You have found an item located in the Kentuckiana Digital Library.
Report on the botany of Madison, Lincoln, Garrard, Washington, and Marion Counties, Kentucky / by W.M. Linney. Kentucky. State Geologist. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b97-20-37305203 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Report on the botany of Madison, Lincoln, Garrard, Washington, and Marion Counties, Kentucky / by W.M. Linney. Kentucky. State Geologist. Stereotyped for the survey by Major, Johnston & Barrett, Yeoman Press, Frankfort, Ky. :  57 p. ; 27 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1997. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN06745.05 KUK) Printing Master B97-20. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Botany Kentucky.Linney, W. M. (William M.) GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. JOHN R. PROCTER, DIRECTOR. REPORT ON THE BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, WASHING- TON, AND MARION COUNTIES, KENTUCKY. BY W. M. LINNEY. STEREOTYPED FOR THE SURVEY BY MAJOR, JOHNSTON BARRETT, YEOMAN PRESS, TRANKPORT, KY. This page in the original text is blank. INTRODUCTORY LETTER. HARRODSBURG, Ky., December, I882. HON. JOHN R. PROCTER, Director of the Kentucky Geologieal Survey. DEAR SIR: Inclosed you will find a catalogue of the plants met with in the counties of Madison, Garrard, Lincoln, Wash- inigton, and Marion. With the list are some notes of general 2nd specific characters. If at times I have written feelingly, it is because no man who loves and studies plant life can gaze on its wanton destruction without emotion. Could I have written as I have sometimes felt, it would 1i.ive been a stronger plea to every heart to stop the wasteful dcstruction of our native plants. Illustrating from them, such a plea should have the grandeur of an oak, the solidity of a beech, the s/-engt/h of a hickory, and withal, the finish of wa/nut. It should also combine the beauty of /he rose, the moodesty of the VAOl't, the gracefulness of the fern, the purity of the lily, and the/ragrance of the mint, Respectfully, W. M. LINNEY. This page in the original text is blank. REPORT ON THE BOTANY OF MADISON, LIN- COLN, GARRARD, WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. INTRODUCTION. No one subject connected with our material prosperity deserves more attention and a closer investigation than that of the vegetative life which covers the earth. Considered only in the light of natural productions, plants and plant life are sources of varied knowledge to the student, and afford many pleasures to the mind. There can be no higher mental enjoyment than the satisfaction of feeling that, in passing through life, we have gathered to ourselves some lessons taught by the trees of the forests, the grains of the fields, or the smaller plants which surround us everywhere. There is im subject by which the mind can be better disciplined for thought, there is no field from which so many illustrations can be drawn, and there is no branch of science by which the mind can be more broadened and liberalized, and the observing powers strengthened than that of botany. There is so much to be learned from the habits and growth and dis- tribution of plants, that no man should be content unless he has acquainted himself to some extent with some of the pecu- liarities and resources of vegetable life. Besides the enjoyments derived from an investigation of the beauties and singular habits of plants, they are studied in their adaptation to the more personal and general relations they bear to the economy of our daily lives. To an almost unlimited extent, they enter into the health and comfort and pleasure of our every hour. It is to plant life that we look for protection and shelter through the inclemencies of sea- sons. It is from plant life that we derive the larger part of the food which feeds us in hunger and the clothing which BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, enwraps from nakedness and cold; and it is to plant life, when the diseases incident to life overtake us, that we turn for remedies which shall restore us to health. Beyond the study of vegetation as an intellectual pleasure or as elements of personal welfare, there is another and more universal phase-the preservation of the race of mankind. Of all the forces of nature, no one plays a more I important part than does the plant life of the world. lhie formation and stability of climates, the distribution and preservation of inois- tures, the-control and destruction of poisonous gases, anid the preparation and protection of soils, are only some of the offices which plant life perform in the economy of nature. As man has the power to destroy all plants, he is fitted to make the surface of the earth, by his intelligent care, a smiling garden -or, by his ignorant destruction, a terrible desert. From an ignorance of those laws fair countries have been destroyed and depopulated, and the same destructive influences are still at work. With the above facts before it, the State Legislature re- quired that during the investigation of the Geological Survey, the trees and smaller plants should receive some attention from its members. Every note written on a. subject adds some new value to it; one man does but little towards the investigation of any one subject. Each man is apt to examine one class of phenomena and pass the others by. In the brief notes appended, a few facts gathered here and there are pre- sented. The list of flowering plants and ferns is far from being complete. The whole flora of a region can only be made out by the work of local botanists. It requires the constant work of years. Yet the notes and catalogue arc of sqme value, for they add a mite to the work done, and to that which is to be completed in the future. ORIGIN AND INTRODUCTION OF TIMBERS. It is impossible to determine from whence the original tim- bers of this region were derived, and how much they have been changed from their original characters. But it is proba- 6 WASHINGTON, AND MAtION COUNTIES. ble that soon after the beginning of the uplift of the CUMBER- LAND FOLD and the KENTUCKY ANTICLINAL, some of the species may have sprung up on the accumulating islands; and it seems possible, from the peculiar distribution of the pines in Eastern and Central Kentucky, that the cone-bearing trees may have been amongst the first introduced. The peculiar habitat of the yellow-wood, found only at two or three stations in the 'Fate, and those on the disturbances mentioned above, would seem to place it among the original trees. Some species must have been distributed very slowly until the introduction of animals and man. Both of those agencies must have had much to do with the distribution of certain, trees which bear edible fruits. There are certain evidences that appeal to the senses-and ve seem to have but little occasion to describe them-which make it appear that the distribution of some plants, like the hickory, walnut, oak, black haw, persimmon, etc., was to some extent the work of the ancient "1 Mound-Builders." We do not know that any attention has been given to this theory, but it is worthy of some attention. Outside of the influences of wind and water in the dissemination of plants and the acci- dental dropping of seed by man, the various species of rodents appear as the great propagators of some species. We think probably, from our own observations, that more than ninety per cent. of the young hickory and walnut trees that come up in the lorests, now, have been planted by squirrels. Those animals will bury great numbers in a single season to prevent their destruction by freezing and other causes, and that their shells may be softened. As they are placed at the right depth to germinate well, and are selected for their soundness, it is evident that if the animals are killed or driven away, that all these nuts come up; without such agency, only an accident would so cover them under the surface that they could ger- minate. Nuts are often carried long distances from where they grew, and dropped in places favorable for germination. The little striped ground-squirrel has something to do with the planting of acorns, etc., and perhaps the wood-mice are not unimportant seed-sowers. 7 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, ORIGINAL CONDITION OF TIMBERS. When Boone and his companions first entered Kentucky, this part of the State was an extensive forest, only broken by the channels of the streams, and the few lick-regions, which had been denuded by the tramping of buffaloes and deer, while in quest of saline matters contained in the earth. From the fringes of sycamores, maples, and elms which skirted the banks of the Kentucky and Salt rivers, to the pines and mountain chestnut oaks on top of Big Hill, there was one wide sweep of magnificent trees, including many species. InI this forest were long reaches where grew but little under- growth; and then there were places where shrubs 'clustered inl clumps; and then again, there were large cane-brakes almost impenetrable. Grape vines of massive thickness climbed the tallest trees, and flowers smiled from every nook. Altitudes had little, here, to do with the distribution of the trees; only two natural conditions seem to have modified their disposition: one of minor importance-the quantity of moisture; and the other of much consequence-the character of the soil. The last was such an important factor, that had the earlier emigrants to Kentucky been possessed of greater knowledge, the best regions would have been first selected for occupancy. But, instead of this, many parties passed over the richest soils and settled on the very poorest. Very few trees habitually grow along the banks of streams and other wet places, that are confined to this isolated coildi- tion; they may, in their natural state, be in unbroken forests; but as latilds are tleared up and soils become drier, they adapt themselves largely to the changed conditions. For instance, sycainores and white elmns seem naturally adapted to wet places. Yet now, young trees of both species may be seen coming up and growing in very dry situations. As much may be said in reference to the water maple and the water beech. They are species, however, which are here confined to damp situations. The green ash we have never seen except where its roots could reach running water; the box-elder grows only 8 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. in very moist situations; the yellow-wood grows for some distance only on the moist talus from the cliffs of Dix and KentLtucky rivers We have not in the region seen a single birch; and its absence seems remarkable. The willows are, of course, moisture-loving trees; but it seems impossible to determine now whether they were indigenous. When we come to study the distribution of species over the different geological formations of the region, we have a sub- ject which is worthy of a more careful investigation than it has received. It is a subject which should be studied separately and with ample time. When all the observing powers can be thus given tt one subject, the mind is not distracted and every minute fact is noted. In the Reports made on the Geology of the various coun- ties represented in this region, the rocks were divided into the following groups: beginning with the upper and ending ,with the lower: Coal Measures. Carboni ferous, - Upper Subcarboni ferous. Lower Subcarboniferous. Devoiiian, - - f Black Slate. Corniferous Limestones. U Crab Orchard Shales. Upper Silurian, - - Medina Sandstone. Upper Hudson River Beds. Middle Hudson River Beds. Lower Silurian, - Lower Hudson River Beds. Trenton Limestones. Birdseye Limestones. Chazy Limestones. Chazy Limestones.-'rhis series of rocks is only seen in the steep escarpments which rise above Kentucky river, Dix river, and some of the smaller streams that enter them, atnd the conditions would not seem favorable for preserv- ing any marked characteristics in the distribution of plants. But even here some peculiarity is observed. On nio other soils have we been able to see any individual of the follow- ing species: yellow-wood, wafer-ash, round-leaved catchfly, 9 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, prickly wild gooseberry, white enslenia, corky white elm, or the wall-rue spleenwort. The latter we have observed many times, and always as occupying a station on a single heavy layer of limestone, following its dip up or down the river, but never growing on other ledges. Birdseye Limestones. This group, like the last, is seen only near the streams mentioned, making some few soils, but covered sparsely with trees other than the red cedlar. This tree still grows in immense numbers and of the finest quality, single specimens having been seen twenty-eight to thirty inches in diameter. The peculiar home of the cedar seems to be on the limestone soils, and the purity of the Birdseye series seems to bring it to its greatest perfection. Trenton Limestones.-The Trenton Limestones, in their different classes of soil-making rocks, had distributed over them different associations of plants. Over the deep silicious clay soils peculiar to the base of these rocks white oak, yellow poplar, and beech were the principal species, giving out in a large measure, however, when these aluminouis soils gave place to either the Birdseye group below or the Blue Grass beds above. Measured by their general di-stri- bution here, none of the above-mentioned trees are well adapted to calcareous soils, but, on the other hand, require clay soils, which contain a proportion of silicious elements. The old people of the country tell of the remarkable belts of white oak, beech and poplar, which originally grew over some parts of these counties now denuded of forests. These areas can yet be outlined by the character of the small wood- lands not yet destroyed and by the extension of the soils on which they grew. Over the Blue Grass beds, the forests were particularly marked with blue-ash, white elm, white chestnut-oak, maple, wild cherry, basswood, coffee-tree, large-fruited shell-bark hick- ory, hackberry, and mulberry. A variety of other trees grew with them, but not often in great numbers. The blue-ash and wild cherry sometimes made up fifty percent. of the trees. These IO WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. soils, lying in comparative levels, were rich, black, calcareous loams. In noting such trees on other groups, they seemed to require near the same conditions of soil which existed here. The Upper Birdseye beds, with a return of very pure lime- stonies. were marked, like the lower rocks of the same name, with cedars, which either rooted themselves in the crevices of tlih rocks and grew somewhat stunted, or, where the soil wais deeper, they flourished as large trees. In each of the horizons marked by this species, and so far 'mentioned, there are layers of chert in the limestones; how much this has affected the growth and character of the wood, it is impossible to say. Lower Hudson River Beds.-The heavy clays at the base of these beds are marked usually with post-oak and laurel oak; and it is a very unusual thing to see a single tree of either of these species at any other horizon over the whole Silurian (Lower) formation. Why those two species should adapt themselves exclusively to the soils derived from forty or fifty feet of clay shales that do not seem to show any different character from several other horizons, it would be interesting to know. Altitude certainly had not influenced them; for all the other beds may be seen at the same actual elevation. Moisture could not have influenced their station; for these soils are not wetter or drier than others. There must be some peculiarity in the chemical constituency of these lime- stones and shales to have so influenced them. The whole group was covered with white oak, sometimes to the almost entire exclusion of every other species; and from all the evi- dences now to be seen, and from the information gained from others, this species amounted to at least fifty per cent. of the original forest oii the Lower Hudson River beds. The white oak outranks in worth all the other species of timber trees in the State, as it is especially adapted to so many uses, some of which cannot well be supplemented by the others. This belt of trees of large sizes and of the most valuable characters extended through the whole region, and each county had a I I BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, reasonable, share. There is enough of it in the small patches of trees left here and there to give some idea of its original imposing features. There were usually over this series argil- laceous soils with but little loam; but where the rich leaf-mold had been collected in deep hollows and on the protected northern slopes, some other species prevailed over the white oak. Middle Hudson River Beds.-This division of rocks and soils followed the contour of the last-mentioned group, 'and -was almost universally characterized by the presence of beeches. In places, these trees were equal to at least ninety per cent. of all the individuals in the woods. Usually. how- ever, there were many yellow poplars, and in these soils they attained their largest size and their best quality. No tree ill the State had grown to larger proportions than this, the most valued here of all the soft woods. Sometimes where the inter- calated limestones of these beds spread out for some distance, sugar maples grew in thick set clumps, and the finest sugar orchards we have ever seen were on these soils. In certain places, also, were to be seen more or less white oak; but taking it all together, it was preeminently a vast beech forest. Upper Hudson River Beds. It is but few steps from the Middle on to the Upper Hudson River beds; and with those steps was an almost absolute change in the distribution of the trees. At the base was a return to the conditions existing in the Blue Grass beds-the presence of the rich, black, calcareous soils, and an absence of those deep silicious clays which marked the growth of beech, poplar, and white oak. lIi their place were long stretches of blue-ash, white oak. wild cherry, scaly-bark hickory, yellow chestnut oak, white walnut, and hackberry. The white oak, beech, and poplar were almost absent over these soils, and the distribu- tion very much like, but still distinct from, that of the Blue Grass beds. But it may be repeated here, that those two soils are the best in the State, and that the distribution of the timbers, mentioned in connection with them, marked the out- 12 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. crops of the most valuable lands. Above these nearly pure calcareous soils were some heavy clay beds that gave a return to a region almost exclusively of white oak. This belt was not a wide one, being included in small areas within a narrow range; but its longitudinal extension was as great as that of the others. Mixed timbers were over the remainder of the division, in what proportion and of what species we have not notes to determine. Medina Sandstone.-The characteristic trees on the Medina Sandstone were oaks, and those with thick tomentous leaves, like post-oak and Spanish oak, largely predominated. In fact, those species seem tlo have marked the limits of this silicious series. -The white oak was in respectable numbers, never growing to a very large size, but producing very good tough wood. Red cedar was quite a plentiful growth on these soils; while large sassafras was in greater numbers than on other groups. Crab Orchard Shales.-Those shales were usually wet and decomposed to a considerable depth, making quite a contrast to the thin loose soils of the Medina, and produced another change in the distribution of plant life. Here sweet gum was first seen, and with it the following unusual assem- blage of trees: white elm, white oak, post-oak, red oak, yellow chestnut oak, burr oak, red maple, shell-bark hickory, black walnut, honey-locust, sycamore, and box-elder. The sweet gum grew to very fair proportions, while the others ranked well in size and quality. Corniferous Limestones.-While marking a belt through all of the counties of this district, the lateral exten- sion of the soils derived from the Corniferous is very limited. The cherty fragments overlie, and are often mixed with, other soils in tracts of some extent; but as purely derived soils, they are too narrow in range for the past relation of their timbers to be studied. They seem to have been well marked with sugar-maple, as is a common fact where limestones are in ledges on and near the surface and the drainage is good. 13 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, Bllok 3Slate.-The Black Slate through this region has severtl phases-one where the shale is level and not well drained, and the other where are well drained slopes. The first had many glady places with small trees of white oak, red oak, black oak, laurel oak, and post-oak. The last'was well defined, with'a beech forest, in which some white oak, poplar, red oak, and other species grew. Sweet gum, in patches here and there, was a common tree. Lower Subarbonfferous.-This formation, which con- stitutes nearly the whole surface of the so-called Knobs, which lie on the south side of this region, is well outlined in all the counties of the district, with the exception of Washington. The soils were not valuable for-the better purposes of agri- culture; but they possessed a great variety of trees, many val- uable species growing to good size and desirable qualities. With the exception of the top of Big Hill, and one or two other high points in Madison county, pines, chestnut., moun- tain chestnut oak, sour-wood, laurel, and some other species, were exclusively confined to those soils. Fine poplar, white oak, white ash, black gum, white hickory. walnuiit. maple, and basswood were everywhere. Besides those, many shrubs, vines, and flowers were restricted alone to these soils. Upper Subcarboniferous.-The limestones of the upper' part of the Subcarboniferous group make several classed of soils, but they are restricted in their development here, and do not, as a consequence, give much latitude for an investigation of the peculiarities of the plant life over them. White oak, red oak, scarlet oak, black jack oak, Spanish oak, post-oak, walnut, hickory, ash, and poplar were the principal trees. The black jack oak was nearly confined to this geo- logical horizon; the scarlet oak was rarely seen away from it, but the cedar was distributed over the more exposed beds of heavy limestones. Cool Meas e.-The restricted areas, where remains of the conglomerate sandstones and the carboniferous shales had 14 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. been left from erosion, gave little evidence of the distribution common to those soils where they are more extensive. The yellow pine and the cucumber tree were two species which marked the peculiarities of these soils; while poplar, oak, chestnut, and some other species, were distributed with them. Exceptions.-In Washington county, at a point situated nearly thirty miles from the nearest outcrop of the Lower Subcarboniferous, are several mountain chestnut oaks; they were native to the soil, and presented no differences inl char- acter from those seen in their usual habitat. They grew on calcareous clay soils, and it is the only instance where we have met them or heard of them on lower groups than the Sub- carboniferous series. In the lower part of Garrard county, situated on the Trenton Limestones, are several cucumber trees growing, but they are rooted in beds which have. wasted from the conglomerate sandstone. We have seen several chestnut trees which were indigenous to the localities on the Trenton north of the KENTUCKY ANTICLINAL, but they grew also among the silicious remains of the Coal Measures. In Garrard county is an isolated knob, containing Lower Subcar- boniferous shales, and fourteen miles from any remains of the same formation; it has on it, now, quite a number of moun- tain chestnut oaks. Formerly, the chestnut grew with them, yet neither of those species had spread on to the lower soils around them. The closeness with which some species retain their habitats on particular soils is an evidence that they require exact conditions or almost definite compounds for their food. DESTRUCTION OF TIMBERS. There is no truer aphorism than "d Man marks the earth with ruin." The boasted axe of civilization () has swept like " a besom of destruction" through the grand old forests, and its sound is still heard on the air, ringing the death-knell of every tree whose faill will add a penny to the pocket of avarice. r 5 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, A careful, intelligent clearing of forests is -all right; but an ignorant destruction of the plant life of any locality is all wrong. One hundred years is not much in the life of some nations; but a hundred years from the opening up of a coun- try covered with a wealth of plant life, is too short a time for such widespread destruction as marks the timbers of this country. Had there been a power to control, and an intelligence to direct the clearing of forests for agricultural purposes, and the preservation of young trees in given conditions, this region would have been the fairest under the skies. H ill-sides now washed into deep hollows and covered with loose blocks of stone, would have been clothed in valuable trees. Licks which exhibit nothing but utter desolation, would have been robed in green. Creeks whose beds are either raging tor- rents or dry gulches, would have been hemmed with a garni- ture of shade " over purling waters' flow." Springs of sweet water would have gushed forth under leafy trees and amidst blooming flowers, where now only muddy seeps are seen. Along the margin of rivers, where wide bottoms extended, a strip of forest would have protected the rich fieldls, where now the freshet tears away the fruitful lands. Where now stand ragged clumps of injured and dying trees, long lines of valua- ble timbers would have shed their moisture to the thirsty air. Where great fields of corn are now grown, to be distilled into death, flowers and orchards would have wafted their perfumes on every breeze. For want of system and intelligence, despoliation has been the rule. - Lands, which should have been left as wood nur- series for all time, have had their protecting trees removed, and the soils have been carried away by the action of water. Streams on which old men have gone to mill, or from which they have drawn fish in their youth, "s are numbered with the things that were;" and where springs bubbled and flowers bloomed in sweetness, offensive slop-yards now "1 smell to heaven." I6 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. So far we have only written of the destruction over the parts of those counties, which have been almost denuded of their trees, for farming purposes. When we come to examine the timbers of those regions that are above the Corniferous Limestones, the destruction has not been so large. The val- uable trees have mostly been culled out, while the poorer ones have been left, because there was no demand for themn. Each day sees the better ones going; and it is only a question of a very few years, when not a tree of value will be left. But, if even the last desirable tree of sufficient age for lumber had been destroyed, the loss would not have been irreparable, had they been removed with care. Over the entire section young trees remain, and in time would be of value, if any care were given them; but it is not done. In the destruction of one single tree, through ignorance and carelessness, often a hundred young ones are either destroyed or forever injured. Sometimes, persons passing through the woods gash every tree which comes within reach of axe or hatchet. Roads are cut in every direction, requiring the demolition of thousands of fine young trees. Wagons and logs are dragged over them, bending, breaking, and bruising every shrub or sprout in the way. 'fhe whole region has been nearly dismantled of its chestnut oak. The bark has been taken away, and the remainder-trunk and branches-lie rotting on the ground. The poplars and the walnuts are about gone; and the white oaks are fast following in their wake. Hundreds are felled in a few days; those that hre good have two or three sections cut fromn them, and the trunks and branches are left to decay. If others are not found to be so good in timber when felled, they are left to rot with the trunks and branches of the others. If we pass through those regions, we see otl every side the most mischievous waste or the most criminal destruction. But the evil does not end yet; for often among the felled tops and withered shrubs, fires are lighted by careless or vicious hands, to 'sweep in conflagrations among the dead waste, the prepared lumber and the green trees. Sometimes these fires burn for weeks till the clouds, more merciful than GEOLOG. SUMR.-2 17 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, man, send rain to arrest the desolation. It has sometimes occurred that the leaves have been set on fire that a few chestnuts might be gathered, and, in consequence, many acres of land have been burned over, entailing utter extermination of the young growth.- POLITICAL INJURY. Over part of this region there have been injuries of a differ- ent character, and which have extended over whole counties in the State, outside of this district. They have grown out of the extension of railroads through or near some of the wooded regions, where farms and pastures had been opened, but still surrounded by an almost untouched forest. The farms, with all farming and stock-raising interests, have been neglected, and every man almost has gone into some kind of timber destruction-tan-bark, hoop-poles, cross-ties, lumber, etc. Young men are led from home and its quiet agricultural pursuits, and few ever return. The introduction of vicious elements bring ruin in morals and manners; and the aged are dependent on their own exertions. What were once smiling farms and happy homes too often are now but neg- lected fields and saddened firesides. The lands ruined of their timbers have become almost worthless; farms overgrown with weeds, and pastures dis- regarded, have decreased in value. All these are direct and baneful losses to the State. The money received for those timbers has rarely been retained. It has gone into the pock- ets of speculators from a distance, or been spent in supplying the losses from the destruction of farming interests. The lands are poorer, the citizens are more needy, and the State is a loser. Had intelligence ruled, those lands would have been a continuous source of wealth to the people; the farms would have been improved with some of the proceeds of the forests cut at the proper time, and a part would have been invested in good teachers, books, and other means of improvement. which make hormes brighter Old people more intellectual and happier. WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. Other countries have been so despoiled of their forests and afflicted with the consequent evils, that their governments have had to extend the strong arm of the law, take possession of all the timber growth, and protect what has been left from ultimate destruction. They have also encouraged its restora- tion under wise provisions, until the people could be taughlt to take care of it for themselves. It seems that here the. same course will have to be taken, and the sooner the better for the good of both the individual and the Commonwealth. This is the only remedy. People educate themselves slowly, and the fostering care and encouragement given by the State to edu- cation is not, by any means, too generous. States pass bills creating sanitary commissions and boards of health; but neither State, commissioners, or boards prevent the accumulations of sawdust in towns and country, which rots and festers in the rain and sunshine, breeding disease and death among the people. A State may provide agents and money to place new species of fish in our streams, but it does not restrain the saw-mill from throwing its waste into those streams to the destruction of the fish. REPRODUCTION OF YOUNG TREES. In looking over this region, there appears to be 11o condition which prevents, if left to themselves, a return of the former distribution of forests. Every species which formerly grew over the country exists somewhere over the territory, and young trees are continually propagated by nature. We have not been able to see that the exhaustion of soils by the old forests or by grain-growing has unfitted them for the thriving of the same species over the same lands, where they flour- islhed heretofore. The seed of many species are destroyed in a large measure, and in numerous localities entirely; but this fact does not make their restoration impossible. 'Ihe yellow poplar, where the right conditions exist, comes up in immense numbers and is of rapid growth. There are a few places in Garrard county, situated on the Middle Hudson River beds, over which this valuable species has grown 1 u I9 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, thick, and delights the eye with its promised magnificence. The same facts are seen on the Subcarboniferous beds. It has been taught that on some soils in the State the white, oak, as a second growth, has largely diminished in proportion to the number contained in the old forests; but on the Lower Hudson River beds, wherever the seed are not destroyed and the proper conditions exist, this species gives promise of its former abundance. This may be noted in little woodlands, which have been fenced in for grass. The undergrowth is removed, the grass sown, and the ground raked; the surface is thus loosened, the light and warmth admitted, and the mois- ture retained. The acorns thus buried produce, as a conse- quence, young trees in great numbers. White oak trees are cut and their bodies taken away; but often the tops are left lying on the ground, and among them the acorns fall and are moistened, shaded, and saved from destruction, until they germihate and produce young trees. Over-parts of the Crab Orchard Shale, whole areas of woodlands have been destroyed and used for fuel in the manufacture of salts. Families giving all their time to this industry, raised no corn and fed no hogs. The acorns consequently were not so largely destroyed as usual, and the result was that under these conditions the young white oaks came -up in numbers as great as atiy other species. On the Subcarboniferous soils. persons who had farms raised hogs which had the freedom of the woods. These periods are often marked by the absence of young white oaks; but afterward, when the farmers abandoned stock- raising for the lumber interests, the disappearance of the hogs allowed the reappearance of the young oaks. Another interesting feature is the fact that nature protects from such entire destruction some seeds, as for example, the bitter acorns, which produce inferior trees for lumber, and dis- seminates widely such species as red-bud, dogwood, etc., and these often come up so thick that they prevent the propaga- tion of better kinds which require more favorable conditions for growth. Black walnuts flourish almost equally as well on all kinlds of good soil, and if growing with Qther trees in thick 20 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES, woods do well; by themselves or isolated, they give little promise of future value. The beeches seem to reproduce less than any other species in proportion to their original numbers. Moisture-loving trees, their fruit appears to blight by the increasing dryness of the summers. Other specity as chestnuts, hickories, etc., have their seeds more largely destroyed by insects than formerly. The destrUctivc influ- ences at work are many. Ovcr some thin or exhausted soils there are species, like sassafras and sumac, which come up in dense thickets, and exclude every other species. This feature is evidently the work of nature to restore those soils for the growth of other trees; for no such conditions exist in old forests. Red cedar has spread from its former restricted limits; but confines itself nearly to. places with dry conditions and with limestone rocks. The ailauithus has spread more extensively than any introduced tree, partly because it seems Well adapted to the soils, and partly because the seed are easily scattered by the wind. The American holly is seen here only in small bushes on the Black Slate, and in limited numbers on re- stricted areas. The catalpa, though introduced here many years ago, has not reproduced itself over the country. It spreads from its roots occasionally, but seldom otherwise. The Chickasaw plum has scattered over parts of the Lower HFudson River beds, and grows and produces welL It seems remarkable, that of all the trees and shrubs introduced here since the settlement of this region, the ailatithusi as a tree, and the Chickasaw plum as a shrub, are the only ones that have adapted themselves so as to appear native, unless it be the willows on the streams, some of which haie probably been introduced. It would seem from these facts, the original dissemination of species required much more time than merely for the distribution of seed. The presence of some of the pines, of birches, of azaleas, and rhododendrons, within a score or two of miles of this region, and their entire absence here, where the same conditions appear to exist, is an unexplained problem. 21 2OTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, FERNS. With the light of sunset glowing, Nature with her magic hand, Till their rival glories blending, painted flowers o'er the land; With the light of early morning, with her pencil dip't in dew. She, the daintyfen-kaves sketching, all their lines of beauty drew; Waved she then her pencil dripping, on the rock and hill and dell- Dew-drops all to moea turning, where the tiny crystals fell. Those lowly plants to which were given no true seed, aind from which nature has withheld all semblance of flowers, are not without interest. Though they do not furnish us with shelter or food or raiment, yet they enter into the class of soil- making plants and assist in shading, moistening, and preserv- ing the surface of the ground. Ferns appeal to our admiration in the purity and delicacy of their parts, and the gracefulness of their outlines. A love for them seems to be natural in every heart. The rough man, who cares nothing for the names or the relations of general plant life, will often stop to gaze on a bed of ferns; the young maiden presses them be- neath her pillow, that she may have happy dreams, and the little children seek them, scarcely knowing why. While strolling through the woods one day, far from the homes, of culture and refinement, we met a little unkempt boy. who knew not how to read the books of men, but who had stolen some lessons from the volume of nature opened to him. We had gathered some of the rarer flowers, which were in bloom under the shadows of the ancient trees; observinig them, the urchin asked us why we did not get some -shak- ers" Uponi telling him we did not know them, lie proposed to lead us tt) where they grew. Following him over the soft ground, under the shade of trees, and by the tenidril-climlibiiio vines, Fve reached a lovely bed of maiden-hair. As we seated ourselves on a downy bed of moss to talk about and admire the clustered beauties, we saw his bright eyes flash with a love born o( the beautiful, and our heart grew tender towards him. Knowillg no such name as bracken, brake, or fern, the tremuL- lous motion of the dainty plant had suggested the name, and all the Idifferent species of ferns were called by him '' shakers." 22 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. When we sometimes in memory go back to the poor bare- footed boy, who roamed those grand old forests, these beau- tiful plants are still - shakers" even to us. A few notes on their distribution over this region will not be uninteresting to the botanists and other lovers of these charming and diversified plants. The little scaly polypody is more often seen growing in the mosses on the old sycamore trees, on the banks of CL.tplin and Salt rivers, in Mercer county, than any other localities in this district. It is to be sometimes found on the limestones near the Kentucky river, and also on the highest sandstones of the Knobs in Marion county. The maiden-hair fern through the whole district, wherever the conditions of its growth have not been destroyed, mazy be found clustered in the rich soils where the shades lie all through the day. It seems to love equally well the deep shadows by the streams, and the secluded shelters in the Knobs. The clothed Zipi-fern is very rare, and we only found it on two occasions. It was growing in dense beds on sandstone rocks, tightly wedged in their crevices, at the top of the tallest Knobs which rise above the valley of the Rolling Fork of Salt river, in the neighborhood of Bradfordsville, Marion county. The common bracken is found only on the highest hills where the Carboniferous soils allow suitable conditions for its preservation. The clf-brake is very hardy, and is to be seen nearly every- wvhere that limestones are exposed enough to give provisions for its growth. Requiring little soil or moisture, it seems to feed upon the air and the rocks. The iinna/zfid spleenwort was only once seen a few plants grew on the face of a bluff, composed of Subcarbonifetous sandstone, near the boundary line of Larue and Marion coun- ties. Of that rare hybrid, the Asplenium ebenoides, we' found three plants, growing on a fallen mass of sandstone, near Salt Lick 23 24 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, creek, in Marion county. They were surrounded by the ebony spleenwort and the walking-leaf fern. The maiden-hair spleeizwor was not met with, strictly, in this district, but was seen at Broadhead Station, a few miles from the Lincoln county line. It was growing on the Subcar- boniferous shales, close to the banks of Dix river. The S6oIly spleenuwor is a very common fern, and is to be seel). with its small relation, on nearly all the shaded rocks, and on many soils around ihe roots of old trees. The zTa/-rue splecnwvor/ has been mentioned as growing on the heavy limestones above the Kentucky river and Dix river. It is coinfiuied to one ledge of rocks, and follows the dips up and down the streams, blut never appears on other ledges, or, as far as we know, at any other station in this region. T he walking- leaf fern grows on nearly all the heavy lime- stones, and has several times been seen growing in moss for several feet up the trunks of old trees. The. beech ferns are plentiful all through the Knobs, and are, besides, met with often in the deepest, shadiest woods in the other parts of the country. The )New York shield fern is not found in a great many localities, but where it is seen the numbers are often great. It is among the most delicate of all the species. The marginal shield fern and the win/er fern are very coni- mon forms on the cliffs near the streams, and on the northern slopes among the hills in all the counties. The bladder ferns are the most widely and frequently clis- tributed &f any other species, and may be found commonly in each of the counties. The seusitive fern has few habitats ill these counties, lbut has been seen in damp hollows in Marion and Madison coun- ties. The obtused-leaved woodsia clusters in the Corniferous lime- stones along the edge of the Knobs, and in the fallen rocks from the walls of the Kentucky river; the rich green of its fronds ever making a pleasing picture with the bare rocks in the background. WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. The royalfern and the cinnamon fern grow exclusively in the most remote parts of the district, where the mold of cen- turies covers the ground, and the leaves from tree and shrub have made them beds. The moonworts are scattered through the woods all over the region wherever they have moisture, shade, and rich soils. CATALOGUE OF THE FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. ORDER RANUNCULAcEE-cROWFOOT FAMILY. Genus Clematis, Virgin's Bow'er. i. Leather flower, Clematis viorna (L.) 2. Common Virgin's Bower, C. Virginiana (L.) Genus Anemone, Wind-flower. 3. Virginia anemone, Anemone Virginiana (L.) 4. Carolina anemone, A. Caroliniana (Walt.) 5. Wind-flower, A. nemorosa (L.) Genus HIepatica, Liver-leaf 6. Round-lobed hepatica, Hepatica triloba (Chaix.) 7. Sharp-lobed hepatica, H. acutiloba (DC.) Genus 7Thalicrum, Meadow-Rue. 8. Early Meadow-Rue, Thalictrum dioicumn (L.) 9. Rue-Anemonie, T. anemonoides (Michx.) ,o. Tall Meadow-Rue, T. Cornuti (L.) II. , T. clavatum (DC.) Genus Ranunculus, Crowfoot. White Water-Crowfoot, Ranunculhus aqtiatalis (L.) 12. , VAR. trichophyllus (Chaix.) 13. Small-flowered Crowfoot, R. abortivirs (L.) 25 130TANV OF MADISON, LTICOLN, GARRARD, I4. Hooked Crowfoot, R. recurvatus (Poir.) 1 5. Bristly Crowfoot, R. Pennsylvanicus (L.) xi6. Early Crowfoot, R. fascicularis (Muhl.) i7. Creeping Crowfoot, R. repens (L.) x 8. Tall Crowfoot, R. acris (L.) 19. Small-flowered Crowfoot, R. parviflorus (L.) Genus Jsopyrumr, False Rue-Anemone. [& Gray). 20. False Rue-Anemone, Isopyrum biternattini (Torr. Genus Ayuilegia, Columbine. 21. Wild Columbine, Aquilegia Canadensis (L.) Genus Delpphinium, Larkspur. 22. Tall Larkspur, Delphinium exaltatum (Ait.) 23. Dwarf Larkspur, D. tricorne (Michx.) 24. Azure Larkspur, D. azureum (Michx.) 25. Field Larkspur, D. consolida (L.) Genus Zanthoriza, Shrub Yellow-Root. 26. Shrub Yellow-Root, Zanthoriza apufolia (L'Her..) Genus Hydrastis, Yellow Puccoon. 27. Yellow-root, Hydrastis canadensis (L.) Genus Actawa, Baneberry. 28. Red Baneberry, Actaea spicata. VAR. rubra (L.) 29. White Baneberry, A. alba (Bigel.) Genus Cimicifuga, Bugbane. 30. Black Snakeroot, Cimicifuga racemosa (Eu.) '3I. American Bugbane, C. Americana (Michx.) ORDER MrAGNOLIACE,--MAGNOLIA FAMILY. Genus Magnolia, AMagnolia. 32. Cucumber-tree, Magnolia acuminata (L.) 33. Great-leaved Magnolia, M. Macrophylla (Michx.) Genus Liriodendron, Tulzip-tree. 34. Yellow Poplar, Liriodendron Tulipifera (L.) ORDER ANONACEX--CUSTARD-APPLE FAMILY. Genus Asimina, North American Papaw. 35. Common Papaw, Asimina triloba (Dunal.) 26 WASTITGTO, AND MATION COt7NTIES. ORDER MEMSPERMACE IMOONSEED FAMILY. 6enus Coc.cu/us, Cocculus. 36. Cocculus, Coccultis Carolinus (DC.) Genus Menispermrm, Moonseed. 37. Canadian Moonseed, Menispermum Canadense (L.) ORDER BERBERIDACEX-BARBERRY FAMILY. Genus Cau/ophllurm, Blue Cohosh. 38. Pappoose root, Caulophyllum thaPictroides (Michx.) Genus Jeffersonia, Tzwin-leaf. 39. Twin-leaf, Jeffersonia diphylla (Pers.) Genzus Podop/zyllumn, Mfandrake. 40. May apple, Podophyllum peltatum (L.) ORDER XYM H.EACEM-WATER-LILY FAMILY. Genus Nupliar, Ye/low Pond-Lily. 41. Common Yellow Pond-Lily, Nuphar advena (Ait.) ORDER PAPAVERACE-POPPY FAMILY. Genus Slylophorurm, Celandine Poppy. 42. Celandine Poppy, Stylophorum diphyllum (Nutt.) Genus Sanguinaria, Blood-root. 43. Red Puccooll, Sanguinaria Canadensis (L.) ORDER YUMARIACEE-FUMITORY FAMILY. Genus Dicentra, Dutchman's Breeches. 44. Dutchman's Breeches, Dice ntra Cucullaria (DC.) 45. Squirrel Corn, D. Canadensis (DC.) Genus Coiydalis, Corydalis. 46. Pale Corydalis, Corydalis glatuca (Ptirsh.) 47. Yellow Corydalis. C. flavula (Raf.) ORDER CRUCIFER.E-MUSTARD FA3MILY Genus Nas/ur/ium, Wa/er- Cress. 48. , Nasturtium sessilifloruin (Nutt.), 49. Marsh Cress, N. palustre (DC.) Genus Dentaria, Toothwort. 50. Two-leaved Pepper-Root, Dentaria diphylla (L.) 51. , D. heterophylla (Nutt.) 52. , D. laciniata (Mluhl.) 27 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, Genus Cardaminx, Bitter Cress. 53. Spring Cress, Cardamine rhomboidea (DC.) Genus Arabis, Rock Cress. 54. , Arabis Ludoviciana (Meyer). 55. , A. lyrata (L.) 56. ,A. patens (Sulliv.) 57. , A. hevigata (DC.) 58. Sickle Pod, A. Canadensis (L.) 59- _, A. hesperidoides (Michx.) 6o. Tower Mustard, A. perfoliata (Lam.) Genus Sisymbrium, Hedge MAustard. 6i. Hedge Mustard, Sisymbrium officinale (Scop.) Genus Brassica, Afustard. 62. White Mustard, Brassica alba (L.) 63. Black Mustard, B. nigra (Koch.) Genus Draba, Whit/ow Grass. 64. , Draba ramosissima (Desv.) 65. -,D. cuneifolia (Nutt.) 66. Whitlow Grass, D. verna (L.) Genus Capsella, Shepherd's Purse. 67. Shepherd's Purse, Capsella Bursa-pastoris (Mench). Genus Lepidiumn, Pepperwort. 68. Wild Peppergrass, Lepidium Virginicum (L.) ORDER VIOLACEAX-VIOLET FAMILY. Genus Solea, Green Violet. 69. Green Violet, Solea concolor (Ging.) Genus Viola, Violet. 70. Round-leaved Violet, Viola rotundifolia (Michx.) 71. Lance-leaved Violet, V. lanceolata (L.) 72. Sweet White Violet, V. blanda (Willd.) 73. Common Blue Violet, V. cucullata (Ait.) 74. Hanid-leaved Violet, VAR. palmata (Gray.) 75. Bird-foot Violet, V. pedata (L.) 76. Long-spurred Violet, V. rostrata (Pursh.) 77. , VAR. bicolor. 78. Pale Violet, V. striata (Ait.) 28 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. 79. Canada Violet, V. Canadensis (L.) 8o. Dowvny Yellow Violet, V. pubescens (Ait.) ORDER CISTACEX-ROCK-ROSE FAMILY. Genius Hudsonia, 8i. , Hudsonia ericoides (L.) ORDER HYPERICACEE-ST. JOHN'S WORT FAMILY. Gentis Ascyrum-St. Peter's l'Vort. 82. St. Atndrew's Cross, Ascyrum crux-Andre (L.) Genies Hi'pericum, St. John's Wort. [(Ait.) 83. Great St. John's Wort, Hypericum pyramidatunm 84. Shrubby St. John's Wort, H. prolificum (L.) 85. Shrubby St. John's Wort, VAR. densifllortm. 86. , H. dolabriforme (Vent.) 87. Winged St. John's Wort, H. angulosum (Michx.) 88. Common St. John's Wort, H. perforatum (L.) 89. , H. corymbosum (Muhl.) ORDER ELATINACE -WATER WORT FAMILY. Genus Elatine, TVater Wort. go. Water Wort, Elatine Americana (Arnott.) ORDER CARYOPHYLLACENI-PINK FAMILY. Genus Saironaria, Soapwort. 9I. Bouncing Bet, Saponaria officinalis (L.) Genus Si/ene, Catchfly. 92. Starry Campion, Silene stellata (Ait.) 93. Wild Pink, S. Pennsylvanica (Michx.) 94. Fire Pink, S. Virginica (L.) 95. Royal Catchfly, S. regia (Sims.) 96. Round-leaved Catchfly, S. rotundifolia (Nutt.) Genues Lyschnis, Lychnis. 97. Corn Cockle, Lychnis Githago (Lam.) Genus 4renaria, Sande/ort. 98. , Arenaria paluta (Michx.) Genus Ste//aria, Chickweed. 99. Common Chickweed, Stellaria Media (Smith). 1o9. Great Chickweed, S. pubera (Michx.) 29 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, Genus Cerastium, Mouse-ear Chickweed. iQi. Mouse-ear Chickweed, Cerastium vulgatum (L.) 102. Larger Mouse-ear Chickweed, C. viscosum (L.) Genus Anychia, Forked Chickweed. I03. Forked Chickweed, Anychia dichotoma (Michx.) Genus AMo//ugo, Indian Chickweed. 194. Carpet-weed, Mollugo verticillata (L.) ORDER PORTULACACEE-PURSLANE FAMILY. Genus Portulaca, Pursiane. I5. Common Purslane, Portulaca oleracea (L.) GSenus Glaytnia, Spring Beauty. i16. Spring Beauty, Claytonia Virginica (L.) ORDER MALVACE-MALLOW FAMILY. Genus Ma/va, Ma//ow. 17. Common Mallow, Malva rotundifolia (L.) Genus Sida, Sida. iO8. Flux Weed, Sida spinosa (L.) Genus Abuti/on, Indian Mallow. I09. Velvet Leaf, Abutilon Avicennae (Gaertn.) Genus Hibiscus, Rose Maalow. I Io. Swamp Rose Mallow, Hibisicus Moscheutos (L.) I i I. Bladder Ketmia, H. trionum (L.) ORDER TILIACE-LINDEN FAMILY. Genus Tilia. Basswood. I 1 2. Basswood Linden, Tilia Americana (L.) - 13. White Linden, T. heterophylla (Vent.) ORDER LINACEYEFLAX FAMILY. Genus Linum, F/ax. I 14. Wild Flax, Linum Virginianum (L.) 115. Common Flax. L. usitatissimum (L.) ORDER GERANIACEY-GERANIUM FAMILY. Genus Geranium, Geranium. I I6. Wild Cranesbill, Geranium maculatum (L.) I I 7. Herb Robert, G. Robertianum (L.) 30 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES Genus Impa/ietts. Ba/sam. I i8. Pale Touch me-not, Impatiens pallida (Nutt.) I I9. Spotted Touch-me-not, I. Fulva (Nutt.) Genus Oxalis, Wood Sorre/. I20. Common Wood Sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella (L.) 121. Violet Wood Sorrel, 0. violacea (L.) 122. Sheep Sorrel, 0. stricta (L.) ORDER RUTACEX--RUF. FAMILY. Genus Zan Ihzov/m, Prikly Ash. [(Mill.j I 23. Northern Prickly Ash, Zanthoxylum Americanuum Genus Pie/ea, Hop-tree. 124. Wafer Ash, Ptelea trifoliata (L.) ORDER SIMARUBACEE-QUASSIA FAMILY. Genus Ai/anz'hus, Tree of Heaven. 125. Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus glandulosus (Desf.) ORDER ANACARDIAOE-CASHEW FAMILY. Genus Rhus, Sumac. 126. Staghorn Sumac, Rhus typhina (L.) 227. Smooth Sumac, R. glabra (L.) I28. Dwarf Sumac, R. copallina (L.) I29. Poisoni Oak, R. Toxicodendron (L.) 130. Aromatic Sumac, R. aromatica (Ait.) ORDER VITACEE-VINE FA.MILY. Genus Vi/is, Grape. I3I. Northern Fox Grape, Vitis Labrusca (L.) 132. Summer Grape, V. aestivalis (Miclix.) 133. Winter Grape, V. cordifolia (Michx.) 134. , VAR. riparia (Michx.) I35. , V. indivisa (Willd.) Genus An.pelopsis, Virg-inian Creeper. [(Michx.) 136. Virginian Creeper, Ampelopsis qoiinquefolia ORDER RHAMNACELE-BUCKTHORN FAMILY. Genus Rhaminus, Buck/horn. [(Pursh.) 137. Laiice-leaved Buckthorn, Rhamnus laiiceolatus Gen u s Frang -ua, A/ed,- Buckthorn. 138. Indian Cherry, Fraingula Caroliniana (Gray.) 31 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, OQDER CELASTRAOLE-STAFF-TREE FAMILY. Genus Celastrus, StafJ-tree. I39. Climbing Bitter-sweet, Celastrus scandens (L.) Genuz4 Euonymus, Spindle-tree. t40. Waahoo, Euonymus atropurpureus (Jacq.) 141. Strawberry Bush, E. Americanus (L.) 142. , VAR. obovatus (Torr. & Gray.) ORDER SAPINDACEE-SOAPBERRY FAMILY. Genus Stapihylea, Bladder Nut. 143. American Bladder Nut, Staphylea trifolia (L.) Genus ,Esculus, Buckeye. I44. Ohio Buckeye, /Esculus glabra (Willd.) 145. Sweet Buckeye, /E. flava (Ait.) I46. Small Buckeye, A.. Pavia (L.) Genus Acer, NMaple. 147. Sugar-tree, Acer saccharinum (Wang.) 148. Black Sugar-tree, VAR. nigrum (Gray.) 149. Water Maple, A. dasycarpum (Ehrlhart.) I5o. Red Maple, A. rubrum (L.) Genus Negundo, Ash-leaved Maple. i5i. Box Elder, Negundo aceroides (Mcench.) ORDER POLYGALACEL-MILKWORT FAMILY. Genus Polygala, Milkwort. 152. , Polygala fastigiata (Nutt.) 153. Seneca Snakeroot, P. Senega (L.) ORDER LEGUMINOSE-PULSE FAMILY. wenus Crotalaria, Rattle-box. 154. Rattle-box, Crotalaria sagittalis (L.) Genus, Trifofium, Clover. 55. Rabbit-foot Clover, Trifolium arvense (L.) I56. Red Clover, T. pratense (L.) 157. Buffalo Clover, 1. reflexum (L.) 158. White Clover, T. repens (L.) I59. Yellow Clover, T. agrarium (L.) i6o. Low Hop Clover, T. procumbens (L.) 32 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. 33- Genus Me/i/olus, Melilot. I6I. Yellow Sweet Clover, Melilotus officinalis (Willd.) 162. White Sweet Clover, M. alba (Lam.) Genus Medicago, Medick. 163. Lucerne, Medicago, sativa (L.) Genus Psoralea, Psoralea. i64. , Psoralea melilotoides (Michx.) Genus Robinia, Locust tree. I65. Black Locust, Robinia Pseudacacia (L.) Genus Wistaria, Wistaria. i66. Lincoln's Bower, Wistaria frutescens (DC.) Genus .'Eschynomene, Sensitive Joint Veteth. [(Willd.) I67. Sensitive Joint Vetch, iE/sclhynomene hispida Genus Desmodium, Tick Trefoil. I68. , Desmodium nudiflorum (DC.) I69. , D. acuminattum (DC.) 170. , D. pauciflorum (DC.) I71. , D. rotundifolium (DC.) 172. , D. ochroleucumn (M. A. Curtis.) I 73. - , D. canescens (DC.) I74. , D. viridiflorum (Beck.) I75- , D. paniculatum (DC.) 176. , D. Canadense (DC.) 177. -- , D. sessilifolium (Torr. & Gray.) 178. , D. Marilandicum (Boott.) Gcnus Lespedeza, Bush Clover. 179- , Lespedeza violacea (Pers.) I8o. , L. hirta (Ell.) Genus Sty/osant/zes, Pencil Flowcr. I8I. Pencil Flower, Stylosanthes elatior (Swartz.) Genus Vicia, Tare. I82. , Vicia Cracca (L.) 83. , V. Caroliniana (Walt.) 184. --, V. Americana (Muhl.) Genus Pliaseolus, Kidney Bean. 185. Wild Bean, Phaseolus perennis (Walt.) GEOLOG. SUR-3 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, Genus Centrosema, Spurred Butterfly Pea. i86. , Centrosema Virginianum (Benth.) Genus Baptisia, False Indigo. 187. Blue False Indigo, Baptisia australis (R. Br.) Genus Cladrastis. Yellow Wood. x98. Yellow Wood, Cladrastis tinctoria (Raf.) Genus Cercis, Judas Tree. 189. Red-bud, Cercis Canadensis (L.) Genus Cassia, Senna. 19o. Wild Senna, Cassia Marilandica (L.) 191. Partridge Pea, C. chamamcrista (L.) 1,92. Wild Sensitive Plant, C. nictitans (L.) Genus Gymnooladus, Kentucky Coffee-tree. [(Lam.) 193. Kentucky coffee-bean, Gymnocladus Canadensis Genus Gleditsckia, Honey Locust. 1,94. Honey Locust, Gleditschia triacanthos (L.) ORDER ROSACE-R08E FAMILY. Genus Prunus, Plum. - 195. Wild Plum, Prunus Americana (Marshall.) 196. Chickasaw Plum, P. Chicasa (Michx.) r97. Wild Red- Cherry, P. Pennsylvaiiica (L.) 198. Wild Black Cherry, P. serotina (Ehrhart.) Genus Spiraa, Meadow Sweet. I99. Nine Bark, Spirmea opulifolia (L.) Genus Gil/enia, Indian Physic. 2oo. Bowman's Root, Gillenia trifoliata (Mmench.) 201. Indian Physic, G. stipulacea (Nutt.) Genus Agrimonia, Agrimony. 202. Common Agrimony. Agrimonia Eupatoria (Ait.) 203. Small-flowered Agrimony A. parviflora (L.) Genus Geum, Avens. :o4. , Geum album (Gmelin.) 205.- , G. vernum (Torr. & Gray.) 34 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. 35 Genus Potentilla, Cinque-foil. 206. Five-finger. Potentilla Canadensis (L.) 207. -- , VAR. simplex (Torr. & Gray.) 208. Silvery Cinque-foil, P. argentea (L.) Genus Fragaria, Strawberry. 209. , Fragaria Virginiana (Ehrhart.) 210. -, F. vesca (L.) 211. , F. Indica (L.) Genus Rubus, Bramble. 212. Wild Raspberry, Rubus occidentalis (L.) 213. Common Blackberry, R. villosus (Ait.) 214. Dewberry, R. Canadensis (L.) Genus Rosa, Rose. 215. Climbing Wild Rose, Rosa setigera (Michx.) 2I6. Swamp Rose, R. Carolina (L.) 217. Dwarf Wild Rose, R. lucida (Ehrhart.) 2T8. Sweet Brier Rose, R. rubiginosa (L.) Genus Crat&gus, Hawthorn. 2 19. Evergreen Thorn, Crataegus Pyracantha (Pers.) 220. Washington Thorn, C. cordata (Ait.) 221. Hawthorn, C. Oxyacantha (L.) 222. Scarlet-fruited Thorn, C. coccinea (L.) 223. Black Thorn, C. tomentosa (L.) 224. , VAR. punctata (Jacq.) 225. Cockspur Thorn, C. Crus-galli (L.) 226. Summer Haw, C. flava (Ait.) Genus Pyrus; Apple. 227. American Crab-apple, Pyrus coronaria (L.) 228. Narrow-leaved Crab-apple, P. augustifolia (Ait.) 2 29. Mountain Ash, P. Americana (DC.) Genues Amelanchier, June-berry. [Gray.) 230. Service-berry, Amelanchier Canadensis (Torr. & 231. , VAR. oblongifolia. ORDER CALYCANTHACEACALYCANTmJS FAMILY. Genus Caljcanthzus, Sweet-scented Shrub. 232. Calycanthus, Calycanthus floridus (L.) BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, ORDER SAXIFRAGACEX-EAXIFRAGE FAMILY. Genur Ribes, Gooseberry. 233. Prickly Wild Gooseberry, Ribes Cynosbati (L.) 234. Common Wild Gooseberry, R. rottlndifoliun Genus Hydrangea, Hydrangea. [(Michx.) 235. Wild Hydrangea, Hydrangea arborescens (L.) Genus Saxifraga, Saxifrage. 236. Early Saxifrage, Saxifraga Virginiensis (Michx.) Genus Feuchera, Alum-root. 237. , Heuchera villosa (Michx.) 238. Common Alum-root, H. Americana (L.) 239. , H. pubescens (Pursh.) Genus Milella, Mitre-wort. 240. Bishop's Cap, Mitella diphylla (L.) ORDER CRASSULACEA: - ORPLNE FAMILY. Genus Penthorum, Ditch Stone-crop. 241. Ditch Stone-crop, Penthorum sedoides (L.) Genus Sedum, Orpine. 242. Stone-crop, Sedum pulchellum (Michx.) 243. Cliff Moss, S. ternatum (Michx.) ORDER HAMAMELACEE-WITCH-HAZEL FAMILY. Genus Hamamelis, Witch-hazel. 244. Witch-hazel, Hamamelis Virginica (L.) Genus Liquidambar, Sweet-gum Tree. 245. Sweet-gum, Liquidambar Styraciflua (L.) ORDER ONAGRACEL-EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY. Genus Circcea, Enchanter's NirAtshade. 246. Enchanter's Nightshade, Circaea Lutetiana (L.) Genus Gaura, Gaura. 247. , Gaura biennis (L.) 248. , G. filipes (Spach.) Genus EOilium, Willow-herb. 249. Willow-herb, Epilobium coloratuma (Muhl.) 3-6 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. 37 Genu f (Enothera, Evening-Primrose. 250. Common Evening-Primrose, CIEnothera biennis (L.) 251. , VAR. grandiflora. 252. , (E. triloba (Gray.) 253. , -. pumila (L.) Genus Ludwigia, False Loosestrife. 254. Seed-box, Ludwigia alternifolia (L.) ORDER MELASTOMACEA-:MELASTOMA FAMILY, Genus Rhexia, Meadow Beauty. 255. Deer Grass, Rhexia Virginica (L) ORDER LYTHRACEA-LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY. Genns Cuphea, Cup hea. 256. Clammy Cuphea, Cuphea viscosissima (jacq.) ORDER CACTACLE-CAaTUS FAMILY. Genues Opuntia, Indian Fzig. 257. Prickly Pear, Opuntia Rafinesquii (Engelm.) ORDER PASSIFLORAC&EA-PASSION FLOWER FAMILY. Genus Passiflora, Passion Flower. 258. Small Passion Flower, Passiflora Lutea (L.) 259. Common Passion Flower, P. incarnata (L.) ORDER CUCURBITACE1E-GOURD FAMILY. Genus Sicyos, One-seeded Star-cucumber. 260. One-seeded Star-cucumber, Sicyos angulatus (L.) ORDER UMBELLIFERAW-PARSLEY FAMILY. Genus Salnicula, Sanicle. 26I. Black Snakeroot, Sanicula Canadensis (L.) Genus Daucus, Carrot. 262. Wild Carrot, Daucus Carota (L.) Genus Pastinaca, Parsniz. 263. Wild Parsnip, Pastinaca sativa (L.) Genus 7haspium, Meadow Parsnip. 264. Meadow Parsnip, Thaspium aureum (Nutt,) Genus Charrophyllum, Chemil. 265. Chervil, Chaerophyllum procumbens (Lam.) BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARP.AkD, Genus Osmorrhiza, Sweet Cicely. [(DC.) 266. Smoother Sweet Cicely, Osmorrhiza longistylis 267.- Hairy Sweet Cicely, 0. brevistylis (DC.) Genus Erigenia, Harbinger of Spring. 268. Turkey Pea, Erigenia bulbosa (Nutt.) -ORDER ARALIACE.E- GINSENG FAMILY. Genus Aralia, Ginseng. 269. Hercules' Club, Aralia spinosa (L.) 270. Spikenard, A. racemosa (L.) 271. Wild Sarsaparilla, A. nudicaulis (L.) 271. Giniseng, A. quinquefolia (L.) ORDER CORNACEL-DOGWOOD FAMILY. Genus Cornus, Cornet. 273. Flowering Dogwood, Cornus florida (L.) 274. Round-leaved Dogwood. C. circinata (L'Her.) 275. Silky Cornel, C. sericea (L.) 276. Red-osier Dogwood, C. stolonifera (Michx.) 277. Rough-leaved Dogwood, C. asperifolia (Michx.) 278. Panicled Cornel, C. paniculata (L'Her.) 279. Alternate-leaved Cornel, C. alternifolia (L.) Gezus Nyssa, Gum. 280. Black Gum, Nyssa multiflora (Wang.) 28I. Yellow Gum, N. uniflora (Walt.) ORDER CAPRIFOLIACE.E-HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. Genus Sympfhoricarpus, Snowberry. 282. Buckberry, Symphoricarpus vulgaris (Michx.) Gezus Lonicera, 1Voodbine. 283. Yellow Honeysuckle, Lonicera flava (Sims.) 284. Small Honeysuckle, L. parviflora (Lam.) Genus Triosteum, Horse Gentian. 285. Fever-wort, Triosteum perfoliatum (L.) Genus Sambucus, Elder. 286. Common Elder, Sambucus Canadensis (L.) 287. Red-berried Elder, S. pubens (Michx.) 38 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. Genus Viburnum, Arrow-wood. 288. Sweet Viburnum, Viburnum Lentago (L.) 289. Black Haw, V. prunifolium (L.) 290. Arrow-wood, V. dentatum (L.) 29I. Maple-leaved Arrow-wood, V. acerifolium. (L.) ORDER RUBIACEE-MADDER FAMILY. Genus Galium, Beds/raw. 292. Goose Grass, Galiumn Aparine (L.) 293. Rough Bedstraw, G. asprellum (Michx.) 294. Small Bedstraw, G. trifidum (L.) 295. Sweet-scented Bedstraw, G. triflorum (Michx.) Genits Cephalanthus, Button-bush. 296. Button-bush, Cephalanthus occidentalis (L.) Genus Houstonia, Houstonia. 297. , Houstonia purpurea (L.) 298. , VAR. longifolia. 299. , H. augustifolia (Michx.) 300. Bluets, H. caerulea (L.) ORDER DIPSACE4E-TEASEL FAMILY. Genes Dipsacus, Teasel. 301. Wild 'T'easel, Dipsacus sylvestris (Mill.) ORDER COMPOSITX,-COMPOSITE FAMILY. Genus Vernonia, Iron-weed. 302. Iron-weed, Vernonia Noveboracensis (Willd.) Genus Elephantopus, Elephant's-foot. 303. Elephant's foot, Elephantopus Carolinianus (Willd.) Genus Eupatori'um, Thoroughwort. 304. Joe Pye Weed, Eupatorium purpureum (L.) 305. Hyssop-leaved Thoroughwort, E. hyssopifolium (L.) 306. White Boneset, E. album (L.) 307. Tall Thoroughwort, E. altissimum. (L.) 308. Upland Boneset, E. sessilifoliLlm (L.) 309. Boneset, E. perfoliatum (L.) 3PO. White Snakeroot, E. ageratoides (L.) 4OTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, Genus Aster, Starwort. 3II. , Aster cordifolius (L.) 312. - A. saggittifolius (Willd.) 313. , A. tenuifolius (L.) 314. , A. carneus (Nees.) Genus Erigeron, Fleabane. 315. Butter-weed, Erigeron Canadense (L.) 316. Robiln's Plantain, E. bellidifolium (Muhl.) 317. Common Fleabane, E. Philadelphictin (L.) 3I8. Sweet Scabious, E. annuum (Pers.) 3I9. Daisy Fleabane, E. strigosum (Muhl.) Genus Be//is, Daisy. 320. Western Daisy, Bellis integrifolia (Michx.) Genus So/idago, Go/den-rod. 321. , Solidago speciosa (Nutt.) 322. - S. altissima (L.) 323. ,S. ulmifolia (Muhl.) Genus Chrysopsis, Go/den Aster. 324 , Chrysopsis gossypina (Nutt.) Genus nmu/a, Elecampane. 325. Common Elecampane, Inula Helenium (L.) Genus Po/ymnia, Leaf Cup. 326. Leaf Cup, Polymnia Uvedalia (L.) Genus Si/ph-iun, Rosin P/ant. 327. Prairie Dock, Silphium terebinthinaceum (L.) 328. , S. trifoliatum (L.) Genus Ambrosia, Ragweed. ,329. Horseweed, Ambrosia trifida (L.) 330. Ragweed, A. artemisiaefolia (L.) Genus Xanthium, C/otbur. 33I. Cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium (L.) 332. , VAR. echinatum (Murr.) Genus He/iopsis, Ox-eye. 333. Ox-eye, Heliopsis 1evis (Pers.) 40 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. Genus Rudbeckia, Cone-flower. 334. , kudbeckia laciniata (L.) 335. , R. triloba (L.) 336. , R. hirta (L.) Genus Echinacea, Puerple Cone-flower. 337. Purple Cone-flower, Echinacea purpurea (Maench.) Getuus Helianthus, Sunzftower. 338. Common Sunflower, Helianthus annuus (L.) 339. , H. atrorubens (L.) 340. -, H. occidentalis (Riddell.) 341. , H. giganteus (L.) 342. - , H. grosse-serratus (Martens.) 343. , H. strumosus (L.) 344. -, H. divaricatus (L.) 345. , H. doronicoides (Lam,) Genus Ac/inorneris, Actinomeris. 346. , Actinomeris squarrosa (Nutt.) Genus Coreopsis, Tickseed, 347. , Coreopsis senifolia (Michx.) 348. Tall Coreopsis, C. tripteris (L.) Genus Bidens, Bur-marizgold. 349. Common Beggar-ticks, Bidens frondosta (L.) 350. Swamp Beggar-ticks, B. connata (Muhl.) 351. Spanish Needles, B. bipinnata (L.) Genus DIysodia, Fetid Marigold. 352. Fetid Marigold, Dysodia chrysanthemoides (Lag.) c;enus Ileleaium, Sneeze-weed. 353.. Sneeze-weed, Helenium autumnale (L.) (Genius ifaruta, May-weed. 354. Dog Fennel, Maruta Cotula (DC.) Genus Anthemis, Chamomile. 355. Corn Chamomile, Anthe-mis arvensis (L.) Genus Achi/lea, Yarrow. 356. Milfoil, Achillea Millefolium (L.) 41 BOTANY OF MAtISON, LINCOLN, GARIA1D, Gen4us Leucanthemum, Ox-eye Daisy. 357. Ox-eye, Leucanthemum vulgare (Lam.) Ge;us Artemisia, Wormwood. 358. Wormseed, Artemisia Absinthium (L.) Genus Gnaphalium, Cudweed. [(Michx.) 359. Common Everlasting, Gnaphalium polycephalum Genus Antennaria, Everlasting. [Br.) 360. Pearly Everlasting, Antennaria margaritacea (R. 36I. Plantain-leaved Everlasting, A. plantaginifolia Genus Senecioa, Groundsel. [(Hook.) 362. Squaw-weed, Senecio aureus (L.) Genus Cirsium, Plumed Thistle. 363. Common Thistle, Cirsium lanceolatum (Scop.) 364. Tall Thistle, C. altissimum (Spreng.) Genus Lappa, Burdock. 365. Common Burdock, Lappa officinalis (Allioni.) Genus Cynthia, Cynthia. 366. , Cynthia Virginica (Don.) 367. , C. Dandelion (DC.) Genus Hieracium, Hawkweed. 368. Hairy Hawkweed, Hieracium Gronovii (L.) Genus Pyrrhopfappus, False Dandelion. 369. False Dandelion, Pyrrhopappus Carolinianus (DC.) Genus Taraxacumn, Dandelion. [(Desf. 370. Common Dandelion, Taraxacum Dens-leonis Genus Lactuca, Lettuce. 371. Wild Lettuce, Lactuca Canadensis (L.) Genwes Mulgedium, Blue Lettuce. 372. False Lettuce, Mulgedium leucophaeum (DC.) Genus Sonchus, Sow-thistle. 373. Common Sow-thistle, Sonchus oleraceus (L.) 374. Spiny-leaved Sow-thistle, -S. asper (Vill.) 42- WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. ORDER LOBELIACEE-LOBELIA FANMLY. Genus Lobe/ia, Lobezia. 375. Cardinal-flower, Lobelia cardinalis (L.) 376. Great Lobelia, L. syphilitica (L.) 377. , L. amcena (Michx.) 378. Indian Tobacco, L. inflata (L.) 379. , L. spicata (Lam.) ORDER CAMPANULACEXE-CAMPANULA PAMILY. Genus Campanula Be//flower. 380. Tall Bellflower, Campanula Americana (L.) Genus Specularia, Venus's Looking-glass. [DC.) 38I. Venus's Looking-glass, Specularia perfoliiata (A. ORDER ERICACE-HEATH FAMILY. Genus Gaylussacia, Huckleberry. 382. Box Huckleberry, Gaylussacia brachycera (Gray.) Genus Varciniurm, Blueberry. 383. Deerberry, Vaccinium stamineum (L.) 384. Farkle-berry, V. arboreum (Marshall.) Genus Oxydendrum, Sorrel-tree. 385. Sour-wood, Oxydendrum arboreum (DC.) Genus Kalmia, American Laurel. 386. Mountain Laurel, Kalmia latifolia (L.) Genus Chzimaplila, Pipsissezeua. 387. Spotted Wintergreen, Chimaphila maculata (Pursh) Genus Monotropa, Pine-sap. 388. Indian Pipe, Monotropa uniflora (L.) 389. Pine sap, M. Hypopitys (L.) ORDER AQVIFOLIACEE-HOLLY FAMILY. Genus eiex, Holly. 390. American Holly, Ilex opaca (Ait.) ORDER EBENACEXE-EBONY FAMILY. Genus Diospyros, Date Plum. 391. Persimmon, Diospyros Virginiana (L.) ORDER STYRACACE4E-STORAX FAMILY. Genus Styrax, Storax. 392. , Styrax Americana (Lam.) 43 44 gOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, ORDER PLANTAGINACEE--PTLANTAIN FAMILY. Genus Plantago, Ribgrass. 393. Common Plantain, Plantago major (L.) 394. , P. sparsiflora (Michx.) 395. English Plantain, P. lanceolata (L.) 396. , P. pusilla (Nutt.) ORDER PRIMTLACEY-PRIMROSE FAMILY. Gen.4s Dodecathion, American Cowslifi. 397. Shooting-star, Dodecatheon Meadia (L.) Genus Lysimachia, Loosestrife. 398. , Lysimachia ciliata (L.) 399. , L. lanceolata (Walt.) 400. Moneywort, L. nummularia (L.) Genus Anagallis, Pimpernel. 40I. Common Pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis (L.) Genus Samolus, Water Pimpernel. 402. , Samolus Valerandi (L.) 403. Brook-weed, VAR. Americanus (Gray.) ORDER BIGNONIACEY-BIGNONIA FAMILY. Genus Bignonia, Bignonia. 404. Southern Cross-vine, Bignonia capreolata (L.) Genus Tecoma, Trumnipet Flower. 405. Trumpet Creeper, Tecoma radicans (Juss.) Genus Catalpa, Indian Bean. 406. Catalpa, Catalpa bignonioides (Walt.) Genus Martynia, Unicorn-plant. 407. Unicorn-plant, Martynia proboscidea (Glox.) ORDER OROBANCHACEX-BROOM-RAPE FAMILY. Genus Epiphegus, Cancer-root. 408. Beech-drops, Epiphegus Virginiana (Bart.) ORDER SCROPHULARIACE4E-FIGWORT FAMILY. Genus Verbascum, Mulein. 409. Common Mullein, Verbascum Thapsus (L.) 410. Moth Mullein, V. Blattaria (L.) WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. Genus Scropiularia, Figvort. 41 I. Figwort, Scrophularia nodosa (L.) Genus Collinsia, Innocence. 412. Blue-eyed Mary, Collinsia verna (Nutt.) Genus Ch(e/one, Turtle-1zead. 413. Snake-head, Chelone glabra (L.) Genus Pents'emon, Beard-tongue. 414. , Penitstemon pubescens (Solander.) 415. , P. Digitalis (Nutt.) Genus Mitulus, Monkey-flower. 4i6. , Mimulus ringens (L.) Genus Ilysan/hes, 417. False Pimpernel, Ilysanthes gratioloides (Benth.) Genus Veronica, Speedwell. 418. Water Speedwell, Veronica Anagallis (L.) 419. Thyme-leaved Speedwell, V. serpyllifolia (L.) 420. Neckweed, V. peregrina (L.) 42i. Corn Speedwell, V. arvensis (L.) Genu s Seymeria, Seymeria. 422. Mullein Foxglove, Seymeria macrophylla (Nutt.) Genus Gerardia, Gerardia. 423. -, Gerardia setacea (Walt.) 424. Downy False Foxglove, G. flava (L.) 425. Smooth False Foxglove, G. quercifolia (Pursh.) 426. , C. integrifolia (Gray.) ORDER ACANTHTACE1EACANTHUS FAMILY. Genus Dianthera, Water-willow. 427. , Dianthera Americana (L. Genus Rue//ia 428. , Ruellia ciliosa (Ptirsh.) 429. , R. strepens (L.) ORDER VERBENACEA-VERVAIN FAMILY. Genus Verbena, Vervain. [(Michx.) 430. Narrow-leaved Vervain, Verbena augustifolia 431. Blue Vervaiji, V. hastata (L.) 45 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, 432. White Vervain, V. urticifolia (L.) 433. Bracted Vervain, V. bracteosa (Michx.) Genus Lippia, Fog Fruit. 434. Fog Fruit, Lippia lanceolata (Michx.) ORDER LABIATAE-MINT FAMILY. Genus Teucrium, Germander. 435. American Germander, Teucrium Canadense (L.) Genus Isanthzus, False Pennyroyal.- 436. False Pennyroyal, Isanthus caruleus (Michx.) Genus Mentha, Mint. 437. Spearmint, Mentha viridis (L.) 438. Peppermint, M. piperita (L.) 439. Wild Mint, M. Canadensis (L.) Genus Cunila, Dittany. 440. Common Dittany, Cunila Mariana (L.) Genus Pyenanthemum, Basil. 44I. Mountain Mint, Pycnanthemum montanum (Michx.) Genus Melissa, Balm. 442. Common Balm, Melissa officinalis (L.) Genus Hedeoma, Mock PennyroyaI. 443. Americanr Pennyroyal, Hedeoma pulegioides (Pers.) Genus Collinsonia, Horse Balm. 444. Rich-weed, Collinsonia Canadensis (L.) Genu Salvia, Sage. 445. Lyre-leaved Sage, Salvia lyrata (L.) Genus Monarda, Horse Mint. 446. Wild Bergamot, Monarda fistulosa (L.) 447. Horse Mint, M. punctata (L.) Genus Blephilia, Blephilia. 448. , Blephilia ciliata (Raf.) 449. , B. hirsuta (Benth.) Genus Lophanthus, Giant Hyssofi. 450. Giant Hyssop, Lophanthus nepetoides (Benth.) 46 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. Genus Nepefa, Cat Mint. 451. Catnip, Nepeta Cataria (L.) 452. Ground Ivy, N. Glechoma (Benth.) Genus Synandra, Synandra. 453. Synandra, Synandra grandiflora (Nutt.) Genlus Physostegia, False Dragoir-head. 454. , Physostegia Virginiana (Benth.) Genus Brunella, Selfh-eal. 455. Common Self-heal, Brunella vulgaris (L.) Genues Scutellaria, Skullcap. 456. , Scutellaria versicolor (Nutt.) 457. , S. serrata (Andrews.) 458. , S. nervosa (Pursh.) 459. , S. galericulata (L.) 460. Mad-dog Skullcap, S. lateriflora (L.) Genus Marrubium, Horehound. 46i. Common Horehound, Marrubium vulgare (L.) Genus Stachys, Hedge-nettle. 462. Rough Hedge-nettle-, Stachys palustris (L.) Genes Leonurus, Motherwort. 463. Common Motherwort, Leonurus Cardiaca (L.) Geznus Lamium, Doad-nettle. 464. Clasping Dead-nettle, Lamium amplexicaule (L.) ORDER BORRAGINACEE-BORAGE FAMILY. Genus Echium. Vizer's Bugloss. 465. Blue-weed, Echium vulgare (L.) Genus S'mrphkytum, Comfrey. 466. Common Comfrey, Symphytum officinale (L.) Genies Onosmodium, False Gromwell. 467. , Onosmodium Carolinianum (DC.) Genus Lithospermum, Cromwe/l. 468. Hoary Puccoon, Lithospermum canescens (Lehm.) Genus Mertensia, Smooth Lungwort. 469. Lungwort1 Merteiisi4 Virginica (DC.) 47 BOTANY OF MADISON,. LINCOLN, GARRARD, Genus Echtnospermum, Stickseed. 470. , Echinospermum Lappula (Lehm.) Genus Cynoglossum, Hound's Tongue. [(L.) 471. Common Hound's Tongue, Cynoglossum officinale 472. Wild Comfrey, C. Virginicum (L.) 473. Beggar's Lice, C. Morisoni (DC.) ORDER HYDROPHYLLACE-WATERLEAF FAMILY. Genus Hlydropfhyllum, Waterleaf. 474. , Hydrophyllum macrophyllum (Nutt.) 475. , H. Virginicum (L.) 476. -, H. Canadense (L.) 477. , H. appendiculatum (Michx.) Genus Phacelia, 478. , Phacelia bipinnatifida (Michx.) 479. , P. Purshii (Buckley.) ORDER POLEMIONIACE - POLEMONIUM FAMILY. Genus Po/ermonium, Greek Valerian. 480. , Polemonium reptans (L.) Genus Phlox, Phlox. 481. , Phlox paniculata (L.) 482. Carolina Phlox, P. Carolina (L.) 483. , P. glaberrima (L.) 484. , P. divaricata (L.) 485. Ground Pink, P. subulata (L.) ORDER CONVOLVULACEX,-CONVOLVULU8 FAMILY. Genus Ipowiaa, Morning Glory. 486. Common Morning Glory, Lpomoea purpurea (Lam.) 487. Small Morning Glory, I. Nil (Roth.) 488. - , I. lacunosa (L.) 489,. Wild Potato-vine, I. pandurata (Meyer.) Genus Calystegia, Bracted Bindweed. 49o. Bracted Bindweed, Calystegia spithamwa (Pursh.) Genus CGusiSa, Dodder. 491. , Custuta arvensis (Beyrich,) 492. , C. glomerata (Choisy.) 48 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. ORDER SOLANACEAE-NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. Genus Solanum, Nzigh/shade. 493. Bittersweet, Solanum Dulcamara (L.) 494. Common Nightshade, S. nigrum (L.) 495. Bull Thistle, S. Carolinense (L.) Genus Physa/is, Ground Cherry. 496. , Physalis angulata (L.) 497. , P. pubescens (L.) 498. , P. viscosa (L.) Genus Nicandra, Apple of Peru. 499. --, Nicandra physaloides (Gaertn.) Genus Datura, Thiorn Apple. 500. White Jamestown Weed, Datura Stramonium (L.) 501. Purple Jamestown Weed, D. Tatula (L.) ORDER GENTIANACEAX-GENTIAN FAMILY. Genus Sabbalia, American Cen/aur'. - 502. Rose Pink, Sabbatia angularis (Pursh.) Genus Frasera, American Columbo. 503. Columbo, Frasera Carolinensis (Wralt.) ORDER LOGANIACEE-LOGANIA FAMILY. Genus PolJ/uremum, Polypremum. 504. , Polypremum procumbens (L.) ORDER APOCYNACE&-DOGBANE FAMILY. Genues Apocvnum, Dogbane. [(L.) 505. Spreading Dogbane, Apocynum androswmifolium 5o6. Indian Hemp, A. cannabinum (L.) ORDER ASCLEPIADACEA-MILKWEED FAMILY. Genus Asclezpias, Silkweed. 507. Silkweed, Asclepias Cornuti (Decainse.) 5o8. Poke Milkweed, A. phytolaccoides (Pursh.) 509. Purple Milkweed, A. purpurascens (L.) 5 10. Variegated Milkweed, A. variegata (L.) 511. Four-leaved Milkweed, A. quadrifolia (Jacq.) 512. Obtuse-leaved Milkweed, A. obtusifolia (Michx.) 513. Whorled Milkweed, A. verticillata (L.) 5T4. Pleurisy-root, A. tuberosa (L.) 515. Swamp Milkweed, A. incarnata (L.) 0OLOU. Mu-4 49 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, Genus Aceraes, Green Milkweed. 516. , Acerates viridiflora (Ell.) 517. , A. paniculata (Decaisne.) Genus Enslenia, Enslenia. 518. , Enslenia albida (Nutt.) Genus Gonolobus, Gonolobus. 5I9. , Gonolobus obliquus (R. Br.) ORDER OLEACE,,E -OLIVE FAMILY. Genus Fraxinus, Ash. 520. White Ash, Fraxinus Americana (L.) 521. Green Ash, F. viridis (Michx.) 522. Black Ash, F. sambucifolia (Lam.) 523. Blue Ash, F. quadrangulata (Michx.) ORDER ARISTOLOCHIACEE-BIRTHWORT FAMILY. Genus Asarum, Wild Ginger. 524. Wild Ginger, Asarum Canadense (L.) QRDER PHYTOLACCACEE-POKEWEED FAMILY. Genus Phtoalacca, Pokeweed. 525. Pokeweed, Phytolacca decandra (L.) ORDER CHENOPODIACEE:-GOOS4EFOOT FA3MLY. Genus Chenopodium, Goosefoot. 526. Pigweed, Chenopodium album (L.) 527. Wormseed, C. Anthelminticum (L.) ORDER AMARANTACEAE-AMARANTH FAMILY. Genus Amarantus, Amaranth. 528. Careless Weed, Amarantus retroflexus (L.) 529. , A. albus (L.) 530. Thorny Amaranth, A. spinosus (L.) ORDER POLYGONACEA-BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. Genues Polygonum, Knotweed. 531. Prince's Feather, Polygonum orientale (L.) 532. Smnartweed, P. Hydropiper (L.) 533. Water Smartweed, P. acre (H. B. K.) 534. Mild Water Pepper, P. hydropiperoides (Michx.) 535. Virginia Water Pepper, P. Virginianum, (L.) 50 WASHINGTON. AND AAMION COUNTIES. 536. Door-weed, P. aviculare (L.) 537. , VAR. erectum (L.) 538. Black Bindweed, P. convolvitlus (Roth.) 539. -, P. dumetorum (L.) 540. Climbing False Buckwheat, VAR. scandens (L.) Genus Rumex, Dock. 541. Pale Dock, Rumex Br.ttanica (L.) 542. Curled Dock, R. crispus (L.) 543. Smaller Green Dock, R. conglomeratus (Murra' 544. Bloody-veined Dock, R. sanguineus (L.) 545. Field Sorrel, R. Acetosella (L.) ORDER LAURACEX-LAUREL FAMILY. Genus Sassafras, Sassafras. 546. Sassafras, Sassafras officinale (Nees.) Genus Lindera, Wild Allspice. 547. Spicewood, Lindera Benzoin (Meisner.) 548. Spicewood, L. melissaefolia (Blume.) ORDER THYMELEACEA:-MEZEREUM FAMIY. Genus Dirca, 549. Leatherwood, Dirca palustris (L.) ORDER LORANTIHACEX MISTLETOE FAMILY. Genus P/hor-adendron, False Mistletoe. [(Nut 550. American Mistletoe, Phoradendron flavesce ORDER EUPHORBIACE.dE-SPTJRGE FAMILY. Genus Euphorbia, Spurg-e. 55I. , Euphorbia maculata (L.) 552. , E. hypericifolia (L.) 553. , E. dictyosperma (F. & M.) 554. , E. corollata (L.) 555. , E. commutata (Engelm.) Genus Aca6pha, Three-seeded Mercury. 556. , Acalypha Caroliniana (L.) 557. , A. Virginica (Walt.) 558. , VAR. gracilens. Genus Tragia, Tragia. 559. , Tragia macrocarpa (Willd.) Y3) t.) nfs St BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, Genus Croton, Croton. 560. Billy-goat Tea, Croton capitatus (Michx.) 56I. , C. monianthogynus (Michx.) ORDER URTICACEA-NETTLE FAMILY. Genus U/mins, Elm. 562. Slippery Elm, Ulmus fulva (Michx.) 563. White Elm, U. Americana (L.) 564. Corky Elm. U. racemosa (Thomas.) 565. Winged Elm, U. alata (Michx). Genuas Planera, 566. Planer Tree, Planera aquatica (Gmel.) Genus Ce//is, Nettie Tree. 567. Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis (L.) 568. Small Hackberry, C. Mississippiensis (Bosc.) Genus Morus, M4u/berry. 569. Red Mulberry, Morus rubra (L.) Genus Ur/ica, Nettle. 570. , Urtica dioica (L.) 571. , U. chamaedryoides (Pursh.) Genus Laportea, Wood-nettle. [ichatid.) 572. Stinging Nettle, Laportea Canadenisis (Gaud- Genus Pilea, Richweed. 573. Clearweed, Pilea pumila (Gray.) Genus Cannabis, Hemp. 574. Hemp, Cannabis sativa (L.) Genus Humuluf, Hop. 575.- Wild Hop, Humulus Lupulus (L.) ORDER PLATANACEAEPLANE-TREE FAMILY. Genzus P/a/anus, Buttonwood. 576. Sycamore, Platanus occidentalis (L.) ORDER JUGLANDACEY-WAUT FAMLY. Genus Juglans, Walnut. 577. ButternUt, Juglans cinerea (L.) 578. Black Walnut, J. nigra (L.) 52 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES,3 Genus Carya, Hickory. 579. Pecan-nut, Carya olivaeformis (Nutt.) 580. Shell-bark Hickory, C. alba (Nutt.) 58I. Small-fruited Hickory, C. microcarpa (Nutt.) 582. Large-fruited Shell-bark Hickory, C. sulcata (Nutt.) 583. Mocker-nut, C. tomentosa (Nutt.) 584. Pig-nut Hickory, C. porcina (Nutt.) 585. Swainp Hickory, C. amara (Nutt.) ORDER CUPULIFERAR-OAK FAMILY. Genus Quercus, Oak. 586. White Oak, Quercus alba (L.) 587. Post-oak, Q. obtusiloba (Michx.) 588. Bur-oak, Q. macrocarpa (Michx.) 589. Swanip WVhite Oak, Q. bicolor (Willd.) 590. White Chestnut-oak, Q. Prinus (L.) 59I. Mountain Chestnut-oak, Q. montana (Willd.) 592. Yellow Chlestnut-oak, Q. Muhlenbergi (Michx.) 593. Laurel Oak, Q. imbricaria (Michx.) 594. Black-Jack Oak, Q. nigra (L.) 595. Spanish Oak, Q. falcata (Michx.) 596. Scarlet Oak, Q. coccinea (Wang.) 597. Black Oak, Q. tinctoria (Bartram.) 598. Red Oak, Q. rubra (L.) Genus Casaneia, Cheslnut. 599. American Chestnut, Castanea vesca (L.) Genus Fa'guts, Beechi. 6oo. Red Beech, Fagus ferruginea (Ait.) 6oi. X-hite Beech, F. sylvatica (L.) Genus Coiy/us, Haze/-nut. 602. Wild Hazel-nut, CoryluspAmericana (Walt.) Genus Os/rya, Hop Hornbeamr. 603. Iron-wood, Ostrya Virginica (Willd.) Genus Carpinus, Hornbeam. 604. Hornbeam, Carpinus Americana (Michx.) 53 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, ORDER BETULACEE-BIRCH FAMILY. Genus .a/nus, Aider. 605. Smooth Alder, Alnus serrulata (Ait.) ORDER SAIUCACEA-WILLOW FAMILY. Genus Sa/ix, Wi//ow. 6o6. , Salix tristis (Ait.) 607. Black Willow, S. nigra (Marsh.) 608. White Willow, S. alba (L.) Genus Popilus, Pop/ar. 6o9. American Aspen, Populus tremuloides (Michx.) 6io. Necklace Poplar, P. monilifera (Ait.) P. balsamiferra (L.) 6ii. Balm of Gilead, VAR. candicans (Ait.) 6i 2. Silver-leaf Poplar, P. alba (L.) ORDER ONIFERX-PINE FAMILY. Genus Pinus, Iine. 613. Scrub Pine, Pinus inops (Ait.) 614. Yellow Pine, P. mitis (Michx.) Genus Juniperus, Juniper. 615. Red Cedar, Juniperus Virginiana (L.) ORDER ARACEAE-ARUM FAMILY. Genus Arisarma, Indian Turnip. 6I6. Indian Turnip, Arisaema triphyllum (Torr.) 617. Dragon-root, A. Dracontium (Schott.) Genus Acorus, Sweet Fag,. 618. Calamus, Acorus Calamus (L.) ORDER LEMNACEX-DUCK-WEED FAMILY. Genus Lemna, Duckweed. 6i9. Duck's-meat, Lemna polyrrhiza (L.) ORDER TYPACEE-CAT-TAIL FAMILY. Genus Typha, 620. Cat-tail Flag, Typha latifolia (L.) ORDER ORCHIDACEX-ORCHIS FAMILY. Genus Spiranthes,. Ladies' Tresses. 62 1. , Spiranthes gracilis (Bigelow.) 54 WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUNTIES. Genus B/elia, B/etla. 622. , Bletia aphylla (Nutt.) Genus Liparis, 623. Twayblade, Liparis liliifolia (Rich.) Genus Corallorhiza, 624. Coral-root, Corallorhiza odontorhiza (Nutt.) Genus Cypripedium, Moccasin-fjower. [ce s (Willd.) 625. Large Yellow Lady's Slipper, Cypripedium pubes- ORDER AMARYLLIDACEXE-AMARYLLIS FAMILY. Genus Agave, American Aloe. 626. False Aloe, Agave Virginica (L.) Genus Hypoxys, Star-grass. 627. -- , Hypoxys erecta (L.) ORDER H11MODORACE-BLOODWORT FAMILY. Genus Aletris, Star-grass. 628. Colic-root, Aletris farinosa (L.) ORDER IRIDACEE-IRIS FAMILY. Genus Iris, Flower-de-Luce. 629. Large Blue Flag, Iris versicolor (L.) 630. Crested Dwarf Iris, I. cristata (Ait.) Genis Pardanthus, Blackberry Lily. 631. , Pardanthus Chinensis (Ker.) Genus Sisyrinchium, 632. Blue-eyed Grass, Sisyrinchium Bermudiana (L.) ORDER DIOSCOREACEE-YAM FAMILY. Genus Dioscorea, Yam. 633. Wild Yam-root, Dioscorea villosa (L.) ORDER SMILACKE-SMILAX FAMILY. Genus Smilax, Calbrier. 634. Greenbrier, Smilax rotundifolia (L.) 635. , S. glauca (Walt.) 636. , S. tamnoides (L.) 637. Carrion Flower, S. herbacea (L.) ORDER LILIACEXLILY FAMILY. Genus Trillium, Three-leaved Nzightshade. 638. , Trillium sessile (L.) 55 BOTANY OF MADISON, LINCOLN, GARRARD, 639. , T. recurvatum (Beck.) 640. Wake Robin, T. grandiflorum (Salisb.) 641. Purple Trillium, T. erectum (L.) 642. , VAR. declinatum. Genus Uvzlaria, Bell-wort. 643- , Uvularia perfoliata (L.) 644._ , U. sessilifolia (L.) Genus Convallaria, 645. Lilly of the Valley, Convallaria majalis (L.) Genus Smilacina, False Solomon's Seal. 646. False Spikenard, Smilacina racemosa (Desf.) Genus Polygonatum, Solomon's Seal. [(Ell.) 647. Smaller Solomon's Seal, Polygonatum biflorum 648. Great Solomon's Seal, P. giganteum (Dietrich.) Genus Erythronium, Dog's-tooth Violet. [canum (Smith.) 649. Yellow Dog's-tooth Violet, Erythroniumr Ameri- 650. White Dog's-tooth Violet, E. albidum (Nutt.) Genus Scilla, Squill. 651. Wild Hyacinth, Scilla Fraseri (L.) Genus Allium, Onion. 652. Wild Onion, Allium cernuum (Roth.) 653. - , A. striatum (Jacq.) ORDER COMMELYNACE3-SPIDERWORT FAMILY. Genus Commelyna, 654. Day Flower, Commelyna Cayennensis (Rich.) ORDER FILICES-FERNS. Genus Polypodium, Polypody. -6r5. Scaly Polypody, Polypodium incanum (Swartz.) Genus Adiantum, Maidenhair. 656. Maidenhair, Adiantum pedatum (L.) Genus Pteris, Bracken. 657. Common Brake, Pteris aquilina (L.) Genus Cheilanthes, Lip Fern. 658. Clothed Lip Fern, Cheilanthes vestita (Swartz.) WASHINGTON, AND MARION COUN'I IES7 Genus PelBa, CiJ Brake. 659. Cliff Brake, Pellea atropurptirea (Link.) Genus Asplenium, Spleenwort. [(Nutt.) 66o. Pinnatifid Spleenwort, Asplenium pinnatifidlu 66 i. , A. ebenoidesl (R. R. Scott.) 662. Alaidenhair Spleenwort, A. Trichomanes (L.) 663. Ebony Spleenwort, A. vbceneuem (Ait.) 664. Small Ebony Spleenwort. A. paulitiu (I'aton.) 665. XVaII-rue Spleenwort, A. RutaL-mlUraria (L.) 666. Narrow-leaved Spleenwort. A.imogustilolitim (M -ichx) 667. Marsh Spleenwort, A. thelypteroides (Mliclhx.) 668. Lady Fern, A. Filix-fenmina (Bernh.) Genus Camipiosorus, Wa/king-leaf 669. Walking-leaf, Camptosorus rhizophyllus ( Link.) Genus Phegopteris, Beech Fern. 670. Beech Fern, Phegopteris polypodioides (Fee.) 671. Beech Fern, P. hexagonoptera (Fee.) Genus Aspidiumn. Shield Fern. [(Swartz.) 672. New York Shield Fern, Aspidium Noveboracense 673. Marginal Shield Fern, A. marginalu tSwartz.) 674. Winter Fern, A. acrostichoides (Swartz.) Genus Cvstopteris, Bladder Fern. [(Bernh.) 675. Bulbous Bladder Fern, Cystopteris bulbifera 676. Common Bladder Fern, C. fragilis (Bernh.) Gemus Onoclea, Sensitive Fern. 677. Sensitihe Fern, Onoclea sensibilis (L-) Genus Wloodsia -M'oodsia. 678. Obtuse leaved Woodsia, Woodsia obtusa (Torr.) Genus Osinunda, Floweering Fern. 679. Royal Fern, Osmunda regalis (L.) 68o. Cinnamon Fern, 0.- cinnamomea (L.) (;enus Roflrvl ium Afoonwort. [(Swartz.) 68i. Virginia Moonwort, Botrychium X irginicum Il'erniate Moonwort, B. ternatum. 682. , VA. obliquum (Milde.) 57