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Biographical notice of Daniel Drake, M.D., of Cincinnati : prepared by appointment of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia / by Charles D. Meigs ... read at the meeting, July, 1853. Meigs, Charles D. (Charles Delucena), 1792-1869. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b92-92-27695001 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Biographical notice of Daniel Drake, M.D., of Cincinnati : prepared by appointment of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia / by Charles D. Meigs ... read at the meeting, July, 1853. Meigs, Charles D. (Charles Delucena), 1792-1869. Lippincott, Grambo and Co., Philadelphia : 1853. 38 p. ; 24 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1993. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-20317) ; SOL MN02936.05 KUK) Printing Master B92-92. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Drake, Daniel, 1785-1852. A BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF DANIEL DRAKE, M. D., OF CINCINNATI. PREPARED BY APPOINTXENT OF THE coarp uf Vgsiriaus nf VoitahlpOia- This page in the original text is blank. --> A BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF DANIEL DRAKE, M. D., OF CINCINNATI. PREPARED BY APPOINTMENT OF THE dfulirgr Uf Vqo4iriffuo Uf V!JitatflPJia BY CHARLES D. MEIGS, M. D., VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE COLLEGE. Read at the Meeting, July, 1853. PHILAD ELPHIA: LIPPINCOTT, GRAMBO, AND CO. 1853. This page in the original text is blank. N 0 T I C E 01 DANIEL DRAKE, M.D. IT is a custom with the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, to direct that a Memoir shall be presented here, of every departed fellow and associate. This custom holds out, to each living mem- ber of the institution, a warning and invitation to consider what manner of record shall be made in this place as to him, and to ponder upon that course of life which may best secure for him an honorable remembrance on the one hand; or, on the other, leave him to depart from your midst, conscious that he has neither con- tributed, nor attempted anything for the increase of the talent he had received as a sacred trust, out of that great inheritance we have, in common, derived from the whole history of our philosophy and our art. The talent that is confided to a scholar cannot be safely hid away in a napkin; and he who fails to improve upon it, shall not wholly escape condemnation. If those who misemploy their powers and opportunities are worthy of blame, a meed of praise belongs, on the other hand, to the good and faithful scholar who has been diligent with regard to the things intrusted to him; and it is due to the interests of society, that a true record of him should be made. The progress of society in the Arts and Letters, and the security of public morals and order, result chiefly from the influence of the scholar. It is to the scholar that we are indebted for liberation from the bonds of ignorance and superstition, and for every solid acquisition in wisdom and virtue. Without education, there is no dividing line, except a distinction of greater or less ferocity, among brutal natural men. But the instructed man is raised im- 4 measurably above his natural estate, taught to know his wants and rights, and those of his fellows, and discern the sources of true happiness, with the methods by which to secure it for himself and the world. We discover that one of the principal of these means is language, the perfecting of which is pre-eminently the work of the scholar, who thus places in man's hands the most solid and permanent bases of civilization, with its attendant train of blessings-it is evident that, without language, there could be neither any History nor Chronology; and thus, men would be at a perpetual stand- still, the discoveries and inventions of one age being incommuni- cable to succeeding generations. Without language there could be no intelligent combination of those human powers, which, di- rected by a wise administration of them, enable man to raise the everlasting pyramid, project the course and level of the canal, trace out the path of the railway, direct the flash of the telegraph, drive the steamer across the trackless sea, and, in a thousand forms, provide for the consummation of those blessings that are embraced in the social compact. " Even those," says M. Bunsen, " who be- lieve that language and religion were not human inventions, but, like Prometheus' fire, given to man from heaven, cannot but admit, without rejecting all the evidences of research, that they were not communicated in a state of completeness. The reverse is, indeed, obvious, viz.: that man has never received more than the germ, which he has been left to mould and modify according to his will and capabilities." If these opinions of the illustrious Prussian are good and true, then it is the Scholar who has developed this germ, and imparted to his fellow man all its beneficent powers and results. To hold up for emulation the lives and actions of good and great scholars is then, a useful task; and proper, truthful memoirs serve as beacons and guides for all those who would strive to rival them in excellence and in benefactions. The hope of being remembered sustains the fainting patriot, and the patient philanthropist, whose walk is not in the broad and easy paths of the world. Being directed by the College to present a memoir of our late associate, Dr. Drake, of Cincinnati, it has appeared to me that his signal reputation in the United States, and in many foreign coun- tries, demands a very extended notice of his life and works, and it 5 is to be hoped that a complete biography of this eminent person may, by some competent hand, be hereafter prepared. However high my own appreciation of his merits, and however desirous I might be to do full justice to his memory, it cannot be expected that I shall here give more than a sketch of his life; but as that life presents so many and such varied points of interest, and was closely connected with the progress of medicine in our native country, I now bespeak the indulgence of the College, if I should dwell longer than is usually allowed, upon memorials of a n whose name is destined to be reverently pronounced, wherever the medical biography and history of America shall hereafter become known. Dr. Drake exhibited an illustrious example of devotion to the improvement of medicine, and the diffusion of learning in general. He was, moreover, a man of a pure life; charitable and kind; of the greatest probity; laborious in the pursuit of knowledge, and indefatigable under manifold difficulties and discouragements. He was a man, too, of a great and merited reputation, which ex- tends even to the outer boundaries of the Republic of Medical Let- ters, and as a citizen, he reflected honor on his country. The stars in that country's flag, and the stripes in her shield, are not surer emblems of her glory and power, than are the names of her emi- nent scholars: the flag of the Union may be changed by violence or caprice, but the names and actions of the great men of her people will endure as long as her history, which, indeed, is but the record of their lives and deeds. The life of an eminent person, then, be- longs to the age and to the nation that love to boast of him as their own. Daniel Drake, the subject of this notice, was born in Essex County, State of New Jersey, where the town of Plainfield now stands, on the 20th day of October, 1785, and died at Cincinnati, on Friday, November 5th, 1852, aged sixty-seven years and fifteen days. He was one of the sons of Isaac and Elizabeth Drake, both natives of that vicinity, which had been the seat of their family from an early period in the New Jersey settlements. They were farmers, in humble circumstances as to fortune, but respectable and exemplary by a pious life and conversation. For the improvement of their worldly condition they joined, in 1788, the migration to the Western country, and settled in Mason 6 County, Kentucky, upon a tract of only thirty-eight acres of land; a circumstance which clearly shows how lowly they were as to their worldly estate; for in that early period, none but the poorer sort of people can be supposed to be restricted to such narrow possessions. We are, moreover, informed that at the time of his landing at Limestone, on the Ohio, now the town of Maysville, Mr. Drake had only one single dollar remaining in his purse, and that was the commercial equivalent of one bushel of corn. Notwithstanding he was such a poor farmer, yet being an upright and discreet sensible man, his son, in all his subsequent career, ever deemed himself honored in a virtuous parentage, cherishing the memory of both father and mother, and extending to them, in their declining years, the strong hand of filial affection and respect; so that, under his protection, they had occasion to thank Providence for the gift of a dutiful son. The mother is spoken of as a person of superior merit. At the time of his settlement in Mason County, Isaac Drake was too poor to be able to employ hired laborers, and even the house he erected was a small log-cabin. The virgin soil was turned by the plough held in his own hands, and it appears the corn was ground into meal for their daily bread in a hand-mill which our late colleague was taught in his youth to turn. It was only by dint of hard labor, and by rigorous economy, labors in which the youthful Daniel willingly co-operated, and economy, which he then learned to practise, that the res angustce domi began to expand by degrees, and that Mr. Drake was at length enabled to add so much land as to constitute a farm of fifty acres. In this place he lived and toiled up to the year 1794; at which time, having sold his land, he made purchase of another domain of two hundred acres, which was also worked by his own hands and those of his sons. The lad had but few books in that wild new region, and of these he has given us the names in one of his lesser papers. But these books he was early inclined to read; and he learned to read them with but little assistance, for in that remote frontier region there was small opportunity of schooling for the children of the district. In spite of such untoward circumstances, Mr. Drake very early formed the design of devoting his boy to the medical profession, 7 notwithstanding the circumstances of the country and the narrow- ness of his resources prevented him from bestowing upon the youth such preliminary tuition as might properly fit him for the pursuits of medicine. The sum total of his school-house training did not take up more than six months, and even that was interrupted and broken by various considerable intervals. But the child had a passion for letters, and read with delight the few poor volumes that had accompanied the parental exodus from the region of Plainfield. He was filled with that "noble rage" that led him from the most inauspicious beginnings to climb the rude ascents of knowledge and virtue, and nothing could freeze the genial current of a soul filled with such holy longings. Pending Mr. Drake's migration to the western country, he had joined company on the way, among others, with a Dr. William Goforth, who was also bending his steps towards that land of promise. It was while on the voyage down the Ohio, probably on board of some Broad-bottom, that the fellow-travellers talked of bringing up the young child, then under three years of age, as a medical pupil of the emigrant physician; and accordingly, when the youth had attained to his fifteenth year, all unfitted as he was by preliminary studies for the task, he departed from the paternal roof, and, accompanied by his father, travelled to the town of Cincinnati, which he reached on the 18th December, 1800. They proceeded at once to the residence of Dr. Goforth, who being now established in the village, a popular physician, agreed to receive the lad into his family, and instruct and bring him up in his own art. Moreover, it was a part of the contract that Daniel should have a certain amount of schooling, in consideration of the fee or bonus to be paid for his initiation into the mysteries of physic. The agreement was for four years of tuition at Dr. Goforth's house, and the Doctor's fee was to be the sum of four hundred dollars-a considerable amount, considering the state of Isaac Drake's fortune, and the laborious nature of his agricultural operations. But this shows more conclusively his appreciation of his offspring. Thus, our late associate landed, at the early age of fifteen years, at a small straggling village, the inhabitants of which did not number, all told, one thousand souls; for it was only on the 26th December, 1788 that " Israel Ludlow, of New Jersey, and 8 his associates, escaping from the floating ices of the river, reared their half-faced camps on what is now called the Quay. These were the first edifices of the future city. Setting their watchmen round, they lay down with their feet to the blazing fires, and fell asleep under the music of the north wind whistling among the frozen limbs of the great sycamores and water-maples which overhung them. The next morning they rose, and began the survey of the town, and the lines were marked by blazes on the trees among which they passed. I need not, however, say to you, that the commencement of the goodly city was not in the midst of a long-settled and populous country, but in the depths of an unbroken though not untrodden wilderness, for you all know that hostile tribes of Indians then wandered between the gallant young settlements of the interior of Kentucky and the distant savage shores of Lake Erie."-Drake's Disc. Jan. 9, 1852. Thus, gentlemen, you have seen that it was not amid the groves of Academus or under the columns of the Poecile, that our young philosophy-aspirant imbibed the early principles of wisdom. Yet, though Cincinnati was but a straggling village of rude houses and shanties sprung up beneath the primeval shades around Fort Washington, many meritorious persons had been attracted to the spot, and among them several physicians, of whom honorable mention has been made in writings published by the worthy subject of this memoir. For attainments they appeared to have been very respectable, and though dwellers in the wilderness, careful as to manners and dress, some of them scrupulously so. Many of them had been led thither to the Indian wars under General Arthur St. Clair or General Wayne; others were lured by the prospect of gain held out in the rapid progress of the transalpine population, or loved to assist in laying the foundation of the new magnificent Empire of the West. Dr. Drake has left us some very spirited sketches of many of these people, and seems to have been impressed with feelings of great respect for certain of them. Without any doubt, they were, as men of action, well adapted to the professional exigencies of the time and the place. The accounts we have of them show them to have been characterized by that catholic spirit of philanthropy and that truly Samaritan friendliness to the distressed that ever designates and illustrates the man, and the vocation, when the 9 physician is not a false traitor to his mission. This is perhaps the more a subject of surprise, if we consider the comparative low grade of educational processes here, during the Colonial period, and more particularly throughout the violent bloody struggle of the Revolution, whose long painful drama was but shortly before closed. It may well be supposed that adventitious aids to a medical education, such as hospitals, books, engravings, journals, and pub- lic lectures, and demonstrations, in reach of those sojourners in the western wilderness, must have been wanting to them, or meagre indeed. We have greater reason, therefore, to pity an aspiring youth, doomed, without preparation or training, to enter on a de- sultory path, and obliged to trace out its course amidst the tangled mazes of medical progress from the earliest dawn of its history. He who would truly be acquainted with the medical sciences, must know them even in their origins, and throughout the whole course of inventions and improvements in them. But what is the power that can keep down and stifle the irrepressible aspira- tions of genius panting to be born, and live and become glorified in knowledge; or can bar out the light of truth from a mind like his whose life we are contemplating The physician, Dr. Goforth, to whose tuition young Drake was now confided, was a native of New York, where he was born A. D. 1766. In his youth he had the advantage of good instruction, and acquired, at least, very good manners, and appears to have been a benevolent, earnest, and truthful man. At the age of twenty-two years he emigrated to the west in A. D. 1788, as already mentioned. After occupying several different fields of labor in the new western settlements, he at last fixed upon Cincinnati as his permanent abode, and established himself as one of the physicians of the place in the early part of A. D. 1800. By address, and by the possession of a certain share of medical skill, he soon obtained a considerable amount of business in the town. Dr. Drake thought that even had he not already acquired some repute as a clinical practitioner in the West, he would have gotten business; "for, on the whole, he had the most winning manners of any physician I ever knew, and the most of them. The painstaking and respectful courtesy with which he treated the poorest and humblest people of the village, seemed to secure their gratitude; and the more especially, as he 2 10 always dressed with precision, and never left his house in the morning until his hair was powdered by our itinerant barber, John Arthurs, and his gold-headed cane grasped in his gloved hand."-Disc. Jan. 9, 1852. Dr. Drake's printed Discourse, a charming production, which he delivered before the Cincinnati Medical Library Association, Janu- ary 9, 1852, is filled with pleasing sketches of the men and manners of that early day; and it is difficult, in looking back upon the speaking pictures he has drawn, to imagine how it happened that amidst such utter laxity of the popular opinion upon drinking, cards, and pastimes, and under suchfaineant modes of life as cha- racterize the frontier men of America, he could wholly escape the contagion of such baleful example and companionship. The only association then existing at Cincinnati, for mutual im- provement, was one denominated the Young Men's Debating Society. Of this association, a considerable number of the young members subsequently arose to great distinction in the United States. It is enough, among these, to name the Hon. John Maclean, now of the Supreme Bench; Gen. Joseph G. Totten, the distin- guished present Chief of the corps of U. S. Engineers; the gallant Gen. Jessup of the U. S. Army, and Drake himself, whose name is, perhaps, not less illustrious as an American physician and philoso- pher, than theirs in the field and the forum. In the discourse in question, Dr. Drake remarks upon the very low state of literature in the place, and the irregularities of con- duct of the early inhabitants; nevertheless, he there imbibed a stronger taste for learning and habits of virtuous living. He gives us a lively representation of the methods of exercising the medical art among them; and the mode of procuring their supplies of drugs and medicines from the then remote Atlantic cities. He portrays the superstitions prevalent among the vulgar, and describes the narrow bridle paths along which town physicians made their visitations to the sick in distant country places, and tells us of his own student life. It was his business topuet up and dispense from house to house, the medicines prescribed by his preceptor, Goforth, to the sick villagers. "Beginning," says he, " at Peach Grove, where the Lytle House now stands, my first as- signed duties were to read Quincy's Dispensatory, and grind quick- 11 silver into unguentum mercuriale, the latter of which, from pre- vious practice on a Kentucky hand-mill, I found much the easier of the two. But few of you," continues he, " have seen the genu- ine old doctor's shop of the last century, or regaled your olfactory nerves with the mingled odors, which, like incense to the god of Physic, rose from the brown paper bundles, bottles stopped with worm-eaten corks, and open jars of ointment, not a whit behind those of the apothecary in the time of Solomon. Yet such a place is very well for the medical student. However idle, he will be always absorbing a little medicine, especially if he sleep beneath the greasy counter." " New studies, and a new studio awaited me," says Drake, " and throughout the ensuing spring and summer, the adjoining mea- dow, with its forest shade-trees, and the deep and dark woods of the near banks and valley of Deer Creek, acted in the manner of the wilderness on the young Indian caught and incarcerated in one of the school-houses of civilization. Underneath those shade- trees, the roots of which still throw up an occasional scion, or among the wild flowers of the wood, which exhaled incense to Flora instead of iEsculapius, it was my allotted task to commit to memory Cheselden on the Bones, and Innes on the Muscles, with- out specimens of the former, or plates of the latter; and afterwards to meander the current of humoral pathology of Boerhaave and Van Swieten, without having studied the chemistry of Chaptal, the physiology of Haller, or the materia medica of Cullen." These studies appear to have been fruitful of much knowledge, notwithstanding Quintilian's opinion that study in the woods is unfavorable to progress. That author says: Non tamen protinus audiendi qui credunt aptissima in hoc nemora silvasque, quod illa coeli libertas, locorum ammnitas, sublimem animum et beati- orum spiritum parent. Quare silvarum ameenitas, et prm- terlabentia flumina, et inspirantes ramis arborum aurw, volucrum- que cantus, et ipsa late circumspiciendi libertas ad se trahunt, et mihi remittere potius voluptas ista videatur cogitationem, quam intendere.-Inst. Orat. x. 3. Such, gentlemen, was the early tuition of a poor country lad whose name, nevertheless, has since become identified with the idea of those vast and populous regions that are comprised in the interior valley of North America. Such was the imperfect 12 training of an eloquence which learned, afterwards, to utter some of the most beautiful language, and to use the most gorgeous rhetoric to be found anywhere in the English tongue ! Such was the loose training of a fiery intelligence that went forth beyond the flammantia mcenia mundi, and, controlled by an active vigor- ous will, moved men to the performance of great and useful enterprises. He early acquired the use of language, to that degree as to make it serve as the visible lucid representative of his ideas. For, when he spoke, men understood what it was he would say to them. To misapprehend the use of language, is ever to be betrayed by it: Drake knew, and used it well. Only ten years after his landing on the northern shore of the Ohio, he was in a condition to publish his first printed essay. This was his "Notices concerning Cincinnati," a pamphlet of sixty pages, with an Appendix. In this production there is abundant evidence to prove that he already was master of considerable power of observation, that he possessed much accurate knowledge, and was filled with the genuine love of truth in science. That essay might do credit to a writer of far superior education to his own. It appears that his preceptor soon learned to confide in the good sense and honest intentions of his sylvan pupil; and long before the close of his studentship in the Doctor's shop, was wont even to consult with him and take his opinion on the cases which together they attended. This confidence ripened at length into a sort of copartnership in the business. As a proof of the good opinion he entertained of the young man, he gave him, in A. D. 1805, what Drake calls an " autograph diploma." This was a certificate setting forth his merits and qualifications as a student and practi- tioner, and signed by William Goforth, Surgeon-General, First Division, Ohio Militia. Dr. Drake ever after cherished the remembrance of this occasion, and preserved the record as a memorial of the olden time, and still more, as "the tribute of a heart so generous as to set aside all the dictates of judgment as to the qualifications of a stripling to whom it was spontaneously given."-(Disc. ut ante.) Drake practised physic upon this sole authorization for the space of eleven years, when the authority was re-enacted by the venerable University of Pennsylvania, at the annual commencement in 1817. 13 After concluding his engagements with Goforth in 1805, Drake proceeded to Philadelphia with a view to attend the medical lectures in the University. He was very poor. His correspondence with his father shows him to have been at one time reduced to his last dollar. Let the poor student, therefore, be not wholly cast down when at the distance of a thousand miles from home, and almost without pecuniary resources, he shall perceive that our Kentucky boy strove against every obstacle; and though likes himself poor, and far from friends, yet never lost hope nor faith in his future, but applied the strong resources within, and raised himself to a lofty eminence in view of all his countrymen. He returned to the West in the spring of 1806, and settled as practising physician in Mason County, Kentucky, his early home; but, after waiting there a whole year in vain expectation of success, he proceeded once more to Cincinnati, and engaged in a new copartnership with his old friend and patron, Goforth. Now he got business, and as fortune began to smile upon him and hold out higher prospects, his boundaries grew with his ad- vancing knowledge-and at length arrived a period, at which a profound impression was made upon his spirit, one that seated itself in his affections and purposes, and that was never afterwards erased, but settled deeper and firmer in his very heart, and ruled it and made an abiding place for itself there. To a considerable degree it fixed and determined his after individuality, moulding his life, his thoughts, his wishes. I allude here to the attachment he formed for Miss Harriet Sisson, a niece of Colonel Jared Mansfield, subsequently the dis- tinguished professor of mathematics in the United States Military Academy at West Point. IHe was united to this lady in marriage on the 21st December, 1807. She was a person of great beauty and accomplishments, and highly attractive by her amiable man- ners and gentle temper, which, however, did not prevent her from possessing a very positive character for resolution and steadiness in all her purposes. Probably a deeper, warmer, or more lasting impression of love was never made on a human heart than this, which grew with constant augmentations-until he was deprived of that great happiness by her demise, which took place on the 30th Septem- ber, 1825. 14 During her life she contributed to his happiness, aiding him in every difficulty, sustaining him in his temptations, consoling him in his severest distresses, and cheering him in his onward career of distinction; so that she was ever a shield interposed for her hus- band in the warfare of life. It is not to be doubted that this was to him a bitter loss, and those who remember him may, perhaps, refer to it as the cause of that earnest contemplative expression Which his countenance ever wore, and which blended itself myste- riously even with the smile that like flashes of summer lightning served to brighten the clouds that shrouded without obscuring his intellectual features. Neither can it be doubted that he bore this loss with that stoical patience and courage that characterized the man. But her image never absented itself from him. She seemed to be always near him or above him; and always leading always persuading him, and pointing out the paths of truth, and honor, and right, that she herself had loved. I have reason to believe that the thought of her ceased at last to be painful, and that the separation came to be rather ideal than real; for he still could ever look, when he would, upon her face and form, and he ever waited and watched with patience for the coming of the wished-for consummation of his life-that was, the being laid by the side of her mouldering remains on the banks of the Ohio, whose current was not more gentle and steady than the continued tide of his deathless affec- tion. Drake loved Cincinnati-he loved the West-he gloried in her progress and in her prospects. His wife lay buried there. In these passages I am not speaking with the least insincerity, or for any purpose of rhetorical display. I deeply remember con- versations with my departed friend, in which I heard him pour out these thoughts in that sweet and solemn undertone with which he was wont to converse. Nor do I consider this subject too sacred for such an occasion. I ought to speak of the man as he was, and not as he was not. This was a part of the man. Marc Anthony said, "I come to bury Ciesar, not to praise him." Shall some worldling, some vapid bargain-maker, say this was an idle dream! and that it shows Drake to be a visionary! Not so; for it is not possible that the identity of a single human intelligence is ordained to be scattered like dust particles on the wind, and 15 its oneness converted into nothingness again. The indestructi- ble identity the ME, is but another expression or formula of the immortality of the soul; and though Drake did not see with mortal eyes, but only apprehended by a concentrated Esthetic force, the existence and proximity of that gentle and faithful monitor and lover who had blessed eighteen years of his life, by the sweet communion of heart with heart, yet was she there; and watchino and waiting for his coming at the last declining hour of his widowed age. If it was a dream, it was also an abid- ing and consoling belief. I have already made a passing allusion to Drake's first printed essay, the " Notices concerning Cincinnati," a small pamphlet that drew towards him no little public regard and consideration, which was much increased by the reissue of the tractate, now become a volume of two hundred and fifty pages, under the title, A Picture of Cincinnati. It cannot be without a feeling of surprise, that generates a sen- timent of respect for the man, that one examines this, his first public essay, and reflects at the same time, upon the slenderness of those resources out of which, at the age of twenty-five years, he thus carved out such a fortune of intellectual wealth. An untaught Kentucky boy, he had already made no inconsiderable acquisitions in the department of Natural History, both in Geology and Botany. The tract contains the fruits of his study of the cli- mate and diseases, the geology, botany, zoology and population of that region. The Calendarium Florce which he has inserted proves him to be a close observer and careful recorder, and little prone to speculations and hypothesis. How wise he was, that he did not, like too many of us, confine himself to the dull routine of diurnal professional duties! He early bent himself to the promotion of every good work, and the edification of the general good. In particular, he strenuously exerted himself for the establish- ment, at Cincinnati, of a Lancastrian School, and drew up the articles of association for it with his own hands. This good work he did in 1813, and thus has the honor to be one of the prin- cipal founders of an institution, that was subsequently expanded into the noble College of Cincinnati, which was in 1814. 16 About the same time, he assiduously promoted the formation of a public library for the town. Can a man do anything better for society than promote, as far as in him lies, the diffusion of knowledge, and a love of learning among his fellow-citizens Probably no more philanthropic act can be performed than such an one as this. Dr. Drake had felt, in his own case, how greatly knowledge conduces to virtue, which is happiness, and was, therefore, willing to extend the knowledge and means of happiness by opening up easy avenues to public in- struction. The distinguished London physician, Dr. John Forbes, uses strong language on this subject, some portions of which I shall venture now to recite. In speaking of the actual state of the laboring classes as to happiness, he says the cause of wretchedness among them is ignorance, or the general want of knowledge, and adds: "From want of knowledge, or, to express my meaning more accurately, from want of mental cultivation, the laborer is, at pre- sent, deprived of half the pleasure that should be the accompani- ment of his daily labor, and of more than half the pleasure that should be his share in the hours of relaxation. It is indeed most melancholy to think that there should exist, in any civilized nation, a large proportion of the population, whose enjoyments can scarcely be said to partake of a mental character at all, or only of the low- est degree to which this epithet can apply. The subject is too painful to dwell on; but it is one, I hesitate not to say, which is a blot on the escutcheon of humanity itself, and, next to actual slavery, cries the loudest for redress. That the sole remedy to be found for such a great evil, education, should be withheld for a single day, while civilized and instructed Christian men are de- bating over trifles-trifles surely, when compared with the great thing at issue-is what requires, to be seen and heard, to be be- lieved."-Forbes, Happiness in its relation to Work and Knowledge, p. 29. See, then, gentlemen of the College of Physicians, how long ago it was, and how early in his career, that our lamented companion entertained views like these, of one of the most distinguished of our European brethren! There had been established what was called the School of Lite- rature and the Arts at Cincinnati. On the 23d Nov. 1814, he 17 delivered, before that society, an anniversary address which was published; and in the course of the same year he read two papers on the earthquakes of 1811, and on the aurora borealis, which were printed in an appendix to the Picture of Cincinnati. You shall find in that anniversary address, a good deal of that sort of solid merit that may, with justice, be said to mark almost every- thing that he wrote. He was ever an ardent, enthusiastic man, but held those qualities in subjection to a vigorous judgment. Hear him speak when he would move those frontier-men to seek, in the pleasures of science, the sources of great happiness. " On this subject, gentlemen, our enthusiasm can scarcely rise to excess. We are surrounded by a boundless region, redundant in objects the most novel and inviting, where the strong may exhaust their mightiest energies, and the weak find, in the luxuriance of the harvest, a substitute for strength, where gleaning is neither necessary nor practicable, and the time elsewhere employed in the search for fruitful fields is devoted to selection in the midst of uni- versal plenitude. But let us descend to particulars. The climate of this country exhibits many singular phenomena. To note, and compare them with those of other climates, and thereby ascertain the laws peculiar to each and common to all, are objects of great interest to the meteorologist, and remain to be attempted. To observe the symptoms peculiar to our diseases, investigate their causes, and assign their remedies; to mark the succession of epi- demics, and point out the means of preventing endemics, are duties of the first consequence, which the physicians of this country have yet to perform. To analyze and compare the varieties of our soil, and assign to each its appropriate species of culture; to ascertain the extent and diversities of the great calcareous strata which support this region; classify their marine exuviwe, and in- vestigate their marbles, their saline deposits, and their metallurgic precipitates; to explore the tracts of sandstone that are occasionally found, and bring to light their beds of coal; to survey and dis- integrate our extensive alluvions, determine the process of their formation, their richness in iron ore, in copperas, alum, clays and ochres; their antiquity, and their vegetable and animal remains," c. c. I shall cite only half of this paragraph of suggestions, and this suffices to show the character of that mind that so strongly marked the man. 3 18 In September, 1815, he published his Natural and Statistical View, or a Picture of Cincinnati and the Mfiami Country, illustrated by maps, with an appendix containing observations on the late earth- quakes, the aurora borealis, and south-west wind. The work was divided into seven chapters, treating respectively on a geograph- ical and historical introduction to the whole; on Physical Topo- graphy, Civil Topography, Political Topography, Medical Topo- graphy, Antiquities, and, lastly, the Conclusion and Appendix. This is not a befitting place to present a review of this work, and I therefore rest with the passing observation, that it is a tract re- plete with useful information; and that it was, at the time of its appearance, in great request; and that it contributed essentially to spread abroad the opinion that Dr. Drake was a man of con- siderable attainments, and worthy of confidence as a faithful re- porter of carefully observed facts. So considerable, indeed, was the repute he had obtained in the now rapidly growing West, that a proposal was made to him to accept a professorial chair in a medical school about to be founded at the flourishing city of Lexington, Kentucky. He had as yet attended only one course of medical lectures, and that so far back as the year 1805; he therefore proceeded to Philadelphia, where, after fulfilling the obligations of a student, he was graduated Doctor of Medicine at the Commencement, which followed the close of the session of 1815-16. In regard to this incident, I beg leave to lay before you the fol- lowing letter to me from Prof. Carson, Dean o1 the Faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, which is interesting to all those who knew and admired our late Associate. May 31, 1853. DEAR SIR: As all circumstances connected with the life of the distinguished member of our profession, the late Dr. Daniel Drake, are interesting, permit me to communicate those relating to his graduation at the University of Pennsylvania in 1816. To you, as his biographer, they will be most appro- priately given. On the 11th of May, 1816, a special commencement was held for the purpose of conferring upon him the degree of Doctor of Medicine, more than a month after the regular Commencement had been held. The reasons for this are contained in the following note, which is appended to the record of the transaction:- "The circumstances leading to this extraordinary proceeding, were as fol- 19 lows: 'Daniel Drake, a practitioner of medicine in Cincinnati, having com- plied with all the requisitions of the University, was admitted a candidate for its medical honors. He accordingly presented to the Dean of the Faculty (Dr. James) his thesis, and then left the city. An arrangement was made by the Dean to apprise him of the day of Commencement, but the letter containing the information did not reach the candidate, and he arrived in Philadelphia the day after the Commencement. In this dilemma he stated his anxiety to graduate in this school in preference to others, in which he was led to believe no difficulties would be opposed to his application. Under these circumstances the Professors, considering the high literary accomplish- ments of Mr. Drake, the value of his late publication, his present eminence and his future promise, preferred the present plan to the conferring of an honorary degree, which they have always been desirous of avoiding.' Accordingly, on April 30th, Dr. Drake was examined and recommended to the Board of Trustees for the special mandamus, which was granted at the Commencement held as has been stated." Very truly your friend, J. CARSON. The autumn of the next year, 1817, found him occupying the chair of Materia Medica in Transylvania University, which he resigned early in the spring of 1818, and returned to Cincinnati. In May, 1818, he gave a course of lectures there on Botany, the introductory discourse of which was published in one of the city newspapers. In conjunction with the Rev. Elijah Slack he en- gaged in a course of medical instructions, in which that gentleman took charge of the department of Chemistry, while the Materia Medica and the Practice of Physic was confided to Dr. Drake. Their class consisted of twelve persons. Dr. Drake was a man intensely progressive, and ever on the watch for occasions to do some good; and now he began to per- ceive that the great West should stand in need of some domestic institutions for the propagation of medical knowledge, and sup- posed that his beloved Cincinnati offered great advantages for the establishment and conduct of a good school of medicine-since her early strides clearly pointed out the future greatness and progress of the gigantic West. In common with many western physicians he imagined that the climate and soil, manners and customs of the West, and some shades of peculiarity in the diseases prevalent there, rendered it desirable that the physicians of the country should be educated by physicians of the country. Whether these views be well founded or not, I take pleasure in bringing forward, in this place, his matured notions upon the subject, 20 one which has excited no little discussion of late years; not only to show how he reasoned upon that question, but because it is, probably, as plain a declaration of western argumentation of the subject as need be desired. "That many physicians overrate the degree of variation from a common standard which the diseases of different countries present, I am quite convinced; but feel equally assured that if the maladies of each country were studied and described without reference to those of any other, it would be found, if the state of medical science were equal in them, that the works thus produced would not be commutable, but that each would be better adapted, as a book of etiology, diagnosis, and prac- tice, to the profession and people among which it was written, than to any other. How much better, would depend on the various identities and discrepancies which might exist between the coun- tries thus compared. If their geological, hydrographical, topo- graphical, climatic, social, and physiological conditions were nearly the same, of course their medical histories would be much alike; but if they differed widely in one or several of these conditions, a corresponding diversity would appear in the respective histories of all the diseases which admit of modification from causes referable to those heads." (Introd. Inter. Valley.) The foregoing is a very candid exhibition of the argument, of the force of which or its applicability to divers positions within the boundaries of the American Union, the reader is the proper judge. He deemed them, with other motives, sufficient to warrant the commencement of an institution on the banks of the Ohio, and he labored with the greatest zeal and painstaking to carry into effect those views. He succeeded, at the seat of government of Ohio, in procuing the passage of a law on the 19th of January, 1819, chartering the Medical College of Ohio. Drake was the real founder of that college, and he ever afterwards entertained a strong feeling of personal attachment towards it, with warm desire for its use- fulness and greatness, although circumstances separated him for many years from it. The Medical College was opened November 11, 1820, on which occasion he pronounced an inaugural discourse on Medical Education, afterwards published in pamphlet form. In the winter curriculum of lectures he held there the chairs of In- stitutes and Practice, and Obstetrics. Upon the establishment of the Medical College of Ohio, he soon 21 extended his views for the public welfare, and began to labor with a purpose of having added to the institution, a great Public Hos- pital, a difficult task at that period. Yet, by unremitting exertions of his own, and aided by leading men, whose minds were on this topic inflamed and enlightened by his own zeal and intelligence, he compassed the enactment of a charter for the Hospital, accom- panied by a grant from the State treasury of ten thousand dollars, to defray the expense of erecting the edifice. This hospital, which is still in the constant exercise of its beneficent purpose, is one of the most considerable in the West, and as it is connected with the Medical College, lends the most important aid in the business of clinical medicine and surgery as taught in that school. Cincinnati is indebted mainly to Dr. Drake for this good work. One might well suppose that here he would have found a perma- nent resting-place, and a fair field for the display and exercise of the great abilities with which he was richly endowed. But new countries are, above all things, characterized by changeableness. In fact, the population of such regions is unstable as the waves of the sea; and in such a society wave succeeds wave, the last in- flux of population removing and confounding the antecedents. Men rather may be said to bivouac than to settle in new coun- tries of the American States; nor is it surprising that this should be the case in a nation which, but two centuries since, having landed, a small but intrepid band of pilgrims on Plymouth Rock, on the coast of New England, already occupies the vast expanse of its territory, even to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. It was with Drake as with every other item of living beings out there. The college faculty, originally constituted of five professors, was, in the spring of 1822, reduced to only three-Dr. Slack, Dr. Smith, and the subject of this notice. The two former had become inimical to our Professor, and as the power of removal was vested in their board, it was moved and seconded that Dr. Drake be expelled from his professorship. Drake was President of the Faculty. "Is the motion seconded" said he. " Aye I" "It is moved and seconded that Dr. Drake be expelled from his professorship. Are you ready for the question All those who are in favor of the motion will say Aye.' There were two affirmative voices. " The ayes have it-Dr. Drake is expelled," said the imperturbable; and, putting on his hat, he vacated the 22 chair, leaving the two voters in possession of the power over an institution he had founded, and which he fondly and always hoped to see honored and useful. It would be curious to have a da- guerre of the physiognomies of the remaining members after the departure of Dr. Drake. He soon afterwards published a narra- tive of the rise and fall of the Medical College of Ohio, which I am unable to procure. Assuredly no charge of fickleness of purpose can rest upon him as to this change. Yet doubtless it has, in some degree, con- tributed to spread abroad a notion that he was a man unsteady of purpose. I believe it was about this time that a great thought brooded in his mind, which, gradually developing the primary germ, took the form of that important work, to which with intrepid courage and unflagging industry he devoted a major part of his remaining years. It employed him from 1823 until the period of his death- near thirty years. - In 1823 he issued a printed circular to the physicians of the West, announcing his purpose to construct, upon the diseases of that region, a work, for the materials of which he solicited their contribution of results obtained by experience and observation throughout that vast area. As his attention became more and more riveted upon that scheme, its importance expanded under his view of its novelty and grandeur, and he felt a warm desire to execute a monument worthy of the country, of the pro- fession he loved, and of his own fame. To write upon the diseases of the West, as he proposed the plan, it were not enough to treat of agues, of congestive fevers, or milk sickness, or yellow fever. It became necessary to show what is the Vest; and hence there grew up before him the ideal of an extended reconnoissance of the great West, whose geography and topography; whose geological, ethnological, and sanitary characteristics, would require years of toil and a conscientious adherence to the visible and palpable truths of the subjects. He informs us, in his Preface, that the germ of this work was a pamphlet, already mentioned, entitled "Notices concerning Cincin- nati, printed for distribution forty years ago." In order to show you the vastness of the field in which our deceased Fellow toiled so faithfully, I beg permission to quote here, from Part I. Chapter I. Sec. I., the following words:- 23 - 'I. LThe interior valley of North America begins within the tropics, and terminates within the polar circle; traversing the continent from south to north, and passing through the entire northern temperate zone. In the south it rests upon and is deeply indented by, the Gulf of Mexico; in the north it bears a similar relation to the Polar Sea and Hudson Bay; the latter penetrating it so deeply, as to come within twenty-two degrees of latitude of the Gulf of Mexico. On the east its limits are the Appalachian Mountains, which extend from the thirty-third to the fifty-third degree of latitude, each end terminating in a low water-shed. On the west, the immense chains of Rocky and sea-side mountains, beginning within the torrid zone and ending within the polar cir- cle, divide it from the Pacific Ocean. These mountain borders, as may be seen on the map (P1. I.), diverge from each other as they cross the continent, and thus the valley regularly widens as it passes from south to north." " II. Area. Of the area of this great intermontane region it is not easy to speak with much precision. To the south, its latitudes vary from the eighteenth to the thirtieth parallels; in the north, from the fiftieth to the seventieth. In the south, its eastern margin is found near the eighty-first meridian; its western in the one hundred and fifth; but in the fifty-third degree of latitude, it ad- vances east to the fifty-sixth meridian, and west to the one hun- dred and sixteenth; finally, in the sixty-eighth parallel, its western margin is found in the one hundred and thirty-sixth degree of longitude." " If we assume eight millions of square miles as the area of Nortb America, the valley cannot be estimated at less than six millions, or three-fourths of the whole continental surface. Its northern half is, however, rendered nearly uninhabitable by the state of its surface and its climate; and, therefore, the portion which presents objects of immediate interest to the medical etiologist does not exceed three millions of square miles, of which, as yet, not more than one-third has acquired even a sparse civilized population." I have brought forward the foregoing extract from his work with a view merely to open up a general conspectus of the field in which he designed to labor, and point out more clearly the intellectual directions and aspirations of the man; and it appears to me that, con- sidering all the phases of life presented in the preceding sketch of 24 his career, it cannot but be conceded he was a man moved by great and bold designs and aspirations as a scholar, as well as a person of indomitable energy in the attempt to elevate himself from the lowest beginnings in the scholar-class, to a position in its highest rank. I hope to show, in the course of this notice of him, what he really did effect of this design of his. For the present I make the remark that he was a man in the highest degree unselfish. lie lived and died without making haste to be rich. Situated at the radiating point of a growing tide of civilization and progress, and entertaining the most glowing anticipations of the pro- gress of population and means of happiness, amidst those loved scenes wherein he had passed his youth, and well aware of the certain and rapid appreciation of values all around him, he never became a speculator in real estate, else it would have been an easy thing for him to become a millionaire. He preferred the sweet pleasures of that " Divine Philosophy," which to his appre- hension furnished a "perpetual feast of nectar'd sweets, where no crude surfeit reigns," and so followed the footsteps of that fair sci- ence who led him " far as the solar walk or milky way," and onwards until his comprehending spirit came at length to grasp the whole ideal of a Cosmos-he, the rude unlettered farmer boy of Mason County, taught beneath overarching forests on the wild banks of the Ohio ! Is it a question whether he were a wiser and happier man if he had, instead, addressed himself to the worship of the Mammon of Riches Dr. Drake was a man always beckoned for- wards, and drawn towards an ideal that he had erected. This was not the Demon of Socrates, nor would he sacrifice a cock to .Escu- lapius, like the great and wise Athenian, but he devoted himself. I leave this honored audience to decide whether this is wisdom or not; and whether we, who are left behind in the world, and in the desire of fame, are more benefited by his example than we should be, had he lived and died merely a wealthy American I He always labored for his own support, emulating in that re- spect the example of holy St. Paul, who says: " Neither did we eat any man's bread for naught; but wrought, with labor and travail night and day, that we might not be chargeable to any of you."- Tlhz. ii. 3. A portion of his time was employed in practice, but a much larger share was devoted to public instruction in the profes- 25 sorships which he at various times held; the avails of which suf- ficed for his sustenance and respectability. There were three guiding thoughts for Dr. Drake. One was that he might be able worthily to execute his great task as to the diseases of the West; one that the Medical College of Ohio, which owed its origin to him, might be greatly useful and honored, and also he earnestly desired that the institution should, at some future day, recall and reinstall him as one of its professors; and, lastly, that, dying at home, he might, followed to the grave by a train of pro- fessors and pupils, be borne to rest near by the remains of her whose ideal, as I have said, was never absent from him. Nor did these images, which preoccupied, render him morose; on the contrary, he was cheerful, contented; wanting but little; indifferent to sensual indulgences and gratifications; abhorring all intemperance; a hater of untruthfulness and all false pretence; highly assiduous in the discharge of his daily duties, and ever ready to promote and uphold any good word or work. Thus, he brought forward the project of a railway between Cincinnati and the city of Charleston, South Carolina, submitted the report of a committee on the subject, which he had himself prepared, and was doubt. less one of the chief movers in that great and laudable enterprise which entitles him to the praise and gratitude of our nation. This was in the year 1835, and in the summer of 1836, he attended a convention held in Knoxville, Tenn., to promote the same ob- ject. In the general prevalence of habits of intoxication, and the use of intoxicating drinks, he saw the fruitful source of unnumbered ills both public and private, and he abhorred intemperance as an opprobrium of the land. His own practice in this matter was sufficient warrant for him to lift up his warning voice, since in all his career, he had set his face strongly against the pernicious practices of society in this behalf. Many eloquent, warm-hearted addresses were made in public by him, both on the east and the west side of the mountains. In these performances he was singu- larly felicitous, not more by the unerring truth of his words than by the visible conviction and sincerity that prompted him to speak. Even the medical classes that listened to his lectures, were brought under the influence of this spirit, and by the associations he formed among them, he rendered good service, not only by wooing them 4 26 away from the dangerous habitudes of the times, but by thus en- abling him the more effectually to pour into their intelligence the rich stores of his own medical philosophy and art. This College are well acquainted with the wide spread of pro- fessional opinion in this country, in regard to our processes of medical education, and with the prevalent wish that some changes should be made in relation to the length of the courses of lectures. Dr. Drake held the same opinions long before the institution of the American Medical Association. In an inaugural discourse pronounced by him at the opening of the Medical College of Ohio Nov. 11, 1820, thirty-three years ago, he held this language:- " It cannot be supposed that the Legislature of Ohio will long suffer an institution so beneficial to the people in the State, to struggle, unsupported, with the difficulties that must beset its in- fancy. But, should a different policy prevail, it will not, there- fore, be abandoned. Its growth may be retarded, but, like the pine on the stormy and barren summits of the Alleghany, what it loses in luxuriance it will gain in vigor and hardiness. Its pro- fessors are determined on success, and hope to deserve it. To show more fully on what their expectations rest, will occupy us but a few moments. The college to which they belong offers one advantage over all that have been hitherto established in the United States. Not one has a session exceeding four months-a period confessedly too short for the course of instruction they arc designed to impart. The lectures in this institution will continue five months, and there will be fewer of them daily. Thus, the pupils will not be perplexed and oppressed by exuberance, nor hurried so rapidly on as to be precluded from the necessary read- ing and reflection," c. c. The idea, then, of lengthening the courses of public lectures, in the American Schools, is not so novel as has by some been sup- posed; and though it is, perhaps, to the direct influence of the public opinion of the profession, rendered powerful by the Ameri- can Medical Association, that we owe the positive increase of length of the courses, let us at least do Dr. Drake the justice to admit him as one of the earliest advocates of that reform. No member of the American medical profession received, with greater joy than he, the early impressions of hope for some improvement from the constitution of the great society than he did. He attended, and 27 took an active and self-denying part in the session of that body held at Cincinnati, where, I may casually remark, he was not honored with the presidency. He journeyed also to Charleston, S. C., where his eloquent appeals were heard in vain on the questions of certain ameliorations he was most desirous to see adopted. He made another long journey, that he might take his place at Rich- mond, in Virginia, whence he proceeded to the mountains, in order to conclude some topographical investigations for his work, and thence reached his home in Cincinnati. It cannot be said that he exerted any positive influence upon the deliberations of either of the above named conventions; and, doubtless, he suffered no little disappointment at the failure of plans which he deemed likely to redound to the advantage of Medicine. In all these things he sought only to elevate it; and, in his view, Medicine is elevated only when it grows in usefulness to the people. He was a man who never looked upon Medicine as a refuge for the doctors, but rather as only an asylum for the suffering portion of the popula- tion. Let me now show, not only his feelings on the subject of the phy- sician's mission, but also exhibit some evidence of what progress in scholarship had been made by the uneducated, unaided Kentucky lad of the year 1800. And in order to that end I shall read the following passages from the same inaugural, teeming with noble sentiments clothed in the richest forms of expression. "The powers of the healing art, in shortening the stages of a disease, are equally obvious; and next to the mitigation of pain nothing is more grateful to an invalid than his early release from the chamber of sickness. Every convalescent has an exquisite relish for the objects and aspects of nature; and even in their coarsest and simplest dress, they never fail to delight him. But there are moments in which the great artist arrays her in charms uncommonly fascinating. In every country the elements of this enchantment are in some degree peculiar. In this, we are pre- sented with the most striking exhibitions of beauty and grandeur in an April morning, when the heavens have distilled their fresh and purest dews upon the tenderest flowers of the year; when the buds of our forest expand to the enlivening influence of a vernal sun, while the same influence has restored our migratory birds, and ' made vocal every tree,' with their songs of love; when the 2S Ohio, swollen by the last snows of its parent mountains, wheels rapidly along its weight of waters, and reflects the brightened disk of that luminary, whose return has dissolved the spells of winter, and diffused new energy and action through every animate and inani- mate form; or, on an evening of August, after the oppressive heats of the great fountain of light and life have been tempered by a thunder- gust, and the freshened atmosphere wafts the sweet exhalations of our blossomed corn-fields; when the green mantle of our hills as- sunes a livelier hue, and the rays of the setting sun illumine the de- parting clouds with the softest tints of red and yellow light. To languish in captivity till these evanescent glories have passed away, is the agony of privation. To be emancipated by medical skill, and set at large with renewed capacities for enjoyment, infuses gladness of heart, and inspires gratitude to the Great Physician above, as well as to the humble instrument by which his beneficence is ad- ministered." (Inaug. Disc. 27.) As I am willing to exhibit specimens of his descriptive power which I regard as highly expressive, not only of the nature of his sentiments, but also of his attainments as a belleslettres scholar, I shall venture in this place to read for you an extract from his great work, which may challenge a comparison with any, the most graceful forms of language in our English literature. Dr. Drake, in one of his many excursions in search of materials for his History of Medical Topography and Diseases, extended his voyage, in 1842, to the Sault de St. Marie and Lake Superior. His examination of the climate, and other circumstances of that interest- ing region, induced him, upon his return, to throw together his thoughts in the form of a pamphlet, published under the title of The Northern Lakes, a Summer Residence for Invalids of the South. This essay, which merits a reprint and general diffusion, seems to have been the foundation of his remarks at p. 348 of his work. After descanting upon the delicious atmosphere and other hygienic ad- vantages of the Island of Mackinac, which is situated in the beautiful Straits of Michilimackinac, he proceeds to say, looking from the elevated summit of the ruins of Fort Holmes:- " When the observer directs his eye upon the water more than the land, and the day is fair, with moderate wind, he finds the surface as variable in its tints as if clothed in a robe of changeable silk. Green and blue are the governing hues, hent they flow into 29 each other with such facility and frequency, that while still con- templating a particular spot, it seems, as if by magic, transformed into another; but these midday beauties vanish before those of the setting sun, when the boundless horizon of lake and land seems girt round with a fiery zone of clouds, and the brilliant drapery of the skies paints itself upon the surface of the waters. Brief as they are beautiful, these evening glories, like spirits of the air, quickly pass away; and the gray mantle of night warns the be- holder to depart for the village, while he may yet make his way along a narrow and rocky path, beset with tufts of prickly juniper. Having refreshed himself for an hour, he may stroll out upon the beach to listen to the serenade of the waters. Wave after wave will break at his feet, over the white pebbles, and return as limpid as it came. Up the straits he will see the evening star dancing on the ruffled surface, and the loose sails of the lagging schooner flapping in the fitful land breeze; while the milky-way, Death's Path of the red man, will dimly appear on the waters before him. Behind, in the street, a lively group of Canadian French of every shade of color between white and red, will gossip and shrug their shoulders; on one side, should the Indians, who still inhabit the shores of Lake Michigan, be on a visit to the island, he will hear the uproar of a lodge of drunken Chippeways, with the screams of women and children, and the cackling of frightened hens; on the other, will see the sober and listless Ottawa, sitting in silent vacancy of thought, on his upturned birch canoe; his wife within the tent, spreading cypress bark and flag mats upon the gravel, as lodgings for the night; while half a dozen children loll or play about the door, and as many half-starved dogs curl up among them. Sur- rounded by such scenes, the traveller begins to realize that he is a stranger; when suddenly, a new phenomenon appears and fixes the conviction. Every object becomes more visible; and, raising his eyes, he beholds the heavens illuminated with an aurora bore- alis, where he reads, in fantastic characters of strange and eccen- tric light, that he is, indeed, a sojourner in a strange land, and has wandered far from home and his friends in the sunny regions of the South." Let us compare the foregoing charming pictograph, if I might venture to' say so, with the gawky Kentucky boy who, in 1800, proceeded to the house of Dr. Goforth, to commence, at the age of 30 15, an almost unassisted course of mental development; and let those physicians take shame to themselves, who, with the abundant means of education scattered with lavish profusion all over the land this day, exhibit in their correspondence and published tracts, the indubitable proofs of their indifference to the claims of our scholarship. It is to me difficult, nay it is impossible to scan these passages, and many others equally pleasing-I cannot follow in the high aesthetic tract over which he would lead, without feeling ready to offer homage to that intelligence which made him one of America's most gifted sons. May it not be that the men of Cin- cinnati, that now Queen City, whose birth and infancy he observed and nurtured, shall, in some future day, honor themselves and their municipality by inaugurating a deathless statue of the emi- nent citizen whose name is indissolubly connected with her origins! Inasmuch as a considerable part of Dr. Drake's life was passed in the station of a public teacher of medicine, it behooves me now to give some account of his transactions in that relation. I have already stated that, previously to his departure for Phila- delphia, in the autumn of 1816, there was offered to him a pro- fessorship to be established at Lexington, and that, in the winter of 1817, he did occupy the chair of Materia Medica in that school, but resigned it in 1818. In May, 1818, he delivered, at Cincinnati, a popular course of lectures on Botany, and in the following fall, was connected with Dr. Slack in a course of private lectures; his department being the Practice of Medicine and the Materia Medica. The class consisted of twelve students. You are aware that he was Professor of the Institutes and Prac- tice of Medicine and Obstetrics in the Medical College of Ohio in 1820, and of his summary ejection therefrom, by the votes of his two colleagues in the spring of 1821. Dr. Drake was recalled to the Transylvania School in 1823, and held there the professorship of Materia Medica during the session of 1823-4, at the close of which he was transferred to the chair of Therapeutics and Practice, which he filled until he resigned it in 1827. He was elected to the professorship of the Institutes and Practice in Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia, in the year 1830, and, accepted it with the express understanding that he would hold it 31 for only one season, when his interests would draw him to the West again. Before his departure hence, he had engaged several gentlemen, in whom he placed confidence, to proceed to Cincinnati for the purpose of establishing a medical school of the Miami University. But that plan failing to go into operation, and the Faculty of the Medical College of Ohio being reorganized, most of those gentle- men received appointments in it; and in that catholic spirit which distinguished him, he accepted the minor office or professorship of Clinical Medicine; but resigned it in the early part of 1832. In 1833, he declined a professorship in the University of Vir- ginia which was tendered to him. In 1835, he obtained the organization of the Medical Depart- ment of Cincinnati College, and held in it, a professorship of Theory and Practice during the four following years, when the institution was discontinued. This happened in 1839. In 1839, he was elected to a professorship of Pathological Anatomy and Clinical Medicine in the Medical Institute of Louis- ville, Kentucky, and labored there assiduously during ten years, pending the first six of which he lectured on the topics above named, but for the last four years upon Pathology and Practical Medicine. But it was ever Cincinnati that he loved-that was his home, and there he wished to die, and there be buried. A ceaseless attraction drew him near the spot where rested the remains of her whose image was always present in his heart. Let no one, then, be surprised that he should resign at Louisville to accept at Cin- cinnati the chair of Special Pathology, Practice, and Clinical Medicine in the Medical College of Ohio, founded by him in 1819. I have never learned his motives for soon abandoning this post, which he gave up in 1850, and then rejoined his former associates at Louisville, where he was fully reinstated. In May, 1852, he attended the Richmond meeting of the American Medical Association, and upon his return to the West, again laid down his appointment in the Louisville school to ac- cept, and for the last time, a professorship at home-his beloved home. He was elected Professor of Theory and Practice in the Medical College of Ohio. He was surrounded by a band of capa- ble men, in whose ability and purposes he could confide, and here 32 one might hope to see him firmly fixed at last in the place which he preferred to all others. He addressed himself with the greatest earnestness and zeal to his task. The business of the session began with good promises of success, but Drake's hour was at hand, and the fatal malady which deprived us of him, struck him down, that he ceased to live, on the 5th November, 1852, dying at an age a little beyond sixty-seven years. It is thus seen that Dr. Drake, in his whole career, had held nine different professorships in medicine from 1817 to 1852. In only one of these did he continue for a long time to pour forth those sound and useful doctrines which he was able to impress upon the youthful student. It was at Louisville that he was rein- forced by those zealous and faithful, as well as able colleagues, whose respect and affection he bore with him to the grave. I have reason to know that these many changes, which exposed him to the charge of want of steadiness of purpose, filled him with regret, lamenting that he had not been able, like some of his contempo- raries, to maintain one station from beginning to ending of his career. I conceive, however, that the charge of want of steadiness is unwarranted upon these grounds alone, and not so upon any others whatever for those who will review his whole history, ex- hibiting a life of incessant activity and unshaken purpose to do what he deemed his call and mission, I mean, to deal justly as to all men, and construct his work on the Disorders of the West. With him this last was a ruling idea: he was never weary of this labor, nor tired of its observations, researches, and records. He never flinched at its expense, nor pined after the riches from the possession of which it debarred him. He was steady. This was his work, and he was true to it and, st e a d y, he labored upon it till he died. Is it proper to disparage such a man with the sup- position that he is unreliable-capricious-unstable of purpose!! It is not possible, in this notice of our countryman, to present an elaborate account of this work, upon which, I believe, his claims to high consideration as an American writer must chiefly rest. It is entitled A Systematic Treatise, Historical, Etiological, and Practical, on the Principal Diseases of the Interior Valley of North America, as they appear in the Caucasian, African, Indian, and 33 Esquimaux Varieties of its Population. Cincinnati, 1850, 8vo. pp. 878. The work is divided into two Books. The first book treats of General Etiology, and contains three parts, of which the first discusses questions of the Topographical and Hydrographical Etiology of those extensive regions. This first part has sixteen chapters, which comprise his results, as 1st. A General Analysis of the boundaries and aspects; hydrographical system, altitudes and configuration; geological outline, and hydrographic basins. 2d. The Southern Hydrographic basin or Gulf of Mexico, which is continued in the third chapter, in which he describes the medi- cal topography of the principal places on the Gulf. In chapter fourth, he reviews the delta of the Mississippi. Chapter fifth relates to localities in and around the delta. The sixth chapter details his information relative to the bottoms and bluffs of the river above its delta. In the seventh chapter he gives an ac- count of the region west of the Gulf and the Mississippi River. The Medical Topography of the regions east of the great river, and south of the Ohio basin, is exposed in chapter eighth; and the ninth chapter is devoted to the history of the Ohio basin, principally the tributaries to the great Ohio from the southern side. The hydrography of the same basin, as coming into its trough from the northward, is comprised in chapter tenth. In chapter eleventh he goes yet farther to the north, exploring the basins of the Kaskaskia, the Illinois, and Rock Rivers. The great hydrological system of the St. Lawrence, with the magnificent series of the great American Lakes, is treated of in chapters twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth. The Hudson Bay and Arctic Ilydrographical basin take up the last chapter of Part I., which is chapter sixteenth. The second Part of Book L treats of Climatic Etiology, in five chapters, of which chapter first treats of the nature, dynamics, and elements of climate. Then comes, temperature of the Interior valley, atmospheric pressure of the Interior valley, winds, aqueous meteors, and, lastly, electric phenomena, and distribution of plants and animals. Part III. contains the author's views on Physio- logical and Social Etiology, in four chapters, as population, modes of living, clothing, lodging, bathing, habitations, and shade trees, and occupations; pursuits, exercise, and recreations. .5 34 Book the second has one Part only, as far as published. It treats, in eleven chapters, on, 1. The nomenclature, varieties, and geographical limits of autumnal fever, together with the topo- graphical and climatic conditions under which it prevails. 2. Specu- lations on the efficient cause of autumnal fever. 3. Mode of action and first effects of the remote cause; and 4. The varieties and de- velopment of autumnal fever. Chapter five considers of intermittent fever, simple and inflam- matory. Chapter six, malignant intermittents; seven, remittent autumnal fever, simple and inflammatory; eight, malignant remit- tents; nine, protracted, relapsing, and vernal intermittents. The tenth chapter contains the fruit of his researches upon the pathological anatomy and consequences of autumnal fever; which is continued in the last, or eleventh, chapter, which closes the volume. This sketch of the volume may serve at least to point out the vastness of the enterprise which our late associate undertook to carry on-but it by no means presents any exhibit of the extent and variety or precision of the special researches on the etiology of diseases in the West, nor the philosophical and dispassionate his- tory of the signs and treatment of them. In regard to this great un- dertaking, it appears to me that but one thing is to be regretted- and that is, the premature termination of the author's existence- premature chiefly in this, that it was not vouchsafed for him to superintend the completion of a task so long the object of his as- siduous and most conscientious devotion. He had made arrangements while in Philadelphia, in the month of April, 1852, to put the second volume to the press in this city, and it only required for its completion that he should apply the finishing hand to the abundant materials he had, to a certain ex- tent, not only provided but arranged. Nevertheless, let us hope, that while it has pleased the Disposer of events to remove him suddenly from the world, the hands to which this honorable task of completing a national work is now confided, may prove worthy of that high confidence, and fully come up to the expectations and demands of the profession in relation to it. It has by some been considered unfortunate that Dr. Drake did not so arrange his work as to give to the world his information on special diseases of the West, and leave the task of recording the 35 immense mass of its medical topography and general etiology for an independent volume. But, I think, it requires only a moment's consideration to discern that in doing so he would abandon the cherished and wisely-concerted designs that occupied so large a share of his life. Drake, perhaps, foresaw some objections of this kind, and one might almost imagine he was ready to answer before they were stated, when he made use, in his Discourse, January 10, 1852, of the following words: "The enlightened aspirant for medi- cal distinction is but little taken with the applause of the present moment, unless he perceives that after it has passed away there will remain some enduring element of fame-some solid and un- decaying trunk, with fruit-bearing branches, which might have been overspread and hidden by a gorgeous drapery of leaves and flowers that enraptured the gazing populace for a day, but had no charms for him. When we feel in our hearts this indifference to the fleeting, and this warm regard for the permanent, let us believe that God has implanted the instinct for a wise and good purpose; and then follow it as a heavenly guide." Again, in speaking of medical works that serve to show the age and body of the time, its form and pressure, he says: " The true and healthful bibliothecal element of the mind consists of monographs, reports of original observations, and the systematic works which, in different ages, have presented the existing principles and facts of the profession, as they appeared to men of genius and ex- perience. Such works have been at all times appearing and dis- appearing. They are not, like ordinary compilations, superseded by others of a later imprint, but a new generation overlooks them. They are like great men who have retired from the public gaze. They lie embalmed in the truths with which they are pene- trated, and cannot decay; but, like the bodies of kings and philo- sophers, steeped in spices and deposited in the catacombs, they are found only in unfrequented closets and alcoves." It is re- freshing to hear such scholarly views, and delightful to find them set forth in such clear and masterly exposition-who that has traced out the path of our western philosopher, e sylvis nun- cius, can doubt that he did indeed achieve the fame for which he toiled so long, and that his labors will be embalmed amidst the most precious exemplifications of the Medical Literature of America in the nineteenth century 36 Dr. Drake was indisposed during the greater part of the month of October, 1852, but did not consider his malady anything more than an ordinary catarrh, though about the 15th of the month, the sorethroat and hoarseness were so considerable as to prevent him from lecturing. On the 20th of October, he travelled to Louisville, Kentucky, being invited to attend a meeting of the Medical Society of that State. He returned on Saturday night, 22d, with some increase of the indisposition, but attended Divine service both morning and evening of the morrow. Monday, 24th, and Tuesday, 25th, he prescribed at the Hos- pital, and wrote and lectured as usual. On the Tuesday evening he attended a meeting of citizens, convened in consequence of the death of Mr. Webster, where he made a short address. The even- ing being wet and cold, he had, after retiring to rest, a severe and protracted chill, which did not deter him from fulfilling his duties at the lecture-room and at the Hospital on the following day, Wednesday, 26th. Another chill, experienced on Wednes- day night, was followed by fever, considerable cough, and intense headache; the pain being felt immediately above the eyes. Thurs- day, 27th, he was too ill to leave the house, and grew worse throughout the day, but rested upon a sofa near the parlor fire. The night was bad, and rendered sleepless by the pain and by ocular spectra. Friday, 28th, he was dressed and down stairs on the sofa, where he passed the day, conversing with many friends who called to see him, and with his colleagues, upon the affairs of the Medical College. Throughout this period he suffered in- tensely. Another miserable night being past, he was too ill on the Saturday (29th) to descend into the parlor. He this day ad- mitted no persons, save the members of his family, and his physicians, Drs. Rives and Richards. The action of the heart was now become very irregular, and the cough and pain in the head continually augmented in violence. In the course of the Satur- day night, he arose and bled himself, sitting erect in bed. The venesection gave rise to a faintness, upon recovering from which he felt greatly relieved. Although the prostration that followed the bleeding was very considerable, the physicians, having discovered some symptoms 37 of congestion of the left lung, he, on Sunday afternoon, had cups applied upon the left thorax, which took away about eight ounces of blood. Subsequently to this he took medicine, and was some- what relieved as to the headache, and quite free from pain in the lung-yet exceedingly reduced as to his nervous system. Monday, 31st, found him still more reduced, speaking with difficulty, and only in broken sentences. Tuesday, September 1. The nervous exhaustion was so great that he requested his friends to pray only for his release, saying, that he had no longer a hope, nor even wish for his recovery; and that he no longer desired to live, even to finish his great work, for God had taught him the vanity of all earthly plans and hopes, and now he only desired to depart and be at rest. Wednesday, 2d. The symptoms continued unchanged, except that they increased in severity, and his strength failed more and more. During this period, his conversation with his own family and the Rev. Dr. Reid, showed how firm was his faith in the re- ligion he had publicly professed, which now afforded to him its safe and sure consolations. Thursday evening (3d). He sank into a comparatively calm or lethargic condition. At a later hour he pressed the hand of a dear relative, and said faintly-" Temporary relief," " temporary relief." These were his last words. After an anodyne medicine he fell into a tranquil and deep sleep, which, for a short time, cheered the distressed friends near him with fallacious hopes of amendment-but before midnight he was insensible and nearly pulseless. Throughout Friday (4th) he opened his eyes, when loudly called by a familiar voice. It was with difficulty that he swallowed the fluids presented to him; the respiration became more and more embarrassed. In this state he continued until near six o'clock, his breathing becoming gentler and less deep, until at last, by the most imperceptible degrees, it seemed to cease. At that moment, when all around were gazing upon the face of the departing physician, he closed his lips gently, drew up his right arm and placed it on his breast, though for hours before, it had lain motionless by his side; the eyes, which now opened, seemed to beam with unearthly radiance, as if he were at the moment drinking in and reflecting the glories of the unseen world. 38 It was in this manner that died the most eminent member of the medical profession in the West. He was recalled to a professorship in the Medical College of Ohio, which was mainly founded by him. He was followed to the grave by the professors and students of that institution, and the funeral train was also composed of an immense concourse of his fellow-citizens, an unprecedented number of whom came out to show their respect and veneration for their illustrious townsman. He was deposited in the grave where mouldered the remains of her whose image he so fondly cherished. But he did not live to complete the task over which he had impended more or less assiduously during about forty years. I have drawn these memorials from documents furnished to me by his family, from his printed works, and from my own recollections and convictions, as to his character and conduct. Dr. Drake's name is that of a celebrated American. Let every member of this College, remember his virtues and services in the cause of medical science, and be thankful to Providence who has permitted an illustrious name to be added to the Medical Scholar- ship in America.