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Report on the geology of Lincoln County / by W.M. Linney. Kentucky. State Geologist. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b97-20-37305401 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Report on the geology of Lincoln County / by W.M. Linney. Kentucky. State Geologist. Stereotyped by the survey by Major, Johnston & Barrett, Yeoman Press, Frankfort, Ky. :  36 p. : folded col. map ; 26 cm. Coleman One col. map on 1 folded leaf of plates in pocket: "Lincoln County." Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1997. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN06745.06 KUK) Printing Master B97-20. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Geology Kentucky Lincoln County.Linney, W. M. (William M.) GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. JOHN R. PROCTER, DIRECTOR. REPORT ON THS GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. BY W. M. LINNEY. STEREOTYPED FOR THE SURVEY BY MAJOR, JOHNSTON A BARRETT, YEOMAN PRESS, FRANKFORT, KY. This page in the original text is blank. INTRODUCTORY LETTER. JOHN R. PROCTER, ESQ., Director of the Kentucky Geological Survey: DEAR SIR: Please find accompanying this my Report on the Geology of Lincoln County. Thanking you for your unvarying kindness, and for repeated favors received from your hands, I am, respectfully, yours, W. M. LINNEY. HARRODSBURG, Ky., December, i882. This page in the original text is blank. GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. TOPOGRAPHY, &C. Lincoln was one of the original counties created by the Legislature of Virginia in 1780; and at that time comprised ahont one third of the area of Kentucky. Since its first organization, it has been shorn of most of its territory by the formation of new counties, until now it comprises about one hundred and ninety-five thousand acres. It is bounded on the north by Boyle and Garrard, on the east by Garrard and Rockcastle, on the south by Pulaski and Casey, and on the west by Casey and Boyle counties. In i870 Lincoln county-had a population of ten thousand nine hundred and forty-seven. This number had, in i88o, increased to fifteen thousand and eighty. Stanford is the county seat and the largest town, and in i88o it contained twelve hundred and thirteen inhabitants, a gain of four hun- dred and sixty-one in ten years. There are a number of other small towns, among which are Crab Orchard, near Crab Orchard Springs, well known as a summer resort, and Hus- tonville, in the southwestern part of the county. The Cinlinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway (Cincinnati Southern) extends through the county in a direc- tion northwest and southeast. The Knoxville Branch of the 1lotlisville and Nashville Railroad passes through in a more directly east and west course. The Kentucky Central Rail- road has connection with the latter at Richmond Junction, and it is highly probable that it will be continued through the county, and thence to Nashville, in the near future. A portion of the county is well supplied with turnpikes, which are substantially constructed of broken limestone, or of pebbles and gravel, which form beds in all of ithe streams. GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. Stanford has two good schools-one for males and the other. for females. Hustonville and Crab Orchard have enjoyed fair facilities for educating the young, while the popular schools have been conducted with more than average success in the county. There are no manufactories of any great extent. There are several flour mills, three or four distilleries, and a number of saw-mills, which ship a portion of their products. Grain, live stock, and lumber are the principal exports, with a limited exportation of Crab Orchard salts. The surface features of this county are varied; in general terms, it may be said that the northwestern half lies almost wholly within the commlionly called Blue grass Region of the State, and includes surfaces which are either level, gently undulating, or highly rolling. These lands comprise the agricultural region of the county, and contain many fine farms and much material wealth. Nearly the entire drainage of this part of the county is into Dix river, which stream passes partly through and partly along the eastern portion. Hanging Fork rises iear the Casey county line, flows northeasterly, and enters Dix river near where Boyle, Garrard, and Lincoln counties come to- gether. This part of the county has a perfect drainage illi the great number of small creeks which unite with those larger streams. On Dix river and Hanging Fork, near the mouth of the latter, are some perpendicular cliffs, which rise something like one hundred feet above the water. They are soon lost in going up either stream. The general surface in this part of the county does not rise high above the general drainage linees; and in this feature they are in marked contrast with the deep cations seen but a few miles down Dix river, between Boyle and Garrard counties. The southern and part of the western boundary ot this region is encircled. with a belt of isolated hills, usually termed "knobs," which rise from one to two hundred feet above it. These make a pretty and picturesque frame to the more level lands. 6 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. Beyond the knobs the elevation is somewhat higher, but slopes gently from them for a long distance towards the south- east. This part of the county is deeply cut by the drainage lines which flow partly into the Cumberland and partly into Green river. Here the surface has not been so largely cleared of its forests for agricultural purposes; consequently, the streams are clearer, and their average flow greater througlh the year, than in the more level fa-rming lands where the Woods have been largely destroyed. From some of the greater elevations which mark the water- slhed between the tributaries of the Cumberland and the Ken- tuLcky rivers, there are extended landscape views which are not excelled in beauty from any of the altitudes which stir- round the far-famed Blue Grass Region. One of the finest of these may be seen from a point above Hall's Gap. More than a semi-circle is opened from this point, and for miles and miles one may trace the salient points to where the fringe of forest and the horizon blend together. Spread out to the -eye is more than half of Boyle, Lincoln, and Garrard counties, with portions of several others. The dotted dwell- ings, the open fields, the skirted woodlands, the sloping hills, and the winding valleys, encompassed with a rim of highlands, make a charming picture. A few miles to the south one may gain points from which X iews may be had that reach far into Rockcastle, Pulaski, and Casey counties. Here one sees a country of sparkling streams and widespread forests stretching back to where hills rise like mountains in the dim distance. It is worth the walk of many sumnmer days to reach the numerous points in Lin- coinl county from which nature has unrolled so many and such varied scenes. ANCIENT GEOLOGY. All the rocks which are exposed in Lincoln county belong to the three great ages, the Silurian, the Devonian, and the Carboniferous, which make the Paleozoic Time. Neither the beginning nor the ending of ancient time is recorded in 7 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. the exposures here, nor do the beds have the great thickness here which they attain at other places. They are, however, not without interest, as in a few miles they may be traced through many groups, and their changes noted in the rocks and soils in the surface features and in the forests. The lowest rocks brought to view in the county are to be seen near the mouth of Hanging Fork of Dix river, and the highest near Highland Post-office. By tracing the out- crops between these two points, a thickness of over fourteen hundred feet is exhibited. Some of them are to be seen only in limited localities, and they mark but a small feature in a general way. Could these rocks all be seen together, and in their geological positions, they would the following divisions and measurements: exhibit nearly Feet. Feet. Subearboniferous..... . . Upper .375 Lower.30 Hamilton.Black slate . . . . . . . . . . . 50 65 Corniferous. Corniferous limestones.... 15 6 ._U_ . _ E5T l urian Clinton ..... .. .. . . Crab Orchard shale...... 40) 75 Medina.. ......... .. Medina sandstone. ..... 35X Lower Solurin- Hudson River.... .. .. Upper beds.. .. .. .. . 300 0 Middle beds. 150 i 650 Lower beds.... .. .. . 200 Trenton... .. .. . .. Trenton limestones.17) 1 Birdseye limestones..... .. 90 f Total..... .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 1,430 LOWER SILURIAN-TRENTON EPOCH. Birdseye Group.-The rocks to be seen in Lincoln county which belong to the Birdseye Limestones are exposed 8 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 9 for a few miles on the Hanging Fork and on Dix river, near where those two streams come together. The) constitute the heavy -walls of nearly vertical cliffs for about ninety feet above the water. Those strata are the continuation of the same beds which have been described in the Reports of Mer- cer and Garrard Counties. There is no change in theWt general character, being heavy-bedded, mostly dove- colored stones, fine-grained and brittle. They afford no characteristic soils here, and have only been quarried to a small extent, and that for only local purposes, though good quarries could be opened in them. There is a sharp dip in the rocks here to the southeast, and the) are soon carried beneath upper ones, and are seen no more in the county. Trenton Limestones.-The limestones and shales of the Trenton, which overlie the Birdseye group, are to be seen in Lincoln county, exhibiting their usual phases; but, like the beds which underlie them, they disappear beneath the drainage from the same cause which carried the others clown. lIhe ordinary features of the Blue Grass beds, the Granular Limestones, and the Upper Birdseye beds, are to be seen over a very limited surface. Eight or ten farms in the county are situated in whole or in part over these beds. They are all located near the Hanging Fork, and within a mile or a little more of Engleman's Mill. These rocks, in their disintegration, produce the best of soils in the State, inferior to none, except that, in their conti- gtuity to the cliffs and the steep dip to which they are sub- jected, they have been left more broken than is usual, while they form larger tracts in other counties. HUDSON RIVER EPOCH. The rocks formed during the Hudson River Epoch are, in Kentucky, naturally separated into three divisions, and are widely exposed to view. But in this county it is only the GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. upper beds which give noticeable surface features, the others being hardly seen, unless by one who knew their relations to other beds, and sought them out. Lower Beds.-The rocks and shales of this division overlie the Trenton beds in a narrow strip, which is not over one half mile in breadth. The dip which carried the others down has become steeper, and the rocks, like the last, are soon lost to view. The hills have the same contours which usually mark the position of those beds in other localities. Their surfaces are in part covered with the fragments of limestone, broken down by the disintegration and removal of the shales beneath. The soils are usually stiff clays, and have a disposition to cut into deep gullies. They have to be cultivated with some care to prevent injury from this cause. They are best seen in the county near and just south of the residence of Mr. R. L. White, near Hanging Fork. (See map.) Middle Beds.-The Middle beds of the Hudson River group have, like the last, large exposures in the State, and even make up a large portion of the soils in Garrard county -those on Sugar and Back creeks. In Lincoln county their exposures are quite narrow, for the same reason which limits the groups heretofore mentioned. East of the Danville and Stanford pikes they are better exhibited on the farms of T. Alexander and J. T. Hackley. but are seen in a narrow strip to where they cross Dix river. The sandstones and sandy shales which compose them are to be seen sometimes on the surface and again in a slight bluff on the Hanging Fork. The peculiar mulatto-colored soil, and the typical slopes to hills, are characteristic of the series in other counties. The concretionary member and the impure limestones, with their wealth of shells and corals, are present. West of the pike mentioned above, these beds are seen from the crossing of the Knoxville Branch Railroad up the Hanging Fork for a number of miles. They only rise from IO 'Deol'06llc'- 8r, STIA Y .IXOR TRCTE.DYCT LINCOLN COINTY -CEEO (LH -LS pe so= --tn-tu 1- Wm w Deona --X Sm orIfe UT- II , t upe 1-- r = Erm ---e J 7 0: 1 EAid1 5/L/Ouwean GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY ten to fifty feet above that stream, and consequently give no characteristic soils to the county. Often large blocks are torn up in the bottom of the stream, which would make fine, smooth flag-stones. South of Hustonville, one of the branches which enters Carpenter's creek has cut -down and exposed those beds for a short distance. It will be understood that the series of rocks so far men- tioned as occurring in Lincoln county are very limited in their distribution, being covered outside of narrow lines by over- lapping of higher groups. In the Reports on the Counties of Madison, Garrard, Washington, Mercer, and Boyle, those series will be more fully described, and their relations clis - cussed. The reader who is interested in them is referred to those reports for further information. Upper Beds.-The upper beds of the Hudson River group are the superior rocks over a large part of Lincoln county, and mark, by their outcrops, all that portion termed the Blue Limestone Region, except the narrow exposures referred to in the previously described divisions. These beds are not uniform in their composition and characters; on the other hand, they are much varied. The lower portion of these beds is mainly thin limestones, with a small proportion of clay shales between them. A few six to eight () inch layers are included in them. The latter are good solid stones, but the rest are disposed to be shelly, and decompose comparatively fast. These beds are seen more particularly on and near Hawkins branch, and on each side of the Hanging Fork, from Dawson's Mill to near Hus- tonville. (See map.) Perhaps the soils derived from these layers are equal to any in the State when they are at their best, and are at any rate only excelled by those. derived from the best portion of the Blue Grass beds. Blue-grass equal to any in the State is grown on them, and there are farmers who claim it con- tains more nutriment than the grass grown in better reputed localities. 11 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. The rocks are literally filled with shells and corals, which so greatly distinguish this horizon in other counties; and it is to their chemical character that the fertility of these soils is due. Among the fossils seen here may be mentioned Plilodic- tya hi//i, Retepora angiea/a, Conchicoli/es corrugatus, Or/his /inneyi, Strep/orhyncus sinuatum, etc. The soils over these layers, even where they have been very badly worn and exhausted, are restored in a short time without other fertilizing agencies than being kept in grasses, which help to decompose the rocks, and thus furnish the nec- essary elements needed in good soils. Above these layers are some limestones which have rather sandy shales included in them. They furnish good soils, and are mellow, but more liable to wash than the preceding, espe- cially on lands where the surface is rolling. These layers are quite limited in extent. Overlying the above are some limestones which have a greater proportion of earthy matters in them. The degrada- tion of those give more clayey lands. There is some siliciouis matter in them; and where this is the case, they are more liable to be eroded by heavy rains. They are fertile, and, where kindly used, are much valued by their owners. A succession of limestones, shales, and impure sandstones constitute the rest of this division. These give the usual varieties of soils seen in many other counties, as well as ill Lincoln. Some of the limestones are quite pure and evenly bedded, and are of great convenience to the people, being used for fences and conmhmon building purposes, as well as for lime- makinog. Some of the other beds are often quarried for those purposes, and the inferior ones soon prove their worthless character by crumbling to pieces. The beds, which contain great numbers of Or/his lynx, associated with many other fossil forms, outcrop in a great number of places; but they are never fit for building purposes-they fall to pieces too readily. 1 2 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. The beds holding the great fossil corals, usually at the top of the Hudson River group, are exposed at a number of places in the county, and I have measured specimens of Col- uninaria alveolata three feet in diameter. This coral bed is not so largely developed in Lincoln as in Marion and Wash- inigton counties; but some of the exposures are typical of its character there, and contain the same association of fossils. Hustonville and Stanford are both situated on the upper beds, and are surrounded by fine bodies of agricultural land. During the whole period of time included in the Hudson River Epoch, there were many and marked changes which took place in the conditions existing on the floor of the old ocean where those rocks were deposited. The change from shale to limestone, from limestone to sandstone, must each have been made by some disturbance here or at some other point. The amount of silica contained in the whole group is con- siderable, and much, if not all, of it must have been trans- ported from some point where sandstones or other silicious accumulations could have furnished the supply. Time after time during this epoch was the floor of the sea raised so high that the waves wlich passed over it left their marks ill the shifting sands and mud at the bottom. These impressions are seen at many points to-day; the ridges and furrows are as plainly marked as if made to-day on a sandy beach. Time after time did the lime-secreting polyps rear their coral reefs in the clear shallow waters, and by some change those were broken down, and their structures buried by the mud swept over them by waves or currents. At the close of the Hudson River Period a great reef must have been here for a long time, for through county after county can be seen great accumulation of corals, many of which will weigh hun- dreds of pounds each; and a great time was required for so much lime to be secreted. This period closed here with an influx of sand and mud, which destroyed the existing life, and gave us a new period in geological time. 13 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. UPPER SILURIAN. When we come to examine the rocks in the west which were deposited during the Upper Silurian age, it is found that they do not have the great thickness nor the regularity of distribution as are exhibited in the east. In many parts of Missouri they are entirely absent. In Ohio, Indiana, and Tennessee they are distributed in patch-like areas, and in Kentucky, also, their placement is very irregular. In Central Kentucky, in those counties where they have been studied to some extent, they show some curious phases -sometimes they are one hundred or more feet thick; at other points they have thinned down to almost nothing, or are apparently absent. It has been thought by some geologists that the Blue Lime- stone Region of Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana, as well as the Lower Silurian area of Middle Tennessee, was an island during the Upper Silurian and part of the Devonian ages. Some have gone so far as to teach that the exposed Lower Silurian beds have never since that period been covered with any higher rocks. For Central Kentucky, the observations made would leave these theories unsupported by facts. There are no evidences to show that there was any erosion of the rocks at the top of the Hudson River group. On the other hand, we have it demonstrated the great reef of corals was overlaid at different points with rocks of very distinct characters, and these within very narrow limits. These beds are more or less of a local character, and if not deposited at the same time, they were made under very dissimilar condi- tions. NIAGARA PERIOD. Medina Sandstone.-In the northeastern portion of Lincoln county there is to be seen, in a niumber of places, a series of buff sandstones, which sometimes show as hard concretionary shales, which are disposed to break into squares hardly more than an inch in diameter. 14 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY.5 These beds at their thickest points are about thirty-five feet in thickness; and erosion over them is comparatively rapid, and they leave a soil which is sandy and easy to wash. These tracts have a local name of " Bald Hill Soils," from a locality in Garrard county where the rocks are exposed, and so called because they have become, in places, sterile .from the amount of sand which covers them. Internally they show yellow and green spots. Some of the layers have a small portion of lime in them. This series is well exposed on a road leading from Richmond Junction to Dudderar's Mill, on Dix river. Here, at many places in the hill-sides, can the Columniaria bed be seen covered tip in the sand which was brought by the currents and swept over themn. A little north and east of Hall's Gap Station, and on thee road thence toward Crab Orchard, they may be seen as they are presented in Garrard and Madison counties. While at nearly every point exposed the layers seem worthless for building purposes, yet locally there are some fine, durable stones among them. At Mr. J. T. Lynn's, about a mile from Hall's Gap Station, stones were quarried for foundations, steps, etc.; a very desirable stone was obtained, which has every appearance of being very durable. They are easily taken from the quarry, come out in good shape, and can be dressed with an axe, so soft is their character. They harden on ex- posure, and become of a deep buff color. At James' Mill, on Dix river, the stack was made of stones taken from these beds, and nothing could have suited the purpose better. In every direction from Crab Orchard these rocks may be seen when looked for, presenting often small sterile spots; in some cases they have been built into stone fences. Some of the soils over these beds are fairly good where they have been taken care of; but too often they present the features which are mentioned in the REPORT ON WASHINGTON COUNTY. In some of the heavier layers, at particular points, are included a few geodes filled with calcite crystals of a pinkish color. In some instances I found small masses of celestite 1 5 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. or strontium sulpha/e in a heavy hard layer near the top, and occasionally small nodules of zinc blende were seen. Many of the layers are remarkably full of sea-weeds; their branching and matted stems covering layers everywhere as far as they can be traced. One bed, a few inches thick, seems to have held branching forms of C/haete/es corals; the cavities filled with petroleum. Fossils are very few, and exist only as very poor sandy casts. They probably include small forms of Airypa r-elicu/a;'is and ZaSp/hentis bilateralis; but such was their condition that they could not be determined satisfactorily. In the western portion of the county those rocks are seen between Moreland and Carpenter's Station; but here they are thinner than in the eastern part, and present no new phases. The whole series has the appearance of being a reef-like accumulation, deposited largely or entirely by cur- rents, and sometimes probably in the face of waves, as at several points one or two layers have a wave-like structure. The life which existed in the waters before seem to have all been destroyed here at this time, and during the invasions of the Medina sand seem not to have been fitted for any- thing but plant-life, except in rare instances, and for a short duration. Crab Orchard Shale.-Overlying the Medina sand- stone in the eastern part of the county is a group of clay shales, which reach in several instances a thickness of forty feet, but thin down in others to a mere trace. These shales, as seen in exposed places, are gray or white, sometimes green; but when freshly excavated are black, green, olive, blue, and red. They are soft and crumbling, and are soon reduced to clay, and when tramped in wet roads become stiff and tenacious. Within this deposit are a few hard. smooth plates of thin limestones, with sometimes obscure markings of plants; these plates are hard, and are often seen where all the shales haze decomposed. These plates, and sometimes the shales, have . i6 GEOLOGY OF LINCOILN COUNTY I 7 a curved structure, and at times some of the laminx overlap the thinned-out edges of others. Included in this bed are crystals of selenite (gypsum), and crystals and nodules of iron pyrites; sometimes a plate of iron shale is also seen. The whole bed seems to be impreg- nated with carbonate of magnesia. To the presence of those three minerals, in the form they assume, is due the peculiar character of the magnesian compound, which, uilnder the flame of Crab Orchard salts, is manufactured fromt these shales. These shales are placed provisionally in the Clinton until more is learned in regard to their relation. As these shales contain gypsum, soda, and potash. it would be advisable for farners and others to make some experimental tests with them as fertilizers. Other Beds.-Above the mouth of Flax creek, and near Dix river, the following section is presented: Ifeavv corniferous limestone layer ............... ... . . 33 inches. Covered space... .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . 12 inches. IDrab sandstone.... .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . 12 inches- 1',o(ck weathering to olive shale . ................. . 16 inches. Sindstone with cauda-galli fucoids..... .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . 3 inches. Sandstone with cutla-galli fucoids ............... ... . . 20 inches. Magnesian limestone ...................... . . . . . 2 inches. .Magnesian limestone..... . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . 27 inches. Crab Orchardshale..... .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . The magnesian limestone is probably Niagara, as in it I found a species of Ialysites, Airita re/icaris, Stria/apora cavernosa, a spirifer two and a half inches in length, and a fivosife coral. A heavy layer of limestone sometimes occu- pies this position at other places, but I have not been enabled to find any fossils in it. The sandstones above are well marked with specimens of tie cock-tail sea-weed, and are seen sometimes resting oln the Crab Orchard shale, and sometimes oil the Medina sand- stone. They are very tough, rather more gray than drab in color, and at points in Boyle and Marion counties have included in them spines, teeth, and plates of large fishes. GEOL(G. SUB.-2 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. The plates are tuberculated externally. These remains be- long to the genera Dinich/hys and Mfacrope/a/ic/hthys species of which have been described from the rocks of Ohio by Dr. J. S. Newberry. It would seem that those layers might rep- resent both the Oriskany sandstone and the Cauda-galli grit. DEVONIAN. Corniferous limestone.-The rocks which here have been referred to the Corniferous are not in great force, but present several distinct phases. In Lincoln, and to some extent in Boyle county, there is to be seen a very peculiar rock, which has been referred to this group, and may be a part of it, though there are no fossils by which it may be determined. It is to be seen in a single layer, varying from two inches to twelve feet in thickness, and sometimes occupies nearly all the space between the Hudson River Group and the Black Slate. I have not seen it where either the Medina sandstone or the Crab Orchard shales are present. At times it has very much the appearance of a breccia, having a massive gray base with fragments of brown distrib- uted irregularly through it. At other places, while it has the same distribution of colors, it does not seem to have resulted from brecciation, but from alteration of fossils, or such like cause. I forwarded a fragment of this rock to Dr. Robert Peter, Chemist to the Survey, as -brecciated limestone, which lies in our undetermined series between the Hudson River Group and the Black Slate." I quote his analysis and accompanying notes: "A dark gray, fine-grained rock, mottled with whitish and light yellowish gray spots of various sizes and shapes; con- taining small cavities, some lined with small quartz crystals, some filled with calc. spar, and containing imbedded semi- opal, &c. It contains bituminous matter, the irregular infil- tration of which has caused some of the mottling." I 8 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. '9 COMPOSITION- DRIED AT 2120 FAHRENHEIT. talcium carbonate ....... . ......... ............ 48.580 Magnesiun carbonate . ................. . . .......27-838 Alumina and iron and manganese oxides .......... . . . . . . . . 8.750 Soluble silica. ............................. . .180 Insoluble silica and silicates ....................... . 8.480 organic matter and loss ......................... . 6.142 100. X) I doubt that any part of this rock is brecciated. It resem- bles very MUch. the description of the Water Lime as given in the Reports of the Ohio Geological Survey. I do not kilow that this stone has been used for any purpose in the county, except, when taken from railroad cuts, it has some- timnes been broken and spread for ballast. This layer is well displayed in the railroad ctt near McKinney's Station, and in the cut near Junction City, in the edge of Boyle county. Both of those points are on the Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway. The cause which distributed this rock so singularly in the county is obscure; but the other beds of Corniferous, unlike theses were spread alike all over the county, and in a very even manner. ]The Corniferous proper can be seen in its place, wherever its horizon is exposed; while the remnants of it can be seen over all the lower rocks within the limits of the county. It is usually comprised in three or four layers of heavy-bedded magnesian limestones, light buff in -the interior, but on the exterior dark buff or brown. At places it is largely filled with masses of hornstone (flint), and this gives to it a very rugged appearance. Be- sides the hornstone in this condition, it is locally'filled with silicified specimens of horn and honey-comb shaped corals. These all seem to assist in its decomposition, and it is not unusual to see spots where all the lime has disappeared, and the ground covered with these silicious masses. Sometimes the soft rocks beneath this series have been removed by nat- ural clauses, and the massive layers of the Corniferous have fallen in great blocks. Where there is but a small propor- GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. tion of silica contained in the beds, some of the layers would make good stones for massive structures. They have, how- ever, been seldom used for any purpose. Besides the hornstone and fossils contained in these beds, there are often druses lined with quartz crystals, while crys- tals of calcite and dog-tooth spar are not infrequent. Dolo- mite crystals are sometimes seen in them, and occasionally the cavities in corals, &c., are filled with petroleum. At sev- eral places, a small bed of iron ore is intercalated with the layers. Within the Corniferous are sometimes small caves, and in Lincoln county many of the finest springs issue fromn them. The, soil derived from these beds is a red clay, ConI- tailing a fair proportion of lime and magnesia, and a large percentage of silica. It is the finest wheat soil in the State, in several particulars. The quality of the wheat cannot be excelled, and the straw is not disposed to fall. The quantity is excelled on other soils, though good returns are received from these. There are several outliers of the Corniferous in the coui- ty; these were once- connected with the formation as -now seen back of the Hudson River area, and have by erosion been cut off to themselves. Quite a number of fossils are found in the waste of the beds, among which may be mentioned the following: Pkilli/5s- astrea gigas, Zaphrentis gigas, Zapnren/is Raffinesquii, Zaph i-en- tis corniculun, Cya/hop/zy/lum Hal/i, Cs/ip/hy/lunz Amei-icanzuz, Spirifer Oweni, Spirifer umbona Ia, etc. There is one fact which is worthy of mention here: ill nearly all, of the layers of the Upper Silurian and Devonliaii, and even in the base of the Black Slate, there are small transparent grains of quartz crystals. These are nearly mi- croscopic in size, but well rounded. Currents must have brought them for a long time from the same locality; for they are too much alike to have different origins. Black Slate.-The thick deposit of thin black slaty rocks which surround the Blue-grass Region of Kentucky is well 20 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. known. It has in Lincoln county its usual thickness for this part of the State-about fifty feet. Its intensely black color, and its fissile character, are so pronounced that it is easy to determine its outcrops wherever seen. This slate contains some bituminous matter, and efforts have been made on Green river, at several points, to obtain it by the boring of wells into and through it; but while some oil has been found, as is usual in this sl.ale,_the quantity was small, and the attempts were failures as far as profit was concerned. The small thickness of the slate here, and the unfavorable conditions which invest it, give no promise of oil ever being procured in quantities which would make it profitable. It is hard sometimes to convince some persons of this fact, which is so patent to every man who has a knowledge of the region and its geological characters. The condition under which this shale was formed has been a puzzling question to geologists, and its solution seems as far off to-day as ever before. The theory that it was formed in dleep quiet water far from land, and that its stores of oil were (lerived from, sea-plants, and the few animals which lived amongst them, does not account for all the features which are exhibited by it. Many remains of a large species of tree, Dadoxylon New- berrjvi (Dawson), all in a silicified condition, are seen in it in a fewv counties here. In some instances limestones locally were formed in it. Again, it is met with where the surfaces of the plates are covered with wave-marks. The base, in some places, as has been noticed, has quartz grains in it, and higher uip, at some points, are seen accumulations of sand and mud. Dist-inas, Lintgzdas, and some other shells are found in it; also bones of fish and spines of a species of ClenacanWthus. Sea- plant impressions are a common feature at some horizons, and perhaps some undetermined features may be Chaefetes corals. Iron pyrites is a very common mineral through the entire bed. Green River has cut its channel for some miles into and below the Black Slate, and a number of good exposures are 2 i 22 GROtoGY OF LtNCoLIJ COUNTY. seen in this part of the county. This series forms the surface over a good many small tracts of land, and these are gen- erally quite level: in fact, the most beautiful level lands ill the county are based on the Black Slate. This fact. and its general imperviousness to water, has often left the tracts as wet glady places. Where this slate has decomposed to a considerable depth, and has been well drained, the soils rank very well. and pro- duce very fair crops. A portion of some of the mIIost desir- able farms in the county is based on these soils. Usually the narrow rims of the Black Slate, which outcrop around the Blue.grass Region, have not been cleared, or, if cleared, have not been cultivated. On steep 'slopes, those soils become very poor and very dry. It is only where they are level, or nearly so, they are valued at all. SUBCARBONIFEROUS PERIOD. The rocky series which constitute the Subcarboniferous Period are variously divided in the Western States. Some- times they are separated into as many as five distinct groups. Beginning at the bottom, they are the Kinderhook. Burling- ton, Keokuk, St. Louis, and Chester. Those divisions do not distinctly appear in this part of the State; the St. Louis and Chester can be determined; the others are represented ill part in the lower rocks, and are probably about the equiv- alent- of the Waverly Group of Ohio. For any praictical purpose, the divisions of the upper and the lower. or the calcareous and the silicious, are all that are necessary here. Lower Beds.-The rocks which constitute the lower part of the Subcarboniferous cover nearly one half of Liti- coln county, and formn all of the southeastern and a narrow strip on the western portion, and they constitute what is usu- ually termed the: Knob Region." They are for the larger part composed of clay shales, having other kinds of rocks distributed through them. GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY2 The first one hundred feet at the base of this division is composed of soft clay shales, and so peculiar is this soft character that, if they become uncovered of vegetation and higher rocks, they crumble and wash away so rapidly that vegetation cannot take possessior of them again. There are a great number of such denuded places in the State, and they arc very interesting points for several reaions. These "Licks," as they are called, o.tea include many acres, and are furrowed into steep ridges and deep hollows, bare of plants, and are of a peculiar desolate appearance. The soft shales crumble beneath the feet, and the hard fragments of rocks collect in drift piles at the bottom of the slopes. There are usually iron ores included in these shales, and where seen in place, show as red bands among the ash-gray shales. Often the beds of iron are broken down, and cover the ground in places. The quantity of ore is perhaps not large enough for commercial purposes. A great number of fragments of old plants, which grew when these shales were forming, have been replaced with iron, and strew the surface at some points. Small pieces of petrified wood are often observed, which have been weathered out of the shales; and in the lower part are many round, oval, and other shaped rocks, from a half inch to several inches in diameter. A great number of these contain shells and other fossils. From the examination and comparison of a great number of these so-called concre- tions, I am under the conviction that they are coprolites, or the excrements of fishes. In a careful search among these beds, extending over a period of nearly ten years, I have never found any part of an animal fossil that was not contained in these "concretions," except the bones, teeth, spines, and dermal tubercles of large fish. In the nodules are to be seen nothing but what would be the remains of the food eaten by such fish-bones, scales, and teeth of smaller fish, carapaces of crustaceans, and shells of mollusks. 23 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. These nodular masses can be grouped into several classes, in which there is a close resemblance in size and form, and one familiar with them can, in some cases, select specimens containing any given fossils, although no part of them may be exposed. Unlike concretions, there is no central nucleus around which the mass has gathered. A single specimen may show a number of shells or teeth distributed through it without any order, or it may contain a number of fragments from different forms of life. This unequal distribution of particles through them would seem to be sufficient to remove them from the class of concretionary structures. Full analyses have not been made of a series of these cop- rolites (); but in one specimen, sent to Dr. Peter for exam- ination, more than eighteen per cent. of phosphoric acid was found. Described and figured by Prof. Meek, in the second volume of Palaeontology of the Ohio Geological Survey, were the following fossils, which were found in this part of Kentucky, and are contained only in those coprolites (): Solenocaris strigata, 4rckaeocaris vermiformis, Ceratiocaris elytroides, Ceratiocaris Bradleyi. Sometimes "a dark olive-gray semi-crystalline mineral" is seen in those " licks," and which, is distributed horizontally, and never in veins. This, onl examination, was pronounced by Dr. Peter to be " barium sulphate, tinted with a little iron phosphate." This mineral I have only. seen twice in this posi- tion. Iron pyrites are very common in those shales, and ill their decomposition form sulphur and alum compounds, which often show as inflorescenses on the surface. Those places were formerly great resorts for wild animals, who came to lick these salts; and a number of these " licks" may owe niuli cCf their extent to the tramping of herds of buffaloes, etc., in the past. Above these shales there is sometimes a yellow sandy mud rock, which cuts nearly as soft as cheese. It is not often seen, as it is so soft that it decomposes below the sur- face. In this has been seen some casts of goniai'ifes, and some crinoid stems. 24 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. A succession of hard sandy shales follow this rock, marked everywhere with a species of cauda-ga/li. In places, this shale is filled with great numbers of shells, corals, etc., which mark the Keokuk Period. Above are other shales and thin limestones, which hold a great number of crinoids; but these are so badly broken that it is rare to find- one that can be identified. This seems to be the horizon of the celebrated l)eds at Crawfordsville, Indiana, which have supplied so many specimens to the various museums of the country. A number of layers of hard shales, impure limestones, and earthy and silicious rocks come in above; and in those are inclosed a great number of geodes-hard round siliciouis masses, having, usually, in the interior, crystals of quartz, and occasionally quartz and calcite. These masses, which are popularly called "niggerheads" or "sbowiders,' are of all sizes, from that of a pea to two feet in diameter; the smaller have been usually formed by the infiltration of silica into the cavities of shells, crinoids, etc., while the larger ones have filled cavities left from the decomposition of inclosed forms of other kinds, some of which are very obscure. By itself this series of rocks form rather poor soils. Often there is a deep leaf mold on the northern sides, which is very rich, and very good crops have been raised. From the steep slopes, which are the more usual character presented by these rocks, the soils are soon washed away. On some of the ridges there are level tracts, and, with care, they yield better than the larger part of these soils. The knobs and ridges are well suited for the cLiltivation of fruit; the trees grow thrifty, and bear liberally, often when there is none in the country below. A heavy sandstone, or sometimes several layers of sandstone, completes the lower part of the Subcarboniferous. It is usually massive and soft, an'd has been worked for chimneys, door-steps. and, at one time, it was largely used for tombstone work. In other near counties it is somewhat harder, and has been used for facings for fine buildings. 25 2 EOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTV. Upper Beds.-It is only in fragmentary conditions that any of the upper portion of the Subcarboniferous has been left in Lincoln county. Those in place, and not broken down, are about forty feet of rather heavily-bedded gray semi-crys- tallized limestone, and are such as usually lie at the base of the St. Louis Group in the surrounding counties. They are seen capping the geologically higher points in the county- never continuous over large areas, but patch-like in their distribution. All the drainage lines in the portion of the county where they are seen have cut through them, and into the lower beds, so that it is only as capping the hills and ridges that they have been left. These rocks have been used locally for building founda- tions and chimneys for houses and for road-making; but for the first two purposes, the sandstones beneath them have been oftener utilized. Covered everywhere nearly with the waste of higher rocks, it cannot be seen that these beds have formed any distinctive soils. A few pentremites, spiri- fers, fish teeth, etc., were seen in these beds, but from the nature of the limestone they are never well preserved. l[his limestone usually makes a very good article of lime. Wheni the land of this part of the county is cultivated as it should be, these beds will be drawn upon for use as fertilizers. WASTE BEDS. Over every portion of Lincoln county are to be seen the wastes of beds which were once in position over those now seen in place. Corals and chert from the CorniferouLs are very common. These and the geodes from the Carboniferotis are hauled off from many fields, and used for repairing roads. Blocks of sandstone and masses of. conglomerate are not unfrequent over the blue limestone beds. Over the Subcarboniferous part of the county, the remains of the St. Louis beds are seen nearly everywhere; and over these are spread, sometimes many feet in depth, the sands and pebbles of the base of the coal measures. There can be 26 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. no reasonable doubt that all the series of rocks now seen in the county were once continuous over its surface, unless we except some of the thin beds of the Upper Silurian, and that on top of these were the entire Subcarboniferous limestones and the lower portion, and, perhaps, all the coal measures. Every tree or plant takes up more or less of the constit- uenits of the soil; every turn of the plow, and every freeze that comes, puts somne portion of the ground in condition to be washed away by the rains which follow; so that the streams have been the vehicles that have carried away the vast masses from above the. present surface. The same causes are even nowv hurrying away the soils from many an unprotected field. Timie has been long enough, and the drainage ample enough. even if they were not supplemented by other and more powerful conditions. DISTURBANCES. The rocks in Lincoln county owe their position at pres- ent largely to a great disturbance whose axis through the State passes a little north of the county, through Garrard and Boyle. This axis or uplift, which I have already named the KENTUCKY ANTICLINAL, gives a slope to the rocks for a long way to the southeast. This slope is so pronounced that while Stanford, ten miles southeast of Danville, has its rail- road level only twenty-nine feet lower than that at the latter place, yet the rocks seen at Danville are brought down by this dip at least six hundred feet, or, in other words. the rocks seen at Danville are six hundred feet beneath those on the surface at Staniford. There is an important line of disturbance which passes through the cotunty, and which has controlled some of its imost important features. This uplift enters the county from the east, a little south of Preachersville. passes a little north of Walnut Flat, Hall's Gap, and 'McKinney's Station, and leaves the county near its southeast corner. This line is wyell marked by the elevations and disturbances in the rocks. 27 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. This axis is not confined to this county, but is seen pass- ing through a number of others. The position of the rocks between this uplift and the KENTUCKY ANTICLINAL is that of a trough, with its northwestern side tilted much the higher. This trough-like depression has controlled quite an amount of drainage in this part of the State. The whole drainage of the Hanging Fork of Dix river lies in it. The southwest bend of the Kentucky river between Madison and Jessamillne and Fayette counties, the valleys of Sugar creek and Boone's creek, in Garrard, and the streams which make the hea(l waters of the Rolling Fork, in Casey and Marion counties, are all in this depression, which we name the KENTUCKY SVN- CLINAL. From this uplift in Lincoln county the rocks all slope away to the southeast again. Owing to this dip, the waters soon flow into the Cumberland and Green rivers. Besides the two principal disturbances mentioned, there are quite a number of minor ones distributed over the county. Some of these are quite local, while others can be traced for several miles. Some of them are quite old, and involve a great number of layers of rock, while others are quite recent, and have affected only one or two layers of thin rocks. Prof. N. S. Shaler, in vol. III (pages 412-13), New Series. Kentucky Geological Survey, describes a slight disturbance produced in the bed of a branch in Lincoln county in i877. It has been my good fortune to see scores of those places inI the counties of Lincoln, Garrard, and Madison during the last two years. It seems to me that their origin is quite simple. All of those places lie within the KENTUCKY SYNCLINAL; and, as in every trough-like depression like this, there is a pressure from each side where the rocks are tilted up; the pressures here are from the northwest and southeast. Many of the branches here have their bottoms composed of a thin unbroken layer of rock, which in a dry time has no water over it. Now this surface, often hundreds of yards long, and ten to forty feet wide, is often for days submitted to the heat of the sun, and consequently is expanded in every direction. 28 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. Part of this expansion is against the pressure exerted from the catuse mentioned above. This condition would seem to be sufficient to crack a rock in a line at right-angles to the force ; but another condition comes to its aid. The rocks are often softened by the action of water and easily broken ; and wvhen a rain falls upon their expanded surfaces, the contrac- tion is rapid, and this, added to the force of the pressure, cracks themn in a direction northeastwardly and southwest- wardly. or pixrallel with the regular lines of disturbances. There are usIually three lines of fracture close together, the middle one b-ing pLslhed up like a letter V inverted (A), which figure the whole disturbance resembles. Those disturbances are frequent, and haave had much to do with the eroding out of those drainage lines. I have seen them wheni freshly made, and passing the same spot a few wveeks afterward, have found all vestiges of them gone. TABLE OF ELEVATIONS ABOVE SEA LEVEL. I)anville, Boyle county, Railroad ........ . . . 950 Trenton. Danville, Boyle county, Centre College .974 Trenton. Shelby City, IBoyle and Lincoln counties .969 ]i1lack Slate. Stanford, Lincoln county.... .. . .. .. . .. . . 921 Upper Hudson River. Richmond Junction, Lineoln county . . . . . . . . . . . 844 Vpper Hudson River. Gilbert's Creek. Lincoln county . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820 UTpper Hudson River. Hall's Gap, Lincoln county..... . .. .. . .. . . 993 Medina Sandstone. (Crab Orchard, Lincoln county.... .. . .. .. . . 929 Black Slate. Gum ,Sulphur, Rockcastle county . . .. . . .... . . 878 Black Slate. lIroadlhead, Rockcastle county .903 Waverlv. Mount V ernon, Rockeastle county ........... . 1113 St. Louis Limestone. Rockcastle river, Rockcastle county . . . . . . . . . . 800 St. otuis Limestone. Somerset, Pulaski county........ .. . ... . . 900 St. Louis Limestone. TIhe map which accompanies this report will show the dis- position of the various rocks and soils over the county, while the profile section will exhibit the relation and position of the rocks to each other. MINERAL SPRINGS. In Lincoln county there are a large number of mineral springs. Some of these, situated in and neat Crab Orchard, have old and extended reputations. These springs furnish several classes of water. 29 30 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. The BLACK SLATE everywhere contains more or less of the suliphides of iron. These compounds, by their decomposi- tion, furnish a variety of sulphur, and sulphur and chaly- beate waters-among which, salt-sulphur and black-sulphur are the most common. The 'LOwER( SUBCARBONIFEROUS SHALES furnish some weak springs of chalybeate, but the best water of that kind issues from a layer in the UPPER SILURIAN, which contain oxides of iron. In the CRAB ORCHARD SHALES are a number of springs and seeps which furnish magnesian waters. W\eak alum waters are known at a few places, while salt water has been obtained in the county in boring wells for other purposes. A table of analyses made by Dr. Peter is appended: '5 .R 5" t'Lu posI o oc o t r t ,iunisauftlu 1 1P11 s a P 09 C W i o: ' t X cn 00 -0 a, O cD 01-' cB j-9. -. 5 Jpo')juqdljns, ..o jio a) etldlnEI C,X . - I . . II Io );uqetdlnS; I I CII _ j oalnuoqye,-) . J O alpRU(xl!) i o -asaur.Suumlt -1--l -U ll I0alp uot,: - III o ji alvu xpi.-) IC I; Jjs ss1.1w.S )yltS ] _ gE o Il 3 .. .. .. r.... GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 31 Y,4., - S; 5 G Z --_ ; -_ _-_tX CC '3'C _-: G t _3 ec ._ I-, r,: A U. = WI.6,l- .3 4- E: 3r C C -S UttgJ Ut stlual -U(;) atiffies plo.II - 30 -1-zo 11: Xtr CX-dzi- " l Op' U- en Cc Ir - _4C- t Ow ':1o I t CC CC - o Z CD !1 , v , _, -4 _ o .3 :, C) E- C to_ s -f. g - . _ n In C cc _ o 2.: t I I I I L:u U . _r id __ .1_ _U1:.1 . GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. CRAB ORCHARD SALTS. Crab Orchard salts is a name given to a peculiar variety of epsomite-epsom salt or magnesian sulphate-which is manufactured from the CRAB ORCHARD SHALES of the Upper Silurian in Lincoln and Garrard counties. They differ from the common type of other niagnesian salts, so well known to commerce as a medicine, in containing a number of other ingredients which enhance their value. This strip of country, in which these shales predominates and the manufacture of these salts is conducted, is an irregu- lar one, about thirteen miles in length, and from a few hun- dred yards to two miles in breadth. They lie onl a slope in the rocks to the southeast, and are from sixteen to forty feet in depth. Through all this line and thickness they are im- pregnated with the minerals which characterize the salts. The origin of this deposit is an interesting question, worthy of investigation. That the shales and the minerals contained in them were thrown down from solution during the evapora- tion, of the ocean water in shallow basins, raised above the sea level, is hardly to be accepted, as the differences in the shale and the interstratification of limestone would require other conditions for their formations. It seems more prob- able that the materials for the shales were swept ill ald deposited in protected places by currents, and that afterwards these minerals, which had been contained in the magnesiai layers of the Upper Silirian and Devonian series, were car- ried down this slope, and found in those shales the conditions for their deposition and preservation. The nianufacture of these salts is a profitable business. Carried onl at all seasons of the year, it gives employment to a number of families, who obtain their whole living fromn this industry. They have long been an article of trade, and are much used as a medicine all over the country, but more largely in the Mississippi Valley. having attained quite a rep)- utation in the treatment of yellow fever and a number of other diseases. 32 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. 33 Their first manufacture dates from i826, when a Mr. Reu- ben Dollins lixiviated the earth derived from the shales, and boiled the solution till the salts were thrown down. They were kept at the bar at the old Davenport Hotel, in Crab Orchard, and sold at twelve and one half cents a dose. Dol- lins afterwards boiled the water from a spring. Since that time the business has grown, until now about thirty thousand pounds are annually produced. The springs themselves furnish a very small proportion of the water used. Pits are dug in the shale, usually three to four feet wide, six to twelve feet long, and six to twelve feet deep. These are generally planked uip, and covered to prevent rain from entering them. Water passing through the shales, and seeping into the pits, becomes impregnated with the minerals of the shales, but some more highly than others. Sometimes the water may be drank from the pits, but at other times the solution is too strong; and if there has been much evaporation, it becomes nearly a saturated solution. The water is either pumped or bailed out, and then evap- orated in large iron kettles or pans over wood fires. When but a small quantity is left, this is removed to a slower fire, where the evaporation is completed. The residue, when dried, appears very much like coarse brown and white sugar mixed. In the best brands, the salts are ground to give them a finer appearance. From twenty to fifty gallons of water are required to make one pound of salt. These salts formerly brought as much as one dollar per pound, though the general price now is about fifteen cents. They are often adulterated by unscrupulous parties. I am indebted to Mr. Geo. W. Evans, the largest manu- facturer of these salts, for much of this information and for other courtesies. Mr. Evans -has given much care and study to the manufacture, and now makes about eleven thousand pounds a year of a very superior quality. Below are presented the analyses of two samples of Crab GROLOG. sue.-3 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. Orchard salts, made by Dr. Peter, and taken from vol. IV, page IO8, Kentucky Geolgical Survey, New Series: COMPOSITION OF TWO SAMPLES OF CRAB ORCHARD SALTS DRIED AT 21 FAHRENHEIT. No. 1874. No. 1875. M esia sulphate 54.842 60.627 Soa& sulphate 13 56 8.260 Potaeh sulphate. 2.707 2.814 me suiphate.2.149 1.795 Litteiaephat. .038 .029 Sodium horide. 2.954 1.874 Lime arbonate.......................032 .018 lmagwiaco . ....... ..0.8.. .09 .036 Iron peroxide. - . . . . .. .078 .028 Silica......................124 .118 Water of crystallization andl.l............. . 23.421 24.402 Total......100.000 100.000 FORESTS. Except over the few and small barren "licks," Lincoln county was originally covered with an unbroken forest, in which all the valuable trees of this region grew to perfection. In the northern portion of this county, where the lands are given to agriculture and pasturage, the land has been largely denuded of trees; and this to as large an extent as a wise policy would allow. If some of the broken and wasted areas were planted in trees, it would be better for the general good of the county. The southern portion was, until a few years back, covered with a wealth of trees; but the construction of the railroads near and through it opened up a trade in bark and timber, since when the timber has been rapidly and ruthlessly de- stroyed. As much of this region is better fitted for timber culture than for farming or grazing, the best interest of the county would be subserved by a careful protection of the young trees, and a judicious removal of the old. Such lands as these should be the reservations from which, in the future, other generations would draw their supplies of wood for every purpose. 34 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. ARCHAEOLOGY. At several localities in Lincoln county are to be seen the remains of mounds, graves, and trenches, evidently part of the records left by the ancient and little known mound-build- ers. Such remains are ever interesting; and it is to be regretted that in every case where they have been destroyed, notes were not made, giving all the particulars connectec with them. On Mr. Bright's farm, near the Danville and Stanford pike, is a beautiful mound, which, it is said, has never been opened. On the farm of Dr. C. Fowler an ancient grave was opened, and from it was taken a broken circular stone. A scratched or striated crystal of galena was taken from a mound on the lands of Alex. Hicks, near Milledgeville. On the farm of N. Ware, is a row of low graves, and a few hundred yards from them, two trenches were laid open in the construction of the Cincintnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway. In those were found deer-horns, bones of various animals, broken pottery, and chippings from flints. On the lands of Mr. 13osley, on the Hangitng Fork, have been picked up a number of things, among them an ungrooved axe, made from an iron ore. There was found some years ago, near Turnersville, a large steatite pipe, carved in part to represent a deer. 'T'he most interesting locality in the county is situated two or three miles southwest of Hustonville. Here were situ- ated two large mounds, and a number of smaller ones; all of which have been opened. The following particulars I ob- tained from Dr. C. Fowler: 'rhe largest of those mounids was ten feet in height, and the second one eight feet; they were about thirty-five feet in diameter. On opening the larger one, seven skeletons wvere found; the upper one was only one foot beneath the surface; the head was to the east, a moon-shaped piece of copper was across the neck, and seven arrow-heads seemed to have been placed in the left hand. One of the other skel- etons was very large, and on the breast was a piece of mica six inches square. With the others were found some bone 35 36 GEOLOGY OF LINCOLN COUNTY. awls, some flints, a string of beads, and a copper implement. If those had been originally placed in any order with the bodies, it could not be determined when they were taken out. The second mound contained neither bones nor tools, but in their place were some large stonies, altars (), and some charcoal. Several small mounds were opened, but they con- tained nothing. Several graves were opened, and found to contain skeletons, charcoal, and various implements. In one was a large sea-shell fashioned into a drinking cup. Th'llree hundred yards southwest of these mounds, a large sugar-tree blew up by the roots, and exposed two well formed steatite kettles, each twelve inches in diameter. APPENDIX A. STATISTICS OF LINCOLN COUNTY, COMPILED FROM THE REPORTS OF THE 10TH CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1880. 1880. Total population ... .. . 15,080 1870. Total " ..... 10,947 1860. Total " 10,647 1880. White A . 11,172 1870. White " ..... 7,871 1860. White " 7,059 1880. Colored " 3,908 1870. Colored " ..... 3.076 1860. Colored " 3,588 1880. Native " . 14,991 1870. Native ' 10,876 1860. Native " . 10,544 1880. Foreign " 89 1870. Foreign " ..... 71 1860. Foreign " 103 1880. Stanford, population: . . 1,213 1880. Crab Orchard, population . 538 1880. Hustonville, population . 353 Number of farms. . . . 1,284 Acres of improved land .120,490 Value of farms, including build- ings and fences. 3.246,176 Value of farming implements and machinery . .. . . . . . . 82,282 Value of livestock . . . . 591,324 Cost of building and repairing fences, 1879. ........ 43.614 Cost of fertilizers, 1879. . 407 Estimated value of all farm pro- ducts, 1879 433,045 Assessed valuation, real estate, 2,833.762 Assessed valuation, per'l prop'ty, 994,384 Assessed valuation, total 3,828,146 Taxation, State... .. .. 17.418 Taxation, county. .. . . 10.267 Taxation, town and school dist. 899 Taxation, total... . . . 28,584 5Miles of railroad. . 50.91 Valuation of railroads in the county. . . . . . . . 1,047,320 Miles of turnpikes. . 120 Average cost of turn'kes per mile, 1,800 Total cost of turnpikes.. . 216.000 Number of horses. i. 3,644 Number of mules and asses . 1,113 Number of working oxen. ... 417 Number of milch cows . . 3,088 Number of other cattle. . 6,332 Number of sheep. .13,391 Number of swine . .18,260 Pounds of wool. .. . . . . .. 55,512 Pounds of butter . ..... . 166,184 Pounds of cheese. ..... . . 3,775 Gallons of milk. . ... .. 1,542 Bushels of Indian corn . . 628,807 Bushels of wheat . . 98,946 Bushels of oats. . . 13,942 Bushels of Irish potatoes . 11 ,201 Bushels of rye. .. . . . . . . 7,792 Bushels of sweet potatoes.. . 7,160 Bushels of buckwheat .74 Pounds of tobacco .35,214 Tons of hay. ... . 2,834 Value of orchard products . . 7,317 Manufact'ing establishments, No., 61 Capital invested in .. .... . 110,285 Hands employed in .. . . . . . 128 Wages paid in the year . . . . . 25,947 Cost of materials... . 116,166 Value of products. .. .. 174,819 Bonded debt . .. . . . 24000 Floating debt... . . . . . 100 Total debt. - .. 24.100 tTotal No. of acres of land, 1881 185.326 tAverage value per acre, 1881. . 13.93 Deried fiom other sources. t Auditor's Report.