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Report on the forests of Greenup, Carter, Boyd & Lawrence counties / by N.S. Shaler and A.R. Crandall. Shaler, Nathaniel Southgate, 1841-1906. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b96-12-34872063 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Report on the forests of Greenup, Carter, Boyd & Lawrence counties / by N.S. Shaler and A.R. Crandall. Shaler, Nathaniel Southgate, 1841-1906. Printed for the Survey by J.P. Morgan & Co., [Frankfort, Ky. : 1876] 26 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1996. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN06011.01 KUK) Printing Master B96-12. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Forests and forestry Kentucky.Crandall, Albert Rogers, 1840- Charts, Maps and Plates for Kentucky Geological Survey Reports of Progress, Series 11 (New Series), Volume 1 Moore, Philip North. Report on the Iron Ores of Greenup, Boyd & Carter Counties, the Kentucky Division of the Hanging Rock Iron Region. film 9 leaves of plates as placed following p. . Moore, Philip North. The Iron Manufacture of the Kentucky Division of the Hanging Rock Region. film I folded plate as placed following p. 352. Norwood, Charles Joseph. Report on the Geology of the Region Adjacent to the Louisville, Paducah & Southwestern Railroad With a Section. film 6 leaves of plates (some folded) as placed following p. 448. Some plates are misnumbered or unnumbered. Norwood, Charles Joseph. Report of a Reconnoissance in the Lead Region oJ Livingston, Crittenden, and Caldwell Counties, Including a Sketch of Their General Wealth. film I folded map and 4 leaves of plates as placed following p. . This page in the original text is blank. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR. REPORTS OF PROGRESS. VOLUME I. NEW SERIES FRANKFORT, KY.: PRINTED FOR THE SURVEY BY JOHN P. MORTON & COMPANY, 156 A-N 15 WEST MAI STREET, LO-ASV-LL-. Ky. 1876 This page in the original text is blank. INTRODUCTORY LETTER. To His Esrcelency, JAMES B. MCCREARY, Governor f Kenzlucky. SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my Biennial Report on the progress of the Geological Survey. In it will be found a general account of the operations of the Survey during the years 1874 and 1875. The accompanying special reports of myself, my assistants and aids, are submitted in part in a printed form, and part in manuscripts ready for the printer -the whole forming three volumes and a half of reports con- cerning the economic wealth of the State, and half a volume of the scientific memoirs. When the work now done is comn- pletely written up, the fourth volume of reports of the new series, and the first volume of memoirs, will be completed. The thanks of the Survey are due to the generous citizens, whose names are too numerous for mention, who, by their unfailing kindness, have aided every step of its work. My own gratitude is due, in large measure, to the officers of the Survey, who, by their unfaltering diligence, have made it pos- sible for me to do far more than I expected to accomplish with the limited means that have been at my command. I am, sir, most respectfully, Your obedient servant, N. S. SHALER, Director of the Kentucky Geological Surveye. FRANKFORT, 27th December, I875. 111 & I\. This page in the original text is blank. PREFACE TO FIRST VOLUME. The reports contained in this volume represent a part of the work done by the Geological Survey in the years 1873 and 1874. The order, or rather lack of order, in the succes- sion of the reports, and the somewhat peculiar paging of the volume, demand some explanation. These volumes of reports are meant to give the results of the field and office work of the Survey quite without order of arrangement, the succession of the reports in the volumes being determined solely by the time at which the work wvas ready for the press. It is expected that these reports will serve only as preliminary studies of the economic geology of the State. When the work of research is complete, the general and economic geology can then be treated in a connected manner. The scientific papers, which are not distinctly connected with the economic interests of the State, will be printed in quarto form apart from the other reports. This separation is deemed desirable on many accounts. The system of pagination, wherein the top of the page gives the paging for the separate reports, while the bottom shows the order in the volume, though a great variation from the plan usually followed in such work, has the countenance of the most skillfully conducted geological surveys. The sepa- rate publication of the several reports which compose the volumes of the Survey, in order that any memoir or report may be purchased without paying for the other parts of the volume, has served to make this method of paging quite necessary. In accordance with this plan, the reports of the Survey will be furnished in two shapes-as separate reports, each containing the maps and other illustrations connected therewith, and as volumes, each containing about five hund- PREFACE TO FIRST VOLUME. red pages of matter. The plates in the volumes of reports are not numbered in connective series, but separately for each report. This also was made necessary by the adoption of the plan of separately printing each report. At the present writing the following reports and memoirs have been prepared for the press, or are in an advanced state of preparation: VOLUME 1. NEW SERIES. PART 1. Report on the Timber Growth of Greenup, Carter, Boyd, and Lawrence Coun- ties, in Eastern Kentucky. By N. S. Shaler and Assistant A. R. Crandall. PIARr 11. Report of the Botany of Barren and Edmonson Counties. By John Hussey, Botanical Assistant. With an Introduction by N. S. Shaler. PART 111. Report on the Iron Ores of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter Counties, the Ken- tucky Division of the Hanging Rock Icon Region. By P. N. Moore, Assi stant. PART IV. Chemical Report of the Soils, Marls, Clays, Ores, Coals, Iron Furnace Pro- ducts, Mineral Waters, &c., &c., of Kentucky. By Robert Peter, M. D., &c., &c., Chemist to the Kentucky Geological Survey. Assisted by John H. Talbutt, S. B., Chemical Assistant. The First Chemical Report in the New Series and the Fifth since the beginning of the Survey. PART V. The Iron Manufacture of the Kentucky Division of the Hanging Rock Iron Region. By P. N. Moore, Assistant. PART VI. Report on the Geology of the Region adjacent to the Louisville, Paducah and Southwestern Railroad, with a Section. By Chas. J. Norwood, Assistant. PART VII. Report of a Reconnoissance in the Lead Region of Livingston, Crittenden, and Caldwell Counties, including a sketch of their General Wealth. By Chas. J. Norwood, Assistant. This volume is already stereotyped. VOLUME 11. NEW SERIES. PART 1. Report on the Geology of Greenup, Carter, and Boyd Counties, and a part of lawrence. By Assistant A. R. Crandall. PARr 11. On the Geology of the Edmonson Coal and Iron District. By P. N. Moore, Assistant, and J. R. Proctor, with Map by W. B. Page, Assistant, C. W. Beckham, and John B. 'Marcou, Aids. PART 111. On the Chemistry of the Hemp Plant. By Dr. R. Peter, Principal Chemist of the Survey. I'ART IV. On the Airdeic Furnace. By P. N. Moore, Assistant PART V. Topographical Report of W. B. Page, Assistant, for the year 1874. PART VI. On the Geology of the Line of the Prol osed Railway from Livingston Station to Cumberland Gap. By A. R. Crandall and C. J. Norwood, Assistant. PART VII. Geology of the -enry County Lead District. By N. S. Shaler and C. J. Norwood, Assistant. PART VIII. On the Geology of the proposed Lexington and Big Sandy Railway. By Assistant A. R. Crandall. This volume is partly stereotyped. 'I VI PREFACE TO FIRST VOLUME. VOLUME III. NEW SERIES. PART 1. Report of N. S. Shaler, Director of the Survey, on the Conduct of the Survey for 1873. PART 11. Biennial Report of N. S. Shaler, Director of the Survey, for the years 1874 and 1875, giving a summary account of the principal economic results of the Survey during those years. PART III. Notes on the various Problems encountered in the prosecution of the Ken- tucky Geological Survey. By N. S. Shaler. PART IV. Plan for the organization of a State Cabinet. By N. S. Shaler. PART V. Description of the Preliminary Map of Kentucky. By N. S. Shaler. This volume is partly stereotyped. VOLUME IV. NEW SERIES. PART 1. Second Chemical Report of Dr. R. Peter and Assistant John H. Talbutt. PART H1. Report on the Geology of the Counties of Bath, Menifee, Powell, and Lee. By Assistant A. R. Crandall. PART III. Report on the Iron Ores in the Region near Cumberland Gap. By P. N. Moore, Assistant. PART IV. Report of the Results of a Reconnoissance of the State Line from Cumber. land to Pound Gap, and on a Line from Abingdon, Virginia, to Mount Sterling, Kentucky. By P. N. Moore, Assistant. PART V. Report on the Breckinridge Coal Mines. By C. J. Norwood, Assistant. PART VI. Report on the Geology of the Kentucky Red Riser Iron District. By P. N. Moore, Assistant. PART VII. Preliminary Report on the Geology of Martin County. By A. R. Crandall, Assistant. PART VIII. Report on the Geology of the North and South-run6ing Railways of Western Kentucky. By C. J. Norwood, Assistant. PART IX. Topographical Report of W. B. I'age, Assistant, for i875. MEMOIRS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. Caine 1st, 1876, contains Memoirs on variod Scientific Questions ill-fst-atie of theG Geokeg, of the State. PART I. On the Antiquity and History of the Caverns of the Ohio Valley. By N. S. Shaler. PART II. On the History of the Buffalo, with special reference to the Fossils found at Big Bone Lick. By J. A. Allen. PART III. On the Brachiopods of the Cincinnati Group of the Upper Cambrian. By N. S. Shaler. PART IV. On the Prehistoric Remains of Kentucky. By Assistant Lucian Carr and N. S. Shaler. PART V. On the Prehistoric Cavern Dwellers of the Ed .onson County Cave District. By F. W. Putnam, Assistant. PART VI. On the Zoology of the Cavern Districts of Kentucky. By A. S. Packard and F. A. Sanborn, Assistants. This volume is partly stereotyped, and the plates are ready. The order of arrangement of the reports in the second and fourth volumes, as well as their titles, may vary somewhat from the list as above given; but the changes will be only V"T VII PREFACE TO FIRST VOLUME. matters of detail. It is expected that all of the above matter will be printed by September, 1876. The acknowledgments of the Survey, as far as it is possible to give them, for the many favors it has received at the hands of individuals and corporations within or without the State, will be expressed in the Biennial Report of the Director. The law under which this present Survey acts requires that it shall be a continuation of that begun by Dr. Owen. This requirement has determined the order in which the work has been taken up. By comparison with the reports made under the direction of Dr. Owen, it will be seen that the Survey has been reinstituted on the ground and with the objects which guided him in his incomplete work. The later volumes will show less effect from this limitation. It is but justice to the Survey to say, that the means at its disposal have been exceedingly limited. The total amount appropriated for all the expenses of the years i874 and i875 was thirty-three thousand five hundred dollars. Out of this sum the costs of maintaining a force averaging twelve assist- ants and aids, the expenses of the State Cabinet, of exhibi- tions at Louisville, a chemical laboratory, the outfit of camps, instruments, &c., and all the expenses of preparing the re- sults for publication, including the making of lithographic and stereotype plates. Only the most rigorous economy has made it possible to do the large amount of field work that has been done during the last two years; and this saving has been brought about by the devotion and self-sacrifice of my coadjutors of the Survey, who have not only been willing to labor for small compensations, but have unhesita- tingly adapted themselves to the rude and comfortless life which has necessarily been followed in order to secure econ- omy and convenience in the work. N. S. S. DECEMBER, i875. Vill Villl OFFICERS OF KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DURING THE TIME OF PREPARATION OF THE REPORTS CONTAINED IN THIS VOLUME, IN TRE ORDER OF THEIR APPOINTMENTS. NATHANIEL SOUTHGATE SHALER, Dirctor and Principal Geologist. ROBERT PETER, Principal Chmist. ALBERT ROGERS CRANDALL, firstAssistantin Geology. PHILIP NORTH MOORE, Assistant in Geology. CHARLES SCISENK, Assistnt in Topography. CHARLES JOSEPH NORWOOD, Assistant in Geology. WILLIAM BYRD PAGE, Assistnt in 70pography ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, JR., Assistant in Ewto-nolos tempo-ary. FRANCIS SANBORN, Assistant in Zoiolg, temporary. FREDERICK WVARD PUTNAM, Assistant in Ichthyolog, ltenporay. JOHN HUSSEY, Assistant in Botan'. LUCIAN CARR, Assistant in Ethnolgy. JOHN HOLLIDAY TALBUTT, Assistant in Ch-omistry. JOHN ROBERT PROCTER, Assistant in Geology. WILLIAM CUTTER MITCHELL, Assistant in 7Tpography. LEOPOLD TROUVELOT, Artist of the S;atter. AIDS. CHARLES WICKLIFFE BECKHAM. JOHN ADAIR MONROE. JOHN BELKNAP MARCOU. ANTHON LEO JONAS. I X TABLE OF CONTENTS. Th. reference is to the bottom paging this Table. VOLUME I. PART I. REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD, AND LAWRENCE COUN- TIES. BY N. S. SHALER AND A. R. CRANDALL. Page.. Introduction, by N. S. Shaler, 3. Plan of the Survey, 4. Value of our timber, 4. Influ- ence on water supply, 6. Protection of timber, 7. A. R. Crandall's introductory letter, 8. His report and plan, 9. Table of old forest growth, 12, 13. Various species of oak, 14. Beech and maple, 15. Chestnut, hickories, yellow poplar, black gum, t6. Ash, linden, sycamore, buckeye, elm, walnut, 17. Hemlock spruce, pines, red cedar, poplar. persimmon, wild cherry, I8. Black locust, honey locust, magnolia, birches, hackberry, sweet gum, mulberry, willows, ig. Catalpa, hornbeam, dogwood, service berry, sas- safras, pawpaw, holly, redbud, spicewood, hazelnut, witch-hazel, sumach, hawthorn, alder, leatherwood, crab apple, wild plums, grapevines, bitter-sweet, poison ivy, 20. Second growth, 21. Annual consumption of wood at Mt. Savage Furnace, time required for second growth, 22. Table of second growth, 23, 24. Distribution of species as affected by topography, 25. Diagram of timber-growth on the knob-like hills on Triplett Creek, 26. PART 11. REPORT ON THE BOTANY OF BARREN AND EDMONSON COUNTIES. BY JOHN HUSSEY, BOTANICAL ASSISTANT, WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY N. S. SHALER. Page 27. Introduction, great value of the timber, 29. Industries it may support, 27, 28. Cause of treeless condition, restoration of the timber, 31. John R. Procter on limits of the "barrens," 32. J. Hussey's introductory letter, 33. Territory collected over; the oaks, &c., 34. Timber, soil, topography, prairie burning, &c., 35, 36. Prevailing rock and trees, 37. Botanical notes, 37 to 40. Economical notes, value of timber trees, poplar, 40. Sweet gum, hard wood, oaks, chestnut, 41. Hickories, elm, 42. Mulberry, sassafras, chestnut, turning wood, elm, dogwood, holly, hornbeam, iron- wood, 43. Fruit raising, 44. Conclusion, economical uses of the timber, 45. Botan- ijal catalogue of this region, 45 to 58. - PART III. REPORT ON THE IRON ORES OF GREENUP, BOYD, AND CARTER COUNTIES: THE KEN. TUCKY DIVISION OF THE HANGING ROCK IRON REGION. BY P. N. MOORE. Page "g. The iron ores, method of occurrence, 6t. Origin of the limonite, characteristics of the ores, 62. Sulphur, and average per centage of iron in them, and theory of their formation, 63. Atmospheric influence on, 66. Action of carbonated waters, 67. General division of the ores-Limestone Ores, 69. Table of composition of the limonite limestone ores, 70. Table of composition of siderite limestone ores, 72. Their geological position and thickness, 73. IElustrative sketch, theory of formation, 74. Fire-clay, chert, low. x TABLE OF CONTENTS. grade ores, 75. The Block Ores, kidneys, 76. Geological position and characteristics of, 77. Quality, table of composition of lower block ores, limonite, 79. Ditto, ditto, of siderites, So. Table of composition of main block ores, limonites, 81. Ditto, ditto, of siderites, 82. The Kidney Ores, 83. Geographical position, 85. Table of composi- tion of kidney ores, 87. Geographical range of the ore divisions, 87. Area of the limestone ores, lower, 88. Area of upper limestone ores, go. Area of block ores- lower block ores, 91. Area of upper block ores, 93. Area of the kidney ores, 93. Description of indiidual ore beds-the lower liestone ore, 95. The loe-r block ores, 96. The Lambert ore, loo. Tables of analyses of Lambert ore, 103, 104. Composition of the carbonate of this bed, 0oS. Other ores of the lower group German ore, 105. Analyses of, io6. Garvin Hill ore, io6. Everman's Creek ore analysis, 107, io8. Crown ore analysis, log, Other ores, I1o. Raccoon Creek ores analyses, III. avper block ores, 112. Geological position, 113. Best developments of, 114. At Raccoon Furnace, 114. Brown bank, at Buffalo Furnace, at Laurel Furnace, 115. Mt. Tom ore, at Iron Hills, Potato Knob ore, Barrett's Creek, &c., 115. Little Bleok Ore, geo- graphical distribution of, 117, 118. Analysis of this ore, 119. 7he upperrerriferos fins-t-o ore, geographical distribution of, &c., 120 to 124. Section of bench back of Amanda, 121. Fire-clays, limestone, &c., 122. Analysis of upper limestone ore, 123. Quality and thickness, 124. The kidnev ores, position and local names of, 125. Geo- graphical distribution of, 120 to 129. The red kidney ore, characteristics of, 129. Geographical distribution of, 130. Other kidney ores, 130. Range of, 131 to 133. Ale/1AgMls of oining, 134 to 136. PART IV. CHEMICAL REPORT OF THE SOILS, MARLS, CLAYS, ORES, COALS, IRON FURNACE PRO- DUCTS, MINERAL WATERS, &c., &c., OF KENTUCKY. BY ROBERT PETER, M. D., ETC., ETC., CHEMIST TO THE KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, ASSISTED BY JOHN H. TALBSUTT, S. B., CHEMICAL ASSISTANT. THE FIRST CHEMICAL REPORT IN THE NEW SERIES, AND THE FIFTH SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE SURVEY. Introductory letter of Dr. Peter, 139. Table of extremes of variations of composition of soils, 140. Method of soil analysis, conditions of fertility, 141. Utility of soil anal- yses, 142 to 145. Sampling soils, 143. Exhaustion of soil demonstrated by analysis, 144. Influence of hoed crops on soil, 144. Alkalies in the insoluble silicates of soil, 145. General remarks on the limestones, iron ores, and coals analyzed, 145, 146. Comparison of some Kentucky coals with some Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana coals, 146 to 148. Tables, average composition of coals of northeastern Kentucky, of southwestern Kentucky, and of selected coals from Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, 147. Table of the extremes of composition of these coals, 148. Tables of composition of average and selected samples of coals, 149. Determination of sulphur in coals, i5o. Theory of free sulphur in coals, 150. General remarks on composition of marls, shales, uses as min- eral paint, 150. Ditto on fire-clays and plastic clays, 151. Remarks on pig irons analyzed, and their extremes of composition, 151. Bath -oun6-Limonite iron ore and Barren -cot- limestones, analyses, 152, 153. Bourbon coont-Limestone, 291. Boyd cont-Grey limestone ore analyses, 153 to 155. Limonite ores, x55, 156. Coals, 156 to x6o. (See also page 301.) Mode of determination of the sulphur; the relation between specific gravity and ash per centage in these coals, 160. Marly shale, analyses and uses, 16o, 161. Pig iron analyses, i61, 162. Soils analyzed, 162 to 164. Bracken ount-Soils, analyses, &c., 164, 165. Silicious mudstone analysis, t66. Breckinride -.Inty-Under-clay, red, analysis, 166. xi Xi TABLE OF CONTENTS. Bwt/ercolUty-Iron ores, analyses, 167, 168. Coal, limestone, 169. Canopyv couniy-Lead ore, analysis, 170. Campbelcounty-Marly shale, marl, clay shale, clays, sands, analyses and uses, 170 to 172, 178. Soils, analyses and remarks, 172 to 177. Silt analysis, 176. Nitrates in soils, 177. Fertility demonstrated by chemical analysis, 177. Blue limestone and marly shale analysis, 178. Carter county-Fire-clays and clay shale, analyses and remarks, 179 to x8i. Table of com- parative composition of clays, i8a. Coals of Carter county, analyses and remarks, j82 to 184. (See also page 301.) Coke of Coalton coal, analysis, x85. Iron carbon- ate ores and limestones, analyses, &c., 185 to x88. Limonite iron ores, 188 to 191. Limestones, 192. Pig irons, 193. Soils of Carter, analyses and remarks, 194 to 200. Edmnnson county-Limonite iron ores of, analyses and remarks on, 200 to 201. Coals, analy- ses and remarks on, 201, 203. Cast iron from Baker Furnace, analysis, 203. (See also 298, 299.) Fayette county-Soils, analyses and remarks on, 204. Hemp culture, 205. Alkalies in the insoluble silicates, use of lime, 205. Quicklime and calcite, analyses, &c., 2o6, 207. Waters of Fayette county-surface, springs, and bored wells-analyses and remarks on, 2o8, 211. Franklin county-Marly shales, analyses, use as paint, &c., 211 to 213. Water from bored well, 214. Col. Hunt Reynolds' sulphur well water, analysis and remarks, 215, 2t6. IWuton county-Soil, analysis, &c., 216. Mineral water, 217. Clays and silicious concre- lions, 217. Soft sandstone, 218. Clay, post tertiary (Illinois), 219. Groyson county-Clay iron-stone, 219. Limonite iron ore, marly shale, 220, 221. Soft sandstone, 222. Coals, 222 to 225. Grayson Springs mineral waters, analyses and remarks, 225 to 232. Centre Spring, Moreman Spring, 225. McAtee Spring, Stump Spring, Jar Spring, 226. Eye Spring, White Sulphur Spring, Hymenial Spring, 227. Rock Spring, Artesian well, 229. Table of composition of these waters, 229. Re- marks, barigine, 228. Glairine, crenic, and apocrenic acids, &c., 230. Composition of glairine, 231. Chalybeate waters, analyses, 232. Soils 233 to 236. (See also page 299.) Greenup county-Fire-clays, analyses and remarks, 236, 237. Coals, 238 to 241. (See also 302.) Relation of ash to specific gravity, 24z. Limestones, 241, 242. Clay iron- stones, 242 to 244. Limonites, 244 to 250. Pig irons, 251, 252. Soils, 252, 253. lIa,-din co-nwi-Soils, analyses and remarks, 253 to 265. Henry eo-nt-Galena (lead ore), 265. Marly shale, 265, 266. Hopkins couu/--Coals, analyses and remarks, 266, 277. Limonite, ochreous, 267, 268. Kenton onty-Silicious grits, analyses, &c., 268, 269. Clays and marly shales, 269, 270. Limestone, 270, 271. Lawrence county-Coals, analyses, remarks, 271 to 273. Red Hematite, 273. Iiingston county-Galena (lead ores), analyses, &c., 273, 274. Lyon -ont-Limonile iron ores, analyses, and remarks, 274, 275. (See also page 297.) ,IfMen fee c-on/i-Coals, analyses, &c., 275 to 277. il--onttomeoy oo/nv-Quicklime, analysis, &c., 277. Muh/enb.rg -ont-Limonite iron ores, analyses and remarks, 277 to 279. Clay iron- stones, 279, 280. Limestone and clay, 280, 281. Pig irons, Airdrie Furnace, 281, 282. Coke and ash, Airdrie Furnace, 283. Coals, &c., fibrous coal, and carbonaceous mud, 283 to 287. Ohio county-Coals, analyses and remarks, 288. (See appendix.) Soils, 289, 290. XIt Nit TABLE OF CONTENTS. APPENDIX. Bourboen counts-Limestone, analysis, &c., 291. State of Ohio-Selected coals, analyses, &c., 291 to 293. Comparison of specific gravity with ash, 293. S/a/c of I//i-is-Selectcd coals, analyses, &c., 293, 294. S/a/c of Ldiana-Selected coals, analyses, &c., 294 to 296. Caizfornia-AdobiS soil, analysis, &c., 296, 297. Lyon o-nt-Water from interior of "pot-iron ore," analysis, 297. Edonson county (continu-d-Limonite iron ore and Nolin Furnace pig iron, analyses, &c., 288, 289. Gravoon coun/y (continud)-Limonite iron ore, Nolin Furnace, analysis, &c., 299, 300. Boyd coun/y (con-inucd)oal No. 7, analysis, &c., 301. Cartr county (con/inued)-Coals, analyses, &c., 301. Croenup county (-on/inucd)-Coals, analyses, &c., 302, 303. Ohio coon/v (con/inucd)-Coals, 303, 304. Table 1. Composition of soils, &c., 305 to 307. Table 11. Composition of limestones, 307. Table Ill (A). Composition of limolnite iron ores, 308, 309. Table Ill (B) Composition of carbonate iron ores, 310. Table IV. Composition of coals, 311 to 313. Table V (A). Composition of marls, shales, &c., 314. Table V (u). Composition of clays, 315. Table VI. Composition of pig irons, 316. PART V. THE IRON MANUFACTURE OF 'HE KENTUCKY DIVISION OF THE HANGING ROCK IRON REGION. BY P. N. MOORE. Page 317. Origin of name, extent of region, kind of iron made, 319. List of the charcoal and stone-coal furnaces, 320. List of those formerly in blast, &c., 321. Why they were abandoned, and description of the present charcoal furnaces, 322, 323. Table of details of structure of charcoal furnaces, 324. Remarks on, 328. Kinds of iron made, 325, 326. Sampling ores and coals, 326, 327. Average consumption of char coal, effects on the forests, 329. Average yield of ore, consumption of charcoal, 329, 330. Proportions of limestone and charcoal used, 330, 331. Roasting the ores, 331 to 334. Quality of the charcoal pig iron of this region, analyses, &c., 334 to 337. The stone coal iron manufacture, 337. The coal used, the Coalton or No. 7, 337 to 345. Analyses of this coal, 339 to 341. Comparative analyses of the Indiana Block, the Big Muddy coals of Illinois, the Hocking Valley, and Jackson coals of Ohio, 343 to 346. Details of structure of the Ashland and Norton Iron Works Furnaces, 346. Ore and fuel used at Ashland Furnace, &c., 346, 347. Record of Ashland Furnace consumption and production for past five years, comparison with Ohio and Indiana Furnaces, 348. Average consumption and production of Norton Furnace, and descrip- tion, 349. Fuel used (Coalton coal), statistics of its working, 350, 351. Quality of the stone-coal iron made, analyses, 352. Statistics of iron production, 352, 353. Table of iron production in this region, 353. PART VI. REPORT ON THE GEOLOGY OF THE REGION ADJACENT TO THE LOUISVILLE, PADUCAHI AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD, WITH A SECTION. BY CHAS. J. NORWOOD. Pang 355- Mr. Norwood's introductory letter, 357. Introductory, 358, 359. General geolo, 360. I)ip and strike, 360 to 362. Table of dips and strikes, 361. Lower carboniferous, the St. Louis Group, 362. Lithographic beds, chert beds, cavernous limestone, sinkholes, xIII Xlll TABLE OF CONTENTS. 363. Section of the rocks from Cecelia Junction to East View, 364. Origin of oclitic limestone, 365. Paleontology of the St. Louis Group, 365, 366. Chester Group, 366. Statement of its series of strata in Hardin and Grayson, 367. Description of same, 367 to 370. Paleontology of Chester Group, 370, 371. Coal measures, 37!. Number of the coal beds, &c., 371 to 373. Upper coal measures, 373. Condensed section of, 374, 375. Section of the rocks and coals in the first division-from Green river east- w-ard, 375, 376. Section in second division-from Green riser to Pond river, 376, 377. Section in third division-the district west of Nortonsville, 377. Dat-inbttoo of the csr/, 378, 379. Description of the coals and their associate rocks, the Anvil Rock, 379 to 381. Coal A, 381 to 384. Analysis of, 382. Of coke of, 383. Quality of, 383. The slate, the shale, their fossils, 384. Coal B, 384 to 389. Analysis of fibrous coal, 385. Analyses of Coal B, 387. Clay slips, 385, 386. The under-clay, analysis and uses of, 387, 388. The slate, the limestone, and its organic remains, 388. The sand- stone, Coal C, Coat D, its quality and composition, 389, 391. Analyses of 7 samples of Coal 1), 390. The slate, the clay over the slate, 391. Its fossils, the paleontology of Coat D, the blue shale, 392. The sandstone, 393. Coa] E, 393, 394. The slate, the shale, 394. Coal F, the limestone, 394. Coals G, H, and I, 395. The limestone and its fossils, Coals J, K, and L, 396. The state and fossils, the shale, 397. The conglomerate, sub-congt-merate coal, 398. Table of distances between the coals, coal in the Chester Group, and section at Manyan's, on Nolin river, 399. Analysis of this coat of the Chester Group, its fossils, etc., 400. Sampling coats for analysis, 401, 402. Table of analyses of these coals, 403. Ieaorzrogeoof, 404. Section of the Chester beds, first cut west of Big Clifty Creek, 405, 406. Section at cut at 79th mile-post, 407. Section at fault opposite bridge over Bennett's Fork, 407. Section near Spring Lick, 408. Section on Evan Rogers' land, 409. Section on Jas. Ferguson's land, 410. Section near J. MI. Sandifur's house, 41!. Section -est of the last, 412. Section at Lewis Creek tunnel, and at cut near depot at Rockport, 415. Section in ravine back of the Reno House, Greenville, 418. Section one mile east from Ricketts' orchard, 419. Section at Gordon's Station, 420. Coal at St. Charles mine, 422, 423. Section near Princeton, 427. Mint-sand ining, 429 to 435. List of the mines, 430. System of mining, 430 to 433. Skerens, 433, 434. Shafts, 434, 435. Ic/o on o -Z coal/rude, 435. Coal exported, table of, 436, 437. Xa/es on the rn/o, 438. The Taylor mine, Render mine, 438. Section at, 439. The McHenry mine, Rockport mine, 439. Ana]- ysis of coal from, 44o. The Richmond mine, Louisville and Stroud City mine, 440. The Ross mine, analysis of coal from, 441. The St. Louis Company's mine, Cypress mine, Coppage mine, Mercer's mine, 441. Analysis of coal from, 442. The Muhten- burg mine, 442. Analysis of Coal B from, 443. The Gordon Coal Company's mine, Quinn's mine, Arbuckle's mine, the Caney Creek mine, 443. Analysis of coal from, section of strata at, faults at, 444 to 446. The St. Charles mine, 446. Section at, 447. PART VI1. REPORT OF A RECONNOISSANCE IN THE LEAD REGION OF LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWEt.L COUNTIES, INCLUDING A SKETCH OF THEIR GENERAL WEALTH. BY CHAS. J NORWOOID Pagr ,q. Introductory letter, 451. irings/sn osuntj-, general gology', 452 to 474. Alluvium, bluff (or Iess), coal measures, 452, 453. Sectcon of the rocks from Trabue's coal mines to Ohio river, 454. Old Union coal mines, Trabue's, 455. Lower carboniferous, 456. The fossils, 457. .tm!ee/ocr. The lead deposits, 457. Mode of occurrence, 458 to 461. Character and derivation of the deposits, 461 to 464. The Latrobe lode, 464. The Excelsior lode, 465. Tisdall's shaft, Robert Wood's shaft, fluor-spar, 467. Henry Wood's shaft, red clay, and fluor-spar, 468. Description of specimens from Mr. xcv XIV TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV Wood's vein, Dupont's shafts Nos. I and 2, 469. Shafts 3, 4, and 5, the Royal mines, 470. Conclusions from the observations, 474. Crittenden county, 474 to 488. General geology, 475. Coal measures, Chester and St. Louis Groups, the lead deposits, 475 to 488. The Deer Creek Mining Company's shafts, 476. Coleman's, Larue's, and Holley's shafts, 477. Columbia mines, 478. The Glass shafts, 479, 480. B-rnett's shafts, 480 to 483. The Old Mill shed, 483. Memphis mines, 484. Rye Field shaft, Beck shafts, 485, 486. The Grace shaft, 486. Campbell shaft, arrangements of beds at, 487. Silver in the ore, 488. Casiwdi- county, 488. Genral geology, quarternary, 488. Carboniferous, coal measures, lower carloniferous, lithographic stone, 489. Typical fossils of St. Louis Group, the lead region, Mr. Marble's shaft, 490. Char.- acter of the deposits, 491, 492. Two classes of veins, 492. Conclusions, 493. xv A xvi This page in the original text is blank. GEOLOG(ICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR. REPORT ON THE FORESTS 1F CRE1ENUI1I, CARTER, BOYD & LAWRENCE COUNTIES. BY N. S. SHALER AND A. R. CRANDALL. PART 1. VOi.. 1. SECOND SERIES. I At 2 This page in the original text is blank. REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD & LAWRENCE COUNTIES. INTRODUCTION. The questions, both scientific and economic, which are con- nected with our forests, are at once numerous and of very great value. The student finds himself led to the study of the laws determining the growth and succession of the trees; the way in which they are connected with the underlying rocks; the history of their creation or appearance ip. their Dresent places, and many other similar matters. Some of this class of questions are purely scientific; that is to say, they do not connect themselves with any immediate monetary result. The plan of this Survey contemplates their study quite as rmuch as if they were of pecuniary value; but these scientific results will find their place in the memoirs of the Survey which will be specially devoted to purely scientific matters, while the re- ports are to be given to the questions of economic value. It must not be supposed, however, that the separation of these two classes of treatises will be absolute; science is so far the handmaiden of the arts that it must always go with them if they are to retain their best value. The reader will, for in- stance, notice, that along with the common names of the trees in this report are given also the scientific names of the species. In no other way would it be possible to make it certain just what sort of tree was meant by the name; for the familiar name of a tree may vary from place to place, while the scientific name is the same for all countries, and enables us to designate the given kind of tree, so that all botanists can make sure of it. The way in which the timber is distributed, with reference to the underlying rock and the quality of the soil, are also 3 REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF questions at once scientific and economic in their value. These are only a small part of the questions where the scientific and the practical values come together, but they serve in a small way to show the essential connection between the two. Hitherto all the descriptions given of forest timber have been very indeterminate, as far as concerns the size and num- ber of the different kinds of trees on given areas. In laying out a plan for the work of the Kentucky Survey, it seemed desirable to take an account of our forests in such a fashion that it would be possible to obtain precise statistics concerning every important feature capable of being accurately measured. It was obviously necessary to count the number of trees to the acre on several different exposures in each district, taking ac- count of the different species, so as to show their relative pro- portions and average size. Mr. Crandall has been charged with the execution of h.I;s plan, and he has perfected it in sevaeral essential particulars. His method of indicating the distribtbuior. of the species of trees on different slopes of the same hijl is entirely original, and expresses the facts in an ad- mirable manner. !. is in the plan of the Survey to carry this same system of delineation over the whole of the State, with a view to give a record of the present condition of our forests, in order that their changes in coming time may be determined, and especially that their economic value may be properly ap preciated. I am satisfied that, by properly husbanding our timber resources, they will in fifty years become one of the most important of the varied sources of wealth to our State. A large part of the eastern coal-field of Kentucky is not tillable land. The lofty and rugged ridges between the valleys are natural nurseries of timber. While they will not serve for other forms of cultivation, they will yet do admirably for the raising of many of the most valuable woods for our various arts. So large a part of the Valley of the Ohio is arable land, that the future sources of timber for its use are very limited. They will be found in the lofty ridges of the Apalachian Moun- tains where the steepness of the slopes will forbid plow till- age. 4 4 GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. I deem it quite likely that within the time of the next generation these hill lands will become as valuable for timber- raising as the average lands of the valley are for other forms of culture. They are naturally suited to all the most valua- ble woods of the Mississippi Valley. At the present value of black walnut, an acre of this timber forty years old, growing as thickly as it is able to stand, should be worth several hund- red dollars; of hickory and locust of second growth the value is about as great. There are few crops of the ordinary soil which will give as great average returns when labor and inter- est are deducted. A very great advantage in our Kentucky forests is the comparative immunity from fires. In most valua- ble timber regions this danger is so great as to reduce the value of such lands as investments. In many thousand miles of travel through the timbered districts of Kentucky, I have never seen an acre of forest seriously damaged by fire. In the present state of our American life, when men are hardly will- ing to wait for the yearly harvests to mature, it seems almost too much to hope for the far-seeing thrift that will look forward to fruits to be gathered at the end of forty years; yet these en- terprises that take hold on a distant future will become more attractive, with a growth of capital and an increase of confi- dence in life. But in fact a large part of the value of such growths as our forests would give when artificially planted would be immediate; at five years young hickories have a value; and the trees removed by trimming out each year, should pay an interest on investment. The black locust becomes valuable in ten years, or nearly as soon as a pear orchard, and for thirty years thereafter should give a steady supply of timber. With each succeeding year these woods become more and more val- uable as the original forests become stripped of their scanty supply. The best black walnut is already priced with mahog- any in Europe, bringing several dollars per cubic foot. The abundant water-ways of the Ohio Valley will always make its regions of permanent forests of peculiar value. There is another and most important reason for retaining the forest covering of our eastern hills. The surface of that 5 5 REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF country is so rugged that nearly seven eighths of its area lies in slopes of great steepness. If stripped of their timber, the water will not lie on these slopes much longer than on the house tops. By the forest covering a large part of the water is retained as by a sponge, and is allowed to filter away slowly into the streams. A heavy rain of say five inches in depth, falling within say two days, will have at least one half of the precipi- tated water retained for some days in the mat of decaying leaves of the forest, which would otherwise be precipitated at once into the streams. To strip away the forests is to double the amount of water thrown at one stroke into the rivers. A glance at the map of the Big Sandy or Chatterawha Valley will show that this stream has a great many branches, and gathers the water from about five thousand square miles of mountain- ous country. Every part of this area is made up of narrow valleys and steep hillsides. As it is, the floods of the Lower Sandy rise to about fifty feet above the low-water stage of the river, and are formidable in their violence. If the country should ever become stripped of its timber, the consequences would be disastrous in the highest degree. Some of the val- leys of a similar character in Europe, which have been reck- lessly stripped of their timber, have become almost devastated by the violence of the floods. There are several such cases in France where the soil has been in good part stripped away since the timber was removed, and the government has been compelled to intervene in order to restore the forests. When this restoration has been accomplished, an immediate change for the better has been brought about. Thus we see that there are two good reasons for endeavoring to retain the forests of the Big Sandy Valley. Firstly, that they may remain a source of supply for valuable timber, which each year must enhance in price on account of the increasing population of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys; secondly, on account of the safety of the agricultural and mining interests of the region which must be located along the valleys, and thus be in great danger from any increase of the floods which now sweep them. 6 6 GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. It may be urged in addition that the best interests of this valley demand that the streams, even to their second and third branching, should be used as a means of bringing out the min- eral and timber stores. This will require the extensive use of locks and dams; and these structures, already difficult to construct on account of the violence of the floods, would be- come quite impossible if their force is increased, as it will be by the destruction of the forests. The mineral region of Eastern Kentucky has a precious heritage in its forests, ores, and coals. All the skill of legislation, and all the discretion of private enterprise, should be directed to securing the best products from these resources, avoiding destructive waste. This cannot be done except by preserving the forests without great reduc- tion from their present area. If the State, or the counties thereof, still own large tracts of forest timber, it would be clearly in the line of true policy to retain those areas as public domains in the interest of coming generations. Throughout Switzerland and other parts of Europe the communal forests, rarely large in area, are the most precious of the public do- mains. From them the citizens derive in many cases sums so large as to form a considerable element in their private rev- enues. Every county in our mountain districts that will put aside as public land ten thousand acres of forest. worth to-diy as many dollars, will, at the end of a century, have a princely domain. There is, in a word, no gift that the present genera- tion can make to the future so precious and so noble as un- touched areas of our magnificent forests. For us it requires little forbearance to spare what will be to them a most precious heritage. N. S. SHALER. 7 7 INTRODUCTORY LETTER. Professor N. S. SHALER, Director of the Kentmcky Geological Survey. The accompanying brief report on the Timber of Eastern Kentucky is made up from observations made during the prog- ress of the geological work in the field which it includes. The work on which it is founded is, therefore, secondary, and somewhat unsatisfactory in details. It may serve, however, as an introduction to a study of the forest growth of this sec- tion. A. R. CRANDALL, Assistant Ky. Geological Survey. REPORT ON THE TIMBER GROWTH OF GREENUP. CARTER, BOYD & LAWRENCE COUNTIE S, IN EASTERN KENTUCKY. By A. R. CRANDA! L. The timber of Eastern Kentucky might, from its suitableness to meet two classes of wants, be considered with reference to use in iron-making, or as fuel; and with reference to the uses which give rise to a demand for lumber and other forest pro- ducts. Following this division of the subject, a very large proportion of the forest growth would fall under the latter head- ing. But as practically the purpose to which it will be turned depends not so much on the character of the timber itself as on the character of the demand for it-a demand shaped largely by such accidents as the facilities, or want of facilities for transportation-it will be as well, perhaps, to treat the subject in a more general way, or simply as to the kinds of forest trees and their distribution. The difficulties which now stand in the way of bringing the more valuable timber of Eastern Kentucky into market, inev- itably turn it to furnace use where furnaces are within reach; and where neither furnaces nor marketing facilities give imme- diate value to the forests, the timber that is not burned in the ordinary process of clearing and fencing land, or that is not wantonly destroyed, awaits the developments of time only to determine whether the more valuable part shall be turned to use in a wide range of wood manufactures, or consumed in- discriminately with the rest in the smelting of the ores which abound in this region. REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF The subject may be conveniently divided, however, so as to present it with reference to a number of questions which nat- urally arise with the study of the forest growth. After the occurrence of species, the number and size of the various trees, of scarcely less importance is their geographical distribution; the effect of varying surface conditions, as found in a hilly country, and also the effect of varying exposure. Not alto- gether foreign to an economic view of the subject is the ques- tion of geological distribution, or the assemblages of species on particular geological formations. It is possible that gener- alizations may be reached by which the forest growth will give an important clue to geological formations. A sufficient num- ber of observations have not yet been made to warrant such generalizations for this field. But it is important that the facts should be so recorded as to facilitate a careful study in this direction, when additional data shall have been gathered from a wider range of country. This branch of the subject will, therefore, be left for future treatment. No complete list of the kinds of trees found in this section can yet be given, as, indeed, only a beginning has been made in so considerable a task as is involved in even a preliminary study of the forest trees of so extended and so varied a field. Still enough has been done to foreshadow good results, both economic and scientific. In the presentation here made, it is taken for granted that the value of the different kinds of wood for the various pur- poses to which they are suited, is too well known to require special mention. For the present also the question of facili- ties for transportation and marketing will be left to the enter- prising, in the hope that a simple statement of facts will serve equally well to encourage practical solutions of the question to the advantage of all parties interested. The accompanying tables show approximately the relative abundance of the more common species of trees. These tables are made up from studies made partly by Mr. J. A. Monroe and partly by myself. The timber on an acre (esti- mated or paced) is included in each observation; and when t0 IO GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. II practicable, observations were made so as to give an account of the number of trees representing each species. First, in the bed of the valley, including also, in most cases, about an equal area of slope; second, the side hill at that part of the slope which appeared on all accounts to be most nearly a medium between hill-top and valley; and third, the top of the hill or ridge, including more or less slope. The tables are so arranged as to give the relative abundance of different species for a number of localities at these levels. The per cent. of each species in a given locality, the per cent. of each species at the several levels for all localities included, and the per cent. of each species in the whole timber growth of the country, are also given; the counts chosen being regarded as representa- tive for this part of Eastern Kentucky. It should be remarked here that in some instances an unusual growth of certain spe- cies, from some cause to which it is important to call attention, has been included; but with such qualifications as are made in the general mention of species, the tables will be found reason- ably correct. 11 REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF TAPLE I-Old Foe-st CGroueh. SPECIES. White oak ....... Black oak ....... Chestnut oak ...... Post oak ........ Other oaks . Beech . Maple . Chestnut. . . Hickory. . . . . Yellow poplar r..... Gum. .. Ash . Linden . Sycamore........ Buc:keye . Elm . . Blac'; walnut. .... White walnut ...... Hemlock . . Pine. s . . . . . 12 Nao 1k.ad o 1ri'A C1-ook. La.,- -e tously. .laiu, -It, tou', euCota reek Law- -. o Cly. Lttlo Forr cI Var."-, local- S/A Bra-. Litt S(adY. itira Car- Lourd FY- Grasaml/i4, ir l. L"sr c , u ac, Lad, Carkr Coey. laud boyd. A Crx Co. 6 4 .075 . ISS .02' .075 t31 .045 .025 3 14 4 1 0 -f Z _3 , 17 6 4 3 1 1 3 8 ,4 Si -1 S 3 2 I-7 .093 f_ .01 _ .177 .1200 .091 .014 1.120 .033 !1077 .091 -033 1,43 .014 .014 01'- 1 .029 51.o2g I 2 GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. Tf4BLE L.-Old Forst Crowt-Continued. SPECIES. White oak......... Black oak .......... Chestnut oak. Po)t oak .......... Other oaks ......... Beech ........... Maple. Chestnut. Hickory . ... Yellow poplar . Gum ... Asb . . . . . .. . . . Linden ........... Sycamore .... . ... . Buckeye. Elm. . Black walnut. White walnut. Hemlock . Pine . 11 R-ee F-Zd,1 Cr;-.. C'. Ii . , . 9 12 32 8 . 7.- 34 36 13 17 14 9i 4 8 8 .18 .17 .02 .05 .07 .07 .021 .0 .03 .03 .03 .03 Catvi'., &l L.. ef V. C.4d., Byd , gl .c 19 112 .1 I0 9.329 3(4 .02 7 5 .081 9 . 096i 3 2.02 7 . 3 ..03 . .053 8. .o6q 3 .012 .. .08 4 .05o . ' 7 121 8 23 2 4 13 14 3 2 Elli"g"" - Be-r Creek, 8e-Yd C-ry. ,' - Hi gt - O 80 00: 15 19 12 II 14 20 .. 8 I 9 4: 4 . 9 1 12 14 5 4 34 . 44 4. . 3 . . 9. 7 15 .14 .02 .oS .1 [.3 .04 .06 .30 .02 .0 03 .01 .041 '..8 70- .149 .237 .129. .061 .1I29 .164. . . .04 297. .018 .017 .046 c055 .278 .069-.. .3 .46.005 .020 .032 .053 [03C .12 .100 .06 o.58 .035 .031 .046 .026 .007 .018 .006 .026 .015 .06 . .021 . .037 .021I .02 .023 .003 .007. . .002 .0147 006 1.1 . . 11.o o67 . o I , 0 ;. 171 117 I12 .007 .038 .119 .007 .035 .057 .052 .034 .010 .014 .o22 .007 .020 .017 .003 .019 .oo3 13 - .. _ I I - . _ I i 2' I I i II 1-I 5 e REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF Table I is made up from counts of old forest trees. Table 11 of second growth. It will be noticed that the white oak (Qucrcus anba, L.) has a wider range and a greater development in numbers than any other species. In size, it ranks with the largest of the hard wood trees, often reaching a diameter of three and a half feet. It is probable that, along with its adaptation to a wide range of surface conditions in its growth, there is some variation in the quality of the wood; but it occurs in nearly all valleys, and well up on the slope of most hills, in such size, and apparently of such quality, as is usually sought after for the purpose for which it is most valued. In many instances of growth on a southern or southwestern exposure, it is comparatively small in size. TThe same may be said of the tops of many hills; but the average size and height is such as to warrant a very liberal estimate, wherever the forest remains, for that alone which is available for lumber. In point of number the white oak makes up about seventeen per cent. of the forest growth. Its large average size gives it stilI greater prominence. The black oak or yellow bark oak (Quercus lhinlori'a, JBt'-- hram.) has a range not unlike the preceding. It also consti- tutes a large per cent. of the forest growth. A considerable number of smallish trees, which doubtless represent to some extent a second growth, are included in most of the observa- tions of Table 1, giving undue prominence to this species. It will be noticed that, in the table of second growths, it is still more prominent, showing an adaptation to a wide range of surface conditions. It would seem from these observations that the black oak is less fitted by the strength and durability of its wood to attain great age than is the white oak, though instances are not wanting in which it reaches a size equally as large. The chestnut oak (Q. cas/aiira) often predominates on the ridges, extending its range downward in a rapidly decreasing proportion, rarely being found in the valleys. In this section, while it frequently attains a large size, it is generally inferior in height to the white or black oak. This is doubtless owing 14 14 GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. I5 partly to exposure to sweeping winds, and partly to the rocky character of the ridges on which it abounds. Further back in the country, and especially as noted on Laurel Mountain, where it is abundant over the greater part of the slope, the chestnut oak is not inferior in height to any of the oaks. While this is suggestive as to the cause of the disparity in height noted in the field covered by this report, it also gives rise to questions relating to its distribution, questions which may, however, with the suggestion, be left for further investigation. The post oak (Q. oblusiloba, Michx.), a tree of medium size, is less abundant. It is found in various exposures in scattered growth. Its wood is very close, hard, and durable. The other oaks noted, but which, for want of accurate dis- tinction in some of the counts, are thrown together in the tables, are the red oak (Q. rubra, L.), which is abundant in many places. It reaches dimensions scarcely less imposing than those of the white and black oak. The Spanish oak (Q. falcata, AMiclx.), which occurs mostly as second growth, but also as large trees, especially in Law- rence county. The laurel oak (Q. imbrecaria, Miclix.) also occurs in small size at a number of points in each county. Along Blain, and especially for some distance above the Falls, trees of large size are found. The black jack or barren oak (Q. nigra, L.) occurs in various exposures, but mostly on the more barren and rocky slopes. The oaks constitute about forty-two per cent. of the forest trees. The beech (Fagws ferruginea, Ail.) ranks with the chestnut oak in abundance; but in distribution it is quite unlike that tree, being found mostly along the foot of the hills. It some- times becomes prominent well up the slope, and not unfre- quently occurs in scattered growth along the highest ridges. It often shows a diameter of three feet, and is on many ac- counts one of the most interesting trees in this section. The maple is also abundant in some valleys, having a range not unlike the beech. The sugar tree or rock maple (Acer '5 REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF sacrharinum, Wang.) makes up a very large proportion of the maples. Along the banks of streams the white maple (Acer- dasycarpum, Ehrhiart) is common, while an occasional red maple (A. rubruni, L.) is found; as also the ash-leaved maple (Negundo aceroides, Mamncl). The latter tree affords a wood that is perhaps better suited for making small patterns or models than any other of our native trees. The numerical proportion of the maple, as of all those trees which have their greatest development along river and creek bottoms, has been greatly reduced by the clearing of land. Good sugar orchards have to be sought for the most part in unsettled localities. The chestnut (Castanea vesca, L.) is found in all localities, and in such size as to give it a prominence much greater than is shown by its per centage in the tabular view. In the table of second growths an increased proportion is shown. The dwarf chestnut or chinquapin (C punmila, Mich-ix.) has not been noticed in this section. The hickories are represented by many large trees. Table I, however, includes a considerable number of smallish trees, giving, perhaps, undue prominence to the hickories; but this fact is largely offset by the great number of small hickories, which are a common feature of the undergrowth, and which afford a large supply of hoop-poles. The yellow poplar, the tulip tree or whitewood (Liriodeundron tulipifera, L.), occurs in all localities. It ranks in size above all the other trees of Eastern Kentucky, unless the sycamore be excepted, which occasionally reaches immense size. '[he tulip tree ranges in size from two to five feet in diameter, hav- ing a cylindrical trunk of great length. The young tree is highly ornamental, both in form and foliage. Few small trees of this species are included in Table I, yet in number of indi- viduals it makes up about five per cent. of the forest growth. The gum tree or black gum (Nyssa rulhtiflora, Wang.) grows in all localities, and is represented here and there by a tree at all levels in nearly all exposures. Its value as a suitable wood for wheel-hubs, and for other purposes for which a cross-fibred i6 06 GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. 1 7 wood is desirable, will doubtless give rise to a demand for this now somewhat despised tree. The ash (mostly Fraxinus Americana, L., or the white ash, but including two or three other species of rarer occurrence) is represented by some trees of large size, but by more of a smallish size, which may be regarded as a second growth in the old forest. The linden or basswood is abundant in some shaded valleys and on some moist slopes. In the tables it falls below its pro- portional number, as do some other species, from the difficulty of selecting average localities for all the species. The sycamore (P/atanus occidenta/is, L.) occurs along the river and creek bottoms as a large tree of irregular growth, sometimes reaching a diameter of six or seven feet. In second growth timber it is sometimes found along the slopes of hills, and even on the tops of ridges, as along the ridge road from Ashland to Clinton Furnace, 350 feet above drainage. The buckeye (Esculus fiava, Ail.) occurs as a large tree low down in the valleys. In second growth it occurs higher up the hillsides, but somewhat rarely. The elm is represented by several species-the C'Ymus Amrer- icana, L., or the American elm; U. fie/va, Miclix., slippery elm, and U. ala/a, Michx., winged elm. The first named being the common species. The others occur here and there as trees of moderate or small size. The walnut trees (Juglans nigra, L.), black walnut and (J ciner-ea, L.) white walnut or butternut, have about the same range, the former being most abundant. The value of this wvood seems to be little understood in this section, as it is often used for fencing, or wantonly destroyed. It does not occur in great numbers in any particular locality, but is found along the hillsides and in the valleys of the smaller streams scattered among the other trees. Occasionally trees of great size are met with, as notably on Rock-house Branch of Jourdan's Fork, in Lawrence county. In the second growth the walnuts both show an increased per centage. It would certainly prove a wise policy to encourage the growth of both; but particularly of the VOL. 1-2 17 REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF black walnut, the demand for which is rapidly outrunning the supply. The hemlock or hemlock spruce (Aibes Canadensis, Michx.) is restricted in its range to shaded ravines and rock-bound creeks. Cliffs and ledges of coarse sandstone, and particularly of the conglomerate sandstone, when near the bed of the creek, are often covered or surrounded by an almost exclusive growth of hemlock and laurel-trees and shrubs which make slight competition for the more open soil. The hemlock is not limited to coarse sandstone formations, however. It is found. less frequently, clinging to or growing along ledges of lime- stone, as on Tygert's creek, where it is associated with cedar. and also covering the steep faces of the Waverly sandstone, as exposed along some of the streams west of Tygert's creek. The pines are represented by several species; the yellow pine (Pinus mi/is, Miclx.) being the common species. The white pine (P. strobus, L.) occurs on Buffalo creek, in Carter county. It is represented here by a few scattered individuals only. The scrub pine (P. imops., Ait.) is more common in second growth, as on the hills around Louisa. The red cedar (Juniperus Virginica, L.) grows in many localities low down in valleys or on bluff-like hills; but it has a much more marked development along the outcrop of the sub- carboniferous limestone than elsewhere. Besides the trees mentioned in the tables, there are others of less common occurrence, as also a number of small trees and of shrubs, which, though they do not largely affect the character of the old forest. are worthy of mention. The poplar (Popfulus grandidentata, A/ichx.) occurs at sev- eral points on low ground. The persimmon or date-plum (Diosppyrus Virginiana, L.) is found in nearly all localities. Attention has been called to this tree by a number of writers as one likely to repay with valua- ble fruit an intelligent effort to cultivate and improve it. The cherry is represented by two species (Prunies sero/ina. Eltrihart and P. Pennsy/vanica, L.), the former occasionally IS GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. growing to good size, as instanced by the beautiful tree in front of Mr. Scott's house, at Olive Hill. The common locust (Robina pseudacacia, L.) occurs without apparent regard to level or exposure. The honey locust (Gleditschiza triacanehos, L.) is limited to the lower grounds. The cucumber tree (Jlagnolia accuminala, L.) is found rarely in Carter and Lawrence counties. It is a large tree, and equally as valuable for lumber as the tulip tree. The umbrella tree (Magnolia umbrella, Lam.) occurs in great numbers on the waters of the Chatterawha or Big Sandy, also on some of the tributaries of the Little Sandy. It is a small but interesting tree, and one that is very desirable for purposes of shade and of ornamentation. In Eastern Kentucky it grows mostly along the streams. In Tennessee I have noticed it covering a hill to the exclusion of other trees. It is likely, therefore, that no difficulty would be experienced in transplant- ing it to higher land and dryer soil. 'The water birch (Be/u/a nzgra, L.) is abundant on the banks of some of the larger streams, like Tygert's creek, the Little Sandy, and Blain. The black birch (Be/ti/a len/a, L.) was noted as a small tree at a number of points. The hackberry (Celi's occiden/alis, L.) has an occasional rep- resentation of moderate size. The sweet gum (Liquidamber slyraciflua, L.) was noted at a number of points along the border of Greenup and Lewis counties as an occasional tree of small growth. It has a con- siderable development, both in number and size, on Lick creek, near Louisa, in Lawrence county. The mulberry (Mortis rubra, L.) is found at wide intervals in the valleys and on the hillsides. A spreading tree, often of considerable size, and always bearing an abundance of rich fruit in its season. The willows frequently border the streams with various growths, from the shrub to the large tree. 19 19 REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF The catalpa (C. bignonoides, Wall.) is found both on cultivated and on wild lands. Whether native in the latter instance is uncertain from observations in this field. The hop hornbeam or lever wood (Osraya Virginica, Wi/Id.) occurs only rarely and in small size. . Water beech (Carpinus Americana, Michx.) is abundant everywhere, sometimes reaching eight to ten inches in diame- ter. It is a very close-grained wood, and may be made val- uable for turning by boiling or saturating with water before drying. The dogwood (Coruns florida, L.) is also abundant through- out. It rarely reaches a diameter of ten inches, but it grows a more regular and shaft-like trunk than the preceding, while it is equally close-fibred, and more readily seasoned for use. The Juneberry or service berry (Amelanchier Canadensis, Tor- & Gray) has an occasional representative. Sassafras (S. officinale, Nees.) is common, and usually asso- ciated with the sour tree or sorrel tree (Oxydendrum arboreum, D. C.) The pawpaw grows in dense thickets along the foot of most hills, extending up ravines and reaching up hillsides in lessen- ing numbers. It is sometimes found near the tops of hills 250 to 300 feet above drainage. American holly (flex opaca, Ail.) is usually found associated with hemlock and the laurels in rocky and broken areas. The redbud (Ci-rcis Caanadensis, L.), the black haw ( Viburnum pruntinfolium, L.), spicewood (Ben wirlt oderiferum, Nees.), hazel- nut (Cory/us Anmericana, Wf'a/.), and the witch hazel (Hamna- me/is Vigizznica, L.) are occasionally met with. Sumach (Rius cofia/ina, L.), alder (Alnus serrulala, Ail.), and several species of thorns, are more common. The haw- thorn occurs near Ashland, probably introduced. Leatherwood (Dilrca pa/zish-is, L.) has been noted at several points west of Tygert's creek. The crab apple and the wild plum sometimes make up a part of thickets, which appear to be a wild growth. Grapevines, the climbing bittersweet, the Virginia creeper, as well as the poison ivy, frequently overrun the smaller trees 20 20 GREENTJP, CARTER, BOYD AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. 21 and shrubs, or cling to the larger trees. Other climbing vines and many small shrubs mignt De aaaea, but may well be reserved for a more extended catalogue of plant species. SECOND GROWTH. The character of the timber growth, which springs up where old forests have been removed, has been made the subject of some investigation-the furnace lands affording an opportunity for comparing the second and also the third growth with that of the original forest. There seems to be very little difference between the second growth and the third as to the species represented, or as regards the numerical proportion of the species. It is deemed sufficient for the present purpose to present a tabular view of such observations as appear to be representative of the second growth in this section. Table 11 affords an easy means of comparison with the original growth of timber. It will be noticed at once that the assemblage of species is very similar to that of the old forest. A little closer compari- son will show that the changes indicated are such as to add to, rather than detract from, the value of the second growth. This is equally true, whether regarded as fuel for the furnace or as growing timber for future market. Those trees, which grow chiefly on bottom lands and near creeks, show a falling off in number for the reason that the lands at this level are so generally under cultivation as to limit observations to the slopes and the tops of hills. It is well known that in many localities the character of the second growth is quite unlike that of the original forest; and often the new growth is made up of species so inferior for fuel, or any of the purposes for which wood is in demand, that it is of little economic value. An interesting and important field for investigation is opened here; but for the present it will suffice to call attention to the importance of the fact where the second natural growth and the succeeding ones are not inferior to the old forest growth. This is readily seen from an illustra- tion furnished by the locality in question. Notwithstanding 21 22 REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF the abundance of mineral coal, the value of charcoal iron is such as to warrant the building of charcoal furnaces where both timber and ores are abundant; and as the consumption of timber in iron-making rapidly sweeps away the old forest, it is of no small importance that nature instantly sets about replacing in kind what is consumed from year to year by the furnace. The statistics of Mt. Savage Furnace, which may be taken as a representative instance, show a consumption of about twelve thousand cords of wood per year, or for an average blast of a little more than three thousand tons iron product. Allowing thirty to thirty-five cords of wood to the acre-a low estimate for hill and valley-gives a yearly decrease in forest area of from three hundred and fifty to four hundred acres. From the best information obtained in this furnace region, it appears that from twenty-three to twenty-five years' growth is required to give an average of thirty to thirty-five cords of wood per acre. From this it appears that a tract of nine to ten thousand acres is sufficient for the establishment of a perpetual charcoal furnace of ordinary capacity. 22 GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. 23 TABLE IL.-&cd Growtlk. .w-II FPr. Star F-wr. Laad, /Ja VWt. Fr- 8,ena VKi Fr L-d. a3 Y-r a4yea rw'. dLad. Laud:., Beyd groh. yer:F gro. Cen'fy. = = ..z -.3 , t_ c 0 '.3 SPECIES. _e r _ _ _g II- .30- White oak...... . . 30 34 '194 40 46 248 38 36.214 20 34.172 black oak.. . 36 4c, .237 IS8 34 . 150 28 26 .150 32 2c, . i65 Chestut oak. 2 4 .019 8 8 . .o461.2 2. o92 6 . 0. oig l'ost oak... . . . . 2 . . .oo6 . . . . . . . 2 .. .oo,6 . . . . . . . t(theroaks... 42 34 .237 30 24 1 .127 20 26 133 I 6 26 i34 Betech... . . . . . . . 4 .012 1 2 .0..35 12 .0.s35 8 . 025 Mtaple..... . . . . 2 .0c,6 6 0..9... .. Chestnut. . . . . . 4 .. .012 26 x 6 .jz 1 4 ...040 1 2 10 .070 Hickory..., . . . . I 0 4 -043 I 6 I 8 .og8 1 8 30 -139 20 26 . i4o ellow poplar. 89 8 .0538 8 758 8 o46 6 ol g (:um. . . . . . . . . . 6 .oig . . 6 .017 . . . . . . Ash.... . . . 5 4 ,028 6 6 .035 . . . . 4 -013 Linden. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . "Yeanzore...... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Bucekeye... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . Elm . . . . . . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . Black wralnut.. 2 8 . o62 . . . . . . . 6 .8 .o6g 20 To .095 Whitc walnut...... 4 6 .-D3i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 o67 f le-lock.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . .. . . ... Pine. . . . . . . . . II -034 ..16 c,46 2 24 .o69 8 9 054 ,_ 23 REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF TABLE II.-Seonds Growth-Continued. C1izto- F.r- La.d, Boyd Cty. p z 0 _; 32 38 12 40 6, 8 32 4 12 I o: II Ir 2: O4 2 P 2 8 36 30 4 2 24 14 6 3 4 .s Nc' .22.3 .223 .o66 .046 .184 .033 .007 .072 .020 .039 .023 .052 .. . .. . 4 j .013 A a'e.i C., 4; 71 Gi O 0I I t4 9 I - 8 0 32 32 14 6 12 22 16 t6 8 12 5:8 p 22 34 16 6 24 8 26 12 16 3 .6o '. .10 . t2c, .o0g .o36 .107 .089 .025 .036 .095 .032 .o36 ... ... Buffal F.-mac, ,r ad of io Cr'h, North Fork. z _ I' 0 0_ t3 o 35 a 10 9' 8 g 5' A. 2 7 30 35 10 J5 i6 13 9 5 2 .. U Q, ,;-I I I 0 Ia z 33 C3 9 30 E2 22 9 9 6 9 36 36 9 12 W E. : .187 .211 .027 .164 .045 .033 .137 .074 .062 .042 .033 .018 .o48 .018 Xoi 651 !L .oo 054 I .01, 4.0 9. .04 .191 . 189 .oso .019 138 .o6g .o80 .015 .011 ...t ...0 . C49 .022 .007 1 .056 24 SPECIES. White oak. Black oak .. Chestnut oak Post oak .... Other oaks . . . Beech. Maple. Chestnut . Hickory. . Yellow poplar. Gum . . Ash ...... Linden . .Sycamore . Buckeye Elm . . . . . . Black walnut White walnut H-emlock . Pine. 24 U 190 I E.2 r .2027 .900 .017 .042 .029 .0703 .009 .046 .ot6 .003 .01 .. . .03 _.0 _. .02 I; _ E _ 0 .03 024 .210 .045 .015 .014 .04 .024 071 .ogS .031 .024 .024 .043 .010 .... - - - - - l - s w X I I - I - - - - -1 I I I :z 4. t- ..I GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. 25 DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES AS AFFECTED BY TOPOGRAPHICAL FEA- TURES. In the first tabular view the effects of these conditions which arise from the hilly character of Eastern Kentucky may be traced in considerable detail. A careful study of this table will place many of the facts which belong to this phase of the subject at the disposal of the reader, and any general conclu- sions touching the question may well be reserved for such modification as may follow from more extended observation. The effect of varying exposure is less satisfactorily shown than that of varying height from drainage. Generally the direction of slope is given; but a sufficient number of obser- vations have not been included to make the presentation rep- resent the facts for more than a small part of the almost numberless variations in exposure, which result from the irreg- ularities of the drainage. Some very good illustrations of the effect of exposure, as regards direction, are found in the hills formed by the Waverly sandstone, which are sometimes knob- like, and, therefore, present a good example of varying ex- posure in a small field. The diagram on the following page, which is made up from observations on some of the knoblike hills on Triplet creek, in Rowan county, will serve to call attention to some of the facts which belong to this branch of the subject. Special investiga- tion in this direction would develop many interesting facts. The steepness of the surface, as well as the direction of exposure, has much to do with the distribution of species; and as the peculiarities of hill profiles may often be referred to the character of the rocks out of which the hills are carved, as it were, by the agencies of erosion, the effects of varying ex- posure are more or less intimately associated and blended with those effects which properly belong to the question of geolog- ical distribution. A discussion of the relation of the two phases of the subject may, therefore, be left for a fuller pre- sentation of the whole question. 25 26 REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF N 26