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Topographical geological report of that portion of Kentucky including Union and part of Crittenden counties surveyed during the years 1854 and 1855 / by Sidney S. Lyon. Lyon, Sidney S. (Sidney Smith), 1808-1872. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b96-11-34698950 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Topographical geological report of that portion of Kentucky including Union and part of Crittenden counties surveyed during the years 1854 and 1855 / by Sidney S. Lyon. Lyon, Sidney S. (Sidney Smith), 1808-1872. A.G. Hodges, state printer, [Frankfurt, Ky. : 1856] p. -416 : ill., maps ; 27 cm. Coleman Maps on 3 folded leaves in pocket. Including: Sections no. 1-5 of Union County, and Map no. 1: Geological survey of Kentucky exhibiting the topographical and geological features of Union and part of Crittenden counties. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1996. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN05984.03 KUK) Printing Master B96-11. Includes index. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Kentucky Topography. TOPOGRAPHICAL GEOLOGICAL REPORT OF THAT PORTION OF INCLUDING UNION AND PART OF CRITTENDEN COUNTIES, SURVEYED DURING THE YEARS 1854 AND 1855, BY SIDNEY S. LYON, TOPOGRAPHICAL ASSISTANT. To DR. DAVID DALE OWEN, Principal Geologist of K6entucky. Sni:-In compliance with your instructions, bearing date Septem- ber, 1854, I herewith submit my report of the detailed Geological Sur- vey, made by my corps, of Union and part of Crittenden counties, Kentucky, with the maps, profiles, &c. SIDNEY S. LYON. TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT. Having received the appointment of assistant to the Geological Sur- vey of Kentucky, approved June, 18-54, and having qualified by the 8th of that month, it was not until the September following that I was ordered into active service, when having received instructions to take the field, I proceeded to make a reconnoisance of part of Union, Crittenden, and Livingston counties, mainly to ascertain the most eflctual method of correcting the very imperfect and false plats of those counties, as they were exhibited on the best known and ap- proved maps of Kentucky. An actual linear survey having been de- termined upon, it was proposed, if practicable, that a survey of the nature of the present coast survey made by the government of the United States should be adopted. The features of the country were found, by examination, to be in many respects favorable to a survey of this character, there being a sufficient number of commanding ridges with many subordinate isolated knolls well situated for stations for a primary triangulation; but the expense necessary for the establishment of such stations, and especially the immense labor that would be required in removing the primative forest around and in the lines between stations, would involve the out- lay of sums entirely beyond the control of this branch of the survey. The rectilineal method of surveys was then considered. This method divides a territory into squares of one square mile each, by lines intersecting each other at right angles, supposed to be due north and south and east and west. Practically this method hlis been found to abound in errors, and requires corrections, both in course and quan- tity at the beginning of every township or square of thirty-six square miles. This method would require that there should be carefully sur- veyed, and marked eighty-four miles of line and a travel of at least as many additional miles, or one hundred and sixty-eight miles of travel for every thirty-six square miles, equal to four hundred and sixty- six miles of travel to every square mile of territory examined. This 384 TOPOGRAFPICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. method was therefore rejected as too expensive for the limited means appropriated for this branch of the work. It was therefore determined that a traverse survey should be adopted as the only method within the reach of this branch of the service by which approximate results could be obtained. This method having been determined upon, and the mode and man- ner of carrying the same into execution being left to my discretion, I proceeded to organize my corps for field duties. Owing to the unusual duties required it was found exceedingly diffi- cult to procure the necessary assistants, and it was not until the 4th day of December, 1854, that the field work was commenced in form, the topographical corps consisting of Sidney S. Lyon, Walter A. Nich- olson, sub-assistant, Win. Carr, James M. Price, and IL C. Sherman, this corps being provided with a van for carrying the camp from point to point as the progress of the work required. From the facts obtained during the reconnaissance it was deemed advisable that the survey should commence at some one of the best established points on the Ohio river near the margin of the Great Western coal field; Caseyville, in Union connty, was selected as the point at which the work should commence. Owing to the very unsystematic manner in which the early land surveys of Kentucky were made, there are few or no well established geographical points in the State; the boundary of the State formed by the Ohio river, having been established approximately by the surveyors of the United States lands lying in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, has been copied firom those surveys and applied to the maps compiled for Ken- tucky. The lines of Green, Kentucky, Licking, Big Sandy, and probably some of the smaller rivers surveyed under the direction of the State Board of Internal Improvement of Kentucky, are perhaps also ap- proximately correct, but I have no accurate information as to the char- acter and extent of these surveys. Indeed I am not aware that any surveys at all reliable have even been officially published of Kentucky geography. With the exceptions above alluded to there are probably no surveys in Kentucky that have had any further object in view, than giving boundaries to land, and the surveys for this purpose have not generally TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. been returned for record in such form as to be of any practical utility in the construction of maps of the territory so surveyed. On the 4th of December, the topographical corps took the field, starting at the shore of the Ohio river at low water mark, and extend- ing the lines in various directions, making special note of such mat- ters as were of topographical and geological interest met with on the lines, and when practicable observing angles from the lines to all in- habited houses. The lines were run with reference to the geological or topographical character of the country. On the 21st of December it was deemed advisable to increase the force employed, and run lines of levels simultaneously with the com- pass lines. Mr. Sherman having fillen sick, was paid o0 and Frank. lin Armstrong and John Cawthon were added to the corps, and com- pass and level put into active operation, and the work continued until the 21st day of January, 1855. The weather being now unfavorable, the corps were directed to report to you at head quarters, and were paid off and discharged for the season. I then proceeded to make up the field work. The topographical oorps again took the field on the 26th day of April, reduced, however, in force in consequence of our limited means, now consisting of my- self and two chainmen. With this force the work was continued until June 8th, 1855, when the assistants were paid off and discharged, after which the field work was continued until the 1st of July, when active field operations ceased. In October the office work was resumed, and the entire field work laid down on a scale of 3.8 inches to the mile. This map has been re- duced to a scale of s or 1.2672 inches to the mile. For convenience in referring to this map, as well as for a systematic division of the territory, it has been laid off into squares of one mile each, and the larger divisions into squares of thirty-six miles or town- ships. These townships are the result of the extension of the town- ship lines from the neighboring States of Indiana and Illinois, east- wardly and southwardly, and yave been marked eastwardly and wesb- wardly from the meridian of Uniontown; and northwardly and south- wardly from the township line, passing from Indiana into Union coun- ty, where it nearly intersects the mouth of Highland creek; the latter line, if reduced eastwardly into a base line, will run nearly centrally 49 385 386 TOPOGRAPHICAL REORT OF GEOLOGICAL SRVEY. through the State. This mode of dividing the map will greatly aid the eye in judging of distances, and will facilitate all references made to it, and is probably the best division of the State that can be adopted. It will be seen that the territory covered by the map embraces an area of about five hundred square miles, of the counties of Union and Crittenden. TOPOGRAPHY. The principal and highest range of hills in Union county is known as the Bald Hill Range. It rises in Township 2 S., Range 2 W., and ex- tends due four miles, to the flat lands known as the Scatters of Cypress. This range again makes its appearance in section 1], T. 2 S., R. 1 W., extending eastwardly to that part of the range known as the Cbalybeate Hills, having passed through sections 11, 12, 13, and 14, T. 2 S., R. 1 W., entering T. 2 S., R. 1 E., in section 18, passing through that section, and sections 17 and 16 of the same township; here the range inclines slightly to the south, passing into sections 21 and 22, which it crosses diagonally south-east and north-west into and through section 23, crossing the last section by the same course, form- ing what is known as the Sulphur Spring Hills. From this point the range branches, and throws off long spurs on the south; one spur encircles the head of Eagle (creek) fork of Cypress, and is connected by low undulating hills. On the south side of this creek, to the di- viding ridges between Eagle and Wash creeks, another long spur is thrown off southwardly, which forms the dividing line between the waters of Dyson's and Ramsey's creeks; on the north, low spurs are thrown off, dividing the waters of Lost creek and the waters of Cypress, Lost creek and Big Mason, Big Mason and Casey's creek, Casey's and Anderson's creek, with a number of minor spurs dividing the smaller branches, near the head of Highland creek. Eagle, Dyson's, Ander- son's and Casey's creeks have their sources in the Sulphur Spring hills. Lost creek rises on the north side of the same range near the Chalybeate Springs. From the Sulphur Spring hills the Bald hill range is broken into a number of nearly parallel ridges, which extend into Hopkins county by a course nearly east and west. The greatest elevation ascertained along this range being equal to 325 feet above low water of the Ohio river in 1854. TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. North of the Bald hill range there is an irregular range of hills rising in altitude in section 20, T. 1 S., R. 1 W., extending in a north-east- wardly direction through sections 21, 22, 23, and 13 of the same town- ship, and into section 18, T. 1 S., IR. 1 E.; here this range is separated by the valley of Lost creek, rising again in section 8, same township, the range is continued along the north side of Little Mriason creek to and east of the Morganfeld and Henderson road, on Highland creek, while the west end of this branch of the range runs from section 8 northwardly, and terminates in bold escarpments against the flat in- undated river bottoms above Highland creek which meanders sluggishly at their base. The "Anvil Rock" range of hills rise in section 10, T. 3 S., R. 2 W., where this range of hills attain their greatest height, (245 feet above high water,) running with a gradually decreasing elevation through sections 11, 11, 14, and 13, T. 3 S., R. 2 W., entering T. 3 S., R. 1 W., in section 18, which it crosses, and enters the rich flat lands at the head of Locust Lick creek, and is only indicated by symmetrical knolls of various sizes, sometimes rising sixty-five to seventy feet in height, having a base varying in area from five to seventy-five acres, terminating in a rounded irregular hill in section 21, Eame township; here it has a less elevation and passes through sections 22, 27, and 26, forming a sloping table, abrupt on the south, with a gradual inclination on the north, to Cypress creek. This range again appears on the east side of Cypress, where it occupies a greater base and is most favorably seen at "Poplar Ridge," and "Coal Hill," in sections 25 and 26, same township; continuing in the same course it extends through section 31, T. 3 S., R. 1 E.; sections 5, 9, 10 and 24, T. 4 S., R. 1 E; sections 19, 30, 29, and 32, T. 4 S., R. 2 E; passing into Hopkins county, the direction changes more to the east extending into section 33, and same township. "Bethel H'ill" form a bold and well defined range in sections 7 and 8 in T. 3 5., R. 1 W., extending eastwardly into sections 1 and 12, T. 3 S., R. 2 W., and is lost and obliterated by the Scatters of Cypress; it appears again in sections 27 and 21, T. 2 S., R. 2 W., where it attains an elevation of 255 feet. In this township the masses forming the Anvil Rock, Betbel, and the Eagle creek, or JeruEalem school house range () are crowded to- 387 TOPOGRAPHCAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. gether and form apparently a confused range of bills and ridges, which, however, are susceptible of separation. The bills occupying section 15, N. E. corner of 24, S. W. of 14, and N. W. of 23, being formed by all the masses lying below the An- vil Rock range, and above the rocks of the millstone grit series, which form the southern slopes of Bald hill. There is also a well marked line of division between the masses forming the ranges of the Bethel hill and Jerusalem hill. This line enters section 24 on the east side, with the line of a nameless branch; then by a north-west course crosses section 24, and enters section 15; and down another nameless branch, a tributary of Cypress of the Ohio. Between the sources of these two streams the hilts are reduced from two hundred and fifty-five feet to about thirty-five feet above high water, or seventy-five feet above low water of the Ohio river. Eastwardly the Bethel hill range rises again in section 9, T. 3 S., R. 14, and extends in a course due east across the township, when it is lost in the low rich flats of the Pond fork of Crab Orchard creek; ap- pearing again in section 30, T. 3 S., R. 1 E., when it attains an eleva- tion to the same range in section 7, T. 3 S., R. I W., when it was found to be 247.84 feet above low water at Caseyville, 1854. Further east- wardly this range has not been satisfactorily determined. On the Ohio river, at Caseyville, the millstone grist rises in a bold range of hills, having a course nearly north and south, capped in many places by the masses of the lowest workable coal beds. This range extends to Trade-water river, making a bold rocky bluff on either side of the gap through which this stream finds an outlet into the Ohio. On the south side of Trade-water these bold rough masses extend in a course varying to the east of south. In section 20, T. 4 S., R. 1 E., they attain an elevation of about four hundred feet. At this point the line of these hills changes its direction and runs parallel to the general direction of Trade-water, running boldly up to that stream in section 16, T. 5 S., R. 1 E., defining with a strongly marked outline the limit of the productive coal measures. This range of hills having no general name, may be appropriately denominated the conglomerate range. A very marked peculiarity of this district is that all of the ranges of hills enumerated are severed by low lands, crobsing these lines 388 TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. nearly at right angles with their direction. The subject will be no- ticed more in detail in the course of this report. DRAINAGE. The drainage of this district necessarily depends on the configura- tion of the hills and dividing ridges, therefore, the lines of the princi- pal streams conform nearly to east and west courses, except when the dividing ridges have been severed by denudation, or when they have sunk so far below the general elevation of the range to which they be- long that the water courses find their beds above the rocks which along other parts of the ranges form their summits. Trade-water.-This river enters the Ohio two and a half miles be- low Caseyville, in T. 4 S, R. 2 W. The general direction of this stream is from south-east to north-west, but it is remarkably crooked; and the current very gentle, being in fact a succession of pools, sep- arated by gentle ripples, having a fall of less than four inches to the mile. Cypress Creek.-Tbis creek takes its rise in the "Bald Hill" range, where it is known as Eagle creek, and for some distance of its course receives most of its tributaries from the north side, all rising in the Bald hill range. It runs southwardly about two miles over the up- turned edges of the coal measures, which abut conformably on the western slopes of this range, the main body of the hills being formed by the tilted rocks of the millstone grit and sub-carboniferous lime- stone, which are protruded through the masses of the coal measures, and may be found in many places in this range dipping south, south- east, and south-west, at angles varying from 710 to 180, the angle of dip gradually decreasing to the south of this range as the elevation be- comes less. The upper part of this stream having had a course to the north-west for several miles, with a well formed bed in section 15, T. 2 S., R. I W., reaches a flat known as the Scatters of Cypress, where for several miles no regular defined bed can be traced; the waters of the stream, speading far and wide, make a great curve to the west, and pass around and through the gaps in the Eagle creek or Jerusalem School House hills and the Bethel hill range. After being thus deflected they flow in a line nearly parallel to the latter range, along its south side, in a south-east course, until it reaches section 26, T. 3 S., R. 1 W., when it is turned to the sothwest by a 389 390 TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. sharp bend, when in contact with the Anvil Rock range, and by that course reaches Trade-water in section 33 of same township. The levels carried along Cypress show a descent of only two-tenths of a foot per mile. It is worthy of remark that in the course of this stream, from the head of "the scatters" until it again finds an imper- fect bed in section 12, T. 3 S., R. 2 W., there is abundant evidence of a general depression. From the lower end of "the Scatters" the creek evidently has its bed on the out-cropping shaly beds which form the base of Bethel hill. Crab Orchard creek is formed by a number of confluents, the most northwardly of which-Dyson's creek-rises in theSulphur Spring bills of the Bald bill range, runs south-west, enters and is lost in a succes- sion of flats known as the Pond fork, which having received a number of minor tributaries from the hills south of Eagle or head of Cypress, passes off by a south-east course; receives Ramsey's creek from the north side, and having reached section 2, T. 3 S., R. 1 E., it takes a direction nearly south for about five miles, crossing in its course the members composing the Anvil Rock range. Its course is then nearly due west for four miles, when it enters Trade-water. Cypress creek of the Ohio rises in the Grundy hills, the west end of the range north of the Bald hill range, having its course parallel with the Ohio river; running through a succession of ponds and flat swampy lands, being subject to overflow throughout its entire course, receiving from the east a considerable number of nameless creeks and drains, enters the Ohio river in section 8, T. 3 S., R. 2 W, having a length of about sixteen miles. Lost creek rises in the Chalybeate bills of the Bald hill range, runs north through a rich flat county, but without a defined bed for eight miles, until within half mile of the Ohio river, where it is deflected westiuardly, and runs six miles parallel with it, entering it opposite Wa- bash island. Anderson's, Casey's, and BilgMason rise in the Blue hill range, and run off in courses diverging from each other, emptying into Highland creek. Ilighlaid creek rises in the Bald bill range, and runs northwardly about fourteen miles, receiving Anderson's, Casey's, and a number of minor streams; it is then deflected to the west, and after a course of nine miles enters the Ohio river at Uniontown. TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. FLATS AND LOW LANDS. The bill land approaches the Ohio river at Uniontown and Casey- ville. With these two exceptions, the Ohio bottoms vary in width from one-half a mile to three miles, subject, in floods of the Ohio, to be cov- ered by the waters of that river, the bottom being generally lowest at the base of the high land, abutting against the river bottom; the val- ley of Cypress creek varies in width from one-half a mile to four miles, generally of a rich black loam, requiring draining, by ditching, to bring it into cultivation. The valley of the Pond fork is also very wide for a stream of that size, being from three to four miles wide in its greatest expansion. The same remark will apply to Lost and Casey's creeks. A portion of the rich flats of both Lost and Pond creeks have already been re- claimed and brought into cultivation, yielding an ample reward for the capital and industry bestowed on what has been, until recently, con- sidered waste land; and the same remarks will apply to the wide, rich bottoms on the minor streams of this county, which are now in pro- gress of reclamation. The soil of this county, except on the summits of the ridges, has been derived chiefly from the rich quartenary loams, and the lands having suffered but slightly from denudation are conse- quently of superior quality. The primitive forest in the flat lands is cotton wood, swamp ash, box alder, pecan, red oak, white oak, sweet gum, black gum, red bud, and in swampy places crooked wood. On the upland and sloping lands, poplar, ash, white and black oak, with occasionally red oak, sweet and black gum, hickory, (several varieties.) There are a few localities where the sugar maple flourishes. Undergrowth: dogwood, hazel, spice-wood, sassafras, pawpaw, grape-vines, &c. The soil gen- erally is loose and friable, and of a deep black or mulatto color. There are two ranges of post oak flats, running eastwardly through the county, south of the Bethel bill range. One range occurs where the shaly beds between the third and fourth coals of the lower coal measures have been denuded of the loose loams of the quartenary deposits. The other range occurs from the exposure of similar beds, which occupy a position between the first and seconds beds of the coal measures reposing on the "Anvil Rock." Wherever either of these 391 TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. beds have been observed, they were invariable accompanied by a post oak flat, soil light colored, and nearly impalpable silicious earth. With the exception of the post oak glades, and the steeper hill sides and summits of the Bald hill range, and the hills of the millstone grit, seen in the south-west corner of the county, and one or two points where this range crosses to the north side of Trade-water, as at Longs- port and Montezuma, the soil is of a superior quality, not difficult of cultivation, yielding abundant crops of corn, wheat, oats, rye, barley, clover, tobacco, potatoes; orchards thrive well; not much attention has yet been bestowed on the cultivation of fruits. SPRINGS. There are but few springs of water rising to the surface; those most worthy of note are the Sulphur Springs, rising in section 26, T. 2 S., R. 1 E. The Chalybeate Springs, rising on the Southern slope of the Bald hill range, where they come to the surface between the beds of the mill stone grit series, which at this point dip at the rate of 710 to the south. These springs are in section 21 of the same township. Another spring, remarkable for its boldness and constancy, and the character of its waters, rises in the black flats of the Pond fork, and after spreading eastwardly a distance of about seventy yards, is swal- lowed by the loose materials composing these flats. In section 12, T. 2 S., R. 1 W., a bold spring rises from a bed or vein of barytes or heavy spar; this mineral appears to be very abundant in this locality; very palatable water can generally be obtained in sufficient quantity by sinking wells, both for domestic uses and stock water, within fifty yards of the surface, or even at a much less depth in many places. GEOLOGY. The great distinguishing geological feature of this district consists in its coal measures, which are co-extensive with the county. The southern and western out-crop of the deepest seated coals conform to the line shown upon the map of this county, running through sections 20 and 19, T. 5 S., R. 2 E.; sections 24, 13, 12, 11, 2, 3, 4, 9, 8, 7 and 5 of T. 5 S. R. 1 E.; sections 32, 31, 30 and 19, 54 S., R. 1 E.; sections 24, 25, 26, 23, 22, 15, 14, 10, 9, 4 and 5, T. 4 S., R. 1. W.; sections 32, 29 and 31, T. 3 S., R. 1 W.; sections 36, 25, 26, 23, 22, 15, 16, 9, 4 and 5, when it enters the Ohio river and again appears on 392 TOPOGRAPH[ICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. the Saline creek in Illinois. From section 26, T. 3 S., R. 2 W., though the out-crop is covered by the alluvial bottoms of the Ohio, and is not seen, the out-crop line may be relied upon as approximately correct, the tops of the hills on the neighboring shore of the Ohio river in Illinois being covered by the wasted materials of the Bell and Cook coals of the lower measures, which are distinctly recognizable. Southwardly of the out-crop line the rocks are dipping much more rapidly than north of it; the rate of dip not being constant, seldom agreeing in any two localities; the direction of the greatest dip also varying with the constantly varying direction of the out-crop line. The line runs through the sections 9, 3, 11, 5 and 6, 55 S., R. 2 E.; sections 311, 3( and 19, 34 S., R. 2 E.; sections 21, 23, 14, 1-5, 10, 9), 4, .5 and 6, T. 4 S., R. 1 E.; section 31, T. 3 S., Pt. 1 E.; sections 36, 35, 26, 27, 21, 20), 19 and 18, T. 3 S., R. 1 WV.; sections 13, 14, 15, 10, 9 and 4, T. 3 S., R. 2 WV.; sections 31 and 30, T. 2 S., Rt. 2 W., when it also passes into the Ohio river, and again appears on the Saline creek, marking the line of division between the upper and lower series of coals. The out-crop line of the deepest seated coals of the same coal measures may be distinguislhed along the foot of the Bald bill, in sections 9, 15 and 14, T. 2 S., R. 2 W., when they have been brought to the surface by the uplift, carrying with them the rocks of the mill-stone grit and sub-carboniferous limestone, which form the body of the hill. West of Cypress creek, no openings have been made into the coal beds. East of Cypress creek, along the southern face of the Bald hill range, coal has been worked in several places, which doubtless are the coals of the Lower Coal Measures. On the north side of these workings the body of the hills is based upon the sub-carboniferous limestone, which out-crops, near the foot of the hills, while the hills themselves are compased of the rocks of the mill-stone grit. In every locality observed, the rocks have in all parts of the hills uniformly a southern dip, evidently uplifting the deepest seated coal beds, which are on the south side of the range. dipping at high angles to the south, while on the north side or the Bald bill range the coal bed.: near the axis of the hills are also dipping south, and toward this range lying in great confusion, no beds being identified near the hills. These hills appear to have been raised from below, and thrust through the superincumbent coal beds, by a succession of dome-like waves. The centre of the Bald hill in section 11, T. 2 S., R. 1 W., .50 393 TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. being the anticlinal axis of the first wave; near the north-west cor- ner of section 17, T. 1 S., R. 1 E., being the anticlinal axis of the second wave; near the south-west corner of section 26, T. 2 S., R. 1 E., being in like manner the point of greatest elevation of the third wave. It will be seen by an examination of the accompanying map that there is a very great difference in the length of the waves here alluded to-the distance between the first and second being equal to nine miles, while the distance between the second and third is equal only to about four miles. It is possible that the Coal Measures south of the Bald hill range may be connected by a neck or isthmus, lying in a line north and south, occupying the great valley of the Cypress, extending across sections 7, 8, 9 and 10, T. 2 S., R. 1 W. In case they are not connected through this valley, then the Coal Measures south of the Bald hill range form an out-lyer, being severed from the great body of the western coal field, by this remarkable and hitherto little known fault, which, from all the evidence observed, appears to be cotemporaneous with the disturbance producing the fractures, now the beds of the Ohio, Trade-water and Saline rivers. To the effective force producing this fault may also be traced certain waves of elevation and depression in the materials of the Coal Measures. The lines of these waves may be traced. One of the most remarkable begins at the head, or northeast end of the Scatters of Cypress, and continues down that stream to the west end of Bethel hill in section 12, T. 3 S., R. 1 W., when it is intersected by another synclinal fold, coming into the coal fields from the mouth of "Cypress of the Ohio," the line of apparent greatest depression running diagonally through sections 9, 5, 6 and 2, where the folds become one, running through the entire valley of Hine's creek. Another great fold of depression enters the productive coal field between Locust Lick creek and Trade-water river, having a course nearly north until it reaches section 9, T. 3 S., R. 1 W., when it appears to divide, one branch of the fold entering the line of Beth- el hill and running up the valley of Pearson's branch until it reaches section 2, T. 3 S., R. 1 W., when it changes its direction to the east and south-east, passing down the valley of Pond fork until it reaches section 19, when it joins the other branch of the same fold or valley, which has passed down the valley of Cypress, having a width of near- ly six miles; the two folds having united, they are continued as one val- ley, until it reaches section 11, T. 4 S., R. 1 E., when it is intersected 394 TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. by another narrow valley of depression, one of which is parallel with the Bald hill range, about two miles south of it in T. 2 S., R. 1 XV. Another enters the coal field at Half Moon Lick, on the Trade-water, and running nearly east enters the fold of Crab Orchard creek in sec- tion 15, T. 4 S., R. 1 E. Between each of these valleys are corres- ponding lines, wherein the measures are elevated, forming as it were a succession of waves, the rocks being alternately elevated and de- pressed. It should have been noticed that there are patches of the lower measures lying outside or south of the line, making the out-crop of the lower measures south of Trade-water. That in sections 6 and 24 may be cited as one of these out-lyers, the precise boundary of which, not having been determined, it has not been laid down on the map. At the head of Pond fork there is an extensive bed of the highest of the Coal Measures, embracing the south-west part of T. 2 S., R. 1 E., and the north part of T. 3 S., R. 1 E., being the beds associated with the Carthage rock in T. 1 S., R. 1 W., and equivalent to the Grundy ridge series. From the mouth of Highland creek up the line of that stream, the rocks dip southwardly, and meet a northwardly dip on the Ohio river, in section 2, T. 1 S., R. 1 W. The synclinal axis of this fold has a direction of about 15' west of south, and if not severed by the Bald hill fault is connected with, and forms a part of the series lying in sight at the head of the Pond fork of the Crab Orchard creek. The fold that lies between the Bald bill range and the line of Highland creek is not so easily determined, the county being almost entirely covered by the loams of the quarternary deposits. The fact, however, that the measures on Highland creek dip southwardly and northwardly in section 8, T. 2 S., R. 1 W., involves the necessity of a synclinal fold, where the conflicting lines of dip encounter each other. Probably the fold will be found to occupy a middle distance between the lines of the roads from Uniontown to the Highland Licks, and the road from Raleigh through Morgan field to the same point. Where this last road crosses Anderson creek, the rocks were observed dipping north-west at the rate of 10; on the line of Highland creek the rocks dip south and south-west and south-east at various angles between 2+0 and 60. The coal beds and associated rocks on the north side of the Bald hill range wherever observed have uniformly the appearance of having 395 TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. fallen southwardly or towards the line of the fault, and as far as ascer- tained the uppermost beds observed are not lower than the 6th coal of the upper series; all the coals of the lower series will probably be found too deep seated for profitable workings north of this range. The coals numbered 6, 7, and 8 of the upper series will probably be the only coals that may be profitably worked in Union county, north of the Bald hill range. South of the Bald hill range there is no difficulty of reaching each of the eight beds of both series at their out-crop. On the west side of Cypress of the Ohio this out-crop has been duplicated, the lower beds having been brought again to the surface by the Bald hill uplift. North of the Bald hill range, in the line of most favorable out-crop- pings of the upper series, these coals have been reached in several places; at one hundred and fifty feet on Highland creek three of these beds have been penetrated by three several borings made by Dr. John T. Berry; two of the upper of these beds have been entered by boring on the farm of Mr. Wilson in section 27, T. 1 S., R. 1 W., at a depth of one hundred feet. The sixth coal of the upper series has been en- tered in natural out-crop in several places on sections 5 and 8, T. 2 S., R. 1 W., where it is known as the "Blue Coal." The broken and disturbed beds of the upper measures have also been entered and worked, to a limited extent, near the Sulphur Springs on Casey's creek, iu section 25, T. 2 S., R. 1 E.; another bed has been opened in the same section. The first of these beds is four feet thick, and dips south-astwardly at an angle of 450, while the second is but twenty-eight inches, dipping in the same direction at an angle of 150. A coal four feet in thickness, standing vertically, has been worked to the depth of six feet, when it gave out, being a fragment of the beds dis- turbed and broken by the Bald hill dislocation or uplift. This bed lies in section 28, T. 2 S., R. 2 E. A bed of coal was observed on a branch of Highland creek in section 36, same township; this bed also dips rapidly toward the Bald hill range and has not been worked. South of the Bald hill range the seventh bed of the lower series has been worked successfully by Col. John Bell, on section 5, T. 4 S., R 1 W. An opening is now being made in section 10, same township, by Messrs. Wheatcroft and others, and, as I have been informed, succes- fully worked. This bed has also been opened in seveml places in see 396 TOPOGAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. tion 23, same township, first by Col. Bell and subsequently by Dr. Sneed and others. It has also been penetrated by digging for water at several points on Trade-water, above Sneed's mines, but no regular workings have been made. It has been opened and regularly and successfully mined by the Messrs. Casey on section 31, T. 3 S., R. 1 W., and in section 25, T. 3 S., R. 2 W., near Caseyville; but being at this place too thin for profitable working the mine has been abandoned. The eighth coal, as far as I have been able to ascertain, has been mined in only one place in this district, in section 9, T. 4 S., R. 1 W. This bed is of very variable quality and thickness, rising as high as six feet and sinking as low as twenty-eight inches. The sixth or Ice House coal has, as far as ascertained, also been opened in only one point, in section 23, T. 3 S., R. 2 W. The fifth or four-feet coal has been opened on section 14, same town- ship, but has not been regularly mined. It is also to be found out- cropping in the bed of Trade-water at the mouth of Cypress creek. The fourth or little vein has been opened and regularly mined on section 14, T. 3 S, R. 2 W., also on section 34, T. 3 S., R. 1 W. It is worthy of note that these two beds, the fourth and fifth lying very close to each other and both being covered by a hard slowly weather- ing sandstone, may be traced without difficulty in nearly every part of their course through the county. The third or "five-foot coal," or Mulford coal, has been successfully worked by James Mulford, Esq., on section 14, T. 3 S., R. 2 W.; al- so by Messrs. Smith, Matthias, and others, on section 15, same town- ship; with these exceptions, no openings into this coal are known. The line of its out-crop is strongly marked throughout the entire breadth of the county. The second, or middle coal, has been opened and worked in section 10, T. 4 S., R. 1 E., known at this point as the Thompson coal; also, in section 32, T. 4 S., R. 2 E., where it is known as the Llewellyn coal. It has also been opened, and a small amount of coal taken from it in section 13, T. 3 S., R. 1 W., and is probably the coal opened at Coal Ridge in section 36, T. 3 S., R. 1 W. It is worthy of remark, that this coal is rapidly increasing in thickness as we go eastwardly from the Ohio river, where it is scant three feet, associated with micaceous shales and shaly sandstones, while at the Thompson mine it has increased in 397 398 TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. thickness to six feet, being there covered by six feet of black bitumi- nous argillaceous shales, (in contact with the coal,) above which are found heavy masses of limestone. At the Llewellyn mines, and at the opening into the same coal, on the land of John Watson, the shales above the coal have thinned out to six inches, while the limestone which comes within this distance of the coal has increased to a thickness of sixteen feet At this mine it is also to be observed that under a thin fire-clay, of one foot in thickness, is found a light grey colored limestone, nine feet in thickness. The first coal under the "Anvil Rock," and the first in the series of the eight workable beds of the Lower Coal Measures, has been work- ed for neighborhood use on section 10, T. 3 S., R. 2 W., where it is three feet in thickness. The same coal was entered on section 18, at thirty feet from the surfice, in digging a well, where it was also three feet thick, and was again observed near the Thompson mine, where it has thinned to fif- teen inches of imperfect coal and "coal rash." Thus while the second coal of the lower series has doubled its thick- ness, the first has diminished by more than half the thickness which it has in section 10, T. 3 S., R. 2 W. The thickness of the rocks in- tervening between the base of the Anvil rock and this coal, has ex- perienced a like diminution. It was very desirable that the third coal should have been seen, but no openings having been made into it, it was not visible. Its place, however, is well defined in this neighborhood by the post oak flat be- fore alluded to. On the line of the Caseyville and Morganfield road, which runs nearly with the line of the dip of the masses forming the Coal Measures of the county at this point, the out-crop of the first coal of the upper series is passed over in section 18, T. 3 S., R. 1 W. Near the line of Cypress creek, the out-crop of the second appears. Neither this coal nor the first has been worked, and they are only known by the sinking of wells which have penetrated their beds, the second coal having been thus entered at Malone's mills. The third coal of this series has been opened and worked for neighborhood use and is known as the Davis coal. The fourth coal has not been opened but may be in the valley TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. of Cane creek; its thickness is not known but it is thought to be a coal of workable thickness. The fifth coal or Chappel coal has been opened on section 31, T. 2 S., R. 1 W., where it is twenty-six inches thick and of good quality. The sixth or Blue coal has not been opened in this part of the county; its out-crop may be observed on the line of the road, on a tributary of Wash creek, and may be traced eastwardly until lost in the valley of Pierson's creek. No localities are known where the seventh and eighth coals have been opened south of the Bald hill range. It has been thought proper to accompany this report with a re- duced copy of map No. 1, Geological Survey, contrasted with a copy of the same territory taken from the best published map of the State. From this contrast it may be seen to what an extent error has crept into the maps of this highly favored country. Diagram No. 1 is a traced copy of Union county, as shown by the best map of Kentucky. Diagram No. 2 is a free hand reduction of map No. 1., Geological Sur- vey, reduced to the same scale as Diagram No. 1. No stronger argu- ment need be urged on the lamentable condition of the geography of the State than the comparison of these unpretending little figures. Accompanying the maps are five sections showing imperfectly the great flexions of the stratification, and the effect of the Bald hill fault as now understood. The line of the first four Diagrams starts in sec- tion 20, T. 4 S., It. 1 W., and run severally north and east of north; the line of the fifth Diagram runs nearly centrally through the county. These Diagrams should be applied to the map by causing the darkest lines to coincide with the lines marking the out-crop of the productive Coal Measures. Should the State continue this, to her very important work, I would recommend that a line be laid down as a base of operations. By an examination of the map of Milne and Bruder, published at Louisville, it may be seen that a line running east from the mouth of Highland creek, Union county, would pass through Henderson, Daviess, Hancock, Breckinridge, Hardin, Nelson, Washington, Mercer, Jessa- mine, Madison, Estill; near the line dividing Powell, Estill, and Ows- ley; near the line dividing Breathitt and Montgomery; through Floyd and Pike, and intersecting the Virginia line near the arm of Logan. The line thus laid down would divide the two coal fields of Kentucky into equal parts, and would give as long an cast and west line as could 399 TOPOGRAPHICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. be obtained in the State. A line of this length properly surveyed, determined, and marked would be of incalculable advantage. It would intersect the State surveys on Green, Kentucky, and Licking rivers, and as far south as the base line extended into the State would connect with the Ohio river. In connection with the survey of such a line, if possible, such as- tronomical observations should be made for latitude and longitude as would determine all important places touched by it. One of the most important branches of these observations would in- clude those for the determination of the true meridian. The changes of the magnetic meridian through a series of years, and its differing considerable in contiguous tracts of country, have been fruitful sources of those vexatious litigations about land lines which are so common. Lines run eighty years or more ago, and marked by blazing or hacking trees, can now rarely be identified, for few of our forest trees retain such marks for over three quarters of a century. Even where the initial point of such a survey is found it is difficult to trace the lines, for the direction of the magnetic meridian at that time can not now be ascertained without considerable trouble. To obviate this in future, it is proposed to erect at convenient dis- tances along the base line, such meridian marks as may enable the sur- veyor to obtain, without difficulty, the true north, and therefrom the variation of the needle at the time of his survey. By noting this al- ways, we would have at once all surveys referable to a constant line- one subject neither to shift nor change. 400 0, k-11,11-11-11--l- I'--l-,-1-11-1--,----,------"-"----,-,-11I I 1 4 I , - I --- 1I -, - ---j !, R I " , - , ;, 11,I,--1 " 1I X ik,-,, kD00; X / 0:0W fE:u:q;X t S : ,', 00 i' , X ,' fa40S;.:' Xt/dg Ew(ft W.; i,: 0 : (tSSlt f l / B: aft ,ii y 1; at t Elf ..S,;. I X ' . ' W00: 0 'V " Z ; Z -, INDEX. Aaron and Bog's' coal, (Big Sandy Coal and Mining company,) analy- sis of, Abbott's creek coal, Floyd county, Agriculture, general remarks on, Airdrie coal, No. 156, and section, Aluminium in iron, L-c., Amanda Furnace, section at, Amanda Furnace ores, cinder, pig-iron, &c., - 189, 313, 314, 315, Anderson's, Casey's and Big Mason creeks, Anthracite, from Bocas del Torro, analysis of, Anvil Rock, Anvil Rock coal, upper part of first coal, analysis of, Anvil Rock coal, lower part of first coal, Anvil Rock coal, main five-foot, third coal, remarks on, Anvil Rock coal, second coal, Anvil Rock, range of hills, Appendix to Chemical report, Argentiferous galena, Ashland main coal, below clay parting, analysis of, Austin's coal, on Lewis creek, Bach's (Isaac,) coal, Bailey hill coal, Bald hill range, Barrens, remarks on, Barytes, or heavy spar, Union county, Bellefonte Furnace, ores, &c., 70 209 373 143, 144 327 188 316, 317 390 27 45 51 52 54 56 - - - 387 - - - 373 --- - 88 - -- 69 157 - - - 212 - - - 134 386 - - - 83 392 - - 188, 291, 292 Bell's coal, Crittenden county, analysis of, Bethel bills,. Big Mason creek, Big Sandy main coal, Lawrence county, analysis of, Bituminous limestone, like black band iron ore, Hopkins county, anal- ysis of, Bituminous carbonate of lime, supposed black band iron ore, Mublen- burg county, Black Band ores, remarks on, 60, Black Band iron ore, William's landing, Muhlenburg county, analysis of, Black Band iron ore, Battist creek, Mublenburg county, analysis of, - Black Band iron ore, Ford's well, Muhlenburg county, analysis of, 51 49 387 390 204 337 350 139, 254 347 348 348 INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Black Band iron ore, from east fork of Little Sandv, Black lingular shale, Black lingular shale, forest growth on, Blue grass soil, Fayette county, analysis of, Blue limestone, eompo-ition of, Blue shell limestone and marl, Bhle shell limestone, forest growth on, flonhiarbor coal of Dariess county, analysis of, Box Mountain Spring Coal, Hopkins county, analysis of, - Box Mountain Sulphur Spring, Bra'hear's salt borings, mouth of Leatherwool creek, Breatlitt county, section of hills near Jackson, Breckinridge coal mine,- Breckinridge coal, its yie-ld of oil and paraffin, BrecLinfidge coal, analysis of, Buena Vista Furnace, coal and ores, - - - 187, Buffalo Furnace ores, limestones, cc., 194, 292, 293, 2941, - - 182 91 94 - - 276, 27 99 -- 98 -- 99 - - 43, 151 - 53, 127 131 - - 223 213 174 - 12, 62 177 287, 288, 289, 290 295, 296, 297, 293, 299, 3U0 Burning Spring, Clay county, Butler county coal measures, Cannel coal. Barrett's creek, Carter county, Cannel coal, Carter county, Cannel coal, Crawford's, Cannel coal, head of Dorton's branch, Cannel coal, opposite mouth of Troublesome creek, - Carburetted hydrogen, Crittenden spring, Caroline Furnace, coal and ores, Carter county cannel coal, Casey's creek, Cast iron-See pig-iron. Caverns ill sub-carboniferous limestone, Cerulean spring, Trigg county, Chain coral and magnesia limestone, Clialybeate hills, Chalybeate spring, Letcher Court-house, Chalybeate spring, Miller's, Chalybeate springs, Perry county,- Chalybeate springs, -Pulaski county, Chalybeate spring, Robb's, in McCracken county, Chalybeate springs, RockcstL!e river, Chalvbeate waters, Mr. Swinney's, Cbalybeate well, Mr. Wilson's, Lexington, Fayette county, analysis of, Chamelian springs, tested, Cbappel coal, Union county, Chemical report of Geological survey, 217 125 270 200 69 224 211 247 191 200 390 e1 248 97 386 226 219 229 237 114 238 163 371 162 399 251 402 I1DEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 403 Cinder-See Iron Furnace Slag. Clark's mill, section at, Pond river, 136 Clay-Sec Fire Clay. Clay, four milles south of Blandrille,- 2. 262 Clay from "Cialk Bank-,"- 22, 335 (lay of quartenary depo-its, --124 Clays, table of composition of, -- 36 Chlar fork coal, -- 240 Clear creek sulpliur spring, --225 Clinton Furnace, coaland ores,- 107, 329, 330, 3:31 Clover foik of Cumberland river, -- - - 226 Coal and iron larndis of Kentucly, value of, -9, 4-0 Coal, no workable beds of, under Archimedes and Pcntremital lime- stones,-0 Coals, general remarks on composition and qualities, - - - 319 Coal, Aaron and Boggs' Big Sanidy coil and ra'inig" co., analysis of, '0 Coals, Anvil Rock, - - - 45, 51, 52, 54, 56 Coal, Airdrie, (orMeLean,) MIuhlenburg county, - - - Il1I, 141, 352 Coals, Ashland main, analyi-s of, -- - - - - - C9, 31 Coal withl slate roof, Ashland, Greenup corrnty, ainalypis of, - - 329 Coal, Atchison's, (Lacey's,) ChrisLian county, Coal, ILaac Bach's, -- - Coal, Bailey hill,- Coal, cannel, Barrett's creek, Carter county, analysis of, Coa l from Bath county, analysis of Coal, Bell's, Crittenden courrty. analysis of, Coa.ll, CI. Jolrn Bell's, Union county, - Coal, arrangement of coal beds, Big Sandy, Coal, bed of Big Sandy, at forks, Pike county, Coal, Big Sandy, nrain, andly-is of, Coal, Bonhlrirbor,- Coal, cannel-like, top of Bonhlarbor coal, analys.is of, Coal, Lox mountain, Coa l, Breckinridge, Coal, Buck creek, and Bear' creek, and Beaver, Coal, Buena Vista Furnace, Coal Measuires, Butler country, - - Coal, Messrs. Casey's, Union county, Coal, Clrappel, Union countv, - - - Coal, Clark's, Mulrlenburg county, analysis of, Coal, Clear fork,- Conrl, junction of Coon and Wolf creeks, &c., - Coal, Croft's, Coal, cannel, Crawford's, near Grayson, analysis of, Coal, Cumberland river, analysis of, - - - - - - 272 - - - 212 - - 134 . 270 - - - 2C:33 49 - - - 20U - - - 2:3 - - - eu- 43, 13i1 - - - 44 - 53. 127 - 12, 62, 174, 177 - -- 234 - - - 1 07 - - - 36!, 397 - - - 3 W - - - 735 240 . - 227 -. - 2j10 404 INDEX T0 REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Coal, Captain Davis', Jackfield and Pigeon Run, analysis of, - - 53, 128 Coal, Dorton's branch, cannel, analysis of,- 224 Coal, Dr. Dudley's, Kentucky river, -216 Coal, Eades', Muhlenburg county, analysis of, &c., - 138, 352 Coals of Eastern coal field, remarks on, --71 Coal, George Eaves', --137 Coal drift, Estis', Hancock county, - - -181 Coals of Edmonson county, analysis of, --167 Coal field, Eastern, approximative boundaries of, 64 Coal field, Eastern, thickness of carboniferous rocks, 68 Coal field, boundaries of Southern, - - - - 30 Coal, Gallion's, Carter county, analysis of, - - - - - 270 Coal, Gamblin, Hopkins county, analysis of, - - - - - 3, 129 Coal, Gavit's main, Big Sandy, analysis of, - - - - - 70 Coal, Giger's hill, Greenup county, analysis of, 331 Coal, Goose creek, - - - -218 Coal, Greenup Furnace, - - -- 193 Coal, cannel, Haddock's mine, Owsley county, analysis of, 354 Coal beds in Harlan county, - -225 Coal Haven factory coal, analysis of, - -151 Coal, Hawes', Hancock county, analysis of,- b2 Coal, Hawesville main, analysis of, &c., 178 Coal one mile above Hazzard, Perry county, - - - - - 228 Coal, Head's, Daviess county, . -182 Coal, Henderson, two feet, analysis of, - - - -44 Coal, Henderson, No. 206, analysis of,- - - - 160 Coal bed on Highland creek, Union county, - - - -396 Coal, Hine's, on Muddy creek, Ohio county,- - 157 Coal, Hoskins', Short mountain, analysis of, - - - - - 244 Coal, Hunting-brancb, main, Hopkins county, - - - -127 Coal on Indian creek, -- - - - 239 Coa!, Jackfield, (or Jakefield,) Captain Davis', 63, 128 -Coal, Jellico mountain, -- - - - 239 Coal, Keath's, Christian county. analysis of, 271 Coals of Kentucky, table of composition of, 366 Coal, Kentucky river, North fork, - - - - - 211 Coal, Kentucky river, three forks, - - - - - 214 Coal, Kilgore's, Carter county, analysis of, 269 Coal, Kincheloe's Bluff, analysis of, - --145 Coal, King's,- - - - 239 Coal, (Lacey's,) Atchison's, Christian county, analysis of, Coal on Laurel and Sinking creeks, - Coal, Letcher Court-house,- - - - - Coal, Llewellyn mines, Union county, - - Coal, Lewisport, - - - 272 - - 240 226 - - :g398 0let INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURY. Coal, Lick, Coal, Little Sandy river, Coal beds, Log mountain, Coal, Marcus,' Coal, Col. Martin's, analysis of, Coal, Martin, Coal, McHenry's, Big Sandy, analysis of, Coal, McLean or Airdrie, Coal bank, McNairy's, Pond river, Coal ridge between Meadow and Sinking creeks, Coal measures, Coal measures, Eastern coal field, dip of, Coal measures, an offset of, in Grayson county, Coal measures of Greenup, Carter, and Lewis counties, Coal measures of Hopkins, Muhlenburg, McLean, and Butler counties, Coal measures of Henderson, Daviess, Ohio, Butler, Edmonson, Gray- son, Hancock and Breckinridge, and part of Warren counties, Coal measures of Lawrence, Johnson, Floyd, Pike, Letcber, Perry, Breathitt, Harlan, Clay, Knox, Whitley, and part of Owsley, 405 132 185 222 137 208 138 70 143 135 243 29 65 170 182 125 160 Laurel, Pulaski, Wayne and Clinton counties, 201 Coal measures, lower, order of superposition of, 45 Coal measures of McLean county, - - - - - 125 Coal measures, total thickness of, and number of beds, 43 Coal measures in Union county, 3---93 Coal measures, upper, order of superposition of, 40, 42 Coal, Mick's branch, -- - - 216 Coal, Mr. Miller's, -1-- -37, 138 Coal, James Mulford's, Union county, - - - - - 397 Coal, Naut's, on Sandy creek, -- - - 160 Coal, Paint creek, --- - 210 Coal, Peach Orchard, analysis of bottom part of, - - - 69 Coal, Pennsylvania Furnace, Greenupcounty, - - - 191 Coal, four-foot, Pennsylvania Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, 288 Coal, (main,) of centre of Perry county, - - 227 Coal seven miles below Pikeville, - - -232 Coal, (Shelby fork of Big Sandy,) Pike county, 230 Coal, Pleasant Run, - - --133 Coal, Pitman range of- hills, Pulaski county, - -- - 237 Coal, Pittsburg, analysis of, - -- - 363 Coal, Pond river, Hopkins county, - . 134, 340 Coal bed, head of Pond fork, Union county, - - - - 96 Coal, Poplar Chalybeate mountain,- -- - 246 Coal, Ac., at Prestonsburg,- - - - 206 Coal region of Pulaski county, - - - - - 23, 237 Coal, (under the conglomerate,) in Pulaski and Bockcastle counties, 0 as INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Coals, Raccoon Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, Coal, Richland creek, Coal, Roberts', Coal, Robinson's, Hopkins county, analysis of, Coal, Roekcastle river,- Coal on 1Lckhouse creek, Coil, Rossey's, Muddy creek, Co di, Pardon Sheldon's, Butler county, analysis of, - Coal, Sloan's hill and Short mountain, Coal, Sneed's mines, Crittenden county, analysis of, &c., Coal, SLar Fuonace, Coal mine, Tayloi 'a, Green river, section of, Coal, Terry's, analysis of, Hopkins county, Coal, Thompson, Union county, Coal, Three-mile creek, York bed,- Coal mines, Todd & CriLtenden's, South fork Kentucky river, Coal, Todd & Crittenden's, Owsley county, analysis of, Coals on 'Irade-water river, Coal in Tred's branch of Laurel, Coal, cannel, Troublesome creek, Coals from Tug fork of Big Sandy, Co;l from Tygerts co.il bank, Butler county, analysis of, - Coal from Vincent branch of Tug fork, Big Sandy, - Coal, Watts' creek, Coal, Mes-rs. Wheatcroft's and others, Union county, Coal, Wihitley county, opposi e Williamsburg, - - Coal, Wright's mountain, Hopkins county, analysis of, Coal, Wolf bill, Daviess county, Cook's coal, analysis of, Coralline Falls limestone, Coralline Falls limestone, growthof timber on, Coralline Falls limestone, galena in, Crib Orchard creek, Crawford's cannel coal, (near Grayson,) analysis of, Crittenden springs, tested, CrofL's, Martin, coal, Cumberland river, above the falls,- Cumberland river coal, analysis of, Cumberland river iron furnace and ores, - Cumberland Falls, supposiLious bilver ore, Cypress creek, Cypress creek of the Ohio, Davis' (Capt.) Jackfield coal, Hopkins county, analysis of, Davis' (CHPt.) Pigeon Run coal, analysis of, Detailed geologico-topographical survey, - - 195, 311, 312 - - 131 - 52, 1-10, 142 -- 339 - 2g37 229 - - 160 - - 265 244 - - 275, 397 - - 186 -- 158 397 - - 203 -- 215 - 354 - - 125, 394 226 - - 21 1 - - 202, 2U3 - - 265 - - 203 240 396 239 339 44, 1 a4 43 95 -- 97 97 390 69 -- 247 130 233 234 2461 -- 235 389 390 - - 63,128 - 63, 128 - 11U6 406 INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Dorton's branch cannel coal, analysis of, Dudley's, (Dr..) coal. Kentucky river, Eade's coal, (No. 157,) Eagle creek or Jerusalem schoolhouse range of hills, E;i rt lhquiake of 1011, Eaves', (George,) coal, Edmonson county, section of geology of Northern part of, - - Edmonson county coals, analyses of, Edmonson county, best soil of table land of, Entis coal drift, Hancock county, Everley's ridge, section of coal measures in, Falls of Cumberland, section at, Ferruginous limestone, Clinton furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, Ferruginous limestone, Christian county, analysis of, Ferriuginous limestone, Green rock, Carter counLy, - Ferruginous limestone, New Hampshire Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, Fire-clays, Fire clays, Ashland, Greenup county, analyses of, Fire-clay, Casey's mines, Union county, analysis of, Flats and low lands, Union county, FIlor spar, Franklin coal, Freestone for building, French Island coal, analysis of, Gamblin coal, Hopkins county, analysis of, Gavits' main coal, Big Sandy, analysis of, Geology of Union county, Gravel bank, flats of Cypress creek, Grayson county, offset of coal measures in, Grayson springs,- 323 - - - 61, 369 - - - 3332 - - - 361 391 - - - 87 130 232 - - - 45 - 53, 129 70 - - 392 148 170 - - - 170 Green riser manufacturing and coal company mines, section at, Greenup Furnace ores, coals, &c., - - 193, 30O, 301, 302, 303, Grey band iron ore, Muhlenburg county, analysis of, - Goose creek salt works,- Goose creek salt waters, coals, &c., Harlan county coal beds, Hawes' coal, Hancock county, analysis of, Hawesville main coal, analysis of, and remarks on, Head's coal, Daviess county, Hearthstones, New Hampshire Furnace, Henderson coal company shaft, at Henderson, Kentucky, section of, Henderson coal, No. 206, analysis of, Henderson two-foot coal, analysis of, Highland creek, 407 224 216 138 307 117 137 164 167 160 181 147 235 331 274 269 141 304, 305 349 67 218 225 52 178 182 198 36 150 44 390 408 IIDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Hines' coal, on Muddy creek, Ohio county, 157 Holloway boring, Henderson county, section of, 32 Hopkins county coal measures, - - - -125 Hoskin's coal, Short mountain, analysis of, - - - -244 Hunting branch main coal, Hopkins county, analysis of, 2- - 27 Ice-house coal, remarks on, and analysis of, -- - 51, 55 Industry mines, Big Sandy coal and manufacturing company, section at, -205 Iron-See Pig-iron. Iron Furnaces on Cumberland river, - -246 Iron Furnace Slag, Amanda Furnace, Greenup county, analysis or, 316 Iron Furnace Slag, Bellefonte Furnace, Greenup couaty, analysis of, 292 Iron F urnace Slag, B ue na Vist a Furnace . G reenup co nnty, analysis of, 29 0 Iron Furnace Slags, Buffalo Furnace, Greenup county, analyses of, 298, 299 Iron Furnace Slag, Greenup Furnace, analysis of, 0- 35 Iron Furnace Slaga, of Greenup county Furnaces, remarks on, - 72 Iron Furnace Slags, New Hampshire Furnace, Greenup county, analy- ses of, - -324, 325 Iron Furnace Slags, Pennsylvania Furnace,Greenup county, analyses of,-- 286, 287 Iron Furnace Slags, Raccoon Furnace, Greenup county, analyses of, 309 Iron Furnace Slags, table of composition of, -367 Iron ore, Alexander's, McCracken county, analysis of, - - 344 Iron ore, Backster's bank, Kelly's Furnace, Lyon county, analysis of, 344 Iron ore, Bath county, Messrs. Carter's Furnace, analysis of, - 263 Iron ore, "best limestone ore," Amanda Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, -316 Iron ore, best ore, Sandy Furnace, Carter county, analysis of, - 268 Iron ore, "better quality impracticable ore," Pennsylvania Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of,- 283 Iron ore, "big block ore," Greenup Furnace, analysis of, - - - 301 Iron ores, black band, - - - - 60, 139, 182, 254, 347, 348, 349 Iron or,, "black bed," Greenup Furnace, analysis of, - - 303 Iron ore, "black vein," Buena Vista Furnace, Greenup county, analy- sis of, -288 Iron ore, ",block kidney ore," Buffalo Furnace, Greenup county, anal- ysis of, -294 Iron ores, "block ores," New Hampshire Furnace, Greenup county, analyses of, -320, 321 Iron ore, "block ore," Pennsylvania Furnace, Greenup county, analy- sis of, -280 Iron ores, "block ores," Raccoon ore banks, Greenup county, analvses of, -306, 307 Iron ore, "blue block ore," Amanda Furnace, Greenup county, anal- ysis of, -315 INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 409 Iron ore, "blue limestone ore," Bellefonte Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, -291 Iron ore, "blue ore," near Clinton Furnace, Greenup county, analysis or, 330 Iron ores, Buena Vista Furnace, 187 Iron ore, Bunt's gap, Hopkins county, analysis of,- - 336 Iron ore, (carbonate,) Butler county, analysis of,- - 264 Iron ore, (carbonate,) Mublenburg county, analysis of,- 350 Iron ore, (carbonate,) White Oak branch of Rockcastle river, 241 Iron ore, Chandler bank, Suwannee Furnace, Lyon county, analysis of, 343 Iron ore, clay ironstone, Muhlenburg county, analysis of, 346 Iron ores at Coal Haves and head of French Island, - 60 "Iron ores" considered "impracticable,"- 72, 76 Iron ores from Cumberland river, --246 Iron ore, dark variety of "little block ore," Buffalo Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, --294 Iron ore, "earthy, kidney ore," Buena Vista Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, -289 Iron ore, Falls of Blain, -202 Iron ore, "flag ore," Greenup Furnace, analysis of, 300 Iron ores, Greenup Furnace, -- -193 Iron ores of Greenup and Carter, value of, - - - -99 Iron ores, grey band, Muhlenburg county, - - - 349 Iron ore, "grey block ore," Buffalo Furnace, Greenup co, analysis of, 296 Iron ore, "grey limestone ore," Greenup Furnace, analysis of, - 302 Iron ore, Hawes' ridge, Muhlenburg county, analysis of, - 138, 345 Iron ore, "honey-comb ore," Amanda Furnace, Greenup county, anal- ysis of, -314 Iron ore, "impracticable hard limestone ore," Pennsylvania Furnace, analysis of, 284 Iron ore, "impracticable part of limestone ore," Pennsylvania Furnace, analysis of, 285 Iron ore, "impure limestone," Buffalo Furnace, Greenup county, anal- ysis of, -296 Iron ore, Jenkins' ore bank, Muhlenburg county, analysis of, - 139, 345 Iron ores, Kenton Furnace, -197 Iron ore, "Kidney ore," New Hampshire Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, 321 Iron ore, Kincheloe's bluff. Muhlenburg county, analysis of, 346 Iron ores, Laurel Furnace, --196 Iron ores, "limestone ores," Clinton Furnace, Greenup co., analyses of, 329, 330 Iron ores, limestone ores, Greenup Furnace, analyses of, - - - 303, 304 Iron ore, "limestone ore," New Hampshire Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, 322 Iron ores, limestone ores, Pennsylvania Furnace, analyses of, - - 281, 282 Iron ores from Lithostrotion beds of sub-carboniferous limestone, - 86 Iron ore, "little block ore," Buffalo Furnace, Greenup co., analysis of, 293 51 410 INDEX TO REPORT OP GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Iron ore, '-little block ore," Pennsylvania Furnace, analysis of, 281 Iron ores, 'main block" ores, Buffalo Furnace, Greenup county, analy- ses of, -293, 295 Iron ore, "main upper kidney ore," Raccoon ore banks, analysis of, 308 Iron ores on Meadow creek, Watts' creek, &c., &c., - - 240 Iron ores in Muhlenburg and Hopkins county, lower coal measures, 59 Iron ores, Mt. Savage Furnace, Greenup county, analyses of, - 328 Iron ores, Pennsvlvania Furnace, Greenup county, - - - 191 Iron ore, "poor sandy ore," New Hampshire Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, -322 Iron ores, Raccoon Furnace, Greenup county, -195 Iron ore, "red and blue block," Amanda Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, -314 Iron ore, "red ochre," Greenup Furnace, analysis of, 3U1 Iron ores, Rough and Ready, -- -184 Iron ore, "rough sandy block ore," Buff-lo Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, -- -295 Iron ore, "shot ore," Ashland, Greenup county, analysis of, - 317 Iron ores, Sneed's mines, Crittenden county, analysis of, - - 274, 275 Iron ore, "soft limestone ore," Raccoon ore banks, Greenup county, analysis of, --306 Iron ore, speckled, New Hampshire Furnace, analysis of, - 198 Iron ores, Stewart's creek, Hopkins county, analyses of, - 336, 338 Iron ore, "Sugar creek," Hopewell Iron Works, Livingston county, analysis of, --341 Iron ores, tables of composition of, - - -364, 365 Iron ore, Top-hill ore, Pennsylvania Furnace, Greenup county, analy- sis of,- -- 282 Iron ore, Tygert's creek, Carter county, - - - - 200, 268 Iron ore, Mr. Wallace's, Carter county, analysis of, 267 Iron ore, Williams' landing, Green river, - - - - 60, 347 Iron ore, "yellow kidney ore," Amanda Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, - - -- 313 Iron ore, "yellow kidney ore," Buena Vista Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, -- -289 Ironstones between the little vein and Well coal, - 59 Ironstone, calcareous, used at Sandy Furnace, analysis of, 78 Ironstones of eastern coal field, --71 Ironstones in sbales over ice-house coal, analysis of, 57, 58 Island district, on Cypress creek, - - - - 147, 148 Jackfield coal, Capt. Davis', analysis of, 5--- 3, 128 Jellico Mountain, -- -239 Kenton Furnace, ores, dcc., -- - 197 Kentucky river, ncrth fork, coal, -- -211 Kentucky river, three forks, coal, -- -214 Kinehelce's BlLff coal, (No. 196,) analysis of,-4- - - 146 INDEX TO REPORT OF GRLOGICAL SURVEY. 411 Kincheloe's Bluff, or Lewisport, Green river, section at, 145 King's coal, - - - 239 Laurel Furnace ores, &c., --196 Lead and zinc ores, --87 Lead ores, argentiferous, ---88 Letcher C. 11. coal, -- 225 Lewellyn coal mines, Union county, --398 Lewisport coal, --181 Lick coal, No. 92 of collection, analysis of,. - - 132 Lignite and brown coal of quaternary deposits, 25, 26, 116, 262 Limestones, - -60 Limestone, Dr. Hopson's Marble, Trimble county, analysis of, 358 Limestone, bituminous, supposed black band ore, Mublenburg county, 350 Limestone, ferruginous, Christian county, analysis of, - - - 274 Limestone, ferruginous, Clinton Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, 331 Limestone, ferruginous, New Hampsbire Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, 323 Limestone, ferruginous, like black band iron ore, Hopkins county, anal- ysis of, 337 Limestone, ferruginous, Sandy Furnace, Carter county, analysis of, 269 Limestone, magnesian, (hydraulic,) analysis of, 273 Limestone, table of composition of, - - - - 368 Limestones, used for flux at the Greenup Furnaces, 75, 285, 292, 297, 298, 304, 308 Limestone, used as a flux, Bellefonte Fur-nace, Greenup county, anal- ysis of, -292 Limestones, used as flux, Buffalo Furnace, Greenup county, analyses of, 297, 298 Limestone, used as flux, Greenup Furnace, analysis of, - - - 304 Limestone, used as flux, New Hampshire Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, 323 Limestone, used as a flux, Pennsylvania Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, 285 Limestone, used as a flux, Raccoon Furnace, Greenup county, anal- ysis of, -308 Limonites-see iron ores. Limonite and other iron ores, Meadow creek and Watts' creek, 240 Linn Camp, section on, --220 Litbostrotion bed of Eub-carboniferous limestone, or "Barren" lime- stone, -82 Little Sandy river coal, --185 Log Mountain coal beds, --222 London, Laurel county, formation at, -241 Lost creek, --390 Lower coal measures, order of superposition,-- 45 Magnesian limestone, Christian county, analysis of, - 273 Mammoth Cave, --- 169 INDfl TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Map of Union and Crittenden counties, scale of, Marble, Concbitic, Dr. Hopson's, Trimble county, Marcus coal, Martin coal,- Martin's, Col., coal, analysis of, McHenry's coal, Tug Fnrk, Big Sandy, analysis of, McLean or Airdrie coal, (No. 192,) McLean county coal measures, McNairy's coal bank, Pond river, section at, Megalonyx Bones, letter to Prof. Joseph Leidy, Mick's branch coal, Milk sickness, Miller's (Mr.) coal, Miller's (H. G.) mineral spring, examination of, Millstone grit, quarries, Mineral pitch or tar, Edmonson county, analysis of, Mineral waters, on Barnett's creek, Mineral waters, on Clear creek, Sulphur spring, Mineral waters, Crittenden spring, sulphur, Mineral waters, Fayette county, Mineral waters, Letcher C. H., chalybeate, Mineral waters, Miller's, chalybeate, - Mineral waters, Perry county, chalybeate, Mineral waters, Pulaski county, cbalybeate, Mineral waters, Bobb's, McCracken county, chalybeate, Mineral waters, Rockcastle river, chalybeate, - - Mineral waters, Social hill, sulphur, - Mineral waters, Mr. Swinney's, chalybeate, Mineral waters, Mr. Wilson's, Lexington, chalybeate, Mount Savage Furnace ores, &c., Mount Savage Furnace, Stinson ore banks, section of Muhlenburg county coal measures, - Mulford's four-footcoal, analysis of, Mulford's "little vein," analysis of, Mulford's "little vein," cannel part, analysis of, Mulford's middle coal, analysis of, - - - - - 385 - - - 358 137 - - - 138 - - - 208 - - - 70 - - - 143 - - - 125 - - - 135 - - - 22 - - - 216 - 20, 95, 102, 169 - - - 137, 138 - 219 - - 63 - - - 166 156 - - - 225 - - - 247 - - - 372 - - - 225 - - - 219 - 229 - 237 - - - 114 - - - 238 148 163 - 371 - - - 185, 328 - - - 185 - - - 125 - - - SO 50 - - - 61 Mulford's main or five-foot coal, Union county, analysis of, 49 Naut's coal, on Sandy creek, --160 New Hampshire Furnace ores, tic., 77, 197, 198, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327 New Hampshire Furnace, speckled ore, analysis of, - - - - 77, .98 Nolin creek, Edmonson county, section at, - -164 Nomenclature of Kentucky Geological formations, 16 Northern Kentucky mines, section at, - - - - - - 207 Oil Spring branch, petroleum, - - - - - - 210 Point creek coal, - - S 412 INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 413 Peach Orchard coal, bottom part, analysis of, -69 Pennsylvania Furnace ores, coal, &c., 72, 75, 191, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288 Petroleum on Oil Spring branch,- - 210 Phosphorie acid, re-examination of soils for, - - 378 Pigeon Run coal, Capt. Davis', analysis of,- - 128 Pig-iron, Amanda Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, - 317 Pig-iron, Bellefonte Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, - 292 Pig-iron, Buena Vista Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, - 290 Pig-iron, Buffalo Furnace, Greenup county, analyses of, 299, 300 Pig-iron, Greenup Furnace, analysis of, --305 Pig-iron, New Hampshire Furnace, Greenup county, analyses oC - 325, 326 Pig-iron, Pennsylvania Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, - - 287 Pig-iron, Raccoon Furnace, Greenup county, analyses of, - - - 310, 311 Pig-iron, from Sandy Furnace, analysis of, - Pig-iron, table of composition of, Pittsburg coal, analysis of, Pleasant Run coal, Pond fork valley, Pond river coal, (No. 137,) Poplar Chalybeate mountain coal,- Prestonsburg coal, &c.,- Quaternary deposits, Quaternary deposits, order of superposition, at the "Iron banks,'" and Chi ilk Quaternary deposit, (silico-calcareous,) analys of, near Columbus, Quaternary deposit, silicious, Quaternary deposits, soils from, Quaternary formation of McCracken, &c., &c., &c., Quaternary formation, sections of, - - - - - - 116, Raccoon Furnace coal, ores, &c., 195, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, Red lands and sub-soil of southern Kentucky, - Red ochre, Greenup Furnace, analysis of, Reedy bills, Grayson county, Reel-foot lake, Richland creek coal, Robb's Chalybeate spring, McCracken county, - Roberts' coal, (No. 191,) Muhlenburg county, 52, Rockcastle river, narrows of, coal, &c., Rough and Ready ore bed, Rough creek, Grayson county, falls of, Russey's coal, on Muddy creek, Salt borings, Brashears, Salt borings, near Hazzard, Perry county, Salt borings, Whitesbnrg, Salt efflorescence and licks, Shelby fork, Big Sandy - - 184 367 363 133 391 134, 340 245 206 17 22 18 0 27 113 120, 122 312, 313 88 301 172 117 131 114 140, 142 237 184 173 160 228 228 229 231 INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Salt river knobs, growth on, 91 Salt water, junction of Lost and Troublesome creeks, 211 Salt water and other mineral waters, Barnett's creek, - 15 Salt water, mouth of Leatherwood creek, - - - 228 Salt well, on Big Sandy, near Kane farm, - - - 201 Salt works, Goose creek, -6--7, 218 Samuel's coals, (McLean Co.,) - -- 149 Sandstones of coal measures, for building, - - - 62 Sandstones, hearthstones, New Hampshire Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, - - -327 Sar.dstone, hearthstone, Raccoon Furnace, Greenup county, analysis of, 313 Sandstone, sub-carboniferous, 89 Sandstone suitable for hearthstones, Edmonson county,- - - 168 Sandy Furnace, calcareous and top hill ores, analysis of, - - - 183 Sandy Furnace ores, &c., &c., 78, 183, 184, 268, 269 Scatters of Cypress, - - -386 Section at Amanda Furnace, -- - 188 Section in Breathitt county, near Jackson, - -213 Section at Clarke's mill, Pond river, - - - 136 Section, clover fork of Cumberland river, - - - 226 Section of formations of northern part of Edmonson county, 164 Section of coal measures, Everley's ridge, - -147 Sccion at south Carrollton, -- 146 Section, falls of Cumberland river, - -235 Section at Green River Manufacturing and Coal Company's Mines, 141 Section at forks of Green and Barren rivers, -161 Section of Holloway boring, Henderson county, 32 Section at Industry mines, - - - -205 Section south fork Kentucky river, - - -- 215 Section at Kincheloe's Bluff or Lewisport, (Green river,) - - - 145 Section on Linn camp, Section at McNairv's coal bank, Pond river, Section at Nolin creek, Edmonson county, Section of quaternary deposits of McCracken county, &c., Section seven miles below Pikeville, Section at Stinson ore banks, Mt. Savage Furnace, Section at Taylor's coal mine, Green river, Section at Todd & Crittenden's coal mines, Section at William's Landing, Green river, Section at Joel Wright's to the top of Sounding gap, Septaria, calcareous, Morgan county, - - . Short mountain coal, - - - - Silver ore, suppositious, Cumberland falls, Sink holes in Barren limestone region, Slate quarry, Hopkins county, Slate, Ring creek, Perry county, 220 135 164 - 116, 120, 122 - - 232 -- 185 - - 158 -- 215 -- 143 - - 229 - - 210 244 - - 235 - 84 - 133 - - 229 414 INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Sloan's hill coal, Social bill mineral water, &oils from Ballard county, analyses of, - - - Soils, from blue limestone formation, remarks on, Soil, (ridge land,) Butler county, analyses of, - - Soil, southern part of Cbristian county, analyses of, Soils from the coal measures, remarks on, Soil from Daviess county, Soil, of Edmonson county, best of table land, - Soil, virgin, Fayette county, analysis of, Soil, old field, Fayette county, analysis of, Soil, Fulton county, analysis of, Soil, under gravel bed, Fulton county, analysis of, Soil and forest growth, Graves county, Soil, Henderson county, analysis of, Soil, white, of Bayou de Chienne, Hickman county, ana Soils, "white earth," Hickman county, analyses of, Soil and sub-soil, Hopkins county, analysis of, Soil, Livingston county, analysis of, - - Soil, southern part Logan county, analysis of, - Soil, coal region, Mulilenburg county, analysis of, Soils from quaternary deposits, - - - Soils, re-examination of, for phosphoric acid, Soil, Simpson county, analysis of, Soil of sub-carboniferous or knob sandstone, Soils, table of composition of, Soil and sub-soil, Todd county, analysis of, Soil, (red clay sub-soil,) Todd county, analysis of, Soil, Trigg county, analysis of, Soils, Union county, Soil, Warren county, analysis of, Sounding gap, section at, South Carrollton, section at,- Southern coal field, boundaries of, - Speckled iron ore, New Hampshire Furnace, analysis of, Springs, Union county, Spring waters injurious, dsc., Hickman county, Stanley coal bank, Star Iron Furnace coal, and ores, Stinson ore banks, Mt. Savage Furnace, section of, - Sub-carboniferous limestone,- Sub-carboniferous sandstone, 1: - - - 244 - - - 148 - - 259, 261, 379 100, 374 - - - 266, 379 - - - 272, 379 -- - 63 153, 379 - - - 168, 379 - - - 276, 379 - - - 276, 379 - 279, 379 - - - 280, 379 -- - 121 333, 379 rsis of, - 334, 379 334,335,379 - 340,379 341,397 - - - 342,379 - - - 351,379 - .- 27 - -- 378 - 355, 379 - -- 89 - - - 370 - - . 357, 379 - - - 356, 379 - - - 36u, 379 -- - 392 - - - 361, 379 - -- 229 -- 146 30 77, 198 - -- 392 - - - 19 - -- 137 - - - 188 - - - 185 79 - - - 89 Sub-carboniferous limestone of Crittenden, Livingston, Lyon, Caldwell, and Trigg counties, Sulphur spring, Box mountain, Sulphur spring, Cerulean, Trigg county, 246 131 248 415 416 INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Sulphur spring, Clear creek, - - - -226 Sulphur springs, Grayson county, -- - - 170 Sulphur spring hills, -- - - 386 Sulphur spring of Livingston county, - - - - - 248 Sulphur spring, Social hill, -- - - 148 Sulphuret of zinc, Crittenden county, analysis of, 276 Sulphur water, Crittenden spring, - - - - 247 Swift mine, -- - - 222 Swinney's, Mr., Chalybeate spring tested, - - - - - 163 Table of composition of Kentucky clays, - - - - - 369 Table of composition of Kentucky coals, - - - - - 366 Table of composition of Kentucky iron furnace slags, 367 Table of composition of Kentucky iron ores, - - - - 364, 365 Table of composition of Kentucky limestones, 368 Table of composition of Kentucky pig-iron, - - - - - 367 Table of composition of Kentucky soils,- - - - 370 Table of minexal matter removed from the soil by crops, 377 Tar, (mineral,) or pitch, from Edm onson county, analysis of, 166 Tar spring, Breckinridge county, Tar creek, - - -174 Taylor's coal mine, Porter's landing, Green river, section of, 158 Technical terms, --378 Terry's coal, analysis of, Hopkins county, - - -126 Thoroughfare between Green river and Cypress creek, 148 Three-mile creek, York bed of coal, - - - - 203 Todd & Crittenden's mines, south fork Kentucky river, section at, 215 Topographical Geological report, --381 Topographical survey, method adopted in, - -383 Trade-iwater river, --389 Trade-water river coals, --125, 394 Troublesome creek, cannel coal, and salt water, 211 Tug fork, Big Sandy, coals on, - - - - - 203 Tygert's creek iron ore, -- - - 200 Union county, Geology of, -- - - 392 Union county, detailed survey of, remarks on, - - - - - 106 Upper coal measures, order of superposition, - - - - - 40, 42 Vegetables, mineral elements, of -- - - 375 War gap, Pine mountain, -- - - 226 Water, supposed to cause milk sickness,- - - - - 19 Watt's creek coal, - - - -240 Whitesburg, salt borings, -- - - 229 William's landing, Green River, section at, - - - - - 143 William's landing, iron ore at, -- - - 60 Wolf bill coal, Daviess county, (No. 189,) analysis of, - 44, 164 York bed of coal, Three-mile creek, -- - - 203 Zinc ore, Crittenden county, analysis of, 276