in the United States Senate. Governor Alcorn was one of the founders of Alcorn College 40 Kentucky: Mother of Gomcrnors. for Negroes; and in 1870 a Mississippi county was named for him. He died in 1894. One lone Kentuckian has found his way to New Mexico and has served the territory as Governor- David Meriwether, a Virginian-born, but a Ken- tuckian by adoption at the early age of three years. He was educated in Kentucky schools and was a member of the State Legislature thirteen times. He also represented Kentucky in the United States Senate for a few months. In 1853 Meriwether was appointed Governor of New Mexico. He spent the last years of his life as a Kentucky farmer, dying near Louisville in 1893. The second territorial Governor of OregonAJoseph Lane, was a North Carolinian, who was transplanted upon Kentucky soil in infancy. Lane settled in Henderson county, which continued to be his home until 1816, when he removed to Indiana. His gal- lantry in the Mexican War won him the appoint- ment as Governor of Oregon in 1848. He was John C. Breckinridge's running mate for the Presidency in 1860. Governor Lane died in Oregon, in obscurity and poverty, April 19, 1881. Lane's successor,'John P. Gaines, was born in Virginia in 1795, but he was brought in early youth to Boone county, Kentucky. After the War of 1812, in which he served, he was admitted to the bar of Walton, Ky., and he later represented Boone county in the Legislature for several terms. In 1850 Presi- dent Fillmore appointed Gaines Governor of Oregon. He was an able executive. He died in 1858. 41 Kentucky: Mother of GoreCnor8. The first and fourth territorial Governor of Wis- consin; Henry Dodge, was born in Indiana in 1782, but his father settled near Louisville, Ky., when Henry was but two years old. His boyhood was passed in this State. When a young man, he served in the War of 1812, and in 1827 removed to Wiscon- sin, where he became famous as an Indian fighter. He was appointed Governor of Wisconsin territory in 1836 and reappointed in 1845. Governor Dodge was elected to the United States Senate in 1848, and he served until 1857. He died in Burlington, Iowa, June 19, 1867. 42 The Sojoumers Again we go to Missouri to begin with the sojourners. The first American to govern what is now the State of Missouri was General James Wilkinson. He was born in Maryland in 1757 and died in Mexico in 1825. He served in the American Revolution and came to Kentucky in 1784. Two years later, he founded the town of Frankfort, the present capital of Kentucky. In 1796 he became Commander-in- Chief of the United States Army. In 1804 Congress divided the land included in the Louisiana purchase into the territory of Orleans and the district of Louisiana, the district being at- tached to Indiana territory. Early in 1805 Louisiana district was separated from Indiana territory and called the territory of Louisiana. William C. C. Claiborne had been appointed Governor of the terri- tory of Orleans when it was created, and now that Louisiana district was a territory of the same class as Orleans, it devolved upon President Jefferson to appoint a Governor for the territory of Louisiana. So, in July, 1805, he named\General Wilkinson as its first Governor, with his capitol at St. Louis. Governor Wilkinson served for thirteen months and his administration has written upon it, in large cap- itals, "Failure." The Sage of Monficello seems to have been the only famous American who had any faith whatsoever in Wilkinson-the man who would have gladly seen Kentucky allied with Spain. We 43 Kentucky: Mother of Governors. almost forgive General Wilkinson everything when we remember that he founded the little city that nestles in the beautiful Kentucky hills, the home or quasi home of all great Kentuckians-Frankfort. The fifth State Governor of Missouri, -Daniel Dunklin, was born in South Carolina, but he emi- grated to Kentucky at the age of seventeen years. He lived three years in this State, when he removed to Missouri. Governor Dunklin is commonly called the father of the Missouri public school system. Ashbel P. Willard was a New York lawyer who took a horseback trip through Kentucky and liked the Bluegrass State so well that he quit the law for the school room, teaching for several years in this State. In 1844 Willard gave up teaching for politics. A fine speech in New Albany, Ind., caused the citizens to ask him to open a law office there. In 1856 he was elected Governor of Indiana, the young- est man who ever held the office. Governor Willard died in 1860, some months before the expiration of his term. - James M. Wells, Louisiana's seventeenth Gov- ernor, spent a part of his youth in Kentucky. In 1864 he was elected Lieutenant-Governor of Louis- iana, and on the resignation of Governor Hahn Wells succeeded him in office. Later in the same year, he was renominated by the Democratic party and was elected. He was removed by General Sheridan shortly before the expiration of his term. 44 Those Educated in Kentucky For the fourth and last time, gentle reader, we journey to Missouri to begin with the school and college men. --Robert M. Stewart, the twelfth chief executive of Missouri, was born in New York, but in boyhood he came to Kentucky, where he was reared, educated and admitted to the Louisville bar. He went to Missouri to practice, but he was soon in politics, and in 1857, after one of the hottest fights ever witnessed in Missouri, he was chosen Governor. Governor Stewart made a brilliant but eccentric executive. He died in St. Joseph, Mo., in 1871. Thomas Ford was born in Pennsylvania in 1800, but he early went to Illinois, and from there to Kentucky, where he was educated at Transylvania University. At the conclusion of his college career, he returned to Illinois and Governor Edwards appointed him State Attorney. In 1842 he defeated Duncan for the governorship of Illinois. Governor Ford wrote a "History of Illinois: 1818-1847," which is still the chief authority on that period of the State's history. He died in 1850 and, twenty-five years later, Illinois erected a handsome monument to his memory. William H. Bissell, tenth Governor of Illinois, was born in New York in 1811, but he came to Kentucky when a young man to study law at the famous old Transylvania University. He went to Illinois upon graduation and later served in the 45 Kentfitcky: Mothcr of Govrer ors. Mexican War. Bissell was elected Governor of Illinois in 1857, but he was embarrassed by a Legis- lature that was opposed to him politically. Governor Bissell died in 1860. The eighth Governor of Indiana, James Whit- comb, was a native of Vermont. Without a teacher, he prepared himself for Transylvania University, from which institution he was graduated in 1819. He immediately began the study of law, and he was admitted to the famous Lexington, Ky., bar in 1822. About two years later, Whitcomb removed to In- diana. In 1843 he was elected Governor on the Democratic ticket and re-elected three years later. Before the close of his second term, Whitcomb was elected to the United States Senate, where he con- tinued until his death, October 4, 1852. Governor Whitcomb's Lieutenant-Governor, and the man who succeeded him as Governor when he went to the Senate, wasKParis C. Duming, a North Carolinian-born, who came to Kentucky with his widowed mother when a young man. Duming lived in Kentucky only a short time, when he went to Indiana, but he returned to this State to study medi- cine in Louisville. He afterward deserted medicine for law. Governor Duming died in 1884. Wilson Shannon, a native of Ohio, and a graduate of Transylvania University, was the fourteenth and eighteenth Governor of Ohio. He was first elected Governor in 1838 and re-elected in 1842. In 1855 President Pierce appointed him territorial Governor 46 Kentucky: Mother of Governors. of Kansas and he served about one year. Governor Shannon died at Lawrence, Kan., in 1877. Alabama's twenty-first Governor, George S. Houston, was a native of Tennessee, but he studied law in Harrodsburg, Ky., and he was admitted to the bar there in 1831. He soon removed to Alabama and was elected Governor in 1874. Governor Hous- ton died in 1879. John S. Roane, fourth State Governor of Ar- kansas, was born in Tennessee, but he was educated at Cumberland College, Princeton, Ky. Roane served as Governor of Arkansas from 1849 to 1852. Augustus Hill Garland, Arkansas' eleventh Gov- ernor, was born in Tennessee in 1832, but when less than a year old his parents settled in Arkansas. He was sent to Kentucky to school, receiving his entire academic training at St. Mary's College, Lebanon, and St. Joseph's College, Bardstown, both famous Roman Catholic institutions. Garland began the study of law in Bardstown, but he returned to Arkansas to practice. He was elected Governor of the State in 1847, and he succeeded in placing its financial affairs on a firm basis. He went to the United States Senate in 1877, and was re-elected, serving until 1885, when he became President Cleve- land's Attorney-General. He died in Washington in 1899. Charles Clark, twenty-second Governor of Mis- sissippi, was born in Ohio in 1811, and was gradu- ated from the famous old Kentucky Methodist insti- tution, now no longer in existence, Augusta College. 47 Kentucky: Mother or Gorernor8. He emigrated to Mississippi in 1831. Elected Gov- ernor of the State in 1863, he served throughout the remainder of the war. Governor Clark did all in his power to aid the Southern soldier. He died in 1877. The present Governor of Mississippi, Edmund F. Noel, was educated in Louisville, Ky., at the dis- trict schools, and then spent three years at the Louis- ville High School. In 1875 and 1876 he studied law under his uncle, the late Major D. W. Sanders, the well-known Louisville lawyer. In 1877 Noel left Kentucky and began the practice of law at Lexing- ton, Miss., which is his present home. He was elected Governor of Mississippi in 1907 for the term expiring in 1912. The first, fourth and fifth State Governor of Montana was Joseph Kemp Toole, a native of Savan- nah, Mo., who came to Kentucky when about sixteen years of age. He entered the old Western Military Institute, then located at New Castle, Henry county, Kentucky. Toole studied there for two years, or from 1867 to 1869. In 1870 he settled in Montana and, of course, he studied law. He was a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1889, and shortly thereafter he was elected as the first State Governor. In 1900 he was again elected Governor and re-elected in 1904, but, before the expiration of his term, he resigned, being succeeded by Governor Norris. A Tennesseean, James W. Throckmorton, who came to Kentucky when he was nineteen years of 48 Kentucky: Mother of Goternors. Ege to study medicine, was the eleventh Governor of the Lone Star State. Throckmorton studied under his uncle, Dr. J. E. Throckmorton, at Princeton, Ky., for several years. After having completed his studies, he removed to Texas, where he practiced medicine but a few years, when he gave it up for law. In 1866 he was elected Governor of Texas, but he had hardly served a year when he was ousted by General Sheridan. 49 Blazon Their Names in Bronze Parenthetically and before this long, monotonous list is closed, suffer a suggestion: This is the day of memorials; Kentucky has, without doubt, paid less attention to monuments and memorials of any kind for her famous sons and daughters than has any other State. Now, why not mount in the walls of her magnificent new capitol a long bronze tablet blazoned with the names of Kentuckians who have governed other States and territories, setting oppo- site their names the Commonwealths they served with the dates of their terms This idea was born as the writer stood in the rotunda of the University of Virginia and read the names of the University's sons killed in battle. The two tablets there attract as much attention as Zolnay's "Poe." But this is merely an aside for which we apologize and hasten. There can be but one major conclusion concern- ing the Kentuckians who have governed other States; they, broadly speaking, accepted Horace Greely's advice-"Go West, young man; go A, est." Except in recent years, Kentuckians, as a rule, have eschewed the East-no son of this State has yet been elected Governor of any of the New England or Middle States; they have seldom steered southward-no Kentuckian has ever been chosen executive of Georgia, North or South Carolina or West Virginia. And, to conclude, hitherto no Ken- tuckian has occupied the gubernatorial chair of Oklahoma, Wyoming, Alaska, Hawaii, North or South Dakota, Nevada, Porto Rico, Washington or California. 50 HERE ends Kentucky: Mother of Governors, as written by John Wilson Townsend. Of this edition three hundred copies have been printed and published at the shop of The Kentucky State Jour- nal Company, Frankfort, Kentucky, during the month of September, nineteen hundred and ten; this being number