You have found an item located in the Kentuckiana Digital Library.
Report of a reconnoissance in the lead region of Livingston, Crittenden, and Caldwell counties : including a sketch of their general wealth / by Chas. J. Norwood. Norwood, Charles Joseph, b. 1853. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b96-12-34876627 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Report of a reconnoissance in the lead region of Livingston, Crittenden, and Caldwell counties : including a sketch of their general wealth / by Chas. J. Norwood. Norwood, Charles Joseph, b. 1853. Printed for the Survey by J.P. Morgan & Co., [Frankfort, Ky. : 1876] 45 p.,  leaves of plates : ill., 1 map (folded) ; 28 cm. Coleman Pages also numbered 449-493. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1996. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN06011.07 KUK) Printing Master B96-12. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Geology Kentucky. Lead Kentucky. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR. REPORT OF A RECONNOISSANCE IN' TIME LEAD REGION OF LIVINNGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWEIL COUNTIES, INCLUDING A SKETCH OF THEIR GENERAL WEALTH. BY CHAS. J. NORWOOD. PART VII. VOL. I. SECOND SERIES. VUL. 1-29 449 1 450 This page in the original text is blank. INTRODUCTORY LETTER. Professor N. S. SHALER, Director Kentucky Geological Survey: DEAR SIR: According to your instructions, I present you herewith a report of a reconnaissance of the lead region em- braced in the counties of Livingston, Crittenden, and Caldwell. Accompanying it is a preliminary map, incorrect in many par- ticulars as regards the geography, but better than none. As there was much territory to be traversed in a short space of time, the report does not purport to be an exhaustive or elaborate one by any means. The prime object of the reconnoissance was to obtain a knowledge of the character of the lead deposits and their probable worth. It is believed all the time requisite for such a result was devoted to the work. I embrace this opportunity to express my gratitude to all those who rendered me kindly aid when in their region. The Survey is under especial obligations to Mr. P. C. Bar- nett, Col. Callahan, the Messrs. Woods, Mr. Hodge, the Messrs. Hewlett, Hon. Chas. Webb, Mr. Lemen, Rev. Isaac McMurray, the Messrs. Glass, and Mr. Wm. Marble. Respectfully, CHAS. J. NORWOOD. LEXINGTON, Ky., April 15th, I875. 451 REPORT OF A RECONNOISSANCE IN THE LEAD REGION OF LIVINGSTON, CRIT- TENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUN- TIES, INCLUDING A SKETCH OF THEI-_1R GENERAL WEALTH. LIVINGSTON COUNTY. This county is quite irregular in its outlines. Part of it lies between the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, extending, in a tongue as it were, up those streams to the i' Narrows." while the greater portion lies north of the Cumberland, the Ohio river forming the western boundary. and Crittenden county joining on the east. Taken altogether, the county is a broken country, made up of high winding ridges, some of which rise to a height of 400 feet above the level. The highest point is, perhaps, between 5oo and 6oo feet above the Ohio river. Although the greater portion of the county is ridge land, there is yet much of it well adapted for farming, embraced in the rich valleys of the Ohio and Cumberland rivers, and the wide valleys and table lands north of the Cumberland. The county embraces about 295 square miles of territory. GENERAL GEOLOGY. The geological formations found in the county are the qua- ternary and carboniferous. The Qieaternary.-This includes in descending order allu- vium and bluff beds or loess. I. Allztizum.-This division is made up of beds of sand. clay, loam and pebbles, as follows: a. Soil and black loam, composed of decayed vegetable matter, etc., alternating with thin layers of sand. I These heights are approximated. 452 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 5 b. Buff clay. c. Red clay, with masses of earthy iron ore. d. White and yellow sand, grains very small. e. Pebbles. These are usually quite smooth and rounded, and are mainly of chert and hard sandstone. They vary in size from half an inch to three inches in diameter. They are often cemented by iron, and so consolidated as to form compact beds of conglomerate. These beds are frequently exposed on the tops of the ridges, and might be mistaken as being of a date older than here ascribed to them. 11. Bluf' beds (or Loess).-This is a yellowish to brownish buff, somewhat sandy, porous clay. When dry it is quite pulveru- lent. It is developed in the bluffs of the Ohio river especially, and covers the hills at many places in the vicinity of Smith- land.' Carboni/rous.-Under this head are included rocks of the coal measures and the lower or sub-carboniferous. I. Coal Afeasures.-This formation is but sparingly devel- oped, the only members found being the conglomerate and accompanying coal beds. The conglomerate caps the ridges in many parts of the county; sometimes attaining a thickness of sixty feet, and again, represented by a few feet only. It does not always contain pebbles; on the contrary, it frequently passes abruptly from a hard, gritty sandstone, quite conglomerated(the pebbles varying in size from that of a small shot to that of a hen's egg), to a fine-grained compact rock, entirely desli/tte of pebbles. At Carrs-ille a few N-iwlders of quartzite, syenite, granite, and hornblendic rock were oh- -erved. They vary j, size from six inches to two feet in diameter. They are much worn andl rounded, in this respect having the character of glaial drift; several of them were examined or evidences of scratches, but none discovered. Their histors is somewhat obscure. It is not .rolealle, however, that they were transported to tlheir present locatiot, by water, as the speclmen-occups a circumscribed area, and none are known to occur elsewhere in the county. 'Ihere sea, an Indian burial-ground at Carrs-ille, and perhaps a foctificaio-,, so that the luwilde"s may possibly been brought for soue 1surpose by the ancient people who built there. Another fact it regard to them is, that they are arranged in a line one after the other, partially ,ered with earth. Though doubtful as to their having been brought to their present location by any means other hn human, no locality in Illino-s, from whence they could have been procured, can be given. It is possible for them to have been brought from Missouri. 453 6ON THE LEAD REGION OF Again, the pebbles are quite small and sparingly distributed; it presents this character often. The pebbles are usually not distributed indiscriminately throughout the mass, but are in horizontal layers or bands. The conglomerate is found in the hills back of Smithland, on the Dycusburg road, about one mile and a quarter from Smithland, on the farms of the Messrs. Lemen, near Salem, and at many other points in the northern portion of the county. There are really two distinct conglomerates in the county, with a coal bed between. Because of physical differences, the upper one has been designated the tlwe or superior conglomerate, and the lower as the inferior conglomerate. The reason for so doing is, that the upper rock is nearly always abundantly charged with pebbles, while the lower one is seldom so. It, in fact, rarely contains any; but as it was occasionally observed with certain parts conglomerated, it was included under the name cong-lom- era/e. It seems probable that the superior conglomerate occu- pies quite a limited area, but that the inferior member occurs frequently throughout the county. Usually, immediately underlying the conglomerates are beds of argillaceous shales, with a few coal streaks traversing them. A jointed sandstone, some ten to twenty feet thick, parts the shales from the lower carboniferous limestones. Frequently, however, the conglomerates rest directly on the limestones. The following section of the rocks from Trabue's (the old Union) coal mines to the Ohio river-distance about half a mile-exhibits the position the conglomerates hold in regard to each other, very wvell. z. Conglomerate......... .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 20 feet. 2. Covered space....... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 5 3. Very thin-bedded, slabby sindstone, in layers from one to two inches thick. Good for ordinary whetstones ............. . 5 4. Drab argillaceous shale ............... . .. .. . to 1 " 5. Coal............. . . .. ... . .... 234 6. Under-clay......... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . 4 7. Covered space ............ ... .1.0........ . 1 This distinction may be merely locally applicable. 454 6 LIVINGSTON, CRrrTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 8. Sandstone. Hard, coarse-grained, cross-bedded, and in thin layers at the top. Markings Of Lpeidodendron at the top ........ . 35 feet. 9. Coveredspace to the river, about........ .. .. .. ... 100 At the river the inferior and superior conglomerates are both seen, standing out in bold escarpments. The former ex- hibits a thickness of about forty feet; above it the coal is found, with the true conglomerate still above, and from forty to fifty feet thick. Passing up the river to Carrsville, the true conglomerate be- comes thinner, and at a point about half a mile below the town is represented by only five feet of sandstone, while the inferior conglomerate thickens rapidly, at one place attaining the thickness of one hundred feet. This thickening and thinning of the rocks is truly remark- able. At the point where the last of the true conglomerate is seen, there is but ten feet space between it and the lower one, which is about forty feet thick, with lower carboniferous limestone immediately under it. Passing on to Carrsville the upper con- glomerate entirely disappears, and the thickness of the lower one increases, both up and down, until at a certain point it reaches one hundred feet. From this point it thins laterally-that is, both up and down the river-and a fine-grained buff to grey sandstone, occupying a position below the superior, but above the inferior conglom- erate, makes its appearance-showing a thin edge at about five feet above the lower conglomerate. In passing to Carrs- ville, this sandstone thickens downward to twenty-five feet, while the conglomerate thins, from above down, to forty feet, leaving a space of forty feet between it and the sandstone. Plate P illustrates more clearly the various changes presented by the rocks. The only coal examined in the county is at the old Union mines, now owned by Col. Isaac Trabue. They are located near Carrsville, and are worked by drifting. The coal meas- ures 30 inches, but of this only one foot is of good quality; the rest is soft and brash, and almost worthless. (Col TsaI ue states that another coal of about eighteen inches occurs just above the superior congIomerate, abo.ut half a mile from his mines. 'j55 7 ON THE LEAD REGION OF In volume IV, page 388, and volume 111, page 531, of Owen's Geological Reports on Kentucky, Lesquereux iden- tifies this coal as No. I B. In his description of that coal, he states that it is the first above the conglomerate; it seems he did not see the conglomerate which overlies it here, showing Coal I B to be an in/er-conglomerate coal, provided he was correct in the number. The sandstone, 4o feet thick, mentioned by Dr. Long as underlying coal three feet thick, at the Trapnel coal bank, in the vicinity of Caseyville, is doubtless the equivalent of the inferior conglomerate of Livingston county. The coal at Trabue's dips at the angle of 10, course north 35' west, at the entry; this angle, however, does not appear to be constant. The mines are worked very little, and, con- sequently, were in such condition that they could not be en- tered. One mile southeast of Smithatnd, - .Gordon (colored) (lug for coal in the shales below the conglomerates, but without success. No coal of importance exists there. There seems to be no reason to believe that any extensive coal beds exist in the county. There may be, however, outliers of coal (equivalent to the beds at Trabue's) in certain parts of the county not yet explored for the mineral. 11. Lower Carboniferous.-Two divisions of the lower car- boniferous, the Chester and St. Louis Groups. may be distin- guished in this county. The exact line of division between the two could not be satisfactorily ascertained, as the time requisite for such detailed examinations as would have accom- plished that result could not be spared. The Chester Group is made up of an alternating series of limestones, sandstones, and marly shales. Rocks belonging to this division are exposed at Smithland and Carrsville, and pretty generally throughout the county. The St. Louis Group is separated from the Chester by a sandstone. Vid- volume IV, Owens Geological Report, page 388. 456 8 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. The most abundant fossils are Lithoshiolion Canadense, Pro- due/us co-ra, Athyr-is suzbquadrata, a YSp/rifei- and Pen/rvmi/es Konitckiana. As seen in this county, the beds are crossed in all directions by veins of calc. spar, some of them two inches wide. Calcite also occurs in masses throughout the rocks, (filling cavities), and is quite abundant. Fluor-spar is also present in the rocks, but is less common than the calcite. The general color of the limestones is dark drab; some of the beds, however, are dark blue and bituminous. Towards the top of the group, beds of gray to white, beau- tifully oolitic, limestone occur; capable of being burned into excellent white lime, and answering admirably for building purposes. The greatest measured thickness of this group, as displayed in this region, is about one hundred and eighty feet. This, however, is not the total thickness; it may be twice as great. The St. Louis Group is of special interest in the lead region, as it is in the vicinity of it that most of the lead is obtained. SPECIAL GEOLOGY. The Lead Deposits.-The lead deposits have attracted atten- tion for a number of years, but only in the last ten have any systematic explorations for the mineral been made. More work has been done in the past two years than ever before. Although a number of shafts and pits have been sunk in vari- ous parts of the county in search of lead. the returns have been meagre indeed. There have been, however, no deep shafts sunk, the deepest being one at the Royal mines, mentioned on a succeeding page. All others range in depth from 10 to 50 feet, rarely, if ever, more than 5o feet, and seldom exceeding 40 feet in depth. It cannot be said, therefore, that any extensive opera- tions have been carried on; on the contrary, under the circum- stances, the digging has been quite shallow. A shaft at the Royal mines shows it to be more than two hundred and fifty feet in thick- ness. 457 9 ON THE LEAD REGION OF Mode of Occurrence.-As a general thing the lead occurs as aggregations of cubic crystals and granules of galena, dissem- inated through masses of fluor-spar, calc. spar, and limestone, all mingled together in red or greenish clay, filling a fissure between two walls of rock dissimilar in character. One of the walls is limestone and the other a very hard, quartzose sandstone, often resembling chert, and striking fire with steel. This silicious rock appears to be a wedge between limestones. It always presents the appearance of a rock resting on edge; both sides are usually well defined, and it is seldom more than 25 feet across; occasionally the width is as great as 50 feet. It does not stand in a true vertical position, but is inclined at an angle varying from 60 to 8W0. Limestone is frequently exposed on both sides of it, not always in immediate contact with, but still near to it. The strata are tilted on the one side or the other of it, and lie irregularly, sloping away from it. The origin of this wedge-like mass possesses much interest, for it takes a prominent position in the solution of the problem concerning the origin of the lead, and, consequently, upon the question regarding the character of the deposits and their worth. Its present position is evidently due to a dislocation in the rocks. At first view the rock has much the appearance of having been forced from below upwards, extending from as low down in the lower carboniferous series as can be seen, up to the base of the coal measures. At one locality it is found resting against the St. Louis limestone, while at another it rests against the conglomerate, apparently cutting through the Chester limestones, etc. Cer- tain facts connected with it, however, prove conclusively that a hypothesis that it was forced up from below is untenable. Although the strata are somewhat tilted on the one side of the rock, on the other they are horizontal, or dipping with the sandstone, and not away from it. I This is illustrated in the plate representing the sub-structure of the region at the Royal mines. 458 to LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. I I This fact is so well recognized by the miners that they term the sandstone the hanasging-wall and the limestone thefoot-wall. Again, the rocks on either side are seldom of the same age. On the west they may be St. Louis and on the east side Ches- ter beds; such is the case at the Royal mines. These facts, in connection with others made apparent in the course of the report, can lead to no other conclusion than that this wedge was originally a horizontal sandstone occupy- ing a position above the St. Louis (roup, near to if not im- mediately at the base of the Chester Group. By some such force as that exerted by an earthquake, it has been torn from its true position and precipitated in a previously existing chasm, carrying with it limestone beds belonging to the Ches- ter Group. It is not probable that this sandstone owes its present posi- tion to one movement of the earth, but to a combination or successive series of them. It seems that at first great breaks were made in the rocks, caused possibly by the concussions produced by earthquakes, leaving the strata in a position something as represented in figure 2, plate ll. Subsequently a series of disturbances, resulting from a lat- eral movement of the earth, crossed the country. The first movement would dislodge the already disturbed rocks from their bedding and precipitate the superior ones into the chasm, while the succeeding one would bring them closer together, as represented in figure 3, plate Il. The upper beds on one side would be thrown down, while the lower ones, it seems, would merely receive an increased angle of inclination. On the opposite side the upper beds would retain their posi- tion, except in the vicinity of another fracture. In some instances the entire rocky mass on one side of the fracture seems to have been depressed, but still retaining a nearly horizontal position. The fractures were of course quite deep, but narrowing all the while, the deeper in the earth they penetrate, and were at 459 ON THE LEAD REGION OF least partially filled with extraneous material before the sub- sequent faulting occurred. The quartzose sandstone has nowhere been recognized in a horizontal position; as it does not always present the same physical characters, however, it may occur so, and not have been noticed in my hurried journeyings across the country. On the Cumberland river, opposite Smithland, a hard, gritty, thin-bedded sandstone is exposed, exhibiting a thickness of 5 feet or more. It dips at an angle of from 20 to 25, course south 6o' east, strike north 30'' east. It is exposed for about two hundred yards up stream, and then disappears. At its northern extremity it becomes more quartzose in appearance, is in thicker beds, and seems to make a curve, the course of the strike changing to north 40 east. This sandstone is rep- resented by figure 1, plate 11I. At Smithland. above the ferry, ten feet or more of jointed sandstone, underlaid by blue shale, is exposed in the river bluff, about 50 feet up from the water. It is quite hard, and in character much resembles the sandstone just mentioned, and probably is the same. It is nearly horizontal, though dip- ping slightly south. 15' or 20 east. If these sandstones are equivalent, and there is every reason to believe they are, and one is dipping as much as 25, while the other is nearly hori- zontal, they give additional evidence towards solving the ques- tion as to the origin of the sandstone wedge. It is a noteworthy fact that the sandstone on the north bank of the Cumberland river is in a line with, and has about the same strike of, the quartzose sandstone seen at the Woods' mines. Taking into consideration all the facts collected, the only reasonable conclusion is, that the masses of sandstone seen in different parts of the county, jutting up from the ridges and resembling dykes. are not uplifts but d1otwn-Iliro-vws caused by a remarkable faulting of the rocks.' The number of these i Since the foregoing wa. written it ha. been learned fr iMr. [ Jeph Walton, Superintend cuot of the Royal Mine," that in one of the piss there the -andst-ne disappears at the depth of -,ne hundred and fitty feet, and limestone is exposed -n both side, of the shaft. This is practical and conclusive proof that the sandstone came from abve. 460 1 2 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 13 down-throws necessarily depends on the number of fractures in the first instance. It will be seen from the foregoing that the lead occurs in masses of fluor-spar and calc. spar, filling fissures following the line of a series of down-throws. CGlaracter and Derivation of the Deposits.-There can be no reasonable doubt that the fissures, in the upper part of which the lead is concentrated, have great depth; that they pene- trate far into the crust of the earth. That this must necessarily be the case, is displayed by the scale on which the rocks are faulted, There must also be some material filling these fissures, constituting veins; which, extend- ing the full depth of the fractures, may be denominated trsue veins. The origin of true veins is referred to dislocations of the rock strata, effected by some great mechanical force, such as is exerted by earthquakes; they, consequently, traverse a form- ation independently of its character or stratification, and are supposed to extend indefinitely downward. True veins may be defined, in simple language, as indefi- nitely deep fissures filled with some material which may or may not be accompanied by lead or some other metal. But in passing from one character of rock to another, the vein- stone or filling matter of the fissure may change materially; it may be very poor in ore or entiti-;y destitute of it. There are, therefore, numbers of true veins, which, if not absolutely bare of metalliferous deposits, are nearly so. There are, in fact, many instances in which a vein is rich in ore for only a certain depth, beyond which the ore entirely disappears, or is so lean as to preclude the working of it with profit. There are, also, many true veins that are not metalliferous. Consequently, the fact of the veins in question being true veins does not carry with it the conviction that the lead found in the upper part is coextensive with the vein. On the con- trary, having in mind the peculiar derivation of the ore, it is fair to presume that its depth is limited to the base of the 461 ON THE LEAD REGION OF lower carboniferous limestones, perhaps not extending below the St. Louis Group. In other words, that the metalliferous matter filling the upper part of the fissure must be considered as forming a sep- arate and distinct part of the vein, as it now exists, having no intimate connection with the matter below. The metal orzgina'ly existed either in bedded veins or segre- gations just at the top or near the top of the St. Louis lime- stone, or as impregnations in the rocks. There are certain circumstances connected with the depos- its which seem to give some basis for supposing the lead to have partly been in bedded veins; but I am disposed to consider, rather, that it occurred as segregations and impregnationzs. Whether it was wholly inclosed in the upper beds of the St. Louis Group, which have been destroyed, or whether it was most abundant in the lower rocks of the Chester Group, is a question to be decided when the deposits may be studied in all their minutia. It is probable that the galena was disseminated in greater or less quantities through the rocks of the St. Louis Group in its entire vertical extent. My impression is, however, that the major portion of the metal was in seams and bunches and impregnations in the upper rocks; which, perhaps, belonged in part to the Chester, but more particularly to the St. Louis Group. This much is certain: where the veins occur that are rich in the metal (they are in the blue or geodiferous limestone, as it is termed in another report), there is at least 75 feet of the upper division of the St. Louis Group entirely absent. It is possible. therefore, that at the time of the faulting of the rocks, heretofore mentioned, these rocks bearing the metal were thrown down in the fractures. That subsequently waters charged with solvents, possibly derived from organic matter (vegetable or animal), percolating through the mass, dissolved out the lead, which was precipi- tated, assuming the character it now presents. ISIc report on the region adjacent the Louisville, Paducah and Southwestern Railroad. 462 74 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 1 5 It is not necessary, however, in demonstrating that the lead came from above, to assume that the rocks should have been thrown down in the fractures. As the strata gradually wasted away under the destructive influence of chemical agents, and the solvents eliminated the lead, it would be deposited in the fissures open for its recep- tion. In fact this latter solution of the problem is more in accord- ance with the present state of the deposits, as they exist in this and Crittenden counties, than the former. From the manner of its distribution through the spar it would seem that in age, according as they were deposited in the fissures, the lead is the eldest, then the fluor-spar followed by calcite. The fluor-spar nearly always has a bituminous odor, as have also some of the limestone beds. Instances also occur where hardened bitumen fills cavities in the material which bears the galena. It would seem as if the bitumen was closely related to the lead in its deposition, and had participated to a large extent in the extraction of the metal and spars from the rocks. The lead evidently did not come up from below in heated vapors, else the structure of the lodes would be more symmet- rical. That it came from above appears; from the irregularity in the nature and structure of the deposits; from the frequent occurrence of limestone fragments in the vein matter (some of them containing galena), and from the fact that at one locality the galena-bearing fluor-spar was found lying horizontally and then traced to where it enters a nearly vertical fissure. The history of the lead in all its details is certainly of inter- est. In a general reconnoissance, however, this subject, though an important one, could not receive that attention necessary for a clear exposition of the matter. The nature of certain of the deposits in Crittenden county also tend to verify the statement. 463 ON THE LEAD REGION OF That the major portion of the ore came from above seems, at this date, with what light can be obtained on the subject, to be the most reasonable conclusion. Owing to the peculiar nature and derivation of the deposits, it is difficult to decide on a proper and descriptive name for them, in the ordinary classification of metallic deposits. How- ever, considering them simply as aggregations of fluor-spar and galena in fissures limited in their depth, they approach very near to segregated deposits, and may be denominated, for the present at least, as vertical seo-regalions (or segregated veins) occupying the upper part of true vein fissures. General and Special DescripAion of Deposi/s.-As indicated on the map, there are at least three faults, and consequently lodes, so to call them, crossing the county. Two of them are nearly parallel, coursing north 300 to 570 east, while the third has a course about north 320 east. The latter is supposed to be the lode opened at Fair View, Illinois, which crossing into Kentucky at Carrsville recrosses the river, back into Illinois, near Bay City. It is known as the Fair Viezv, Lode, and is supposed to be the same as that at Rosi- clare.t Of this, however, I have no personal knowledge. The other two are known respectively as the La/robe Lode and the Excelsioor Lode. On these two the greatest amount of work has been done. Each lode may be traced across the country by the immense masses of quartzose sandstone, standing nearly vertically on the ridges, and in many instances forming the ridge line. The La/robe Lodle is the one on which the shafts at the Royal mines are located. Following the line of the fault, several shallow pits have been sunk. Pits were sunk on the lode on the Donake, Coker, and Levan farms, all near each other, out of all of which lead and The supposition that it was all eliminated from the inclosing rocks would not explain the chracter of the deposits as they are found at a number of points in the lead district, especiaily in Crittenden county. f The mines known as the ' Rosiclare Lead Mines " are not immediately at the village, but to the west of it. 464 LIVINGSTON, CRITENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 17 fluor-spar were obtained. The Donake pit has greater local celebrity than the others; it has been opened for a longer period, and more mineral obtained from it. On Mrs. Mitchel's old place, now the possession of \lessrs. Wailer & Co., and on Mrs. Cox's property, near Salem, lead and fluor-spar have also been obtained. On the former place the quartzose sandstone forms the eastern and greater part of a ridge, and stands out in a huge mass with rough outlines, about 50 feet in width. The rock pitches south 550 east, at an angle of from 750 to 8o0, with a strike north 350 east. On the west side of the hill, near the base, a pit was dug many years ago, and lead procured from it. Fragments of limestone were found at the mouth of the pit (which is now almost entirely filled with debris') containing much fluor-spar. The sandstone extends the entire length of the ridge, with limestone on the west side. At Mrs. Cox's place no pit has been dug, but much fluor- spar and calc. spar occur in the quartzose sandstone. Some lead was also found in it. More spar was found in it at that place and on Rev. Collin Hodge's land (at the old ' wash-hole") than at any other place in the county. At Mr. Hodge's, lime- stone is exposed on both sides of the sandstone, not imme- diately in connection with, but near to it. On the northwest side the limestone approaches within 20 feet of it, while on the opposite side the limestone is 300 feet away from it. The Ercelsior Lode has a general course parallel with the Latrobe Lode. Pits have been sunk on it at Mr. Henry Woods', Mr. Robert Woods', and Mr. Tisdal's (now deceased); all of these places are near together, and from three to four miles south of Salem. Galena was obtained from each shaft sunk. The quartzose sandstone forming the hanging wall of this lode is seen on the south side of the Cumberland river, about four and a half miles northeast of Smithland. No lead has yet been found in connection with it south of the river. VOL. 1-30 465 ON THE LEAD REGION OF The only place at which any work has been done on the Faz'r View Lode is at Carrsville, and this will be noticed here- after. On the farms of the Messrs. Lemen, about two miles west of Salem, there is an exposure of quartzose sandstone resembling that seen at the Royal mines and at the Messrs. Woods'. The mass juts up to a level with the conglomerate, which lies on the east side of the sandstone. Passing over a low hill, from the place where the sandstone was seen, Chester lime- stones and sandstones are found, and though having no instru- ment with which to make exact measurements, they appeared to be on a level with the conglomerate, or even to occupy a higher topographical position. The sides of the quartzose sandstone are striated in some places, as if having undergone severe friction. It seems that, subsequent to the down-throw of the quartzose sandstone, the rocks on the east settled down, bringing the conglomerate on a level with the Chester limestones and shales on the western hills, and, as a consequence, bringing the faulted sandstone on a level with the top of the conglomerate. It may also be that the Chester rocks have been slightly elevated; they are found at one place dipping southeast, to- ward the point of fracture. Whether the sandstone seen at Mr. Lemen's extends any considerable distance is not known, as no attempt was made to trace it. Should it be found to have any extent, it is possible that lead may be found in connection with it, as it has the same physical characters as that seen at places where the mineral is known to exist. I do not, however, think it worthy any especial atten- tion, particularly as it is high up in the series, and no galena of consequence has been found above the geodiferous lime- stone of the St. Louis beds. On Mr. J. K. Hudson's place, the southeast corner of the old Jonathan Ramsey survey, a pit was dug about twenty years ago in the search for lead. 466 18 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 19 It was filled with debris when the locality was examined. Red clay and fluor-spar, both clear and purple, were taken from the hole. No lead was found. The hole was dug in a ravine by the side of grey limestone. The nature of the deposit could not be ascertained. The following are special descriptions of those localities at which there has been the most work done in searching for lead. Tisdall's Shaft.-This is on land belonging to the Tisdall heirs. It is located at a point about two miles north of Pink- neyville. The pit was sunk to the depth of 57 feet on a ridge strewn with fragments of limestone and quartzose sandstone. The sandstone is broken off from a mass forming the backbone of the ridge. It has occasional threadlike seams of fluor-spar traversing it, but with no galena in connection with it. It ex- tends in a line coursing north 450 east. The shaft was sunk a short distance away from the sand- stone. Fluor-spar bearing lead was reached at 20 feet below the surface. After penetrating about i6 feet in the spar it was found to be dipping towards the sandstone. Then passing down to the full depth of the shaft, red clay and rotten fluor- spar formed the material for the entire distance. Occasional masses of calc. spar were met with in the clay, some of them large and containing lead. The limestone found on the surface, which seems to be the wasted beds of the St. Louis Group, is dark grey in color, emit- ting a bituminous odor when fractured. Masses and irregular seams of calc. and fluor-spar occur in the rock, crossing it in all directions. This shaft is on the Excelsior Lode. Robert Woods' Shaft.-This shaft is about half a mile north- east of Tisdall's, and is sunk on the same lode. The shaft was sunk to the depth of thirty-five feet. Fluor and calc. spar mixed with a silicious material were reached at sixteen feet below the surface. Masses of agglomerated fluor-spar, calc. spar, limestone and silica, forming quite a hard rock, are found all through the vein. A little lead was found in them, but rather sparingly disseminated, and in small particles. 467 ON THE LEAD REGION OF When the spar was first encountered, about a foot of red and black clay was found, passing over the top of it out towards the limestone, as represented in figure 1. plate III. The vein has not a regular, well-defined structure, but is composed of fluor-spar in irregular masses, mixed with sili- cious matter in an olive-green silicious clayey material. Some of the masses of spar are quite large, weighing, per- haps, thirty or forty pounds. No clay occurs between the spar and the walls. On the southeast side of the shaft masses of limestone, with seams of fluor-spar traversing them, were found. Not much lead was taken out from this shaft. It occurs widely disseminated through the spar, etc., but in small parti- cles. The vein is about eight feet wide. 11eniy J90ods' VSitef.-This shaft is near the former, about three miles nearly northeast from Pinkneyville. It is sunk on the same lode (the Erxcelsior") as the fore- going. Limestone and sandstone were found on each side of the vein. Two shafts were sunk, only a few feet apart, in each of which fluor-spar was reached. In one shaft it was found in a horizontal position, reposing about two feet above the limestone, with clay between. In the other it filled a nearly vertical fissure. The Messrs. Hewlett, who sunk the shafts, then cut an opening from one shaft to the other, following the fluor-spar, which was found to be connected. Figure II, plate 1lIP, exhib- its a cross-section of the shafts The vein is mostly red clay and fluor-spar mingled together. In places the fluor-spar predominates. An occasional silicious fragment cuts out the spar for a short distance. Masses of calc. spar and limestone occur throughout the vein; in their vi- cinity masses of amber-colored, cellular fluor-spar, with some This silicious matter, essentially quartz, has probably been taken from the sandstone by luoric acid. This is pro, blybthe history f the siliciou- material found in al of the pits. 468 20 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 2 I silicious matter, occur, accompanied by small particles of galena. Where cavities occur in the vein they are usually filled with red clay. Fluor-spar and a little galena were found in the quartzose sandstone ( ' silicious " or " hanging wall ") near the exterior. Several pits have been dug in this locality, near each other; galena was obtained in each of them. The following is. a description of different specimens of the material taken from the vein at Mr. Woods': 1. Ferruginous clay. Seems to be very silicious. Incloses fluor-spar, bearing galena. 2. Fluor-spar disseminated in a matrix of almost pure quartz. A lew cubes of galena inclosed in the spar. A little blende disseminated in the silicious material. 3. Mostly fluor-s1par (--me liliiious material), with caviti-s lin-d with mammillary incrus- tations of .itic-le () of zince. 4. Like Nu. 3, but containing, besides the zinc, small cubes of galena distributed promiscu ously through the mass. 5. Cellular mass of light amber-colored fluor-spar, with some of the cavities filled with red clay. 6. Cluster of purple fluor-spar crystals. 7. Cluster of purple fluor-spar crystals, with cubes of galena disseminated through it. 8. Like No. 7, but more silicious. 9. Light amber-colored cellular fluor-spar, with a little Cerussije. to. Dolomitic limestone and calcite, with galena and blende. ii. Dolomite crystals from the limestone wall. 12. Silicious and calcareous material. with fluor-spar containing cubes and flattened masses of galena. (From "1 bowiders " in the clay and spar..) Dupoxt's Shafts, at Carrsville.-Three shafts were sunk at Carrsville, on what is supposed to be the Fair View Lode. They are all in rocks of the Chester Group, and little lead was found. Shaft No. I was sunk through greenish and dark colored marly clays of the Chester Group, overlying a heavy-bedded limestone. Neither lead nor fluor-spar was found. Shaft No. 2 is eighty-one yards distant from No. I, course south 400 west, and is south 340 west from the Fair View shaft (in Illinois). It was sunk through drab to nearly white fine-grained sand- stone to the depth of forty-five feet. At that depth a drift was started and carried forty-five feet, with a course north 450 west. At the end of that distance a hard, white, somewhat quartz- ose sandstone was encountered; this was contiguous to, but still distinct from, the sandstone first penetrated. This quartz- 469 ON THE LEAD REGION OF ose sandstone was passed through and found to be four feet wide, apparently resting on edge. An opening six feet wide was then entered, filled with a heterogeneous mass of the fol- lowing character: No. 3 is an agglomeration of calcite, dolomite (), and sand- stone. Has the appearance of small fragments of quartzose sandstone cemented by calcite. Contains a little fluor-spar, blende, and galena; the latter occurs in small, rough, irregular granules. 4. Mostly calc. spar resting on quartzose rock. The calc. spar has tarnished, worn, irregular masses of lead distributed through it. 5. Extremely fine-grained sacharoidal, somewhat friable sand- stone. Grains of sand invisible. Contains much dolomite() and some fluor-spar. On the opposite side of this mass an extremely fine-grained sandstone, sacharoidal in texture, was encountered, containing dolomite and a little fluor-spar. A few rough, irregularly shaped crystals of galena were attached to the surface, next to the fissure. Shaft No. 3 is but a few feet distant from No. 2; nothing of importance was obtained in it. We have here a practical demonstration of the fact that the lead is not wholly confined to the St. Louis beds, but is also present in the strata above. It is not so abundant as in the limestones below, however, occurring as mere strings and small particles in the rocks. This discovery of lead in the rocks at Carrsville is of much interest; the manner of its occurrence is evidence of its hav- ing been held in solution, or rather to have been in still higher rocks than the ones now carrying it, and to have been depos- ited in its present place by the percolating fluids. It is within the possibilities that traces of lead may be found even so high up as the base of the coal measures. The Royal Mines.-These mines, formerly known as the River Valley Mines," are situated on the Cumberland river, near a well-known knob designated as - Bissell's Mount." 470 22 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 23 They are about three miles from Smithland by land, and somewhat further by water. At the time the mines were visited they were not in operation; the shafts were in such a condition as to preclude the possibility of examining them, nor have they at any time since, up to the present writing, been in a suitable condition for descending them. Three shafts were sunk; one caved in from lack of proper timbering (so it is stated), the other two had water in them. The examinations were, consequently, confined to the surface workings, the only knowledge of what was below being ob- tained from the material lying at the mouth of the old shaft and from those who had worked in it. This kind of knowledge certainly is not so reliable as that obtained from a personal examination; but no opportunity for entering the shafts was afforded, and it will have to be used as being better than none. Of the three shafts sunk, only one is open for work at pres- ent; it is 175 feet deep, being the deepest of any in south- west Kentucky. The shafts are located on the Latrobe Lode, the character of which is well defined. On the west side of the fissure, which varies in width from 8 to I 5 feet, the St. Louis limestone is exposed, showing a thickness of los feet. On the east side the quartzose sandstone is also well exposed, exhibiting a width of about 12 feet, and standing nearly vertically, inclined at an angle of perhaps 75 degrees. Immediately east of the sandstone thin limestone beds of the Chester Group crop out, resting on edge. They occupy a breadth of about 150 feet. Then the limestone terminates and blue calcareous shale comes to view. One hundred feet beyond where the shale sets in the rocks are once more nearly horizontal, a jointed sandstone (equivalent to the sandstone seen at Smithland), some 1o feet or more in thickness, com- ing to view, standing out in a vertical escarpment. All the rocks included between the St. Louis limestone and this Chester() sandstone are tilted at high angles, dipping about southeast. 471 4ON THE LEAD REGION OF The St. Louis limestone, however, is almost horizontal, and the Chester sandstone dips very little, course southeast. 'T'he sandstone is about on a level with the top of the St. Louis limestone. There is evidently a very considerable drop in the rocks where the sandstone is exposed, as the Bissell Mount shows at least seventy-five feet of additional limestone coming above that at the shaft. The following figure is a rough profile sketch of the struc- ture of the region in the immediate vicinity of the mines, look- ing south. Very little knowledge concerning the new shaft was gained; but MIr. Walton, the Superintendent, states that the quartzose sandstone disappears at 150 feet from the top of the shaft, and limestone takes its place. The lead is sprinkled through fluor-spar in granules, small cubes, and bunches. The masses of galena vary from less than the size of a pea to crystals half an inch in diameter. In some of the large pieces of spar lying at the mouth of the old pit the lead was apparently in sheet-like masses; but upon breaking the spar they were found to be aggregations of small crystals arranged in a line with each other and brought close together. In some of the spar the cubes are large and thickly dissem- inated, but in most of it the mineral is sparsely distributed, and in small cubes. Sometimes almost imperceptible particles of the galena are all that is to be seen in a piece of spar many pounds in weight. In working the vein it was found that the galena varied in quantity greatly, and in size from that of a small shot up to masses that would weigh from IO to 12 pounds; these were rare, however. The pile of spar examined came from the old shaft, which was stink to the depth of one hundred and forty-two feet. Col. Callahan, formerly one of the proprietors of the mines, gives the following statement in regard to the structure of the Th,- .-:, se dIod.tls, c... ecti ns of cvx tals. 472 24 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWEILL COUNTIES. 25 vein in the old shaft, according as his memory served him. The new shaft being on the same vein as the old one, and not far from it, the description will, it is believed, be in a measure applicable to it. According to the statement of Col. Callahan, the fluor-spar (carrying galena) was met with at sixteen feet below the sur- face. The spar was about two feet wide, with blue clay on each side of it, making up eight feet, the width of the fissure. The clay had many -bowlders" of quartzose() rock with drusy cavities set with fluor-spar crystals. Thin seams of fluor and of calcite also occurred in them, as well as occasional particles of lead. This was the structure of the vein for the first ten feet. At that depth the spar disappeared and the entire fissure was filled with the clay and bowlders. The lead disappeared with the spar, and was found on the hanging-wall. This continued for about 50 feet. Then there was 40 feet of " porous rock," with a little clay on each side. No lead was found in it, but was still seen coating the hanging-wall. Upon passing through the "porous rock" a silicious bed containing spar-mostly fluor-was encountered, and constituted the vein for 25 feet. No lead was found in it. At the termination of the 25 feet a dark green shale, 3 to 5 feet thick, full of iron pyrites, was entered. Upon passing through the shale, fluor-spar, bearing galena, was once more obtained. The foregoing is, of course, not presented as being strictly accurate, but is sufficient to show the great irregularity in the structure of the vein. Subsequent to the visit to the mines, it was learned that lead was more abundant in the new shaft than in the old one. So little personal knowledge could be gained at the mines, that it would be fair neither to the proprietors nor to the Survey to express an opinion as to the merits of the mines. The few facts at hand would convey the impression that the 473 ON THE LEAD REGION OF prospects are not very bright. It is a matter certainly to be regretted that free access was not afforded to the new shaft. The conclusions deducible from the observations made in Livingston, especially, may be summed up as follows: i. The strata have undergone a system of faulting, the rocks overlying the St. Louis Group having been, in part, thrown down in great fissures in the rocks of that group. 2. These rocks included a conspicuous sandstone, which prob- ably occurred near the base of the Chester Group, and which, where in connection with the veins of fluor-spar, has under- gone a metamorphosis, becoming exceedingly compact and firmly cemented, quartzose in character and often cherty. Also, that this rock frequently forms one of the walls of a lead lode for a certain depth. 3. The lead occurs as aggregations of crystals and granules, carried in fluor-spar occupying the upper part of fissures along the course of some of the faults; which fissures are those of true veins. 4. That the lead in great measure came from above. That it was originally in the upper or grey limestone division of the St. Louis Group, and has been eliminated from it by chemical, assisted by mechanical operations, and deposited in fissures in the lower or geodiferous limestone4 5. The deposits may be denominated vertical segregations or segregated veins. 6. There are at least three of these veins or lodes crossing the country, all nearly parallel with each other, and there may be more. CRIT'rENDEN COUNTY. This, the adjoining county on the east to Livingston, is, as a whole, very broken; perhaps more so than Livingston. On the tops of the ridges, however, and in the valleys between, there is much land that is fertile, yielding good returns to the farmer. Good timber is in abundance, and water plentiful. This is supposed to be due to the action of fluoic acid, which posses-,s the property of dissolving quartz. tSee report on the region adjacent the Louisville, Paducah and Southwestern Railroad. 474 26 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 27 GENERAL GEOLOGY. The geological structure is the same as that in Livingston county, including the Quaternary formation, and rocks of the Coal measures, Chester Group, and St, Louis Group, of the car- boniferous period. Coal Measures.-The same divisions of this formation that are found in Livingston are present in this county. The rocks are more widely distributed, however, and beds of coal more abundant. Coal is pretty generally distributed over the eastern third of the county, and is reported in a number of places in the southwestern part of the western half. The conglomerate is exposed frequently throughout the en- tire county. Chester and St. Louis Groups.-These groups present the same characteristics as in Livingston county. The beds of the St. Louis Group are frequently found con- taining masses of calc. spar, and with seams of the same ma- terial traversing them. At the Milford bridge, over Deer Creek, 4 miles above its mouth, 6 feet or more of fine-grained, dove and drab limestone, crops out in the banks of the stream. Small geodes of quartz, and drusy cavities set with quartz and calcite, are abundant in the rock. Zaphrentis spinulifera was the only fossil found; but it is very probable that the rock belongs to the geodiferous division of the St. Louis Group. On Mr. D. J. Ellington's place, on Paddy's-row Creek, about four and a half miles due west from Carrsville, limestone, equivalent to that seen at Milford bridge, crops out. Some little work was done there in the search for lead, but without success. Thin seams of calc. spar and fluor-spar traverse the rock in all directions. Numerous cavities filled with calcite and small quartz druses also occur in the rock. The Lead Deposits.-The character and origin of the lead deposits in general is the same as in Livingston county. There may be one exception. 475 ON THE LEAD REGION OF The lead has not received the attention in this county that has been given it in Livingston; still, several pits have been dug in search of it. The first shaft examined was The Deer Creek Mfining Com- pany's Shaft, on Robert Larue's land, five miles nearly due north from Salem. Two shafts were sunk near each other. No. i.-This is abandoned. It was sunk to the depth of forty-eight feet. For thirty feet down the material was red clay, with masses of earthy, dirty-grey limestone, with much calcite disseminated in masses. A little galena was found in the calcite, in small particles and seams. The lower eighteen feet was in masses of reddish-colored limestone with much calcite attached, and an agglomeration of limestone and calcite, with a few particles of lead disseminated in it. A little bitumen was also noticed in the mass. It is stated that at the bottom the calc. and fluor-spar were more abundant, and that the lead increased in quantity also. Shaft ANo. 2 is the one at which work had been progressing shortly before the mines were visited. When the region was examined the shaft was partially filled with water. and as com- plete an examination as was desired could not be made. The shaft was sunk to the depth of 35 feet, passing down between quartzose sandstone and limestone. The crevice is filled with compact, massive fluor-spar, with particles of galena dissemi- nated irregularly through it. The vein is 7 feet wide. Figure III, plate III . exhibits the character of the vein at the upper part; all that was visible. The galena, so far as known to me, and I judge from the heap of fluor-spar thrown out at the mouth of the shaft, is very sparingly distributed through the'vein matter. Mr. James states, however, that the quantity of lead seemed to increase somewhat towards the bottom of the shaft. The quartzose sandstone is exposed just east of the shaft. The vein courses north 350 east, and inclines at an angle of 650 or 700. The figure has the sandstone reversed. 476 28 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 29 On Wm. D. Coleman's land, three quarters of a mile north 37' east from the Deer Creek Mining Company's shafts, three or four shafts were sunk for lead. The quartzose sandstone seen at the Deer Creek mines is exposed on the hill above the shafts. No lead was obtained there. The shafts appear to have been sunk too far away from the sandstone. At Mr. Robert Larue's place, near his house, about 5oo yards northwest from the Deer Creek mines, a shaft was sunk to the depth of 20 feet, passing down by the side of limestone. The limestone is grey, crossed by veins of fluor-spar, and with masses of caic. and fluor-spar disseminated through it. Small cubes of galena are sparsely distributed through the spar and the limestone in the vicinity of the spar. Occasional masses of chert occur in the limestone, with seams of fluor-spar cut- ting directly across them. Limestone is exposed on both sides of the shaft, but seems to be tumbled on one side. On Mr. Holly's place, one quarter of a mile from Larue's shaft, course about southwest, three pits were sunk. They were filled with debris and water when visited. M.lr. P. C. Bar- nett, who accompanied me, states that limestone was exposed on both sides of the shafts. At one, an opening occurred in the limestone, out of which large masses of purple and limpid fluor-spar were taken. \When first seen, the opening was about 8 feet wide, but towards the bottom was closing, and diminished to 4 feet. Galena is distributed through the fluor-spar in specks and small cubes, with occasional masses the size of an ordinary marble. A few of the pieces of fluor-spar found at the mouth of the shaft will weigh thirty to fifty pounds. Fragments of lime- stone are also to be seen at the mouth of the shaft, with ramifying streaks and thread-like seams of fluor-spar through then. The opening seems to be continuous for some distance, and courses north 25' to 350 west. 477 ON THE LEAD REGION OF These deposits are no doubt simply segregaiozns filling cavi- ties in the limestone. It is possible that (for a limited time) a profitable deposit of lead may be found in the vicinity. Columbia Mines.-These mines, the property of Messrs. Barnett, Blue, and Hodge, are the oldest lead mines in the southern part of the State. Lead was procured from them, and smelted in a primitive manner, by the early settlers. The mines are situated near the Marion and Smithland road, about five miles from Marion. A number of shafts have been opened at one time or another, but are now either wholly or partially filled with debris. The only shaft in operation was, at the time the mines were visited (November 26th, 1874). partially filled with water, so that the examination was, in great degree, confined to the surface. No opening was in such condition as to fairly display the nature of the deposits. There appears to be some complexity in the occurrence of the lead, and till more systematic explorations are made there will still exist difficulty in determining the true nature of the deposits. That there is an extensive deposit of lead, and one that will last for a considerable time, there is no doubt. My opinion is, however, that the lead does not occur in true vein fissures, as is generally supposed. The limestone in which the lead occurs is very cavernous; so much so, that the whole country seems to be undermined. "Sink-holes" are numerous, caused by the roofs of caverns giving way, some of which give access to caverns. We may reasonably suppose cavities and long fissures, ex- tending in various directions, to have existed in the limestone (produced in the same manner as caverns, i. e. by the erosive action of water) previous to the formation of the lead depos- its as they now exist. There is, indeed, scarcely any other way to account for the fissures, and, consequently, determine the nature of the depos- its, than that they are due partly to shrinkage of the strata, and in part to the action of water, in washing out cavities and cutting channels through the limestones, as the rocks in which 478 .So LIVINGSTON, CRITrENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 31 the greater portion of the lead occurs are pretty horizontal, showing no evidence of disturbance. These fissures may extend for a mile or more or for only a few hundred yards, and, similar to caverns, have a general though irregular course. In a set of fissures all may not have the same course, but some may cross others at various angles. From the manner in which the lead has been obtained at these mines, I am induced to believe that the greater portion, if not all of it, associated with fluor-spar, calc. spar, and blende, occupies just such irregular fissures and openings in the lime- stone, forming what may be termed segregated veins and deposits. This would lead to the conclusion that the galena was origin- ally inclosed in the overlying rocks, which have wasted away and allowed the lead to be precipitated in solution, filling the cracks, cavities, and fissures in the rocks below. The irregu- larity in the deposits, and the number of cross-fissures, lend force to this supposition. It is not a settled fact, however, that there is not a down- throw near the mines, similar to those in Livingston county Quartzose sandstone, apparently identical with that found in connection with the lead in Livingston, is found in the vicinity of the mines. It may form one of the walls of a vein similar to those in that county. Should such a lead-bearing vein be found to exist here, these mines, in themselves, present a beautiful illustration of the origin of those deposits. Plate IV', figure 4, is a rough-sketch map of the mines. The lead is carried in fluor-spar and silicious matter, and is more abundant at some of the shafts than others. At the Glass shaft (the one now in operation) the galena lies in large masses and cubes, distributed through fluor- spar, calc. spar, and silicious material, the latter predominating. The depth of the shaft, at the time when the mines were vis- ited, was said to be 38 feet, the width of the vein varying from I to 5 feet. 479 ON THE LEAD REGION OF In sinking the shaft, the material passed through in the first 19 feet consisted of red clay, with fragments of limestone and masses of galena inclosed in spar and silicious matter, distrib- uted through it. According to Mr. Tompkins, two wall rocks were found at this depth, limestone on the west and sandstone on the east, continuing thus to the bottom of the shaft, with no clay between, except in cavities in the vein material. In the next io feet the crevice varied from I to 5 feet in width, entirely filled with spar and silicious matter, bearing galena. About 20 per cent. of the material taken out of this space was lead. In the lower eight feet the vein averaged four and a half feet in width, with an increase in the per centage of lead. Judging from the appearance of the material piled near the mouth of the shaft, the per centage of lead may be estimated at one fourth or a little more. This may be an over-estimate, however, as there is much zinc blende accompanying the galena. Work at this shaft was suspended when the locality was visited. rvMr. Glass states that there was no perceptible de- crease in the quantity of lead towards the bottom.t VSzafi No. 2 was sunk in the same fissure as was No. I. The lead is distributed through hard silicious matter, filling a crevice about two and a half feet wide, between two walls of limestone. The vein has a course north 390 west, passing from shaft No. I (the Glass shaft) through No. 2 to No. 3 (the Barnett shaft), at which shaft it seems to end. Four shafts were sunk on the fissure between Nos. 2 and 3, out of which lead and spar were obtained; they are now par- tially filled with debris. At the Barnett shaft (No. 3), the course of the fissure is north 400 west, till it reaches the north end, where it is stopped by what is apparently another fissure crossing it, with a course At the time of my visit the shaft had 15 feet of water in it, and no opportunity was afforded me to see the sandstone. I cannot, therefore, account for its presence. It is not visible on the surface, and this is the only shaft in which sandstone is reported. The ails of the one just a few yards north, as well as of all the others, are mianeaa. t As indicated on the map, Messrs. Henry and James Glass have purchased 55 arres of the land from Messrs. Barnet, Blue, and Hodge, with the expectation of mining extensively. 480 32 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 33 about north 100 east. The cross-fissure is filled with greenish shale, etc., from above. The lead was distributed through fluor-spar and silicious ma- terial, between two walls of limestone. Greenish silicious clay shale rests immediately against the ends of the limestone at the north end; next to this there is from six to eighteen inches of black clay, and then green shale for five feet or more. On the west side (north end) of the shaft a vertical seam of fluor-spar is wedged in between the green clay and the black clay, extending nearly to the surface. It varies in thickness from one quarter of an inch to two inches; is thickest towards the top, becoming quite thin towards the bottom, and perhaps disappears entirely within a few feet. The black clay accompanies it all the way, and resembles a seam. The green shale rests against the black clay with well- defined stratification, the strata showing a dip of 450, course about northeast; this appears as if it had come from above the limestone. Occasional very small particles of lead are found in the seam of fluor-spar, though they are scarce. The green shale is occasionally banded with a soft ochreous- yellow material; two or three fragments of limestone, with the edges rounded, were also seen towards the top. At the north end a large limestone fragment extends across the end of the shaft. It was probably brought down with the shale which rests against it. The green clay becomes quite silicious and hard, and is about two and a half feet wide in the middle of the end of the shaft, containing much purple fluor-spar and calc. spar, the former predominating. Figure I, plate IV', is a sketch of the end of the shaft on the west side. A is the limestone; B. green clay; C, black clay; D, fluor-spar; E, green shale. On the east side (north end) the black clay is quite thin, while the green clay is two feet wide, with patches of bright ochreous-yellow silicious clay. VOL 1-3 X ON THE LEAD REGION OF That part of the limestone abutting against the clay is porous and quite silicious near the surface. Lead occurs in this portion of the rock in irregular masses, following its edge. from as far down in the shaft as could be seen to the top, in some instances assuming the character of small veins, quite limited in extent. Figure 3, plate IV', is a sketch of the east side of the shaft. A is the limestone; B, green clay; C, black clay; E, green shale. Except in that portion lying directly across the end of the shaft, no lead was found in the green clay, and there it is in the lower part, in the vicinity of calc. spar. The limestone forming the sides of the shaft is cherty, and on the exposed surfaces is soft. Galena occurs in the limestone on either side of the shaft in thin vertical seams, cutting the rock transversely, or in irregularly distributed masses. The fissure crossing at the north end of the shaft has an irregular course, on one side bearing north 80 east, and on the other north 300 east. Nineteen yards from No. 3, course north 370 west, Shaft No. 4 was sunk in the endeavor to catch the vein worked at No. 3, but without success. Neither lead nor spar was obtain- ed, the material taken out being a dark to nearly black shale. Ninety-nine yards from shaft No. 3. course north 8 east, a shallow shaft, No. 5, was sunk. Hard quartzose sandstone is exposed in the west side, with purple fluor-spar clinging to the sides and occupying cavities. This rock much resembles the "hanging-wall " of the lodes in Livingston county and in the western part of this county, and it may be an indication of such a lode crossing this prop- erty. This can be definitely settled only by sinking shafts. There is no well-defined exposure of the sandstone, so that the direction of its course could not be accurately determined. At the shaft it appears to have a course south 200 to 300 east; but the black shale at shaft No. 4 resembles the shale gener- ally found in the proximity of the quartzose sandstone in Liv- 482 34 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 35 ingston county. Such may be the case in this instance, and the lode (if one exists) would then pass north of the Barnett shaft in a direction about south 20 west. As limestone is exposed on the creek, across the course which the sandstone apparently takes, the latter is probably near the correct course. At the Old Mi/I Sited, considerable spar containing lead and blende was taken from a crevice between limestone walls. Blende is much more abundant than the galena. The spar is said to have exhibited a width of three feet; it was covered with water when the locality was examined. Fluor-spar occurs in vertical seams, and in crystals studding the sides of cavitiesin the limestone; also in small irregularly distributed masses. Some of the seams are an inch in width, while many are mere thread-like veins. The zinc is quite abundant, and, in the greater portion of the limestone, is disseminated in minute, but closely-connected particles, without being associated with spar. The limestone is always quite silicious in the vicinity of the spark Attempts have been made to prove this crevice a continua- tion of that at the Glass shaft, but there seems to be no reason for considering it as such. It is more presumable that two distinct fissures exist, and that the fissure at the Glass shaft (should it extend so far) crosses this, or coincides with it, at a point near where the limestone is marked on the map, north of the Marion road. Much lead is said to have been taken from shafts Nos. 6, 7, and 8. It occurred in large masses, inclosed between lime- stone walls. These shafts are not exactly on a line with each other; but they are, without doubt, connected, the fissure having an irreg- ular course. From the Old Mill Shed, within twenty-five yards of the Whim shaft (No. 6), limestone is exposed at intervals along the creek. -A little cadmim is combined with the blende. fT"is is an instance of replacement; the lime has bees dissolved out, and the silica, carried by the fluor-spar, taken its place. This limestone is interesting as forming another link in the history of the lead-additional evidence that it came fro& above. 483 3 ON THE LEAD REGION OF Up the creek, about 130 yards above the shed, masses of fluor-spar, with some silicious matter bearing galena, are seen occupying an opening in the limestone forming the bed of the creek. The limestone has been cut away from them by the running water, leaving a fissure twelve feet wide, the course of which is north 80 east. The limestone lies horizontally, and, no doubt, the spar was formerly in immediate connection with it, as a sort of vein; this gives a tolerable idea of the nature of the deposits. This may extend for some distance on either side of the creek, perhaps coinciding with other fissures. More excavating has been done south of the Glass shaft, in a ravine, than elsewhere on the property. A number of shal- low pits were dug promiscuously in the hollow, out of every one of which lead and fluor-spar were obtained in variable quantities. It would seem as if the lead occurred in pockets, or that there was an extraordinarily large cavity filled with the min- eral. Just how the lead occurred, whether between limestone walls or not, could not be learned. The digging was done many years ago. Although the lead does not occur in the fissures of true veins, still its abundance is a matter undoubted. There is a better showing of the ore near the surface at these mines, and in their vicinity, than in any other part of the county, and there is little doubt that it will last for a consider- able time. It is probable, however, that its vertical extent is more limited than generally supposed. XMemphis Afines.-These mines, also known as the Bell mines, are located on the old Belt property, about 4 miles northeast of the Columbia mines. Very little galena has been procured from them, their interest centering in the large deposits of fluor-spar occurring at them. It is nearly all of the clear, massive variety. The deposits are of the same nature as those at the Columbia mines. The mines were not in operation when visited, and my con- clusions are mostly based on information received from Rev. 484 36 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 37 Isaac McMurray (who accompanied me), and from Mr. J. C. B. McMican. The first shaft visited is No. i, four miles northeast from the Columbia mines. It was sunk to the depth of 6o feet in limestone, no spar being found. A few yards north of the shaft, masses of clear fluor-spar occur in red clay. At an opening about 30 feet south 6o0 west of the shaft, large masses of nearly pure white fluor-spar were also found in a crevice. These lie in a line south 450 west from the pit north of the shaft, and are, no doubt, con- nected with the spar at that place. A shaft, known as the " Rye Field Shaft," was sunk in a field south of No. i, and much fluor-spar obtained. The course of the crevice south of shaft No. X is south 450 west, and there is little doubt that the Rye Field shaft is sunk on it. The Beck Shaft (No. 2).-This is about one quarter of a mile nearly due west from No. x. More work has been done at it than elsewhere on the property. It was partially filled with water; Messrs. McMurray and McMican, however, furnished the desired information. The latter gentleman lives near the mines, was a frequent visitor to them, and descended the shaft several times. The shaft was sunk to the depth of i6o feet, in limestone. A large quantity of remarkably fine fluor-spar was taken out; some of it is still to be seen piled near the mouth of the shaft. It is beautifully clear, almost wholly without impurities. The spar was reached at ten feet below the surface, and continued until a depth of seventy-five feet was reached; it was then passed through and very little obtained below. Mr. McMican says: - The spar occurred in large masses in the limestone, and a great quantity was taken out." Very little lead was obtained; that found was distributed in small particles through the fluor-spar. The limestone is drab and light grey in color, and filled with seams and masses (filling cavities) of calc. spar. 4S5 ON THE LEAD REGION OF Shaft NA. 3.-This is about three hundred yards from the Beck shaft. course south 300 east, as well as could be estimated. It was abandoned when visited. It was sunk to the depth of about fifty feet, and appears to be entirely in limestone, the color of which is drab and light grey, probably a continuation of the bed at the Beck shaft. Scarcely any lead was obtained. Fluor-spar and calc. spar occur in seams and masses in the rock. On the west side of the shaft, a little below the level of the top, a pit was dug down through red clay to the depth of ten feet. A drift was then started with a course south i80 west, under a sandstone. Everything was in a tumbled condition, so that the drift could not be entered. Fragments of fluor-spar carrying particles of galena were found on the pile of material taken from the pit, but whether they came from the clay in the pit or from under the sand- stone could not be determined. Nor could any satisfactory conclusion concerning the sand- stone be arrived at. It may have been brought down by a slide, or by a settling of the strata, as the region abounds in sink-holes, or it may be merely a large mass tumbled from its true position. Again, it may be in place, and overlie the limestone at the shaft; in this case it is probably the sandstone at the base of the Chester Group. The lead deposits at, and in the vicinity of, the Belt mines seem to be very small, but there is a vast quantity of first-rate fluor-spar. With an increasing demand for this mineral as a flux, by the various manufacturing industries, there is reason to suppose that the spar alone will pay for the working. The Girace Shafl.-This is located on land belonging to Messrs. McMurray and Blue, one mile and a quarter northeast of the Crittenden Sulphur Spring. This is an old pit, sunk probably thirty years ago. It is now nearly filled with debris. Near the surface, red clay with 486 38 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 39 masses of fluor-spar and fragments of sandstone intermingled, was passed through. Considerable fluor-spar, but no lead, was obtained. The Campbell Shaft.-This is about seventy-five yards nearly due west from the Grace shaft, and is on Mr. W. Spring's land, near the line of McMurray and Blue. It was sunk to the depth of thirty feet. Much fluor-spar and calc. spar were obtained. Calc. spar predominated; large masses made up of crystals of the " nail-head" variety, some of them weighing fifty pounds or more, were seen lying near. The shaft was sunk by the side of a limestone outcrop, on the west. Whether there is limestone on all sides could not be determined. The spar seen at the top occurs in red clay, between hori- zontal layers of limestone; it also seems to lie in heavy hori- zontal beds below the limestone, with red clay between. Some parts of a bed are entirely limestone, and this passes laterally into caic. spar. The following is the general arrangement of the beds for the depth visible, which, however, is but for a few feet: i. Grey, sub-olitic limestone, with red clay between the layers. 2. Red clay, with mases of calc. spar at the lower pan. 3. Masses of limestone, alc. spar, and fluor-spar combined. This section is a very pretty illustration of the derivation of some of the fluor-spar deposits. Near the Campbell shaft there are numerous sink-holes, one forming the entrance to a cavern. Mr. McMican states that spar (whether fluor or calc. he did not know) is to be seen clinging to the walls, and in little pockets " in limestone forming the sides of the cavern. Indeed fluor-spar and calc. spar are found nearly everywhere in this region, either strewn over the surface or connected with limestone. It does not, however, always have lead in connection with it; so that, although deserving attention, it is not a certain guide to lead deposits. 487 ON THE LEAD REGION OF As a conclusion concerning the lead deposits of this region, it may be stated, that in some instances they may be worked at a limited profit. It would be best, however, that no expensive machinery be erected; but rather that the ore, when in sufficient quantity, be carried to such places at which crushers and furnaces are already built; the most profitable arrangement, perhaps, being to dispose of it to the smelters in its crude form. Rosiclare and Fair View, Illinois, offer these facilities. According to analyses by Dr. Peter and Mr. Talbutt, it is useless to mine the ore for the amount of silver contained in it; the per centage is so small that the amount obtained would not pay for the separation, CALDWELL COUNTY. GENERAL GEOLOGY. The geological formations in the county include the quater- nary and carboniferous. Quaternary.-The usual divisions as indicated in the Living- ston county report are present. The drif is more fully devel- oped towards the western part of the county, however. It is the repository of excellent iron ore, of the limonite variety. So far as my observation extends, the drift is mainly composed of rounded pebbles of chert mingled with red clay, and is the result of the wasted beds of the lower carboniferous rocks, mostly from the St. Louis Group. Typical fossils of the St. Louis Group are frequently found in it. Occasional pebbles of quartz and fragments of sandstone are also met within it. The quartz pebbles probably came from the conglomerate; the sandstone may have come either from the coal measures or lower carboniferous. Without attempting an elaborate discussion as to the history of the iron ore, it is suggested that it may possibly have an intimate relation to the chert, as that has always a ferruginous tinge, is usually somewhat cellular, and accompanied by a deep red ferruginous clay. 488 40 LIVINGSTON, CRITENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 41 This clay is quite silicious, and there are instances which seem to clearly indicate that it was derived from the chert. Carboniferous.-The rocks of this age occurring in Caldwell county belong to the coal measures and sub-carboniferous. The Coal .4feasures are represented by the conglomerate and associate coals, near the railroad, and by higher sandstones and coals (possibly two), towards the north, in the vicinity of Tradewater river. Caldwell is really richer in coal than is generally supposed, the limits of the coal field extending further to the west than has heretofore been estimated. The conglomerate coals are near to the surface at several places on Tradewater, displaying a thickness of four feet in some localities. There is reason to consider the coals of Caldwell as worthy of further attention, and to believe that some benefit to the county may be derived from them. Lower Carboniferous.-The St. Louis Group and the Chester Group are both present in the county. They are fully de- scribed in the report on the region adjacent the Louisville, Paducah and Southwestern Railroad. The St. Louis Group is distinguished as being the lead- bearing formation, and for affording the beautiful oflitic lime- stone so well adapted for building purposes. There is, perhaps, no better building stone to be found in the western portion of the State than is to be obtained in this county; not excepting the celebrated Bowling Green oolite. Besides the o6lite for fine work, the lower blue limestone will answer for ordinary purposes, and some of the beds to- wards the top are admirable for such masonry as foundations, bridge piers (light work), and culverts. Much interest has been manifested as to whether or not limestone suitable for lithographic purposes exists in the coun- ty. None was observed that in any way could be used for that purpose. It is probable that they occupy a6-ut the same geological level. 489 ON THE LEAD REGION OF The typical fossil corals of the St. Louis Group, Lithiostro- lion Canadense and L. profierum, are quite abundant in some parts of the county. A fine specimen of the Lilhostrotion was presented to the Survey by a young lady of Princeton; huge masses of it were also seen on the Wilson Warehouse road, about one mile from Princeton. As is the case wherever it is known to occur in this part of the State, this division of the lower carboniferous is quite cav- ernous. A cavern extends under part of the town of Princeton through which a stream of water flows, gushing forth at the - Big Spring." A number of wells are said to have been sunk through the roof of the cavern, and a seemingly inexhaustible supply of water obtained in this stream. The Lead Region.-Galena is reported to have been discov- ered in a number of places in Caldwell county, generally as bunches clinging to- the walls of caverns or filling small cavities in the rocks. No place of importance is cited, however, except in the northern part of the county on the head waters of Don- aldson Creek, about nine miles northwest of Princeton. There has been, indeed, very little attention given to the lead deposits; much less than in either Livingston or Critten- den county. The occasional reports circulated to the effect that lead has been discovered in fabulous quantities at various localities are all traceable to one common source-legend. From our pres- ent knowledge it is deemed safe to say that galena occurs in more or less abundance throughout the St. Louis Group, in its entire extent, and is liable to be found wherever rocks of that group are exposed. With one exception, no systematic ex- plorations for the mineral have been made in the county; this was on the property of Judge Marble, of Princeton. ar. Marble's shaft is on the head waters of Donaldson Creek, about four miles a little north of east of Fredonia, and about nine miles nearly northwest from Princeton. The rocks belong to the St. Louis Group, with the Big Clifty sandstone (base of the Chester Group) capping the high ridges in the vicinity. 490 42 LIVINGSTON, CRITENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 43 Several veins cross the property, all having about the same general course-nearty east and west. The width of the fis- sures is not uniform, however, nor are they always filled with metal, but are sometimes designated merely by streaks of fluor- spar. When the locality was visited the weather was very unfavorable, so that no attempt was made to trace the several fissures, and they may not be so extensive as supposed. A fairly accurate knowledge of the nature of the deposits in the adjoining counties. Livingston and Crittenden, aided consid- erably, however, in the comprehension of the character of the veins, or more appropriately (because not so distinctive), de- posits of this region. The vein on which Mr. Marble's shaft is located is said to be from three to four feet in width, coursing-nearly due east and west. W\hen examined, the pit was nearly filled with water, so that no personal knowledge as to the appearance of the vein was obtained. Both walls are limestone, the sides inclining at an angle of about 25 degrees. According to the affirmation of one of the miners, the fissure was gradually widening towards the bottom, and the lead becoming more concentrated. The material taken from the fissure consists of fluor-spar, with galena distributed through it in small cubes and in masses about an inch in diameter. Towards the bottom the lead is said to have occurred in larger masses, some of them weighing from seven to eight pounds; the general size, however, was not much over a pound. The galena is distributed pretty generally throughout all the material taken from the fissure, but in such small particles that the aggregate is but little when compared with the amount of fluor-spar in which it is inclosed. Zinc sulphide and some galena were found in fragments of the wall rock. In the lead region of Caldwell the character of the deposits seems to differ somewhat from the typical ones of Livingston and Crittenden counties. The metal seems to fill crevices and openings in the lime- stone, produced by shrinkage of the rocks, and by erosion. 491 ON THE LEAD REGION OF They approach more nearly in character to those at the Co- lumbia mines (Crittenden county) than to any others. There appears to be two classes of veins in the lead region of southwestern Kentucky, both deriving their lead from the same source. In one the lead occupies the upper part of a true vein, as is the case at the Royal mines, Livingston county, and in the other the metal fills incidental cracks, fissures, and cavities in the limestone. This latter class is not so persist- ent in longitudinal distance as the former, nor is there any def- inite calculation to be made as to the depth to which the lead extends. But when at all rich in lead, they seem to be more valuable, in proportion to their extent, than the first class, in that the lead is more concentrated. It is to the second class that the deposits of Caldwell county belong. So far, no true veins (in the strict sense of the word) bear- ing galena have been found in the United States, except in the manner of those in Livingston and Crittenden counties, and in the southwestern portion of Illinois. All our lead de- posits extend to a comparatively shallow depth. In Missouri, one of the principal lead-producing States, two classes are distinguished, the gash vein and the segregated deposit, with their several modifications. In southwest Missouri. where an immense amount of lead has already been obtained, and as yet without any apparent diminu- tion in the quantity, the lead occurs (using a general and col- lective term) as segregations. In northwestern Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin, the galena occurs as gash veins, with local modifications, none of them extending to any great depth. In the southwestern part of Kentucky and Illinois the lead oc- curs in the upper part of true veins, or rather the fissuies of true veins, as segregated deposits and in veins approaching gash veins in character. It will be seen, therefore, that it is not necessary for the lead to occur as a true lode to be of value, Gash vein is a term designating mineral deposits occupying fissures confined to a single member or set of strata of a formiton, and is always limited in depth to where a marked change in the chemical and lithological character in the strata occurs. It holds an intermediate position between sregated and true -eins, ard ir sometimes hardly distinguishable from a segregated vein. 492 44 LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN, AND CALDWELL COUNTIES. 45 which fact does not seem to be understood by those interested in mining in this region. The typical deposits in Caldwell would, perhaps, take an intermediate position between a true vein and a gash vein, extending to a depth greater than the latter, but not so deep as a true vein; approaching more nearly in character to a gash vein, however. As a conclusion, it may be said, that it is by no means im- possible for a profitable deposit of lead to be found in this region; but, forming an opinion from the past results, there does not seem to be much probability that such will be the case. The mines at Rosiclare, Illinois. are located on veins similar to, if not identical with, some of those in Livingston county, in this State. If the mines there are not remunera- tive, ours certainly will not be. It is recommended, therefore, that no great expense be incurred in further prosecuting the search for lead, but rather that those already interested in mines which do not really offer solid inducements, be content to let the matter rest as it is. This advice is given with the earnest desire to save the people of Kentucky from any useless expenditure of their money, and not with a wish to needlessly depreciate our min- eral wealth. As long as Missouri and other lead-producing States can afford lead at such little cost for mining and smelting, neither Kentucky, nor any other State with similar deposits, will be able to successfully enter the market with them. 493 '4XX An.-. : , . . W41t' K'9l 44 4,0 0 , H' KSf' ' X4E I 1 S. P a aI en This page in the original text is blank. PL 1i A/: w 0 JI. t C A Rg. 2 4 A 1 4 t 4r 7M "I SN Fig. 'U 'U ( 2 This page in the original text is blank. c z z -C CT z rZ -4 0,X z I -4 o Z rw x a O C 3 i ;C - z1- - ; 4 I" a! zn z :,; Cl i ; Z a -4 C3 P I'l ''26'g I I, s V- \07U Vpr ": iS17F t I ms" This page in the original text is blank. PL li FRo 2 Fig 4 I' I'' i 7TT SHAFTb ii ii :iH t I I . 1 Eft\fff00 i I k t0000 - 0 Ah 0 =; ! I, SVSV : 4 i 't ::' WIC If:: ::DadA W000::ffffid0:00002:fa:Cj\:: I A,, He fe. ;\; ..;=.49 a;.............. CI i i i I I i i I i i Ii I 1I M GENERAL INDEX TO VOLUME I. (THE NUMBERS REFER TO THOSE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGES.) Airdrte Furnace iron ore, &c .... . . . . . ........ 277, 280, 281, 283, 285 Area of the block iron ores of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter countie .91 Area of the kidney iron ores of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter counties... ....... 93 Area of the limestone ores of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter counties .88 Analyses of block ore (iron) of Northeastern Kentucky.... .... . 79, 80, 81, 82 Analysis of the Cane Creek iron ore. 1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Analyses of the carbonate ore of Royster Hill.5..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . Io5 Analyses of coals, general results of .... ... ...........................,.146 Analysis of the Everman's Creek iron ore...... . . .. . . . . . .. . 107, to8 Analysis of the German ore.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105, III Analyses of iron ores of Northeastern Kentucky, general results of..... . . . . . 146 Analyses of kidney iron ores of Gretnup, Boyd, and Carter counties..... . . . . 87 Analyses of Lambert iron ores ....................... . 103, 104 Analysis of limestone ore of Star Furnace. .... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 123 Analysis of limestone ores of Northeastern Kentucky..... . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Analyses of soils, general remarks on ...................... . 140 Analysis of soils, method of... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141, 176 Analysis of upper ferriferous limestone ore of Northeastern Kentucky ... . . . . . . 121 Analysis of Racccon Creek iron ore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III Attvil Rock sandstone.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371, 381 Appendix to chemical report ...................... . .... 291 Arbuckle's coal mine ............... ..... ...... . . .. . 443 Ash of coals, composition of.... .. .. .. ..., ..., ... .. .. 184,- 203 Ash per centage of coals as compared with their specific gravity . . . . 16o, 241, 273, 293 Ash of coal, phosphoric acid in .203 Ashland and Norton Furnaces, dimensions of .346 Ashland Furnace consumption, 1870 to 1874, inclusive .348 Ashland Furnace, Boyd county, coal used at . . . . . ...... .. .. ..... . 301 Ashland Furnace pig iron, analyses of . . .. ... ... ....... .. .6, 162 Baregine, in Grayson Spring sulphur waters .229 Barren and Edmonton counties, botany of .27 Barren county limestones, analyses of... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Both county iron ore, analysis of .152 liellefont l urnace pig iron, analyses of .161 Big Muddy coal of Illinois, analyses of .343, 344 Bituminous shale, Menifee county, analysis of .276 Black band iron ores, Muhlenburg county. ...... . 277, 279 Block coals of Indiana, analyses of........... . 295, 343, 344 494 A 495 48 INDEX. Block ores, iron, area of in Northeastern Kentucky .... ..... Block (iron) ores of Northeastern Kentucky . ......... Blue limestone, Cincinnati Group, of Campbell county, analysis of Boiler crust and sediment, Franklin county, analyses of ....... Boone Furnace pig iron, analyses of ............... Bored wells of Fayette county, analyses of waters of ........ Bored well, Franklin county, analysis of water of. ......... Botanical notes of Barren and Edmonston coun-.es ......... Bota-y of Barren and Edmonson counties, by Prof. Jno. Hussey . . . Botany, general, of Edmonson and Barren counties ......... Bourbon county magnesian limestone . ........... Boyd county coals, description and analyses of ........... Boyd county iron ores, analyses of ................ Boyd county soils and coal, analyses of .............. Bracken county soils and mudstone rock, analyses of ........ Breckinridge county red under-clay, analysis of. .......... Buena Vista Furnace pig iron, analyses of .... .... ..... Buffalo Furnace ore banks ................... Buffalo Furnace pig iron, analyses of ............... Butler county iron ores, coals, and limestone, analyses of. . .... Calcareous spar of blue limestone, analysis of ........... Caldwell county, general geology of ............... Caldwell county galena, lead sulphide .............. Caldwell county, lead region of ................. California adobe soil, analysis of ................. Campbell county marls, shales, clays, sand, soils, analyses of .... Caney Creek coal mine ..................... Cannel coal, Hunnewell, Greenup county, analysis of ........ Carter county clays, coals, iron ores, limestones, pig irons, soil Catalogue of native vegetable species of Barren and Edmonsoa Cavern under part of Princeton, Caldwell county ...... Chalybeate mineral water, Fulton county, analysis of .... Chalybeate waters, Grayson county, analyses of ...... Charcoal furnaces in the Hanging Rock region of Kentucky . Chemical report of R. Peter, M. D. ........... Chester Group in Southwestern Kentucky ......... Clays of Campbell county, analyses of .......... Clay, carbonaceous, Muhlenburg county. Clays, comparative table of composition of ...... . . Clays of the coal fields ................. Clay under Coal B, Mublenburg county. . ..... Clays, fire-clays, of Carter county, analysis of ....... Clay, fire-clay, Muhlenburg county, analysis of .. . . ... Clay, foot of Grand Chain, Illinois, analysis of ....... Clays, fire-clays, of Greenup county, analyses of ...... Clays of Kenton county, analyses of ........... Clay over slate over Coal D, Muhlenburg county, fossils in. . Coals A to H, distances between ............. Coals, general results of analyses of ........... Coal, average consumption per ton of iron n. ....... Coal used at Ashland Furnace, Boyd county, analysis of.. 496 .. . . . . . . 91 .. . . . . . . 76 ........ 178 ........ 214 .... ... '93 ..... ...... 209 to 211 . ...... 214 37 27 ,. . . . . . . 34 ........ . 291 .....t.......56 to 159 ...... . . 153 .t... ..... i62, 301 . ........ 164 ........ i66 .t6t . 1.5 . 252 ........ 167 . 207 . 488 .170. ..... . . 170 ........ 490 ........ 296 .170 ........ 443 ........ 302 s, analyses of.. 179 to 20o, 301 an counties...... . . 45 . .......... . 490 . .......... . 217 . .......... . 232 . .......... . 320 . ...... ... 137 ......... . 366 .......... . . . . . . . . 171 ......... ... . 286 ............ ... . 387 . - - - - - - - - - - - 179 .......b..... ..........280 . 219 . .......... . 236 . .......... . 269 ............ ... . 391 . - - - - - -.-.-.-.-.399 . ......... . x46 ... . . . . . . . 349 ........ .... 301 IN Coals, "block coals," from Indiana, analyses Coals of Boyd county, analyses of ..... Coals of Boyd county, relation of specific gras Coals of Butler county, analyses of. Coals of Carter county, analyses of. Coal in Chester Group, Grayson county Coal D, paleontology of.......... Coals of Edmonson county, analyses of . . . Coal, fibrous, Muhlenburg county, analysis of Coal No. i, Graham bank, analyses of . . Coals of Grayson county, analysis of .... Coals of Greenup county, analyses of .... Coals of Hopkins county, analyses of . . Coals from Indiana, analyses of ...... Coals from Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio, compa Coals from State of Illinois, analyses of . . . Coals of Kentucky, tables of average composi Coals of Kentucky, table of composition of se Coals of Kentucky, &c., table of extremes of DEX. 49 of...... . . .. . . .. . . . . 295 ....... . . . . . . . ....t. 156 to 159 ity to weight of ash.o... . . . . . . i6o ........... .1....... . -67 .. ............. ... . 182, 301 .... . . . . . . . 399 ........... ....... . 392 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201, 203 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286, 287, 385 .... . . . . . . 339 . .............. . 222 to 225 . ............... . 238, 302 . ................. . 266 . ................. . 294 rative analyses of..... . . . . . . . 343 . ................. . 293 tion of.... . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 lected smples . . composition of . . ... . 149 .. ... . 148 Coal on the Louisville, Padtcah, and Southwestern Railroad, distribution of ...... 378 Coals on the Louisville, Paducah, and Southwestern Railroad, description of, and associate rocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Coal A on the Louisville, Paducab, and Southwestern Railroad. . ..... 381 Coal B on the Louisville, Paducab, and Southwestern Railroad. . ..... 384 Coals of Lawrence county, analyses of.... ..... ....... 271 Cool measures in Caldwell county.. . 489 Coal measures in Crittenden county.. 475 Coal measures in Lvingston county. . . 453 Coal measures on the Louisville, Paducah, and Southwestern Railroad .371 Coals of Menifee county, analyses of.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Coal mines along the Louisville, Paducah, and Southwestern Railroaed ... . . . .. . 430 Coals of Muhleshurg county, analyses of.... . . . . . . . . . 283 Coals C and D, Muhlenburg county ..... . . . . . . . . . . .. Coal D, in Mublenburg county, average of seven analyses of ....... Coal E, Muhlenburg county. Coal F, Muhlenburg county ................. . . . . Coals G, H, and 1, Muhlenburg county . . . . . . . .. .. . . . Coals J, K, and L, Muhlenburg county .............. Coals of Ohio county, analyses of...... . . . .. . . . . . .. Cools of Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, average composition of ... ... Coals from the State of Ohio, analyses of ............... Coal in sub-carboniferous limestone formation, Grayson county . . . Coal, sub-conglomerate, on Tradewater, &c. ............. Coals, uncombined sulphur and lime sulphate in. . . . . . . . . . . Coal used in iron smelting in Hanging Rock region . ........ Coal trade of Southwestern Kentucky. . . .... . . ... Coalton Coal (No. 7)............... 182, 18 Coal No. 7 (Coalton), quality of iron produced by . . . ...... Coke of Coalton coal l. ..................... Coke used at Airdrie Furnace, Muhlenburg county ........... Columbia mines, lead, Crittenden county ............. VOL L-32 to 287, 385, .... 398, 337, '3, 34', 35', 390 389 390 393 394 395 396 303 147 291 224 399 287 346 435 352 352 185 283 478 497 50 INDEX. Conglomerate, the Muhlenburg county ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Coppage coal mine ............................... 441 Crandall's (A. R.) report on the forest timber of Greenup, Carter, Boyd, and lAwrence counties............... . . .... ... .... .. . 3 Crittenden county, general description and geology of.... . . . . . ...... . 474 Crittenden county, lead deposits of .................... . 473 to 488 Crown ore (iron), Carter county, analysis of .............. . . .... 189 Crow.n ore, Iron Hills property, Carter county ................ . . . tog Cypret coal mine............. ................ .... 441 Deer Creek Mining Company (lead), Crittenden county . 476 Diagram of influence of topography on timber-growth ........... . . . .. z6 Dip and strike of rocks on Louisville, Paducah and Southwestern Railroad....... . 360 Economical notes on the timber of Barren and Edmonson counties. . 40 Edmonson and Barren counties, botany of .2.7.... . . ............. 27 Edmonson county iron ores, coals, and cast iron ............. 200 to 204, 298 Everman- s Creek iron ore, Carter county.o.. . ........ . . 7, iof, ii6 Excelsior lode, lead ore, Livingston county. . . ......... 465 Fair View lode, lead ore, Livingston county. . ........... 66 Fayette county, soils, lime, calc. spar, and waters ...... . . . . . . . . . . 204 to 211 Fibrou, coal. ........................... . . 286, 287, 385 Fire-clays at Amanda Furnace, &c ...................... . 121, 122 Fire-clays of Carter county, analyses of .179 Fire clays of Greenup county, analyses of ................ . . . . . 236 Fire clay, Muhlenbueg county, analysis of................. , 280 Floods, relation of to forests........ . . ................. 6 Flora of Barren and Edmonson counties ... . ................. 45 Fluor-spar in Caldwell county. . . ............. 491 Fluor-vpar in Crittenden county.. ............... 473 to 488 Fluor-spar in L-izngston county.. ............... 457 to 474 Forests, influence of on floods, &c................. 6 Forest trees, remarks on the various kinds.................. 14 to 21 Forests, value of.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 ,29 Foxden iron ore, Carter county, analyses of .86, 187 Franklin county, mnaly shales, waters, e. 211 Fruit-raising in Barren and Edmonson counties........... . . . . .... 44 Fulton county, soil, mineral water, clay, silicious deposits, sandstones, &c. . . . 216 to 219 Galena, of CaIdwell county, analysis of ................. . . . . . 170 Galena, in Henry county . 265 Garvin Hill iron ore, Carter county. . .o6 General division of the iron ores of Northeastern Kentucky. . 69 Geodiferous limestone. . 428 Geographical range of the principal ore divisions in Northeastern Kentucky . 87 Geological position of block ores of Northeastern Kentucky. 77' Geology, general, of Caldwell county. 488 Geology, general, of Crittenden county................... . . . 475 Geology, general, from Elizabethtown to Tennessee river............... . 360 Geological position of Kidney iron ores of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter counties. 85 Geological position of limestone ores of Northeastern Kentucky .73 Geology and general description of L ivingston county.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Geology of the region near the Louisville, Paducah, and Southwesten Railroad. . 355, 404 German (iron) ore, Carter county, analysis of, &c ..1.0.5........ . so5 to 1og, i88 498 INDEX. 5' Glairine in Grayson Springs sulphur waters ......... ... ....... .230 Graham bank iron ore .1.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Grayson county, iron ores, marly shales, sandstone, coals, waters, and soils . 219 tO 236, 299 Grayson Springs mineral waters, analyses of. ... . . 225 to 233 Greenup county, clays, coals, limestones, iron ores, pig irons, and soils . . . 236 to 254, 302 Grey lime ore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119, 243 Gordon Coal Mining Company's mine. . ......... ..... . . . . . . 443 Hanging Rock region in Kentucky, charcoal furnaces in . .3............. . 320 Hanging Rock region in Kentucky, iron manufacture in .... . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Hanging Rock region in Kentucky, stone-coal furnaces in ., ..... . . .. . 320, 321 Hardin county soils, analyses of.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 to 265 Hard limestone water of Fayette county, for irrigation, &c .... . . ........ 209 Hard-wood of Edmonson and Barren counties........... .......... 41 Hematite iron ore, red, Lawrence county .......................................,.273 Hemlock and laurel abundant on coarse sandstone. 8 Hemp culture, influence on soil, &c. 205 Henry county galena (lead ore) and marly shale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Hickory Flat iron ore .... . . . . . . . . . , 113 Hocking Valley, Ohio, coals .292, 343, 344 Hopkins county coals and ochreous iron ores. ... . ........ . 266 Horsley bank iron ores, Carter county.1.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i87, 188 Hunnew.ell Furnace pig iron, analysis of...... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 252 Hussey's, Prof. John, report on the botany of Edmonson and Barren counties. . . 27 to 58 Illinois clay, post tertiary, analysis of.. ............ 219 Illinois coals, analyses of. . .......... 293 Indiana coals, analyses of............. 294 Iron furnace, the first in the West, in Kentucky .... . . ............. 321 Iron furnaces of Hanging Rock region, average consumption of charcoal and yield of iron, 329 Iron furnaces of Hanging Rock region, annual destruction of forests by. 329 Iron furnaces, proportions of limestone and charcoal used.... . . . . . . . . . 331 Iron furnaces, method of roasting of ores at . . . Iron furnaces, chemical composition of the pig iron of............ Iron furnaces in Hanging Rock region, description of ......... Iron furnaces of Hanging Rock region, average yield of........... Iron Hills Furnace, description of the construction of . . . . . . . .. . . Iron Hills Furnace, flux limestone, analysis of ... . . . . . ....... Iron Hills Furnace pig iron, analyses of .................. Iron ore, limosite, of Clinton Group, Bath county, analysis of......... Iron ores of Boyd county, analyses of................... Iron ore, block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 79, 80, Iron ores of Butler county, analyses of.................. Iron ores, carbonate changing into limonlte.... . . . . . . . .. Iron ores of Carter county, analyses of ............... Iron ore, Crown ore . Iron ores, description of individual beds of .......... . . . Iron ore on Cummins' Branch of Everman's Creek k........ Iron ores of Edmonson county, analyses of ............. Iron ore at Garvin Hill, Carter county. . . . . ... . . . . .. Iron ores of Grayson county, analyses of .............. Iron ores, general results of analyses of. ............ Iron ore, " German ore," Northeastern Kentucky.. . .. . . . . . . .... 331 334 to 337 . . 321 .... 326 325 ..192 .... 193 .... 152 153 81, 82, 91 .... 167 ...... . 6i I 61,62 , . . . . .. 185 , . .. . . . log ........... . . . 95 . ..... . 107 .. ... . 200,298 ........ . . . io6 . ... . 219, 299 ... .... x46 . . . o 105 to io8 499 52 INDEX. Iron ores of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter counties, geological position of . . . . . . . 61, 73 Iron ores of Greenup county, analyses of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. 242 Iron ore, I, grey lime ore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Iron ors, ochreous, Hopkins county, analysis of..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Iron ores of Northeastern Kentucky, geographical range of.... . . . . . . . . . 87 Iron ores, kidney, in Northeastern Kentucky .8..... . 83, 85, 87, 93, 125, 129, 130 Iron ore, Lambert ore ................ ............ . 100 Iron ore on Laurel Furnace land, Carter county.1.1.0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ito Iron ores, limestone ores ............. . 70, 73, 75, 85, 119, 88, 95, 120 Iron ore, limonites and carbonates compared.. ...... . ..... ...... 63 Iron ores, lower block.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Iron ores, lower limestone ore of Northeastern Kentucky.... . . . . . . . . . . 95 Iron ores of Lyon county... ...... ....... ..... ...... 274 Iron ore, main block, in Northeasmerr, Kentucky .114 Iron manufacture of Hanging Rock region in Kentucky, by P. N. Moore .317 Iron manufacture by stone-coal in Hanging Rock region . Iron ores of Muhlenburg county, analyses of. Iron ore, Mt. Im.. Iron ore, Potato Knob ore .................. . . Iron ores, red kidney ' . Iron ore on Raccoon Furnace land, Greenup county ........ Iron ore, slate ore, lime kidney or grey lime ore .......... Iron ores, theory of formation of ................. Iron ore, upper or ferriferous limestote ore ............ Iron, per centage of in linonites and carbonates .......... Iron, pig, of Kentucky, average composition of. .......... Iron production, statistics of .................. Jackson coal, of Ohio, analyses of. . . ........ . Kenton county, silicious grit, clays, -arly shales, and limestone. Kenton Furnace, limestone used as flax at ............. Kenton Furnace, pig iron, analyses of. ............ Kidney iron ores of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter counties. ..... Kidney iron ores of Northeastern Kentucky, area of....... Kidney iron ores ........... ... . 83, 93, 125, 128, 129, 13C Lambert iron ore, Carter county... . 00 L atro-e ode, lead ore, Livingston county .................. Laurel Furnace land iron ore ....................... Lawrence county coals and iron ore .................... Lead ore of Caldwvell county, analysis of .................. Lead region of Caldwell county. ..................... Lead deposits in Crittenden county ..................... Lead ore in Henry county . . ... .. ..... ...... ....... Lead depo-iLs of Livingston county ..... ... ............. Lead ore, galena, Royal mines, Livingston county .............. Lead region in Livingston, Crittenden, and Caidwell counties ......... Lepidodendron impressions on shale .................... Lime, of Fayette county (blue limestone), analysis of ............. Lime (quicklime), of Montgomery county. ................ Lime kidney ore ............................. Lime, use of on soils. l .. ....................... Limestone, blue, of Campbell county, analysis of ............... 500 . . 337 277 .... 129 .t10, III 85, 119 .... 63 .... 120 .... 63 . . . 151 .... 352 - 343, 344 268 to 271 . 241 .... 252 ,. . 83 . . 93 ', 247, 248 0 105, 188 .... 464 .... 110 271 to 273 .... 170 . . . 490 473 to 488 .... 265 457 to 474 . 273 449 115 ..207 . . . 277 ,,277 85, 119 .206, 207 .. 178 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEX. Limestone of Carter county, analyses of .......... Limestone (blue argillaceous) Kenton county, analysis of . . . Limestones of Greenup county, analyses of ........ Limestone, Kenton county, useful in agriculture ....... Limestone, magnesian, Bourbon county, analysis of... . . .. Limestone, Muhlenbnrg county, used at Airdrie Furnace. Limestone over Coal B, Muhlenburg county, fossils in.. Limestones, upper sub-carboniferous, oolitic, and lithographic. Limestone ores of Carter county, analyses of......... Limestone ores of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter counties .... Limestone ores, limonite iron ores. . . .. ... . . Limestone ore, upper ferriferous .............. Limonite iron ore, cut at mile-post i96, Louisville, Paducah and 53 .......... .192 . ......... . 270 .. ......... . 241 . ......... . 271 .. ......... . 291 .. ......... . 280 .. ......... . 388 . . . . . . . .. . . 152 . .8...... . z85, i86 ... . . 75 to 88 . .... . 69, 244 to 248 .. . . . . . . . ........ ,120 Southwestern Railroad . 482 Lithographic stone.t...... . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . 152, 362 Livingston county galena (lead ore) ..... . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . 273 Livingston county, general description and geology of ............................... 452 Livingston county, lead deposits of..... . . . . 457 to 474 Louisville and Stroud City coal mine. 44 Lower block iron ores, Carter county, analyses of .. . . . . . . . . . . . i86, 187, 189 Lower block iron ores .96, 242, 243, 245, 246, 248 Lower limestone ore of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter counties . .95 Lyon county iron ores, &c .274, 297 Main block ore .......... ... .1. .1...... ... 114, 243, 246, 247 Main block iron ore, Carter county, analyses of .t.......... . . . i88 189, 19igo Marts, marly shales, &c., alkalies and phosphoric a-id in . . . . s50, 160, 170, 211, 220 Marts and mnly shales of Campbell county, analyses of .t........... . 170, 178 Marly shale of Boyd county ............ . .. . ... 16o Marly shales of Franklin county, analyses of . . ............... . . . 211 Marty shales of Grayson county, analyses of....... . .. ......... . 220 Manty shale, Henry county, analysis of. .. ..... . .. ...... . . . . 265 Marty shales of Kenton county, analyses of....... . . .. ........ . 270 McHenry coal mine ................ .. .......... . 439 Memphis mines, lead, Crittenden county .... . . ......... . . , . 484 Menifee county coals and bituminous shale. . .275 Mercer's coal mine............. . . ... . ..4. . . 4 Mineral paint of Franklin county ., . ... . .. 2 Mineral paint, Gmyson county . . ..... 221 Minera paint, Hopkins county . . ............... . . ....... 267 Mineral water, sulphur, Fleetwood farm, Franklin county. . .... ..... . . 215 Mineral water, chalybeate, Fulton county, analysis of ..217 Mineral waters of Grayson Springs .225 to 233 Mineral waters of Kentucky, general remarks on. ... ... . 151 Mining, methods of, in Greenup, Boyd, and Carter counties. , 134 Mining in ij- Western coal field ..429 Moore's (P. N.) report on the iron ores of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter counties ... 59 Moore's (P. N.) report on the iron manufature of Hanging Rock region in Kentucky. . 3i7 Montgomery county quicklime, analysis of .2. . . ................. 277 Mt. Savage Furnace, limestone used as flux at. . . ............... . 192 Mt. Savage Furnace, pig iron, analyses of.. . . . ............... . 193 Mt. Tom iron ore . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... .. .. . .... .. . . . 16 Mudstone, silicious, of Bracken county, analysis of................. i6 501 54 INDEX. Muhlenburg county coals, &e.. . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . 381 to 395 Muhlenburg coal mine ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 442 Muhlenburg county, iron ores, limestone, clay, pig irok, coals, &ic ....... . 277 to 288 Nitrates in sois...... .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . 176 Nobel's apparatus for silt analysis of soils.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Nolin Furnace (old), ore and pig iron from.... . . . . . . . . . . . .,,,,,298, 299 Norton Iron Works, Ashland Furnaces, dimensions of ............... . 346 Norton Iron Works Furnace, consumption of, in 1874 ............... . 350 Norwood's (C. J.) reconnoissance of lead region of Livingston, Crittenden, and Ca1dwell counties.... .. . .. ................ . .. .. .. 449 Norwood's (C. J.) report on geology of region of Louisville, Paducah and Southwestern Railroad . Ochre, brownish-yellow, Hopkins county . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . 267, Ohio county coals, soils....... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 788 to 289, Ohio (State) coals, analyses of.... .............. ...... Oolitic limestone. . . ............ 362, 457, Ore beds of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter counties, description of ...... . . Paleontology of Chester Group in Southwestern Kentucky .............. Paleontology of Coal D ........ .... Paleontology of St. Louis Group in Southwestern Kentucky ............. Peter, Robert, M. D., chemical report. ..................... Phosphoric acid in coal ash. . . . . .... Pig iron, average conposition of Kentucky ................... Pig iron, Airdrie Furnace, Muhlenburg county ................... Pig iron, old Baker Furnace, Elmonson county ........ .... Pig irons of Boyd county, analyses of. ...................... Pig irons of Carter county furnaces, analyses of .................. Pig iron, grades of, described .......................... Pig irons of Greenup county, analyses of ..................... Pig iron of Hanging Rock region .. . ................ 319, 334, Pig iron, old Nolin Furnace, Edmonson county, analysis of . Potato Knob iron ore, Carter county., ...... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1i6, Prairie fires, influence of, on character and distribution of plants ........... Pig iron, quality of, made with No. 7 Coal ....... . .... .... ..... Quinn's coal mine ............................... Raccoon Furnace land, iron ore ......................... Raccoon Furnace, limestone used as flux at .................... Rockport coal mine .............................. 355 268 303 291 489 95 .370 392 365 137 203 151 281 203 16i 193 336 252 337 298 188 35 352 443 110 241 439 Reconnoissance of the lead region in Livingston, Crittenden, and Ca1dwell counties . . . 449 Render coal mine ..... . . . . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Red kidney ore ........................... . . . . . 129 Red limestone ore (iron), Carter county, analysis of . ..go Richmond coal mine ........... . . ... 44o Roasting of iron ores in Hanging Rock region of Kentucky . .331 Ross coal mine . .............. . 441 Rough ore (iron), Carter county, analysis of .1................ . , 89, 247 Royal mines (lead), Livingston county .273, 470 Royster Hill iron ore, analysis of ...................... . 104, 1o5 St. Charles coal mine......................... . , 446 St. Louis Coal Company's mine .... . . . . . . . . 441 St. Louis Group in Southwestern Kentucky . ............... ...................,I,362 502 INDEX. Sampling of iron ores and coals for analysis ...... Sandstone at Airdrir, Muhlenburg county ....... Sandstone over Coal D, Muhlenburg county. Sandstone (soft), Fulton county, analysis of ...... Sandstone of Grayson county, analysis of .. .. ... Second growth of timber in Eastern Kentucky ..... Section near Caney Creek coal mine ......... Section of rocks from Cecilia Junction to East View. Section of the Cheter beds west of Big Clifty Creek Section of coals between Anvil Rock and conglomerate. Section at Manyan's, on Nolin river, near Wheeler's Mill Section in Hardin and Grayson counties. ...... Section in vicinity of Princeton ........... Section at Render coal mine.. ........... 55 .325 to 328, 34t, 401 .. ............ . 389 ' . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 ........... . . . . . . . . . . 218 .. ............ . 222 . . .. . . , . .23, 24 . . . . 444 . . . 364 .. ............ . 406 . . .374 . . . . . . . 399 . . . . . . . . 367 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 ........ . .. . . . 439 Section of rocks and coals in first division of the Louisville, Paducab and Southwestern Railroad ..................... .3........... . 375 Section of rocks and coals in second division of the Louisville, Paducab and Southwestern Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 Section of rocks and coals in third division of the Louisville, Paducah and Southwestern Railroad ............. . ................... . 377 Section at St. Cbarles coal mine....... .. . .......... . .. . . 447 Section from Trabue's coal mines to Ohio river, Livingston county . .... . . . 454 Shale, bituminous, Menifee county . ..... ..... . 276 Shale, blue, over coal D, Muhlenburg county.. .......... . 392 Shaler's (N. S.) introduction to Crandall's report on forest trees. . . . . . . . . . 3 Shaler's (N. S.) introduction to Mr. Hussey's report. .......... . 29 Sheridan mines, coal of, Ohio, analyses of..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343, 344 Silicious concretions, Fulton county, analyses of..... . . ...... . . . . . 217 Silicious deposits of Fulton county, remarks on.................. . 218 Silicious grits, Kenton county, analyses of...... . . ....... . . . . . . 268 Silicious mudstone of Bracken county, analysis of ..... . ..66 Silicon in pig iron renders it brittle or " cold-short.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Silt, analyses of soils........... . .............. . . . . 176 Silver in the lead ore of Caldwell county..... . . . . ..3.... . . . . . . . 170 Sink-holes..... . ........ 363 Sink-b.ol", Crittenden county ............ . . . . 478 Slate Furnace, Bath county, first built in the West . .321 Slate over Coal B, Muhlenburg county. 388 Slate over Coal D, Mublenburg county, concretions and fossils in . . 391 Slate ore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85, 139 Slips (clay) in coal beds of Muhlenburg county, causes of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Soil, adob6, of California, analyses of ...................... . 296 Soils, agricultural capabilities of, ascertained by analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Soil analyses, general remarks o. 140, 141 Soils, analyses of silicious residue and sand of. 176, 216 Soil and timber growth of Barren county .34 to 40 Soils of Bloyd county, analyses of ..3.......... . .. i62 Soils of Bracken county, analyses of ....... .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . j6A Sois of Campbell county, analyses of . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1372 Soils of Carter county, analyses of........ .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . ig4 Soils, comparative analyses of old and new soils.... . . . . . . . . . 144, 177, 200 503 56 INDEX. Soils, exhaustion by cropping shown by analysis.t... . . . . . . . . . 144, 177, 200 Soils of Fayette county, analysis of .... . . . .. ... .. 204 Soils of Fulton county, analyses of.. . .216 Soils of Grayson county, analyses of.. . .233 Soils of Greenup county, analyses of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Soils of Hardin county, analyses of........... .. .. . .. .. . 253 to 265 Soils of Ohio county, analyse of.......... . ... . ... 289 Soils, silt analysis of........ . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . 176 Specific gravity of coals as compared with weight of ash . . .t.o.... . 60 Statistics of iron production.......... . . . . . . .. ...... .. . . . 352 Stigm-ria casts in iron ore. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . ... . . . . 11 Stone-coal furnaces in the Hanging Rock region of Kentucky . ......... . 320, 321 Sulpbur in coals... . .......... . . ... ... ........ . . 340 Sulphur in coals, determination of......... .o....... ... . . 5o, z6o Sulphur in coals, not all injurious in iron smelting.... . . . .. ..... . . . 296 Sulphur, uncombined, in coals-.1........................ ....... . . . . . 287 Sulphur water, Fleetwood fans, Franklin county, analysis of .... . . . . ... 215 Sulphur waters, Grayson county, analyses of. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . 225 to 232 Suwranee Furnace iron ores, ar.alyses of . . ........ . . . 274 Tables of the average composition of Kentucky coals ...... .. ....... . 147 Table of composition of carbonate ores (siderits)........ ... . ... 72 Table I of composition of soils, &c., &c. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 to 307 Tale 1I of composition of limestones .... . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 307 Table III (A) of composition of limonite iron ors . ... . ........ . .... 308, 309 Table III (B) of composition of clay iron-stone ores.... . . . . . . . . ... 310 Table IV of composition of coals.3 1 .1.... . . . . . . . . 311 to 313 Table V (Al of composition of many shales, mrs, rsilicious concretions, &c ...... . 314 Table V (B) of composition of clays . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . - 315 Table Vt of composition of pig irons . ....... . . . ...... . . . . . 316 Table of composition of limestone ores, lironites, of Northeastern Kentucky . .. ... 70 Table of the construction of the charcoal iron furnace in Hanging Rock region . 324 Table of distances between the coals, from A to H, inclusive. 399 Table of the extremes of composition of the coals of Kentucky, &c .. . . ...... i48 Table of production of iron in Hanging Rock region of Kentucky, 1870to 1874, inclusive, 353 Table of production of iron and consumption of coal, iron furnaces of Hanging Rock region of Kentucky ............... .............. . 330 Table of proportions of limestone and charcoal used in Hanging Rock region .331 Tables of relative abundance of different kinds of trees, &c., in Eastern Kentucky . . x2, x3 Table of second growth of timber in Eastern Kentucky .... Table of selected Kentucky coals ............. Talbutt, John H., Chemical Assistant ............ Taylor coal mine .................... Timber of Barren and Edmonson counties, economical notes on Timber, black walnut and black locust, value of ....... Timber, restoration of . ................ Timber, second growth in Eastern Kentucky... ...... Timber, species of, as affected by topographya y....... Timber, value of on an ace... ............. Timber, value of in Western Kentucky ........... Topography, as affecting timber growth ........... Treeless regions, origin of, in Western Kentucky ....... 504 . . . . . . . . . . 23, 24 . ..... ...... 149 . - - - - 137, 139 . ......... . 438 ................ 40 ........ . . . . . . . . 5 ....... . . . . . ... e31 ....... . . . . . .. .. 21 ....... . . . . . . .. 25 ........ . . . . . ... 5 .. . . ... . . . .. ,,,29 ....... . . . . . . .. 25 ....... . . . . . . . . 31 INDEX. Trees, forest, remarks on the various species of........... Trees, relative proportion of different kinds in Eastern Kentucky Under-clay, red. of Breckinridge county, analysis of......... Upper block iron ores..... . . . Upper coal measures in Southwestern Kentucky .......... Upper or ferriferous limestone ore ................ Value of an acre of timber. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Walnut tree, black, increased per centage in second growth . ... Waters of Fayette county, analyses of. .............. Waters of Franklin county, analyses of. ..... . . . . . . .. Waters of Grayson Springs, analyses of... . ...... .. Water from interior of iron ore geode, analysis of.. ....... Wood, economic value of, and trade in ............ Yellow kidney ore (iron), Carter county, analysis of.. . . Yellow kidney iron ore ..................... 57 . .... . 14 to 21 .. . . . . ... To ....... . .... 166 ........ . . ...... 112 .. 373 ...... . 120 5 .. . . . .. . . 17 ..... ....208 to 211 .. ...... . 212 ...... 225 to 233 . ...... . 297 ..... . . . 29 .. go 128, 129. 190 505