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Pal5ontological report of coal measure mollusca / made by Edward T. Cox. Cox, E. T. (Edward Travers), 1821-1907. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b96-11-34700556 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Pal5ontological report of coal measure mollusca / made by Edward T. Cox. Cox, E. T. (Edward Travers), 1821-1907. A.G. Hodges, public printer, [Frankfurt, Ky. : 1857] p. -589,  leaves of plates : ill. ; 27 cm. Coleman Includes index. Plates nos. VIII-X [from atlas] accompany this report. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1996. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN05984.12 KUK) Printing Master B96-11. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Mollusks, Fossil. Paleontology Carboniferous. Paleontology Kentucky. Coal Kentucky. PALTONTOLOGICAL REPORT OF COAL MEASURE MOLLUSCA MADE BY EDW ARIRD T. COX, ASSISTANT GEOLOGIST. This page in the original text is blank. R E P O R T. TO DR DAVID DALE OWEN, Geologist of the State of Kentucky. SIR: In accordance with your instructions I accompanied Mr. Leo Lesquereux in an excursion for the purpose of examining the coal field in the western part of Kentucky, with the view to collect palkeoutolog- ical data, that might greatly aid in identifying the different veins of coal, one with another, throughout the counties embraced in its extent; especially by means of the organic remains found in the roof-shales and accompanying rocks. The merited celebrity of 'Mr. Lesquereux as a fossil Botanist, and the important labor which he had bestowed upon the coal plants of Pennsylvania and Ohio, made his selection fur a similar work in -Ken- tucky, the very best it was possible to make. In connection with 'Mr. Lesquereux, I was especially instructed to pay attention to the fossil mollusca, and collect every possible evidence for identity from that source. This mode of establishing the position of coal beds has only been practically pursued by Mr. Lesquereux in this country; and a beginning is now being made, for the first time, to connect with the flora the testimony of the shells-an addition much needed in western Kentucky, on account of the great scarcity of the former, and abundance of the latter. Our investigv ions, for identity, commencing with coal No. 1, B, a, the bottom of the section in the first cha ter of your report, and ter- minating with coal No. 12, includes, in all the strata, a vertical thick- ness of about eight hundred feet. It must not be supposed that these members include the whole thickness of the western coal field; though they mark, probably, the limits of the profitably working coals, there are one or two thin seams below No. 1, B, which, with a thick Eand. stone, usually pebbly, with underlying shale, make together one bua- drad feet or more; whilst above No. 12, there are a number of thin veins with intervening shales, limestone, and Eand-rock, in all up- wards of five hundred feet, making the whole measures in the western PALJEONTOLOOICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. part of the state from (1,400) fourteen hundred to (1,500) fifteen hundred feet. The thin veins above No. 12, are not wanting in distinctive organic remains, and collections had already been made from some of these higher beds, amongst which are seveal new species. They have been omitted for the present, as being of the least importance, and because they require additional study. In Mr. Lesquereux's report will be found an extremely interesting account of the formation of fossil fuel, and the equivalency of the various beds of' coal throughout the field of our examination. It re- mains only necessary for me, on this occasion, to refer to each vein its peculiar fossil shells, so far as they have been ascertained. It may be asked, how came marine shells to be imbedded in the roof-shales, if the coal has been formed in fresh water They follow- ed the influx of the sea after subsidence of the land, and are such as usually live in shallow or brackish water, belonging to the phytiferous (vegetable feeders,) and carniverous orders. The salt water gradually killed out the coal flora-the last remains of which mixed with algae, became entangled in the sediment of the ocean, and served to supply bitumen, with which the dark shales that Osually form the roof of the coal are so frequently charged. Our observations go to show that wherever we found fossil remains of the molusca abundant in the roof-shale, coal plants are rarely found, whilst remains of marine plants are usually abundant. COAL NO. 1, B. This is the lowest workable coal in the western basin, varying in thickness from three to six feet, and charactbrized by a solitary molus- ca Lingedla umbonata nob., plate X, fig. 4. It is opened and worked by the Union Coal and Iron Company, one and a half miles below Carrsville, in Livingston county, where it is an outlier, and the most southern workable coal in the state. This vein has been opened and worked by several companies along Tradewater river, in Crittenden county.t It is most extensively worked on the property of Col. John Bell, where it is from three and a half to six feet thick, and known as the "Bell coal." Another opening was made into this vein on the same For the flora see Mr. Leo Lesquereux's report. tSee report of Dr. D D. Owen, State Geologist. 5f)0 PAT.tJNTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. property, about three quarters of a mile farther from Tradewater, by Mr. Cook, whose name it bears. In Union county it is mined by the Messrs. Casey's; out-crops near the old distillery back of Caseyville, also on the property of the Ken- tucky Coal Company, and various other localities in the same county. On the eastern boundary of the basin it proves to be the main Hawes- ville and Breckinridge coal vein, at each of which localities we found the identical Lingula umbonata In the shales of the roof at Hawes- ville, where we had an excellent opportunity to examine, they were found in the greatest abundance. The remaining figures on plate X belong to the Cephalopvda division of the mollusca, and were collected on a previous occasion by the sur- vey, at Nolin Iron Works, Edmonson county. They are new, and oc- cupy a low position in the Coal Mleasures, i. e., about one hundred feet above the conglomerate. Very little has yet been done towards making openings into the oth- er coals below No. 9, and what old workings have been undertaken are now mostly filled up, so that but little opportunity has been afforded for making collections from these beds. The only animal remains as yet found in them is from No. 7, or "Black-band vein," a thin seam of coal over-layed by a black bituminous, ferruginous carbonate of lime in thin bands, and these are fins, scales, and teeth of fish, that have not yet been determined. This vein, which is only noticed on account of its ferruginous calcareous black-band roof, from one and a half to two and a half feet in thickness, is best developed on the property of Mr. Alfred Towns, in Hopkins county, and usually contains from twenty to twenty-five per cent. of metallic iron. Its is also seen on the proper- ty of the Saline Mining Company, Gallatin county, Illinois, where it contains the same description of fish remains. Its position is about one hundred and thirty feet below No. 9. COAL NO. 9. This is the main working coal in the western part of the state, and is usually characterised by an abundance of fossil mollusca; amongst the most numerous are those figured on plate IX: Aoicula recta-late- raria, A. acosta, Solernamya soleniformis, Nautilus decorates, and Pro- ductus muricatus. Besides these there are Nucula Hamerii, N!ucula, species undetermined, Pecen, species undetermined, Pleurotomaria 71 661 PALSONTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLGICAL SURVEY. Grayvillen-qis, Lozonema, species undetermined, Orthoceratite, species undetermined, Chonetes mesoloba, (variety small, and prominently lobed,) Producti's equicostatus, and Bellerophon carbonarious. This Bellerophon, which we propose to call B. carbonarious, has generally been refered to B. Urei, Flein., by western Palmeontologists-a con- clusion with which we cannot agree; not from a desire to create a new species, but with a view to a proper understanding of the true geolo- gical position of the shells of the Coal Measures. The B. Urei, accor- ding to L. De Koninck, has a vertical range from the silurian to the carboniferous beds, whereas the B. carbonarious has not been found to range lower than the middle of the coal basin, and is only fully rep- r sented in the upper part. It certainly approaches very close to L. De Koninck's description of the B. Vrei, (Description Animtaux Fos- sites, page 3.56, p1. xxx, fig. 4,) and may possibly be a variety, but cannot be considered identical. That there are several varieties or species referred to this shell, is evident from the description of the following authors here cited: Capt. Portlock, Geology of Londonderry, page 400; Mr. Phillips' Geology of Yorkshire, page 231; M'Coy's Description of British Palhrozoic fossils in the Geological Museum of Cambridge, page 555; all of which differ materially. It is referred to B. Urel by Norwood and Pratten; Notice of fossils from the carbonif- erous series of the western states; Journal Acad. Nat. Sci., June, 1855; page 75, plate IX, fig. 6. The original of this figure is in my cabinet, and was loaned to them for representation, being at that time the only perfect specimen known. I an sorry to say, from some over-sight, for it was in the hands of a most excellent artist and esteemed friend, this figure gives a very incorrect idea of the shell; it exhibits but two- thirds of the true number of the spiral strike-having only fifteen, whereas, there should have been twenty; (from the examination of a large number, they are found to range from 19 to 25 ;) the mouth, as well as the general contour, is essentially wrong. None of the various authors who have described the B. VUrei mention the lateral expansion of the mouth into ears, a feature very decided in our shell. It also differs in having fewer spiral strim, and by the more rapid increase of the last whorl. From the examination of several hnndred good spe- cimens, the average number of spiral strime appears to be twenty-one, always, even in the youngest individual, terminating on the inferior 562 PALSoNTOLOGICIL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. half of the last whorl, and have not been found to exceed twenty-five; whereas L. De Koninck reports on the B. Urei, from thirty-six to thirty-eight. Dimensions-Diameter -4- of an inch; proportional increase of the last whorl .-1-ol to ._4- of an inch; including the wings of the mouth; transverse diameter of the mouth .-4- of an inch. Remains of fishes, that have not yet been determined, are also found in the shales of this coal. COAL NO. 11. This is the next coal in the series, in which we found the remains of mollusca. For the most characteristic, see plate vll., figs. 1 to 11, and plate ix, fig. 1. They are as follows: Pecten Providencesis, Loxonema regutaris, Chimnitzia parva, Pleurotomaria Bonharborensis, P. depresna, Arca carbonaria, Gervillia longispina, Plicatula striato- costala, Myalina pernaformis, Cardinia ( ) fragilis, Macrocheilus, graciis, Orhiks resupinoides, Pecten, species undetermined, Avicula rectalateraria, (not so abundant as in No. 9,) Lozonema Hallii, Lozo- nema, species nndetermined, Macrocheilus inhabilis, Macrocheilus, spe- cies undetermined, Productus muricatus, rare, P. Rogersii, P. equicos- talus, Athyris sublilita, large and abundant, Cardium, species undeter- mined, Spirifer feusebachanus, Solenimya, species undetermined, ANu- cula, species undetermined, Orthis, species undetermined, Orthoceratite, species undetermined, Griffithiides, species undetermined. This coal is usually separated into two members, by a clay parting from one to four inches in thickness, and is overlayed by a limestone. The upper part of this bed of coal is sometimes cannel, and the lower bituminous. It is best developed in Hopkins county-where it at- tains a thickness of nine feet-on the line of the Henderson and Nashville Railroad. On the mining property of Edward and William Hawes, at Hawes- ville, Hancock county, No. 11 is found near the top of the hill, a few rods west of their entry into the main Hawesville coal, No. 1, B; well characterised by its peculiar fossils, and proves a remarkable thinning out of the measures near the eastern boundary of the basin. The ver- tical space between the two is here only two hundred and ten (210) feet, but may be somewhat increased, by the existence of an at pres- ent unknown fDult 563 564 PALMONTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL UIBVTY. COAL NO. 11. This is the highest coal that we had an opportunity to examine in the series. It is characterised by the remains of fishes, not yet de- terinined, and a small orbicula, of which we found no specimen suffi- ciently perfect for description. As a full history of the coals, from the bottom to the top of the series, may be found in your report, and that of Mr. Lesquereux, it has been deemed unnecessary to repeat it here. There will also be seen, by a reference to the above reports, a demonstration of the fact, that the most persistent veins throughout the basin are Nos. 1 B., 9, and 11-they having been found at every locality where there is suf- ficient thickness of the measures to contain them. For a better understanding of the fossil shells found associated with these coals, I herewith submit the annexed descriptions, and accompa- nying plates, Nos. VIII, IX. and X. For the beautiful and accurate representation of the fossil shells on these plates, we are indebted to Mr. John Chappellsmitb. The importance of the facts established by the survey of the coal- fields of Kentucky, cannot be over estimated. It has developed the various seams, and given characters by which the most important may at all times be known, and having established the identity of one, in any part of the basin, the relative position of the others may easily be known, by reference to the section in the first chapter of your report in this volume. Next to agriculture, coal is the most important element of a coun- try's prosperity and wealth. Its importance is just beginning to be felt in the west, and will increase with the constantly diminishing for- est. As a fuel, it is the most convenient and economical, and no country can successfully compete in manufacturing without a cheap supply. It is the rich and well wrought coal-fields of England that enables her to maintain a supremacy in manufLeturing, over the world; deprived of the coal, hef importance as a nation would soon be lost. In the British Islands not less than fifteen million tons of coal are annually raised, affording employment, in the mining operations, to more than one hundred and fifty thousand people. More than one third of this amount is derived from the Newcastle basin, embracing a superficial area of seven hundred and fifty square miles; wheres, in western Kentucky the coal-field contains more than three thousand PALEONTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURvEY. 565 square miles, with an average thickness of all the coal seams about equal to those of the Newcastle district. The superiority of coal as a fuel will be better understood when we consider, that one square mile of forest, containing twenty thousand trees, averaging two cubic yards of solid wood, would be equal to one acre of coal six feet thick. One hundred pounds of coal, occupying about one and a half square feet, will evaporate 1,200 pounds of water, equal to 150 gallons; while 100 pounds of well dried wood, occupy- ing more than double this space, will evaporate only 700 pounds of water, equal to about 88 gallons; and six gallons of water evaporated in an hour is equal to a horse power. E. T. COX, Assistant Geologist. 686 PALAONTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. A description of some of the most characteristic shells, of the principal coal seams in the western basin of Kentuchy, by E. T. Cox, Assistant Geologist. PECTEN PROVIDENCESIS. Cot. (Plate VIll. fig. 1, left vale natural size.) Semi-circular; as broad as high; nearly equilateral; left valve slight- ly convex; about thirty-three broad prominent ribs, of unequal width, and irregularly fluted; radiate from the beak to the circumference; crossed below the disk by two well defined bands, marking stages of growth. Anterior ear of the valve under description is wanting, but that of the right valve beneath, is in part exposed, finely ribbed, and crossed by concentric bands; inferior ear finely ribbed, crossed by fimbriating folds, curved outward from the beak. Rostral angle 950; height 3. A-' inches; width 3-LAL inches. Its size and broad fluted ribs renders it easily distinguished from other species. Position and locality. Found by the topographical assistant, Sidney S. Lyon, in the limestone which overlays the main coal, No. 11, at the town of Providence, Hopkins county, Kentucky. Fragments are somewhat numerous, but it is difficult to obtain them in as perfect a state of preservation as the one figured. LOXONEMA REGULARIS. Cox. (P. Vill, fig. 2, natural size.) Elongated; acutely conical; volutions ten; regularly enlarging; con- vex; covered with fine transverse strim; convex in the direction of the spire; sigmoidal on the last whorl; suture small, slightly impressed; body whorl about one half the whole length; colamella lip elongated, slightly reflected; outer lip thin; mouth about twice as long as broad; spiral angle 365; length 2-.IWO inches; width .- I'I inch. It most nearly resembles L. HOlli, Norwood and Patten, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. June, 1855, but differs in being larger, less acute, and more convex on the volutions. It was found by Sidney S. Lyon, Topo- graphical Assistant, and is converted into pyrites of a bright yellow color and metallic lustre, and is in a fine state of preservation. PALSONTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Position and locality. Rare, in a dark bituminous soft stratum of pyritiferous carbonate of lime; about one foot above the black shale forming the roof of the Bonharbour coal, No. 11, Daviess county, Kentucky. CHIMNITZIA PARVA. Coz. (Pi. Vil, fig. 3, enlarged; 3a natural size.) Small; acute; volutions about six; very ventricose; marked with strong transverse ribs, slightly curved in the direction of the spire, and separated by a deep furrow as wide as the ribs; body whorl occu- pies about one third the entire length of the shell; columella lip slightly prolonged; mouth subeircular; length .I jA inch; width 90 T inch. Position and locality. Occurs in the dark bituminous, pyritiferous, calcareous stratum over the shale roof of Bonharbour coal, No. 11, Daviess county, Kentucky. PLEUROTOMARIA BONHARBORENSIS. Cox. (PI. Vill, fig. 4, enlarged; 4. natul aize.) Small; conical; a little longer than wide; volutions six; acutely convex; marked with a well defined concave band; distinct on all the whorls, and crossed with fine strive; convex in the direction of the spire; ten to twelve spiral lines on the under part of the last whorl, diminishing to two or three on the preceding whorls; crossed by fine transverse strite, rather strongly curved with the convexity in the di- rection of the mouth, giving a beautiful reticulation on the under part of the last whorl, and ornamenting the preceding whorls, on the upper part, with two to three spiral rows of small tubercles; spiral angle about 750; length .--LT- inch; width 21 inch. It differs from the P. Crayvillensis, Norwood and Pratten, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., June,.1855, pl. ix., fig. 7, by its ornaments, and in being more acute. Position and locality. Abundant, in the roof shales of the Bon- harbour coal No. 11, Daviess county, Kentucky. ARCA CARBONARIA. Cox. (Pl. VII, fig. 5, natural size.) Transversly elongated; beaks not elevated; anterior extremity short; obtusely rounded; tumid at the umbo, from which a slight ob- 667 568 PALEONTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. lique mesial sinus extends to the base, where it becomes profound; base emarginated; hinge area straight, almost forming a right angle with the posterior margin which is nearly straight; slightly sinuate above; obtusely rounded below; upper posterior part obliquely truncated; surface covered with concentric lines marking stages of growth, and fine radiating ribs, numbering on the disk about seven in one and a half lines; width 1L- 4- inches, height T-" inch. Position and locality. Rather abundant in the limestone over the main coal No. 11, at Providence, Hopkins county; also in a limestone over an equivalent coal on the property of Edward and William Hawes, near Hawesville, Hancock county, Kentucky. GERVILLIA LONGISPINA. Cox. (PI. VIIL, fig. 6, left valve natural size.) Lunate; hinge area straight; posterior ear defined by a deep sinus; hollowed out on its lateral margin, and terminated by a long spine; beak depressed, pointed; anterior margin and base together form a semicircle; eliptically pointed at the posterior extremity; posterior border slightly concave, from which rises an abrupt ridge, gradually declining to the base and anterior border; anterior ear wanting; sur- face covered with fine striwe and strong marks of growth; length from beak to posterior extremity l -T- inches, height .9-O-A inch. This re- markable species has no analogy with any other with which we are acquainted. A portion of the spine has been restored from fragments found in the rock. Position and locality. Not uncommon in the limestone which over- lays the main coal No. 11, at Providence, Hopkins county, Kentucky. PLICATULA STRIATO-COSTATA. Cox. (PI. Vill, fig. 7; right valve natur-l size.) Triagonal; inequilateral; right valve moderately convex; from nine to ten large elevated ribs arise irregularly below the beak, increasing in size to the circumference, separated from one another by deep furrows, crossed about one-third the length above the base by an irregular con- centric groove, below which, on the anterior side, the ribs are slightly bent forward, giving the appearance of having been broken; above this are two other rather indistinct bands; surface and ribs covered with fine irregular thread-like strke, increasing by intercalation, rising from PALZONTOLOGIC&L REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. each side, and terminate on the summit of the ribs, numbering, at three lines from the beak, sixteen in the space of two lines; base se- micircular, crenulated; height I 1c inches; width 1 T50 inches. Position and locality. From the limestone over the main Provi- dence coal, No. 11, Hopkins county, Kentucky. MIYALINA PERNAFORMIS. Cot. (P1. V II, fig. 8; right valve natural size.) Sub-quadrate; inequilaterai; beak pointed, projecting beyond, and moderately curved over the cardinal border; cardinal border nearly straight; anterior margin and base rounded; posterior margin straight; near which a prominent ridge gradually slopes to the front and base; surface covered with strong concentric, somewhat fimbriating lines of growth; length 1.-YL inches; width -J70 iuch. Position and locality. Common in the limestone over the main coal No. 11, at Providence, Hopkins county, Kentucky. PLEUROTOMARIA DEPRESSA. Cox. (PI. VIII, fig. 19, Io.; natural size.) Small; lenticular; depressed; about five volutions scarcely eleva- ted; nearly flat above; defined by a row of acutely pointed tuber- cles, not so wide as the intervening notch; last whorl obtusely round- ed below, bordered by a sharp edge, which has a narrow depressed band above, only visible when the implanted tubercles are removed; ornamented on the upper and lower side with obsolete lines of growth bent backwards; umbilicus shallow; mouth notched; columella and outer lip rounded; height A303 inch; width . inch; spiral angle 1300. This species may at first easily be mistaken for P. sphcrrulata, Conrad, (P. corornda Hall; Stansbury's expedition to the Great Salt Lake, 1852, page 413, pl. 4,4Xg. 6,) but is much more depressed, and the angle of the last whorl more acute. The tubercles not so numer- ous, and less elevated. Position and locality. Common in the shale forming the roof of No. 11 coal, at Bonharbour, Daviess county, and Airdrie, Munhlenburg county, Kentucky. 72 5G9 670 PALSONTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL BURVSY. CARDINIA FRAGILIS. Cot. (P1. VIII, fig. 9; left valve natural size.) Shell very thin; transversely ovate; beak scarcely elevated; an- terior slope slightly hollowed; anterior extremity short, rounded be- low; base and posterior side obtusely rounded; hinge line straight, slightly truncated behind the beak; surface covered with broad con- centric furrows; height -1-A inch; width 1 inches. It is difficult, from the poorly preserved specimens now collected, to determine the genus with certainty; but believing it to be a cbar- acteristic shell, have placed it conditionally amongst the cardinia. When well preserved the valves may be found ornamented with fine concentric strioe. Position and locality. Abundant in the black shale, which some- times forms the roof of No. 11 coal, at Airdrie, Muhlenburg county, Kentucky. MACROCHEILUS GRACILIS. Cox. (P1. ViI), fig. 11, enlarged; fig. 11 a, natural size.) Small; conical; about six volutions; convex; suture small; last whorl half the length of entire shell ; columella lip elongated; slight. ly refected; mouth subovate; length 245 inch; wvidth . inch; spiral angle .56'. It differs from M: aculus, Sow., by the more rapid increase of the whorls, prolongation of the columella lip, and less rotundity of the mouth. Though the specimen under description is most likely a young shell, it cannot be confounded in any stage of developement with its cogenitors. Position and locality. Common in the shale over No. 11 coal, Bon- harbor, Daviess county, Kentucky. ORTHIS RESUPINOIDES. Cox. (PL. IX, fig 1, end view, natural size; fig. I e, entering valve; fig. 1 6, profile.) Hinge line straight; less than the width of the shell; cardinal area well marked, gradually sloping back on the receiving valve; large angular foramen; both valves covered with fine threadlike strim, radi- ating from the beaks to the circumference, numbering on the disk thir- teen in 9-A26 of an inch, crossed by fimbriating lines marking stages of growth; obsolete on the umbo; well marked and more numerous from the base for one third the length; receiving valve moderately convex; PALZONTOLOGTCAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SUREVEY. greatest depth at the umbo; beak small, acute, elevated above and gradually sloping, with a slight depression to the sides; entering valve remarkably ventricose, and a little longer than the receiving valve greatest depth at the disk; a very obscuNe shallow sinus is perceptible, running from the rostrum to the disk, where it is lost or obliterated by the crushed condition of the base of the shell; surface ornamented with five or six broken spines, two lines in diameter and about the same height, and several scars of missing spines; beak very tumid, acutely terminated, slightly incurved, moderately arched on the car- dinal margin; sides obtusely rounded, broad and distinctly marked by rugose fimbriating lines of increment; width 1. -6I inches; length l-54 inches; hinge line .-1- inches; depth of receiving valve -3T5 inch; depth of entering valve wA S; width of cardinal area .-H inch; depth .-iT inch. Though several authors have suggested the appearance of scars left by spines, on some species of orthis; this is believed to be the first specimen of the genus upon which they have actually been found attached. The great convexity of the entering valve, the obtuseness of both valves at their lateral border, and the greater prolongation of the en- tering valve, distinguishes this species from the 0. resupinata, (Mart. sp.,) to which it is most nearly related. Position and locality. From the siliceous micaceous shale forming the roof of the upper coal, No. 11, at Mr. Hawes' mine, Hawesville, Hancock county, Kentucky. AVICULA RECTA-LA.TERARE&A. CoNx. (Pi. IX, fig. 2, right valve natural size.) A little higher than broad; inequilateral; slightly oblique; covered with numerous radiating ribs, increasing in number by the intercala- tion of new ones, occasionally by dichotomy; nearly as high as broad; a little wider than the space which separates them from one another; anterior ear extends to the lateral border, with which it nearly forms a right angle; posterior ear a little shorter than the anterior, is not ter- minated by an angle, but by a rounded and well defined by a notch at its base; umbo slightly tumid, crossed by irregular concentric wrinkles; surface and ears covered with fine strite, and fimbriating lines of in- crement; anterior side rectalineal; base and posterior side obtusely 671 PA67LONTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVET. rounded; binge area straight; a little narower than the shell; height .a9- of an inch; width. 1-60 of an inch; anterior ear A0w of an inch; posterior car . Is of an inch. It is easily distinguished from A. papyracea, Saw., with which it has been confounded, by the absence of a notch on the side, at the ex- tremity of the anterior ear, and from the A. subpapyracea, De Ver., with which it is more nearly related, by its less obliquity, straight an- terio-lateral margin, wrinkles on the urnbo, and simple ribs. Position and locality. It is most usually found converted into yel- low pyrites, and in great abundance in the black shale forming the roof of No. 9 coal, at the Kentucky Coal Company's and Curlew mines, Union county, Kentucky, and in the equivalent beds of Gallatin coun- ty, Illinois. A species, which we have not been able to distingnish from this, occurs also, but not as abundant, in coal No. 11, at " Thompson's vein," at Curlew mines, Union county, and at Bonharbour, Daviess county, Kentucky. AVICULA A COSTA. Cox. (Pl. IX, fig 3; right vale natural size; Small; inequilateral; very oblique; sub-elliptical; wings termina- ting in small acute angles; anterior half as broad as the shell; pos- terior very small; surface and wings covered with fine concentric strim; no ribs; height .-,i0 of an inch; width 'Tfl of an inch cardi- nal border ., of an inch. Position and locality. This small and fragile species is found in great abundance in the roof sbales of No. 9 coal, in Union county, Kentucky, and equivalent beds, Gallatin county, Illinois, and appears to be characteristic of this vein, not having j et been found in any other position. NAUTILUS DECORATUS. Cox. (Pl. IX, fig. 4, profile natual size; fig. 4 a, portion of tbe ume showing, aaepa and outsl; fig. 4b, outline of the septa. Discoidal; whorls two and a half, not embracing, increasing in width in the proportion of - Ap to -f'T of an inch; obtusely rounded on the periphery; sides slightly convex; deeply plicated, forming elevated ridges, one to each septa, and curved in the same direction; a depres- sion in their centre produces two rows of small tubercles, more promi- 672 PALAoNTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. nent on the last than preceding whorls, most decided on the outer edge; septu along the central third of the periphery slightly curved backwards; regularly curved backwards on the sides; where the shell has been well preserved it is closely covered with fine strit, strongly arched baokwards, on the periphery, into tongue shaped markings siphuncle medium size; central or nearly central; umbilicus open, showing all the whorls ; mouth transverse, subrrniform ; vertical height j- of an inch; transverse diameter -A'-- of an inch; greatest diameter of the shell 'TW inches; depth of septu next to the last chamber . of an inch. This beautifully ornamented Nfautilus, differs from the NV tubereu- latus, Sow., with which it is most nearly related, in not being concave on the sides, as well as in its markings and the outline of its septu. Position and locality. It is found crushed in the roof shales of No. 9 coal, at the mines of the Kentucky Coal Company, Union county, Kentucky, and in a more perfect state of preservation in the fossilif- erous nodules of calcareous sulphuret of iron in the same shale; which, when thrown out, decompose, from the action of the atmosphere and yield readily their store of fossils to the collector. SOLENIMYA SOLENIFORMIS. Cox. (Pl. IX, fig. 5; natural size.) Transversely elongated; inequilateral; beaks not elevated, sloping to the front, about one-third the length from the anterior end; ex- tremities and base obtusely rounded-more decided anteriorly in young than in adult specimens; cardinal border straight; surface covered with concentric lines and furrows; length 2. - I-7 inches; width 1.A" inches. Position and locality. It is very abundant in the black shale which forms the roof of No. 9 coal, on the property of the Kentucky Coal Company, Union county, Kentucky, and in the same character of shale, over the thirteen inch coal, in the bed of the Ohio river, at the head of French Island. PRODUCTUS MURICATU&. Korwood and Prattlen. Pl. IX, fig. 6; natural size.) For description, see Journal Academy Natural Sciences, Aug., 1854, pl. 1, fig. 8. 673 PALLSONTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL BURVRY. Position and locality. Characteristic of coal No. 9, and found in great abundance in the black shale forming its roof, at the Curlew and Kentucky Coal Company's mines, Union county; at Lewisport, Han- cock county, Kentucky; and at the Saline and Shawneetown Compa- ny's mines, Gallatin county, Illinois. GONIATITES NOLINENSIS. Cot. (Pl. X, fig 1, quarter view natural size; fig. I., outline of dorsal septu ; fig. 1, outline of ventral Sept..) Discoidal; one and a half to two whorls, increasing in the pro2or- tion of . TWG of an inch to 1-A- inches; periphery very convex; sides obtusely rounded; umbilicus large, round, vertically walled; dorsal lobe and sinus dart shaped, first lateral lobe elliptically pointed, a little longer and broader than the dorsal; lateral sinus angular, acutely pointed, about twice as broad, and one-third longer than the dorsal; second lateral lobe subovately rounded; ventral sinus longer and more acute than the corresponding dorsal lobe; second ventral lobe obtuse- ly rounded, and broader than the lateral siuus, with which it corres- ponds; mouth moderately transverse; greatest diameter 2.YA 7 inches; width of umbilicus 'TSW of an inch; transverse diameter of mouth '-T5 inches; vertical hight 'Tl5W inches. It is closely related to G. crenistria, PhiM., but differs in having the last chamber less transverse; umbilicus larger, and the dorsal lobe acutely pointed; not bifid as in the G. crenisiaa. The specimens found are not well enough preserved to show any ornaments that may have existed on the shell, they are all converted into oxide of iron; and like their associates X ferratus, nob. and NV canaliculatlus, nob. have been used at Nolin Furnace for the manufacture of iron. Position and locality. Nolin Iron Works Edmonson county, Ken- tucky, in a thin stratum of ferruginous fire-clay with fragments of coal closely resembling charcoal, about one hundred feet ab6ve the conglomerate. NAUTILUS FERRATUS. Cot. (Pl. X1 fig 2, half natural size; fig. 2a section natural size. Globose, convoluted, whorls two, embracing, increasing in width in the proportion of 1.-A4- inches to 2 _-17-' inches, regularly rounded an aExplanation of tue nrmenclature. Fig. Ia, the arrow is in the dorsal lobe, and points to the molth in the direction of increase; d, dorsal lobe; d. a, dorsal sinus; 1, first lateral lobe; 1, a, first lateral sinus; 1, second lateral lobe- Fig. 1b, a, a. ventral sinus; v, 1, first ven al lobe; D, a', second ventral sinus; ,. 1', second ventral lobe. 574 PALBONTOLOGICAL REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY. the periphery and sides; septu obtusely curved backwards on the sides, rapidly rising forward into conzcal arches on the middle of the peri- phery, about three lines apart in the middle where two inches wide; periphery marked in casts with an obsolete band about one line in width; last chamber large, about as deep as wide; mouth subreniform; umbilicus moderately large, profound, nearly vertically walled, slight- ly enlarged on the last whorl. Diameter 3T1W-L inches; transverse diameter of mouth about 2TY-W iLches; vertical height TJ- inches; width of umbilicus - of an inch. It is readily distinguished from N. globatus, Sow., and NV bilobatus, Sow., with which it is related; by the size and shape of its septu, and the less rapid increase of its whorls. The specimen under description is destitute of spiral or transverse strite, though it is possible they may exist when found in a more perfect state of preservation. Position and locality. Found in great abundance, converted into oxide of iron and mostly imperfect; associated with G. Nolinensis, nob. about one hundred feet above the conglomerate, in a stratum of ferru- ginous fire-clay and carbonaceous matter; Nolin Iron Works, Edmon- son county, Kentucky. Being an excellent ore it has contributed largely for the manufacturing of iron. NAUTILUS CANALICULATUS. Coa. ('l. X, fig. 3. natural size; fig 3 a, section of a smaller specimen.) Discoidal, whorls two, to two and a half, increasing in width in the pro- portion of -A-A to 1.Q4 inches; obtusely rounded on the sides; broad, but shallow groove on the periphery, diminishing in depth from the mouth backwards, obsolete on the first whorl when exposed, a narrow indistinct band extends along the centre of the dorsal groove in well preserved specimens; septu about two lines apart in the middle, where three quarters of an inch in width, curved backwards on the sides and periphery, on the rounded edges of the groove they bend semi-eilipti- cally forward; umbilicus large, deep, vertically walled, exposing par- tially all the whorls; mouth transversely subovate; diameter 2.-,5.- iDches; vertical height of the mouth, about 1-A- inches; transverse diameter 1 inches; width of umbilicus -TI-2 of an inch. It differs from the N 8ulca/us, Phil., by its rounded sides, greater breadth on the periphery, smaller and more vertically walled umbilicus Position and Heality. Abundant in the same bed with G. Yokie. 575 PALS)INTOLOGICAL REPORT 0P GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. sit and N. ferratues. Nolin iron works, Edmondson county, Ken- tucky. LINGTJLA UMBONATA. Coz. (Pi. X, fig. 4, entering valve enlarged; fig. 4e, natural size.) Subpentagonal, longitundinally elorgated, very tumid at the umbo; beak elevated, pointed, not projecting beyond the cardinal border; greatest width about one-third the length below the beak; sides nearly parallel, slightly convex and narrowing towards the front; front very obtusely rounded, posterior lateral margins rather acutely rounded, uniting in an elliptical point at the beak; slightly flattened along the mesial line, Commencinfg from a point near the beak, and gradually widening to the front margin, a little pinched in near the umbo; sur- face beautifully marked with fine concentric strihe between the more distinct lines of growth; length n-oyo of an inch; width I I of an inch. This species is easily recognized in well preserved specimens, by its prominent umbo, and its peculiar longitudinally flattened mesial area. It attains a much greater size, but we have none larger suffi- ciently perfect to figure. It is highly characteristic of No. 1, B, coal, and has been found in beds of this level, by Mir. Lesquereux, in Ohio and Pennsylvania. i'osition and locality. Very abundant in the black slate roof of No. 1, B, coal, at Bell's mines, Crittenden county; Casey's mines, Union county, and Hawesville mines, Hancock county, Kentucky. 676 COAL MEASURES Al4- IY,d4, 7 fryab v mzw,a,, e zvdm rt,4r Jlym,v-',,-h L ;r-i B, nM- COAL MEASURES PEEA IPA EIX Agi Fy 1nS. ,9r&4L. I /opw , I Gus w vd.' v' Arofik sir 2. r- Jaega eu I Ifoy 1.'ut&z ef t Solw,,S joki.,.wu 1 6 mrrai i i I i I i I -N, I i I I , i i I A )4b Tw.;4 COAL MEASURES t ok . s . -F.3 H do b.t- 1 nowkmmi 1 dorzraZ oudiz eo beot. il Ienhd oul&ze ofacpt iVauffius Tl /mpus rded A, 2A asdaim of l.wae n4o. su i ... nal a it 35!se4Qat ofl'amem esZnagW, 1'I regurew; i INDEX. Ac-inocrinus abnormis, 4 79 Adair, Green, Allen and Bourbon counties, geology, &c-, &c., 159 Agricultural geology, -- 31 Agriculture, ,eneral remarks on 195 Airtric furnace, ore, limestone, slag- and iron,- 337 Airdrie slfl0t. Green river. secnion at, 24 Airdrie ishaft, Muhlenburg county, 23 Alum Fpring, - -65, 127 Ander-on county, geology of, --t i Anderson countv soils and sub soils, - -203 Arca carbunari,7, 57 Ashes of coal, color of, -1--2 Asterucrinjaus Capitalis, - -472 Asterocrinus coronarus, 847 Aiicula acosta, --2 Avicula recta literaria, 671 Baker ore bank, 450, 451, ' 6: Barren Coal Measures of Pennsylvania and Kentucky, 14, 21 Baiytes, sulphate of, Etill county, - -- 14U BaryLes, sulphate of, in Garraird county, - - -77, 81 larytes, sulphate, Henry county, - - Gu, lu3 Bath county coal, - -V7 Bath county, geology, soils, &c., akc 1-30 Bath county, mineral waters, -- 2(8 Bell's (Washington) mineral spring, --52 Big Lick, Nelson county, section at, . 97 Bituminous shale of Jessamine county,- 3U2 Bituminous shale, Muhlenburg county, -335 Black band iron ore, in shale over coal NQ. 12, Airdrie sbaft, I- 3 Black band iron ore, Airdrie furnace, Muldlenburg county, - 337 Black slate in Cumberland counly, 150 Blue ash lands of Nelson county, ,-,- 93 92 Blue hole, Hart countV, --163 ZIue Licks, (lower,) battleground,- - - - 10C Blue Lick, (lower,) mineral waters, . -361 Blue limestone, mineral waters of the, - - - -363 Boone county soils and stab soils, - - -210 Boone's creek, Fayette county, section on, - - -68 Bourbon county, guology of, soils, dc., &c., - . 62, 213 73 578 INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Boyle county, geology, soils, &c., &c., 144, 224 Bracken county, geology, soils, lc., &c., - - - - 109 Breathitt county cannel coal, - - - - 30 Rreckinridge county soils, - - - - 225 BulliLt county, soils, sub-soils, marls, iron ore, and limestone, 227 Burdett's knob, Garrard county, - -77 Campbell county, soils and sub-soil, - -234 Campbellsville sulphur water, Taylor county, - - -57 Cannel coal of Breathitt county, - -30 Cannel coal in Morgan county, - - - 29, 156 to 169, 326 to 332 Cannel coal to be sought for at base of Western Coal Measures, - - 11 Cardinia fragilis, 5-70 Carroll county soils and sub-soil, --237 Casey county, geology, soils, Arc., --146 Caverns in limestone, Fayette county, -67 Chaplin creek, Nelson county, -87 Chbetetes lycoperdon, analysis of, --262 Chemical geology,- 51 Chemical report of geological survey, -173 Cbimnitzia parva, -67 Christian, Todd, Logan, and Simpson counties, geology, &c., &c., 166 Clarke county, geology, soils, growth, &c, -71 Clay's ferry, Kentucky river, section at, -69 Clays of Hancock county, -282 Cliffs of Kentucky river, railroad bridge, mouth of Dick's river, 29 Coal, Airdrie, Mublenburg county, fossils of, - -643 Coal, Arnold's mine, Hopkins county, fossils of, - 647 Coal, in Bath county, - - - - - 27, 132 Coal, Battery rock, fossils of,- - - -627 Coal beds of Kentucky, horizontal exposition of, - - - 5 624 Coal, Bell's mine, Crittenden county, fossils of, - - - - 529 Coal, below the lowest conglomerate, in eastern coal-ficld, - - - 9 Coal, bituminous, Morgan county, 327, 329, 330, 333, 334 Coal, Bonbarbour, Daviess county, fossils of,- - - - - 547 Coal, Breckinridge, fossils of, -5-- 532 Coal; Casey's mines, fossils of, - - -- 629 Coal, Curlew mines, Union county, fossils of, 642, 546 Coal, cannel, Breathitt county, - - - - 30 Coal, cannel, Daviess county, - -- - 462 Coal, cannel, Morgan county, 29, 156, 157, 168, 169, 326 to 332 Coal, in Estill county, - - - - - 140 Coal, on the equivalent of the main Pittsburg bed, in Kentucky, - Is Coal-field, eastern, -26 Coal-fields of Kentucky. western, paleontological cbaracters of, - 622, 626 INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Coal-field, western boundary of the eastern, in Greenup county, Coal, in Hart county, . Coal. Hartford, Ohio county, fossils of, - - - - - Coal, Hawesville, fossils of, Coal, Henderson shaft, fossils of, Coal, Jackfield's, Hopkins county, fossils of, - - - - Coal, Lewisport, Hancock county, fossils of, Coal, " Little Vein," of Union county, Coal, Llewellyn mine, Union county, fossils of, Coal, Lofland's, Coal, lower, Lesley's description of in Pennsylvania, Coal Measures, barren, Coal Measures, connected section of upper and lower, in Kentucky, Coal Measures, fossil flora, Coal Measures of Kentucky, general remarks on, Coal, M'Cormick's, Coal, M'Nairv, Muhlenburg county, fossils of, 5- - 43, Coal, Miller's, Muhlenburg county, fossils of, - Coal, Mulford's mines, Union county, fossils of, Coal, No. 1, in Union, Hopkins, Christian, Muhlenburg and Butter, Coals, No. I to No. 12, fossils of, - - - - 627 to Coal, No. I B, fossil shells of, Coal, No. 2, individual layers in the place of, in Union county, - 579 425 163 - 543 531 544 - 642 644 14 646 16 - 660 - 552 - 18 499 9 - 28 647, 648 - 647 - 642 - 17 664, 560 - 560 - 12 Coal, No. 3, or Ice-house coal, . . .12 Coals, Nos. a, 5, 4, and 3, - - - - 17 Coal, No. 9, in Union, Henderson, Hopkins, and Butler, - 17 Coal, No. 9, fossil shells of, - - - 561 Coal, No. 11, fossil shells of,- -- 63 Coal, No. 12, in Hopkins and Mublenburg, - - - 17 Goal, Old Distillery, fossils of, - Coal, Peaks of Otter, fossils of,. . . 543 Coal, Pigeon run, Hopkins county, fossils of, - - - - u47 Coal, Pomeroy, position of, ..13 Coal, in Powell county, -- - 134 Coal, Providence, Hopkins county, fossils of, . . . . 646 Coal, in Rockcastle county, . . . . .- S Coal, theory of its formation, . . .602, 512 Coal, Thompson's mine, Union county, fossils of, 54- - 6 Coal, Union mines, Crittenden county, fossils of, - - - 631 Coal, value of, . . . .664 Codastur alternatus, -- - - 493 Copper ore, from Bath county .. . 133 Copper ore, Estill county, . . .. 13'q Cotage Furnace, Estill county, . .. . 136 680 INIMe TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL FBUVIET. Creehs, Urs, sulphur spring. Marion cotnty, - Crider's bill. RUFssll county, stion on, - Crittenden county sub-soil, Crocus cre-ek salt borings, and petroleum, Cumberland county. geology, &c., &c., Da' iess county coal, Daries-e county soils and sub-soil, Deronian black slate, Dick's rib er, sections at, Dismal swamp, approximate cross section of, - Dulatocrinus lacus, Drennon's springs, Drummoad's lake of Dismal swamp, EHstern coal field,- - - - - Eminence, Henry county Chalybeate sprin,-, Efflorescence from a corn fitld, Hopkins county, - E-culapian springs, E.till county. geology, soils, &c., &e, Estill county, iron ore. and mnineral waters, Estill springs. Sweet Lick knob, Explanation of plates of Coal Measure fossil plants, Exlannation of plates of Coal Measures molluscs, Explanation of plates of crinoidia, Fayette county, geology, frest growth, soils of, &c., lc.,c Ft3 i-Lte e-ounty, magn-sian limestwne and fossil chwetctes, kc., Fire-clay of Cual Measures, Fish, remains of in Shtles Of coals Nos. 7, 9 and IY, Flat lick. Lincoln county, Fleming county, geology, soils, &c., &c., Forest growLhs characterizing geololegical formations, Forest growth, Garrard county, Forest growth. Mercer county, Foreat growth, Washington county, Forest growth. Wootlfurd county, Fuosil i.1h, in coals 1Nts. 7, 9, hnd 1. black band vein, Fossil Mrees in sandstone of Coal Measures, - Franklin county soils, &hc.. and lead and lead ores, dc., Frau kltn county, stratigraphlic;el g' ology. hr , - Freesumni knob, near RLuckville and Luu ;hery's quarry, Freestone, in Powell co 1CILy, Freestone, in Rowan county. GalIlin county, soil and sub soil, Qarrard county, geoloy, ils, Ja., hoa - - Oenil IHS n a. e. . , . - - '57 - 149 - - 240 151 - 160 - - 462 - - 241 - 1Ia, 119 - 78, 79, 80 5SU - 482 - 63 - 608, 509 26 bS - 295 - 65, 127 - - 1:15 56, 244, 245 ac6, 24 6 - 65 496 66 - - 259 - - 51 1 610, 649 560 143 - 127 - - 427 - 77, 78 81, 82 84 - - G6 640, 649, 661 - - 60 - d0, 61, 246 - 69 - - 121 - - 136 - - 129 - - 203 Ja6, ec . 6 INWE TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Goniatites Nolinen-is, Goose creek knobs, Casey county, secLinn, Grant county. soils, sub suilks and sandstones, Graphiocrinus, 14 brachialis, - - - - Grape juice, Cata-ba, specific gravity ofr - - - Grteenup county. geology and topography of, Greenup couinLy, iron ores, Grigsby's (R. B.) White sulphur spring, Nelson county, Grimee' quarry, magnesian limestone, Fayette county, Hancock county, soils, sub soil, clays, and iron ore, Hancock county, topo raphy and geology, Hardin county, suils and sub soil, Hardinsville mineral sprinn, thelby county, Harmony, Owen county, mineral spring, Hariison county, soils and sub-soil, Ilarrodcburg mineral springs. Ilant county, geology, &C., &C., Henderson county, tobacco suil, llenry county, geology, soils, &c., &c., Hopkins county, iron ores, effloreseence, &e., Howtrd's creek, Kentucky river, section at, Human 4kelet.ns, &c., at Augusta, Hy5raulic limestone, Christian County, Hydraulic limestone, Estill coutlty, - - - - llydraulic limestones, Garrard county, HydL-aulie limestone, Marion county, Hydraulic limestone. N. lson county, Ice house coal, orcoal No. 3, suited for mnanufacture of iron, Indfmmable gas, Franklin county, Iron, from Airdrie furnace, Mluhlenburg, county, Iron, from Nelson furnace, Nelson county, Iron ore, Balt counly, Iron ore, B.yle county, Irn ores used aL Bufflo furnace, Iron ore, limunire, of Bullit county, I ron ore in Eastern coal-field,- Iron ore, Esti'l county, Iron ore, Flat lick, Lincoln county, Iron ore, litonite, Franklin county, iron ures, (ireenup county, Iron ore, Green and Taylor counties, Iron ote, HaHncock county, Iron ores, ,c., of [Hopkins pounty, Iro ore, Morgan nanty, 681 - 674 147 - - 272 _ _ 477 425 - 276, 450 - 62 69 - - 278 - 467 - - 284 - 54 - - 289 - 51 - 162 - - 34 - 103, 19t 205 71 116 - 166 - - 137 77 101 93, 94 - - 12 - _ 61 340 . 344 - 131, 132 - - 145 - - 450 - - 233 23 - 136, 244 - - 143 - 253 . - 276 - - 1G2 - - 206 . . . . . au . . INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Iron ores, of Nelson county, Iron ore, in Powell county, Iron ore, in Rockcastle county, Iron ore, in Rowan county, Iron ore, Russell county, Iron stone beds, period of form; Irvine sulphur spring, Janes' mineral spring, Washingi Jefferson county, soil and sub-sc Jessamine county, geology, soilh Kenton county, soils and sub soi Kentucky river, bluffs of, Kentucky river, marble rock, Knobs, Casey county, Knob lick, Ebtill county, - Knobs of Lewis county, section, Knobs, in Madison county, Knobs, in Marion county, Knobs, N. E. corner of Taylor Knobstone, - - Larue county, soils and sub-soil Larue and Taylor counties, geoul Lead ore of Franklin county, Lead ore, in Garrard county, Lead ore, Henry county, Lead and zinc ore, in Monroe cc Lead ore vein, in Woodford cou Lewis county, geology, soils, &c Lime, use of as manure, - Limestones from Bourbon counts Limestones of the Coal Measure Limestunes of Fayette county, Limestone, magnesian, Harris' q Limestones of Mercer county, Limestone, in Rowan county, Limestones of Shelby county, Limestones of Spencer county, Limestone of the western coal-&i Limestones, Woodford county, Lincoln county, geology, soils, & Lingula umbonata, - Little Vein coal, of Union county Linsey's mineral spring, Christia - - - - - - 95, 98, 341, 342 - 135 - 155 129, 380 - 149 ation of, 426 56 ton county, 51, 86 oil, - - 300 i, &C., &c., 73, 302 i,-- - - -- - - - 307 29, '104 - - - - - 69, 73, 75, 76, 79 -- - 147 139 of, 120 141 101 county, 166 - 449 163, 310 sgy, Arc., C., - 163 61 81 103 aunty, 154 unty, -65 c., C.,- - - - - - 119 201 64 BS, - - - - - - - 519 67, 259 [uarry, Fayette county, - 269 E0, 82 129 102, 103 101, 102 elds, - - 519 66, 409 ;C., &c., - - - 142 - - - - - - 6576 - - - -- - - 14 .n county, - -- - - - 57 Lokad's coal, 16 582 INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL BURVEY. Loxonema reguelaris, Macrocbeilus gracilis, Madison county, geologv, soils, &c.. &c.,- Magnesium, chloride of, in water in Nicholas county, Magnesium, chloride of, probable cause of milk sickness, Magnesian limestone, at Bardstown, &c., - - 93, 94, 95, Magnesian limestone, in Bath county, Magnesian limestone, Clarke county,- Magnesian limestone, Estill county, Magnesian limestones, of Fayette county, Magnesian limestone in Lewis, Fleming, Bath, Rowan, Montgomery, Estill and Madison counties, Magnesian limestone, in Lewis and Fleming counties, 119, 124, 1 Magnesian limestone, Marion county, Magnesian limestone, in Montgomery county, Magnesian limestones of Spencer county, Magnesian limestone, WoodFord county, Mammoth bones, rc., at Eminence, Henry county, Mammoth well, Nelson county, Marble, comparison of the Italian with Grimes' and Harris' limestones, Marls, soils and limestone of Bullitt county, Marly shales and marls, Nelson county, Marl, soils, rc., Shelby county, Marl, of Spencer county, Marion county, geology, soils, d&c., d&c., Mason county, geology, soils, d&c., &c., Meade county, soils, - Mercer county, geology, soils, dcc., d&c., McCormick's coal, - - Milk sickness, in region of silicious mudstones, Milk sick region mudstone, -.272, 3 Mineral waters, Olympian, Bath county, - - Mineral waters, Estill springs, Mineral water, Lower Blue Lick, Nicholas county, Mineral water, Montmollin's mill, Fayette county, Mineral water, poisonous astringent, Garrard county, Mineral springs and well water, analyses of, Mineral springs, " alum," Mineral spring, Campbellsville sulphur, Taylor county,' Mineral springs, Drennon's, Mineral spring, Eminence chalybeate, Henry county, - Mineral springs, " Esculapian," Mineral springs, Estill, Mineral spring, Hardinsville, Shelby county, Mineral spring, at Harmony, Owen county. 583 666 570 141 106 36, 54 96, 97 130 10 38, 140 69 118 26, 127 101 134 102 409 103 52 260 227 99, 358 384 394 99, 313 107 316 79, 319 28 36, 54 60, 375 208 245 361 262 77 51 55 57 53 53 55 56, 246 52 54 584 INDEX TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Mineral springs, at nlarrod-burg. - --51 Mineral p-ing, IR B. B.Gighy's white sulphur. - - - - 52 M iinei- Tpiings, l1xine sulphur,-- - - 56 Mineral v pring, lJnes', WVa4 infgon COunt)y, - - - - 51 MineralI -pieig bhd ot Kettle crek,, (Cumberland county, 57 Mineral -p.in,, Linse's Christian couny, - - - - - 37 M inelli -ilrnX ,Lnainotb -ell, Ne.n county, - 2 Mineral piin I -r Creel', s iIulphur, Mrion county, 57 Mlineral bllii'S, ( is inpianil,- - - - - - - - 65 Min all prin', Rus-elt s ur, sulph56 Mineral spring-, SuddtLli's, Ba1th coult, - -56 Mineral s1. bing, NVashingon Bell's, Nelson county, - 2 Monroe county, geology, Oits, &-c , &c., - -1 5' Montgomery county, geolgy , sois, &c , &C , -133 Nlog-a,.n couuiy coal,, iron or-es, and satndstones, 326 Morg;an count;, geolog.y, &c., &c- - - - 156 Mlo rga n county canLnel coil, - - - - 29, 15G to 159, 326 to 332 Idiliir-nburg counly, shdle, iron ore, limestone, pig iron, ikc., - - 335 Mulaito sold, of Nelson couny, --94 Muldou l 11' hill, section on, Larue county, - - 163 Myalina ptrnarormis, -- 569 Nautilu, cinahcatus, 575 'NaubLilu5 decoratus, 2. - Nautilus ferratus, -- - - 574 Nelson cou:y, geology, soils, ic, &c., --87 SNlson county, iron ore, limestone, soils, sub-soils, marls, Lke-, 52, 311, 36J Nelson counLy mi-neral springs,- -52, 360 Nelon furnace, Nelzon conLy, -96 Nicholasb county, geology, soils, & c., Ce., - 105, 360 Nicholas couity, sandstune, limestone and mineral water, - 360 Oldlian county, smoils and sub-soil, .-363 OhiB-.niites angulais, --- 492 0Ohrrnites Veineuillii,-- 487 Olympian springs, Bath county,- 55, 131, 2u8 Owen coulnLy, geology, soils, ec, ic., - - -104 Owen county, soils, ,ub-soil, lirnmetone and sandstone, - - - 373 Osin gsvrlle, Bath county, section near,. . . . 130 Orlhis resuspinuides, -570 Palaeontological characters of western coal-fields of Kentucky, 522, 526 Palzeor-ological report on the Coal Measure mollusca, 5- 57 Paloeiolloogical report oftiidney S. Lyon,- - - 465 P.sluenitological report of fossil flotra of Coal Measures, - 499 Pasturrage, influence of on tie boil,-- 200 Pecten Providerosis, -66 TNDEX TO SEP03T 01 G3OLOQICAL SuianrT. 685 Pendleton county, soils and sub-soil. 377 Pentremites obesus, 469 Petroleum, Crocus creek, Cumberland river, -11 Pine knob, Boyle county, - 145 Piutsburg coal bed, cquivalent of in Kentucky, --1 Pleurotomaria Bonharborensis, --61 Pleurotomaria depressa, 569 Plicatula atriato-costata, -we8 Pomeroy coal, position of, --IS Powell county, geology, soils, &c., &c., --134 Prodactus muricatus, - -673 Public well at Bloomfield, Nelson county, analysis of water of, - 51, 92 Puncheon Camp lill, section at, Cumberland county, - ISO ited Bud lands" of Madison county, - - -141 Tied under-clay of Fayette county, - - -68 Richardson's knob, Garrard county, - - - 77 Rqchester springs, Boyle county, --145 Rockastle county. geology of, &c., - - -154 flock-house knob, Estill county, section at, - -138 R1ock house, Russell county, --149 Rotation of crops, --199 Rowan county, geology, soils, &a , &c.,- - - 129, 380 Rowan county, iron ores,- - 380 Russell county, geology, soils, dic., &c., 1-- -48 Russell sulphur spring, -- -6 Salt river, Rolling fork. section near, - -99 Salt water, Casey county, --147 Salt borings, Crocus creek, Cumberland rirer,- - - 151 Salt water, in Morgan county,-- I Salt water, in Powell county, --135 Salt water. in Russell county, -- 149 Sandstones of the Coal Measures, - -520 Sandstone, (mudttone from milk siek region,) GranL county, 272 Sandstone, Morgan county,- - 336 Sandstone, mudstone, of Owen county,- - 3 Sandstones, mudsLones, Nicholas county. - 360 Schoolfield's cannel coal, Msrgan county, I.- -16, 159 Scott county, geology, soils and sub-soil,-61, 381 Section on Alcorn creek,. - - -- 448 Sction at Airdric shaft, Green river, 24 Section on Beech fork of Salt rirer,- - - - - Be Section ast the "Big Lick," Nelson county, 97 Section on Boone's creek, - - - - - 68 ection nar Bradfsrslaville, Salt river, Miwriou county, - - - 99 Sections atL Dlufa and Raccoon &urnacesg dccp Oseenup county. 441 '4 58a XNDSZ TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVm Section near Burksville, Cunmberland county, 150 Section at Caroline furnace, Greenup county, - 435 Section on Chaplin creek. Nelson county, - - - - - 87 &ction at Clay's lerr', Kentucky river, - - - - . -9 Section at Clinton furnace, Greenup county, - - - - - 436 Section on Coal creek,- 440 Seclion of coal, &c., on the lands of Caroline furnace, 445 Section of coal, near Lewisport, -- -458 Section (connected) of upper and lower Coal Measures of Kentucky, - 19 Section ot' Crider's hill, Russell county, - 149 Section, Dick's river, ed,,e of Garrard and Boyle counties, - 78 Sections in eastern part of Estill county,- -- 137 Section near Greensburg, Green county, - - -162 Section of 330 feet of rocks, on Grier's creek, Woodford county, - 65 Section of hearth rock beds of Clinton and Bellefonte furnaces, - - 455 Section aL Howard's lower creek, Kentucky ricer, - 71 Section of Indian creek cannel coal bank, - - 466 Section, southern part of Jessamine countv, on Kantucky river, - 73 Section at Kenton furnace, Greenup county, - - - - - 428 Section on Kentuckv river, at Rock house knob, Eatill county, 138 Section on Kettle river, Cumberland county, - - -152 Section tt Laurel furnace, Greenup county, - - 429 Section of the knobs of Lewis county, - - -120 Section of rocks below the black Slate, Lewis countV, 126 Section, limestone ore bat ks, Bellefonte furnace, - - - - 446 Section of Little Goose creek hill, Casey county, - 147 Section, east bide of Little Sandy river, Greecup ceunty, 434 Sectiun frown west side of Little Sandy river, Greeuupcounty, 433 Sectioa in Monroe count, - -- -162 Section on Muldrough's hill, Larue county,- - - - 163 Section at Mount Savage iron works, Carter county, 437 Soetion north branch of Oldtown creek, - - - - 449 Section one mile east of Owiuguavile, Bath county, 130 Section at Puncheon Camp hill, Cumberland county, 160 Section nar Poplar Flasw, Lewia county,- - - - - 1 6 SecCion HL UAccoon furnace, Greenup county, 430 Secio.n at lailroadl bridge (DAnville and Lexaagtcn,)on Kentuckv river 79 Seotion lvweell lied ricer forge and Stanton, PuweU county, 156 liec:iojn near lrolling lork Me eling house, Ntlmon county, 96 Seotion at Steam furnace, Greenup county, - - - - 43 Scciion of Weisel's conl mines, . 441 Section on Whet-tone creek, . &0tion on WiTbov'a run, Ntlmon county, 11 -1 INDEK TO REPORT OF GEOLOGICAL SUVEY. Shales, or roof slates, of coal, Shelby county, geology, soils, &c. &c.,- - Shell earth of Nelson county, -91, ! "I Sick Spots," Franklin county, Siliceoui mudstone, Fayette county, Silicious muistone in Nicholas county, Silicious mudstone in Owen countv, Silicious mudatone in Washington county. Silurian rock, upper and lower, boundary of, in Lewis, Fleming, Bath, Rowan, Montgomery, Estill and Madison counties, - Slag from Airdrie furnace, Muhlenburg county, Slag, Iron furnace, from Nelson furnace, Nelson county, - Soil in Adair, Green, Allen and Barren counties, - 11 Soil analysis, Soils and sub-soils from Anderson county,- Soils of Bath county, - Soils, &c., of blue limestone, or Lower Silurian formation, - 31, Soils and sub-soils of Boone county, Soils, sub soils, under-clays and limestones, of Bourbon county, - So'ls of Boyle county, Soils of Bracken county,- Soils of Breckinridge county, Boils, sub-soils, marls and limestone, of Bullitt county, Soils and sub-soil of Campbeli county, Soils and sub-soil of Carroll county,; Soil, Casey county, Boils of Christian, Todd, Logan and Simpson counties, Soils from Clarke county. Soils from Coal Measures, Soil (sub-soil) of Crittenden county,. Boils and sub-soil, Daviess county, Boils from Denovian formation, soil, Estill county, Soils of Fleming county, Boils of Franklin county, genera! remarks on, Solis, sub-soils, under-clays. limestones and snarls, of Franklin Soil and sub-soil of Gallatin county, Soils and sub-soils of Garrard county, Boils, sub-soils and sandstones from Grant county, Soils, sub-soils, clays and iron of-e of Hancock county, Boils and sub-soil of Hardin county, - , - Soils and sub-s-il of Harrison county, Soil, Henderson county tobacco, Soils and sub-soil of Henry county, 687 515 02, 384 52, 361 50, 240 B8 105 104 83 117 338 343 60, 16t 177 32, 203 51, 133 46, 36 210 62, 213 144, 224 109, 116 - 226 - 234 _ 237 - 147 166, 167 - 72 34, 38 - 240 - 241 - -33, 42 - ISO - - 128 - 69 county, 246 - 263 - 77, 78, 265 - - 272 - - 278 - 284 - - 288 34 - 103, 2fs WIDI TO WRRT OF OGOLOGICAL MgIT. Boil and sub-soil, Jefferson county, - - - - Soils, sub-soil, limestone ad shale, of Jessamine county, Suils and sub-soil of Kenton county, - ubil over Keutucky marble, - - - Boils of Kentucky, generaj remarks on, Soils from knob freestone, Soils and sub-soil of Larue county. Soil of Lewis county, Soils of Madison counly, Soils and sub-soil of Marion county, - Soils of Mason county, - - 300 - - 72, 302 . - . 307 32 - - - 31 - 33 3:0 - 123, 124, 126 - - 141, 142 100, 101, 313 - - 107, 109 90ils of Meade county, - I to Soils, sub-soils, under-clays and limestone of Mercer county, - 81, 82, 319 Soils of Montgomery county,- - 133, 134 Soils, sub-soils, marts, &c., in Nclsgn county, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 344 Soils in Nicholas county, 105, 106 Soils from old field and virgin soils compared,- - 35 Soil and sub-sril of Oldham countv, 368 Soils, sub-soil, limestone and sandstone of Owen county, 104, 3 73 Soils and sub-soil of Pendleton cauny-, -377 Sois from Quwternary formation, -34, 37 Soil of Russell county, - --148 Soils and sub-soil of Scott county, - -- 381 Soils, sub-soil and marl of Shelby county, - -102, 384 Boil from silicious sandstones of Lower Silurian formation, - 33, 36 Wis from sub carboniferous rocks, -- - 3, 39 ,6oils, sub-soil Ad marl, of Spencr county, - - - - 102, 394 fioils. tables of composition of, arranged according to the geological formation, -36 Soils of Taylor county, -395 Soils in Taylor and Larne counties, --164 Soils and sub-soil of Trimble county, -397 Soils and sub-soil of Union county, -400 Soil fiomt Upper Silurian formation, -- 33, 43 Soils and sub-soils, 4c., in Washington county, 83, 84, 86, 86, 403 Splemimya soleniformis, --673 Spencer county, geology, soils, dc., kc., - -101, 394 Swam furnace coal and ore, -456 StrAtigraphical geology, --6 8ub-carboniferous rocks, in Lewis, Fleming, Bath, Rowan, Montgome- rTy, Estill and Madison counties, 117 Sub-soils and under-clys, genral, remarks on, -32 Sub-soiling injurious, on Chaplin creek, Nelson county, - - 87, 88 Substratum, influence of on Lhe soil, - . - - 199 '88 mDnC TO WRPOfl Or aIOLOGICAL SURVn. Bublerraneous spring, Garrard county, - - Suddath springs, Bath county, Table A, soils, &c., from Quaternary formation, Table B, soils, &c., from Coal Measures. - - - Table C, soils, &c., from sub-carboniferous formation, Table D, soils, &c, from Devonian formation, Table E, from Upper Silurian formation, - - - Table F, soils, &c, from Lower Silurian formation, Table 1, soils, sub-soils, marls, &c., Table 2, limestones, &c., Table 3, (A) iron ores, lirnonites, Table 3, (B) iron ores, carbonate of iron, - Table 4, coals, Table 5, sandstones and sbales, Table 6, iron furnace slags, Table 7, pig iron, Taylor and Larne counties, geology, &c. cc., Taylor county, Tobacco land in Bracken county, Tobacco soil of Henderson county, Tobacco land of Mason county, Tuobacco land in Nicholas county, Tobacco ladd of Washington coanty, - Topographical report-continued, Topography and geology of Greenup county, Trimble county, soils and sub soil, Union county, soils and sub-soil, Vatn Akin's quarry, Fayette county, Vasoctinus sculptus, Vasocrinus valens, Vineyards in Bracken county, Vineyards and manufacture of wine, Warren counLy, geology, soils, dc. dc., Washington county, geology, Roils. dc. dc., Water, from pond, Owen county, Burton Matber's pastt Well water, Mr. Haskins', Garrard county, Well, Reuben lessee's, Woodford county, Well water of Nelson county, around Bloomfield, Wines end vineyards, remarks on, Witbrow's run, Nelson eounty, sectionon, Woodford county, geology of, soils, dc., Woodford county, maguesian limestone, Zinc ore, Henry county. - Zinc, sulphuret of, Estill county, - - . - - 78 -- - 56 - - 37 - - 39 42 43 - 46 -- - 410 -- - - 415 -- - 416 - - 4 j7 _ - - 418 - - - 419 420 - 40 - - . 395 109, 115, 116 - - - S34 -- - 107, 109 - - - 105 . - - 84 - 423 425 - - - S397 - 400 67 - 486 - - . 485 - 109 - 83, 109, 123 - - - 166 -- - 83, 403 ire, - - 54 78 -- - - 65 -- - 51, 92 - 83, 109, 123 - 93 64 - 409 - - 103 - S139, 140 689