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Chemical report of the soils, marls, clays, ores, coals, iron furnace products, mineral waters, &c, &c. of Kentucky / by Robert Peter, assisted by John H. Talbutt. Peter, Robert, 1805-1894. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b96-12-34880202 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Chemical report of the soils, marls, clays, ores, coals, iron furnace products, mineral waters, &c, &c. of Kentucky / by Robert Peter, assisted by John H. Talbutt. Peter, Robert, 1805-1894. Printed for the Survey by J.P. Morgan & Co., [Frankfort, Ky. : 1876] 180 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. Coleman "The first chemical report in the new series and the fifth since the beginning of the survey." Pages also numbered 137-316. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1996. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN06011.04 KUK) Printing Master B96-12. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Geology, Economic Analysis.Talbutt, John Holliday. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR. CHEMICAL REPORT OF THE SOILS, MARLS, CLAYS, ORES, COALS, IRON FUR- NACE PRODUCTS, MINERAL WATERS, &c., &c., OF KENTUCKY, BY ROBERT PETER, M. D., &C., &C., CHEMIST TO THE KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. ASSISTED BY JOHN H. TALBUTT, S. B., CHEMICAL ASSISTANT. THE FIRST CHEMICAL REPORT IN THE NEW SERIES AND THE FIFTH SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE SURVEY. PART IV. VOL. I. SECOND SERIES. 137 & 138 This page in the original text is blank. INTRODUCTORY LETTER. CHEMICAL LABORATORY OF THE KENTUCKY STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, LEXINGTON, KY., April i9th, 1875. Professor N. S. SHALER, Chief Geologist, Cc.: DEAR SIR: I have the pleasure herewith to report the results of the chemical work performed in this laboratory, for the State Geological Survey, since September, 1873, to nearly the present date. So much could not have been effected but for the able and efficient assistance of Mr. John H. Talbutt, who has given his constant attention to this labor. Very respectfully, ROBERT PETER. '39 CHEMICAL REPORT OF THE SOILS, MARLS, CLAYS, ORES, COALS, IRON FUR- NACE PRODUCTS, MINERAL WATERS, &C., &c., OF KENTUCKY. By ROBERT PETER, M. D., &C., &C. In the eighty-six soil analyses, which are appended, only a portion of ten counties of the State is represented, and the greater number of these soils are not to be classed amongst our most fertile. The limits of the range of variation of their several constituents is shown in the following table, viz: Pr. ct.No. County. P'r. ct.No. County. Organic and volatile matters vary from.... . .. . . . 7.985 in1300 of Boyd to I.813 in1398 of Carter. Alumina and iron and manganese oxidea vary ftom ...... 5.763 in 13960of Carter to 2.74 in 1571 ofHardin. Lime carbonate varies from. . 3.890 in 133 of Campbell to .o45 in 1572 of Hardin. Magnesia varies from . . . . . 520 in 1329 of Campbell to o34 in i298 of Boyd. fin t 39 of Carter. Phosphoric acid varies from . . 555 in 1424 of Fayette to .045 In 1566 of Hardin. Potash varies from... . .. .662 in 139 of Carterto.o6 in 1325 of Campbell. iiin 1327, Of CaMPbell. Soda varies from ...... . .286in 1407 of Carter to trace. in 1567 of Hardin. Sand and insoluble silicates vary from.... . .. . . 74-84 in 139 of Carterto 92.455in i6of Ohio. Water expelled at 3800 F. vanes from.. . . . 2.65 in 1558 of Hardinto.225 in1572 of Hardin. Water expelled at 212 F. varies from. ..... . .. . . 5 75 in 1329of Campbell to. in 157 i of Hardin. The extremes may represent very rich and very poor soils; but not the general character of the soils of the counties named. 140 CHEMICAL REPORT. The method of analyses of the soils does not vary much from that described in volume III of the Kentucky Geological Reports. The principal object was, as there stated, to obtain comparative results, which would enable the scientific agricul- turist to form an opinion as to the chemical constitution of our soils in their relation to husbandry; without attempting to perform the almost hopeless task of giving all the minuter con- stituents of each, or of presenting all those physical conditions which exert so great an influence on their practical fertility. To this end the several soils were treated as nearly alike as possible: air-dried together, digested for an equal time at nearly the same temperature in acid of a uniform strength, &c., &c. The specific gravity of the chlorohydric acid used being about I.Io. The process of digestion in water, containing carbonic acid, was not employed in all, because of the press of work in the laboratory, mainly. There can be no doubt, however, that, used with proper care, this process will indicate the relative propor- tion of soluble plant food in the soil at the time. As this may very well vary, under different physical atmospheric conditions, it was not considered of essential value in the comparative analyses. The well-known fact that various p/zl sical conditions exert a powerful influence on the productiveness of soils which have a sinmilar chemical composition. has, in recent times, singularly perverted the minds of chemists, and consequently of agricul- turists, in relation to the value of soil analyses. Because the chemnical conditions of a soil are not the only ones necessary to productiveness, they have, by a perverted logic, jumped to the conclusion that these conditions are of no consequence what- ever. But if these chemical conditions are indispensable to the fer- tility of the soil, how much injury has been done in recent years to the scientific study of the soil and of agriculture, by the great outcry which has been raised against this kind of investigation! The comparative chemical examination of the soils of a State or country can only be made under the patron- 141 5 CHEMICAL REPORT. age of the government. Individual efforts are inadequate to effect it; nor could they, if adequate, so economically conduct it. The writer believes that the geological survey of any region should always include this study of the soils; yet very little has been done in this direction in all the recent State surveys, and a valuable opportunity has been lost, which in many instances cannot recur, of studying the chemical con- ditions of the virgin soil of various parts of our country. Chemists are naturally somewhat averse to soil analysis; it requires so much time and labor, so much care must be taken to secure accuracy, and there is so little variety in the work, and so small an appreciation of its value and significance amongst the people when done, that they gladly avoid it. But, in the course of time, most of them who are not too much prejudiced against the teachings of experience, arrive at the same conclusion with Prof. Aug. Voelcker, of the Eng- lish Royal Agricultural College: "There was a time when I thought with many other young chemists, that soil analyses would do every thing for the farmer; three or four years of further experience and hard study rather inclined me to side with those men who consider that they are of no practical utility whatever; and now, after eighteen years of continued occupation with chemico-agricultural pursuits, and, I trust, with more matured judgment, I have come to the conclusion that there is hardly any subject so full of practical interest to the farmer as that of the chemistry of soils. The longer and more minutely soil investigations are carried on by com- petent men, the greater, I am convinced, will be their practical utility."-Jour. of Roy. Agr. Soc. of Eng., i865. Even Prof. S. W. Johnson, whose somewhat harsh criticism, in 186I, of some of the former labors in this field of the writer, seemed to sound the key-note of the clamor against this kind of study in this country, has so far yielded his opposition as to give us in his valuable work, "lHow Crops Feed," 1870, the comparative analyses of several soils, and to point out the sig- nificance of their chemical composition. But he is careful to caution the reader, page 368, that although the analysis may 142 6 CHEMICAL REPORT. show the amount of the mineral fertilizers in a soil, it cannot tell how much of them "1 is at the disposal of the present crop;" and on page 271: "These facts show how very far chemical analysis, in its present state, is from being able to say defi- nitely what any given soil can supply to crops, although we owe nearly all our precise know/edge of vegetablc nutrition directly or indirectly to this art." He might very truly have added, that we should not be able to say that a suitable chemical composition of a soil was not the only condition necessary to its fertility, unless we had thoroughly studied that condition. It is only by means of chemical analyses that we find out the equally indispensable nature of the physical conditions. He cannot fail to admit that it is impossible to make progress in our knowledge of the soil and its actions and conditions without a thorough study of its chemical characters. In accordance with this outcry against this sort of investi- gation the difficulties of obtaining good samples for analyses has been exaggerated. In a country like that of most of this State, where there is comparatively but little quarternary or transported material constituting'the soil, and especially before its character has been much altered by a dense population, there is little difficulty, with the use of necessary precautions, in obtaining representative samples of large areas similar in character and position. In many large districts in our State the soil has been formed in place by the disintegration of the rocks. In other parts, where surface action has been greater, more judgment and care must be exerted in the collection of the soils; but in no part of the State, probably, is so great local variety to be seen in the soils as frequently may be observed in the northeastern States, where the transporting action of water and of ice, in former epochs, has produced a high degree of local irregularity in the nature of the surface deposits. In the collection of the samples of our Kentucky soils the causes of local and accidental differences of composition were, as much as possible, avoided. 143 7 CHEMICAL REPORT. Because of the very small proportion of the essential ingre- dients of the soil, which are carried off in crops, as compared with the whole amount of the earth, taken to the depth through which the roots of plants absorb nourishment, it has been denied that it is possible by chemical analysis to show their diminution in the old field soil, as compared with the virgin soil. Indeed it has been logically demonstrated to be impos- sible. But, it should be recollected that when, by the acid digestion, we separate these essential soluble ingredients from the greater mass of the soil, left as sand and insoluble silicates, which amount to from about seventy-five to ninety-two per cent. of the whole, the probabilities of error in the determination of these minuter ingredients must not be calculated into the whole weight of the soil, but into that smaller part which we have thus extracted from it. Logic apart, the fact still remains, that in one hundred and forty-nine duplicate analyses, made by the writer for the Ken- tucky, Arkansas, and Indiana Surveys, in which the chemical composition of the virgin soil was compared, under similar conditions of treatment, with soil of a neighboring old field in the same locality, one hundred and twenty-two out of the one hundred and forty-nine showed a marked diminution of most of the essential ingredients of the soil in that of the old field as compared with the virgin soil. This certainly is not an accidental result. In the soil analyses at present reported the results are not so striking in this relation. Partly because the samples had not, in several cases, been collected with special reference to this investigation, and partly because of greater local variations of the soil in the regions in which they were obtained. In calculating the probable amount of exhaustion of the essential soil ingredients, it should be recollected that as much, and sometimes more, may be alienated from the soil by the solvent action of the atmospheric agents, while the surface is much exposed in the cultivation of hoed crops, than is absorbed and removed by the products. Hence the exhaustion of the soil is much more rapid under these cir- 144 8 CHEMICAL REPORT. cumstances than is generally allowed. In other words, the exhaustion of the soil when under cultivation in hoed or plowed crops, during which time a large portion of its surface is kept bare of vegetation and subjected to the leaching action of rains, is much greater than can be accounted for by the amount of the essential ingredients which are taken from it in its products. In several instances, in the analyses of the soils described above, the Isand and insoluble silicates," left after digestion, for ten days in the acid, were analyzed by the admirable pro- cess of Professor J. Lawrence Smith, for the determination of the amount of fixed alkalies held in the form of insoluble silicates. As will be seen, in the detailed report and in the tables, the quantity of potash and soda thus held in the soil in the samples in question are, in most cases, considerable, ranging from 0.485 to 2.731 per cent. of potash to the whole soil, and o. X 65 to 1.306 per cent. of soda. It is evident that, although at present insoluble, and hence unavailable for plant nourishment, these alkalies are doubtless gradually released and brought into a soluble form by weath- ering and under the influence of the products of vegetable decay, so that they tend to prolong the fertility of the soil. The seventeen limestone and lime analyses, of specimens from nine counties only, represent but a small part of our vari- ous lime rocks. But even these exhibit their great industrial value, including, as they do, limestones useful for the fluxing of our iron ores, as well as for purposes of construction in the form of building stone or cement, while some of them would be valuable as fertilizers on the land. The so-called litho- graphic stone of Barren county and of other corresponding localities may, for some purposes, with well-selected samples, replace the more costly foreign stone. The eighty-two iron ores which have been analyzed are from eleven counties, principally of the northeastern portion of the NOTE.-I have found it impossible to use this stone for crayon or transfer work. N. S. SHALER. 9 VOL. 1,-10 145 CHEMICAL REPORT. State. Sixty-four of these are limonite ores; twenty-seven are clay ironstones or carbonate ores; and only one, to be found probably only in limited quantity in Lawrence county (see No. 1594), is of the red hematite variety. The proportion of metallic iron, in the limonite ores exam- ined, varies from 19.344 per cent. to 57.148 per cent. In the carbonate ores analysed the per centage of metallic iron ranges from 10.960 per cent. in what may be termed only a ferruginous limestone, up to 40.465 per cent. Of the one hundred and ten speciniens of coal, &c., which were examined by proximate analysis, eighty-nine were from eleven counties in Kentucky; of which five counties, viz: Boyd, Carter, Greenup, Lawrence, and Menifee, are in our northeastern coal field; and six, viz: Butler, Edmonson, Gray- son, Hopkins, Muhlenburg, and Ohio counties, are in the southwestern coal field. All these coals are of the splint, dry coal, or semi-cannel coal variety; cleaving generally into thin layers, which have more or less fibrous coal between them. Although some of them make a good coke, they do not gen- erally soften or swell much when heated or burnt, and hence, when they do not contain an unusual quantity of sulphur, they can be used, without preliminary coking, for the smelting of iron. Some of these coals, however, are quite sulphurous, and some contain a large proportion of ash,t but the better sam- ples compare favorably with the best coals of the neighbor- ing States. For the purpose of this comparison seven of the best coals of the State of Ohio, two of the best of those of Illinois, and four of the celebrated "block coals " of Indiana, used there for iron smelting, &c., were submitted to similar processes of analysis with our Kentucky coals. We give the general com- parative results in the following tables: t In some cases, as the samples for analysis were taken from new and imperfect openings, it is more than probable the coals will be found to be better than is represented in the analyses given. 146 10 CHEMICAL REPORT. AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF THE COALS FROM THE NORTHEASTERN KEN- TUCKY COAL FIELD. Number of Specific Volatile Fixed car- Per cent. of Per cent. of COUNTIES. samples gravity.combustible bon in the ash. sulphur. analyzed. matters. coke. Boyd. . . . . . . 13 1.337 33-43 54-35 8.46 2.292 Carter.i6 1.331 33-39 53.45 8.17 i. 886 Greenup.. . . . . 14 1 375 34.50 52.20 9.37 3. X65 Lawrence. . . . . 6 1.326 36.27 53.85 6.86 1.285 Menifee.. . . . . 2 1.319 33.55 53.42 10.36 2- 544 General average.. 51 1.3376 34.23 53.45 8.62 2.234 AVERAGE COMPOSITION IN THE SOUTHWESTERN COAL FIELD. Number Specific Volatile Fixed Per cent. of Per cent. G COUNTIES. analyzed. gravity. combustiblecarbon. ash. sulphur. matters. Butler... . . . 1. .378 30.66 54.94 11.00 2.544 Edmonson.. 8 1.360 34.01 52.34 10.56 3.312 Grayson. 8 1.385 3117 49.78 14.38 2 .083 Hopkins 2 1.385 32-95 52-55 11.20 5.019 Mahlenburg . . . 11 1.312 36.42 53.26 6.74 2.949 Ohio...3...... 3 1.362 34.90 53-77 8 i6 3.103 General average. 33 1.3636 ,33.70 52.77 10.34 3.166 By leving out the exceptional ash of No. 19, the average is-.. tWithout No. x hs avenge would toe- o-36. , This is the ave-ge of fifteen of the coats only. I By avingout the exceptiona ash of No. t454, the average would heb _x..t. AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF THE SELECTED COALS FROM NEIGHBORING STATES. Number Specific Volatile Fixed car- Per cent. of Per cent. of STATES. analyzed. gravity. combustiblebon in the ash. sulphur. matters. coke. Ohio .. . . . . . 7 1.327 34- 51 55.17 6.43 1.494 Illinos ... . . . . 2 1X310 31.95 59.o6 5.96 1.924 Indiana.. . . . . 3 1.313 35.93 54.24 7. 23 1946 General average. 12 1. 317 34-13 56.12 6.5 4 1.768 This comparison is more or less imperfect, because the sam- ples, which were too few in number to make it complete, were not averaged with special reference to it. Yet it measurably corroborates opinions held by geologists and others in regard 147 I I CHEMICAL REPORT. to our two coal fields. For instance, it will be seen in the general averages that the coals of the southwestern field have more ash and sulphur, and a higher specific gravity, than those of the northeastern, and that the relative proportions of the combustible matters, volatile or fixed, are less in the former. The differences, however, are not very remarkable. In each of these particulars the coals from our neighboring states of Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, show less difference than might have been expected, in view of the fact that they had been collected from some of the most celebrated coal mines, as representing the best coals of those States. The following tables illustrate this: TABLE OF THE EXTREMES OF COMPOSITION OF THE COALS. Volatilecombus- Fixed carbon. Ashes. Sulphur. CouNTIEs. tible matters. From From From From B1oyd . . . . . . . . . . 29.70 to 36.70 46.86 to 57.90 5. To to 14-74 1.285 to 5.36i '.arter . . . . . . . . . 27.22 to 36.26 44.64 to 58.88 3.20 to 12.10 .724 to 3.443 V .reenup ....... . 31.66to 37.70 47.ooto 56.70 5.40to 13.00 .746 to 5.934 1awrence... . . . , 33-90t o 39 00o 47.84 to 57.80I.80 to 13.70.736 to 3.785 Menifee . . . . . . . 333. o6 to 34. 4 50. 24 to 56.60 7.40 to 13.6 .997 to 4.092 (;reatest extreme . . . 27.22 to 39.00 44.64 to 58. 88 I . 80 to 14.74 .724 to 5 .361 B'tler.... . 30.66 .. ..... 11.00 2.544 l .dmonson ., , , , , , , 32 2o0 to39.oo 45.46 to 54.26 6.94 to 14.34 1.059 to 8.685 ;.rayson ..... . . . 25.86to 35.80 40.14to 55.52 7.50to 29.60 .777 to 3.565 1 1.pkins . . . . . . . . 30.00to 35,90 51 - 10to 54.oo 6.9oto 15.50 2.759 to 7.28o Muhlenburg . . . . . . . 30.60 to 43 .0 49 . 80 to 58.80 3.72 to 11 .80 .640 to 4.032 Ohio.. . . .. 33-50to36.2052.20tO55.10 7.10to 9.00 2.837 to 3.332 Greatest extremes . . . 25.86 to 43.08 4014 to 58.80 3.72 to 29.60 .640 to 8.685 State of Ohio ... . .. . 29.68to 36.68 54. 5 16to 57.o6 4.20to 8.72 .756 to 2.247 State of Illinois .... . 31.86to32.04 55.64to59.54 5.s6to 6.76 m.376to2.472 Ste of Indiana. 35. 10 to 36.38 5 3.50 to 53.58 5.28to 9.oo i.664to2.373 Greatest extremes . . . 29.68 to 36.38 5350 to 59.54 4.20 to 9.000 .756 to 2472 148 1 2 CHEMICAL REPORT. TABLE OF THE COMPOSITION OF ELEVEN SELECTED FROM SEVERAL COUNTIES. I3 KENTUCKY COALS Number. Specific Volatile Fixed car- Per cent. of Per cent. of COUNTIES. gravity. combustiblebon in ash. sulphur. matters. coke. Boyd . . . . . . 1286 1.308 33.30 57.60 5.80 2.480 Boyd. . . . . .. 1289 1.320 34. 50 55.40 5.10 1.285 Carter.3 . 46.. 1 i.288 34.36 54.60 4.40 .724 Carter.347.3... . 1 .290 27.22 55.88 7.50. 973 Carter. 1353 1.274 34.50 58.50 3.20 2.164 Edmon son.34 1a8 1.336 35-14 54.26 6.94 2.706 Greenup.... .. . 1492 1.292 33.90 56.70 6.20 .746 Greenup.... .. . 1493 1.289 34.96 55-54 5.40 1.590 Hopkins. 1579 x .322 35.90 54.00 6.go9 2- 759 Lawrence. . . 1589 1.281 35.30 57.80 X.80 .73S Lawrence. . .. . 1593 1.284 39.00 54-76 3.74 t1.o66 Generalaverage...... . 1.298 34.36 56.38 5.i8 .566 To show the great importance of collecting true and faithful average samnples of the coal beds, for the purpose of analysis, two picked cabinet specimens were taken and analyzed, to-wit: No. 1280 (6). Coal No. 7, from Turkey-pen Hollow, Boyd countyt. No. 1 348 (6). Coal No. 7, Prztchard's coal, Mt. Savage Fur-- nace, Carter county. The comparative results of the analyses are as follows thoroughly air-dried: Picked sample. Ave'ge sample. Picked sample. Ave'ge sample. No. 1280 (3). No. 1280 (a). No. 1348 (b). NO. 1348 (a). Specific gravity... . .. . . Not determ'd. 1.358 Not determ'd. 1.435 Hygroscopic moisture... 4.70 3-40 4.50 5.40 Volatilecombustible matters.. 34-30 32.30 37.10 32-70 Coke . . . . . . . .. . 6,.co 64.30 58.40 6.9go Total... . .. . . . . . 300.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Total volatile matters 39.00 35-70 41.60 38. 10 Carbon in the coke..... . 59-04 55-40 56.40 52.52 Ash. . . . .. . . . . .. x.96 8. go 2.00 9.38 Total... . .. . . . . . 00.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Per cmntage of sulphur... 0.983 1.230 0.571 2.356 149 As the value of a coal bed bears a very near relation to that of its average product, it is easily to be understood that the analysis of a selected sample may be of very little utility. On the other hand, the selection of a true average sample of the bed may often be a task of considerable difficulty. The determination of the proportion of sulfphur in coals has been much neglected in this country; and where it has been done the method generally used has been to oxidate the pow- dered coal in strong nitric or nitro-hydrochloric acid. This mode of analysis is not so perfect as fusion with a mixture of nitre, carbonate of soda, and salt, &c., which always, when properly managed, brings all the sulphur into the form of sol- uble sulphate, in whatever state it may have existed in the coal. This exhaustive mode was employed in all our estima- tions of this substance, and hence the quantities obtained may seem greater than are shown to exist in similar coals which have been treated with the acids. As has now been extensively demonstrated, the sulphur in coals is rarely all combined with iron as sulphide or bi-sul- phide. Some frequently exists in a free or uncombined con- dition, as is shown in an analysis described in the following pages. Some of it is frequently in the form of lime sulphate. When it is recollected that vegetable matters, decomposing in a solution of sulphates of lime, magnesia, iron, &c., reduce these salts to sulphides, with the production of hydrogen sul- phide in the case of the earthy 'salts, and when we reflect that this gaseous compound, HS, is decomposed, with the depo- sition of free sulphur, on contact with the air, we can easily understand how most of our coals must contain not only pyrites but free sulphur. In the thirty-four marls, marly shzales, sands, and silicious con- ci-etions, which have been analyzed, we find a general preva- lence of lime, fixed alkalies, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, &c. Some of the marls and shales contain these in such con- siderable proportions as to make them locally useful for the amelioration of poor sandy land. Some of these find an ap- plication as mineral paint, for which they are adapted by their I ro CHEMICAL REPORT. 14 CHEMICAL REPORT. agreeable tint and other properties. Some of the more sili- cious could be used in the manufacture of glass, as well as for other purposes; some of post-tertiary silicious clays, or soft sandstones, might be made into bricks for scouring purposes, &c., while others, which contain but little lime, magnesia, oxide of iron or alkalies, would prove quite refractory in the fire. But the fire-clays and plastic clays of the coal fields, of which the analyses of sixteen are appended, are especially deserving attention; and from their abundance, superior quality, and vicinity to fuel, should form the basis of extensive industries. Amongst them may be fou'nd some of the best of fire-clays, as well as some well-fitted to the manufacture of pottery ware of various kinds, including the better sorts of delf, stone china, or queensware. Skill, capital, and enterprise are all that are needed, on these somewhat neglected deposits, to make them of very great value to individuals as well as to the public. Only the want of these essentials causes us to pay a heavy tax to foreign nations for our pottery ware, when the materials for the manufacture lie measurably neglected at home. It is simply the history repeated of the importation of bricks from Holland to build houses in Albany, and the packing of English bricks, on the backs of horses, over the Alleghenies, to con- struct the barracks at old Fort Duquesne on the Ohio. The nineteen samples of pizg iron which have been analyzed are mostly of the kind known as foundry iron. On reference to the general table of their composition, it will be seen that they present considerable variety in this respect; as for exam- ple: The per centage of iron ranges between .5.455 to 95.840 carbon . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2.040 to4.400 phosphorus . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 0.123to1.029 sulphur :. .. . .. .. .. .. a trace too. 150 The specific gravity . ... . ....... 6.406 to7.782 Of the numerous mineral waers of our State the analyses of twenty-one are given in the present report, mostly from one locality. 151 I 5 CHEMICAL REPORT. BATH COUNTY. No. 1269LIMONITE IRON ORE. "From Block-house ore bank, one and a halfmiles from the Old Slate Furnace, Bath county. Bed ten to twelve feet thick; on the Clinton Group. Collected by Philip N. Moore." Ore generally dense and dark-colored, with some dark ochreous ore. Structure cellular and oolitic. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Iron, peroxide ............... . 76.077 = 53.254 per cent. of iron. Alumina... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . 2.592 Manganese, brown oxide......... . . .430 Lime, carbonate.... .. . .. .3... . . .30 Magnesia................. . 281 Sulphuric acid.............. 030 = o.oi0 per cent. of sulphur. Phosphoric acid.... ... . .. . . 731 = .319 per cent. of phosphorus. Water, expelled at red heat........ . . 12.300 Silica and insoluble silicates .8......... S. i..8 6. 16o per cent. of silica. 100.751 The phosphoric acid determination was made by Chancel's process, viz: by means of acid nitrate of bismuth solution, after the separation of the iron oxide, and is believed to be nearly correct. The iron ore in the Clinton Group, especial- ly the "e dye-stone ore," is usually quite phosphatic. This does not prevent it from being quite valuable for the production of iron for many purposes, although it may not be made to yield the higher grades of bar iron or steel. BARREN COUNTY. No. 1421-LIMESTONE. "Oslitic Limestone. Upper layers of upper sub-carboniferous limestone. Glasgow Junction, Barren county. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." A compact, nearly white, fine oolitic limestone, with a fer- ruginous stain on the exposed surfaces probably derived from the superincumbent soil. No. 1422-LIMESTONE (compact). "Upper Sub-carboniferous Limestone. Glasgow Junction. Collected by N. S. Shaler." A light-grey, fine granular, or compact limestone, which might be a good lithographic stone but for the presence of some imbedded fossils and minute specks of iron peroxide. 15. CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1423-LIMESTONE. Labeled Litlwgraphic Slone; be/ow the building stone. Upper sub-carboniferous limestone. Glasgow Junction. Collected by Prof. JV. S. Shaler." A light-grey, compact, or very fine granular rock, which might be a perfect lithographic stone but for the minute im- bedded fossils and the small occasional specks of iron per- oxide, &c., which it contains. Some layers, however, are reported measurably free from these imperfections, and found to be good enough, on actual trial, for some ordinary litho- graphic purposes. COMPOSITION OF THESE BARREN COUNTY LIMESTONES, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 142x. NO. 1422. No. 1423. Specific gravity.2................ . .. 678 2.721 2.689 Lime, carbonate .98.050 77.550 82.960 Magnesia, carbonate.... . .. . .. . .. . . .363 ' 3. 14 7. 655 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides..511 2.680 2.680 Phosphoricacid.... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .051 .051 .115 Sulphuric acid.. ..... . .. . .. . .. . .. .260 .192 .260 otash.... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .115 .154 .135 Soda... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .327 .,88 ., 56 Silica and insoluble silicates.....1 .. . .. . .. .o60 6.060 6. i60 Total.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. loo. 737 ,00o.89 100.12. Per centage of lime.50.428 43.428 46.457 Per centage of phosphorus... .. . .. . .. . .. .022 .022 .050 Per centage of sulphur... . .. ... .. . . 304..1 .077 . 304 No. I421 would yield a very pure white lime. BOYD COUNTY. No. 1270-CLAY IRON-STONE, &c. Labeled " Grey Limestone Ore. J. P. Jones' drift, near Ashland. Averagc sample selected by P. N. Moore." A mixed sample, with oolitic carbonate of iron, dark grains united with a whitish cement, portions of compact carbonate. and of limonite ore. 1s3 17 CHEMICAL REPORT. .\O. 127I-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled - Wilson Creek Ble Block Ore. Average sample, taken from Star Furnace stock pile, by P. N. Moore." A fine-granular ore of various shades of dark-grey, with some slight incrustations of limonite. .Not adhering to the tongue. No. 1272-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "So-called Limestone Ore, from Wiliams' Creek. Star Furnace stock pile. Aver- aged by P. N. Moore." A granular and o5litic proto-carbonate of iron (containing much carbonate of lime). Olitic grains nearly black, in a whitish cement. SUMMARY OF THE COMPOSITION OF THESE BOYD COUNTY CLAY IRON- STONES, DRIED AT 212' F. No. 1270. No. 127i. No. 1272. Iron, carbonate.................. . 32.285 66.854 19.802 I-on, peroxide...... .. .. . . .. . . .. . 12.784 .276 21.433 Alumina (by difference).1.1....... . .. . . . i.968 4.260 1.193 Lime, carbonate....... . .. . .. . .. . . 21.125 2.460 30.205 Magnesia, carbonate..... . .. . .. . . .. . . .69 i 4.o86 a tra:. Manganese, carbonate..... ..... . . .. . . 465 .572 .240 Phosphoric acid (anhydr.)....... 377 .709 .257 Suiphuric acid (anhydr.)....... . .267 .885 .157 Silica and insoluble silicates....... . .. . . . 19-730 18.360 23.080 Water and loss..... . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 308 1.538 3.633 Total... .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . oo.oool oo.ooo oo.ooo Per centage of iron................... . 24-591 32.466 23.109 Per centage of phosphorus........ ...... 1 064 - 3o8 .112 Per centage of sulphur... . .. . .. . .. . .. .107 .354 .o63 Per centage of silica. ...... ....... 15 00 18.960 Of these ores, No. 1271 would be the best, as it is the richest; but its considerable proportions of phosphorus and sulphur will somewhat injure the toughness of the iron it 154 18 CHEMICAL REPORT. yields. No. 1272 is not so objectionable in this respect. This ore as well as No. I270, containing a large proportion of lime, although comparatively poor in iron, may yet be profitably smelted, especially in mixture with richer ores. They will obviously require less fluxing material than the other ores. NO. I 273-LIMONITE. Labeled "State Ore. Head of Cane Creek, on the road to Star Furnace, Boyd county. Average sample selected by P. N. Moore." In irregular curved layers, varying in hardness and color from yellowish-brown to blackish-brown; frequently inclosing soft ochreous nodules. No. 1274-LIMONITE. Labeled " Yellow Kidney Ore, sampled from a number of places by P. N. Moore. Star Furnace property. " Irregular curved layers of dark-colored limonite (brown haematite), incrusted by and inclosing soft ochreous ore. NO. 1275-LIMoNITE. Labeled "Limestone Ore;" average sam- ple selected by P. AN Moore. Bellefont Furnace. Ore varying from brownish-yellow to dark brown (mostly dark brown), with some proto-carbonate of iron, ferruginous limestone, and a little calc. spar intermixed. NO. 1276-LIMONITE. Labeled" Yellow Kidney Ore;" average sample selected by P. AN Moore. Buena Vista Furnace. Irregular curved layers of limonite, varying from soft, brown- ish-yellow to dense, dark brown ore. No. 1277-LImONITE, &C. Labeled " Yellow Kidney Ore, or Kidney Ore below the No. 7 Coal." Straight Creek, Buena Vista Furnace. Average sample collected by P. N. Moore. Limonite layers of various depth of color, with some fine granular carbonate of iron and thin veins of calc. spar. Iss I9 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I278-LIMONITE. Labeled-"Black Kidney Ore." Average sample, from Stock Branch Hollow, just south of Star Fur- nace. Collected by P. N. Moore. In irregular curved layers, generally of a dark purplish- brown color, with some soft ochreous nuc.lei and layers. SUMMARY OF THE COMPOSITION OF THESE BOYD COUNTY LIMONITES, DRIED AT 2t20 F. No. 1273. No. 1274. No. 1275. No. 1276. No. 1277. No. 127& Iron, peroxide... . . . 53.653 58.960 51.802 6i.344 56.022 54.055 Iron, carbonate. . . 10-594 ..... 8.821 Alumina (by difference) ,, 4.3247.284 4.523 4.236 7.194 4.919 Manganese, brown oxide. .368 .380 a trace.a trace.a trace .420 Lime, carbonate.... . . a trace. .430 7.480 .750 2.520 .o8o Magnesia.... . .. . 101 .227 .440 .208 1.271 a trace. Phosphoric add (anhydr.) .313 .376 .570 ' 795 .526 .076 Sulphuric acid (anhydr.)..220 .206 .o8g .041 .o9o o96 Combined water..... 10.150 0 o. 8008.772 11.200 10.126 10450 Silex and insoluble silicates 30.940 21.210 15.730 21.480 13.430 30.080 Moisture and loss... . . .. .. . 127 Total.. .. . . .. . loo1.069 300.000 100.000 100.054 100.000 100.176 Per centage of iron.... 37.551 41.272 41.357 42.941 43.473 37.838 Per centage of phosphorus. .137 .164 .231 .347 .229 .033 Per centage of sulphur... .o86 .082 035 .oi6 .o36 .038 Per centage of silica. ,,, 29.560 19.980 13.160 18.560 1i.660 24.260 These are all good ores; Nos. I273 and 1278 being the poorest in iron and the most silicious. The proportion of sulphur is small in all of them, and of phosphorus is probably not enough to injure the iron for ordinary uses. Nos. 1275 and 1277 would probably be improved for smelting by a pre- vious roasting. No. I 279-COAL. Labeled "I Coal No. 7, from drift one quarter mile above the store, on Furnace Branch of Straight Creek, Buena Vista Furnace. Average sample of both parts of the bed, by P. N. Moore." 156 20 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1280-COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 6, from Turkey-pen Iol- low; Old Clinton Tract; Bellefont Furnace. Averaged by P. Al Moore." No. 1281-COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 7, three feet thick, no parting; Chadwick Creek. Average sample, selected by A. R. Crandall." No. 1282-COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 5, eighty-five feet below the yellow kidney ore, drft south side of Straight Creek, one third of a mile from Bueeha Vista Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore." No. 1283-COAL. Labeled "Keys Creek Coal, No. 6. Average sample collected by A. R. Crandall." NO. 1284-COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 3, from drift on Hood's Creek, one third of a mile southeast of Bellefont Furnace. .4zoerage sample collected by A. R. Crandall." A splint coal, exhibiting some fibrous coal and fine particles of pyrites Letween the layers. No. I285-COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 6,from Horse Branch (or Run), near Catlettsburg, Boyd county. Average samipile, col- lected by A. R. Crandall." A splint coal. Some fibrous coal between the layers, with a little ferruginous incrustation. No. I286-COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 7, from the Ashland Company's mine No. 4, Coalton, Boyd county. Average sam- Ple, bay P. N. Moore." A dark, glossy, splint coal, with some fibrous coal between the layers. No. 1287-COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 7, from entry No. 4; cross-entry; slate roof; Dry Branch. Average sample, by P. NA. Moore." A jet-black pure-looking coal. I57 21 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 288-COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 7, three hundred yards from the end of No. 4 entry. Trace Creek, Boyd count),. Averaged by P. N. Moore." A pure jet-black coal. Very little fibrous coal or pyrites apparent. No. 1289-COAL. Labeled- Coalton Coal, No. 7. Two hund- red andfifty yards from west end of No. 4 entry, &c. Aver- aged by P. N. Moore." Contains more fibrous coal and pyrites than the two preced- ing. No. 1290-COAL. Labeled "Coalton Coal, No. 7, from Mr. Bryan's Bank, Four Mile Creek, Boyd county. Collected by A. R. Crandall. Average sample." Jet black. Contains very little pyrites or fibrous coal. No. 1291-COAL. Labeled "Coal No. II. Wmn. A. Bolt's coal. East Fork of Little Sandy river, above Bolt's Fork, Boyed county. Average samnple, collected by A. R. Crandall." A jet-black coal. But little fibrous coal or pyrites apparent. [See Appendix, No. 0645, for analysis of another Boyd county coal.] 158 22 CHEMICAL 8 +18 1 eool8 11 1 848 1 8 I -a I j REPORT. z _ _ _ _ _ _I ,a L v t888 242 8 J iz , .'o8 8 8 tz6Q [z j - s - ul i Q i 8, t8,48 v2 8 1 Xc1 sc n _ 88 8 n8 X1 u;g -8821 8 1 f828 8 'l -; 1 1 n . ' 8. 3a I8 c I 8 88,2l"18 28 8e 8,1v1 t I 2 no 2 8z 228 II. - 1 ---1 - 11 A!!z J t 5 + 8, E 2 8 t i .. . A 3,. E.. . Uc. , I ;0 R z e15 1. I I2 Is I 23 159 ut 8I I z ZI E 6 .9 I MS I 6 CHEMICAL REPORT. \Vith a few exceptions these may all be considered very good coals. These few contain rather too large a proportion of ash. This will not prevent them from being very good fuel for ordinary purposes. Some of them have a notable propor- tion of sulphur, which may render them measurably unsuitable for the working of iron, but which will not be otherwise injuri- ous. It may be remarked, however, that the estimation given above is of the total amount of sulphur in the coal, in whatever form of combination it may exist. The analyses for the deter- mination of the sulphur having been made by deflagrating the powdered coal with a mixture of nitre, carbonate of soda, and common salt (each chemically pure, of course), and not by the usual process of oxidation with nitric acid, &c., the extraction of the sulphur is therefore more complete than usual. These are all splint coals. The relation between the specific gravity and the proportion of ash does not seem to be a constant one, as may be seen in the following statement: Specific gravity.1..... ... .279Per centage of ash....... . 7.74 '' x 134 ''07 1.308 5.80 id .......... 30S .............. 46 ....... 5. So ... . .. .... 1.315 .8.... .. . 00. 0 1.328 6.82 ''..... .. . 1. 336 7.00 1.340 6.6o 1.358 8.90 1.364 1..950 1.365 ... .. .. . 8,74 .... .. .. .. 1.366 10.0........"2"co '',..... . .. 1.404 ..... 14.74 In the appendix are given, for comparison, the analyses of some of the most celebrated Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois coal, which are used in the smelting of iron, &c. No. 1292-MARLY SHALE. From near the top of the ridge between Clinton Furnace and Cannonsburg, Boyd county. A friable indurated marly clay, of dirty-greenish and brown- ish colors. i6o 24 CHEMICAL REPORT. CoMpOSITION DRIED AT 2120 F.; AS DETERMINED BY DIGESTION IN CHLDRORYDRLC ACID, &C. Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides........ .. .. . .. . . . 12.643 Lime, carbonate........ .. . .. .. .. . . .480 Magnesia... .. .. . .. . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .929 Phosphoric acid ..217 sulphuric acid ..079 Potash..... .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. 1.387 Soda..... . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . o8o Water expelledat red heat.... .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. 5.830 Silica and insoluble silicates.. .... . . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. 77.560 Loss.. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .795 100.000 On treating this marl, by ignition with carbonate of lime and chloride of ammonium, for the complete separation of its alkalies, according to the method proposed by Prof. J. Law- rence Smith, we obtained a total of 3.989 per cent. of potash and o.639 per cent. of soda. So that about two thirds of the potash is in such a state of combination, in the silicates of this marly clay, as to resist the solvent action of chlorohydric acid, of specific gravity I.1, although digested for eight or ten days in the sand-bath heat. Possibly admixture with slacked quick- lime might help to set free this considerable proportion of alkali, and make it an available mineral fertilizer for exhausted light soils. No. 1293-PIG IRON. "Hot Blast No. I, Bellefo/t Furnace, Boyd county. Collected 6y P. N. Moore." A moderately coarse-grained dark-grey iron. Yields to the file, and extends somewhat under the hammer. No. 1294 - PIG IRON. "Hot Blast No. I, Foundry, Buena Vista Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." A coarse-grained grey iron. Yields to the file; extends a little under the hammer. No. I295-PIG IRON. "Mill ron No. I,Ashland Furnace, Boyd county. Stone-coal Iron. Sent by Col. Douglas Putnam,jr." A very fine-grained light-grey iron. Yields to the file. Brittle. No. I296-PIG IRON. "Mill Iron NO. 2. Stone-coal Iron. Ashland Furnace. Sent by Col. Douglas Putnam, jr. Not quite so fine-grained as the preceding. Light-grey. Yields to the file. Brittle. VOL. 1.-II I6t 25 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I297-PIG IRON. Foundry Iron. Ashland Furnace, &c., &c. (as above). Yields to the file. Coarser-grained than the preceding. Brittle. COMPOSITION OF THESE BOYD COUNTY PIG IRONS. No. 1293. No. 1294. No. 1295. No. 1296. No. 1297. Specific gravity.... .. . . 7.132 7.127 6.410 6.503 6.4o6 Iron... .. . .. . .. . . 93.208 93.712 91.420 90.899 89.731 Graphite.... .. . . . . 3-350 2.990 2.460 2.560 1.660 Combined carbon.... .. . .220 .210 .240 .160 .790 Manganese... ... .... .054 .o56 .195 .236 .471 Silicon.... ...... . . 2.389 x.908 3- 709 5.121 6.308 Slag. . . .. . .. .0.. . X. i6 .6o0 .540 .760 1.120 Aluminum ..193 .644 Not est. Not est. Not est. Calcium... . .. . .. . . .144 .104 .176 .072 .152 Magnesium... .. . .. . . .095 095 .233 .106 .o6o l'otassium. . . .. .47 .c63 Not est. Not eat. Not est. Sodium.... .032 .010 Not est. Not eat. Not est. Phosphorus..... . .. . . .194 .380 .385 394 .461 Sulphur. ... . . .. . . .005 o.66 .082 .045 .015 Loss .56o Total.. .. . .. . .. . l ot. 100.838 l 100.000 1 00.353100.768 Total carbon... 3.570 3.200 2-700 2.720 2.450 No. 1298-VIRGIN SOIL. "From woods in the valley of East Fork of Little Sandy river, taken to six inches below the surface. Farm of Vincent Calvin, near Cannonsburg, Boyed county. Collected by J. A. Monroe." Soil of a dirty-buff color. All passed through the coarse sieve (289 meshes to the inch). No. 1299-SUB-SOIL of the preceding, &c., &c. Of a buff color; lighter in tint than the preceding. All passed through the coarse sieve. No. 1300-VIRGIN SOIL. "Southeastern slope of hill sixty feet above the bed of the creek. V Calvin's farm, &c., &c. Sample taken six inches from the surface by J. A. Monroe." Of a dark dirty-drab grey color. The coarse sieve removed from it a considerable proportion of small fragments, many of which are angular, of ferruginous sandstone. 162 26 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 130I-SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken two feet below the surface, &c., &c. Lighter colored than the preceding; dirty-drab grey. Sift- ed out more of ferruginous sandstone fragments than from the preceding. No. 1302-OLD FIELD SOIL. "Surface soil from a field forty- five years in cultivation, on East Fork of Little Sandy. Farm of V. Calvin, near Cannonsburg." Soil of a dirty dark-buff color. All passed through the coarse sieve. No. 1303-" SUB-SOIL of the next preceding, taken two and a half feet from the surface, &c." Of a dirty-buff color, lighter in tint than that of the surface soil. All passed through the coarse sieve. COMPOSITION OF THESE BOYD COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 21z F. No. 1298. No. 1299. No. 1300. No. 1301. No. 1302. No. 1303. Organic andvolatile matters. 3.140 3.085 7.985 5.190 4-915 4-905 Alumina, and iron and man- ganese oxides... .. . 5.091 6.642 7.425 9.984 9.019 9-675 Lime, carbonate.. . . .214 .16 .571 .392 .259 .276 Magnesia.. . .. . . . .034 .178 .352 .251 .333 .053 Phosphoric acid.... . . 134 .083 .08 . 191 .156 .160 Sulphuric acid.trace. . .. . trace. .038 trace. Potash.... . .. . . . 317 .307 .435 .205 .344 .282 Soda. ..... . . . . .076 .099 .045 .050 .027 .176 Sand and insoluble silicates . 90.490 88.420 81.410 83.230 83.765 83-385 Water expelled at 380 F...650 .525 .915 .500 1.235 1X315 Loss....... ..... 545 .554 .007. Total. . oo.146 100.000 100.000 1o00000 100.091 100.227 Hygroscopic moisture... 1.375 1.735 2.225 1.700 2 - 335 2.840 Potash in the insol. silicates. Not estima ted. Soda .Not estima ted. Caatrothsol Su-_il Su-oll ied u-o Virgin soil. Val- Iey. Virgin soil. Slope of hill. 27 Character of the soil . Sub-soil. Subsoil. I Old field. ISub-soil. CHEMICAL REPORT. These soils, if sufficiently drained and properly cultivated, may be made quite productive, although the silicious material is in rather large proportion in some. By comparing the com- position of the virgin soil No. 1300, with that of the corres- ponding old field soil No. 1302, it will be seen that cropping, without the use of manures, has notably diminished the phos- phoric acid, potash, and lime carbonate, while the relative pro- portion of the sand and silicates is increased. [For Bourbon County Limestone, see the Appendix.] BRACKEN COUNTY. No. 1304-SOIL. Labeled " Top Soil, one to eight inches from surface. Oldfieldingrass; thinandbareinfplaces. Sample from a fertile corner, beyond the fence where it had been out of culture for five years or more." Collected by Prof N. S. Sha er. Of a dark grey-buff color. Contains no gravel or coarse sand. No. 1305- "SUB-SOIL of the preceding; taken fourteen to eighteen inches below the surface, just above the rock sub- stratum. It has some faint traces of original bedding, show- ing that it had been formed by decomposition of rock in place. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." Of a handsome yellowish-buff color. No gravel. No. 1306-TOP SOIL of the field Nro. 1304; taken in a worn place; has been longer in cultivation and is much more worn than that. Will not hold sod. Has been in cultivation over twenty years. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." Of a yellowish-buff color, very little darker than that of the sub-soil. Contains a small quantity of small fragments of red ferruginous shale. .64 28 CHEMICAL REPORT. EXTRACTED FROM iooo PARTS OF THESE SOILS (AIR DRIED) BY DIGES- TION IN CARBONIC ACID WATER. No. 1304. N,. 1305.1 No. 1306. Organic and volatile matters... ... 0.483 o.6oo 0.294 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides.. 013 .013 .030 Lime, carbonate...... ...... .496 .040 o80 Magnesia.. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .030 .023 .014 Potash.. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .030 .010 .020 Soda. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .020 .020 .020 Soluble silica..... .............. o.o.. .130 .110 Phosphoric, sulphuric, and nitric acids and loss.... .. 1. 3 ii8l Total extract from iooo parts..... .. . 1.316 0. 960 .666 Color of the extract.Light Light Brownish ... brown. lbrowN.sh ge grey. COMPOSITION OF THESE BRACKEN COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212' F. No. 1304. No. 1305. No. 3co6. Orgazic and volatile matters... . .. . . . . . .. 4.140 4.775 3335 Alumina.. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 5.837 5.513 3.837 Iron, peroxide.... . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . 7.150 6.025 3.965 Manganese, brown oxide... .. . . . . . . .. . .225 .170 .0 70 Lime, carbonate... . . . . . . . . . . .. .......a trace,a trace. a trace. Magnesia. ..... . . .. . . . .. . .297 .269 . 268 Phosphoric acid.......... .... .... .233 424 .217 Sulphuric acid.a trace. a trace. a trace. Potash.. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .110 .197 .135 Soda. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. a trace. .174 .076 Sand and insoluble silicates.. . .. . . . .... . 82.140 81.970 87.815 Water expelled at 380 F.1.015 1.100 not est. Total....... .. . . . . . . .. . . . . 101.147 ioo.617 99.718 Water expelled at 212 F..... .. . . . . . . .. 2.200 3 .200 2.300 These soils are all deficient in lime. Top-dressing with this material would doubtless greatly improve their productiveness. This should, however, be accompanied with the use of clover or other green fertilizing crops, to increase the proportion of humus, which is also deficient in the soils. The difference in the amount of soluble matters extracted by digestion in water charged with carbonic acid, as well as the relative proportions of the potash, &c., in that extracted matter, and the amount x65 29 30 CHEMICAL REPORT. of sand and silicates, correspond with the observed relative productiveness of the soils. No. 1307-SILICIOUS MUDSTONE (of Dr. Owen). Rock below Soil No. 1304; averages from twenty-eight to thirty-five inches. Uniform. Some of the layers completely decomposed; all of them softened by decay. Three miles northwest of German- town. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. A dirty grey-buff, friable, sandy shale. Adhering to the tongue. Many fossils in the lamine. COMIPOSTION, DRIED AT 212 F. Silica. Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides ............ Lime, carbonateo.. t.................... Magnesia, carbonate.... . . .. . ... . . . .. . . . . Phosphoric acid ....................... Potash. . Soda. . Water expelled at red heat .................. 76.o60 14.959 (by difference). 500 .345 .486 2.735 1.515 3.400 100.000 This analysis having been made by fusion, instead of diges- tion in acids, &c., &c., gives the total contents of alkalies and phosphoric, as well that quantity which may be immed ately available for plant nourishment as that which for the present is locked up in firm combination in the silicates, which can only become available in the natural course of long weathering. BRECKINRIDGE COUNTY. No. 1308-"1 RED UNDER CLAY, from near Brandenburg. Col- lected by Mr. G. E. Chick. A somewhat adhesive ferruginous clay, of a dark brick-red color; containing some fragments of weathered chert. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Organic and volatile matters, mostly water .9.......0.0.0..... . . . 9.000 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides ................. . 20.860 lame, carbonate.1......... ................... . t.o06o Magnesia.... . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .684 thosploric acid ....... . . .................... .230 Sulphuric acid.. . . ................ .o61 Potash (including that in the silicates). .982 Soda (including that in the silicates) ..501 Sand and insoluble silicates. ................... 66.680 100.058 166 CHEMICAL REPORT. Although this clay contains a considerable per centage of potash, nearly one per cent., it is not probable that it could be profitably used as a fertilizer, because of the fact that a very large proportion of its alkalies is in the insoluble silicates, where they would not be immediately available for plant nour- ishment. It might be employed, however, to improve the condition of light sandy soils. BUTLER COUNTY. No. I309-LIMONITE. Labeled "Ore from the farm of Jas. E. Taylor, near the mouth of Little Reedy; one mile and a half from Green river. Average sample by J. R. Proctor." Limonite in irregular lamina; with much softer ochreous ore. No. 1310- LIMONITE. Labeled "Ore above the upper coal. Stevens' coal mine, near the mouth of Bear Creek. Average sample by P. N. Moore." In dense, curved, dark-brown laminae, incrusted by and inclosing softer ochreous ore. COMPOSITION OF THESE LIMAONITES, DRIED AT 212a F. No. 1309. NO. 1310. Iron, peroxide........ . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . . 48.049 44-794 Alumina..... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .171 2.391 Manganese, brown oxide.... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .140 a trace. Lime, carbonate ..54o .643 Magnesia.... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .195 .234 Phosphoric acid..345 .535 Sulphuric acid.. 473 .158 Water expelled at red heat............ . ...... . .. 9.750 7.700 Silica and insoluble silicates..... . .. . .. . .. . .. . 31 -90 44.180 Alkalies, &c., and loss....... ............... 437 ..... Total.... . .. . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . loo.ooo 100.815 Iron, per centage................ . 33.634 31.482 Phosphorus, per centage................ . I .233 Sulphur, per centage..... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .189 .o63 Silica, per centage........... . 29.460.......... . 42.200 167 3 1 CHEMICAL REPORT. The somewhat large proportion of phosphorus in these two ores may make the iron obtained from them somewhat " cold- short," and the sulphur in No. 1310 is in rather too large quantity. In other respects these ores are good, and they might be profitably smelted for ordinary foundry iron. No. 131 I-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Ore from Jno. Hud- son's on Young's Ferry road. Average sample by P. N. Moore." A dark grey, fine-granular iron carbonate, partly converted into limonite. No. 1312-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Ore resting on the coal at Knob Lick, half a mile from Big Reedy Creek, near road to Young's Ferry. Average sample by P. N. Moore." Granular iron carbonate, somewhat oolitic, partly converted into limonite, and containing small fragments of fibrous coal. COMPOSITION OF THESE CLAY IRON-STONES, DRIED AT 212 F. No. 1311. NO. 1312. Iron, carbonate......... . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . 29-914 22.583 Iron, peroxide....................... . 17-945 17-313 Alumina.... . .. . .. .. . .. . . . 3.583 .835 Lime, carbonate........ .. .. . . .. . .. .. . . 12.036 6.714 Magnesia, carbonate..................... . 3.677 2.830 Manganese, carbonate......... .. . .. . .. .. . . a trace. a trace. Phosphoric acid ........................................ . 467 972 Sulphuric acid....... .. . .. .. . . . .381 .473 Silex and insoluble silicatesl. .a.e. . . . ...................... .28.o4o 424240D Water and loss.... . 3.... ... .. . .. , . 3-957 4.040 Total... .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . oo.ooo 100.000 Iron, per centage... ..... . . ... . . . .. .. . . 27.041 22.969 Phosphorus, per centage... ...... . . . .. . . .. . .204 .423 Sulphur, per centage........ .. . .. . . .. .. . . .152 .189 Silica, per centage.... .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . 25.260 42.760 Specific gravity......... .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . not est. not est. 32 CHEMICAL REPORT. 33 No. 1313-COAL. Labeled "Stevens' coal. Stevens' bank, Bear Creek, two miles from Green river, Butler county. Average sample by P. N. Moore." A deep-black coal, breaking into thin layers under the ham- mer. Fibrous coal and fine-grained pyrites between the laminx. Contains a little shale. COMPOSITION OF THE AIR-DRIED COAL. No. 1313. Specific gravity ........1 ..378 Hygroscopic moisture. 3-40 Volatile combustible matters .30.66 Coke. .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. 65.94 Total.. .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . loo.oo Total volatile matters. 34.o6 Fixed carbon in the coke .54-94 Ashes... . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . 11.00 Total. 100.00 Character of the coke .Spo.gy. Color ofthe ash ........ ................ Brownish Color of the ash... . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . ...lilac-grey. Per oentage of sulphur .2.544 No. 1314-LIMESTONE, from Barren river, near the mouth of Gasper Creek; sub-carboniferous. From the stock pile of Airdrie Furnace. Sampled by P. N. Moore." A light-grey, fossiliferous limestone. COMPOSITION, Lime, carbonate ......... Magnesia, carbonate.... .. . Alumnina, and iron and manganese oxides.. Phosphoric acid. Sulphuric acid. Silica and insoluble silicates ...... Water and loss......... . . . . DRIED AT 212 F. . . . 93.020 = p.091 per cent, of lime. 2.0 8 .917 .243 = o. ao6 per cent, of phosphorus. .604 = .242 per cent, of sulphur. .. . 2.760 .368 100.000 CHEMICAL REPORT. CALDWELL COUNTY. GALENA (lead sulphide), selected from specimens sent by S. Marble & Son, Princeton, Kentucky, from their lead mine in this county. The vein is in the sub-carboniferous limestone, described as generally five feet wide. The mine has a twenty feet drift, forty-five feet wide. The gangue of the ore is prin- cipally fluor-spar, containing more or less zinc blende. This ore was examined principally for its proportion of silver; and by a careful analysis of the lead, obtained from it by reduction with the usual flux (of soda carbonate, potash nitrate, and sodium chloride). solution of the reduced metal in diluted nitric acid, and precipitation of the filtered solution by means of a very dilute solution of lead chloride, a very small proportion of silver was obtained, not exceeding in amount two hundred and sixty-six (266) grains to the ton (of 2,000 pounds) of the selected galena. As is well-known, pure galena contains from eighty-one to eighty-six per cent. of lead in general This mine cannot, therefore, be profitably worked for silver; but if fluor-spar is found to be practicably valuable for the purification of iron from phosphorus, &c., this, as well as the lead, may be advantageously explored. CAMPBELL COUNTY. No. 1315-MARLY SHALE. Labeled "Clay Marl, from Cincin- nati Group; quarter of a mile from Newport, on the Alex- andria Turnpike; upper blue clay. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." Lower Silurian. A dark-grey, soft shale. Adhering to the tongue. No. I 316-MARL. Labeled "Marl, from the silicious mud-stone of Dr. Owen, ten fret from the surface. Not distinctly strati- fied. Gallows Gap. Colected by Prof N. S. Shaler." Buff-colored; friable; fine-grained. 170 34 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1317-CLAY SHALE. Labeled "Newport Reservoir; three hundred andforty feet above the Ohio river. A mixture of t/e clays in a set of beds, containing a few limestone layers, six feet from the surface to twelve feet." Collected by Prof. A. S. Shaler. A yellowish, soft shale, with some softer ferruginous clay mixed. Adhering to the tongue. No. 13i8-CLAY SHALE. Labeled "Newport Reservoir, uzpper blue clay, three hundred and twenty feet above high water in the Ohio river." Collected by Prof N. S. Shaler. A dark, bluish-grey soft shale. Adhering to the tongue. No. I3 I 9-CLAY. Labeled "IBrick Clay, about three feet above high water in the Ohio river; Newport, Kentucky." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. A light, ferruginous, yellow silicious clay. No. 1320-SANDY FERRUGINOUS CLAY. Labeled "Sandy Clay, three feet from surface; Mt. Vernon road, half a mile from Alexandria Turnpike." Collected by Prof N. S. Shaler. Of a light reddish-brown color. No. 132I-FERRUGINOUS CLAY, &c. Labeled -Ferruginolus Con- glomerate; side of road, one mile north of Grant's Creek. North head waters of Phillips' Creek." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. Ferruginous clay, with nodules of impure hydrated peroxide of iron included. No. 1322-SAND. "Labeled "Moulding Sand, Columbia Trace, half a mile northeast of Newport Water- Works Reservoir." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. A fine sand of a dirty-salmon color, composed mainly of minute rounded quartz grains. 171 35 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I 323-SAND. Labeled "Sand beneath the Brick Clay. Sec. lion on Columba corner of Harris street; Newport, Ken. tucky." Colected by Prof N. S. Shaler. A moderately fine sand, of a dirty-buff color. Examined with the glass it showed mostly rounded grains of hyaline, yel- low and milky quartz, with dark grains of some ferruginous mineral. COMPOSITION OF THESE CAMPBELL COUNTY MARLS, CLAYS, AND SANDS, DRIED AT 212 F. INO s31sNO.. 36 No-. 37 NO. s3.8 NO 3z9 NO. ,3- No.. 32z No.o322 NO .p3 Silic.. . . . 47.300 68.760 58.oo 51 .42 72.660 82.560 57. .6So .660 S5.S84 Alumsina, and anides of iron aind mangnese.28. . . . . . . .. S050 .. 12.050 31.-49 29.4 -0 04 0.50 s1.:223 33- 540 12.700 3.P Lime, carbonate. .. . . .. . X3. 3409.860.66o 6.850 a trace.. 6.86o atrc 7.400 M2.gn00ia1 taOlOatr b e........ . 135 3.859 S.135 -56 .832 atrace. 776 a trace .196 Potash.. ... . ... . 3. 54 1429 3.045 4 124 -.243.675..698.756 notot Soda . .... 64. .976 986 .n567 not - t. o8._555637 not st. Phosphoric adid . . . 345 .s23 .255 .X22 .x02 not est. n o 000. atrace. sot so. Soiphuric ad...... Not. stiaed Waterenpeiled atred heat . . .800 4 oon 4.70d 4.40 4.200 4.1 3.41X 4.40 2.as L.s............. 966 .743. - .8. .373.4........ ... _ Total. . ............ 350 loo. c 00.000100.00200.0100.153 1 These marly shales, marls and clays, are not especially valu- able as fertilizers, although some of them contain considerable proportions of potash and phosphoric acid. The former, how- ever, is mostly in firm combination in the silicates, which are insoluble in acids, so that it can only be made available by long weathering, or, possibly, by the action of lime, &c. No. 1315 appears to be the best of them. They all would be useful as top-dressing for improving light sandy soil. The sands have no peculiar interest, although useful for many well-known purposes. No. 1324-SOIL. Labeled "V Virgin Soil, in open woods, farm of Gen. G. B. Hodge. Flat Woods; waters of Philliis' Creek; one and a half miles southeast from Grant's Lick. Timber-while oak, hickory, small beech, and walnut." Col- lected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. Soil of a warm yellowish-drab color. It all passed through the coarse sieve (of 289 meshes to the inch), except some 172 36 CHEMICAL REPORT. rootlets, a very small quantity of shot-iron ore, and a few small rounded pebbles of milky quartz. No. 1325-SOIL. Labeled-"Old Field Soil. Field adjoining the woods whence came No. 1324. Cultivated in corn and tobacco for more than forty years. No manuring. Still brings a lit- tle corn. Sample one to seven inches from the surface." Col- lected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. Soil of a warm yellowish-drab color. All passed through the coarse sieve except a few fragments of wood, two or three small water-worn pebbles of milky quartz, and some small angular fragments of decomposing chert. It also contains some fine shot-iron ore. No. 1326-SOIL. Labeled "Same old field as the preceding. Plowed in 1871 to the depth, of twenty inches and sub-soiled. Now (i873) in timothy grass. Seems to want lime." Col- lected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. Color, &c., much as in preceding soil. No. 1327- SOIL. Labeled " Si 5-soil, twelve inches from the surface, same field as preceding, forty years in cultivation. Silicious mudstone beneath." Collected by ProfM N. S. Shaler. Soil of a yellowish-drab color; more yellowish than pre- ceding. All of it passed through the coarse sieve, except a very small quantity of shot-iron ore. No. 1328-SOIL. Labeled "Spcurofhillsixtyfeetabovetheposi- lion of the preceding soils. In corn for two years. Twenty bushels to the acre this year (i873); bad culture. Surface soil.." Soil of drab color. Lighter colored than any of the preced- ing soils. Moist soil cakes in the bag like clay. It mostly passed through the coarse sieve, leaving only some shot-iron ore and small quartz pebbles, &c. 173 37 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1329-SOIL. Labeled " Virgin Soil, border of cultivated field, newly cleared. Slope faces southwest. Land reputed rich; but in the midst of much fpoor land. Sells for two hundred dollars per acre. Youtsey's land, eight miles from Newport, Alexandria Turnpike." Collected by Prof N. S. Shaler. A clay soil of a dark buff-grey color. Aggregated, on dry- ing in the bag, &c., into quite hard, irregular and angular small lumps. Makes a very tenacious, sticky clay when wet. No. I330-SOIL. Labeled "Sub-soil (under the preceding soil) two feet from the surface, &c." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. A clay soil of a light grey-buff color; aggregating into pretty compact lumps on drying. See No. 1334 for composition of the limestone underlying this land. No. 1331-SOIL. Labeled "A curious gravelly loam, two feed below surface, with bits of chert, from the sub-carboniferoies of Upper Licking. Silicious mudstone and limestone below. Upper waters of Pond Creek, near Pond Ci-eek Post-office, on new turnpike, about four miles southwest of Alexandria." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. A deep yellow-buff colored sub-soil, containing nearly one sixteenth of its weight of fragments of ferruginous shaly sand rock, rounded quartzose pebbles, and shot-iron ore. No. 1332-SOIL. Labeled "Old field in grass. Slope of io south. Resting on river detritus. Side of run near Newport, Kentucky." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. Soil of a dark grey-buff color. All of it passed through the coarse sieve. No. 1333-SOIL. Labeled "Bottom field of the next preceding, taken two feet from the surface. Detritalgrit. Twenty feel above high water of Ohio river." Soil of a handsome orange-grey, or grey-orange-buff color. Aggregated into friable clods. 174 38 CHEMICAL REPORT. 39 COMPOSITION OF THESE CAMPBELL COUNTY SOILS AND SUB-SOILS. I DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1394 No. 1305 No. 13-6 No. w3-7 No.1 3.8 No.1 3. No.. 133. No. 133! No. 1332 No. 1333 Ezmcedrfla _ 3_1 1 _ ptt by carbonated 1.190 1700 1.0 .830 1890 1700 3.650 o.76 i- 1.200 COMPOSITION OF THE CARBONIC ACID WATER EXTRACT. Orgnicaud dolatik mat . ..0..060 1.030 0.580. 0.533 0.720 0.690. 0490 0.316 0.396 o.8u8 Aiunioans, osd. iron, ec.&.300 30 .50 .040 . oo . 030 .050 . o"o " .03f ogaoesO onide. . .o5o .o7o .o ootest. nooet. oote rt, not est. note t Line, carbonate..... 6wo . 4ot .o6o .6ogo . 790 1.62I 4.440 .18e . 43o .S 1409rneia.0.. . . .. ....80. o36. o04.0o40 .0 01 not est.. 430.0o34 .41 0 .040 Ntric acid.. Notestt Pbrpbtorc acid. . ..... a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace a trace. Sulphuric acid .....a tracze, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trrte. a trae. Cblorine. Note tdiaed. P-uaht.o6o .070 .050 .010 . .30 .020 .020 .37 .020 Soda.1 ........ ..3. .os o .44 .3 .0 40 .01 .020 Sulubk silica. .90 .53 .150 .170 .070 .30 ..0o .067 1...2.. . .. .. . . 5..23... .. .. 3. .. .. .05.... otal.. .. . ... .. 30 1.876 1.0 o. Sgo S.80 . 7 So 5. 6p o.7296 r80 .172 COMPOSITION OF THESE SOILS, DRIED AT 2120 F. Org ic and -olatil mt. _ t0; . 3.650 2.355 2.540 S-.435 8.g65 7.615 5.96o S.x60 0.775 2. 35 Alunioo . 3.373 3-.45 3. 90 3.868 4.040 5.175 5. 323 3.815 1.587 0.737 Iron ooide..3. t.5 3-.38 3.074 3.972 4.787 6.750 6.890 4. 30 2.980 4S465 Maogan20, br, oxide...0.59 .037 001e1. - 427 .47 .26o .00 .3o. 370.30 Lime, carbonate. 1...30 .090 .125 .15 45o 99 3.8590a trace,. a trace,. a trace . Mogos-i. . 34 .496 ooS .050 .250 .590 .500 .474 .191 .300 Poospboric acid. 145 .9 .093 .10 .093 .483 .3t3 .42- .256 .040 Salpboeio acid ........a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trace, a trasce, a trace, a trace, a trace. P-h .120 .062 .064 .of6 .240 .726 .593 .443 .-5 125 Sod... ..0. -47 .130 ..60 ..09 .071 ata. -.o0 .045 .048 .-o6 Solubkotiic. 045S .09 .-55 .-.5 .170 -7 .16 .130 .o..o .67 Saad -nd intolube sili- Cabs . 87.3 .3 8.5.. 87.S390 7.963 75.590 75-415 83-775 91.655 89.0o4 Waterexpdled al 3&oF.1.1 0 41. 1.00 1.040 1.50 so . 1.0-7 1.50 1.35 .011. I.ta.......... ..6... . . .366 ...0 .. ... .. ... .. ... .... ... . . Tol . . .. .. . .469 1 --. -01 -.0 - .o.0oc0.oo . -00 -8-.2021 o. 7921-. 545 Woero !pelled a 22 F.7.65 t.550 .665 2.235 - 55 5.075 4.30 4.805 .400 2.2t5 Pouh in i.toloble sili- cats. . not est. -.31 00test. 1.477 00t120. t-73 00te t. no1est. n0te1t. nott. Soda.00note1. .7.. 00.201 .389 00t1t. t929n01e01. note t. not mt. 0020 t. chuooctr of -it1. .. . Vi Ha Otldfiddeodfiddlub.il.lNeoI Vi nl goboO.Gdieldfid Old fid It i prope to state, that this quantity doe not r -epresnt the " soluble siica " wbih might have been extracted by boiing tie" siicioun residueI' is n otion of carbonate of soda, &c.. bet sisply the amount which wan held in be acid solution of the soil. But little Importance wan attached to this deterination, not became its existence in theoput is tontidered by bmany rodetrnacultural chendits a " an accident' and" unesential," if not " moles " 122 " How Crops Feed," by Prof. S. W.Johnsonl, age 353 bet bcame it is to be oud, ordinarily, devoIred nul waters which percolate soils. orev, Prof E. A. Hilgard show that the amount of soluble silica in the tlitious rosidu of a toil ustlly bears a pxety constant relation to the quantity of i mo in it. Ito proportion at 7 given timne doubtiess depends on the relative decomposition of the nllcates of the soil at that time, In addition to the determinations given in the preceding table of the composition of these soils, the II sand and insoluble silicates" were analyzed, by the method of fusion, &c., &c., with the following results, viz: 17S CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THE SAND AND INSOLUBLE SILICATES IN THE too PARTS, DRIED AT 212' F. No. 1325. No. 1327. Silica...... 99560 88.660 Alumina, &c., &C. 7.650 ) Lime....324 r 9.310 Magnesia... 260o Potash . . 1.464 1.684 1.311 and 1.477, severally calculated into loo parts of the soil. Soda.743 .346 Total . . oo.oo Ico.ooo_ An attempt was also made, with the use of the celebrated Nobel's apparatus, to submit some of these soils to silt anal- ysis; i. e. to determine the relative proportions of the fine and coarser earthy material contained in them; but the results of comparative operations on the same soil were so discordant that no value whatever could be attached to them. The writer regrets that he was not able, for want of time, &c., to apply to the silt analyses of some of these soils the improved apparatus devised by Prof. Eugene W. Hilgard, and used by him in his researches on the soils and clays of Missis- sippi, while he was the State Geologist, as described by him in a paper read by him at the Portland meeting of the Ameni- can Association for Advancement of Science, August, 1873, and published in American Journal of Science and Arts, October and November, 1873. The chemical analyses were conducted very much as is de- scribed in volume III of Kentucky Geological Reports, except that a larger quantity of the soil was digested in water con- taining carbonic acid, charged under the atmospheric pressure only, and found by analysis to contain about o.9 of its volume of this gas. Instead of filtering the solution, a proportional quantity of it was drawn off from the residue by means of a pipette of proper construction. The residue obtained by evaporating this solution, frequently dejiagrated when ignited, showing the presence of nitrates. 176 40 CHEMICAL REPORT. This was observed, in a marked degree, with the extracts from Nos. 1324, 1325, 1326, 1327, and 1329. The above table of the results of the analyses of these soils is interesting, as demonstrating, what has frequently been called in question by agricultural chemists in recent times, the possibility of ascertaining the agricultural capabilities of soils by chemical analysis; having due reference, of course, to the physical conditions. For the purpose of more ready comparison of some of the results of these analyses, we copy in the following table the proportions of some of the most essential ingredients and educts of these soils: Extracted Extracted by acids from too parts. by carbon- ated water from 1,oo Organic and Lime, car- Phosphoric Potash. parts. volatile bonat e. acid. matters. No. 1324, virgin soil...... . . 2.322 3.650, 0.130 0.145 0.120 1325, old field, same locality.. 1.876 2.550 .090 .109 .062 1326, old field, same locality. 1.220 2.554 .125 .093 .o64 1327, sub-soil, same locality. .891 2.435 .125 .122 .o62 1328, new field, same locality. .86o 8.965 .450 .093 .483 1329, virgin soil (Youtsey's), high piced; considered rich.. 2.700 7.6t5 .990 .483 .726 Youtsey's land will be seen, by reference to Appendix No. A. 12, to be strikingly like the California adobe soil in com- position and consistence. It also resembles good blue grass soil. The others show a deficiency of lime, potash, and organic matters, or humus, except that of the "-new field," which, like No. 1325, is apparently deficient in phosphoric acid, and which would be much more productive under better culture than it has received, and with the application of phosphate or super- phosphate of lime. The use of lime, wood ashes, and of green crops, especially of clover, would be beneficial to these soils of Col. Hodges VAL. 1.-I2 177 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1334-LIMESTONE. Labeled "Blue Limestone (Cincinnati Group), just below soils Nos. 1329 and l330. Youtsey's land, Alexandria Turnpike, eight miles from Newport, Campbell county." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. A firm coarse-grained semi-crystalline, dark-grey limestone, full of fossils, corals and shells, with some included nodules of light olive-grey granular material. COMPOSITION DRIED AT 212 F. Lime, carbonate.... .. . .. .. .. . 93. 200 = 52.192 per cent. of lime. Magnesia, carbonate.......... . . 2.291 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides . . . 1 .700 Sulphuric acid..... .. . .. .. . .. 535 = .214 per cent. of sulphur. Phosphoric acid..0 76 = .033 per cent. of phosphorus. Potash. .173 Soda. .384 Silex and insoluble silicates .. . ..... 2.360 100.719 A limestone not very rich in mineral fertilizers, which would yield a good lime for building purposes. No. 1335-" MARLY SHALE, from two miles south of Newport, Licking Three Mile Creek. Geological position, 'Cincinnati Group,' fifty feet above high water mark of the Ohio river." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. A friable shale of a handsome light olive-grey color, con- taining fragments of small encrinital stems and of orthis mul- ticoste. No. 1336-" MARLY SHALE, from Licking Three Mile Creek, two miles back of Newport (Cincinnati Group). About sixty feet above high water mark of the Ohio river. The beds are about thirty feet thick, with thin partings, and can be easily strifiped. Test their value as marl." Colkcted by Prof. N. S. Shaler. Of a light olive-grey color. The lamina are thinner than in the preceding. 178 42 CHEMICAL REPORT. 43 COMPOSITION OF THESE MARLY SHALES, DRIED AT 212 F. NO. 1335. No. 1336. Silica. . 54.. 60 57.260 Alumina ..... . . ... .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. 12.269 16.782 Iron peroxide, with some manganese oxide ..... . . .. . , . 555 0 11.500 Lime, carbonate..... .. . . ..... . .. .. . .. . 7.800 4 560 Magnesia....... ...... . 65 778 Phosphoric acid., , ... . , . .281 .oo8 Sulphuric acid ........ . . . . . . . .659 .233 poWsh.. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. . 3.298 4.471 So.da.... . .. .. . .. .. . .. . . .. .. . .. . .926 1.072 Water expelled at red heat and loss..... .. .. .. . .. . 4.892 3.336 Total.. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .... , loo. 1 o. ooo These marty shales resemble in composition the marls and clays reported above. CARTER COUNTY. No. I337-CLAY. Labeled "Fire-clay; average sample from the upper bed, fourfeet thick, on both sides of the hill. Ridge between Grassy and Three Prong Creeks, Boone Furnace property. Whole bed eight to ten feet thick. Collected by Philip N. Moore." The dried clay is quite compact, scarcely to be scratched with the nail; has a soapy feel; not adhering to the tongue. Breaks into sharp angular fragments. It is of a light-grey color. No. I338-CLAY. "From ridge between Grassy and Three Prong Creeks, Boone Furnace property. Lower bed. Col- lected by P. N. Moore." Compact, breaking into sharp angular fragments; hardly to be scratched with the nail; slightly adhering to the tongue; has a somewhat soapy feel. Presents, in parts, an approach to an o6litic structure. Color dark-grey, passing into dove- color. No. 1339_CLAY. "From same locality as preceding. Rougher part of the upper layer, &c., &c. Collected by P. N. Moore." A light-grey compact rock, of a harsh gritty feel; not to be scratched with the nail. Under the glass showing many 179 CHEMICAL REPORT. rounded grains of quartzose sand. Ferruginous incrustation on the surface. No. 340-CLAY. -Fire-clay under coal. Old Orchard Dig- gings, Boone Furnace property, Carter county. Collected by P. Ar Moore." A compact shaly clay, with some of the lamellar surfaces polished in various planes. Has a soapy feel, and no grit. Of a dull dove-grey color. No. 1341-CLAY. "Fire-clayfrom same bed as Nos. 1337, 1338, and I339. A dark-colored samnple from the lower part of flie deposit." Collected by P. N. Mloore. Compact fine-granular; hardly scratched with the nail; adhering very slightly to the tongue. Of a dark brownish- slate color. No. 1342-CLAY. "Fire-cday under the twelve inch coal Geo. Osenton's land, near Grayson, Carter county. Sampled by J. A. Monroe." A grey or ash-grey clay in a pulverulent condition. No. 1343-CLAY SHALE. Labeled "Argillaceous Shale, with some Lingulae near the top. Railroad cut, half mile south of Station (Eastern Kentucky Railroad), Grayson, Carter county. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." A soft friable shale of a light buff-grey color, mottled and colored between the laminae with ferruginous and black. (OMPOSITION OF THESE CLAYS. &c., OF CARTER COUNTY, DRIED AT 212 F. No. 0337. NO. 0338. No. 1339. No. 050 No. 0340. No. 134o No. '343- lica..... . . ........... 48.56045.960 54.60060.460 45. 56064. o6o66.o6 AlotIox.s ,,,37.471 38.53030.46607.-0343.775 04.60403 76 oxide ......... . a race a trace. a trace. a c. a t e. at.'tlot I.i me. .I..............112145atratce. a traco..0a45 .538 0 300 Niogoexia. ............ a teace. a trace, a trace, a trace. a tracee. . 7e9 0.00'l Phosphotic acid0 ' ' '55 '563 .043 '047 .37 .946 .107 S.dph.ei- acid...n ext not cst.not. 00t ext.not e-t. --57not 010. P ,tab "..0-89 .0.0 02t ..85. .963 .751 I0.3 .... ...679 .58 -14.708 5.5'5I.075 W.-er ezpeled at red heat. 3.030 04.0 1.0 7.756 S.5oo 8.3- J 5.3 Total. ...............oo ooIooo. booo oo ooo oo.o8o ' arbonatex. .14 CHEMICAL REPORT. The composition of these clays indicate that most of them are highly "refractory" or fire-clays, and that all could be used for the manufacture of stone-ware, terra cotta, &c. Those which burn white might be used for "1delf ware," or "queen's-ware," so called. The most refractory are, probably, Nos. 1337, 1338, and 1339; the next, Nos. 1342, 1341, and I340. The least re- fractory of all is the clay shale, No. 1343, which, however, notwithstanding its more than two per cent. each of potash and soda, would answer for the manufacture of stone-ware, and, most probably, of ordinary fire-brick. It is found that a large relative proportion of silica or sand increases the refractory quality of the clay, and, according to the experiments of E. Richters (X868), this quality is least affected by magnesia; more so by lime; still more by iron oxide; and most by potash. The influence of phosphates has not been fully determined. For comparison, the analyses of two of the best Kaolin clays of France, of the best Stourbridge clay of England, and of a crucible clay, are here appended: (a) (6) (a) (a!) Silica... .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. 48.68 55.30 63.40 47. 50 Alumina.... .. . . .. . .. . .. 36.92 30.30 31.70 34. 37 Iron oxide... .. . 2.00 3.00 1.24 LUme... .. . .. . .. . . . not given. not given.not given. .50 Magneia....5.. . 40 not est. 1.00 Phosphoric acid .not given. Sulphuric acid.... . . .. . . .. not given. Potash.... . .. . .. . .. . . . not est 01 notes. Soda. not est. I.I 1.90 er Soda.. . . . . . . . . . . . .58 2.70 not est. Water expelled at red beat.13-13 8.20 not given. 1.00 () Porcelain clay of Saint YrWeie,; analyzed by Forchanner. (0) Porcelain day of China-; analved by Ebelman and Sa.vetac. (c) S-curbddge flre day analyied by Prof F. A. Abes. (di Cruible cly. A &!rode, in KLurhe_. It is evident our fire-clays do not suffer in comparison with these, and that the industrial value of these large deposits in our coal measures is very considerable. [For other fire-clays see Greenup colnty, &c.] R. Wagner's Chemical Technology, American edition, page 294. 181 45 CHEMICAL REPORT. COALS OF CARTER COUNTY. No. i344-"COAL, probably sub-conglomerate, at Old Orchard Diggings. (Eight inches of coal, four inches of state, six inches of coal.) Boone Furnace property." A dull slaty coal, having much fibrous coal between the laminae. Exterior stained with iron oxide. No. I345-"COAL, NO. 7, from old entry back of Star Furnace. Upper layer twenty inches thick (Coalton coal). An average sample, collected by A. R. Crandall." Breaks easily into thin irregular lamina, with some fibrous coal between. Incrusted somewhat with iron oxide. No. I346-"COAL, No. 7, from old entry back of Star Furnace. Bottom layer, two feet two inches thick. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A pure-looking coal; fracture glossy and pure black, some- what like that of asphaltum. Very little fibrous coal, pyrites, or ferruginous incrustation apparent. No. 1347-"COAL, No. 7, from entry back of Star Furnace. Middle layer, two feet thick. Colected by A. R. Crandal." Appears to be intermediate in quality to the two preceding. No. 1348"COAL, No. 7 (Coalton). Average samplefrom Wiley Pritchard's bank, near Mount Savage Furnace, Carter county. Collected by J. A. Monroe." No. 1 349"COAL, NO. 7. Average sample of the six feet Coalton coal, from al parts of the bed. Divide between Stinson and Straight Creeks. (Two hundred and seventy-five feet level.) Mount Savage property. Averaged by P. N. Moore." No. 350-"COALTON COAL (No. 7 coal), front drift on Gum branch of Straight Creek. Mount Savage Company drift, lower part of the bed. Averaged by P. N. Moore." 182 46 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 135 I-"COALTON COAL (No. 7 coal), from drift on Gum branch of Straight Creek. Upper part of bed, Mt. Savage property. Averaged by P. N. Moore." No. 1352-"Average sample of Coalton coal (No. 7), Watson Bank, Willard, Carter county. Averaged by f. A. Monroe." No. 1353-"COAL (No. I) from Graham bank, Little Fork of Little Sandy river, near Willard. Average sample by P. N. Moore." [See appendix, NOS. 1646 and 1647, for the analyses of two other samples of the coal from this bank.] No. 1354-"COALTON COAL (No. 7), from main entry, west 01 Dry Fork, Willard. Averaged by P. N. Moore." A jet-black pure-looking coal, showing iridescent colors on portions, and having very little fibrous coal or pyrites. No. I 355-"COALTON COAL (No. 7) from Old Lost Creek drift, near Willard. Averaged by P. N. Moore." Of rather a rusty black color; shows but little fibrous, coal or ferruginous stain. No. 1356"COAL (NO. 2) from Kibby drift, Everman's Creek, hto miles from Grayson, Carter county. Average sample by J. A. Monroe." No. 1357-"COAL (No. I) from Stone-coal branch of Tygert Creek, Carter county. Averaged by P. N. Moore." No. I358-COAL (Probably No. 2) from a quarter of a mile north of N. Lewis' house, Barretts Creek, Carter county. Averaged by P. N. Moore." No. 1359-"CoAL (probably No. 3) from Carterfarm, two miles east of Grayson, on Dr. Jones' land (not a very good average sample). P. N. Moore." 183 47 CHEMICAL REPORT. ii II II 0-iXl2.2j8jtotj8ijjWijygjj 0 Z _ IIo BB _ _ g ,m' st8-o wi Q i n _ _ __I _ __. 8. _. _ I_ _ _ &_ _ I II e 110o8j8-l 1 1YYj ..jogoo 80,s8 1 S 80jj8 .t Uo1 S1 . z j 1 33 I _ __ l 0II _ e 3__c_ _W z 0ssot 4............. lao 0'8! &3e __ 8_ JS"Je 8_ __0 e 1 u 11 t 1 o 8, o Ioi i; o n 2811C ' _ _ _ _ _ _ B ' - _ _ _ _ __8 e i. u,-1 ...3 yI . =. A 'O- 8 u aI U A. z i:n C) 04 a x :r .2 -I a : D u: z 184 3 4I Is 11 I I1 I! 11 I .t 48 I89 1 D ;s 8 I ao .:s.. . . 2 S. . . a a . S-d- I = I 6I r.:Rzl CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I36o-"COKE, made from the No. 7 coal, in oven, by Mr. Bates, Willard, Carter county. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A bright-looking coke somewhat dense. COMPOSITION, AIR-DkIED. Ilygroscopic moisture...... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. 2 46 Volatile combustible matters ................ . 1 .84 Coke (dry)................, 95-70 Total.... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . too.o ToW volatile matters.... . 4.30 Fixed carbon............. 87.34 Abe...8.............. : - 8:36 Total.... .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . too.oo Color of the ash. . . ........... Lilac-grey. Per centage of sulphur ............... ............ 2.026 The proportion of sulphur has been but slightly reduced by the coking of this coal. It is probably mostly in combination with iron, as iron proto-sulphide, and may not seriously injure this coke as fuel for the smelting and working of iron. IRON CARBONATE ORES AND FERRUGINOUS LIMESTONE OF CARTER COUNTY. No. I36i-FERRUGINOUS LIMESTONE. Labeled "Limestone Ore, from Old Orchard Diggings, Boone Furnace property. Aver- aged by P. N. Moore." A dull-looking, fine-grained or compact ferruginous lime- stone, of a light-grey color, varied in parts by infiltrated hydrated oxide of iron. Fracture somewhat hackley. Specific gravity = 2.879. No. I 362-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Limestone Ore from drift at Old Orchard Diggings, head of Grassy Creek, Carter county. Undecomposed ore. Average sample from various farts of bed No. I. Boone Furnace property. Collected by P. N. Moore." t85 49 CHEMICAL REPORT. Irregular nodules and masses of clay iron-stone; varying in color from light-grey to blackish; mixed with some hydrated iron peroxide. No. I363-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Kidneys in shale below the coal described, No. 1344, at Ol Orchard Diggings, Boone Furnace property, &c. Shale, with the kidneys, four inches thick. Collected by P. N. Moore." Irregularly shaped nodules of fine-granular clay iron-stone superficially coated with hydrated brown iron oxide. No. I364-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Limestone Ore (No. i), Horsley bank, Boone Furnace property, &c. The undecom- posed carbonate. Collected by P. N. Moore" (for a cabinet specimen). A fine-granular ore, varying from light-grey to purplish- grey, and incrusted in parts with limonite. No. 1365-CLAY IRON-STONE AND LIMONITE MIXED. Labeled "Average sample of Limestone Ore (No. I), Horsley bank, Boone Furnace property, &c. Collected by P. N. Moore." A mixture of fragments of clay iron-stone and limonite ores. No. 1366-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Blue Limestone Ore, from west bank of Tygert Creek, about two miles from Iron Hills, Carter county. Average sample by P. N. Moore." Fragments of clay iron-stone nodules, invested externally with limonite layers. No. 1367-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "lower Block Ore, on Dry Fork of Sinking Creek, Carter county. J. M. James' land (six inches of undecomposed siderite). Average sample, by P. N. Moore." Compact clay iron-stone, with some little limonite. No. 1368-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Foxden Ore. Means and Russel land, Cumming's branch of Everman's Creek, Carter county. Averaged by P. N. Moore." 186 5o CHEMICAL REPORT. 5' The undecomposed carbonate covered with layers of lim- onite of various tints, some of which are ochreous. No. 1369-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Grey Limestone Ore, Mount Savage Furnace. Average sampie, by J. A. Monroe." Grey granular and oolitic carbonate, with more or less lim- onite ore. No. 1370-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Lover Block Ore. Mr. Everman's Sammy's branch of Barrett's Creek, Carter county. Averaged by P. N. Moore." Mostly dark-grey, fine-granular carbonate ore, with some incrustation of limonite. SUMMARY OF THE COMPOSITION OF THESE CARTER COUNTY CLAY-IRON- STONE ORES, &C., DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 0361 No. 136.6 No. 1363 No. 364 No. 036 No..3 No.o.36 No. 36tNo.- No. 1370 lon carbonate.. . 44.4o8 6x.220 60.66. 650. 44. 27.5a 62..321. 468 9930.708 47. - Iron. peroxide. .. 4.4010.0-4 5.945 27.296 26.240 4.989 9. 55 31544 9.734 Ahonina. . . .. . .560 o.x ' 6o . o6...o6 17-0 9.01 7.90 5. 73 I17794.197 Lime, carbonate ......... . .45.200 4.450 .240 2.720 6.580 2. 320 12.01002.460 2.73P 53.20 Magnesia, carbonaxe . 24. 328 arae. 2.838 .38 o.o46 0.038 222 .5 .144 7.893 Maoganele, carbonate.391.15 3.051 X.332 .84 .270 . 30101s. .o6O .346 Phosic acid (anhd.).1.47.313 .027 .255 732 . 49.684. 4o78U1 :121 Solphic acidd(athydr.) .439 ot est..521X . 80 4. 587 '16 .49o6 alence. 51 Silica an d ingot. tiicae 2.420 1..260 3.720 10.260 1 .1 0 25.180 10.740 23 510 25.43 20.230 KO - .o35s:Na-0 - - .5 .... 2.11............... W'. dal 4 . 7a 176 S 5.367 3-.07 a. . 955 6.5 .8o6 .951 6.523 4.707 Total .00.0 1.00 00.0 0.00 10.00 00.0 10.0 loo.00 200o.0 1oo00. oro mtooo o ozooolo.Cooooz Perce-tage of iron. ., .1.960 32 578 37,285 35.549 40.465 3.598 33-348 09.106 36.607 19.685 Pct. of phosphorus. 0.0640.036 0.055 .111 .320 .2- -28 .427 .084 .052 Per c01e2gCf 0iluT..203. . 208 533 x . .o.. 9...6 .o6o P enlage of silica. 23...8.980 20.860. 560 09.760 This samnpl bad in it visible eo of pyrite, and hece the above my not be ae determination of the average lulphur of this oee. No. 136I would be unobjectionable as flux for richer ores, were it not for its considerable proportion of sulphur. It would make good lime for agricultural uses; which would make a strong cement with sand for all building purposes, where its color would not be objectionable. The Horsley bank ores Nos. 1364 and 1365, although rich enough in iron, also contain quite large proportions of sul- 187 CHEMICAL REPORT. phur, exceeding in this respect all these ores; many of which may be considered quite good of their kind, as may be seen on examination of this table. LIMONITE IRON ORES OF CARTER COUNTY. No. 1371-LIMONITE. Labeled "Limestone Ore from Horstey bank, Boone Furnace property. (A cabinet specimen.) Col- lec/ed by P. N. Moore." In irregular curved laminae of various tints, from dark brown to red and light yellow; with some soft ochreous ore. No. I372-LiMONITE. Labeled "Average sample of Lambert Main Block Ore, Potato Knob Hill. From the stock pile, Iron Hills Furnace, Carter county. Collected by J. A. Mon- roe." Ore varying from dense dark chocolate-brown, irregular laming and grains, to brownish-yellow soft ochreous. No. 1373-LIMONITE. Labeled "Potato Knob Iron Ore. Aver- age sample. Iron Hills Furnace, &c." In nodules varying from one to six inches in diameter. Exterior of hard dark-brown limonite; interior nodules soft and porous, of yellowish and reddish-brown colors. No. I 374-LIMONITE. Labeled "Main Block Ore, Stewart bank. Divide between Barrett's and Everman's Creeks, three miles west of Grayson, Carter county. Average sample." The irregular laminae and concretions varying in color from dark chocolate-brown or purplish to greyish-yellow. No. I375-LIMONITE. "From Royster Hill Lambert bed. Iron Hills Furnace. The othre from the lower part of the bed." Porous and showing small oolitic structure. Color brown- ish and greyish-yellow. No. I 376-LMONITE. Labeled "German Ore. Smith Hill. Taken from an imperfectly shown bed, possibly notfully repre- senting the whole bed, except that the ore seems very uniform. None of the blue ore, or kidneys above the main bed, included in this sample. Iron Hills, Carter county. Collected by P. N. Moore." ,88 52 CHEMICAL REPORT. Ore generally porous or ochrey, of a yellowish-brown color mottled with light-grey. Some few laminae of hard limonite. No. 1377-LIMONITE. Labeled "Crown Ore. Smith Hill. Iron Hills, &c. Average sample, from upper part of the bed only, by P. N. Moore." Composed of irregular laminae of dense dark-brown limonite, with cavities and included soft ochreous ore. No. 1378-LIMONITE, Labeled "Lower Block Ore. Perry's branch of Tygert Creek, west of Olive Hill. Land of Tygert Valley Iron Comifpany. Average sample by P. N. Moore." Fragments of dense limonite laminae mixed with some small clay iron-stone nodules. No. 1379- LIMONITE. Labeled "Average sample of Lower Block Ore, from road on west side of Garvin's Hill, west of Olive Hill. Land of Tygert Valley Iron Company." Fragments of limonite laminae and clay iron-stone nodules. No. 1380-LIMONITE. Labeled "Block Orefrom Garvin's Hill, west of Olive Hill. Land of Tygert Valley Iron Company. Average sample." No. 1381-LIMONITE. Labeled "Main Block Ore; Old Mount Tom Ore, Carter county. Averaged by J. A. Monroe." A very dense ore, in curved irregular laminae of deep bluish and brownish colors, with some dirk-brown softer ore between. No. 1382-LIMONITE, &C. "Main Block Ore with associated overlying Kidney Ore, from Kibby Diggings. Divide between Lost and Tygert Creeks. Carter county. Averaged by J. A. Monroe." Small nodules of fine-granular grey carbonate ore, sur- rounded by curved irregular laminae of dense limonite, fre- quently separated by soft ochreous ore. No. I383-LIMONITE. "Rough Ore, one hundred feet above the Foxden Ore (see clay iron-stones), on Means and Russel's land, Cumming's branch of Everman's Creek. Averaged by J. A. Monroe." 189 53 In irregular hard thin laminae of dark-brown to brownish- yellow colors; with some soft ochreous ore. No. I384-LMONITE. "Red Limestone Ore from Graham bank. Average sample from the stock pile, by P. N. Moore." In curved, irregular, hard laming; varying in color from yellowish and reddish-brown to deep brown and almost black, with soft, lighter colored ochreous ore incrusting and included. No. I 385-LIMONITE. "Yellow Kidney Ore, Mount Savage Furnace, Carter county. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." In irregular curved laming, involving nuclei of softer ore. Color varying from deep brown and red to yellowish. No. 1386 - LMoNITE. "Main Block Ore, Stinson Creek. Mount Savage Furnace. Average sample, by J. A. Monroe." Curved irregular lamina of dense limonite; generally dark colored, including light-grey nodules of porous carbonate of iron ore. No. 1387 - LiMoNrrE. "Ore seventy-three feet above the sub- carboniferous limestone. On Clark's branch of Tygert's Creek, two miles from Iron Hills Furnace. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." Varying from dense, dark-colored limonite lamine to soft ochreous ore. As will be seen, on examination of the following table of their composition, these limonite ores of Carter county are generally good, and may be profitably worked with proper management in the smelting; although some of them contain too much sulphur and phosphorus to make very tough iron. I9o 54 CHEMICAL REPORT. CHEMICAL REPORT. o 18i I z -soi ______ 1115 g 11 II3 1 -rt+f I e& O0 O 118 z I I I dII _ . Z I ll'e i o 1'11 1w11 o -w 001i8 ill z a IR r -. gi1111II ,Io5 o 1811w1on o t8T ouX fl 811t1 1 8 O e 18t 11 g11 t1 1e : ,, , ......... i : ' I...O.... B - : -'P.] - .:. 31. : 28 C-lz IS' a IA. I AI I A I A.b F- I i- U P z 0' 09 .U 55 i 191 I 11 II I I t - I 9, . 31FUS .1 , .; .4 , , .; 'd , 6 . I-8 11 z I " 11 i 56 CHEMICAL REPORT. LIMESTONES OF CARTER COUNTY. No. 1388-'LIMESTONE used as a flux at Boone Furnace whea1 in operation. Collected by P. N. Moore." A hard, compact, light buff-grey limestone. Fracture some- what conchoidal. No. 1389-'LIMESTONE (sub-carboniferous) to be used as flux by the Iron Hills Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore." A compact or fine granular limestone, of a light-grey color. No. 1390'LMESTONE used as flux at Mount Savage Furnace. Average sample, by J. A. Monroe." A compact limestone of a dark-grey color, mixed with frag- ments of ferruginous sandstone and chert. COMPOSITION OF THESE LIMESTONES, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1388. No. 1389. No. 1390. Specific gravity................... 2.624 2.700 not est. I.,me carbonate..... . .. . .. ... . .. . 97 720 95.150 75 750 Magnesia, carbonate... . .. . .. . .. . .. . not eat. .245 . 575 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides....... .300 1.390 6.403 Phosphoric acid kanhydrous).... ......... .083 . 030 .057 Sulphuric acid (anhydrous)............ . not est.a trace. .775 Potash. . . . 115 not est. not eat. Soda.. . . .167 not eat. not est. Silica and insoluble silicates........ . .. . . 1.560 3.o60 14.700 Soluble silica.... . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .120 not eat. 10740 Total...... . .. . .. .. . .. . . . . 100.065 99 975 100.000 Per centage of lime.... . .. ... . . .. 54.723 1 53.284 42.420 Per centage of phosphorus..036 .056 .032 Per centage of sulphur......... ... . . not et. a trace. .310 Watcr and loss. Nos. 1388 and 1389 are very pure limestones, and very suitable for use as flux in the iron furnace; but No. 1390 is quite objectionable, because of its considerable proportion of sulphur, and its nearly fifteen per centage of silicious matters. 192 CHEMICAL REPORT. 57 PIG IRONS OF CARTER COUNTY. No. 1391 -PIG IRON. "Foundry No. 2, made at Boone Fur- nace, Carter county, in 18 70. " A brilliant grey iron; moderately coarse-grained. Yields to the file; but breaks readily under the hammer. No. 1392-PIG IRON. "Foundry Iron No. i, made at Boone Furnace in 1870." Darker colored, somewhat finer-grained, and softer than the preceding; flattening somewhat under the hammer. No. 1393-PIG IRON. "Hot Blast, No. I Foundry ("sow"), Iron Hi//s Furnace, Carter count,'. Collected by P. N. Moore." Rather coarse-grained; with brilliant grains. Yields to the file, but is somewhat hard. Flattens but little under the ham- mer. N0. 1394-PIG IRON. "Hot Blast, No. I Foundry, Mount Saivage Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." A brilliant coarse-grained iron. Hard, but yields to the file. Extends but little under the hammer. No. 1391. No. 1392. No. 1393. No. 1394. Specifc gravity..... . . .. . .. 6.423 6. o5 7.021 6.889 Iron. . ... . , .. . .. .. . . 90.958 93.212 92.387 91 502 Graphite,. ,... . .. . .. .. . 2.164 2.94' 3 34 2.670 Combined carbon...i6 .o6o .760 .030 Manganese.... .. . .. .. . . .115 .o83 .056 .123 Silicon.... . .. . .. .. . .. . 2.682 1.634 2.240 4.470 Slag. .. , . .. .. .. . .. . 4.180 2.460 .620 i. i6o Aluminum.. ...... .. . . . . . .479 .330 .120 .128 Calcium., . .. .. . .. .. . .. . not Ct. not est. .120 .144 Magnesium. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . e X . o056.112 Potassium. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . 8.076 Solm ... ...... .. . .. .. . .. . . . .... . .. .023 Phosphorus.... .. . .. .. . .. . .3o4 .486 . 836 v 203 Sulphur....... . . .. . .. . . . not est. .079 .057 .041 Total. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . 100.998 101.284 too.672 ioo.68o Total carbon.2.280.3000 4.100 2.700 VOL. t.-13 193 193 VOL. 1.-13 CHEMICAL REPORT. SOILS OF CARTER COUNTY. No. 1395-SOIL. "From thefarm of las. W. Scott, near Lower Tygert bridge, near Olive Hill, Carter county. Top soil in oak woods, sixty feet above the bed of the creek. Limestone slope southward. Drainage between the slope and the sand- stone capping the hills. Sample to depth of six inches. Col- lected by Prof N. S. Shaler." Virgin soil. Soil of a greyish orange-buff color, with streaks and mottlings of dark-grey. Compacted into clods in the bag. The coarse sieve (289 meshes to inch) removed about six per cent. of ferruginous and decomposing cherty fragments. No. 1396-SOIL. Labeled "Sub-soil of the preceding, one foot below the surface, &c." This sub-soil is of an orange-red, or bright red ochre color. Compacted into clods in the bag. The coarse sieve removed from it a very small quantity of small fragments of weathered chert, &c. No. I 397-"SOIL from the farm of Jas. W. Scott (locality as above). Old field, in pasture for eighteen, and cultivated for five years. Slope from height of limestone bench and sand- stone beyond. Northern exposure, thirty feet above Tygerl Creek. Collected by N. S. Shaler." Soil of a dirty-grey buff color. Sifted out about five per cent. of cherty and ferruginous small fragments, with the coarse sieve. No. I398"SUB-SOIL of the next preceding, one foot below the surface, &c." Sub-soil colored like next preceding; slightly more reddish. Sifted out, with the coarse sieve, about twenty-three per cent of small fragments, more or less rounded, of ferruginous sand- stone, iron ore, and weathered chert. 294 58 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1399-"Top SOIL. Woods near Iron Hill, Carter county. From eastward slope, ravine to southward. Limestone above, twenty-five feet thick. Conglomerate still above. Oak and beech woods, about one hundred feet above Tygert Creek. Collected by J. A. Monroe." Soil of a grey-buff color. Sifted out, with the coarse sieve, about sixteen per cent. of shaly ferruginous sandstone frag- ments. No. I400-'SUB-SOIL of the nert preceding, taken eighteen inches below the surface, &c., &c." Sub-soil of a lighter color than the surface soil and more adhesive. Contains fragments of sandstone. No. 1401--ToP SOIL, for six inches below the surface, from an old field on Riggs' farm at Iron Hills. From the slope of hill toward Tygert Creek. Limestone one hundred feet or more above, and sandstone above that. Woodland a few rods off to top of the hill. This field has been cultivated in corn for many years." Collected by J. A. Monroe. Soil of a grey-buff color. Sifted out of it, with the coarse sieve, about twenty per cent of fragments of ferruginous sand- stone, &c. No. 1402-"SUB-SOIL of the next preceding, taken eighteen inches from the surface, &c., &c." Of a handsome yellowish-buff color. Compacted into friable lumps in the bag. Sifted out, with the coarse sieve, about ten per cent. of fragments of ferruginous sandstone and iron ore. No. I403"SURFACE SOIL, from woodland on farm of William Abbott, five miles west of Olive Hill, Carter county. One hundred and fifteen feet above the west branch of Tygert's Creek. Slope northwest. Limestone on top of the hill. Col- lected by A. R. Crandall." Soil of a grey-buff color. The coarse sieve removed a con- siderable quantity of small ferruginous and cherty fragments. 195 59 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I404-"SUB-SOIL of the next preceding. One foot from the surface, &c., &c. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Of a buff color. Contains angular fragments of ferruginous sandstone. No. 1405-"OLD FIELD SOIL. Farm of William Abbott, west branch of Tygert's Creek, &c. Field fifty-five feet above the bed of the creek; on bench of Waverly sandstone. Tops of the hills capped with limestone. Surface soil; has been cultivated sixty years; was once an orchard." Collected by A. R. Cran- dall. Soil of a light grey-buff color; aggregated into friable clods in the bag. The coarse sieve removed from it less than two per cent. of small silicious sandstone, cherty, and ferruginous fragments. No. 1406-' SUB-SOIL of the next preceding; one foot below the murface, &c." Collected by A. R. Crandall. Sub-soil of a lighter and more clear buff color than the surface soil; contains less than two per cent. of small cherty and ferruginous gravel. No. I407-SOIL from an old field on Widow Garvin's farm, four miles west of Olive Hill. Ten feet above the bed of Tygert's Creek. On Waverly sandstone; with limestone and coarse sandstone near the tops of the hills. Surface soil. Col- lected by A. R. Crandall." Soil of a grey-buff color, contains about four per cent. of small rounded ferruginous sandstone and cherty fragments. No. 1408-"SUB-SOIL of the next preceding, onefoot to eighteen inches below the surface. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Sub-soil of a lighter color than the preceding surface soil; in friable clods. Sifted out, with coarse sieve, about eight per cent. of fer- ruginous, cherty, and sandstone fragments. 196 60 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1409-SOIL. Labeled "Sub-soil of bottom land, two feet from the surface; twenty-five feet above Little Sandy river, Grayson, Carter county. The surface soil was not collected on account of accidents affecting its composition." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. Sub-soil of a light buff-grey color; nearly white; in friable lumps. Seems to be mainly composed of fine grains of sand. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT Volatile and combustible matters, expelled at red heat, Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides ...... Lime carbonate ................. Magnesia . Phosphoric acid ................. Sulphuric acid .................. Potash (total obtained by fusion) .. .. ...... Soda (total obtained by fusion).... . ... . . . Silica (separated by fusion). Loss . 212 F 2.500 11.500 .560 = .313 per cent. of lime. .121 .223 not est. .366 587 . 84.000 .143 100.000 This sub-soil having been analyzed by fusion with the mixed alkaline carbonates, and not by digestion in chlorohydric acid, as the other soils of this county were treated, could not be tabulated with them. The proportions of potash and soda given above appear large, as compared with those found in similar sandy soils by digestion in acids; but these represent the total amount of these alkalies, contained not only in the soluble portion of the soil, but also in the insoluble silicates; the process of J. Lawrence Smith for the separation of the alkalies from sili- cates, viz: fusion with a mixture of lime carbonate and ammo- nium chloride, having been employed in the above analysis. I 97 6i B oooo ' 2i iA, l 0 8. -Ro O 1 1 5 1 t: NO J 0o8 8z -Z V 0 0 e08O ,, OOOOR oc 0 c ! oooooEo o o -o 8 2 j e-0-Vi s)I X, 1 I I I 62 CHEMICAL REPORT. Oi -o __, -oC R d d '. 0 r .4- 4 6 x I 1I 4 I N 2 ei I 'r,.1:1. . r . 0.. .0.. . .0 r 0. -. Z E. '- 1 = .F &. =.!: d li -. rz. . . -0 2 . 1; i .12 -i c.9 0 .11 ;z cI 198 A. .. . "Z 3 o-: s :2 . at Io o 'o :- o &+ iI 1 o . .w-ou 7 i cf F:7 j vl8l lrb- l- 1Z Hi Tr 0 i-''l r J , vS s0;o8 FeMru 'I IL 1I I I1 11 I I I CHEM1CAL REPORT. 63 !"A'.W2:.a . . . !,. . ., z & : 1 6 z .1 o 11 ; 11a i i I .9 a II I .s I i 4 2 'o ,3 I1 ,eO , 39 e g99 ..._...... e.. OU.5 IS . 3111-Mul.. .' u0 2 CHEMICAL REPORT. Although these Carter county soils cannot be classed with the naturally very rich soils, there is no apparent reason, in view of their composition, why they may not be made quite profitably productive, under proper culture and by the observ- ance of the golden rule of agriculture viz: to restore to the soil in manures, &c., the essential ingredients which are removed from it in the crops. These soils are measurably deficient in humus or organic matters, and contain rather more than the normal proportion of sand and silicates. These defects may be remedied in some localities, where the sub-soil contains more clay, &c. (as is the case with No. I396), by gradually bringing up the sub-soil, in the annual plowings, with the simultaneous use of clover and other green crops. It ap- pears also from the analyses, that while lime and potash seem to be in sufficient abundance, phosphoric acid is rather defi- cient in most of these soils. The use of bone-dust, or other phosphatic fertilizers, would doubtless be beneficial. The influence of cropping on the composition of the soil may be measurably observed by comparing the analyses of the virgin soils and the old field soils, as given above. In all the proportion of organic matters is found to be reduced, and that of the sand and silicates increased, in the old field, as compared with the virgin soil; and in most of them a reduction in quantity may be seen in the potash and phosphoric acid of the old field; showing the exhausting influence of cropping without the use of manures. EDMONSON COUNTY. No. I41o-LIMONITE. Labeled "From Bythe Meredith farm. Collected by Profj N. S. Shafer (Nouin)." Composed partly of elliptical hollow concretions of dense dark reddish-brown laminw, with some softer ochreous ore. No. 14I I-LIMONITE. Labeled "Proctor Ore Bank, Sycamore Creek. Collected by Prof N. S. Shafer and J. R. Proctor." Principally in dark brown dense lamine, forming an irregular stalactitic, hollow columnar structure with septae (or irregularly 200 64 CHEMICAL REPORT. large cancellated), incrusted with some softer yellowish and brownish ochreous ore. No. 141 2-LIMONITE. Labeled "Frederick's Bank, Beaver Dam Creek. Two hundred feet above the limestone. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. (Fivefeet ore. Uniform.") Generally of a yellowish-brown color, porous and cellular; but with some dark hard laminae, small whitish oblitic concre- tions some of which are hollow, and brownish and yellowish ochreous material. Contains some fossil shells, &c. COMPOSITION OF THESE EDMONSON COUNTY LIMONITE ORES, DRIED AT 2120 F. Io. 1410. No. 1411. No. 1412. Iron, peroxide... .. . .. . .. . .. . . 55.028 76.284 52.926 Alumina. i.oo6 2.361 4.792 Manganese, brown oxide..040 .030 .210 Jime carbonate.a trac:. . i8c .180 Magnesia... .c .425 Phosphoric acid. .312 1.055 355 Sulphuric acid. .133 .151 .143 Water expelled at red heat.8.300 12.000 10.400 Silex and Insoluble silicates . . . .......... 35.180 7-951 30.580 Total.... .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 100.107 00.080 100.011 Iron, per centage.35.519 53.399 37-048 Phosphorus, per centage..... .. . . .. . .. . .135 3.4 154 S.Iphur, per centage..053 .059 .057 Silica, per centage.... .. . .. . .. . . .. . 33.700 7.660 29. 160 These are good iron ores. No. 1411 is more than usually rich in iron, but it contains more phosphorus than is desirable. [See Appendix for other iron ores of this county.] No. 1413.COAL. "From Tar Lick, Davis Creek, Edmonson county. Five and a haiffeet thick. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler. " CHEMICAL REPORT. A glossy splint coal, breaking into thin irregular laminae, with tar (petroleum) and fibrous coal-the remains of reedy leaves-and more or less fine-granular pyrites between them. No. 1414-COAL. "Found on Mill branch. Level of main Aolin coal. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." Splint coal. Separates under the hammer into thin irregu- lar laminae, with fibrous coal, containing fine-granular pyrites between. No. 1415-COAL. "Found on the surface. Has been longer exposed and more weathered than the preceding. Mill branch. Collected by Prof: N. S. S/aler." No. I416-COAL. "From Knob Lick, Dismal Creek. Geolog- ical level of main No/in coal. Collected by Prof. N. S. Sha- ler." A weathered specimen of splint coal, incrusted with ochreous iron oxide on the surface. Separating into thin irregular lam- inae, with fibrous coal between. No. 1417-COAL "At Gross', one hundred and eighty feet above Bear Creek. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler and 7. R. Proctor." A splint coal, breaking into thin irregular lamina, with fibrous coal and much fine-granular pyrites between. No. I418-COAL. "Shoal branch, No/in coal Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler andJ. R. Proctor." Splint coal, breaking into thin lamine, with fibrous coal and but little pyrites between them. No. I4I9-COAL. "Tar Lick Coal, branch of Davis. (Main No/in coal.) Collected by J. R. Proctor. Five and a ha/f feet thick." A deep-black coal, with soft bituminous matter between the thin laminae, and but little fibrous coal or pyrites. 202 66 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I 420-COAL. "From Mi/ branch of Bear Creek. Average sarple, by P. N. Moore." Mluch of it breaks into thin laminae, with but little fibrous coal, and some fine-granular pyrites between. COMPOSITION OF THESE EDMONSON COUNTY COALS, DRIED AT 2i20 F. . NoI:::1N.:iN::4 No.1 6N-.:4z7jN:.1418No. 491No.r4-o I I- - 1I spsifi, gr-vity........ .... ............. XS.w 835- 367x 345,1 4-9X 336 X.335X.437 llygenecolOC moisturc.2.30 3.0t 3.00 0.60 1.00 3.66 4.o6 4.-6 Volatile combustible matters.. 3a.10 33. 0 33.80 33.80 39.-0 35- 34 33- .4 32.00 Ckk.65.60 9 63.40 63.00 63.60 W9.80 6-.00 6-.763.94 To o1atileatte.......... 35.4036.60 37.0036. 4040.2038.8037.30 36.06 Fixed cabo in h. o k . . . . . . . .eok56.30 54. s.6o 53.1 4 45.46 54.06 5. 70 50.84 Ass... .... ..... .... . 9.30 9.00 10.4010.4604.34 6.94 11. 13.10 Total........... .... .. 1.o.0o Chacco of thc coke......... . .p. po. C dlubr. Spongy. light Color of theah . ......... . . .Light li. Lila- LUAc- Light- D,-k Liac_ Light Gry- 1=-.p l -g Ie. Peeenoge of sulphur .......... . ..59 2. 0.903 0.425 8.685 0.706 1.670 4.938 Pe ce-tageof phosphoric acid.. oteet. 00t000. oote.t 001 et .178 001est. DOt 001. no01001. These Edmonson county coals answer very well for the ordi- nary purposes of fuel, and those which do not contain an inor- dinate quantity of sulphur will doubtless answer well for the working of iron. No. 1417, however, contains more than eight per cent. of this ingredient, and more than fourteen per cent. of ashes, containing a notable proportion of phosphoric acid. Yet even this impure coal contains more than eighty- four per cent. of combustible matters, including part of the sulphur (some of which, however, remains in the ashes com- bined with iron), and may answer for ordinary fuel. [For other Edmonson county ores, see Appendix.] CAST IRON from Baker Furnace. Some fragments from this old furnace, which had been exposed to the weather for twenty 203 67 CHEMICAL REPORT. years, were collected by Prof. Shaler, for examination of its general quality. It is a fine-grained, light-grey iron, which is more tenacious and extends more under the hammer than most samples of best pig iron. Possibly it has been improved in this respect by its long weathering in thin pieces. The analysis of a piece of the pig iron from this furnace will be found in the Ap- pendix. [For Nos. 1421, 1422, and 1423, see Barren county.] FAYETTE COUNTY. No. I424-"SURFACE SOIL to depth of one foot, of afield whicA has not been very long in cultivation, principally in hemp, of which it no longer produces very good crops. Blue-grass land, seven mi/es from Lexington on the Newtown Turnpike. Sub- stratum, Lower Silurian blue limestone. Land of E M. Cole- man." Why is it not very good hemp land Soil of a light greyish-brown color. It all passed through the coarse sieve, of 289 meshes to inch, except a small propor- tion of shot-iron ore and irregular fragments of chert. No. 1425-" SOIL to the dept/h of four inches from an old field fiftyyears or more in cultivation almost without intermission, without manure of any kind, principally in hemp and corn with occasionally small grain. Farm of R. Peter, formerly of the late Col. S. Meredith, on the Newtown road, six and a half miles from Lexington; blue-grass land. Sub-stratum, blue limestone of the Lower Silurian formation." Soil of a warm grey-brown color; containing only a few small angular fragments of weathered and porous chert. This field was selected by my son, Benj. D. Peter, for some experimental agricultural operations, which he has reported to Prof. Shaler. 204 68 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE FAYETTE COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F. No. 1424. No-. 1425. organic and volatile matter s. a.t.e...... . .. . .. . .. . 6.3o 6-.575 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides.... .. . .. .. .. 8.890 8. 200 Ljme carbonate. ...745 .440 Magnesia... . . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .366 .221 Phosphoric acid.... . .. .550 .316 Sulphuric acid ...... .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . c,65 036 Potash.... .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . . 169 .247 Soda. . .... . . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .057 .263 Sand and insoluble silicates.,, .. . . ... 81.467 83.340 Water and loss .. ..5..... . ... . ,556 .362 Total. ..... .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . . . .. _ ooo Potash in the insoluble silicates.. , , -905 1.256 Soda in the insoluble silicates..... . .. .101 The apparent paucity of potash in No. I424 may account for its failure to produce good hemp crops. As compared with the original virgin soil of the same local- ity, these soils contain much less organic matters (humus), and a smaller amount of po/ash, than that. These essential mate- rials are especially influential in hemp production, as the presence of these and of lime seems to be necessary to a vikorous growth of this plant; the only kind of growth consid- ered profitable by our farmers. The current belief amongst our hemp-growers is, or has been, that this crop does not rapidly exhaust the soil, provided the hemp is spread for rotting on the field which produced it. The rotting process does undoubtedly restore to the soil, in an available condition for plant nourishment, a considerable proportion of the fertilizing principles which had been with- drawn from it in the crop; but in the operation of braking the hemp, the hemp herds and rough tow being generally burnt on the spots where the process is performed, the alkaline and earthy ingredients of these become irregularly deposited, and much of the soluble fertilizing mineral matter of the ashes is liable to be washed down into the sub-soil, to become for the time unavailable; while a large quantity of vegetable matter, 205 69 CHEMICAL REPORT. which ought to be employed in returning to the soil the humus, which has been destroyed during the growth of the crop, is converted into atmospheric gases by burning. The adoption of some plan by which our hemp-raisers may restore the organic matter of the hemp herds, &c., to the soil, in the form of humus, would tend to retard the exhaustion of the hemp land. But there exists a prejudice among them that hemp herds are injurious to the land, which is probably not based upon fact. The insoluble silicates left after thorough digestion of these soils in warm chlorohydric acid assisted by a little nitric acid, was found upon analysis by fusion, to contain quite a large proportion of alkalies. In both cases these. silicates contained about five times as much potash as was dissolved out from the soils by the acids. This quantity of the alkalies, in combi- nation in the insoluble silicates, so-called, is not immediatell available for plant nourishment, but yet serves to prolong the fertility of the soil; for these silicates, although not easily decomposable by acids, are gradually decomposed by the atmospheric agencies, and especially under the influence of alkaline substances. Hence the application of lime, for instance, to soil of this kind, which has been measurably exhausted of its immediately available alkalies, may, by partial decomposition of these sili- cates, bring more of these alkalies into a soluble condition, and thus temporarily increase its fertility. These insoluble silicates, left after the acid digestion, when examined with the lens, exhibit small grains, which look like partly decomposed feldspathic mineral, sometimes of different tints, mixed with minute rounded or angular grains of hyaline and milky quartz, &c. These facts, especially that of the existence of so much potash and soda in these insoluble silicates of the soil, throw some light on the origin of soils; as they tend also to aid us in scientific agriculture. 206 70 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1426-QUICKLIME, obtained by the calcination of limestone of some of the fossiliferous layers of the blue limestone of the Lower Silurian formation. Cliff on Elkhorn Creek, northeast boundary of the above named farm. Also some milky calca- reous spar, from a four to six feet wide vein at the same locality, which was mixed and calcined with the limestone. This lime, not perfectly calcined, was used on the experi- mental field above mentioned. Its composition was found to be as follows: Lime.. .. . .. 68.804 Magnesia.... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 241 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides.. 4 565 Phosphoric acid.................. ............ .415 Sulphuric acid. . . ........... ..46 Carbonic acid..... .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. 11x450 Potash... . .. . ... .. . .. . .. . .. .. . ... 1.330 Soda.. . . . . . . . . . .. . .099 SMunand insoluble silicates....... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 6.130 Water and loss. . ................. 6.52o Total... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . 1oo.ooo This lime was not submitted to analysis until after it had been exposed to the air for a few days. It will be seen from this analysis, that lime from these fossiliferous layers of our limestone may prove a valuable fertilizer, on fields which have been impoverished by too much cropping. For, not only will it, by its decomposing action on the insoluble silicates, render a new quantity of alkalies available for plant food, but its own considerable, pro- portions of phosphoric and sulphuric' acids, and of potash and soda, will greatly aid in the amelioration. No. 1426CALCAREOUS SPAR (above mentioned)from the vein, nearly vertical, in the blue limestone on North Elkhorn Creek, land lately belonging to R. J. Breckinridge's estate (Bradal- bane). Analyzed by my son, Alfred M. Peter, as was also the quick- lime. lThe considerable proportion of sulphuric acid given in the preceding analysis is probably Partly derived from iron sulphide sometimes diffused in this limestone. 207 71 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Lime carbonate.9.......... .. .. .. . 96.610 = 54.1io per cent. of lime. Magnesia, carbonate......... . .. .. . .401 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides .... . . 1.740 Phosphoric acid.0......... .. .. .. . .057 Sulphuric acid......... .. .. .. .. . not est. Potash... .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .443 Soda.. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. 275 Silica and insoluble silicates......... . . . 360 Loss.... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . .114 100.0o00 This nearly opaque, milky calc. spar is much stained su- perficially with iron oxide, &c. The analysis shows a much smaller amount of phosphoric acid than is contained in the limestone layers; but the proportion of alkalies, if no error is made, is quite considerable. WATERS OF FAYETTE COUNTY. As is well known, the spring and well waters of this blue limestone region are what are denominated " hard waters," containing a considerable quantity of dissolved carbonates of lime and magnesia, &c. As a type of these limestone waters, that of a remarkable spring, the " Big Spring," on the writer's farm, about six and a half miles from Lexington, on the Newtown Turnpike, was selected for chemical analysis. This - Big Spring" is a perennial stream of considerable force, boiling up in the bottom of a sink-hole, which is some fifty to sixty feet deep, and flowing through underground chan- nels and caverns a considerable distance, to be discharged into the North Elkhorn Creek. The water was taken after the long dry season of our late summer and autumn, and was remarkably clear; as it always is except after heavy rains. The temperature of it was noted during one of our late protracted cold spells; and when the temperature of the atmosphere was at zero and only ten degrees above, it maintained that of fifty-three or fifty-four; very little below the mean of the temperature of this region. The analyses of this water and of the waters of the bored wells given below, were made by my youngest son Alfred 208 72 CHEMICAL REPORT. Meredith Peter, under my inspection, as a chemical exercise, and were very carefully and faithfully performed. The results show that the hard waters of our springs and wells might not only be fertilizers, when used for irrigating growing crops, but that, as was first noted by the celebrated Boussingault, they may supply to growing animals neces- sary earthy salts which may be deficient in their food. That, especially, they may supply lime to animals fed on Indian corn, which food is found to be somewhat deficient in this ingredient. COMPOSITION OF THE BI. SPRING WATER IN 1000 PARTS. Held is 1.nlulo by No. [freecarbonics.c Lime, carbonate..... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. 0.2027 Magnesia, carbonate........ .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .0227 Iron, carbonate. .0027 Au ia... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ....o Manganese, carbonate........................ .0003 Alumina. ..........0012 Phosphoric acid. . .oooi Silica. ...... . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .0011 Total of sediment formed on boiling..... . .. . .. . .. . .. 0.2308 Coined in the boiled water. Lime, sulphate.... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . . o.o208 Potassium, chloride........ .. . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . .0012 Sodium, chloride........ . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. . .00.8 Magnesium, chloride..... ..... .. . . .. .. . .. . .. . .0027 Silica..... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .0074 Organic matters......... .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . . .ao86 Lithia. . ............. a trace. Total saline matters.0........ .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 0.2733 The total saline matters amount to about sixteen grains to the wine gallon of water. They are doubtless derived from the soil and the limestone rock. As was stated in the previous volumes of Kentucky Geolog- ical Reports, the water obtained in this region by boring into the limestone substratum is always more or less salt, and is frequently accompanied with gas (carburetted hydrogen), the flow of which, however, is not very durable. During the late very dry season a number of borings were made in this neigh- borhood (near Lexington), with the same results; the water smelling strongly of petroleum, and sometimes of sulphuretted hydrogen, being always more or less brackish, and there being generally a temporary emission of gas. VOL. L-14 209 73 74 CHEMICAL REPORT. The waters of three of these bored wells were analyzed by my son (A. M. Peter), with the following results, viz: No. 1428-"1 WATER from a bored well of Mr. Sutton's, about ninety-eight feet deep, on the Leestown road, near the Scott county line." A weak sulphur water. No. I429-" WATER from a bored well of Mr. Edward P. Gains, about one hundredfeet deep, on the Georgetown Turnpike, about nine mi/es northwest of Lexington, near Donerail." The water rose about thirty feet in the well. Specific grav- itY = 1.035. No. I430-" WATER from a bored we/E, about ninety-six feet deep, on the farm of Mr. Price McGrath, two and a ha/f miles from Lexington, on the Newtowu Turnpike." The water rose to within about twenty-eight feet of surface. Gas was evolved in considerable quantities during the boring. COMPOSITION OF THESE WELL WATERS. Held in solution by fr caibonic acid. No. 1428. No. 1429. No. 1430. Lime, carbonate.................. 0.1008 0.0104 0.1711 Magnesia, carbonate............... o882 .oo8 .0053 Iron, carbonate.................. .0042 .000 oo6z Manganese, carbonate.......................... .0oo5 Phosphoric acid... ............ a trace. .... .0002 Silica.... .. . . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . oo78 .0038 .0017 Total sediment on boiling ............ . 0.2010 o.oi68 0.1850 In solution in the boiled water. Lime, sulphate......0. 6263 0.0309 Magnesia, sulphate......... 0.0541. .... ..... Potash, sulphate......... 0355.. . . . Soda, sulphate.....600...... . ........ Soda, carbonate... .. . ....i..... . . ... 1448 . . . Calcium, chloride...... . . ..... . . . . ..... 3.0246 5794 Magnesium, chloride...... .. . . .. . . . . ..... 2.9881 .7837 Sodium, chloride..... . . .. . . .. . . .. . I 9409 34.4313 10.1040 Potassium, chloride........ . ..... ........ 1883 .1120 Magnesium, bromide.............. ..... .0157 a trace. Magnesium, iodide.... . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . .oo96 a trace . Lithium, chloride... .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . a trace. o81it a trace Total saline matters .............. . . 2.4363 41.3188 i.8756 210 CHEMICAL REPORT. The water from Mr. Sutton's well smells strongly of hydro- sulphuric acid; which was not estimated, because this could only be done correctly at the well. All these waters contain, in addition, a little organic matter, and a little silica in the boiled water. The amount of saline matters in Mr. Gains' well water is remarkable, being about five ounces and a half to the wine gallon. The saline matters in quantity and in kinds resemble those of the oceans; and doubtless had their origin in the ancient sea under which our rock strata were deposited. Another well bored by Mr. Wm. Adams, on his farm next adjoining that of Mr. McGrath, gave water at the depth of about seventy-eight feet; which rose fifty feet in the bore. Much gas was blown out during this boring also. The water of this well contained 0.54 of saline matter in the thousand of the water; which, tested qualitatively, was found to contain sulphuric, carbonic, and phosphoric acids, chlorine, lime, magnesia, potash, iron oxide, and a trace of lithium. It doubtless resembles that of Mr. McGrath, but is weaker. It, like that, smells strongly of petroleum. Mr. Jno. Keiser bored to the depth of about two hundred and sixty feet, on an elevated ridge on his farm, about six miles from Lexington, on the Newtown Turnpike, and obtained only a very small quantity of brackish water, which gradually rose to within sixty feet of the surface. Some of the borings. taken at various depths, were preserved for examination. They indicate the usual layers of limestone, with thin marly shales and occasional silicious beds, of the formation in this region. FRANKLIN COUNTY. No. 1431-" GREEN MARLY SHALE from below the Arsenal at Frankfort. Bed about eight inches thick (Upper Cambrian Grouop). Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." A friable shale of a greyish-green color. 211 75 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1432-" MARLY SHALE. Same locality as the preceding, but lying above that. Colected by N. S. Shaler." Quite friable. Of dull olive and brownish colors. No. I433-" MARLY SHALE. Used as a paint at Frankfort, &c. Sent by Mr. James L. Sneedfor analysis." Of an olive-grey color, with some brownish-yellow mixed. No. 1434-" MARLY SHALE. From Armstrong farm, Bridge- port. Geological position Cincinnati Group, just below the silicious mudstone. In same position as the marl near New- port. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." Used for paint. Said to be goodfor polishing iron, &c.." Of a handsome light olive-grey color. COMPOSITION OF THE FIRST TWO OF THESE MARLY SHALES, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1431. No. 1432. Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides. 10.415 15.395 Lime, carbonate. 1.440 .875 Magnesia .. .8oo 2.298 1'hosphoric acid....................... .435 .460 Sulphuricacid.... .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . ..... 738 . 570 P'otash.... .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . 3.488 3.565 Soda ..042 .318 Water expelled at red heat ................. .. . . . 5'350 6.40o :,ilex and insoluble silicates ................. . 77.380 70.060 Total... .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. loo.o88 99.94' Per centage of potash in the silicates........... . 4.991 3.565 1'er centage of soda in the silicates .............. . .654 .430 ' LUm-. These marly shales are remarkable for age of potash; which probably may mak application to exhausted land of a light ai orevious moderate calcination with lim their large per cent- .e them valuable for .id sandy nature. A e intimately mixed, might, if practicable, make them more available in this respect by setting free more or less of the potash locked up in the insoluble silicates. It will be seen that No. 1431 contains in '2 76 CHEMICAL REPORT. all, as much as 8.479 per cent. of potash, and No. I432 a total amount of 7.130 per cent. These, and similar marly shales, have been used as pig- ments; for which purpose they are quite appropriate, if of an agreeable tint, as they will not decompose the oil with which they are mixed, are not readily altered by atmospheric agen- cies under such conditions, and contain nothing of a poisonous nature. Their use for scouring or polishing depends on the very fine silicious sand contained in them. COMPOSITION OF THE LATTER TWO OF MARLY SIIALES, DRIED THESE FRANKLIN COUNTY' AT 212 F. No. 1433. No. 1434. Silia... .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . . 50.360 52. o60 Alumina.. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . 16.8i6 18.831 Iron and manganese oxides.................. . 6.997 9.200 Lime. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . 8.736 3.666 Magnesia.... . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .936 1.210 Phosphoric acid......... ........ .217 .319 Sulphuric acid......... ........ 2.280 .920 Potash (total)....... . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . 3.623 5.402 Sodla (total)........ .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. . . 1.731 .720 Carbonic acid....... . . . Water and loss........ . . . ........... .304 7.67 Total... .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . too.ooo 100.000 Per centage of phosphorus............... . ....o95 0.139 Per centage of sulphur............ Although the sulphur and iron in in these analyses as sulphuric acid; portion of each, not determined, is .912 .368 these marls are calculated Lnd iron oxide, severally, a combined as iron sulphide. These two analyses are tabulated separately from the first two of similar marls of this county, because in these latter analyses the method of complete decomposition by fusion was employed. while the first two were analyzed by digestion of the marls in acids, and the subsequent fusion of the insoluble silicious residue for the determination of the total amount of the alka- lies. The remarks appended to the first two apply equally to these. Z13 77 78 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1435-" WATER from a bored or driven well, near the Ken- tucky river. Water stands about thirty-four feet from the sur- face of the ground, which is twelve to fourteen feet above low water level in that river. The height of the we/I water is affected by that of the river. Used in the steam boiler of the Frankfort Cotton Mill Compiany." The sample of the water, together with some of the white powdery sediment and hard scale of the boiler, were sent to the laboratory by Mr. Milton McGrew, President of the com- pany. Nothing had been added to the water in the boiler, and the sediment and scale had been taken out of the boiler after running with this water for two weeks. COMPOSITION OF THE WELL WATER IN 1000 PARTS. Held in solutio in thse water by the f-e cabonic a-id deposited on boiing. Free carbonic acid. ............................not eSL Lime carbonate.............................. 0.2493 Magnesia, carbonate.0032 Silica .......0005 Sediment on boiling. ..........................0.2530 Contained in te boiled wauer Lime sulphate. ..............................0.1I1to Calcium chloride..0254 Magnesium chloride..0174 Sodium chloride. Potassium chloride. 01'42 Soda carbonate... .........................0413 Nitric and phosphoric acids. ........................a trace. Silica .00...........0 ...........6 0. 2W4 Total saline contents of the water, 0.5079 to the thousand parts. The fresh water gives a slight alkaline reaction with reddened litmus; the soda, stated as carbonate above, is doubt- less present in it as bi-carbonate. On examination of the white piowdery boiler sediment, it was found to be mainly lime carbonate, with about five per cent. of magnesia carbonate, two to three of lime sulphate, more than one per cent. of alumina and iron oxide, with a trace of phos- phoric acid, a little silica, and traces of the alkalies. 214 78 CHEMICAL REPORT. 79 The hard boiler scale, on the contrary, was found to be mainly lime sulphate, with small proportions of lime and magnesia carbonates, and traces of silica, phosphoric acid, &c. It is evident that the hard scale, which is the most injurious to the boiler, may be prevented by the addition to the water of enough carbonate of soda, say in the form of cheap soda ash, to decompose the lime sulphate. This would probably cause the sediment to be wholly powder. No. 1436-SULPHUR MINERAL WATERfrOm a bored well, ninety- six feet deep, at Fleetwood Farm of Col. J. W. Hunt Rey- nolds, near Frankfort. The water stands at about twenty-five feet from the bottom. COMPOSITION OF THIS WATER. In 1o0o parts. In a wine gallon (231 cubic inches). Free hydrosulphuric acid gas....... .. . . . o.o343 parts. 1.9981 grains. Free carbonic acid gas... .. . . .. . . .. . . .2772 ' 6.1730 Hed in soltion by the fite carbonic acid. Lime carbonate. .... .. . . .. . .. . .. 1397 parts. 8. 135ograins. Magnesia carbonate... . .. . .. . . .. . . . .1029 ' ' 6.oo30o Iron and manganese carbonates.marked trces. marked traces. Trtal sediment on boiling........... . 0.2426 14-1380 Potash sulphate... . Sodium sulphide ...... Sodium chloride ...... Potassium chloride ..... Calcium chloride ...... Magnesium chloride..... Silica . Organic matters ...... Bromine, iodine, and lithium Total. . .2535 parts. .1057 . 1.0152 .0798 ' ' .0713 ' ' .0228 " .0343 ' ' a trace. marked traces. 1 .8250 parts. 14. 7800 grains. 6.1670 ' ' 59.2140 - - 4.6580 4.1620 Id 3330'' 2.0000 I a trace. marked traces. 106.442ograins. A very good saline sulphur water, which may be useful in cutaneous and parasitic diseases, granular sore eyes, some forms of neuralgia and rheumatism, &c., &c., when employed 21S .. . .. . : : , :.. . . . : ..... .. :. . .. . . .: : ' .. . .. . .. . . .. . . 80 CHEMICAL REPORT. externally or internally under the advice and direction of a physician. This water was analyzed by the writer, for Col. Reynolds, before the reorganization of the Geological Survey; but it has been reexamined recently in this laboratory, and, in addition to the ingredients reported to him, notable quantities, not quantitatively estimated, of iodine and lithium, were observed in it. The water acquires a yellowish tint on standing in bottles; doubtless owing to the formation of sulphuretted sul- phide of sodium by the decomposing influence of the atmos- pheric oxygen on the hydrosulphuric acid. FULTON COUNTY. No. 1437-SOIL. Labeled "Sub-soil of an old tobacco field. The soilproper has been washed away. Field about one hund- red and fif feet above the Mississippi rver, four miles east of Hickman. Colected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." This sub-soil is of a brownish dark-buff, or light yellowish- brown color. comPoSITION, DRIED AT 2,12 F. Organic and volatile matters . . ........ ........ ..... . 2.250 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides .. . . . . ............ 6.oo5 Lime carbonate........ .. ........... .-.-.-. .. .230 Magnesia.. . .414 Phosphoric acid ..72 Phosphoric acid.......... . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . n. 'est. Sulphuric acid not est- Potash.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .159 Soda. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .072 Sand and insoluble silicates- 90-490 Water expelled at 3800 F ..65o Total. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . i0o.442 Hygroscopic moisture, per cent..... .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . . 2.250 Potash in the insoluble silicates, per cent .1.479 Soda in the insoluble silicates, per cent..0.6....... .. . .. . .. . I.P It will be seen that in this sub-soil, which contains a very large proportion of fine sand and insoluble silicates, and which zs6 CHEMICAL REPORT. only gave up 0.159 per cent. of its potash after long digestion, with heat, in chlorohydric acid, there is yet a reserve supply of that alkali of more than nine times that quantity, locked up in the insoluble silicates. This potash, although not im- mediately available for the use of plants, will doubtless be gradually brought into an available condition, under the slow but certain action of the atmospheric agencies and under that of humus, &c. No. 1438-MINERAL WATER. -Chalybeate water, sent by Mr. B. R. Walker, from Nick Combs' Spring, four miles southwest of Hickman, Fulton county." This chalybeate water contains free carbonic acid and 0.302 of saline matters in the one thousand of water. This consists of iron, manganese, lime and magnesia carbonates, with some lime and magnesia sulphates, &c. The quantity sent was too small for a thorough analysis. It is probably a valuable chalybeate water. NO. 1439" INDURATED SILICIOUS CLAY. From the bluffs, one hundred feet above low water mark, Hickman, Fulton county. Tertiary formation. Collected by Prof N. S. Shaler." Of a light-grey color, with ferruginous infiltrations. Breaks readily, with an irregular fracture. Adheres slightly to the tongue. Is somewhat plastic when powdered and rubbed up with water. When calcined, is of a light buff color. No. 1440-" SILICIOUS CONCRETION or soft sandstone from the Bluff at Hickman, fifty feet above low water. Tertiary. Col- lected by Prof N. S. Shaler." A whitish, porous, and friable silicious rock or concretion; adheres to the tongue. Only slightly plastic when powdered and rubbed up with water. Burns of a light buff color. No. 1441 -" SILICIOUS CONCRETION or soft sandstone, from Chickasaw Bluff, eight miles south of Hickman. Tertiary. Bed ten feet thick. Collected by Prof N. S. Shaler." 217 81 CHEMICAL REPORT. A light-grey or dove-colored soft and porous silicious rock, adhering to the tongue. Scarcely at all plastic when powdered and rubbed up with water. No. I442-" SOFr SANDSTONE. Chickasaw Bluff, near the base, eight miles south of Hickman." A dull light-yellowish-grey porous soft sandstone; adheres strongly to the tongue. Composed of minute rounded quartz. ose grains, with a whitish cement. COMPOSITION OF THESE FULTON COUNTY SOFT SANDSTONES AND SILL- CIOUS DEPOSITS, DRIED AT 212 F. No. 1439. No. i44o. No. 144. No. ,442. Silica..... . . 74.960 Si.o6o 89. 60 94.o6o Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides . 18.350 13.609 7.809 3.129 Lime carbonate........ .560 .560 .380 .38O Magnesia.. ..... .. .. .. .. . .309 .139 .086 .173 Phosphoric acid..... . .. .. .. . .05. .051 .05! .05! Sulphuric acid..5o .8" .707 .981 Potash. ..230 .231 .1"5 .230 Soda.... .. . .. ... 124 .024.08o 32 Water expelled at red heat . 5.S0o ..60_ 2.400 i.6oo Total. ........... .00 . 885 100.115 100.788 100.728 These silicious deposits do not contain enough mineral fer- tilizing ingredients to make them valuable for application to the soil, nor enough alumina to constitute good plastic clay. Yet they may be made useful in tempering clay which contains too much alumina, or for the formation of common glass and for scouring purposes. Some of them are plastic enough to enable them to be moulded, and the silicious material is fine enough, in some, to permit them to be used as "I Bath Brick" for household scouring. Common brick could probably be made out of No. 1439. Some of these layers, in which the proportions of alkalies, lime, magnesia, and iron oxide are small, may perhaps be man- ufactured into a kind of fire-brick. Part of the sulphur which appears in the above summary of analyses as sulphuric acid, is doubtless in combination with some of the iron in the sandstone, in the form of iron sulphide; 218 82 CHEMICAL REPORT. 83 the oxidation of which may account for a portion of the excess in the total. No. I443"- CLAY from the foot of Grand Chain, Illinois. Post Tertiary. Co11edted by Prof. N. S. Shafer." Of a light-grey-dove color, with brownish incrustations. Fracture large conchoidal-hackly; quite porous; adheres strongly to the tongue; grinds easily into a tough plastic mass with water. Calcines of an orange-buff color; but fuses before the blow-pipe. Stecific gravity, in its porous state = 1.764. Contains minute glimmering scales of mica. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Silica...... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 70.660 Alumina,and iron and manganese oxides .o..... 2o. 309 Lime carbonate. .9.6.0....... .96 Magnesia................. .. 307 Sulphuric acid ..... . .... s...75 per cent, of sulphur, hosphoric acid ..051 I I I I I ..I........ . .051 Potash ...819 Soda........,......... . .487 Water expelled at red heat, and is I 5.2l9 100.000 This clay, which was collected for comparison with the Ful- ton county tertiary deposits, would prove of no especial value as a fertilizer, except on very sandy soils to improve their con- sistence. It would probably answer for common pottery or bricks; but is too fusible for fire-brick. It compares pretty well with No. 1439. GRAYSON COUNTY. No. I444-CLAY IRON-STONE "From three miles south of Litch- field. A six inch layer, on the land of Jno. H. Higden, in the carbonterous limestone. On the old Brownsville road. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shafer." Fine granular, or compact. Dark grey. 219 CHEMICAL REPORT. Iron, carbonate ...... Iron, peroxide ...... Alumina. Lime carbonenate ..... Magnesia, carbonate .... Manganese, carbonate . ., Phosphoric acid ...... Sulphuric acid... ... Silica and insoluble silicates Water and loss ...... COMPOSITION DRIED AT 212 F. 6. 53.6 33.630 per cent. of irol. .... . . 7.179 6.378 a trace. .102 ' o.o35 per cent. of phosi .0.... . . 054 = .022 per cent. of sulp1 14.450 it. gm per cent. of silia .785 100.000 phorus, hur. La Quite a good ore of its kind. No. i445-LIMONITE IRON ORE. "From north side of Grind- stone branch of Rock Creek. Hill below Owen Whiltrie's. Grayson county. Collected by P. N. Moore." A porous and cellular limonite, varying in color from dark brown and steel black to reddish-brown and ochreous. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Iron, peroxide... . .. . 27.192 = 19.344 per cent. of iron. Alumina .4.299 Manganese, brown oxide .a trace. Lime carbonate .410 Magnesia. .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. ..317 Phosphoric acid .249 = O. log per cent. of phosphorus. Sulphuric acid.103 = .o4i per cent. of sulphur. Water expelled at red heat .5.60o Silica and insoluble silicates .. . ...... 6i .730 = 25.500 per cent. of silica. Moisture and loss..... . . . . . .. . . 100 100.000 This ore is too poor in iron and too silicious to be of much value. [See Appendix for other Grayson county iron ores.] No. 1446-MARLY SHALE. "From Sunset Lick, a mile and a half west of Litchfield. Geological position the carboniferous form atiot. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." A friable marly shale of a greyish and brownish-olive color. This marl, when analyzed by digestion in acids, &c., gave the following results, dried at 2I20 F., viz: Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides...... .. . . . . . . .. 19.133 Lime . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .269 Magnesia..353 Magnesicac.i.... . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . 353 Phosphoric acid..267 Sulphuric acid ..027 Potash. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 2.910 Soda .. . . . . . .052 Water expelled at red heat.... . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . .. . 6.230 Silica and insoluble silicates.................... . . . 71.580 Total. .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . 100.821 220 84 CHEMICAL REPORT. The silica and insoluble silicates, when sintered with lime carbonate and ammonium chloride, &c., &c., yielded 1.205 per cent of potash, and 0.55 per cent. of soda, in addition to that given above as extracted by digestion in acids. So that the total amount of potash in the marl appears to be 4.II5 per cent. and that of soda o.602 per cent. Some of the same marly shale, from this locality, subse- quently collected by Mr. P. N. Moore, was analyzed by fusion with the mixed alkaline carbonates; sintering with lime car- bonate and ammonium chloride, &c., &c., and gave the fol- lowing results, viz: Alumina..... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. 14.130 Iron and manganese oxides ....................... 13.48 Lime... .. . .538 Magnesia.... . . 158 Phosphoric acid........................ .280 Sulphuric acid.... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .204 'otash.... .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. 4.625 "A. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .783 WVmiter, &C., expelled at red heat ..................... . 6. oo Silica..... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. 6o.o6o l.tal......................... . . .. 101.258 The apparent excess in the total may be partly due to oxidation of combined iron and sulphur in the marl, and prob- ably, also, to an over-estimation of the water. Its considerable proportion of potash might make it use- ful as a fertilizer on impoverished land, were this alkali all in anz available condition. But the analyses show that a great portion of it is in firm combination, in the silicates insolu- ble in acids; only to be released, and made available for plant growth, by the slow process of weathering, under the influ- ence of atmospheric agencies, humus, &c. Whether lime could be profitably employed to decompose these silicates and set free the alkalies, is yet to be tried. The remarks given under the head of marly shales of Camp- bell and Franklin counties, as to their use as " mineral paint," &c., apply to this marly shale also. 221 85 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1447-" SOFT SANDSTONE; a micaceous, uncemented sand rock, from Horse Branch, on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad. Border of Grayson and Ohio counties. Very fin able. Can be shoveled like sand. Collected by Prof N. S. Shaler. Geological position carboniferous." Of a light drab, or grey-buff color, consisting of small quartz grains, mostly rounded, some spangles of mica, some few grains of blackish and greenish ferruginous mineral, and a fine powder, somewhat ferruginous, which can easily be washed out from the quartz sand, &c., by water. Water disintegrates the lumps. This soft sand rock, dried at 2120, gave the following results, on analysis by acid digestion, &c.: Sand and insoluble silicates....... . .. . .. . . ... .. . . 87.700 Alumina, colored with iron oxide .7.o4 Lime (estimated as carbonate). .100 Magnesia.... . .. .. . .. .. . .245 Phosphoric acid..... ...................... .370 Sulphuric acid ..0.................................. B49 Potash... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .0975 Sodah.... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .975 Soda..401 Water, &c., expelled at red heati. 3.000 Less.. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . 120 Total.. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . 100.000 This would undoubtedly answer well for the manufacture of common glass. Its considerable proportion of potash, nearly one per cent. extracted by acids, has probably been mainly derived from the mica which it contains, while the phosphoric acid, also considerable for a sand, has doubtless been mostly extracted from the dark greenish mineral. This sand would prove a useful addition to heavy clay soil. No doubt analy- sis by fusion would show that it contains a much larger pro- portion of potash than digestion in acids demonstrates. No. 1448-COAL. Labeled "' Tar Lick Coal, Dismal Creck, Grayson county. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." Mostly in thin laminze, with some bituminous matter, fibrous coal, and fine-granular pyrites between them. Generally of a deep-black color, with occasional ferruginous stains. 222 86 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1449-COAL. " Gravelly Lick, Miller's Fork of Bear Creek. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." Splitting into thin lamina, with a little fibrous coal and fine- granular pyrites between. No. 1450-COAL. "Near the School-house, on Brushy branch of Calloway Creek, W. B. McGrew's. Collected 6b P. N. Afoore." Much weathered. No. 1451-COAL (impure) "Copperas bank, branch of Hunting Fork of Rock Creek, above the conglomerate. Collected by P. N. Moore." Mostly in thin laminae, some of which are shaly. Some fer- ruginous incrustation. No. 1452-COAL. "L. Higdon's, Pearson's branch of Rock Creek. Below the conglomerate. About fifteen feet above the limestone. Collected by P. N. Moore." A jet-black coal; generally breaking into thin laminae, some of which are somewhat shaly. Not much fibrous coal or gran- ular pyrites apparent. Some ferruginous incrustation. No. I453-COAL (impure) "From Gum Spring Fork of Cane Camp Creek, Nolin Furnace property. Sample from above the slate parting only. Collected by P. N. Moore." A much weathered coal, in thin laminae, much tarnished with ferruginous and aluminous incrustations. No. 1454-COAL (impure) "From same locality as preceding. Sampilefrom below the slate parting only. Collected by P. N. Moore." In thin laminae, some shaly; weathered dull and stained with ferruginous and clayey incrustation. 223 87 88 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE GRAYSON COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1448. No. 449. No. 1450. NO. 1453. NO. 1452. NO. 1453. No 1454. Specific gravity ..305 .395 .346 1.378 1.364 5.446 1.512 Hygroscopicmoisture. 4.70 4.14 6.26 3.50 3.60 6.50 4.40 VoL. combustible matters31.40 30.52 32.44 33.40 35.80 29.30 25.86 Coke. . . ... 6390 65.34 63.30 63.30 6o.6o 64.40 69.74 Total.. . . . .. . 100.3O 100.00 100.00 100.00 300.0O 100.OO 100.00 Total VOlatile matters. 36.10 34.66 38.70 36.90 39.40 35.60 30.26 Carbon in the coke... 52.20 50.08 53.80 47.50 49.40 49.60 40.34 Ashes. 1..70 15.26 7.50 15.60 13.20 14.80 29.60 Total.. . . .. . o00.00 E0o.00.00.00 100 00 100.00 100.00 300.00 Character of the coke. . Spongy. Dense Light Light Light Friable. Friable. spongy. friable, spongy. spongy. Light Bro i nh eyi-h- Lilac. Lig'-t Light Ne Color of the ash... . browish sh res .Ll. Ligolt Lightsb Nhite. grey. ry amn-ry hclt rwi wie Per centage of sulphUr...945 3.565 1.476 2.041. 3.158 O.8.8 0.777 No. I455-" COAL, remarkable for being found in the sub-car- boniferous limestone; about seventy-five to a hundred and twenty feet below the Chester Group. Collected by C. J. Nortwood." A much weathered specimen; splitting easily into thin laminae, with very little fibrous coal or pyrites between. Some little ferruginous stain. 224 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION-SPECIFIC GRAVITY = 1.338. HygroscopiCmoisture..... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . 4..... 4.24 Volatile combustible matters.......... .. .. . .. .. .. . . 30.82 Coke (light friable)... .......... . 64-94 Total.. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 100.000 Total volatile matters...... . . 35 06 Carbon in the coke.... .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . 55. 52 Ashes (brownish salmon-grey)......... .. . .. .. .. . .. . 9.42 Total.... .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 100.00 Per centage of sulphur........ . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 2.892 Interesting only because of its unusual position. GRAYSON SPRINGS MINERAL WATERS. These waters were mostly collected and tested qualitatively, at the springs, by Mr. Jno. H. Talbutt; who spent several days in this work and in the evaporation of a quantity of some of the principal ones, for the purpose of determining the more rare ingredients. The quantitative analyses were performed at our chemical laboratory in Lexington. No. I456-"SULPHUR WATERfrom the Centre Spring, a natural spring, the most popular of the Grayson Springs." Inclosed in a "gum" three feet deep and one and a half feet in diameter. Flows in a perennial stream, of about half an inch diameter. Gas bubbles up frequently, in moderate intermittent bursts. The water is of nearly a constant tem- perature of 610 F.; clear, depositing in its channel a dark-grey slimy sediment; and on the gum an incrustation varying in color from blackish and brownish to greenish and pinkish. The spring is about two hundred yards southeast from the hotel. Has a reputation as diuretic, aperient, &c., &c. Re- action of the recent water is neutral with litmus paper, but when it has been partly evaporated it is slightly alkaline., No. 1457-SULPHUR WATERfrOM the Moreman Spring. A natural spring, inclosed in a sycamore "gum" (twenty- two inches deep by eleven in diameter). Stream constant the VOL. I.-IS 22a 89 year round, through a three-quarter inch hole. Bubbles of gas rise intermittently. Sediment in the channel of overflow, whitish; that at the bottom of the gum greenish-black, and slimy. Temperature of the water 66 to 67 F., nearly con- stant. Considered one of the best of the waters for cutaneous diseases. Acts pretty constantly as aperient. Reaction of the recent water, neutral. No. 1458-SULPHUR WATER of the McAtee Sulphur Spring A natural spring (said to have two sources, one warm the other cold), located at the base of the hill, farthest of all from the house, nearest to the creek; near the bath-house. In- cluded in a wooden box, fourteen by twenty-two inches, and twenty inches deep. The flow is about sufficient to fill a half inch pipe. There is a slight intermittent evolution of gas. Temperature, said to be invariable, at 60 F. The sediment in the box is dark green, with much pinkish; slimy. The in- crustation on the box, greenish of various tints and shades. This water is not quite so strong as that of the " Center Spring." No. 1459-SULPHUR WATER of the "eStump Spring." A natural spring, included in a sycamore "sgum," twelve inches in diameter and twenty deep. The flow is about a quarter to half inch in diameter. There is a slight evolution of gas in bubbles. Temperature of the water 640 F., said to be invariable. The sediment in the gum is blackish and slimy. The incrustation very slight, and nearly black. The taste of the water is sweetish-brackish. Reaction with litmus papers, neutral. No. I 460-SUIPHUR WATER of the "Jar Spring." A natural spring, nearest to the house (near the Stump and Big Gum Springs), included in a gum twelve inches in diameter 'Calledby Dr. Owen "Macatine." Volume i, Kentucky Geological Reports, page 270. 226 go CHEMICAL REPORT. CHEMICAL REPORT I. and twenty-six deep. Flow of water from quarter to half an inch in diameter. Slight evolution of gas in bubbles, smelling strongly of sulphuretted hydrogen, as do all the others. Tem- perature of the water 63 F., said to be constant. Taste sweet- ish. Reaction, neutral. The sediment is dark-colored; slimy. The incrustation on the gum whitish, with greenish and purplish tints. No. 1461-SULPHUR WATERfrOmt the "Eye Spring." A natural spring, included in a gum" ten to eleven inches in diameter and twenty deep. The flow of water is about a quarter of an inch in diameter. Temperature of the water, 660 F.. said to be invariable. (The temperature of the atmos- phere, at the time of observation, was 86 F.) Very little evolution of gas bubbles. The sediment in the gum is dark, and slimy. The incrustation on the gum dark green, yellow- ish, and purplish, and dirty-whitish. Taste brackish. Reac- tion, neutral. NO. 1462-SULPHUR WATER from the " White Sulphur Spring," near the "Big Gum," and between it and the Moreman Sfiring, to the left of the walk. Flow about quarter to half an inch in diameter. A slight intermittent evolution of gas bubbles. Temperature 620 F., said to be invariable. Incrustation whitish. Sediment green- ish near the gum. Tastes and smells stronger of sulphuretted hydrogen than any of the other springs. Reaction, neutral. Water not at present used. No. 1463-SULPHUR WATER froM the "Hymenial Spring." A feeble spring, situated about ten feet from the "Center Spring." Temperature of the water 650 F., said to be invari- able. Sediment greenish-black, with pinkish portions, and slimy. Incrustation on the "gum " dark-green and dirty-white. Reaction, neutral. 227 9I CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1464-SULPHUR WATERfrom the "Rock Spring." The original spring of the group. Situated at the base of the hill. Flows out from the rock in a constant stream, which might fill an inch pipe. Temperature 58 F., said to be invari- able. A whitish scum on the water in the channel of out-flow; no gas bubbles evolved. Sediment bluish-blackish. Reaction, neutral. Not very strong in sulphuretted hydrogen. No. 1465 - SULPHUR WATER from an Artesian Well, one thousand feet deep, and six inches in diameter, completed in i865. Bored for "oil" on Hunting Fork, a tributary of Rock Creek, near Mr. H. Haynes', six miles from Grayson Springs, on the property of the Boston Kentucky Central Rock Oil Company, H. W. Fuller, President. At first the water spouted twenty feet above the surface of the ground, from the two-inch tube. The tube is now out, and the hole has been widened for six feet down and cased with an eight-inch square wooden box. The water now flows out in a six-inch stream. Tem- perature 6i.5' F. Gas is evolved constantly in large bubbles. The incrustation on the boxing, &c., is blackish, and is to be seen in the channel of the stream for half a mile down. The water is clear and colorless, and gives an alkaline reaction. A salt water stream is said to enter the well about one hundred and fifty feet below the surface. 228 92 CHEMICAL REPORT. 93 CONMPoSITION OF THESE SULPHUR WATERS OF GRAYSON COUNTY IN oo PARTS. ! of spring . . Centre. More. IMcAtee. Stump. Jar. Eye. White 4ye-T Rack. As.ao elan. Sulphu."..Il. Na 6 45Na. 1458 No. 459 No. 14 N. 1461 No. 1461 No. .463i7o 1464No4 -465 SpecinCageaoily f water t .aa 1U2x.01 1.0015s 1osx.006 at est. not est. nat esr oes. lt oat .o. tO lot cot. Frecaroonicacidgas. o.1950 o.11-34 0.1500 o.65S o. 0a tes. natrot. t1estt.not. I . ootct. freetlpharetted hydra- gez gas. . 0.... 1248 .-03 .a4Ia .aa65 0.-39 o.o701ate- not -est.0.0380 .itercarbortate a.1736 .9o95a . 8c6a.001 .,630. -87 0.-18V3 Io5a .1 66a o.1360 scugesiacarbonate . . a trace. .ao .01 a trace. .0345 ._c4a .0018 not 0t.0118 .oao8 bo.ate d phalpha.et=.7.0046 .-oo7 .oo66 .0071 .0o96 .o0o6 0-71 a'. 6 Sibc..00....... . . 094 . --08.0008.003a .3006 .-14 . 0.. ..060 ILeatic atters and Iota rot rot, flt tot. .00-1 .0168 .0071 .oo96 .oog = . 304 -.38 Total.edintaonoiling -.1785 o..6a6 a. 1914 o.0340 o.1351 o.1 a.0140 not est. o.2176 a. 1990 Lie taiphale-. 1649 0.4541 0.4508 0.6091 o. oa78 a.6683 0.6505 -.9coI o. 4946 -34 Mogoesia salphate. 5774.3768 .4616 .6093 .5781 .7540 .6500 .8835 .4704 .8778 Posh sphat.. ... .. . 0 .003 .-045 .o17. -.085 .0011 001 Ost. Soda siphate......o6 .. 374.. 47.a. . nol t. lroo, llatganese and al-1ina sulphates and ph'apha_ . . . . . -30 .-7 .-191 eat rot, traces, trces, traces. traaeo. tracrf traces. Sadi-rs sIphid... 0 549 0 1. nat t. .07 .0-00 .057 . -111).059 .0-54 Soda o.-bi-od with or- g.ic a-ids. 0044 .06 P-oah .0005 -38. ,dni. 61.dd .oo.c6................. "..... ..6. .... ...' . ... ..9... XPg- -h i. - . o g .oo38 45...... . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . S. iumchlan de.0.100. . ..020o 53 .0o760.105 2&9-.t) .0126 .00oB4 .296c0 silo. .-09 .. ... 00 ..000 . ..05.. .03 .... .-4.. Ole;aciC lattors and loss not rot. 0ot501t. not tot. .0000 .10g .011 .777 001001t. 484 170- 4 t. Todt alin- matrrs. 1.0748 .1609 1.39 5 l 574 ..6.60 . 796c .7470 1.9974 1.4800 0.7084 Lithiu, iodine and bra. 0000e.. . .traces traces. races. Ir: ces. 'a rot. 501 rot, rs.ot rft. not oot niol 010. lnt rot. Tosp-rrtureoinprngF.60 66,67 6d8 640 6 66 6, 8c6 650 The small quantities of lithium compound, indicated in the above table, were detected by means of the spectroscope, after proper treatment of the saline residuum obtained by the evaporation of from ten to twenty litres of the water. The bromine and iodine traces could only be observed by the ap- propriate tests after a similar evaporation. The organic matters recorded in the table are composed of apocrenic and crenic acids and the singular substance called Barigine, from the fact that it was first observed in the sulphur water of the celebrated Barege Springs of the Pyrenees. This Baregine is found in solution in many of the sulphur waters of the world; more especially in the thermal waters. 229 CHEMICAL REPORT. On evaporation of such waters they assume a yellowish tint and leave a yellowish-brown residue, which, on calcination, gives out ammoniacal fumes and the odor of burnt horn; leav- ing a very large proportion of ash, mainly silicious. This organic matter, approaching to the nature of the albuminoid or gelatinous principles, is what is called Baregine. By exposure of these waters to the air this dissolved nitro- genous matter undergoes a change; becomes less soluble and forms a sediment, or deposit, in the spring and its channel, of a slimy nature, which is called glairine, and which is usually combined with other precipitated materials from the water, such as iron and manganese sulphides, lime and magnesia carbonates, free sulphur, &c., &c., and probably changes, by gradual decomposition, into crenic and apocrenic acids, &c. -Glairine, with crenic and apocrenic acids, and other sub- stances mentioned above, were abundantly found in the unctuous slimy sediment of these Grayson sulphur springs. Generally more of the latter than of the crenic. This sediment was collected by Mr. Talbutt from the bottom of the water in the "gum " usually, from the following springs, viz: "Centre," -Moreman," "McAtee," "Stump," and "Hy- menial," and brought to the laboratory for examination, in close bottles, with some of the water of the spring included. On examination, some weeks afterward, the supernatant water was found to be glairy in all except that from the Shimp Spring. In those from the Centre and Moreman springs the water over the sediment was of a dirty-olive green color, of a sulphurous and putrescent odor, glairy, and as thick as ordinary white of egg. When this was poured off and the sediment agitated with more distilled water, this also became glairy and colored, on standing; and the same result was obtained in a second and third operation of the kind; the quantity of the dissolved organic matter appearing gradually to be diminished. The " Centre" sediment gave the most of this glairy material; that of the "Moreman," Ad McAtee," and "Hymenial" gave less, and that of the "Stump," although it colored the water slightly, did not make it glairy or communif 230 94 CHEMICAL REPORT. cate to it the semi-putrescent, sulphurous odor, so marked with the others. The glairy colored solution, poured off from the sediment, was evaporated and analyzed. The dark brownish solid resid- uum, obtained by evaporation, presented the usual properties of glairine. It burnt with a burnt-horn, ammoniacal odor, leav- ing a large quantity, more than forty per cent., of whitish ash. This ash was largely silicious, but contained also alumina, iron and manganese oxides, lime, magnesia, and phosphoric and sulphuric acids. The glairley soluble matter also contained apocrenic acid. The dark colored original sediments, which had thus been washed with water to remove some of the glairine, &c., were found to contain much apocrenic and crenic acids, especially the former, with alumina, iron and manganese oxides, lime, mag- nesia, phosphoric and sulphuric acids, sulphur, &c. Becoming somewhat charred when calcined and giving off the odor of burnt animal and vegetable matters. That from the " Centre" Spring giving more of the odor of burnt animal matter. Those of the others giving mostly the odor of burnt vegetable mat- ter. Doubtless the other sulphur waters of this locality also con- tain these remarkable organic ingredients, or most of them. What influence they have in therapeutic applications of these waters has not been determined. It is probable, however, that this decomposable organic material, from whatever un- known source derived, may, by reaction upon the dissolved earthy sulphates of the water, produce some of the sulphydric acid which it contains. It may be interesting to append the chemical composition of glairine of three different varieties, as determined by J. Bouis. (- Comnptes Rendus," XLI, page I I 6.) 231 95 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1466-CHALYBEATE WATER, from the chalybeate well at Grayson Springs. Well ten feet deep; walled up with rock, three feet square. Water about four feet deep in well. It is said that three streams of chalybeate and one of fresh water flow into it. A very slight occasional evolution of gas. Temperature of the water, 7P0 F. The water is raised with a wooden pump. The sediment or deposit, where the water flows from the pump and trough, is ferruginous, brownish-red. Reaction, neutral. No. 1467-CHALYBEATE WATER, from a well near Grayson Spfings; sent by Mr. Van Meter, proprietor of the springs, for examination. This, like the preceding, deposited a flocculent light-brown ferruginous sediment in the containing bottle. No. 1468-CHALYBEATE WATER, from "Indian Spring," a natu- ral source, near Jones' Mill; head of Sunfish Creek, five miles from Paducah and Louisville Railroad. Sentfor examination by Mr. H. Haynes. This also deposited a brownish ferruginous sediment in the bottle. COMPOSITION OF THESE CHALYBEATE WATERS, IN zooo PARTS OF THE WATER. No. 1466. No. 1467. No. 1468. Free carbonic acid ................. 0.207 not est. not est. Lime carbonate .................. 0.1251 0.2580 o.o076 Magnesia carbonate .... ............ a trace. .0020 a trace. Iron and manganese carbonates and phosphates, with traces. of alumina...................o .800 .0133 Silica...................... .0022 .0180 .0028 Total, held in solution by carbonic acid . ......0.1391 0.3580 0.0237 Lime sulphate............ ...... .0110 2.328 o.o692 Magnesia sulphate ................. a trace. .741 a trace. Potash sulphate..........a.. a trace o63 a trace. Soda sulphate..... ........ a trace a 130 a trace. Sodium chloride.................. oo8i .510 .0423 Potassium chloride....3............. 8o76. . .003 Silica...................... not est. .0150 o o86 Total saline contents ............... o.1658 4.786 0.1476 232 96 CHEMICAL REPORT. From these analyses, which can only be considered approxi- mative, it appears that the water from the well near Grayson Springs is the strongest and the most aperient. The small quantity of the water sent, and the alterations which always take place in waters of this kind, under the influence of the atmosphere, prevent these examinations from being entirely conclusive. No. 1469-SOIL. "Sample to the depth of eight inches from an old field, fifty years in cultivation, which has been lying un- cultivatedfor the last fifteen years. Collected by C Schenk." Situated twenty-five hundred feet west of the twenty-first mile-post on the Louisville and Paducah Railroad; west of Big Clifty. Locality, six hundred and seventy feet to the right of that road and four feet above the level of the rail. Underlying rock, sandstone. Timber of the locality, mostly black oak, with some white and red oak; with a few poplars on the creeks. Undergrowth sumach, dogwood; much sassafras and persim- mon. Rotation of crops: I. Tobacco; 2. Corn; 1. Oats; sometimes with clover. No manure. Yield: of corn and oats, of each ten bushels to the acre. Soil of a yellowish light- umber color. No. 1470-SOIL. "Sub-soil of the preceding, taken at a depth of from eight to forty inches. Collected by C. Schenk." Sub-soil of a dull-light-brick color. NO. 147I-"VIRGIN SOIL. Sample to depth of six inches. Col- lected by C. Schenk." From a point two hundred feet east of the twenty-second mile-post, on above named railroad; two hundred and fifty feet to the right of the road, and four feet above the level of the rail. Underlying rock, sandstone. Has been two years in cultivation. Usual yield of this localit'y, according to report of the farmers, of corn and oats, each ten to twenty bushels, and of wheat five to ten bushels. It yields tobacco only when manured. Timber same as in preceding. 233 97 CHEMICAL REPORT. Soil of a greyish-brown or light umber color. The coarse sieve (two hundred and eighty-nine meshes to inch) removed from it a few rounded ferruginous particles only. No. 1472-"Sub-SOIL of the next preceding; taken to the depth of from six to thirty-six inches. Collected by C. Schenk." Sub-soil of a light greyish-buff color. Contains a few small rounded ferruginous particles. No. 1473-"VIRGIN SOIL, three years in cultivation. Collected by C. Schenk." Sample to the depth of seven inches, from a locality one thousand feet west of the twenty-sixth mile-post, on the Louis- ville and Paducah Railroad, and three hundred and sixty feet to the left of that road, at the level of the rail. Drainage slope = 1:150. Substratum, limestone. Timber, red, black, and white oak, with sugar-tree and poplar. Timber full of holes, except the poplar. Undergrowth, dogwood, sassafras, persimmon. Sometimes one hundred cords of wood to the acre. Rotation of crops: two years in corn; yield, twenty-five bushels to the acre; one year in oats; same yield. New land here yields fifteen to thirty bushels of corn, twenty to thirty of oats, and eight hundred to a thousand pounds of tobacco, per acre. Soil of an umber color; darker than the preceding virgin soil. It contains a few rounded ferruginous particles. No. 1474-"SUB-SOIL of the next preceding, taken at the depth of from seven to thirty-six inches. Collected by C Schenk." Sub-soil of a light grey-buff color. Contains a few small rounded ferruginous particles. No. I 475-SOIL. "Sample to the depth of five and a half inches, of an old field, forty years in cultivation. Collected by C. Schenk." Near the Grayson Spring Station, Louisville and Paducah Railroad, four hundred and fifty feet to the right of that road, 234 98 CHEMICAL REPORT. at a point five hundred and thirty feet east of the twenty-six mile-post. Fifteen feet above the level of the rail. Drainage slope = 1:30. Substratum, limestone. Rotation of crops: two years in corn, one in oats and clover (sometimes tobacco first). Field has been in grass for the last three years. Yield: corn, twelve to twenty bushels; wheat, eight; and oats, fifteen per acre. Dried soil of a brownish-grey color. Sifted out very few small rounded ferruginous particles. No. 1476-''SUB-SOIL of the next preceding, taken from five and a hal to thirty-six inches below the surface. Collected by C. Schenk." Sub-soil of a grey-buff color. Contains but few rounded ferruginous particles. NOTE.-For the rest of this serial collection of soils, &c., made by Mr. Schenk, on and near the line of the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, see Hardin and Ohio counties. COMPOSITION OF THESE GRAYSON COUNTY SOILS, &c., DRIED AT 2122 F. No. 1469 N.. n47n No. 247'dN0. t47alN._no73 No. t474 NO. 2475 No. n476 Organic and lal atters ....... . . 3. 375 4.850 3.20 4.950 3. 350 4.522 3.275 Alccmina.andironandan.ga eseo.id- . 7.225 t.990 5.5 7. 497 1 65 95 6.647 4. 72 6.22 Li..ecar.onate..345 .9 ..45 045 . 34.-0 .2"0 .45 magn.sia ... ...t40 . 1401 .76 . 24 .t67 .25 Phooph-ricacld.076. .......... .., 6 2 .-93 .-5 -93 8 .93 Soiph-ric acid....... ... ... N ot imated. Potash..., ,, 5................. ..2431.281.1 .105 .37 .10 to .405 Soda.t... ... I - 0504 23.00.4 Sand and insolble silicates. 80.8520 84 490 88. 79 87.565 86.780 88.965 90.640 89. 582 Waterx rpelledan30 .. . F. 925 .425 .3295 87 t75 l 2.222 .352 Lo,, .-.3. , 436 .,,o Total... oo.ooo too.2ot...32 oo.o.o..... 3 Moisture expelled ata2x2 F .2.0..........5 ..925 2.125 2.72- .9501 2.6505 2.775 3.522 Potash in th.e i isolubeiliicates. . .. .. . ..o...... .828 Soda in the insoluble silicates. .479 . .377 .624 Character of the soil.Old Subsoil V.r.in .Subsoil ld.field Sob-soil Although these Grayson county soils cannot be classed amongst the naturally very rich soils, because they are rather too sandy; yet, if they are well drained, they may be made quite profitable with proper management and by the judicious 23t5 99 CHEMICAL REPORT. use of fertilizers. There is no reason, except unskillful culture, why they are not at present more productive than is repre- sented above. Their near vicinity to good markets should introduce a more scientific husbandry. GREENUP COUNTY. No. 1477-CLAY. Labeled "Fire-clay, Louder's land, near Ken. ton Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." A compact, fine-grained, non-plastic clay-stone of a light-grey color; hardly adhering to the tongue; breaking readily into sharp angular fragments; fracture somewhat conchoidal. This, when reduced to powder, easily works up with water into a plastic mass, which is the case with the other samples of this kind described below. No. I478-' FIRE-CLAY, two feet above the limestone ore; head of Powder-mill hollow, two miles from Kenton Furnace. Col- lected by P. N. Moore." An olive-grey shaly clay, breaking easily into layers, but not so easily across them; adhering to the tongue. No. 1479-" CLAY, fourth above the limestone and limestone ore, on Pea Ridge. Thickness two to two and a half feet. Weath- ering while. Collected by J. A. Monroe." A whitish clay, in soft friable lumps; colored with oxide of iron in the crevices. No. 1480- CLAY; thin bed, resting on limestone ore of Pea Ridge, near Hunnewell." A soft friable plastic clay; colored olive-green and brownish and yellowish-grey. No. 1481-"CLAY. Two and a half feet bed; second above limestone ore. Pea Ridge. Collected by J. A. Monroe." Olive-brownish-grey. Harsh to the feel. Breaks in angular fragments. 236 IOO CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1482-" CLAY, fourteen inches thick. Third bed above the limestone ore at Pea Ridge. Collected by J. A. Monroe." A brownish-grey compact clay, breaking into irregular layers, which are polished on their surfaces; adheres slightly to the tongue. No. 1483-CLAY. "Fire-clay. Thomas' bank. Average sam- ple of upper layer; five feet above the cherty limestone. Head waters of Wing's branch of Shultz Creek. Collected by P. N. Moore." A compact clay-stone of a light-grey color (yellowish and bluish); even fracture; soapy feel; not scratched by the nail; scarcely adhering to the tongue. COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY CLAYS, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1477 No. 1478 No. 1479 No. z4 No. 1481 No. 1482 No. 1483 Silica ......... 49.680 62.920 66.560 47.o60 67.700 55.560 47. 560 Alumina ....... 35.281 20.735 22.679 36.620 22.092 31.027 40.661 Iron oxide, &c. a trace. .820 a trace. a trace. a trace,. a trace. a trace. Lime . ...... .213 .213 .157 .615 .103 .325 .280 Magnesia... . 3. 136 2.281 .605 .389 .285 .403 .497 Phosphoric acid. .626 .371 .563 .6z6 .498 .358 .249 Sulphuric acid . not est. not est. not ext. not ct. not -t. not est. a trace. Potash.... .. . .. .193 2.601 1.946 1.156 X.356 x. i67 .308 Soda.. .. . .. . . .211 .659 .690 .234 .268 .56o .409 Water expelled at red heat, and loss. 3.66 6.4 6.800 3300 7.900 30.60o 1o.036 Total . . ...... .... t ot.000 100. ol. oo-000 100.000100.000 On submitting these clays to the action of the blow-pipe, No. 1480 was found to be most softened by the heat, while Nos. I477, 1481, and 1483 were most refractory; the others occupied an intermediate position. They all burnt nearly white, but No. 1478 burnt of a light-buff color, and No. 1479, No. 1480, and No. 1483 acquired a very light pink tint on being calcined. They are undoubtedly all very good clays, and the more silica they contain, within certain limits, and the smaller their proportions of potash, soda, oxide of iron, lime, magnesia, and phosphoric acid, the better they withstand the melting influence of fire. [See Carter county for other clays of this kind.] 237 101 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1484-" COAL, No. I, used at Kenton Furnace. Average sample." A brittle coal, breaking into irregular layers; fractured sur- face dark, glossy, asphaltum-like. Impressions of reedy leaves on the laminae, and some fine-grained pyrites. No. 1485-" COAL, average sample, from J. Thompson's bank, near Kenton Furnace. Bed sixteen inches thick. Collected by J. A. Monroe." A brittle coal, breaking into thin irregular layers, which have much pulverulent mineral charcoal between them. No. 1486-COAL, No. 3. "Average sample of the main coal of Raccoon Furnace. Below the shale parting." A dark colored coal, breaking easily into thin layers. Sep- arated by much fibrous coal, with some fine-grained pyrites diffused in it. No. 1487-COAL, No. 3. "Average sample of the upper part of the coal used at Raccoon Furnace. Mine one and a third miles east of southeast of the furnace. The upper twenty inches of the thirty-six inch bed. Collected by P. N. Moore." Much like the preceding. No. 1488-COAL. "Main coal, No. 3; lower part below thze shale parting. Buffalo Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore." No. 1489-"MAIN COAL, NO. 3; above the shale parting. Buf- falo Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore." No. 1490-COAL. ",A4corn Creek coal; probably sub-conglom- erate. Raccoon Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore." No. 1491-COAL, No. I. "Hanna bank coal. Average of the upper portion of the bed, from the stock pile, by P. N. Moore." No. 1492-",Hanna bank coal, &c. Averaged from the lower part of the bed, from the stock pile, by P. N. Moore. Coals identified by Mr. Witherow." 238 102 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I493-" COAL, probably No. 3; thirtyfeet below the Kidne ore, Laurel Furnace. Average from coal shed, by P. N. Moore." No. 1494-COAL, No. 6; from the hi/I back of Amanda Fur- nace. Average sample from all parts of the bed, by A. R. Crandall." A bright, jet-black, splint coal, with but little fibrous coal between the layers. Some slight ferruginous external stain. No. 1495-COAL, Nro. 6; from branch above the shops, Hunne- well Furnace. Averaged from the upper part of the bed only, by A. R. Crandall." Splint coal. Has but little fibrous coal between the laminae. Slight external ferruginous stain. \o. 1496-COAL, No. 3. "From drift near Pennsylvania Fur- nace. Averaged by P. N. Moore." A glossy jet-black coal, with fibrous coal and very little appearance of pyrites between the thin laminae. No. I497-COAL, No. 6. "From a new opening one mile above the shops at Hunnewell Furnace. (Old Greenup Furnace.) Average sample." A glossy pitch.black splint coal; shows but little fibrous coal or pyrites. [See Appendix for other Greenup county coals.] 239 103 104 Is I 8 's!I,11 I I - 11 . I i I I-- 11 .e8 1 8j si I- r 8 r8.. o .. I'9I---111 -2" 11 a it l3 11 -.1 1 Ev I 31 lio-311 itfl !! IA .1 _,8 I a 12 iI . CHEMICAL REPORT. l i 22 i e+ 8i80 js a jA 80B-\1C- 1 -nn18 1 u ____ ___ ___ 1 00l81 n18 !s u 11- E '" d::;11 e ______ .___ ___ .SO1 !o I - I1 vlu 8-3 A1 m- ZI 2 i u 2 z z eic 3 z 0 -e 0 Z .:4 I- 0 8 24 I I 11 . I i i II a a I t gs O _ I;, : : 'E --: : .2 9- - -9_E: - .. '3 g S 4 i-. j CHEMICAL REPORT. These comparative analyses show how much the coal of a given bed may vary in its different layers in the proportion of sulphur, ashes, &c. These Greenup county coals are generally very good coals, well suited to the working of iron. Some of them, however, are rather too sulphurous for this purpose. A certain correspondence, not perfect, is to be observed in these coals, between their specific gravity and proportion of ash, as is shown below: Specific gravity. Per centage of ash. Specific gravity. Per centage of ash. 1.250 7.98 1.355 11.03 1.289 5.40 1.365 9.86 1.292 6.2o 1x374 12.60 1.300 7.06 1X374 13.00 1.3.6 7.10 1.389 10.90 1.335 9.00 1.389 12.00 1345 6.60 1.420 12.20 No. 1498-LIMESTONE. "Average sample of the ferrugwtous limestone from Pea Ridge. Collected by .. A. Monroe." A compact, or fine-granular, brownish-grey limestone. Non- fossiliferous. Varying in tint. No. 149o-LIMESTONE. "Sub-carboniferous; used as flux at the Raccoon Furnace. From the head of Old Town Creek." A compact or fine-granular limestone, varying in color from light reddish-grey to darker greenish-grey. Contains chert. No. i5oo-LIMESTONE. "Sub-carboniferous. Average sample of the limestone used as flux at Kenton Furnace. Collected by J. A. Monroe." A compact or fine-granular limestone, of a light-grey color. No. I5OI-LIMESTONE. "Ferruginous. Buffalo Creek, Boone Furnace." A compact or fine-granular limestone; grey-buff, varying in tint. 105 VOL. 1.-.6 241 1o6 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY LIMESTONES, DRIED AT 212 F. N.. 1498. I NO. '499. N- NO 1501.N. i Specific gravity....... . ..... ...... 2.680 2.700 2.770 Iame carbonate.... . .. . . . .. . 88.140 88.150 92.050 60.750 Magnesia carbonate.... .. . . . ... '797 .385 .220 25.656 Ironcarbonate..... . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. 3.420 Alumina .. .. .. . .. . . .. . ..- .. . 4.167 Iron peroxide............ 3.76 0 152 t.490 . Manganese oxide ........... Phosphoic acid......... . .. . .178 .051 .128 .013 Sulphuric acid...... . .0...... .044 not est. .199 .315 Potash.. .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .269 not e st.not et. not deterd Soda... . .. . .. . . .. . . .. .. .240 not u. not est. newt deter'd. Silica and insoluble silicates... . .. , 5960 9- 560 4.460 5.68o Loss.. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .612 1_702 1453 . Total. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. 100.00 100.00 100.000 100.001 Percentage of lime..... . . . . .. 49- 358 49.359 51.548 34.020 Per centage of phosphorus........ . 0.077 0.022 .056 .005 Per centage of sulphur... .. . . .. . .017 not est. .079 .126 These limestones are quite pure enough and quite good for use as flux in the iron furnace. No. 1501 is a magnesian lime- stone. The proportions of phosphorus and sulphur are low in all of them. Nos. 1499 and 1500 would yield a very pure white lime on calcination. No. 1502-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Lower block ore, near the level of the limestone ore. A/corn Creek, Raccoon Fur- nace. A fine-granular, dark-grey ore; adhering slightly to the tongue. No. 1503-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Blue kidney ore, locally replacing the main block ore; from drift one mile southeast from Laurel Furnace." 242 CHEMICAL REPORT. A fine-granular ore, of a grey color more or less deep; with very thin incrustation of limonite ore. Some portions adhere to the tongue. No. 1504 - CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Main block ore, Amanda Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore." A datk-grey granular proto-carbonate ore, with some dense irregular laminae of limonite ore. No. 1505-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Conglomerate ore, on Darby branch of Clay Lick, Buffalo Furnace. Average sam- ple." Principally grey granular proto-carbonate ore, with some limonite. No. 1506-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Lower block ore," Wo- mack's bank ore, Old Town Creek. Sample from ore weathered six months. Collected by P. AN. Moore. Mostly dense, dark-grey, fine-granular clay iron-stone, with some coarser grained and softer, with a little limonite. No. 1507-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Grey ore, or main block ore, Baker bank drift, Laurel Furnace. Averaged by P. N.. Mloore, from the stock pile. Identified by Mr. G. Coxe." Mostly proto-carbonate ore, containing many encrinital fos- sils, with some little limonite. No. 15o8-CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "1 Grey ore from under /he hearth rock sandstone, near Raccoon Furnace. Collected 6y P. N. Moore." Mainly brownish-grey fine-granular carbonate, with a whitish cement. Contains some little bituminous matter. Incrusted somewhat with reddish-brown limonite ore. 243 107 108 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY CLAY IRON-STONES, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1502 No. 1503 No. i5041No- 1505 No. 1506 No. 1507 No. 15o0 Specific gravity. 3.280 3.297. . . . . . 3.263 . . . . . .. . Iron carbonate. 54773 78.722 33.321 30.5 1 644.678 55.258 64.624 Iron peroxide. . 8.648 .204 21.270 14.271 6.-oo 13.468 4.044 Alumina. . 7.800 2.746 4.991 6.197 4.178 .670 4.414 L.ime carbonate.. 3.780 2.250 .980 16.98c0 2.230 4.880 1 340 Magnesia carbonate. 3.o88 .380 .439 .591 1.903 4.528 .836 Manganese carbonate X 1.24 .421 a trace. a trace,. a trace. .660 not est. Phosphoric acid... . 447 -505 .434 .614 .204 .368 .217 Sulphuic acid.... .. 298 X.160 1.208 2-330 .250 1.043 .563 Silica and insol. silicates . 20.250 11.340 31-730 28.980 36.880 15.660 20.310 Water, bituminous matters, and loss.... .. 2.272 5.627 . . .. 3.177 4.065 3.650 Total. .... .. . loo.288 loo.ooo 100.ooo 100.429 100.000 100.000100.00o Per centage of iron.. . 29.851 38. 146 30-975 22.270 26.073 36. 103 33.627 Per centage of phosphoru.195 .221 .189 .267 .089 .200 .o95 Per centage of sulphur..05 524 .483 .905 .104 .416 .225 IPr centage of silica.. 18.560 9.700 29.520 27.360 34360 13360 14.440 Some of the carbonate ores, which contain a larger propor- tion of iron peroxide, will be found described with the limonite ores. Phosphorus is in rather large proportion in Nos. 1502, 1503, 1504, and I 507, and sulphur exceeds in 1503, 1504, and 1505. Possibly some of this latter may be driven off in the process of roasting the ore. No. I505, which contains the smallest proportion of iron, having nearly seventeen per cent. of carbonate of lime, may yet be profitably smelted, especially nixed with richer ores. No. I5o9-LINON-ITE "Limestone ore, Samuel Wamock's land, Tygert Creek. Bed onefoot thick. Collected by A. R. Cran- dall. ANo an average sample." 2,4 CHEMICAL REPORT. Generally of a dark reddish-brown, varying to blackish and yellowish colors. In irregular laminae. Adhering to the tongue. No. I5 io-LIMONITE. Labeled "Average sample of lower Block ore, from branch of Tygert Creek." Varying in color, hardness, &c., from dark-brown, hard, irreg- ular laminae, to yellowish-red and brownish ochreous. Powder of a brownish-yellow color. No. 1511 - LMONITE (with some proto-carbonate ore); labeled "Limestone ore, Hood's branch of Tygert's Creek. Average sample. Used at Raccoon Furnace." In irregular laminal of various tints of yellowish and reddish brown, with some portions of clay iron-stone. No. 1512-LIMONITE, &C. "Average sample. Poynter bank. Raccoon Furnace." Dark brownish-red fragments, mixed some of clay iron-stone. No. 15 I3-LIMONITE. "Average sample of Two Lick 'Limestone ore,' Kenton Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore, from the stock pile." Generally of a dark-brown color, with incrustations of soft ochreous ore. No. 15I4-LIMONITE. Labeted"Lower block ore," from Louder bank. Averaged by P. N. Moore. In irregular dark-brown laminae, with softer ochreous and grey material intermixed and incrusting. No. i515-LIMONITE. "Average sample of Coon Fork Lime- stone ore; taken from the unburnt kiln at Kenton Furnace by P. N. Moore, and identzifed by Mr. Folson." A dense, chocolate-red ore, scarcely adhering to the tongue. Contains some iron proto-carbonate. No. 151 6LiMONITE. Labeled "Shover drift Limestone ore. Average sample, by P. N. Moore, Kenton Furnace." 2-45 IO9 CHEMICAL REPORT. A dense, chocolate-red colored ore, with but little ochreous material. No. 1517-LIMONITE. Labeled "limestone ore. Powder Mill Hollow, Kenton Furnace." In irregular masses and laminae of a chocolate-brown color, with soft ochreous ore between. No. I158-LIMONITE. "Average sample of lower Block ore, from James Thompson's bank, Kenton Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." Laminae of dense limonite. with softer ochreous material between, and some clay iron-stone in the interior. No. I5159-LIMONITE. Labeled "Lower Block ore. Average sample from Allen bank, Kenton Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." Irregular laminae of hard dark brown limonite, with much brownish-yellow softer mineral between, and some whitish, clay-like substance, in the crevices. No. 152o-LIMONITE, &c. "Main Block ore, locally changed to a very calcareous ore, Buffalo Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore." Ore partly of yellowish-grey iron proto-carbonate of a crystalline-granular structure, not adhering to the tongue; in parts changed into dark reddish-brown limonite, which adheres to the tongue. Contains some small scales of mica and a few green specks (which may contain iron phosphide). No. 1521-LIMONITE. Labeled "Main Block ore, Little Morton bank, Laurel Furnace. Averaged by J. A. Monroe." In irregular curved laminae of various thicknesses, differ- ing in color, from dark clove-brown, almost black, to reddish and yellowish-brown; with nodules and incrustations of softer ochreous ore. 26 1I10 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1522-LIMONITE, &C. "Average sampl of Kidney ore, above the main Block ore. From the Buffalo Furnwce stock pile. Collected by P. N. Moore." Dense dark and light-brown limonite, with a little ochreous ore; mixed with compact or fine-granular grey clay iron-stone. No. I523-LIMONITE. "Main Block ore, Brushy Knob bank, Laurel Furnace. Average sample, from the stock pile, by P. N. Moore." (Determine only iron and silica.) Varying from hard dark-brown laming to brownish-yellow ochreous ore. No. I 524-LIMONITE. "Kidney ore, Osenton bank, Laurel Fur- nace. Averaged by P. N. Moore. Identfied by Mr. G. Cox." (Determine only the iron and silica.) Curved irregular lamina of dense dark colored limonite ore, inclosing nodules of compact clay iron-stone. No. I525-LIMONITE. "Rough ore, Darby branch of Clay Lick Creek. The upper of two lower block ores, Buffalo Furnace. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." (Determine only the iron and silica.) Yellowish-brown limonite, mixed with grey iron proto-car- bonate ore. Both showing an o6litic structure. No. 1526-LIMONITE. "Kidney block ore, or main Block ore. McAlister Point, Buffalo Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore." Mostly in dark, purplish-brown, irregular, curved laminae. (One small nucleus of partly decomposed clay iron-stone noticed.) No. I527-LIMONITE. "Rough block ore; below the main Block ore, at Raccoon Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore." Mostly in irregular, curved laminae, with some softer ochre- ous ore included. 247 I I I 112 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1528-LIMONITE. "Lower Block ore, on J. Downie's land, Old Town Creek. Averaged by P. N. Moore." Mostly porous, ochreous ore, with some dense limonite lam- inae included. No. I529-LIMONITE. "Limestoneore;.called slate ore. Ridge between Cane Creek and Widson Creek, Hunnewell Furnace. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." Mostly moderately dense, irregular laminae, of a handsome brownish-purple color, with some ochreous ore. No. I53o-LIMONITE. Labeled "Lime kidney ore, Brush Creek, Pennsylvania Furnace. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." Principally in irregular curved lamina, of a dark color; somewhat oolitic; inclosing, and incrusted with, some little undecomposed clay iron-stone. 248 CHEMICAL REPORT. 17, _ 0 t 0 I 0 M -8 gl. - O I ." z _ _ _ _ _ 0 ..4)........ . 5 - I- EI 0 2 m I r- 24 0 113 0 0 I I.- .e. I a 2 t 4 1 1! I i I el I i CZ 19. -;; R - - - Sz -O Z -, : ,-- T . 1; 4 4 " I 11 . I:iI 0 !f1 I 4 .LI 0 5 I 4 CHEMICAL 6 'Z - o'o-to8 0 V-018 _ oo O 00. _i 00S ''O zwNOO0 I t 1 N 00 0N \e0 0- _ oI o 0 NI0&UNo.0O 8 00 1F ___ 8!. B _ o8N I zI . s" 11 + 1 .1I. 3 .XX::1._ j d'_ 1K]' X's'' 1 fi511'11 N IDeJ ZJsJ 11S0 0 I.8 I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I _ _ 1 1 11_ _ I . C ....U .t. 0 U I :d r 9 p a r I.: t I A 0. .. I I t I. -i I- 0. I to C 10 to Z J5o A I I I 114 REPORT. Z . Z I61 6 0 .5 CHEMICAL REPORT. Although some of these ores contain too much phosphorus to make tough iron, they are generally good and profitable. The intelligent reader can estimate their relative value by this table. [See Appendix for other Greenup county ores, &c.] No. 1531-PIG IRON. "Hot blast, No. I Foundry. Probably made in 1872 or 1873, Buffalo Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." Quite a coarse-grained, brilliant, grey iron. Yields to the file; flattens a little under the hammer. No. 1532-PIG IRON. " Cold blast, No. I Foundry, Buffalo Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." . A moderately fine-grained, dark-grey iron, which yields easily to the file. No. 1533-PIG IRON. "Silver-grey hot blast iron. Made when working very hot, so that it is very cold-short. Buffialo Fur- nace. Collected by P. N. Moore." A mottled, nearly white, silvery iron. Soft enough to yield to the file, but quite brittle. Scarcely flattening at all under the hammer. No. 1534-PIG IRON. "No. I Foundry, hot blast iron, Ken- ton Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." A moderately coarse-grained, grey iron. Hard, but yields to the file. Extends considerably under the hammer. No. I535-PIG IRON. "Hot blast, No. I Foundry iron; made at the fifth casting after thirty-six hours stoppage, on ful burthen. The third casting gave grey iron. Collected by P. N. Moore." A moderately coarse-grained, grey iron. No. 1536-PIG IRON. "No. 2, Foundry iron; from Hunnewell (formerly Greenup) Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." A moderately coarse-grained, grey iron; very hard, but yields to the file. Extends considerably under the hammer. 251 I l5 Ii6 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY PIG IRONS. No. 1531. No. 1532. No. 1533. No. i534. No. 1535. No. 156. Specific gravity... 6.825 6.944 6.872 6.897 7.117 7.o4i Iron... . .. . . 9.656 94.739 88. 1o6 92.724 91.668 92.368 Graphite.... . . 2. 790 3.620 1.950 3. 320 2.950 3.690 Combined carbon. a trace. .780 .570 .66 ..... . .. . Manganese.. . .084 .056 .014 .612 .332 .020 Silicon.. ... . 4. 06 .877 7.317 2.090 3.817 2.515 Slag... .. . . . .6oo .120 .900 .300 1.200 1.130 Aluminum. .. . . .399 .o6o . 65 .442 .128 .582 Calcium..... . . t68 .104 .128 .184 .075 .048 Magnesium.. 0. 95 .082 .125 .190 .122 a trace. Potassium ..... o86 .048 .048 .104 not est. .056 Sodium. . ... . 6 .041 .002 .004 not est. a trace. Phosphorus... . .695 .609 .768 .622 .334 .684 Sulphur.. .. . . .150 037 .039 .046 .041 .o26 Total.. . .. . 100.845 101.173 100.112 101.298 loo.667 101.119 Total carbon.. 2.790 4-400 2.520 3-980 2.950 3.690 [See Appendix for other pig irons of this county.] No. 1537-SOIL. "Surface soil, from wear the top of Pea Ridge; two hundred and fifty feet above the railroad at Hunnewell, one and a half miles southwest of hill to east. ' Coaled land.' Has a second growth of oak, with a few maples, hickories, pines, &c. Above the limestone of Pea Ridge. Collected by J. A. Monroe." Soil of a dark yellowish-grey color. The coarse sieve (289 meshes to inch) removed from it some fragments of ferruginous sandstone. No. 1538-SOIL. Labeled "Sub-soil of the preceding, to eighteen inches below the surface, &c." Of a brownish-buff color; containing nearly half its weight of irregular fragments of ferruginous sandstone, with ferrugi- nous concretions. No. 1539-SOIL. Labeled "Under clay to the two preceding, taken to threefeet below the surface." 252 CHEMICAL REPORT. Clay of a brownish-buff color, with lighter colored portions intermixed. Contains a considerable proportion of fragments of ferruginous sandstone and ferruginous concretions, but not quite so much as the preceding. COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1537. No. 1538- No. 1539. Organic and volatile matters. ....0.5.0... .. . 5.050 4.030 5. 105 Alumina. Iron peroxide............ 6.831 9.595 9.223 Manganese, brown oxide............. I Lime carbonate.... .. . . .. . . . .. a trace. .123 .09t Magnesia.. .16 .223 .034 Phosphoric acid..089 .115 .192 Sulphuric acid .o58 .0t7 .019 Potash.... . . . .. . . .......... . .217 .231 .312 Soda..055 ,097 .120 Soluble silica. Not estimated. Sand and insoluble silicate............. . 86.5oS 84.565 84.695 Water expelled at 3800 F.1.000 .685 .6t5 Loss.0 . .. 79 1 319 . - - Toal. . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . 100.000 100.000 100.406 M !i.iore expelled at 2120 F..... . . .. . . . .. 1.650 1-775 2.150 Potash in insoluble silicates... . .. . . .. . . . Not estim ted. Soda in insoluble silicates . . ....... . ... .. Not estim ted. Character of soil .................. Co-led land .iurf.ace soil Sub-soil. Under clay. These soils are of medium good quality; they would be benefited by top-dressing with lime, and, if well drained, could be made quite productive by judicious management, the use of green crops, and other fertilizers. The surface soil is not as rich in the mineral fertilizers as the sub-soil and under clay. HARDIN COUNTY. No. 1540-SOIL. "Forty-five years in cultivation. Taken to tIe depth of eight inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Farm of H. B. Helm; three thousand two hundred and fifty feet west from Elizabethtown, and sixteen hundred feet to the 253 117 I8 ISCHEMICAL REPORT. right of the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad (facing Paducah), twenty feet above the rail. Slope 1:25. On lime- stone substratum. Timber: elm, sycamore, shell-bark hickory, hazelnut, sumach, sassafras, dogwood, &c. Rotation of crops: lately, two years in corn; one in oats, with three in clover, followed by two in wheat. Yield: of corn, thirty bushels; wheat, fifteen to twenty; of oats, twenty-five bushels to the acre. The land has been kept in good order and has had some straw manure. Soil of a dark drab color. The coarse sieve (two hundred and eighty-nine meshes to inch) sifted out a little shot-iron ore and small fragments of ferruginous sandstone. No. 1541-" SUB-SOIL Of the preceding; one thousand feet to the right of the railroad, and three thousand four hundred feet from Elizabethtown, on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Rail- road Twentyfeet above the rail. Taken to the depth of from eight to twelze inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Of a lighter color than the preceding; greyish-buff. Con- tains some fragments of chert and small quartzose and ferru- ginous concretions. No. I 542-" UNDER CLAY to the two preceding, taken at a depth of from twelve to thirty-six inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Of a lighter color than the preceding, and more yellowish. Contains some small fragments of weathered chert and ferru- ginous sandstone, and small concretions of oxides of iron and manganese. No. 1543-" VIRGIN SOIL, taken to the depth of eight inches. Farm of f. B. Bryan. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Four thousand eight hundred feet west fromn Elizabethtown, on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, and twenty-eight hundred feet from the railroad. Thirty feet above the rail. Substratum, limestone. Timber: post oak, black and red oak, hickory, hazel, sumach, sassafras, and dogwood. The soil in 254 CHEMICAL REPORT. this neighborhood, cultivated carelessly, yields thirty-five bush- els of corn to the acre. Soil of a dark drab color. Contains a notable quantity of fragments of weathered chert and some of a fossil cyathophyl- lum. No. 1544-" SUB-SOIL of the fireceding,from the depth of fromi eight to thirty-four inches. The limestone rock is ihirty-si inches below the surface. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Color lighter than that of preceding; of brownish-buff. Con- tains fragments of chert, more or less weathered, and of fossils. No. 1545-" SOIL of an old field, over forty years in cultivation without manure. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Seven thousand two hundred and sixty feet west of Eliza- bethtown, on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, one thousand one hundred and forty-three feet to the left of that road, and ten feet above the level of the rail. Slope = I:70. Sample to the depth of eight inches. Timber: same as the preceding. Rotation of crops: wheat, oats, clover, &c. Yields, when well managed, thirty bushels of corn, fifteen to sixteen of wheat, and twenty of oats, to the acre. Soil of a dark drab color. Contains only a few small frag- ments (chips) of flint. No. 1546-" SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken from eight to thirty- four inches from the surface. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sub-soil of a lighter and more yellowish color than the pre- ceding; brownish-buff. No. 1547-VIRGIN SoIn., taken to the depth of eight inches. Col- lected by C. S. Schenk." Field seven thousand two hundred and sixty feet west from Elizabethtown, eight hundred and thirty-seven feet to the left of Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, and ten feet above the level of the rail. Slope = i:65.. Has been cultivated one year in corn, producing forty bushels to the acre; has been 2S5 119 CHEMICAL REPORT. resting five years. Had no manure. Substratum limestone, at the depth of ten feet. Soil of a dark drab color; contains no gravel, and very few small fragments of weathered chert and decayed vegetable roots. No. 1548-" SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at the depth of from ten to thirty-four inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sub-soil of a handsome brownish-salmon color. No. 1549-" NEW SOIL, to the depth of eight inches, farm o/ .Daniel Klingeelsmith's heirs. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Eleven thousand three hundred and fifty feet west of Eliz- abethtown, on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, and two hundred and fifty feet to the north. Three feet above the level of the rail. Slope = 1:45. Substratum, limestone. Has been in cultivation five years. Rotation of crops: two years in corn; then one each in wheat, oats, and corn. Rented out land. No manure. Yields, of corn, thirty bushels; of wheat, twenty; and of oats, twenty-five bushels to the acre. Soil of a brownish, dark-grey color. Contains no gravel. No. 1550-"SUB-SOIL to the preceding, taken at the depth offrorn eight to thirty-six inches from the surface. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sub-soil of a greyish-buff color. Contains some fragments of weathered chert. No. 1551-" SOIL, taken to the depth of eight inches, from an old field long in cultivation; rented out, and sucpposed to be worn out. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Land of heirs of Daniel Klingelsmith, thirteen thousand eight hundred and eighty feet west from Elizabethtown, on Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad; fifty feet to the right, on a level with the rail. Slope = 1:15. Rotation of crops: corn, wheat, oats, clover. Yields, of corn, seventeen bushels; of wheat, twelve; of oats, fifteen to sixteen bushels to the acre. No manure. 2q6 120 CHEMICAL REPORT. Soil of a brownish drab color. Contains some few small fragments of much weathered chert. No. 1552-" SUB-SOIL to the preceding, taken at from eight to thirty-nine inches from the surface. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Color much like that of the preceding soil. No gravel or chert fragments sifted out. No. I 553-` VIRGIN SOIL. Woodland. Farm of Hayden Eng- lish, sixty feet west of the/ our mile-post, on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad; four feet above the level of the rail. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sample taken to the depth of twelve inches. Slope =: 15. Timber: scrub oak, black oak, and black jack, generally of small size. Undergrowth: small sumach, sassafras, &c. Yield of such land is, of corn, eleven bushels; of wheat, six; of oats, eleven bushels to the acre. Dry soil of a grey-buff color. No. 1554-"SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken from twelve to tawenty-six inches below the surface." Collected by C. S. Schenk." Dry soil of a lighter color and more yellowish than the pre- ceding. No. IS5-m NEW SOIL, fiveyears in cultivation, from farm of J. English. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sample taken to depth of eight inches, at a point two hund- dred and seventy feet west of the six mile-post, on the Eliza- bethtown and Paducah Railroad; twenty-one hundred feet to the left of the railroad, and at a level of ten feet above the rail. Slope i= :75. Timber: black, white, red, and post oak, hickory, chestnut, &c. Rotation of crops: two years in corn, one each in oats, wheat, and corn. No manure. Yield of corn, thirty; of wheat, twelve; and of oats, twenty bushels to the acre. Dried soil of a drab color. vol.. l.-17 237 I 2 1 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1556-" SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth of fron eight to thirty-six inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Dry sub-soil of a grey-buff color; lighter and more yellowish than preceding. No. 155 7-` SOIL from an old field, forty-five years in cu/tiva- tion. Snider's farm. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sample taken to the depth of eight inches, at a point thir- teen hundred feet west of the six mile-post, on the Elizabeth- town and Paducah Railroad, and twelve hundred and seventy feet to the left, at a level of ten feet above the rail. Slope 1:35. Section of the hole where the soil was taken: soil. eight inches; yellow clay, twenty-two inches; red clay, six inches. (The red clay land is considered best in this part of the State.) Roots penetrate to depth of eight feet, where the rock is found. Rotation of crops: corn, wheat, oats. Has been four years in pasture, and the last two years in grass. Yield: corn, twenty-two; oats, fifteen to sixteen; wheat, eight; potatoes, fifty-five; rye, ten bushels, and tobacco, eight hund- red pounds to the acre. Dried soil of a drab color. No. 1558-" SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth offrom eight to thirty-six inches. Collected by C S. Schenk." Dried sub-soil of a brownish-orange color. No. 1559-"SOIL of an old field, forty years or more in culti- vation." Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sample taken to the depth of six inches, at a point two hundred and fifty feet west of the nine mile-post (Long Grove Station). Three hundred and fifty feet to the right of the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, at a level of twelve feet above the rail. Slope = i:19. Timber, much like that in preceding soils of this county. Rotation of crops, for the last nine years: four in corn, one in wheat, with three in clover and one in wheat. No manure. Yield: corn, twenty- two; wheat, eight; oats, fifteen bushels to the acre. Dried soil of a yellowish umber-grey color. 258 122 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 560-" SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at -from six to thirty-six inches from the surface. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Dried sub-soil of a dark grey-buff color. No. 156i-" SOIL of an old field, farm of E. Hansbormugh. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sample taken to the depth of five inches, at a point one thousand three hundred and twenty-seven feet west of the three mile-post; eight and a quarter miles from Elizabethtown, on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad; one thousand three hundred and fifty feet to the left of that road, and level with the rail. Slope = 1:24. Timber much like that on the preceding soils. Substratum limestone, at depth of forty-five inches. Rotation of crops: corn, wheat, oats, clover. No manure. Yield: corn, thirty; wheat, eighteen; oats, thirty; potatoes, forty bushels; tobacco, eight hundred to one thou- sand two hundred pounds to the acre. One of the best farms in this locality. Land kept in good order. Dried soil darker than the next preceding, of a brownish- umber dark grey color. No. 1562-SUB-SOIL of the preceding. Sample taken from five to forty-five inches below the surface. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Dried sub-soil of a light brick-red color. Somewhat adhe- sive. No. 1563" SOIL of an old field, forty years in cultivation, without manure. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sample taken to the depth of ten inches, at a point two hundred feet to the right of the seven mile-post, Elizabeth- town and Paducah Railroad; level five feet above the rail. Substratum limestone. Slope = I:50. Rotation of crops: corn, wheat, oats, clover. Land kept in good order. Yield of corn, twenty-five; of wheat, twelve; of oats, twenty bushels to the acre. Dried soil of a yellowish-umber color. 259 12 3 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1564-" SUB-SOIL of thejpreceding, taken at a depth of froz ten to thirty-eight inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Dried sub-soil of a light yellowish-brick color. Somewhat adhesive. No. 1565-" VIRGIN SOIL, Woodland, on Hanson Duncan's farm. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sample taken to ten inches in depth, at a point seven hund- red and sixty feet east of his house; about eighty feet below the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad at East View. Rock substratum-limestone. Dried soil of a yellowish light-umber color. No. 1566-"SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth of from ten to forty-six inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Dried sub-soil of a light yellowish-brick color. No. 1567-SOIL from an old field, twenty-fouryears in cultiva- tion. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sample taken to the depth of eight inches, at a point twelve hundred feet, north 500 east from Hanson Duncan's house; one hundred and seventeen feet below the railroad at East View Station. Slope =1 :26. Substratum limestone. Rota- tion of crops: I. corn, 1. rye, 3. clover, I. wheat. No manure. Yield: corn, thirty-five; wheat, seventeen; rye, six to seven bushels to the acre. Dried soil of a yellowish light-umber color. No. 1568-"y SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth of from eight to forty inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Dried sub-soil of a light yellowish-brick color. No. 1569-" VIRGIN SOIL, one year in cultivation, from sand land on Hanson Duncan's farm, near East View. Collectd by C. S. Schenk." Sample taken to the depth of four inches, at a point four hundred and twenty feet west of his house. Height level with 260 124 A: FMICAL REPORT. the roof of his house. Slope = I:7. Substratum limestone. Timber about the same as described above. Land not much cultivated; considered too poor except for peaches, apples, &c.; but tobacco yields six hundred pounds to the acre. Dried soil of a yellowish umber-grey; lighter colored than the preceding sample. No. 1570-SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth of from four to thirty-six inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sub-soil of a light yellowish-brick color. No. 1571-SOIL from an old field, sixteen years in cultivatied, on Hanson Duncan's farm, near East View. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sample taken to depth of six inches, at a point seven hund- red and fifty feet, north 200 east from his house. Height, six feet above his house. Slope -:7. Substratum sandstone. In some years it has yielded eleven bushels of corn to the acre. Is now in orchard. Produces good peaches. Dried soil of a yellowish light umb&r-grey color. No. 1572-SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth of from six to thirty-four inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Sub-soil of a light brick-color, varying in intensity. Con- tains many angular fragments of soft, friable, ferruginous sand- stone. NOrTE-For a continuation of this serial collection of soils, made on or near the line of the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, by Mr. C. S. Schenk, see Grayson and Ohio counties. z6i I 2 5 CHEMICAL REPORT. :-0 .- 2 4 - 10 r;,-: 0-- -'4t- . 0 01 - 1 - 6 o- 0.0 0 0 z B;'4 O00o n 4 L ol Crl o -C40'-' 6 - '0 II - 40 - -c- 126 _: 1 4 1 .6 In0 (4 z 0. Io- C- .5 S1 .5. 262 .5 I 6 ! 1 !; wen no" i _ 'I . III 11 t z x s ,, x- 18 I 11 o O . " VO eo t . _ _ VIVO_ I o o 11 + 11 _ oo o V " o b_ o o Xo ,, , e ,, o _ t_ o o - E +- nt o W 11 o I t 11 n z , - - 18 11 _ H t o o o " . " b o o I I UN e o , - ts t o O vo +. V vo + 11 e x ...o - x- 1o I 1- fi H n g . g e ,,g ot _ v . 11 . 0 o o t! so , : 11 -d o z _ ,,, x . I I e 11 s: en . vb vs 88 o O. t e ' 0 0 8 I oo I ow X _ s fn_ o- .z o o, X wo fe xe d " 88 8 8 _ l t X :z; a _ _ O - I e b -- z ai o _ o" 11 so 11 e 11 e 11 s ttX " + 1 80 1l & 1 - 1l - 1l t n n d X 8 1 ' 14 ' ll Qe 1 8 ' e - tos0 " I o 11 11 8 11 , 11 s _ _ " o o' y E O ez-' I 8 11 11 11 r 11 1 11 - I 11 11 o X in ai e +, o 80st 8 8t e 'e z " ffi ,, oo 8 " d o " 4 te x gtt"t., _gi; :1 t 8 8. 1 e Tl X I ] I ! " - t- lo !l - I n B a 1 Z I - I a eoOO-Zz"e : I o E " R X 11 X 11 - 1 X . 8 " c a 1 o , m , . ., ,. Z " I - --" 6,; 2 . I - 1. ! . 2 1 -!- . ;111 1; 16 11 .6 i 8 112 11 ; I I I 11 I CHEMICAL REPORT. 127 1 - I" gz. - - t - - -f --- _; VT _ o 4 . .I o, zd -o t -S ._c a I :9 I:3 2 .5 4 .9 i 9I 263 a a. e 6t..........- . . . . . . .. . . E 5 .. _, - :1 e2 Z. Z I ,, 1t CHEMICAL REPORT. d "0 -, I ve i Fa I e o4,... . I a w . C 0 vC I II , 6 II z . IB '- : B____ 0 6 a I N __ _________ I ii I II ad a'0C00O " 0 Ij.Q .0 I II '4 IIt 05 !iiILL A OOO a '0 U U 8 '' Cli- IC C 6 I z _________I __ __ It 8: 6 . 8 - 0010 z .1- 1u IOT a-- '8 IIa. 00 .S... .. .... ... .. .. .. . .El.... -Si. r E2 E .5 Aa 'pa I I- .E .5 .0 O In .0 U 128 .i T I E- 'a - 0 U i .0. (A C 2 F- C U 264 I l I l I ; CHEMICAL REPORT. For the other soils of this series, collected along the line of the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad by Mr. C. Schenk, see Grayson and Ohio counties. The remarks appended to the Grayson county soils will apply to these with some obvi- ous local variations. HENRY COUNTY. No. 1575-GALENA. " From Roberts' lode, north opening. Carefully averaged, by Prof. N. S. Shaler." Cubical and granular galena, disseminated in white, compact, baryta sulphate; with some zinc blende (zinc sulphide). The galena was selected from the mixed lumps, simply for assaying to determine the presence or proportion of silver. No. 1576-GALENA "From Roberts' lode, south opening, &c. Like the preceding; but containing a larger proportion of galena. The galena was selected from the lumps for analysis. Fused with the usual flux of carbonate of soda, nitrate of potash and salt; the former, No. 1575, gave 72.70 to 76.585 per cent. of lead; the latter, No. 1576, gave about seventy-one and a half per cent. This does not of course represent all the lead existing in the selected galena, but is supposed to con- tain all the silver. The well washed lead buttons were dissolved, severally, in dilute nitric acid; and to the very much diluted solutions a solution of lead chloride was added. The former, No. 1575, gave a faint precipitate of silver chloride on standing-not enough to justify its extraction; the latter gave no sensible precipitate of the silver chloride. These ores seem, therefore, to be too poor in silver to pay for its extraction. Another specimen of lead ore, from an unopened lode, on Mill branch of Six Mile Creek, contained so small a propor- tion of galena to the baryta sulphate that it was not thought proper to analyze it. No. 1577-MAPLY SHALE or indurated marl. "Cut of the Cum- berland and Ohio Railroad, Eminence, Henry county. Col- lected bhy Prof N. S. Shaler." 26S 129 CHEMICAL REPORT. An olive-grey, indurated marl; containing nodules of chm- tetes, and portions of other Silurian fossils. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2t20 F. Silica..... .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 23.700 Alumina.... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 7.146 Iron and manganese oxides.o.......... .. .. . .. .. . .. . 11.040 lime carbonate..... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . 44.560 Magnesia... .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. . .310 Phosphoricacid...... .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. . 1 164 Sulphuric acid......... . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . .96i Potash.. .. .. . .. ........ ...... .. . .. .. . 2.100 Soda.. . .. .. . . . .. .. .. . .. ... .. . . .. .. . .623 Water expelled at red heat, and loss...... .. .. . .. .. ... . 8.396 Total... .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. 100.00 The large proportions of lime, potash, phosphoric acid, &c., in this marly shale, would doubtless make it valuable as a top- dressing on exhausted light soils; but it is not rich enough in the mineral fertilizers to justify much expenditure for trans- portation. HOPKINS COUNTY. No. 1578-COAL. "Mr. Wm. Mills' coal, just partially opened. Nortonsville, Hopkins county. Collected by C. J. Norwood. (Probably not a fair average sample.") Generally a jet-black, glossy coal; breaks in part in thin layers, with some compressed fibrous coal between. Some thin laminae of pyrites apparent. (Specimen seems to con- tain an inordinate proportion of pyrites.) No. 1579-COAL. "St. Charles Mines. Average sample, by Cf. Norwood." (Coal D.) A jet-black, glossy coal; iridescent in parts. Some fibrous coal between the laminae, and but little appearance of pyrites. 130 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE HOPKINS COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. I No. 1578. No. 1579. Specific gravity..... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 1.448 1.322 Hygroscopic moisture,.4.... .. . . .. .. .. . .. . . 34 3. 20 Volatile combustible matters.3.0.0............ . . . , 0. 35.90 Coke... .. ...... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 66.60 60. 90 Total.... . .. .. . .. . . 0.... .. . .. . .. o0.00 oo.oo Total volatile matters.... . .. ... .. . 33-40 39.10 Carbon in the coke.... .. . 5.... .. . .. . .. . . 3.10 54.00 Asbes..... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 15.50 6. go Total.... .. . 0.... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 0.00 100.00 Character of the coke.s....... . .. .. . pongy.. .Light spongy. ColUr of the ash.. Dark grey- Light lilac- purple. grey. Per centage of sulphur..................... 7.280 2.759 No. 1579 is a very good coal, containing but little earthy matter and a moderate proportion of sulphur. The other ex- ceeds the average proportions of these; but is not probably a fair sample. It is well known that coal beds vary greatly in their different layers; and this may prove to be a good coal when the bed is fairly opened. No. 1580-" LiMONITE, ochreous, from near St. Charles Mines, Mr. Norton's land. On the working coal. Collected by C J Norwood." Flat kidney-form concretions, of a handsome brownish-yel- low color, of different shades. Easily scratched with the nail; adheres to the tongue. 267 131 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Iron peroxide............. .......... . ....S o.... 85. Alumina... . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. 5.462 Manganese oxide... .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. a trace. Lime carbonate.......... . 3.129 M agnesia... .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . . . Phosphoric acid. .igS Phosphoric acid.... .. . .. . . .. . .. . .... .. . .. . . .. I.1894 Sulphuric acid..19 Water expelled at red heat .... s Silica and insoluble silicates .27.68o Loss. .... .. . .. .6....... . .... .... . . . . . . .06 Total.. .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . 10 . Per centage of iron .35595 P-r centage of sulphur. 07 Per centage of silic .22.220 Per centage of phosphorus ...6 This is rich enough to be smelted for iron, and might make a good ochre pigment on grinding. KENTON COUNTY. No. 158 -' SILIcIous GRIT at first toll-gate, two miles from Covington, on Lexington Turnpike. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." A brownish-grey, ferruginous impure sandy mass. No. 1582-" SILICious GRIT from same locality as preceding. Used for moulding sand. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." An impure, reddish-brown friable sandy mass; infiltrated with iron oxide; varying in tint from grey to deep brown. The sand grains are rounded. 268 132 CHEMICAL REPORT. CoMPOSITION OF THESE KENTON COUNTY GRITS, DRIED AT 212 F. N-. i581. No. t582. Silka 7.4 .7...... .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 77.460 75.700 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides.....6...... .500 15-793 Lme conate................... . 480 .66o Mgnes.ia.. .121 .214 Po sh.. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .828 .847 Soda.... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .580 .762 Phosphoric acid......... ..... .. .... . not est. .639 Sulphuric acid........ ........ ...... ...not eat. not est. Water expelled atet.. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 4.500 5.100 Total........ . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . oo.469 99.716 The amount of alkalies contained in these impure sands is somewhat remarkable. They exist in them, however, mostly in the silicates which are insoluble in acids; and were sepa- rated in the analyses, by the process of fusion with the mixture of lime carbonate and ammonium chloride, &c., according to the method of J. Lawrence Smith. Notwithstanding the una- vailable condition of these alkalies, these sands might prove useful additions to heavy clay soils, more especially because of their notable proportion of phosphoric acid. For this pur- pose, however, they could only be employed in the close vicinity of their beds, as they would not pay for long trans- portation. No. i583-"CLAY, supposed to be in the Cincinnati Group of the Lower Si/urianformatwn. Lexington Turnpike, two miles south of Covington. Top section just be/ow that of the preced- ing grits. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." A laminated or shaly clay of handsome light-buff and bluish- grey colors, alternating. No. I584-CLAY. "Clay-pit at brick-yard. Head of Russel street, Covington. Average of the nine-feet section. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." A yellowish ferruginous clay; mottled with light bluish- grey; containing fine silicious grains. 269 133 No. 1585-MARLY SHALE. '2junction of the Ohio and Licking rivers, twelve feet above low waler mark. Cincinnati (Hudson River) Group. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." A fine-grained, dark-grey shale; dull; adhering somewhat to the tongue. No. 1586-MARLY SHALE. Labeled "Fine shales, between im- pure limestone; five feet above low water mark. Whitehall. No fossils. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." A soft friable shale; dark-grey in the fresh fracture; adher- ing to the tongue. COMPOSITION OF THESE KENTON COUNTY MARLY CLAYS AND SHALES DRIED AT 2120 F. NO. 1583. No. 1584. No. 1585. No. 1586. Silica.... 56.40 68.360 43-46! 47.160 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides . 29.971 22.256 21.000 22.850 Lime carbonate.............. .760 I.ooo 27.040 20.140 Magnesia...... .. . .. .. .. .. 1514 3.181 .680 .840 Phosphorc acid. ...... . . .166 .258 .607 .128 Sulphuric acid.not est. not est.not est. not A. Potash.3. . . . . . . . . . . . 3538 2.139 2.447 2.301 Soda ... . . .. . .. .. . ... .551 .906 .915 1.590 Water expelled at red heat..... . . 7.100 3.65o 3.850 5.200 Total.b.o...0....7..0.1...... oo 100.209 These marly shales would undoubtedly be valuable for top- dressing poor light soils in their vicinity, notwithstanding most of their alkaline ingredients are in a state of combination which renders them, for the present, unavailable for plant nourishment. The gradual action of the atmospheric agencies and of humus, as well as that of the lime, will eventually bring them into a soluble state. The latter two may be considered the best for this purpose. No. 1587-LIMESTONE. Labeled "Blue argillaceous limestone. Low water mark. Whitehall, near Covington. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." A fine-grained, dark-grey limestone. Not adhering to the tongue. 270 134 CHEMICAL REPORT. CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY = 2.720. Lime carbonate....... . .. .. .. . .. . 64.24o= 35.974 per cent. of lime. 9agnesia carbonate..... . .. .. .. . .. . 6.152 Aiwmina, and iron and manganese oxides.... . . 960 49 Phophoric acid .1.9.1............ . . . Sulphuric acid ................. . not est. potash..................... 643 Soda.... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .260 Silue and inoluble silicates..... .. .. . .. . 23. o 100.306 This limestone, like most of the layers of the Lower Silu- rian limestone (or blue limestone, so-called), is, in consequence of its large proportions of alkalies and phosphoric acid, pecu- liarly suited to agricultural purposes. The use of this lime, in the calcined state, upon our old fields, if properly managed and applied just before the clover crop, in a rotation, would doubtless be quite beneficial in restoring fertility. LAWRENCE COUNTY. NO. 1588-" COAL. No. 3, "From McHenry's coal bank, six miles south of Louisa. Average sample, by A. R. Crandall." A jet-black coal, with very little fibrous coal and no appear- ance of pyrites. No. 1589-"1 COAL. No. I, from F. Swetman's bank, Brushy Creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A jet-black coal, with some little external earthy or ferrugi- nous staining, and but little fibrous coal or pyrites. No. 1 590-COAL. No. I, "From near Henderson, Boggs' Mill, Cane's Creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Rather a dull-black coal, breaking into thin laming, with fibrous coal between, but with little appearance of pyrites. Some external ferruginous stain. No. I591-COAL. Ao. . 3 "Holbrook's coal, Brushy Creek. Col- lected by A. R. Crandall." Rather a dull-black coal, breaking into thin lamina, with fibrous coal between, but with little appearance of pyrites. 271 135 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1592-COAL. NO. 3. mouth of Cane's Creek. by A. R. Crandall." "Mr. Boggs' bank, one mile from Upper porion of the coal Collected A jet-black coal, with some fibrous coal between the laminae but with little appearance of pyrites.. No. 1593-COAL. No. 3. "Mr. Boggs' bank, &c., &c. Lower portion of the coal. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Breaking into thin laminae, with fibrous coal between. Some external ferruginous incrustation. COMPOSITION OF THESE LAWRENCE COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. i588 No. 1589 No. 159 No. 3591 No. 1592 No. 1593 Specific gravity.1...... . .3X6 1.281 1.376 1.349 1.350 1.284 Hygroscopic moisture..... . 4.60 5.30 3.30 2.10 2.50 2.50 Volatile combustible matters.. . . 35.70 35.30 35.6 33.90 38.56 39.c0 Coke. . . .. . .. . .. . 59.70 59.60 63.54 64.oo 58.94 58-95 Total. ..... .. . . .. oo.oo ioo.oo oo.oo loo.oo.ooo . oo Total volatile matters...... . 4.30 40.40 .38.46 36.00 41.06 41.50 Carbon in the coke....... . 53.28 s7.8o 47.84 56.0o 5 44 54.76 Ashes.. .. . . .. . . .. . 6.42 X.80 1370 8.00 7.50 3-74 Total. ..... .. . .. . l o.00 300.00 300.00 100.00 100.00 00.00 Character of the coke. .... Light Dense Fri.able.LightSpongy. g spogy. spongy. spongy. Color of the ash.....Light Light Dark Yellow- Grey- Brownish lilac-grey rey-buff. lilac-grey ish-white purple. grey. Per centage of sulphur..... . 0 .736 2.09 0-736 3.785 X.o66 With one or two exceptions, as is readily to be seen, these are remarkably good and pure coals, which will compare favor- ably with the best Ohio and Indiana coals. It is interesting to notice in the above table the nearly con- stant relation of the specific gravity to the relative proportion, of ash, to-wit: 272 136 CHEMICAL REPORT. In No. 1589 the specific gravity is . 28t; " 1593 1. 284; " 1588" " 1.316; 111592. 1.350; ' :59'", I 1.349; " 590 " I.376; This relation of the specific gravi ash is not constant in coals generall per centage of ash = X So. 3.74. 6.42. ,. 7.50. " " 8.oo. 13.70. ty to the proportion of the No. 1594-RED HEMATITE "Found on top of hill near Louisa, Lawrence county. By A. R. Crandall." Nodular lumps, of various sizes, of very hard, dense, dark colored ore, with hardly any soft ochreous material. Powder of a brownish-red or maroon color. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F.-SPCIFIC GRAVITY = 4.184. Iron peroxide.8.0...... . .. .. . . go.oo4 56.o28 per cent. of iron. Alumina.......... . 3.474 Manganese, brown oxide. .250 Lime...... . .. 360 Magnesia.... .. 396 Phosphoric acid.... .. . .. . .. . . .172 = o.o75 per cent. of phosphorus. Sulphuric acid.0.5.5.... .. .. . . . . .055 = .020 per cent. of sulphur. Silica and insoluble silicates . . . . . . . . 14.200 = 13. 500 per cent. of silica. Water andloss..... . .. . ...089.... .o8 100.000 The red hematite is an exceptional ore in the coal measures, but is found in abundance in the Clinton Group. LIVINGSTON COUNTY. No. I 595-GALENA. "From Royall Mines, Mineral Point, Cum- 6erland river. Taken one hundred and twenty-five feet from the surface; sloping away from the river. Collected by Prof N. S. Shaler." The galena is mingled with colorless and violet-colored fluor-spar. No. I596-GALENA. "From same mines, taken forty-five feet from the surface, &c., 6c." The galena, separated from the gangue, of both these sam- ples, was reduced by the usual flux and tested for silver. VAIL. 1.-18 273 137 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1595 gave a button of lead weighing 79.34 per cent. of the weight of the galena, and No. I596 one which weighed 79.052 per cent. These were severally dissolved in diluted nitric acid and tested for silver by the addition of the watery solution of lead chloride to the diluted nitrate of lead solution; and in neither case was more than a minute trace of silver chloride obtained. So that these galenas cannot be profitably worked for the extraction of silver. LYON COUNTY. No. 1597-. LIMONITE iron ore from old Suwannee Furnare, Big Showaing. Sub-carboniferous. Collected by P. N. Moore." A dense, dark-brown limonite, in irregular laminae, with a small amount of investing soft ochreous ore. No. i598-LIMONITE. "Old Suwannee Furnace. Bank close to the furnare. Sub-carboniferous. Collected by P. N. Moore." A dense, dark-brown ore, in irregular laminae, with some brown hematite and soft ochreous ore. Some cherty nodules. No. i599-" LIMON1TE, with occasional thin layers of brown hematite. Old Suwannee Furnace property. Railroad ad. Sub-carboniferous formation. Average sample of the ore i' the railroad cut. Collected by P. N. Moore." A dense, dark-brown limonite, with thin incrustations of brown hematite and some soft ochreous ore. No. I6oo-Li.MONITE. "Old Suwannee Furnace property. Iron Mountain bank. Sub-carboniferous. Average sample, bi I' N. Moore." Generally in dark-brown irregular lamina, with some yel- lowish and brownish ochreous ore, and occasional small nodules of chert. 274 138 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE LYON COUNTY LIMONITES. DRIED AT 212 F. No. 1597- No. 1598. No. i5o. No. t6oo. Iron peroxide . .. . . .. . .. 59.370 70.518 66.117 69.392 Alumina ... ... . .. . .. x.622 .045 1.064 a trace. Manganese, brown oxide........0.9. 0 .I190 .170 .170 Lime carbonate. ..... . . .. . .. .170 .090 .090 .140 Magnesia... .oo . . . . . . . . . . .. .. sca trace.a trace.a trace. Phosphoric acid... 79 .275 .434 .303 Sulphuric acid..... . .. . .. . . . .508 .113 .213 a trace. Water expelled at red heat. ....... . 8.400 9.850 9.0oo 9-550 Silica and insoluble silicates. .... . 30.000 18.9io 22.330 20.500 Moisture and loss. . . .o.o.9.......... .. - - - - - - -.. Total.. . .. . .. . . .. . .. 100.439 100.000 100.218 1oo.o55 Per centage of iron..... . . .. .. . 41-559 49-363 46.819 48.574 Per centage of phosphorus.0... . . . 77 .120 .189 .144 Per centage of sulphur.......... .212 .045 .o83 .. . . Per centage of silica... .. . .. . . 26.800 18.160 21.16o 19.660 In volume 4 of Rep series, may be found materials from this old arts of Kentucky Geological Survey, old the amount of the analyses of other furnace, beginning at page 209. Quite rich ores, and very good, except those which show a large proportion of sulphur or phosphorus. For an account of the analysis of the water contained in the interior of a geode of "pot ore," see the Appendix. NIENIFEE COUNTY. No. i6o0-COAL. "Sub-conglomerate, forty feet above the sub- carboniferous limesjone. Hawkins' Creek, near the line of Powell county. Menifee county. Average sample, collected by, A. R. Crandall." No. 1602 -COAL. "Sub-conglomerate, forty to forty-five feet above the sub-carboniferous limestone, near the mouth of Glady Creek, on Ledford's land. A thin bed. Collected by A. R. Crandall." 275 I 39 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I603-BITUMINOUS SHALE. "Sub-conglomerate (mistaken/for coal). Twenty to twenty-two feet thick; immediately above the sub-carboniferous limestone. Average sample, by A. R. Cran- dal." A friable shale, resembling some kinds of cannel coal, of a dull brownish-black, with some thin ferruginous incrustation. Fracture irregular; sub-conchoidal. COMPOSITION OF THESE COALS AND THE SHALE, AIR-DRIED. No. i6os. No. 1602. No. 1603. Specific gravity.... . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . 1.319 not est. nut eM. Hygroscopic moisture............... . 2.94 2.66 2.80 Volatile combustible matters........ . .. . . 33.o6 34-04 15.20 Coke (or fixed residue).............. . 64.o0 63.30 82.00 Total.... . . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 100.00 00.00 100.o Total volatile matters..... .. . .. . .. . . 36.oo 36.70 18.00 Carbon in the coke, &c...... ......... 56.60 50.24 24.30 Ashes. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 7 -40 13.o6 57-70 Total.. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. co.00 .00 100.o0 Character of the coke, &c .............. . Dense. Dense. Pulverulet Light Dark Color of the ash........... lilc-gry. White. Per centage of sulphur ................ . 0-997 4.092 not es. Some of the sub-conglomerate coals are found to be quite good. The bituminous shale described above, however, hardly contains enough combustible matters (having only eighteenl per cent.) to make it available for fuel. Samples of various rocks and minerals were brought to the laboratory by Mr. J. M. Vanarsdall, from this county, from the vicinity of Glady Creek; consisting of iron ores, pyrites, marly clay, zinc sulphide, &c., with some small globules of a white metal which he obtained from the ashes of the furnace of the 276 140 CHEMlICAI. REP'ORT. so-called " James Kirk's silver mine." The metal contained tin and copper, and the furnace was probably used by counter- feiters, who, selecting out-of-the-way regions for their opera- tions, seem frequently to conceal the character of them by the pretense of working a silver mine. This county has not as yet been thoroughly examined by the Geological corps; and doubtless contains much more mineral wealth than is indicated by these few analyses here reported. MONTGOMERY COUNTY. No. i6o4-"QUICKLIME. Star Lime Company's lime. Burnt at (or near) Mt. Sterling. Obtained from Williamson & Bro., Lexington." Not remarkably white, presenting an oolitic structure in some of the pieces. COMPOSITION. Lime..... .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. ...9.. .. .8 .301 Magnesia. ... .092 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides ..... .......... .. .747 Phosphoric acid............................. .023 Sulphuric acid......... .. . ... . .. .. .. .. . ... . not est. Potash... .012 S a. .... . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . o011 Silica and insoluble silicates. .814 otal.... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 100.000 This analysis, made by the youngest son of the writer (Alfred M. Peter) under his inspection, indicates a degree of purity which fits this lime for all purposes of construction, except, perhaps, for the whitest finishing coats in plastering. MUHLENBURG COUNTY. No. 16O5-LIMONITE Labeled "Iron ore from near No. 4 entry. Airdrie Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore." A porous, yellowish, and deep brown ore. No. i606-LIMONITE. "Iron ore from Jerry M. Hope's land, near Muddy river. Average sample, by P. N. Moore, of the surface limonite from the upper part of the bed." A cellular limonite (fossiliferous), of a bright yellowish-brown color externally, with darker, hard, curved laminae included. 277 11 142 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1607-LIMONITE. "Ore from the lower and middle parts of the bed. Jerry Hope's land, &c., &c. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." A porous, brownish-yellow, fossiliferous ore. No. I6o8 - LIMONITE. "Martin ore' from near Greenville. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." A cellular limonite, with ochreous incrustation, &c. No. I609o" ROASTED ORE from the Airdrie Furnace stockpile. Has been weathered seventeen years since roasting. Collected by P. N. Moore." Apparently a ", Black-band ore," so-called, originally. The roasted ore is of a dark, reddish-brown color, varying to lighter tints. Some portions are cellular, as though they had been fused. COMPOSITION OF THESE MUHLENBURG COUNTY LIMONITE IRON ORES, &c., DRIED AT 212" F. No. i6O5. No. 1606. No. 1607. No. 1608. No. 16o9. Specific gravity... ..... 3.246 .....6...... .2.. i 6y Iron peroxide.... . .. . . 63.048 60.492 46.866 69.546 59.810 Alumina.......... . 5.290 7 075 5.930 3.914 2.972 Brown oxide of manganese.. ..o00.360 .103 .230 .720 Lime carbonate... . .. . . .68o 1.980 2 - 535 .480 2.263 Magnesia.. .... .. . . 930 1.550 1.073 .921 4.270 Phosphoric acid..3..... . . .147 .083 .179 .115 .223 Sulphuric acid.... .. . . .112 .185 .059 .206 .o65 Water expelled at red heat.. 12.430 12.530 9.550 11.250 .200 Silex and insoluble silicates . . 17.250 15.560 33.530 12-730 29.880 Moisture and loss... . .. . . . .. . .i85 .175 .598. Total. ..... . . .. . 100 077 100.000 100.000 300.000 100.403 Per centage of iron. 44.133 42-34 32.806 48.822 41.867 Per centage of phosphorus.. .o64 .035 .078 .050 .097 Per centage of sulphur .044 -o74 .024 .o86 .026 Per centage of silica..... . i6.5oo 13.660 32.860 I1.300 25.260 - Lime. 278 CHEMICAL REPORT. These Airdrie Furnace limonites are all good and profit- able ores, which would yield a good quality of iron if properly smelted, as they contain but a moderate proportion of the injurious ingredients, phosphorus and sulphur. Although it is probable that the "roasted ore" was from the so-called "Black-band ore" (bituminous clay iron-stone), it is properly tabulated with these limonites. The analyses of other similar iron ores from this region are detailed in the previous volumes of Kentucky Geological Reports. (See volume I, pages 345 and 346, and volume 4, page 229.) No. 1610-CLAY IRON-STONE. Bituminous. So-called -Black- band" ore. From the Airdrie Furnace stock pile; weathered seventeen years. Not roasted. Collected by P. N. Moore." A shaly ore, varying in color, in layers, from nearly black to dark grey-brown. No. i6i -CLAY IRON-STONE. Bituminous. Labeled "Slate iron are, from Buckner Furnace. Weathered thirty years. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." A Black-band ore, of a dark umber-brown color, varying in tint. Shaly, and containing carbonaceous matter. No. i612-CLAY IRON-STONE "From tIh lower part of the bed at Jerry Hope's bank, near Muddy river. Collected by P. N. Hoore." A rough, greenish and brownish, fossiliferous and silicious carbonate ore. 279 143 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE CLAY IRON-STONES, DRIED AT 212- F. No. t6io. No. x6ii. No. 1612. Specific gravity................... 3 .376 not deter'd. not deerd. Iron carbonate......... .. . .. . .. . . 47.810 42.950 26.643 Iron peroxide........ ..... ...... 9.054 29.618 18.374 Alumina. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 5.205 2.454 6.a 4 Lime carbonate.................. . 3.740 2.490 13.430 Magnesia carbonate...... .. .. . . . . . .. 7.180 4.828 5.698 Manganese carbonate.......... .. . .. . . 797 1.083 atre. Phosphoric acid.... ..... 17..... . .. . 179 .083 .211 Sulphuric acid.... . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .237 i. 596 . I5 Silica and insoluble silicates.... .. . .. . .. . 17.010 9.030 22.230 Water, bituminous matter, and loss........ . . 8.788 5.868 6.68_ '1'otal ..... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. I t. o Io.oooI c. co Per centage of iron......... . .. . .. . . 29.418 36.916 27.136 Per centage of phosphorus... . . .. . .. .. . .078 .035 .092 Per centage of sulphur....... . .... . . o.. .094 .638 .074 Per centage of silica.... . .. . .. . .. .. . 12.900 6.220 20.660 These clay iron-stones are not very rich in iron, except the one (No. i6ii) from Buckner Furnace, and this has a large proportion of sulphur. The others are probably too poor in iron to be separately smelted with profit; but they might be mixed with richer ores with advantage. Other analyses of the so-called Black-band ores of this region are to be found in volume I, Kentucky Geological Reports, pages 346 to 350. It will be seen, by reference, that these vary in their propor- tion of iron from 3I.17 to 36.80 per cent. of the ore. [No. 1314-" LIMESTONE from Barren river, near the mouth of Jasper Creek. Used formerly as a flux at Airdrie Furnace." (See Butler county.) ] No. i6I3-CLAY "From Ross coal mines, Owensboro Junction. (Fire-clay below the coal in the lower drift.) Collected by C. J. Norwood." A dark-grey, soft, shaly clay. 280 144 CHEMICAL REPORT. I45 COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Silica.... .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . 63.180 Alumina, and iron and manganee oxides... 26. Lime.- .203 Magnesia.... . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .255 phasphoric acid................. .179 Sulphuric acid ................ . 3.282 =1.312 per cent. of sulphur. p..h................... . . 2.000 Soda................. . . 425 Waer expelled atredhea,andlOs .... . . . 4.195 100.000 Much of the sulphur and iron doubtless exist in the clay, not as sulphuric acid and iron oxide, but in combination, as iron sulphide. The considerable proportions of potash, lime, magnesia, and iron oxide may prevent this from being a very refractory clay; although it may very well answer for the manufacture of stone-ware and ordinary fire-bricks. No. i614-PIG IRON. (Silver-grey.) "An old sample, fromz a former smelting at Airdrie Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." No. I6i 5-PIG IRON. (Silver-grey.) " From a former smelting, Airdrie Furnace, &c." No. i616-" PIG IRON (silver-grey,) &c., &c., as above. NO. 707-(See volume 3 Kentucky Geological Reports (old series), page 340, for an analysis of a somewhat similar pig iron from this furnace, made when the furnace was in blast.) 281 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE AIRDRIE FURNACE PIG IRONS. No. 1 614. No. I 6 X 5. No. 6i6 IN.707. Specific gravity.6.826 6.826 7.782 7 -oo7 Iron. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. 86.636 85.455 86.842 88.426 Graphite.... .. . .. .. . .. . . .900 480 .740 1.360 Combined carbon............ 2.o80 1.560 1.460 .190 Manganese... .. . .. .. . .. . . .202 .696 .355 .980 Silicon..... .. . .. .. . .. . . 7 704 7.747 8.614 6.z26 Slag... . .. .. .. . .. .. . . 2.260 3.460 2.360 3.090 Aluminum. .. .. . .. ...... . .123 .098 .054 .099 Calcium.. .. .. . .. . .. .. . . .045 .o89 .112 not t. Magnesium... .. . .. .. . .. .. .035 .017o56 .3o9 Potassium.not est. not W. not st. .059 Sodium.not est. not est. not cat. .091 Phosphorus... ..... .. . .. .. .235 .443 .123 .209 Sulphur....0 ... ......2.. . .. ....04 .122 .122 229 Total.. . .. .. . .. .. . .. 100.334 l oo. 67 100.836 101.250 Total carbon..... . .. . .. .. . . 2.980 2.040 2.200 1.550 Of ld seres f Reponi.. The analyses of these samples of the pig iron of old Air- drie Furnace show inordinate proportions, in all of them, of silicon, slag, phosphorus, and sulphur; which caused the very bad quality of the iron, as they all tend to make it brittle, whether hot or cold. But the examination of the ores, lime- stone, and coals of the neighborhood of this furnace, shows that, with due care in the selection of these materials, and a proper management of the furnace, as good iron could be produced by it as by any using pit coal or coke for fuel. It appears that, in its early working, the limestone used for flux was very sulphurous, containing much pyrites; that the manager had too strong a preference for the so-called - Black- band" over the limonite ores, which former frequently contain much sulphur and phosphorus; and that, moreover, the blast was too slow and too hot-conditions which all tended to the production of impure iron. An account of the examination of some of the coke used formerly in this furnace is appended, as follows: 282 I46 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. i617 -COKE. "Airdrie Furnace coke, weathered sixteen years; made from the No. I2 coal. Collected by P. N. Moore." COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED. Hygroscopic moisture (expelled at 2120 F.) ................. 7.50 Moisture, &c., expelled at red heat ..................... 4.20 Dry coke.8... .................. 8.30 Total................................ 100.00 Total moisture and -olatile matter ..................... 11.70 Fixed carbon..... . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . . 82.90 Ashes, of a light yellowish-grey color ...... . ....... .... 5.40 Total. . . .. . . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. loo.oo Per centage of sulphur............... .0........ . . . o.64 The ash of this coke was also analyzed. COMPOSITION OF THE ASH. Per cent. of the coke. Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides.... .. . .. . .. . . .. . . 0.40 limle..................................................................... . 34 Magnesia... .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . 8 Phosphoric acid..... . ...................... .08 Sand and insoluble silicates................ . 4.32 L-s ,. .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. .08 Total... . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. 5.40 The analysis of the coal of which this coke was made is given in the following (Nos. i618 and 1619): No. 1618-COAL. "No. 12 of Owen. Airdrie Furnace, near No. 4 entry. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." A deep-black coal, with some thin shaly laminw. No. I619-COAL. No. 12 of Owen. From the old stock ple, at the entrance of the drift; where it has been weathered for sixteen years. Average sample. by P. N. Moore." Like the preceding, but altered somewhat by weathering. 283 147 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. i620-COAL. "A4verage sample of the lowest division of the bed at Paradise mines. Airdrie Furnace. (No. I I of Owen.) By P. N. Moore." A bright, deep-black coal; with but little fibrous coal be- tween the layers, but containing small bright crystals and incrusting scales of iron pyrites. No. i621-COAL. "Average sample of the middle stratum of same beds of Paradise mine. By P. N. Moore." A pure looking, deep-black coal, with shining fracture; showing less fibrous coal and iron bi-sulphide than the pre- ceding. NO. i622-COAL. "Average sample of the upper stratum of Paradise mine, &c. By P. N. Moore." Like the two preceding; having a shining fracture, like that of asphaltum. Very little fibrous coal or pyrites to be seen in it. No. I62 3-COAL. "From Muddy river coal mine. Averaged by P. N. Moore." A deep-black, glossy coal, with but little fibrous coal or pyrites apparent in it. Like the Paradise mine coal. 284 l148 CHEMICAL REPORT. 149 COMPOSITION OF THESE AIRIDRIE FURNACE COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. i6ig. No. i6ig. No. 062o. No. 1621. No. 1622. No. 1623. Specific gravity.... .. . .. 1.278 1.332 t.331 1.326 1.274 1.221 Hygroscopic moisture. .. 3.60 4.70 4.20 4.10 3.60 3.80 Volatile combustible matters. . . . 31.40 30.60 36.1o 35.90 38.70 32.70 Coke. 65.00 64.70 59-70 60.oo 57 70 63.50 Total... . .. .. . .. . 100.00 oo.oo oo. oo oo.oX c o.oo. oo 0.oo Toal volatile matters ....... 35.00 35.-30 40.30 40.00 42.30 36.5o Carbon in the coke. 58.50 58.80 50.50 53.60 53.70 58.60 Ashes . .6.50 5.90 9.20 6.40 4.00 4.90 Totalo.1.0 . 0oo loo0. oooo.oo0oo0oo.oo100.00 Character of coke..... spongy. s Denge Spongy. Spongy. Spongyspongy. C.]- f ah.. .Lilac- Light Dark Dack Light salmon- grey. lilac-grey lilac-grey lilac-grey lilac-grey grey. Per centage of sulphur..438 1-455 4-573 4.394 3.158 1.923 It appears that the No. 12 coal contains the least sulphur, while the No. I I coal of the Paradise mine is quite sulphurous, the upper stratum being the least objectionable in this respect. They are all very good coals for ordinary uses, and might be measurably purified from sulphur by careful coking, and thus probably made available in the iron manufacture. The coal of the No. 12 bed of Owen is, however, preferable for this pur- pose. No. 1624-COAL. "Ross coal mine. Owensboro function. Top bench; above the clay parting. From the upper drift. Azver- age sample, by C. /. Norwood." (Coal A.) A jet-black coal, with fibrous coal between its thin laminae, and but little apparent pyrites. 285 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1625-COAL. "Mercer coal mines. Louisville and Pa- ducah and Southwestern Railroad. Collected by C J. Nor. wood." (Coal D.). A jet-black coal, with shining pyrites, and some fibrous coal between the laminx. No. I 626-CoAL. I IUpper seam of the old drift. Muhlenburg coal mines. Collected by C. J. Norwood." (Coal A.) A glossy, pure-looking, pitch-black coal; with very little fibrous coal or pyrites apparent. Some little incrustation of lime sulphate in the seams. No. i627-COAL. '-Muhlenburg mines. Main working bed, near Mercer Station, Louisviie and Paducah and Southwest- ern Railroad. Collected by C J. Norwood." (Coal B.) Like the next preceding, but has a little more fibrous coal. than that, and some thin pyritous and lime sulphate incrusta- tions. No. 1628-COAL. "Muhlenburg mines (John Pollock, Super- intendent), near Mercer Station, &c., &c. Taken from head of main entry. Average sample, by C. J. Norwood." A pure pitch-black looking coal; beautifully iridescent on some of the seam faces. But little fibrous coal or pyrites apparent, but some slight lime sulphate incrustation. No. 1629- "FIBROUS COAL OR MINERAL CHARCOAL. -Frozmf above the main working. Thickness frm one half to one inch. Muldenburg mines, 6c. Colleckdt by C. J. Norwood." A very soft, friable mass of carbonaceous matter. Some in light powder, but much in the form of charred, fibrous, reedy stems, &c. No. i630 - CARBONACEOUS MUD OR CLAY. -Filling cavities occurring in the bituminous shale overlying the coal. Muh- lenburg- mines. Collected by C. J. Norwood." A brownish greyish-black indurated mud, or carbonaceous clay. 286 150 COMPOSITION OF THESE MUHLENBURG COUNTY COALS, &c., AIR-DRIED). No. 1624 No. 1625 No. i626 No. 1627 No. i628 No. 1629 No. 1630 Specific gravity.1.407 1358 1.297 1.332 1.280 1.503 . Hygroscopic molsture. 4.16 3.60 3.10 1.52 2.98 1.20 3. 56 Vol'ile combustible matters 37 -44 34.oo 40.68 40.00 43.08 7 7.50 13.68 Coke... . .. . .. 58. 4 62.40 56.22 58.48 53.94 93130 82.76 Total.ioo.oo loo.oo 10. o o.oo 1. 1.0 1o.oo Total volatile matters. 41.60 37.60 43-78 41.52 46.06 8.70 17.24 Carbon in the coke... 49.80 50.60 5o.66 50.92 50.22 86.48 6.82 Ashes......... .60 ii.80 5.56 7.56 3.72 4.82 75 94 Total. .. 100.00 10.00 10.o00 1xoo.oo10.00 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke Light Light pongy. Spongy. Spongy. Powdery. Powdery. spongy. spongy.'P Color of the Ah . . . . Light Lilac- Lilac- Lilac- Lavendar Dark- Brownish lilac-grey grey. grey. grey. grey. I irow 0. grey. Per cent. of sulphur. . 2.727 4.032 2.779 2.840 3.125 3.431 .1 983 These coals are generally of very good quality, although some of them contain a little more than the usual proportion of sulphur. Some of this, however, is in combination, in the form of lime sulphate. To ascertain how much was in this state, coals Nos. 1626 and i629 were boiled in solution of soda carbonate, &c., &c., and the proportions of lime sulphate ascertained. The quantity in No. 1626 was only o. i68 per cent., while No. I629 was found to contain 3.632 percent. of this substance. In addition, No. 1629 was treated with bi- sulphide of carbon, by the method of displacement, and was thus found to contain a certain amount of uncombined sul- phur. It is probable that in other coals free sulphur may be found, especially in those which have much fibrous coal between their laminax. The fibrous coal above described is remarkable for the large proportion of carbon it contains. The carbonaceous mud. on the contrary, contains but little combustible matter. It would be a bituminous shale if indurated. 287 CHEMICAL REPORT. 151 CHEMICAL REPORT. OHIO COUNTY. No. 163 I-COAL. "Rockport mines, one and three quarter mile., east of Rockport. Average sample, from along the entry. Collected by C. J. Norwood." (Coal D.) Rather friable. Pitch-black, with some incrustations oj shining pyrites in the seams, and some fibrous coal between the laminae. No. i632-COAL. "1 Same locality, &c. Average sample, by C, J. Norwood." General average of the mine. (Coal D.) A pitch-black coal, with fibrous coal between the layers; some infiltration of lime sulphate in the seams, and but little pyrites. No. I633-COAL. "Same locality, &'c. Averaged by C. J. Norwood." (Coal D.) Much like the preceding. COMPOSITION OF THESE OHIO COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1631. No. 0632. No. 1633- Specific gravity.0................. . 1.421 1.332 1.334 Hygroscopic moisture...... . ......... 3.. 350 3.00 3.00 Volatile combustible matters........... .. 35.00 36.20 33.50 Coke... . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 6.5 6o.8o 63-50 Total.... . . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. 100.00 1oo.ao 100.00 Total volatile matters......... . .. . .. . 38.50 39.20 36.50 Carbon in the coke......... . .. . .. . . 52.50 53.70 55.10 Ashes. . .. . . . .. . .. . .9...... . . 9. oo7.10 8.40 Total . ...... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. loo 100.00100.00 Character of the coke.Light Light Light Character of the coke . . . . . .................... . spongy. spongy. spongy. Light Light Lilac-grey Color of the ash................ brownish- lilac-grey. grey Per centage of sulphur.............. . 3.139 2.837 3.332 These coals are all of very good quality. [See Appendix for other Ohio county coals.] I52 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1634-' VIRGIN SOIL fronm woodland, on Mr. Miller's land, f/teen hundred and twenty feet north to east from Horse Branch Station (Louisville and Pa.Iucah Railroad). Collected by C. S. Schenk." Slope i:i6. Depth of sample six inches. Substratum sand- stone. Timber: white and black oak, some chestnut, hickory, and poplar. Undergrowth: sassafras, dogwood, and small trees of above named kinds. The new land is said to produce of corn, forty to fifty bushels; wheat, twenty to thirty; oats, forty to fifty; and of tobacco, one thousand pounds to the acre. Dried soil of a dark brownish-grey color. No gravel. No. 1635-"SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at depth of from six to thirty-six inches. By C S. Schenk." Sub-soil of a light grey-buff color. No gravel. No. 1636-" SOIL of an old field, forty years in cultivation. Lev'el table land, owned by Mr. Miller, sixteen hundred feet north 200 east, from Horse Branch Station, &c. Collected by C S. Schenk." Sample taken to the depth of seven and a half inches. Substratum sandstone. Rotation of crops: tobacco two years, corn three years (in some cases corn until it fails to produce it), then wheat and clover, or oats and clover or grass. Yield of corn, twenty to thirty bushels; oats, twenty to thirty-five bushels; tobacco, six hundred pounds per acre. Never plowed over six or seven inches deep. Good quality of table-land; nearly as good as the valley land. Dried soil of a greyish light-brown color. Contains a few small fragments of ferruginous sandstone. No. 1637-" SUB-SOIL of the next preceding, taken to the depth of from seven and a half to thirty-six inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk." Dried sub-soil of a yellowish-grey color. Contains no gravel. VIOL. T.-19 289 15 3 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE OHIO COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F. No. 1634. No. 1635. No. 636. No. i637. Organic and volatile matters.... . . .. . 4.100 3.50 3 550 3.350 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides. 3.032 7.047 4.066 6.475 ILime carbonate... .. . . . .. . . . .170 .095 .095 .095 Magnesia..... . . . .. . . ... . . 131 .258 .104 .171 Phosphoric acid........ . .. .093 .093 .124 .140 Sulphuric acid....... . . . .. . . Not estima ted. Potash.. . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .125 . 273 .333 269 Soda. . . . .. . . a trace. .144 .012 .230 Sand and insoluble silicates........ . 92.455 88.841 91.990 89.515 Water expelled at 380 F..900 .915 .775 775 Total. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. 101.o66 101.165 101.049 101.020 Hygroscopic moisture. ..... ... .. 1 175 2.400 1.450 2.;75 Iitash in the insoluble silicates..... . . 1.273 1.47 939 X.10w -. -- [ _ _ _ !_ __ _ _ Soda in the insoluble silicates.... . . .. .814 .617 .511 .290 Character of the soil...... . . . . Virgin soil. Sub-soil.Old fieldSli .9i -sil. The old field soil seems to have been naturally richer than the woodland soil, if no mistake has been made in the labels. The considerable proportions of potash and soda in the sandy portion (insoluble silicates) tend to give durability to the soils. With proper culture and the due application of fertilizers, this land may be made quite productive. if well drained For the analyses of other soils of this serial collection, made by Mr. C. S. Schenk along the line of the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, see Grayson and Hardin counties. 290 I154 APPEND I X. BOURBON COUNTY. No. i638-" LIMESTONE (magnesian). From Cane Ridge; five mi/es east of Paris. Used for the foundation of the Bourbon county Court-house at Paris. Sent by Mr. James Stevenson." A somewhat porous, fossiliferous, ferruginous, magnesian limestone, of a light grey-buff color, containing small specks of hydrated oxide of iron. Specific gravity = 2.58 to 2.60 (in the lump). Lime carbonate . . . Magnesia carbonate. Alumina. Iron peroxide .... Phosphoric acid.. . Sulphuric acid .... Potash. Soda. . Soluble silica..... Insoluble silica ... Loss ........ COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. 79.-140 = 44.318 per cent. of lime. 11.826= 5.371 per cent. of magnesia. ..380 .. .. . .. .. . . 38- ... 5.510 .51 1 ..240 ..... . .. .. . .231 .252 ............ .110 t6o ............ .640 100.000 The magnesian limestones are believed to withstand the atmospheric agencies generally better than the pure lime- stones. The iron in this rock is all in the state of peroxide, which is also favorable to its durability. Whether its small cavities or pores may retain enough water to cause disintegration by freezing was not ascertained. It would calcine into lime good for ordinary building purposes or for use on the soil as a fertilizer. COALS FROM THE STATE OF OHIO. For the purpose of comparing our Kentucky coals with some of the best of those of our neighboring States, some of these, collected by Messrs. P. N. Moore and A. R. Crandall, were submitted to analysis, as follow: 291 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. No. A. I-"COAL from Jackson county, Ohio. Star Furnace coat. Averaged by A. R. Crandall." A glossy, jet-black splint coal; breaking into thin laminae, with fibrous coal between. No. A. 2-" COAL. Hocking valley, Athens county, Ohio. Aver- age sample from the whole thickness of the bed. Taken from the pillar, three hundred yards. By A. R. Crandall." A pitch-black, glossy coal, iridescent on some of the faces; having very little fibrous coal, and no pyrites apparent. No. A. 3-` COAL. Hocking valley, Yc., &6c. Average sample from the stock pile, from the whole thickness of the bed. By A. R. Crandall." Like the preceding, but brighter, and showing less fibrous coal. No. A. 4-COAL. Hocking valley, &c., &c. Average sample from the upper twenty-eight inches. Taken from two rooms. By A. R. Crandall." Breaks into thinner laminae than the two preceding, with more fibrous coal between. Some little shining pyrites in thin crusts. No. A. ,--COAL. flocking villey, &'c., &c. Average sam- ple from the middle part (twmnty-six inches), taken from two rooms. By A. R. Crandall." In thicker laminae than preceding, with much less fibrous coal, and no appearance of pyrites between them. Hand- somely iridescent on many of the seam faces. No. A. 6-" COAL. Hocking valley, &c., &c. Average sam- ple, fro;n the lower part (eighteen inches) of the bed. Taken from two rooms. By A. R. Crandall." Resembles the preceding, but shows some bright pyrites in places. No. A. 12 - "COAL. Sheridan coal mines, Lawrence county, Ohio. Collected by P. N. Moore." 292 156 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. 157 A pure, pitch-black coal; with very little fibrous coal and some fine-granular pyrites, between the laminae. COMPOSITION OF THESE SELECTED OHIO COALS, AIR-DRIED. A. s. A. 2. A. 3. A- 4- A. 5S. A. 6. A. 3 2. Specific gravity ..... 1.361 1.322 not det'd. 1.346 1.303 1.312 1.322 Hygroscopic moisture.4.54 3.60 4,20 3.26 3.74 4.40 3.46 Vol'ilecombustible matters 29.68 33-42 36.68 33.76 36.32 35.08 36.64 Coke.65.78 62.98 59.12 62.98 59.94 60.52 59-90 Total.. . .. oo.oo ioo.oo ioo.oo oo.oo ioo.oD too.oo ioo.oo Total volatile matters . 34.22 37.02 40.88 37.02 40.06 39-48 40.10 Carbon in the coke... 57.o6 55.82 54.16 54-42 55-74 55.20 53.80 Ashes.. .. . . .. . 8.72 7.16 4.96 8.56 4.20 5-32 6.1o ta.. . . .. . . 100.00 I00.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100. 00 Character of the coke . . lent- Dense. Spongy. Dense. l)ense l)eDae Light lent. s;-tsgy. spongy. spongy. Color of the ah Nearly BrownishLight light Light Light light white, grey. lilac-grey lilac-grey lilac-grey lilac-grey lilac-grey ver c-ntage Of sulphur. . 0.756 o.862 1.692 2.247 1.299 1.659 1.947 These are remarkably good coals, and are acknowledged to be amongst the best of the country. The sample A. 2, taken from the pillar, seems to show the effect of exposure to the atmosphere, which is generally be- lieved to cause a diminution of the proportion of sulphur. A correspondence may be observed between the proportion of ash and the specific gravity, as follows: A. 5 has specific A. 6 has 1 A. 2 and A. 13 have I I A. 4 has .. A. x has '' gravity = 1. 303. and ash per cent. = ''. 1.312, A Ad ''. 1.322, . " I 1.346, 1 . x.361, I '' COALS FROM THE STATE OF ILLINOIS. No. A. 7-COAL. "Mine near Murphrysboro, Jackson county, Illinois. Block coal. Big Muddy coal. Average sample, by P. N. Motre." 293 4.20 5.32 6.io and 7.16 8.50 8.72 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. A glossy, jet-black splint coal. It has some fibrous coal between the laminae; with occasional scales of bright pyrites, and some slight lime sulphate incrustation in the seams. No. A. 8-" COAL. Big Muddy coal. Mine near Murphrysboro, Illinots. Average sample, by P. N. Moore.. Like the preceding. Some fine-granular pyrites with the fibrous coal between the laminae, and occasional lime sulphate incrustation in the seams. COMPOSITION OF THESE ILLINOIS COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. A. 7.1 No. A. 8. Specific gravity......... ' 1.310 1.310 Hygroscopic moisture. 2.62 3 44 Volatile combustible matters. 32.04 31.86 Coke... ..... .. .. . .. .. . .. 7..... .. 6534 64070 Total... .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . 100.00 100.00 Total volatile matters.34.66 35.30 Carbon in the coke............. ....... ... 58.58 59.54 Ashes...... .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. 6.76 5. i6 Total... .. .. . .. . . .. . .. .. . .. .. . . 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke.oLight Spongy spongy. pny Color of the ash............ . Lilac.grey. Lilac-grey. Per centage of sulphur.2.................. . . 2-472 1.376 These are also remarkably good coals, containing only a moderate proportion of sulphur, which is partly in the form of iron sulphide and partly in that of lime sulphate. COALS FROM THE STATE OF INDIANA. No. A. a-" INDIANA BLOCK COAL. From near Brazil, Clay county. Upper seam. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." A pitch-black splint coal, breaking easily into thin laminae, with fibrous coal (mineral charcoal) and some fine granular 294 i58 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. pyrites between them. A few bright scales of iron pyrites and some slight lime sulphate incrustation in the seams. No. A. 10-` INDIANA BLOCK COAL. Mine near Brazil, Clay county. Lower seam. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." Like preceding, but little appearance of pyrites or lime sul- phate. No. A. I I-` INDIANA BLOCK COAL. From mine near Brazil, &c. Lower seam. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." Resembles the others. Shows occasional bright scales of pyrites and lime sulphate incrustation. COMPOSITION OF THESE INDIANA COALS, AIR-DRIED. NO. A. 9. NO. A. to. NO. A. it. NO. A. i1 (reseated). Specific gravity...... .. . .. . . 1.313 not est. not ect...... Hygroscopic moisture.... .. . .. . . 2.70 2.68 2.40 2.52 Volatile combustible matters....... . 36.38 36.32 35.10 35-48 Coke. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 60.92 6i.oo 62.50 62.00 Total.. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 00.00 ooo. oo oo.ool oo.o Total volatile matters.......... . 39.08 39.00 37-50 38.O0 Carbon in the coke........... . 55.64 53-58 53.50 53.06 Ashes... . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 5.28 7.42 9.00 81.94 Total . . ..... . .. . .. . .. oo. olo. 100.0. Character of the coke.......... . Spongy. spengy. Dense. ..... spongy. Color of the ash......... Lilac-grey.Lightilac-grey.. .... lilac-grey. Per centage of sulphur . I.664 1.802 2.373 . These are remarkably good coals, as is well known by expe- rience, especially in their use in the smelting of iron. Their high reputation and successful application to this industry make the comparison of their composition, with that of our Kentucky coal, an object of interest; and as we could find in 295 159 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. the excellent reports of the Chief Geologist of Indiana, Prof. E. T. Cox, no statement as to the amount of sulphur which they contain, an ingredient of great and evil influence in iron smelting, these block coals were examined especially for this determination. It will be seen on reference to the preceding table that this ingredient exists in them in average proportion. Doubtless to the existence of the sulphur in this fuel may we attribute the fact, given by Prof. Cox, on page 70 of his First Annual Report, 1869, that "the general character of the iron made in Clay county is red-short, &c." This, however, may be meas- urably corrected, and indeed does not prevent the iron from being very good and profitable for many industrial purposes. It is very probable that all the sulphur which exists in these coals in the free, or uncombined, condition, will be volatilized and burnt out at the upper part of the furnace, long before it encounters the heat necessary to cause its combination with the iron of the ore with which it is mixed. This would be the case also with the second atom of sulphur of the bright pyrites of the coal, the bi-sulphide of iron; so that only that portion of the sulphur which would remain in the resulting iron proto- sulphide could vitiate the cast iron product. Hence we can understand, how a coal which gives a considerable per centage of sulphur in its ultimate analysis, may yet be quite available for the smelting of tough iron. CALIFORNIA ADOBk SOIL. An opportunity having occurred for procuring a specimen of this remarkably fertile soil, it was analyzed for comparison with our Kentucky soils, with the following results. No. A. I 2-" ADOBE SOIL taken at three inches below the surface. Valley of the Sacramento river. Solano county, California." Collected by Robert Peter, jr. Dried soil of a light-umber color; adhering in clods, which are easily crushed in the mortar. The powder (unground) passed wholly through fine bolting-cloth, leaving only a few vegetable fragments. 296 160 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. COMPOSITION OF THE AIR-DRIED SOIL. No. A. 12. No. 1329. Organicandvolatilematters. 7.740 7.615 Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides.. ...... . .. . . 1117 12.085 Lime carbonate ..790 .990 Magnesia.... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 1.596 .520 Phosphoric acid......... . . ............ . r093 .483 Soiphuric acid..082 a trace. Potash... .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. . .. . . .727 .726 Soda.... . . . .. .. . .. .. ....... . . .983 a trace. Sand and insoluble silicates.... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 74070 75. 590 Water and loss.2.802 1.891 Total.100.00 100.000 Potash in the insoluble silicates. o.814 2.731 Soda-is the in9olble silicate.0...3 .929 It will be seen above that this adob6 soil resembles in com- position the peculiar rich soil found locally in Campbell county, Kentucky, No. 1329, which is also like the adobe in being a sticky clay when wet, and hard and cloddy when dry. The California soil exceeds our Kentucky soils in soda, the latter has more phosphoric acid. LYON CQUNTY.-(Continued.) No. 1639-" Water taken from the interior of a geode of iron ore-pot iron ore. Sawannee, Lyon county. Summit Cut ore bank. Sent by A. L. Anderson, Esq." The water had a strong astringent taste; and had deposited much ferruginous sediment in the bottle. It was analyzed by my youngest son, Alfred M. Peter, in my laboratory. CObMPOSITION IN 1oo PARTS OF THE WATER, APART FROM THE SEDIMENT. Ire; protosulphate. la sitphate.. Mail gaiese sulphate Iifle.ulphate... . Mag-iesia sulphate. I'tash sulphate.. S:ca sulphat e. sodium chloride. Phogphoric acid.. . Total. 0. 2435 .4981 .1004 .1209 .o60g .0257 .o651 .0053 .0028 1.1227 297 .. . . . :..... .:: ....... :..' . :,.:::: ... :... :......... : :: ...... :, ....:...... :... : :. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . . : i62 CHEMICAL REPOR-T-APPENDIX. The analyses of some other samples of water, from the pot ore of Trigg county, are given in volume 4, page 260-I, of Kentucky Geological Reports. EDMONSON COUNTY.-(Continued.) No. i64o-LMONITE. " Old No/in Furnace bank, near the far nace ore. Bank about a quarter of a mile nor/ of the furnace. Davis' branch of No/in river. Average sample. by P. N. Moore." Generally of a brownish-red color. A porous ore, with some whitish portions. I-.n peroxide ....... Alumina. Manganese oxide. ... I.ite carbonate ...... Magnesia. Phosphoric acid .... Sulphuric acid. Water expelled at red heat. Silica and insoluble silicates Manganese oxide, alkalies, su COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. . . . . . . . . 27.340= 19.138 per cent, of iron. 5.930 .not det'd. 1.090 .447 t.68 = .497 per cent. of phosy .not det'd. 12.380 51.230 lphuric acid, &c. . .515 100.000 ,horus. This ore is too poor in iron to be valuable. It is probable that its phosphorus is somewhat over-estimated. No. i643-PIG IRON. "From old No/in Furnace. Cold blast." Furnace long since out of blast. A fine-grained grey iron, which yields easily to the file, and extends considerably under the hammer. Seems to be tougher than usual cast iron. COMPOSlTION.-SPECIFIC GRAVITY = 7.113. Iron... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 94.287 Graphite.... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . e 3.100 = 3800 total carbon. Combined carbon........ .. .. . . . . .700 f Silicon... . .. . ............. . 493 including that in the slag. Phosphorus..... . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . 1.029 Sulphur .012 Undetermined ingredients and loss . .379 100.00`0 This appears to be a remarkable instance of cast iron re- maining tough although it contains a considerable proportion of phosphorus, which is believed to render it "e cold-short," or 298 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. brittle at the ordinary temperature, in quantities even less than one per cent. Possibly the quite small per centage of silicon, which also renders iron brittle, may have something to do with this apparent anomaly. The phosphorus in the above analysis was first determined as phosphate of bismuth, by the process of Chancel; but not satisfied with this determination, this phosphate, after solution in chlorohydric acid, was decomposed by sulphydric acid, and the separated phosphoric acid re-determined by means of the magnesia mixture, in the usual way; and this without any ma- terial alteration in the result obtained. GRAYSON COUNTY.-(Continued.) No. 1641 _ "LIMONITE. "No/in Furnace ore bank, on the BPrownsville road. Average sample, by P. N. Moore." In irregular layers, varying in color and density. No. 1642-LiMONITE. "From Meredith Ray's farm, Taylor's Fork of Bear Creek, opposite the Chalybeate Spring. Aver- age sample, by P. N. Moore." A pretty dense ore, generally of a dark-brown color, with some lighter colored portions. 299 t63a 164 MICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. COMPOSITION OF THESE GRAYSON COUNTY LIMONITE ORES, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1641 No. 164 Iron peroxide ...... Alumina. Manganese oxide. Lime carbonate. Magnesia. Phosphoric acid...... Sulphuric acid ... Water expelled at red heat Silica and insoluble silicates Undetermined and loss. . . Total . 57.830 6.719 Not determ .290 .122 .921 not deter'd. 12.180 21.040 .898 100.000 44.528 lied. 5 590 .609 1.-074 .151 8.940 37.380 .360 100.20c Iron, per centage.. . .... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 40.48I 31. 169 Phosphorus, per centage..412 .468 Suiphur, per centage...... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. not deter'd. o6o Silica, per centage....................... 14.360 not deterd. It is probable the phosphorus is somewhat over-estimated in these ores. No. 1644 - CLAY IRON-STONE. "The glady ore, on the old Brownsville and Litchfteld road, west of Bear Creek, Graysox county." A dark-grey, fine-granular clay iron-stone, with much invest- ing limonite ore. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. I ron carbonate... . . . . .. . . 6.598 Iron peroxide.... . . . . . . . .. . 42 761 J = 37.945 per cent, of iron. Alumina. . . .. . . . . . . . 4.994 Lime carbonate.. .. . . . . . 2.840 Magnesia carbonate... . . . . . . .. not det'd. Phosphoric acid. .., , 1;017 = .444 per cent. of phosphorus Sulphuric acid a trace. Silica and insoluble silicates. 2o.83o Water and loss. 8.o4 100.000 300 .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . : ' .. . . .. . : ' : . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. BOYD COUNTY.-(Continued.) No. i645-COAL. NO. 7. Used at Ashland Furnace. A bright pure-looking coal, having but little fibrous coal between its laminae; has some little bright pyrites and thin scales of lime sulphate in the seams. COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED.-SPFCIFIC GRAVITY = 1.291. Hygboscopic moisture . . . . . . . 4. 80 Total tile mtters. = 3900 Volatile combustible matters. 34.20 6t. Carbon in the coke .. = 54.90 Spongy coke . . . ... .. ......... .... . 6Li ht brownish-grey ash.... . = 6. to 100.00 100.00 Percentage of sulphur = 1.312. A very good and pure coal, which favorably compares with the best so-called - Block coal " of Indiana, and is well adapted to the purpose for which it is used. CARTER COUNTY.-(Continued.) No. 1646-COAL. No. 1. "oFrom Graham bank. Little Fork of Little Sandy river. Collected by P. N. Moore." A pure-looking coal, which has some fibrous coal between its laminase; but shows very little pyrites. No. i647-COAL. No. 1. "From Graham bank, &c. Sample from allparts of the mine." 301 z66 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. COMPOSITION OF THESE CARTER COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1646. No. 1647. Specific gr vity..... . .. . .. . .. . . .t.. .. . .. X.269 not deterd Hygroscopic moisture..... .. .. . . .. . . .. .' 3.50 3.6o Volatile comhustible matters . . ..........................., , 36.30 35.40 Coke. ..... . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . ..t 6o.2o 6j.o Total.1... .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . a.001oo.0D Total volatile matters.39.80 39ccD Fixed carbon in the coke.57-30 57.60 Aches... . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 2.90 3.40 Total .... .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . loo.0 100.00 Character of the coke .Spongy. Spongy. lolor of the ash... ................ Brownish- Bowsh- grey. grey. Per centage of sulphur.. ...... . .. . . .. . .. . .. 1.148 1.107 Remarkably good and pure coals. GREENUP COUNTY.-(Continued.) No. 1648-COAI.. No. I. "Raccoon Creek. Raccoon Fijrnate. Collected bay P. N. Moore." A splint coal, with quite thin laminae and considerable fibrous coal between. Some little iron stain, but little appear- ance of pyrites. No. 1649-COAL. -Hunnewell cannel coal. Hunnewell mines." 302 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. No. 1648. No. 1649. specific gravity.... .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. 1.409 I .306 HygroscopiC moisture.... .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . 4.10 1.50 Volatile combustible matters.... . .. . . .. . .. . . .. 28.90 52.20 Coke... . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. 67.00 46.30 Total.. .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . 100.00 100.00 Total volatile matters.. . ....... ......... . 33.00 53.70 Fixed carbon in the coke . . . .............................. 49.60 40.60 Ashes.... .. . . .. . .. . .... . .. . . .. . .. . 17.40 5 70 Total.. .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. 1 00.00 100.00 t.racter of the coke.............. . . Pulverulent Vey friable Light-grey, L.ight C.I.,theh... . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .yellow.ish. f color of the ash .............. ........... ................. nearlywhite grey. IWr crotage of sulphur... . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . .. 0 o.655 0.782 This cannel coal is remarkably pure and good. Its propor- tion of volatile combustible matters (52.20 per cent.) is remark- ably great. OHIO COUNTV.-(Continued.) No. 1650-COAL (D.) "From Taylor coal mines, Dam, Ohio county. Collected by C J. Norwood. ter than a fair average.") near Beaver (Rather bet- A bright-looking coal, with but little fibrous coal between the lamina, but with some scales of bright pyrites. No. 1651-COAL (D.) "Stevens' coal mine, near Beaver Dam, &c. Collected by C J. Norwood." Has more fibrous coal than the preceding, but shows less pyrites. Iridescent in parts. 303 i67 I68 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED. No. 1650. No. i6pi. Specific gravity.......... . . .... 1-315 1.316 Hygroscopic moisture...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.30 3.30 Volatile combustible matters................. . 35-84 36.76 Coke. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . , 6o.86 5994 Total. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . o.... . . . . . . .oo.oo oo.00 Total volatile matters.... . . . ..... ..... , ............ 39-14 40.06 Fixed carbon in the coke................... . 54.36 52.60 Ashes... . . . . . .. 6.50 7 34 Total. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Xoo . oo oo . Character of the coke...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spongy. Spongy. Color of the ash.. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ...Choolate- Brownish- grey. grey. Pser centage of -1tp1hur... . ................. . 3-874 ! 2.6c8 _ I___ I_ -__ These are both very good coals; ranking amongst the best. 304 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. t yu e 0 Z '0 05.5 _0. 0.0 -3 w iniuoSooOi55ziv-OOO nnninuzz5 000000C 00a Z 0 0 0 0 W!-q 041 0! 4d Z SVo Zo.oo ;________I t s s fi r w s U s a, 8 t 5 U ii s I i . 7 7 n p!000qdI0S 6'A15S 6155 0'6' ,- 1 uORS a-O n 5 R; ;5 g n 4o- a5 vl ; ..o.. o.. _o. s. _nottnnn....O.h :p-oszout qd10qdlAH_ n n n " " n 9 - 0_00 :.. 8. ............ 00......, . 9. ...o.s. ;nDr-O0 7+s sx. . 'Pp n; 0 +o od o0s S ; 1!o I! vo o E_ t _ o2 _ i 8 7 o9. loo!-.00duj9 oco eosp oo e 03cooo..i. 70.. 0ov.7..s77. eo.7.55..dco.o.5 T7.. . . w w s Z :z d se _ss r vs ec s - e rz :Z _ _s_ 2 r 2 o o azzeoqb -eln__ n n neg g"+ 75 - --' - . . . . . . . . . _________lut vIl:: e3 o n - _o nc tn Rc vl Ilo oa eoo Rh o o- - o v apxxo os'll8 5 l l o ot t _titon sSo GO-++crg r E;012 zs3 11111121 o j -..o Ane 3w n -j o- o Cu oM0c ' _ _ o73 C C v ., . 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I 6 i ac 8 I iI I8.9 2 t I x a I c. _ _6rl , Ig . e eC UU0Lx ==l a 1 e rc1 I .:E 8 .i _e 9I 04 ' i Y Ea 42 "Xg _ z z! rtu !: - i I _ _ __ _ _ .. ____ _____ it -i _ r. __vr.. rr I_.1 d - ,1 q-Mn 314 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIXM its ., wi fOC8- C -v C - QI '- Cta 2X o S4 84jU ecX - - pX , qdj, CCCGCC C .p '-qj Wqj -- -'S . _ _ i i i s N 3 I0 18 n o _ c - Z0 _ pt uodsqd t AG; 1 f vQ .0 , S. t'.... i U ttsucvfOnn3: iiii3'y9!v '79 315 - - a ;t yyyly Z C lEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. ee ___________ I_" " ____ _ I. _ __ _ __ _ _ -p2 87. i FF -OeoOq WfltS mtStt)OJS t mn -S B S 5......... aMmaal UMU W UoS8 a-- iz E I R tOSgS 0 0 zz -St '-oo"ol-os8oo8 u o " Fa0.. ..__ b. .. ...... - g Sg, os g e L.'so I n gSl i ii-E n - eF tz G'eBn s _ _________ - ..... ..... _.0. _0""_ _ " " " x8o :r z 0 :-.d I ;li !9 r- 316 - - - -- I.................. .