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Report on the geology of Spencer and Nelson counties / by W.M. Linney, including notes on the birds of Nelson County, by Chas. Wickliffe Beckham. Kentucky Geological Survey. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b97-20-37309380 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Report on the geology of Spencer and Nelson counties / by W.M. Linney, including notes on the birds of Nelson County, by Chas. Wickliffe Beckham. Kentucky Geological Survey. J.D. Woods, public printer and binder, Frankfort, Ky. :  58, 58 p. : front. (fold. col. map) ; 26 cm. Coleman John Robert Procter, director. Cover title. One col. map on 1 folded leaf of plates in pocket: "Spencer and Nelson counties." Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1997. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN06745.10 KUK) Printing Master B97-20. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Geology Kentucky. Birds Kentucky.Linney, W. M. (William M.) Beckham, Charles Wickliffe. Maps and Charts for Kentucky Geological Survey Publications, Series 2, Miscellaneous Reports, Volume 5 Map of Spencer and Nelson Counties is filmed after p. 59 of William Linney's Report on the Geology of Spencer and Nelson Counties. "Birds of Nelson County" is filmed after the Map of Spencer and Nelson Counties following p.59 of William Linney's Report on the Geology of Spencer and Nelson Counties. Map of Montgomery and Clark Counties is filmed at the end of William Linney's Report on the Geology of Clark and Montgomery Counties. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. JOHN R. PROCTER, DIRECTOR. REPORT ON TH E GEOLOGY OF SPENCER COUNTY. WITH MAP. BY W. M. LINNEY. STEREOTYPED FOR THE SURVRV This page in the original text is blank. INTRODUCTORY LETTER. HON. JOHN R. PROCTMR, Director of the Kentucky Geological Survey. DEAR SIR: I herewith transmit to you my Reports on the Geology of Spencer and Nelson Counties. I would suggest that the two counties be exhibited on one map, and that the two Reports be printed under one cover. I have continued the divisions of the Hudson River Epoch by colors on this map, and am happy to say that Mr. J. B. Hoeing's careful and beautiful work has been very much appreciated by all who have examined it. I am, very truly, yours, W. M. LINNEY. FRANKFORT, Ky., January, I884. This page in the original text is blank. GEOLOGY OF SPENCER COUNTY. Spencer county is situated in the north central portion of Kentucky, and was formed in I824 from parts of Bullitt, Shelby, and Nelson. Unlike the majority of counties ill the State, its territory has remained unchanged since its first formation. It has Jefferson and Shelby on the north, An- derson on the east, Nelson on the south, and Bullitt on the west. Its area is comprised in about one hundred and six- teen thousand acres of surface, and in i88o its population was 7,040. The county seat is Taylorsville, a neat little town of about 5oo inhabitants. It is romantically situated on Salt river, in an angle made by that stream and Brash- ears creek. The various civil divisions have a small village or post-office and store conveniently situated. Salt river flows irregularly east and west through the county, receiving Ash, Little Beech, Big Beech, Brashears, Simpson, Elk, and Plum creeks as its larger affluentzs, while into these and into the river innumerable rills carry the sur- face water from the whole county. The Cumberland and Ohio Railroad, operated by the Louisville and Nashville sys- tem, passes through the county, giving needed facilities for travel and shipping. Five turnpikes have been constructed, but these are only a small portion of this class of roads which the people should construct. Material for turnpikes is so con- venient throughout the county that their cost of construction should be at the minimum, and the whole county should have a net-work of them, giving every citizen facilities of good, substantial roads to every portion of the county. Ta)ylorsxville has a high school of which her citizens are proud, but the general schools of the county need better houses and nmore money to make them as continuous and REPORr ON THE valuable as is required. the county has a fine moral, social, end economic record, and with more good roads and better schools, it would be amongst the most desirable counties in the State for health, plenty, and happiness. The general surface of the county is what is usually termed hilly, but in fact there are no hills which rise above the gen- eral level of the country. It is nearly a plane, through which water has chiseled the many lines of drainage. Often these reach a depth of two to nearly three hundred feet. From the higher portions one may usually look over a large part of the county, and even see the higher points in the counties lying to the north, east, and south. Many of these views are beau- tiful, and all of them are interesting, as from them one obtains some idea of the vast erosion of material which has taken place from over the present surface of this region. \With the countless hollows which mark this county the number of good springs is comparatively few, and the pota- ble water of the county is largely drawn from wells, which are comparatively easy of construction. Artificial ponds have been largely made, the conformation of the surface and the clay beds being very favorable for their construction. GENERAL GEOLOGY. Spencer county lies entirely within the so-called blue lime- stone area of the State, and its bedded rocks are comprised entirely within the limits of the Hudson River Group of the Lower Silurian age, consequently the lower rocks, as seen in the State, have not here been reached in the channels of the streams; neither do the higher series now occupy their places on the tops of the higher points. So in this county we may not look for those massive building-stones which are exposed to view where the Kentucky and her tributaries have cut into them, nor to the higher series where the coals and iron ores of the State are to be found. But here the elements of wealth must be expected from the vegetable productions by a wise system of farming, by cultivation and grazing, and a particular care in the preservation of the soils. 6 GEOLOGY OF SPENCER COUNTY. GENERAL SECTION OF THE ROCKS OF KEN-TUCKY. Feet. Feet. Quaternary 20) .. .. 0.. .. .... Ca(rboirifi rouls - Coal Measures (14b'.. . . Conglomnerate (r MliHstone Grit x 14a lSob-o lgri, eierots-il tpper or Limestone (131,A........ . .. .. .. . .. .. 300 t 600 Lower or Silicious (13a)...... ... . .. .. .. . .. .. 300 DeItonl i - Hamilton Period 10)..... .. . Black Slate.... 60 76 (',rniferous Period9e.. . . .. Corniferous...... .. 16 . I oe r .S'', "itr8m - Niagpra Period.56 . Niagara.)... . ... ... . _-.a.. . . ... C(linton.... ... .. .. .. 100 l_-.)... . .. .. \I1 lina.... .. .. . . J Lams i"- ,Chi ria a - Trenton Periodl A46 andl 4r) Hs. . . o Hsn River .650) -- (4aq.. '. Trenton t.. . . ]60 940 Birdse-,e .130) Canadian Periodr... .......... . . .. .. . . . .... ('haz (3). . ...... .. .. ... . .. .. . .. .. ..50 The above table exhibits a sectional view of the relations which the rocks of Kentucky bear to each other and the position occupied by the Hudson River Group, upon which is based the soils and other features of Spencer county. The Hudson River Group in Kentucky occupies the larger portion of the Blue Grass area of the State, and has been divided for convenience of description into three almost natu- ral parts: the Lower, the Middle, and the Upper beds. In each of these divisions there is a general similarity in the larger part of the rocks; in the soils as derived from them; in the general aspect of the surface, as well as in the distribu- tion of the trees which constitute the forest over them. These divisions are of unequal thickness, as will be seen from the following table, which gives their approximate thick- nesses in this part of the State: 7 REPORT ON THE HUDSON RIVER GROUP. 'Upper Hudson River beds ...... . . . . . . ........... 300 feet. Middle Hudson River beds . . . . . . . ....... .... ..... . 150 feet. Lower Hudson River beds . ............. . . . .. .. . .. 200 feet- 650 feet LOWER HUDSON RIVER GROUP. These, the lowest rocks exposed in Spencer county, are seen along Salt river and the other streams in the eastern part of the county, showing at their deepest cut points about one hundred and sixty feet of their upper portion. They do not, therefore, rise to the upper part of the county and make any considerable area of soils. It is here and there that portions, or sometimes the whole, of small fields are based on this series. Here they are of the same character as described in the reports of other counties which contain them. Their general characteristics are to be seen in many places-layers of compact, often half crystalized, limestones, usually rough bedded, from an inch to a foot in thickness, separated by beds of shale, often thin but sometimes several feet in thickness. The limestones often contain nodules of hardened clay, and sometimes iron pyrites. The shales are often a blue clay with few marks of stratification, and in this county remarkably destitute of organic remains. Some of these layers make tolerably fair building-stones, and have been used, to some extent, for that purpose. The layers of great wave-marks have lost none of their characters through a half dozen counties, but are seen wherever their horizons are exposed. In all the stream beds where this division is seen the broken blocks of limestone are exposed in great quantities. The shales are torn out and dissolved by water, and the ledges of stone break off by their own weight, where not originally fractured, and drop down. Roads along those branches are therefore often almost impassable from their roughness. The same cause has often produced the same effects on the hill- sides where the loose blocks cover the ground; and where no care has been taken to preserve them the fields, or part of 8 GEOLOGY OF SPENCER COUNTV 9 them, become barren, rocky places, from which all the soil has been washed away. Those places have usually been turned out as worthless, and are enlarging each year. With the removal of those stones and a part of the ledges, those places could readily be brought back to grass or timber lands, while the stones could be built into fences, and thus preserve in part the timber, which is becoming much scarcer than the interest of these lands require. The soils on this series of rocks were of good quality, and, where taken good care of, are very lasting. the destruction of the shales and limestones being a continual source of renewal. White oak was the great prevailing timber which covered these soils, and even to-day, when the forests have been so largely destroyed, its well-known character is exhibited in the remaining woodlands. Sugar maple, red oak, sassafras, black hickory, perhaps, were the most prevailing trees which grew with the white oak. Over some of the exhausted soils, and in some of the remaining woodlands, young trees are coming up rapidly, and, with care, in time would be very valuable; but, with the exception of the black walnut, none of them have re- ceived any care or protection. Among the young timber there are places where the white oak is in fair numbers, and apparently of vigorous growth. This series of rocks, by a dip to the north and west, are carried beneath all the drainage lines, and are hid everywhere over the general surface by the rocks which compose the next member of the Hudson River Group. The fossil forms which they contain are very numerous, and are those species which mark the same series in all the counties to the south and east. Trinuicleus concentricus, Calymene senarit, A sap/ihus gigas, Conularia Irentonensis, Gr;ap/oli/es gracilis, BeIle;-ophIon bibo- ba/ts, Lep/cena sericea, Or/Izzs nrul/isec/a, and other, forms pecu- liar or general to this horizon, are often seen, but rarely in good condition. The shales are barren, and the limestones are so hard that they give few specimens worth collecting. Some particles of sulphate of lime, and a little iron pyrites, are often 9 REPORT ON THE included in the shales or rocks, and in one instance a weak brine spring was known to exist in them. So alike are all the features of the Lower Hudson in Spencer, as compared with the same division in Madison and all the intervening counties, that one almost feels sure, in many places, that he has been at the same point in other counties. The layers of rock, the character of shales, the peculiarities of soils, the distribution of trees and other plants, the variety of slopes, and the condition of the fossils, all are so analogous that they seem like well remembered places. MIDDLE HUDSON RIVER BEDS. This division of the rocks makes the upper surface in the eastern portion of the county, and, like the former beds, pass beneath the country in going to the north and west. The map which accompanies this report shows well the relation existing between the three divisions included in Spencer. The Middle beds, which were described in the old series of the Kentucky Geological Reports, by Dr. David Dale Owen, under the name of the Silicious Mudstone, have, through a number of counties, a nearly uniform thickness of about one hundred and fifty feet. Their general character is very much alike through the belt of counties studied so far; but some changes have been noticed in their northwest extension. As has been stated in the reports on other counties, these beds are made up of mud-like sandstones and shales, with a number of limestone layers included in them. To the south- east some of the sandy layers are quite heavy bedded, and leave a concretionary character. I was not able to find either of these layers in Spencer county, though, with one other exception, there is a general resemblance in the more com- mon features. Within the lower third of the series there is a layer of limestone which is marked with the great wave- like character so common to the lower beds, and from some slight analogies it seems as if the origin of the two phases were the same. I O GEOLOGY OF SPENCER COUNTY. There are many places where partial sections of these rocks can be seen and studied, and they show, that while the heavier layers of sandstones have disappeared, the general mass of shales retain their characters very well, but that there has been introduced a larger proportion of limestone. Generally the soils derived from these rocks are naturally very good. Their decomposition is rapid, and they give con- siderable depth to the soils. Their porosity allows the infil- tration of water through them, and the sandy layers hold a good deal of moisture. This is a very favorable condition, as they are well drained, and soon dry out on the surface in wet seasons, and in dry ones the amount of moisture stored be- neath, by its evaporation, brings not only plant food from below, but moisture to sustain the growving crops. Over the larger part of the County covered by this series the surface lies in narrow ridges, with steep slopes on each side. These ridges and slopes are cultivated year after year without much apparent injury; yet their destruction is rapid from the continual washing away of the surface. The decom- position is so deep that a continual renewal of the soil on the surface is produced by the exposure of the shales from be- neath. There are no other soils in the State which could stand half the rough, careless treatment much of this land has received without being permanently ruined. Year after year of corn-growing on slopes of twenty to forty degrees is usually very destructive to our lands; but in many cases these do not seem to be much injured by such treatment. There are some conditions where these soils, or a part of them, have been badly worn. It is where some hard, sandy shales come in; these break up into fragments, and produce, from some cause, poor patches in the fields. In the cultiva- tion of these lands it would be better to plant in each of the hollows over a farm some shrubs or small trees, which would hold back and preserve the material which is so rapidly washed away, and then if bands of grass land were left half way from the top to the bottom, extending around the slope, a great saving of soil could thus be made. V_ REPORT ON THE An analysis of eleven specimens of these soils, made by Dr. Robert Peter, gives the following average composition: AVERAGE OF ELEVEN' MIDDLE HUDSON SOILS. organic and volatile matters...... .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 4.778 Alumina and iron and manganese oxides .................. 7.064 Lime carbonate.... .. .. . ... . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .101 Magnesia.... .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .605 Phosphoric acid (P2 06)...... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .165 Potash extracted by acids ........................ .155 Sand and insoluble silicates.... .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 86.551 Water expelled at 2120F ....................... not estimated Potash in the insoluble silicates ........... .. .. . . . not estimated In his notes on these soils the Doctor says: "These soils contain average organic matters, alumina and iron oxide and phosphoric acid; more than average magnesia and sand and insoluble silicates, and less than the average of carbon- ate of lime." As these soils give, on an average, a less quantity of lime than is usual, it would be interesting, and perhaps very profit- able, for the farmers residing on them to institute a series of experiments lasting through several years, in which various quantities of lime were added to these soils. This would be a cheap experiment, as from nearly every drainage line cut through these soils can be procured limestone in quantity which will burn into a good quality of lime. The original forests over this series in Spencer was, as usual in many other counties, composed largely of beech, often form- ing as much as seventy-five per cent. of the trees. In some places sugar maple and white oak were common species, while yellow poplar and walnuts of fine proportions were scattered in some quantity. Various other trees were sometimes seen, but always few in numbers. Over what is called Briar Ridge about i830 a destructive tornado leveled all of the timber for some distance, and the trees now standing have grown since that time. They are largely white oak, red oak, poplar, wal- nut, ash, and beech. This is not a series where fossils are well preserved or easy to collect. The casts of Calynene senaria, Strophomena al/er- nala, &c., are not uncommon in the sandy layers, while in the 12 GEOLOGY OF SPENCER COUNTY. lower part of the limestones some of the forms of the Lower Hudson are seen. Towards the top Strepftorhyncus p/ano- convexus is very common, and is usually associated with one or more of the common forms of chatetes corals. In the northern part of the county I found two specimens of a brachiospongia, perhaps digi/ata. One of these was loose on the surface, but the other was imbedded in a layer of the mudstone. This is an interesting fact, for it is not positively known from what horizon the specimens found in Franklin county came, they having been found separated from any matrix, usually in the beds of the creeks. The one found in Mercer county came from the top of the Trenton. So we at last have-two known horizons for this singular fossil. The similarity of this series, as seen in Spencer and com- pared with other counties, is no less striking than that ex- hibited in the Lower Hudson beds. The deep-cut hollows, the narrow divides, the plant distribution, and other natural features are much alike. This division, like the former, dis- appears under the surface' and the streams as we go north- westerly through the county. The map and section exhibit this in an interesting manner. THE UPPER HUDSON RIVER BEDS. This series make the last and upper division of the rocks of the county, but are not so homogeneous in their charac- ter as the other divisions. They differ much at different elevations in soil, rocks, timbers, &c., yet it is not advisable to subdivide them by further names; but some description of the unlike characters is necessary. The lower part of these beds is tolerably pure thin lime- stone, containing quite a percentage of phosphate of lime. These limestones are to be seen resting on the Middle beds through the county. They are often irregularly laminated, and were evidently largely deposited in circling currents, which left their impress on them everywhere that they are exhibited to view. The grinding of the currents has left them nearly barren of fossils wlhose forms can be determined, Is REPORT ON THE but it is the horizon of Pt/iodicdya hili, Or/iks linneyi, Con- chico/i/es corrugatus, Relepora angulata, Cyrtoceras va/adng- hami, &c. These rocks are about seventy-five feet thick, and give what are usually considered the finest lands in the county. Blue-grass undoubtedly grows better over them than on any other beds, and they lie usually in gentler slopes; but in Spencer there is not a large extent where they are at the surface. Their rich character is largely due to the amount of phosphates which they contain; so in this case the appli- cation of bone-dust and like fertilizers is of little benefit. Farmers had, as a usual thing, better experiment on their farms with a variety of fertilizers than to purchase at a large outlay those which their lands do not require. Too much time and means have been wasted from an ignorance of these subjects. The principal distribution of timbers over these soils was like that in other counties, being largely made up of blue ash, wild cherry, chinquapin oak, hackberry, white ash, sugar maple, black walnut, and shell-bark hickory. One passing through parts of these counties of the Blue Grass Region. and seeing the dying remains of its woodlands, could hardly believe that once this region was covered with a continuous forest of splendid trees. Overlying the last are some one hundred and thirty feet of limestones that are thin and shelly; except in a few instances, disposed to decompose readily when exposed. These layers are very full of the remains of shells and corals, and, from the vast numbers of one species, have been named the Lynx bed. Through many of these layers there is quite a percentage of clay, which assists very much in their decomposition. Phos- phate of lime is present in some layers in considerable quan- tities. There are two or three layers of stone in this section which are sometimes worked into very good foundation stones. The same layers, however, when followed for some distance, be- come unfit for use. All of this section melts down into very fair soils, and where the proper care of them is taken, they are 14 GEOLOGY OF SPENCER COUNTY. almost inexhaustible. Yet careless criminality or ignorance has left some sad blots on them over the county in the shape of bare places where the soils have been entirely washed away. These places, by being covered with refuse, are soon restored, and it is now common to see in this county fafms which had been thought to be worn out restored to a high degree of fertility. The increase in stock raising and in the knowledge of the proper cultivation of lands and their care have sensibly increased the character and worthi of many tracts of land, and it is to be hoped that this will be further extended. A mixture of maples red oak, white oak, white chestnut oak, walnut, hickory, black ash, mulberry, white elm, buck- eye, water beech, and red bud were the principal timbers. The forests have been largely destroyed, and there is urgent aeed that farmers should take some care in propagating a few acres of trees on each farm. In many places, on all the various soils, there is sorme little pains taken to leave a few black walnuts, but all the oth er species of valuable trees should be cared for, as it is evident that mixed timbers will grow better, give a better return, and be less liable to death from insects, disease, or other causes than one spe- cies. White oak, poplar, wild cherry, black walnut, ash, black locust, mulberry, and catalpa should at least be found in numbers on every farm, and these receive the same care and solicitude as is given to a well-kept orchard. In this section of the rocks fossils are wonderfully plenty and well preserved. Orthis lynx, Orthis occidentalis, Or/his den/a/a, S/ropihomena al/ernata, Ambonychia i-adia/a, with vari- ous species of chaetetes, are especially abundant. Two specimens of soils were collected from the farm of D. B. Wigginton, some two miles north of Fairfield. The first was taken from a field which had been cultivated for some seventy-five years, and was eight inches of top soil, based on the Lynx beds. The second was subsoil below the first, ten inches in thickness. These samples were forwarded to Dr. Peter, who has furnished me the following analyses: I 5 REPORT ON THE COMPOSITION OF SOIL AND SUBSOIL, DRIED AT 2170 F. 1 2 Organic and volatile matters.. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . 3.550 3.205 Alumina and iron and manganese oxides ... ...... . . . 7.809 11.849 Lime carbmate.. .320 .295 Magnesia. . .. .. ... .. .. . .. .. .. . .250 .274 Phosphoric acid (P2). 05. ... . . . . . . .236 .221 Potash (extracted by acids).... . . .. ......... .228 .470 Soda (extracted by acids)........... ...... . .192 .117 Water, expelled at 3400 F.................... . .727 830 Sand and insoluble silicates.. 86.175 82 320 99.487 99.581 Hydroscopic moisture (per cent.)..... .. . .. .. . .. . 1.850 1.063 Potash in the insoluble silicates (per cent.). . . ... 1.063 1.206 Soda in the insoluble silicates.... .. .. . .. .. . .. . .473 .384 A portion. of the time this land has been over cultivated in exhausting crops, but yet, as Dr. Peter says, " these still remain better than average soils, the subsoil being especially rich in potash; " and adds: " No doubt their fertility might be improved by an addition to the organic matter-humus-by stable manure, or the culture of clover or other green crops to be ploughed under." Above these is about one hundred feet of mixed layers of limestones and shales. Near the bottom are several layers of heavy-bedded limestones, with more or less clayey matter in them, and mud shales between them. Those layers often have strings of calcite in them, giving what is called a partial Birdseye appearance. In places these layers are firm, solid, good wearing stones, of which houses have sometimes been erected, while at other places they are disposed to break and split into fragments which crumble into soil. This is perhaps largely due to the presence of iron pyrites, which, in oxidiz- ing, rupture the layers, and assist in dissolving them. The soils derived from these and other layers near this horizon give heavy beds of clay, which make quite a good soil, and are highly prized as wheat lands. They grow very fine crops of clover, and are often sown in that plant to improve the soil, and prepare it for grain growing. These soils are GEOLOGY OF SPENCER COUNTY. easy of improvement, seeming to possess in themselves all the elements of richness, except vegetable matter, which is given by the turning under ot green crops. The timber here was largely white oak, and these clay lands are usually here known by the name of white oak lands. Sometimes, however, on the flatter ridges, beech made quite a feature, and in this case the larger amount of moisture may have had much to do with the change of timber, and also for the preference of these lands for corn. The fossils in these heavy layers are several forms of mur- chisonias, lamellibranchs, and a leperditia; all of them are usu- ally poorly preserved. At the base of this section is everywhere seen fragments of chert, which must have been at one time a continuous bed in this horizon, but giving many curious concretion-like forms. Throughout this chert, and associated with it, are numerous forms of fossils-Orthis dentata, Chote/es fibrosa, Heterosponoia subramosa, &c., silicified. In a number of places, at the heads of drainage lines, where once were evidently marshy places, beds of bog iron ore have been deposited, the presence of the silicious chert aiding in its formation. This ore is sometimes six or eight inches thick, but is quite poor, and very limited in quantity. Above the last the beds are quite variable. Sometimes there is thirty feet of yellowish sandy layers or blueish sili- cious shales, with limestones and clay shales. Again these are largely magnesian, showing that the conditions which afterward formed the heavy magnesian limestones of the Upper Silurian had begun its work. Above these, and con- stituting the highest layers seen in the county, and on its western and northern boundary, is sometimes the great coral bed so common in other counties at this horizon -Strepte- lasma corniculum, Te/radium minus, Columnaria alveolata, Columnaria s/ella/a, Bea/ricea nodulosa, and Bea/ricea undu- la/a. Among these are often some of the brachiopod shells and the smaller corals. These fossils are distributed in soft GEOLOG. SUR.-2 I 7 REPORT ON THE earthy limestones and shales, in which indurated clay balls of many shapes are very common. These hardened clay masses resist decomposition in a remarkable degree, seeming at times to remain longer than the friable stones in which they are included. While this ends the existing rock series of the county, it does not include what has undoubtedly been spread over its whole surface in past ages. Within a few miles from the line of the county the rocks of the Upper Silurian are seen in place on three sides, and the time must have been recent, in a geological sense, since this period had its place in the rocks of the county. All the rocky series described in the foregoing pages have, in time, stretched unbroken over the county, and when we see the great number of valleys which have been dug out of its floor by the action of the present lines of drainlge, it is easy to comprehend what an im- mense amount of material has been removed from over the higher parts of the surface. Occasionally in the soils are now found silicious remains of rocks and fossils which belonged to series much higher than any which now are seen. These extend up to and include the conglomerate pebbles, which are now, wherever in place. 700 or 8oo feet higher than the rocks seen in this county. The general erosion of the surface of the county is in a northwest direction, and agrees with the position of the KENTUCKY ANTICLINAL, an uplift which passes through the State to the southeast of Spencer county. This erosion has been modified most probably by an uplift in the region of the northern lakes, made subsequent to the greater denuda- tion of the surface. BOTTOM LANDS. Along Salt river and some of the larger creeks there are bottom lands which are composed of mixed material brought down and deposited by the action of the streams. As Salt river has its source in Boyle county amongst the waste of the conglomerate, and flows down over the lower subcarbon- GEOLOGY OF SPENCER COUNTY. iferous, cuts through all the Hudson River beds and into the Trenton, it may be seen that those alluvial deposits are the comminuted fragments from a great -variety of rocks mixed with the vegetable remains from many soils. These bottoms are, from narrow strips of sloping surfaces, where the Lower Hudson cuts through, to wide level valleys as the Upper Hudson is reached, toward the west of the county. These bottoms have been highly prized in time as very fertile lands, receiving, when overflowed, the deposits of fine earth, leaves, and mold brought down by the river. The country above has, however, been so devastated of its timber that the leaf mold and other vegetable matter make but a small part of the present deposits. \Vith the tearing away of the clay soils on the steeper slopes of the county, clay is becoming, in many places, the larger portion of the deposits. Thus it is evident that many of those richer bottoms which line the streams of Central Kentucky are becoming harder to work; later to become dry in the spring, and poorer in the vegetable matter which adds richness to our soils. ARCHAEOLOGY. I could learn of no mounds or graves of prehistoric charac- ter, yet the various implements usually associated with them have been ploughed up in many fields in different parts of the county, and especially along the line of Salt river and Brashears creek. These have been usually destroyed or removed from the county, and no record of them has been kept. I9 APPENDIX A. STATISTICS OF SPENCER COUNTY, COMPILED FROM THE REPORTS OF THE 10TH CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1880, AND OTHER SOURCES. 1880. Total population .7,040 1870. Total " 5,956 1860. Total " 6,188 1880. White .'.... . 5,414 1870. White . . . .. 4,477 1860. White . . . .. 3,974 1880. Colored ...... 1,626 1870. Colored " 1,479 1860. Colored " 2,214 1880. Native ' 6,940 1870. Native '' 5,854 1860. Native . '.. 6,097 1880: Foreign ' . . . . . 100 1870. Foreign '' 102 1860. Foreign " 91 1880. Taylorsville, population. 537 1880. Mt. Eden, population . . 115 Number of farms. . . .. 810 Acres of improved land . . 96,542 Value of farms, including build- ings and fences. . . . . . 2,253,229 Value of farming implements and machinery .. . . . . . . . 77,630 Value of live stock . . .. 376,177 Cost of building and repairing fences, 1879. . . . . . . . 3S0,284 Cost of fertilizers, 1879 .... . 461 Estimated value of all farm pro- ducts, 1879 .379,597 Assessed valuation, real estate, 1,450,089 Assessed valuation, per'l prop'ty, 374,026 Assessed valuation, total . . . 1,824,115 Taxation, State... . . . . . . 8,299 Taxation. county.. . . 4,100 Taxation, town and school dist. 353 Taxation, total . .12,734 Miles of railroad . .. . 35 Valuation of railroad in county . 29,400 Miles of turnpikes. ...... Average cost of turn'kes per mile, Total cost of turnpikes ...... Number of horses . .2... . 2,827 Number of mules and asses . 601 Number of working oxen .. . . 4 Number of milch cows... 1,827 Number of other cattle... 4,338 Number of sheep .. . . . . . . 15,125 Number of swine .. . . . . . . 15,892 Pounds of wool . . . 68,300 Pounds of butter.. . . . . . . 120,761 Pounds of cheese.. ..... . 1,590 Gallons of milk. . . . . . . . 2,000 Bushels of Indian corn .. . . . 528,987 Bushels of wheat....... . 116,006 Bushels of oats. . ...... . 18,743 Bushels of rve.. .. .... . 6,789 Bushels of Irish potatoes . . . 7,990 Bushels of sweet potatoes. . 560 Bushels of barley. .... . 858 Bushels of buckwheat. Tons of hay . .2,374 Value of orchard products . . . 14,798 Pounds of tobacco. . . . . . . 28,185 Manufact'ing establishments, No., 15 Capital invested in... . . . . 27,100 Hands employed in .. . . . . . 28 Wages paid in the year.... . 3,024 Cost of materials........ . 73,675 Value of products . ...... . 89,361 Bonded debt. . . . . . . . . . 245,500 Floating debt. . Total debt ........... Sinking fund -......... Net debt.. . . . . . . 245,500 Total number acres of land, 1881, 116,017 Av'age listed value per acre, 1881, 11.61 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. JOHN R. PROCTER, DIRECTOR. REPORT ON THU GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. By W. M. LINNEY. JOHN D. WOODS, PUBLIC PRINTER AND BINDER. This page in the original text is blank. GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. This page in the original text is blank. GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. GENERAL NOTES. Nelson county was founded by the General Assembly of Virginia in I774, being the fourth in the State-then the Dis- trict of Kentucky. At that time its territory was very large, but by the successive formation of new counties its area has been reduced, until now its superficial extent is comprised within about two hundred and fifty thousand acres. This county lies in the north-central portion of the State, and is bounded on the north by Bullitt and Spencer; on the east by Anderson, Washington and Marion; on the south by Washington, Marion and Larue, and on the west by Larue, Har- din and Bullitt counties. The population in i 88o amounted to sixteen thousand six hundred and nine. Bardstown is the county seat and principal town. It is one of the oldest towns in the State. Its population accord- ing to the late census was one thousand eight hundred and three. Here is located St. Jbseph's College, an old, well known and well established institution for the education of young men. Here also are situated two high schools, for the education of females, which have deserved reputations. Bloomfield and Fairfield, in the northern portion of the county, and New Hope and New Haven, in the southern, are small towns, and besides these are a number of small villages and railroad stations scattered through the county. At Nazareth Station, on the Bardstown Branch of the Louisville and Nash- ville Railroad, is located Nazareth Academy, a female school of long and faithful standing. Southeast of Bardstown is located St. Thomas' Orphan Asylum. Several parochial, and GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. the regular common schools of the county, give altogether more than the average facilities for general instruction. In the southern part of the county is a monastery under con- trol of the Monks of La Trappe. There is a school for boys connected with this institution. The Louisville and Nashville system of railroads has three several branches traversing different portions of the county. The Knoxville Branch along the southern border, the Bards- town Branch through the center, and the Cumberland and Ohio Division enters the northern. The location of all these are exhibited on the map. The turnpike system is not near as good as it should be. There are a number of these in the county, and portions of the northern part are tolerably well supplied, but other portions have roads which through part of the year are almost im- passable. A good system of common roads is of more gene- ral use to a larger number of persons than even railroads, and the character of the roads shows largely the character and wealth and intelligence of the people. TOPOGRAPHY. The surface features of Nelson are quite varied in their charac- ter. In the northeastern portion the streams have eroded deep into the surface, and the hills and hollows with steep slopes give the character of roughness to the country. A close net work of small streams make the ridges quite narrow, some of whose slopes are quite rocky. West of this the lands are not so broken, but still are quite rolling, but give comparative easy cultivation. Through the center of the county are some very level tracts unbroken for some distance with streams, which have cut but little beneath the surface. The southern part is made up of broad, flat bottoms on the streams and the so- called knobs, which rise in isolated knolls or in connected ridges at elevations of two to four hundred feet. These hills, or knobs, add much to the variety of surface fea- tures, for on looking over the country from the common emi- 26 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. nences, the channels of the streams are not seen and a general levelness appears, but those hills are to be seen for many miles. The most of them have some local name to distinguish them, and some beautiful landscapes may be seen from some of them. Rohan's Knob is the best known and most easily recognized. The top is one thousand and fifty-three feet above the sea level, and so isolated is its character that for miles around it the whole county is more than three hundred feet below its summit. It is a well known landmark, and from its top one may see por- tions of a number of other counties. The semi-circle of blue hills which seem to inclose it in the distance on a clear day are perfectly outlined, and the sunshine and shadows cast pictures of beauty among the jutting rocks, the bare spots and amid the forest covering. Following them in the farther distance, they seem to melt away in the distant horizon. This should be a point for the summer tourist, be he idler or student, for beside the beauties of the landscape, there is much to interest in the species of plants which grow over the different rocks and soils. This county is well watered. Salt River is on the line in the northeastern corner. Beech Fork flows on the eastern bound- ary for a number of miles, and then through the south-central part to its union with Rolling Fork. The latter stream is the boundary on the whole of the southern border. Each of these streams were formerly used for the transportation of the pro- ducts of the county, but no flat-boats have been built for this purpose for a number of years, consequently these streams have ceased to be highways of navigation, except for saw-logs, which are floated down for a few miles to some mill. GENERAL GEOLOGY. The following section illustrates the geology of the State, the numbers referring to Dana's table. The maximum thicknesses of all the formations have not been determined. 2 7 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. GENERAL SECTION OF THE ROCKS OF KENTUCKY. Quartenary. Coal Measures ........... Conglomerate. Sub-carboniferous . Hamilten Period ........... Corniferous Period .......... Niagara Periodi.o........ XZ Trenton Period.. .. .. , ....... . - 1. I Canadian Period d.... .. . .. . I Upper. Lower. _ _ I_- Black slate. ( - 146 14a 136 13a lob 'orniferous.. 9 iagara... 5c Clinton... 53 4edina.. 5a 150 100 75 20 I I__ _ _ _ _I _ _ _ Hudson.. . 4b & 4, 1650 ITrenton.. 200 Birdseye.. j 4 180 I ___ Chazy... . 350 The rocks as seen in Nelson county extend from the Hudson River Group up to, and include, a part of the Upper Sub-carbon- iferous, and aggregate a total thickness of about eleven hun- dred feet. The lowest rocks are seen in the northeastern part of the county, where the Lower Hudson Beds are exposed in the banks of Salt River and Chaplin Fork, and the highest are seen on top of the knobs, south of New Haven. These are the As 06 g ._ 3 .2 d1 28 ' . I-I .I, I I GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. geological elevations, and differ from the geographical elevations. The lowest geographical point is at the mouth of Wilson's Creek, where the elevation is about four hundred and eight feet above the sea; while the summit of Rohan's Knob, the highest, is as before stated one thousand and fifty-three feet. There is thus a geographical difference of six hundred and forty-five feet, while the geological difference is only about three hundred feet. It must then be seen that the rocks of the county are not level, else these differences could not exist. There is a general dip to the northwest through the county, with a falling away to the southwest; or in other words the roads along the eastern part of the county are higher elevated than they are on the west and they are also higher on the northern than they are on the southern. From this slope of the rocky floor of the county it is possible to obtain a flow of artesian water at any place in its boundary, when- ever this kind of well may become desirable or necessary, and with the understanding that a water-bearing rock shall be penetrated. Like in all the knob region surrounding the Silurian area of the State, futile attempts have been made in Nelson to find coal. It seems needless to say that there can be no coal found in any of the formations which are seen in the county. By an examination of the section on a preceding page, it is easy to un- derstand that the highest rocks seen in the county are much too low in the geological scale, and though it is probable that at one time the coal measures extended over the whole extent of the county, they have been carded off by the same means which are now hurrying away the soils from every field. The section of rocks of this county are exhibited in the fol- lowing order and thickness: Feet. Upper Sub-carboniferous.... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 60 Lower Sub-carboniferous...... .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 800 BlackSlate..... . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 60 Corniferous Limestone .................... 67 Niagara Group.... .... ... ...... ....... 76 ClintonGroup.. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. la Medina Group.. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 12 I Upper Hudson River Beds . . . . ... ... .. .... . 3.. 800 Middle Hudson River Beds .................. . 160 Lower Hudson River Beds.... . 1...... .... .... 100 Total.. 1137 29 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. In traversing the county from the northeast corner to the southern extremity, all these divisions are successively passed over. They each give a different expression to the surface, and each constitute a difference in the soils as derived from them, and to a close observer there is a well marked character in the native trees and other plants which grow over them. DETAILED GEOLOGY. LOWER SILURIAN. Lower Hudson River Beds.-As has been stated, these are the lowest division of rocks exposed in Nelson county, and are only to be seen in the northeastern portion where Salt River, Beech Fork, and their smaller streams have cut down into them. At their highest point on Chaplin Fork, they rise to a little more than one hundred feet above low water, and gradually slope down with the stream until near Glen- ville they disappear beneath the river. As the uplands here are over two hundred feet above the valley, there are conse- quently no amount of soils which are derived excluively from these rocks. Their characters have been described in the Re- ports on Spencer and Washington counties. The same charac- ters belong to them here; and their outcrops are marked with white oak timber where it has not been destroyed. Middle Hudson River Beds.-These beds, like the former, are only shown in the northeastern corner of Nelson, but are more conspicuous as they make most of the surface in the Chaplin precinct, and extend to the north, east, and south of the village of that name. Over these rocks the country is much broken, and the narrow ridges with deep hollows between them remind us of the same beds in Garrard and Madison counties. Some little change has been produced in them, for the heavy masses of concretionary sandstone have thinned down until they have almost disappeared. It seems also that a limestone with the large wave-like marks have taken the place of one of the sandstone layers. 30 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. These large wave-like marks are very persistent, as they are seen in several horizons in every county that I have had a chance to study, while their origin seems to be very obscure. I have only seen one condition any way analagous to them, and that only on a small scale. Some of our creeks contain a great deal of fine gravel, which is moved by every freshet which takes place in them. Several times after a high, rapid rise in some of them I have seen the gravel left in ridges, extending with the force of the waters nearly in sizes and curves as in the ridges in the rocks. It thus seems to me that however long and wide an area is covered with this feature, that the floor of the old ocean as covered with the shifting sands must have been lifted suddenly and the waters rushing down the slope have left the fine particles just as the rush of water in those little streams to-day leave them as if they were great wave marks. The silicious soils of this division have been badly treated in this county. The timber has been largely destroyed, and an incessant cultivation of the lands in corn has been the rule. Hogs were the principal export for a long time, and as much of the corn was eaten by them in the fields at a time of the year when the heavy fall rains fell, their rooting up the soil left it in the condition in which it was rapidly washed away from the steep slopes. Some of these lands are in a deplorable condition, and but few of them have received much care. The great prevailing timber, as is usual on the silicious mudstone, was beech, with some other timbers, as walnut and poplar, but these have been largely destroyed. Young trees are growing over some of the exhausted lands, and give promise for the future, if taken care of. From all the observations which I have made over eleven counties where these beds are exposed, I know of no soils so well adapted to the rapid growth of timber as are these. The most of our valuable timber trees which are indigenous to Cen- tral Kentucky seem well adapted to these soils. Their deep decomposition give the roots ample conditions to reach far 31 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. beneath for their food. The mixture of lime and silica gives the elements necessary to make a good quality of wood, and their permeability to water gives the requisite drainage, as well as a sufficient supply of water at all seasons for the mainten- ance of their growth. All of these steep slopes should be in forests and grasses. A forest culture here, conducted in an intelligent manner, would be a heritage of wealth for the future. When it is known that much of this land has produced, year after year, without extra culture or the use of fertilizers, eighty and ninety bushels of corn to the acre, its natural quality may be understood. No careful attempts have been made to have paying orchards or vineyards, yet these would undoubtedly succeed well. With the good quality of these soils, and their susceptibility to great improvement by the proper rotation of crops and grasses without the aid of foreign fertilizers, a population that has learned the proper care of lands would make these steep hillsides as fertile as the most vaunted lands in the State. Upper Hudson River Beds.-This division of the Hud- son River Group is the largest in area, and the most important in some respects in the county. As will be seen by the map it is confined to the northern portion, except where it has been cut into by the streams, more to the south. As has been stated, it has a thickness of about three hundred feet, and as the rocks have been described in the reports on Garrard, Lincoln and Washington, but little need be added here. The lower portion, which is everywhere the richer in all the elements which make the best of soils, are seen from Chaplin to Bloomfield, and for some distance around the latter place. Here they are of that gently rolling character which give good drainage without being disposed to wash badly, and every- where present a pleasing landscape. Rich bluegrass pastures lie between well cultivated fields, which are more highly prized than any lands in the county. The grains grow to perfection, and at one time quite an acreage of hemp was produced. The See Analyses of Soils, Appendix A. 32 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. 3 trees common to this class of soils are seen here where they have not been too largely destroyed. Blue ash, chinquapin oak (Quercus muhienbergi), wild cherry, hackberry, mulberry, and other species were common and still exist in variable num- bers. In very dry seasons these lands in many situations are disposed to burn, and then the crops and grasses are not so good as those on soils which hold more wate- beneath. Several layers of phosphatic limestone come into this strata, and its natural decomposition adds perhaps enough phos- phates to the soil, so that the purchasing of bonedust as a fertilizer add no perceptible percentage to the crops grown over them. Stretching in a half circle around the Bloomfield soils, and based on somewhat higher rocks, is another class of soils which have been derived from the decomposition of the one hundred or more feet of rocks which have been termed the Lynx Beds. The rocks as a general rule lie deeper beneath the surface of the soil, while the shales which come between the layers of limestone give a more clayey character to the soil. These soils have always been considered as excellent wheat soils, and many of the fields have been injured by too large a cultivation in this grain. The lands are more rolling than around Bloomfield, and were they of the same character of soils would wash very badly, but the clay is of that charac- ter that it does not require extraordinary care to prevent their wasting away. These soils which are seen around Fair- field in every direction seem to have every element in them to keep them as very desirable lands. But there is too little appli- cation of barnyard manure, and much too little of the sowing of clover and other green crops to be turned under by the plough. The humus has been cleared from the lands by years of cultivation and too little replaced. The turning under of green crops have a chemical effect upon the mineral constit- utcls of the soil, preparing them as proper food for succeeding crops, aud also correct these clay soils in warming and making them lighter and more easy to cultivate. Above the rocks holding the Ort/his lynx is another set of 33 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTV. soils which differ to some extent from either of the others of the Upper Hudson River Beds. These have at the base sev- eral thick-bedded limestones, which are more indestructible than the thinner layers which underlie and overlie them. This is so perceptible that they are nearly always seen outcropping around and on top of the hills. These rocks all contain more or less balls or rmdules of clay in them, which are very hard, and the soils here are more friable and apt to wash, thus leav- ing the heavy layers exposed. This last division is not so uniform over the county as any of the other groups. At some places the section resembles the character as seen in Garrard and Madison, where the shales and half sandy layers culminate in the top of the Hud- son Beds with the great bed of columnaria corals. On the other hand, changes are seen on the southern border of this exposure where some of the elements are left out, and several layers of magnesian limestones and shales come in below the coral bed. It seems that here in the beds of the Upper Hudson the conditions which afterward ended in the formation of the great deposits of the magnesian limestones, which made up the rocks of the Upper Silurian, began their work. The Or/his lynx Bed is finely developed in this county, all the varieties are present, and are to be found in immense numbers, while associated with them are the usual fossils found at this horizon. Rhynconella den/a/a, Sirophomena rhiomboidah's, and Zygospira modes/ea var. ken/uchensis are more common than I have met with before. There is much interest centered in the great coral reef which lies at and near the top. It is found at every exposure in the county where its horizon is to be seen. So common is the form, Columnaria alveolala, that their large coralums are used in places for stone fences, piled up to prevent the wasting of the banks of creeks, and for miles they are the best or easiest procured material to macadamize the turnpikes. The bed is sometimes twenty feet thick. Sometimes the corals are imbedded in limestone; sometimes in clay shale or even in 34 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. 35 clay beds. The interiors are always more or less crystalized, but often the exterior is beautifully preserved. Te/radizum minzus is generally but not always seen associated with it, while Beatricia, s/rep/e/asma and 0;-this occiden/alis are common associates. Sometimes above the bed is a heavy, impure rock, and on top of this is ten or more feet of clay beds, containing Rihyncone/Za copax, Orthis quadrata, S/repblor/hyncus peamcunbona, Pro/aria vetusta, and some other fossils. I collected one soil for analysis from the farm of S. P. Stiles. It was of a light-brownish buff color, very friable, and contain- ing no gravel. From where it was taken it was as light as a bank of ashes, did not wash much; had perhaps been in cul- tivation for forty years or more. Mr. Stiles thought it quite unproductive. Dr. Peters has furnished me with the following analysis: Organic and volatile matters . ..... ........ ... .. 3.020 Alumina and iron and mangaiiese acids . . . . . 9.772 Lime carbonate ........... ...... .. .. ..145 M agnesia.... .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. .3 05 Phosphoric a id (P2 05) ..3................. . .1.:3 Potash extracted by acids......... .. .. . ... . . .438 Water expelled at 3400 F...... ... . . .. ..1. .. .. .12 Sand and insoluble silicates...... .. .. .. .. . .. .. 84.820 99.285. Potash in the insoluble silicates (per cent.)......... .. . 1.200 Soda in the insoluble silicates (per cent.) . . . . . . .0... . . . .646 Hygroscopic moisture (per cent.).... .. . .. .. .. . .. 2.:350 There is some less lime in this soil than is usual at this horizon, but it shows a large percentage of potash, and the above analysis shows it to be better than the average of soils. It would be improved, however, by the turning under of green crops or the application of leaf mold or stable manure. Other Features.-In these rocks of the Hudson River beds there are no large springs, and largely the water supply for household purposes is drawn from wells and cisterns. The character of the rocks are such that not a great deal of water penetrates down through the limestones and the nearly im- pervious shales which lie between them. Ponds are easily GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. made, and these are very common over much of the territory underlaid with this series. Clays for brickmaking purposes are freely distributed, and a fair article is manufactured, as quite a number of substantial residences illustrate. Building stones of good quality are not always convenient of access, but stones which are suited for foundations for houses, stone fences, and other common uses can be taken from the hillsides on nearly every farm. The soils are capable of being improved to a large extent without the addition of foreign fertilizers, though in some cases their intelligent application would be of much benefit. There is not that care taken to save the waste products of the farm and stable, and their preparation as compost. In some parts of Europe so important is this saving consid- ered that children follow the roads traveled by animals and collect all their droppings into baskets. With some of the farmers of our State the rule is as opposite as it is possible to be, for they build their stables and pools directly over or by a creek, where all the rich manures are washed away by every rain that comes. It is no wonder that some of our soils be- come poorer every year. UPPER SILURIAN. Niagara Period.-To the northeast and north of Ken- tucky the Upper Silurian Formation is one of great extent and thickness. In places its various strata measure more than three thousand feet. Like all the other formations it comprises various types of sandstones, shales and limestones, and is divided into a number of distinct periods and minor divisions. The larger part of these divisions are absent in the west and perhaps the whole of the formation comprised in the rocks of Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana and Ohio are included in the Niagara Period. The rocks comprised in this period have thinned out to the west and have lost largely their distinctive characters. For this reason it has been 36 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. quite difficult to separate them into their lesser groups. This series of rocks was named from their occurrence at Niagara Falls and in the cliffs below. The rocks of the Niagara Period are divided into the follow- ing epochs-Oneida, Medina, Clinton and Niagara, divisions which have not all been satisfactorily made out in the West, and in Kentucky they have been included in the general term Nia- gara. It would not for economical purposes make any dif- ference about the determination of the smaller groups, but as scientific facts in the study of the changes of conditions over this region during the deposition of these rocks it would be of some importance if they could be known. On Scrub Grass Creek, in Boyle county, some years since, I found resting upon the top of the Hudson River beds a con- glomerate two inches thick with the characters as given the Oneida Conglomerate in New York. It is the only. point at which I have been able to find it, yet it is not unusual to see in our soils and in the beds of many branches of Central Ken- tucky gravel which may have resulted from the destruction of the same rock. Throughout the counties which I have studied, reaching from Clark to Nelson, wherever the upper limit of the Hudson River Beds are reached they are overlaid with an argillaceous sandstone, which is quite fragile in exposures and disposed to break up into small squares. In some places it is quite a tough stone and wears well when put into structures, but more often it is quite treacherous and unfit for any purpose. This rock is sometimes filled largely with the casts and impressions of branching forms of sea-weeds, but in such poor state of pres- ervation that it is not possible to determine their species. This sandy mud rock is present at all the exposures at the base of the Upper Silurian rocks in Nelson county, varying much in thickness, but holding its usual character without much change. This rock can be seen at different exposures varying from three to twenty feet, sometimes appearing massive and at others seen only in thin sandy-like layers, which have split and eroded from its bedding. 3 7 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. This sandstone holds the position and the lithological charac- ters, in part, of the Medina and is probably the western ex- tension or representative of that-epoch, yet it is too soon in the detailed work of the State to refer it definitely to that group. Other facts may be brought out in the prosecution of the work in other counties where it is exhibited which may de- termine its proper place in the formation. The sandstone in Garrard, Lincoln, Madison and part of Marion counties is overlaid with a number of feet of various colored shales to which I gave provisionally the name of Crab Orchard Shale. This shale is seen near the Church of the Holy Cross, in Marion county, not more than a mile and a half from the Nelson county line, and though, there, showing all the characters and thickness as shown in Lincoln county, it was not seen in Nelson in a greater thickness than two or three feet. This shale I had concluded was a part of the Clinton Beds and have seen no reason since to change them to any other division. Above those shales are imposed a number of feet of lime- stones. These are sometimes coarse, crystalline and uneven in their bedding, often heavy balls and nodules of iron pyrites included. Where they have leached out they leave on the face of the strata a series of irregular holes, which from their size and usual shape may have been the moulds from which have leached out shells of Pentamarus oblongzus. At other places the strata seems to have no regular bedding and breaks every way with very irregular surfaces. Included in this rock is often the casts of the aforementioned shell with a num- ber of other fossils which are difficult to determine. Toward the top of these limestones, where they are in full force, is a number of fossils included in layers of cherty hornstone. Among these may be mentioned Favosi/es niagarensis, Stromafopora concen/rica, A4ryypa re/icuzaris, Lep/amna sericea, S/roplomena ru- gosa, with fragments of trilobites and bryazoa. These layers perhaps represent the Clinton Limestone. The next part of the Upper Silurian seen in the county is a group of variegated shales which vary very much in thickness in different parts of the county, sometimes being reduced to less 38 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. than a foot and again aggregating to thirty-five feet. These are red, yellow, blue and green in separate parts, but when ex- posed for a long time the iron which gives them their colors leaches out, and they become yellow and even dirty white. These shales, decomposed to clays, are seen in many places in the county on the surface, sometimes as sterile spots and at others as cedar glades. This clay is stiff and tenacious, and some of the roads passing over it become almost and even quite impassable at certain seasons of the year. They are not readily permeable to water to much depth, but when trodden by animals and vehicles during the wet season, they soften and become a stiff mud: Usually the water from rains runs off the surface, without much penetration. These shales are overlaid with a massive layer of limestone which is often fourteen feet in thickness. This is a cavernous rock, giving quite a number of small caves, and besides the whole rock is porous, being everywhere filled with small cavi- ties from which various fossils have in time been leached out. The rock is a magnesian limestone, but the fossils were car- bonate of lime, and from their chemical character more easily acted upon by the carbonated waters passing down through them. When broken the porous character of the layer can be seen on every face. It does not quarry easily, and is not for this reason used for any purpose, except at times it may enter into the erection of stone fences. This cavernous member is the reservoir for a great number of fine springs in the parts of the county where it is near the surface. Water penetrating the soils above enters all the little cavities and fills them and passing down through the rock flows off on the layer of impervious shales beneath. Some of these springs can be termed magnificent, as they afford so large and continuous flows of water. These shales are often washed from beneath the bluffs of this limestone, and then the large over- hanging masses of rock break off and fall into the hollow be- neath. This character has produced many steep gulches in the county, and where a stream of water passes over those ledges a waterfall is often to be found. During and after hard 39 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. rains many of these cascades are pretty as well as very inter- esting. Some little romantic cliffs are shown in the county which have been produced in the above manner, and so charac- teristic is this feature that this series is oftener known by the name of Cliff Limestone than any other. Above the porous limestone is a number of layers of smooth even-bedded magnesian limestones. They have no clay or shale partings, are disfigured with few seams or nests of spar, unusually free from nodules of iron pyrites and are quite homo- genous in structure, chemically considered. These layers con- tain on analysis by Dr. Peter: Lime carbonate. ................... 50.00 Magnesia carbonate .................... 35.00 Silica andsilicates.... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 10.00 Alumina, iron, etc ................ ...... 5.00 Total... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . f00.00 These beds are probably the equivalent of the Springfield stone of Ohio, a building stone held in very high estimation in parts of that state, and very largely quarried at Yellow Springs and vicinity. Prof. Edward Orton, Vol. II, Geology of Ohio, page 672, gives on authority of Prof. Wormley the following as the composition of the Springfield stone: Carbonate of lime.. ................ 51.10 Carbonate of magnesia ................ 41.12 Sand and silica... ...... ....... ... .. .. . 5.40 Alumina with trace of iron .............. . . . .. 1.40 Total.. 99.02 These layers are not continuous over the Upper Silurian region of the county but extend nearly uniformly in a north. east line across the center of the county. Toward the South they change, as do all the other members, and become thinner. Whether they were thicker to the north and east in time we do not know, as there are no evidences presented to demon- strate that point, but that the Upper Silurian once covered the Lower Silurian rocks all over the county seems evident to my mind. 40 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. 4I The balance of the Niagara rocks in the county exposed above these are of not much economic importance. They are yellowish, soft, easily eroded magnesian limestones. and shales, and when in place are usually covered with the clays and chert derived from the decomposition of the next higher group-the Corniferous Limestone. The following section is seen on Mill Creek, near the resi- dence of B. Humphrey: Fz Corniferous waste (clay and hornstone) . Covered space... ... ... . . Magnesiam limestone layer . ..... Shales . Soft buff magnesian limestone ..... Rough bedded layer buff limestone . Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Dark buff magnesian building stone Dark buff magnesian building Atone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Light buff magnesian building stone Massive layer, cavernous more carbonate Soft earthy limestone and shales . Thin layers magnesian. Heavy magnesian layer...... . . Sandy shales and sandstones. Total . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . . . .................. . . .. . . .. . 14 ........... .. . .. . . . ... I ............ . . .. . . .....1 .. . . .. . .. . . .. . ........ . . . j ........ .. . ...... . . . .................... .. . . .. . .......... . . . .. . . .. . . . ............. .. .. . . . .. . ................. . .. . . .. . . .. . . ............ ............ . . .. ....... . ... .. .. . .. .--1 1 ............ . . . . . ......... . ............. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . 19 ... .. .. .. .. ... .. ............ .. .. . . . .. 12 .. . . .. . .. . . .. . I ............ . . .. . . .. .. 10 ... .. .. .. .. . .. I .. . . .. . .. . . ............. I1 ............ . . .. . . . .. 92 The numbers from seven to twenty-three inclusive are evenly bedded, of great uniform thickness, without partings of shale or other material, are of a tint interiorily which is difficult to define, but perhaps would be better characterized as an olive gr.ey. They all, however, change where exposed to atmos- pheric influences to various shades of buff. These layers have been quarried; some for local use, and have stood exposure for 1 2 3 4 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 29 ..3 3 9 6 11 4 .10.j 7 5 3 3 10 7 2 1 6 3 2 10 ..3 3 6 ('2A GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. a long time remarkably well. They are easily raised from the quarry, and work under the chisel with much facility. This locality, if close to transportation, would make one of the most valuable quarries within many miles. A section of near one hundred feet of the Upper Silurian is exposed on the east side of Bardstown, and there are many places to the east, south and west of the town where good sections of part of the series can be seen, and the individual characters of the various members studied. The fossils existing in these rocks are not in great numbers, and exist only as casts in the Niagara and the Clinton, excepting the Favosiles niagarensis and Stromafopora concentrica, which are silicified. In some places the common trilobite of the Nia- gara Calymene niagarensis is quite common around Bardstown, and some good specimens of their casts are obtained. The building stones are in immense quantities, and many quarries could be opened if there was sufficient demand for their products. The Louisville and Nashville Railroad has several quarries along their Bardstown branch, mostly in Bullitt county. From these openings large quantities of stone are raised and shipped along its various lines for the construc- tion of culverts and bridge masonry. A number of the layers of the more earthy magnesian layers of the Upper Silurian in this county would make a good article of hydraulic cement. At many places they are so exposed on and near the surface that they could be quarried very cheaply. The porous character of the massive cavernous layer is finely illustrated in some situations. In a bottom above Wm. Irvine's, where this stratum is about fourteen feet thick, a number of large blocks have fallen from the bluff above, and lie isolated in the valley. It had rained three days before, and upon exam- ination the water which had fallen on the surface was dropping from the bottom and sides after that length of time. The moisture held within was sufficient to keep trees, several inches in diameter, growing thriftily on the top of these rocks. The building stones have a better appearance in rough 42 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. exteriors than when polished. Their varying shades of buff give them an ancient appearance, when not smooth, which is very pleasing to the eye of many persons. It also requires some care in the selection of the various stones, as some of the lay- ers are not as durable as others. The best courses are real durable stones, and have many characters to recommend them. The clays derived from the Niagara Shales are well suited to the manufacture of common pottery ware, and the supply is practically inexhaustible. For brick-making purposes, drain, and other tiles these clays seem to be well suited, and if prac- tical tests were made, a large industry of this character could be built up in this county. A large number of acres of land in the county would be much improved by a system of tile drainage, and the manufacture of them in the county might bring them into general use where most desired. The soils over the Upper Silurian are as various as the rocks of the formatiom which come to the surface and are decom- posed. Those coming from the sandy beds at the base are very apt to wash badly, and so rapid is this erosion in places that many small spots are left uncultivated. Those soils de- rived immediately from the limestones, rank very well, espe- cially when covered with the clays resulting from the decompo- sition of the Corniferous Limestone. The best soils lying on this formation are what are termed locally poplar flats. These poplar flats are quite extensive at times, and are highly prized as agricultural soils. They are level or very gently inclined fine lands, situated at the summit of the Upper Silurian, but covered with a red clay soil derived in the larger part, and perhaps in whole, from the Corniferous Limestone. The Cornif- erous is richer in the elements which make a fertile soil than the Niagara limestones, and, here, are more easily broken down into soils. It is an instructive fact, that here such a large sec- tion of the county should have its soils derived from a thickness of rocks that did not exceed seven or eight feet in thickness. Their degradation and decomposition to the exact horizon of these few feet of rocks is remarkable, and as the future fertility of these tracts is based upon the preservation of these few feet 43-0 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. of earth, it can well be understood how the utmost care should be allotted them to prevent any unnecessary waste from heavy rains or unwise tillage. These flats supported formerly an immense number of large yellow poplars; with these were sugar maple, white oak, red oak, white elm, black gum, white ash, soft maple, rarely beech, and black walnut. Dogwood was the usual undergrowth. On these lands were sometimes clumps of chestnut, which is a very unusual position for them, as their station is usually not lower than the sub-carboniferous. On the sandy layers, as well as on the Niagara Shale, the timbers are largely post oak, star oak, Spanish oak, sassafras, white oak, winged elm, persimmon, etc. The winged elm is larger here than I have seen it at any other locality; some beauti- ful specimens were met which were sixteen inches in diameter, while their numbers are unusually large. The red cedar is, however, in greater numbers over the Niagara Shales than any other species, and grows also over the sandy layers at the base of the section. The outcrops of the rocks can often be deter- mined for long distances by the disposition and growth of this species. At Balltown, and for some distance around it, a singular fea- ture in the distribution of timber occurs. In all the counties to the south there are no pines to be seen, except on the knobs where the more arenaceous shales are left as the capping stones. At all such points they flourish in numbers, and it is only rarely that one is seen below the horizon of the hard shales, and then only when some of the same rocks have fallen below and mixed its constituents with the Black Slate or Waver- ley Shale. At Balltown, however, the same pines are distributed all over the Niagara Shale in large numbers, and the young growth is mostly of this species. So plentiful are the pines here that the making of tar has been carried on for a long time, and still continues to be a regular industry. Some mention has been made of the springs which flow out from the base of the cavernous layer. There are a great num- ber of these, and while they flow from magnesian limestones, 44 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. the magnesia is of that character which is not readily dissolved in water. I did not learn of any true epsom water in this horizon, yet there are places where they may exist, obtaining their magnesia from the shales which lie near the base or even from the Niagara Shales. Wells sunk into the cavernous member find an unfailing sup- ply of water usually. The exit of the springs are controlled largely by the dip of the rocks. In some cases they flow entirely from one side of an exposure, and never from the opposite. The dip can thus often be determined by the line of springs around the circle of a large;-outcrop. DEVONIAN. This, another great formation, with a number of distinct groups of rocks, has also thinned out to the West and in Ken- tucky has only two representatives which are constant in their character. These are the Corniferous limestone and the Black Slate. Both of these are to be seen in the state when- ever their proper horizon is exposed. Corniferous Limestone.-This group, which makes the rocks over which the falls at Louisville descend, is a continuous one around the Silurian basin of Kentucky, and is thinner than usual in Nelson county. Here it seems to have a thickness which does not exceed more than seven feet. In some of the counties it is quite massive and largely filled with hornstone (flint) and the fossils which it contains are almost always silicified. In its out- crops in this county it contains rocks of two kinds: one a light grey half-crystallized limestone, one to two feet thick. This stone is largely made of the stems and fragments of crinoids but contains also several species of horn-shaped coral. This stone is not used for any purpose in the county, but is a good wearing stone, and would make a fair article of lime. The fos- sils are of the same structure as the body of the stone, and are not separable. The rest of the series is made up of several layers of a dark buff stone, containing some magnesia, but not to the extent of 45 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. the Niagara. It contains quite a percentage of argillaceous matter and some iron. This stone decomposes into a red clay which is not easily eroded from the surface, so that it can often be seen where the rocks themselves have entirely disappeared. These clays contain much of the elements which character- ize good soils, and through the State rank very well. Mention has been made of the fact that a large part of the soils over the poplar flats are derived from this series of rocks, and it is very probable that the Corniferous was thicker to the north of its present line of outcrop in Nelson. One of these layers was in many places filled with the horn- stone, and the fragments of it are in many places strewn over the soils. Fossils are not usually plenty in the wasted beds or in the rocks now remaining, but I was enabled to find speci- mens of Pliillipsash-ea gzgas, and several species of favosites and zaphrentis corals, which are usually met with at this hori- zon. Some of these tracts were evidently once wet, swampy flats, as in places over them have been deposited bog iron ore and bog manganese. Black Slate.-This group of strata is well known in all the counties where it is exposed. It is so continuous in its ex- tent and so homogenous in its color, structure and other charac- ters that it can be recognized at a glance. It lies on the top of the Corniferous limestone in all the southern portion of Nel- son county, where it has not been cut through by the streams and eroded from the surface. It has an average thickness here of about fifty feet, being in some places not more than forty but rising in the western portion to sixty feet. There is no one place where its outcrop can all be seen at once, yet they are many places where partial sections can be seen and measured and its character studied. When a cut has been made into this slate it is seen to be quite hard and solid, with an intensely black surface. When exposed it becomes fissile, splits into fragments, and rapidly loses its color, becom- ing an ashen grey. 46 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. The black color of this slate is due to the presence of bitum- inous matter, of which it holds in its unleached condition a large percentage. Efforts have been made in all the near counties to find reservoirs of petroleum in it, and so often is this talked about and so many persons are found who are willing to en- gage in the enterprise, that it is thought best, even by repeat- ing what has been so often written, that the conditions do not exist in this region where the boring of wells for oil would likely prove a success. There are no large districts in this county where the slate lies unbroken and covered with the condition by which the storage of oil in large reservoirs can exist. Every stream which runs on the surface has cut down into and beneath its bed, and as the oil is decomposed from the shales continuously, it escapes by innumerable channels to the surface and is lost. This escape can be seen by careful investigation at many places, where the shale outcrops, for it is not unusual to see the water which comes from these rocks bearing a film of oil on its surface. The quantity as seen under such circumstances is much smaller than is generally supposed. A single spoonful of oil on water will cover a large surface and less than this quantity seen at one time has led to the exploration, by boring or digging, to find its source in some vast deposit. Much money has been uselessly expended in this search, where the conditions were as fully favorable, or even more so, than can be seen in any part of Nelson. It seems from all the examinations made here that it is almost certain that any efforts made for finding petroleum in this county can only end in failure. Sulphide of iron is commonly present, especially in the lower portion of the Black Slate. This in its destruction within the slate often forms sulphur springs, of which they are several in the county. These springs are generally well known and are resorted to by the people who live within easy reach of them. The change which takes place in this form of iron often dis- colors the lamina of the slates, so that on partial exposure they are yellow, brown, green and red. At some places the quan- 47 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. tity of this iron appears to be in excess. In these places the shales become very red and are more rapidly destroyed, produc- ing a red clay soil. This decomposition of the iron has a chemical effect upon the other ingredients of the clays and soils, which makes them lighter in texture and richer in their pro- ductions. The soils produced from the degradation of the Black Slate are rather stiff clays, but in cases where the destruction is not complete the small pieces of slate have an effect in making the soil looser and more porous. All analyses of these soils prove them to be richer in agricultural elements than are usually ac- credited them. Some good farming lands are based on these soils, and some of the richest garden spots in the State have been made from them. Many tracts in Nelson based on this group of slates are quite level, and are beautiful to the eye. Often the soils are not deep over them, and the impervious character of the rocks prevent their proper drainage. Deep plowing with a good system of underground drains would pro- duce in many of them a wonderful change in their producing capacities. Parts of these soils are sometimes overflowed by back water from the Rolling Fork, and are apt to remain wet for some time afterward. These lands in part have been treated by shallow surface drains, by plowing trenches about forty feet apart. This improves them to some extent but it is not what these lands re- quire. Valuable lands in many places can be underlain with tiles and the improvement in the crops and the ease of cultiva- tion outweigh largely all the trouble and expense incident thereto. Some of the clays from the Black Slate and those from the hills above it would make tiling of good quality, and so many lands in the county could be so improved that it would seem as if the manufacture of tiles along the Louisville and Nashville railroad could be made a profitable industry. On the road leading from Bardstown to Boston there are a number of outcrops of the Black Slate. In one of these about twenty feet above the base I found a layer of phosphatic sand- 48 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. stone ten inches in thickness. I could trace it by its exposure for about twenty feet; being slightly more resisting than the shale, above and below, it stood out as a ledge. This is prob- ably a local phase, as I was not enabled to find it at any other point. The sandstone is made up of small grains of hyaline quartz and fragments of bones, teeth, fins, etc., of fishes, and was perhaps one of those localities common to certain places in our modern seas, and also seen in various rocks, where the fish collect and die. Such places are usually vast de- posits of the exuviat of fish confined to narrow limits, while for long distances surrounding them no such remains are to be found. Included in this sandstone are some small teeth-like forms which have been given the name of conodonts. The following description and analysis is furnished by Dr. Robert Peter: " A grey sandstone, mostly made up of hyaline quartz, some- what rounded; mixed with small dark colored granules and broken organic remains. It contains (air dried): Per cent. "Sand and insoluble silicates . . . . ........ ... .. 67.040 Phosphoric acid (P2 05).. 11.162 Combined with iron oxide and lime and magnesia, being equivalent to 24.372 per cent. of bone phosp/hale." If this rock was in large quantities it could be made very profitable in the manufacture of a commercial fertilizer. As it is, it would be interesting to have experiments made with it on some of the surrounding soils. It can be crushed very easily, and its application in that condition would evidently be of ad- vantage. Experiments heretofore made on the soils of the Black Slate by the application of bonedust have proven very satisfactory. The fossils otherwise than these mentioned are few, and rarely met with. Two species of lingula, a discina and casts of sea weeds are the more common. The silicified wood, Da- doxy/on newberryi, was seen a number of times in Nelson as it has been in the other counties where the Black Slate is in position. It is sometimes removed some distance from the 49 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. slate outcrop. Its hard silicification makes it very durable, so that many feet of the shale would be carried off before a large fragment of the petrified wood could be destroyed by atmos- pheric agencies. Some of the specimens are remarkably and beautifully preserved, the smallest cellular structure being as perfect as can be seen in any recent wood. The timbers over the Black Slate vary with the slope of the surface. Where it is well drained or not too wet beech and oaks of various species prevail. On the flats there is much sweet gum, white elm, black gum, winged elm, yellow bark oak and some white oak. SUB-CARBONIFEROUS. Lower Sub-carboniferous:-The rocks of this division make up nearly the whole of the so-called knobs of Nelson county. They are nearly uniform, with the same series in the counties toward the south, and have been described in the re- ports of other counties. A mass of clay shales at the base, with some sandy shales and thin sandstones above, and at the top a massive sandstone. The clay shales decompose readily under exposure into a stiff poor soil, which, when cleared of its timbers, is apt to wash into deep ravines and leave barren spots. Some of these are of considerable extent in many of the counties, but more rare in Nelson. The harder shales above are more resisting, and protect the lower ones from entire destruction, which fact gives to the knobs steep slopes. The whole group is more barren of fossils than towards the south, yet in places they show the same species. At the base the coprolites form usually a conspicuous horizon, and among them I found Lingula melia, Ceratiocaris bradleyi, etc., ely- troides, teeth of fish, and fragments of large fish bones. The bands of iron ore which are so continuous in other coun- ties show something more of a development in the southwest- ern part than I have seen yet. These have increased to at least six different layers in one hundred and fifty feet. Some of 5o GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. 5 1 these, however, are very thin, but altogether there is quite an amount of ore contained in these shales. Part of it is segre- gated as kidneys, some of them weighing perhaps a hundred pounds. There is one layer which is continuous, and has a pavement-like structure. The best of these ores-the kid- neys-contain about thirty-five per cent. of iron. A furnace was erected at Nelsonville in I856, and was in operation for sometime when it proved a failure as an invest- ment. The knobs all have steep slopes, and the shales contain- ing the iron, decompose rapidly. The iron ore thus liberated slides down the slopes, and is exposed at many places. It is not probable that the ore is in quantities sufficient to make it an article of value now. as so many fields are opened where it can be mined and delivered much cheaper than it can be at this point. The number and character of the geodes which usually mark the upper part of this division has changed from what it was in Marion and Boyle. At one horizon, and only in a few places did I notice them of any size, and these seem to have replaced and partially surrounded a species of goniatite (G. lIoni ). These have been found not only in this county, but extend into Bullitt, where they are in greater numbers than in Nelson. GEODIFEROUS SANDSTONE ON KEITH S KNOB. The top of this division is capped with ten to twenty feet of sandstone, the knobstone of Owen, the freestone of some of the counties, and the Waverley sandstone of Ohio. This stone has been quarried to some extent in Nelson, and the hearthstones at the Nelsonville furnace were made from it. This is a fair building stone, quarrying in even courses, and works well under the chisel. It contains some iron which is apt to discolor it and mar its beauty. It is quite resisting, and is sometimes seen on the remnant of knobs where more than fifty feet of shales have eroded from beneath its former position. The soils derived from the Lower Beds are not valued as agricultural soils through this whole region, and it is but seldom that they have been cleared for that purpose. Lying as they GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. do, usually as steep slopes, they soon wash into the shales, and then become barren. There is some potash in all of these shales, and they have been called marls after decomposition. They might to some loose soils act favorably as fertilizers, but not much can be expected from them in this particular. These clays are plastic and would make common pottery ware, but would not stand a great degree of heat. The timbers over them have been of a mixed character, white oak predominating in some localities, but usually chest- nut, black oak, red oak, chestnut oak, poplar, beech and hick- ory. The chestnut oak has about all been destroyed for its bark, and while some young trees are growing, they are usually few. The white oak has been very largely destroyed for cross- ties, barrel-making and other purposes. Over some tracts this species is being reproduced in considerable numbers, and all these should be cared for and protected for the future. A number of these knobs can never be used for any purpose other than timber culture, and to that purpose they should be devoted in the time to come. Upper Sub-carboniferous.-On the tops of some of the knobs in the extreme southern part of the county there remain as capping stones a number of feet of the lower part of the limestones of the Sub-carboniferous. They are composed of grey crinoided layers, bluish earthy layers, and some little shale between them. Their position here demonstrate the fact that they have in time past been very extensive, covering at this horizon the whole country over. The remains of this series and even higher layers of the same group is marked over the country by the presence of specimens of a highly silicified fossil, Li//zos/rolion canadensis, which belongs to, and is highly charactertic of, the St. Louis Limestone. This completes the list of the rocks now present in Nelson county, but as pebbles derived from the Millstone Conglom- erate are often seen in the soils in every part of the county, it seems evident that it once extended over the whole area of the county, but like so much of the strata below it has been eroded 5 2 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. 53 away in the long time which has passed since this part of the State has been above the ocean level. ELEVATIONS. The following is a partial list of elevations above sea level in Nelson county. They are from the profiles of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad and branches, and from the triangulation of the United States Coast Survey: KNOXVILLE BRANCH. Boston, Black Slate..... . . .. .. ... .. .. . .. . Nelsonville, Black Slate.... ... .. .. .. . . .. . New Haven, Upper Silurian . . . . . . Gethsemane, Upper Silurian. New Hope, Upper Silurian........ .. . ........ Coon Hollow, Upper Silurian ... .......... . . . . BARDSTOWN BRANCH. Sayers' Depot, Upper Silurian ................. Samuels, Upper Silurian ................. ... Nazareth, Upper Silurian.... ... . . .. . . .. . . . Bardstown, Upper Silurian . Rohan's Knob, Lower Subcarboniferous. Lebanon Junction, Bullitt County, Black Slate .. . . . .. ... Bardstown Junction, Bullitt County, Black Slate. Feet. 431 434 444 458 488 570 674 652 693 637 1,053 429 417 OTHER NOTES. It will be noticed by an examination of the map of Spencer and Nelson that the lines where the various divisions described in these reports begin and end, are in a general northwest and southeast direction and that the oldest and lowest rocks are seen to the north while the newest and uppermost are on the south. This interesting fact is due to the presence of an up- lift in the rocks which passes through Marion, Boyle, Garrard and other counties, and which has been called the Kentucky An- ticlinal. This elevation slopes northwest to the Ohio River but the arch falls also to the southwest. It is due to these two fea- tures that while all the rocks drip to the northwest, yet from the center of Nelson county there is a well marked bend down in all the strata to the southwest also. It is this dip to the south which has caused the Rolling Fork GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. to excavate such a wide valley while the other streams have cut narrow and deeper ones, The rocks are all of that character in the southern part of the county to make wide valleys possi- ble. The lower shales of the Sub-carboniferous are of easy de- struction, and when the river had excavated to the Black Slate it found another formation which was easy of destruction, and with a dip on one side of the current, the water worked against the lower side hollowing it out in benches below, while from above the crumbling shale fell into the stream and was carried away. This valley is in places as wide as the valley of the Ohio, but it is not probable that it was ever occupied by a larger stream than flows in it to-day. Some of the bottoms are alluvial but the materials are such as exist now along its upper course, or have existed as higher rocks over those now to be seen. The stones, pebbles and sand seen in its valley belong to all the groups from the Hudson River to the Coal Mleasures. These alluvial bottoms are very fertile, and some of them receive a deposit of sediment over them every season. Those based on the Black Slate have been mentioned. The bottoms on Salt River and Chaplin are wider where they have excavated to the Lynx Beds than where the other divisions are at the level of the river. This fact is produced by the shaly character of the strata, modified to some extent by the dip of the rocks. There are no mounds or earthworks of prehistoric tribes in Nelson county. On Keith's Knob there was said to have been several graves, also a grave or two on a knob to the north of Keith's. A number of stone axes and other relics have been found in the plowed fields over various portions of the county, but never in any great quantities. At Mrs. Gates', near Froman's Creek, was found some years since about one hundred lance heads under a shelf of rock. These were about three inches long and of the same type and material. My thanks are due to a number of citizens of both Spencer and Nelson county for acts of kindness and hospitality, and especially is this due to the family of Mr. Henry McKenna, whose house was my home during my work. 54 APPENDIX A. SPENCER AN-D 'NELSON COUNTIES-SOIL ANALYSES. The following table contains all which has been done in the analyses of soils, subsoils, under clays and marls of Spencer and Nelson counties. All of them were made by Dr. Robert Peter, whose reputation as an agricultural chemist is second to no one in the Union. Some of these examples were collected in 1856 by Dr. D. D. Owen, and are referred to the group of soils as near as can be at this time. Some unimportant error may have been made in locating some of them but it is barely possible. Referring to the average composition of the various soils of the State, Dr. Peter makes these remarks. "' Comparative Views of the Composition of the Soils, Limestones, Clays, Marls, Etc." By Robert Peter, Chemist Kentucky Geological Survey, p. p. 23-4: Black Sale Soi1s.-Contains more than average proportions of organic matters, alumina and iron oxide, lime, magnesia and phosphoric acid, and has less than average potash, and sand and insoluble silicates, but sometimes need drainage. ' Coirniferous Soils.-Have more than average organic mat- ters, alumina and iron oxide, lime, magnesia, phosphoric acid and potash, and less than average sand and silicates. L Uppcr Sibzut-i'a Soils.-Contains more than average propor- tions of nearly all the essential ingredients and less than average potash and sand and silicates. ilapcr Hudlson Sozls.-Contains much more than average proportions of all the essential ingredients; less thsn average sand and insoluble silicates. "Ju1Azdd/e Hudson Soils.-Contains average organic matters, alumina and iron oxide and phosphoric acid; more than average magnesia and sand and insoluble silicates, and less than the average of carbonate of lime and potash. GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. Number.. .. - c c '= a Z O N0 + o _` t-0 0= a-7 c" e) cCq Roc k fragments . C andgravel... .. . .... .. . . . Sodaintheinsol- . .. . .. .. . .. .. . . . uble silicate., .,X, . ' ..... X-.,. .. .. .. . . d Potash in the in- , soluble silicates C R'I solubleilicates. . . .. .. . .. .. ... x. ..._ .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. - Moisture expelled t- . ,L5 at 210 F. . . C!A Sl ! t- -. . t- . . -..... ...t--. _..a Sand and insolu- '- - o ble silicates.. I _. 6 t-: i6 e o x t4-Z -j X Z. t-X3 X X0 X Xi t- t- X X X X0 t_ 3 X X0 00 Xc 0 QC t- 3 Water expelled at .. .. . ,. .. . ... ... g -1 , 3800 F. .. .. . . .. .. . ........................ -. Soda extracted bv_ - ", i acids CC. .- CO.-O- C_1C.................... . Potashextracted z ;2 x 5 c by acids..... ....... Phosphoric a c i d0 _ 3t III OC T= (P2 0;5) . .. .. . . Magnesia... ,A I i- Lime carbonate.. - _ Alumina, iron ox- e a Z2 o '-D ,I , _x 'Q1 ..... .. . - -2 _..'lXt=n 1 ides,etc..4 I , _ -_s- i 0 eX tz t- -. r Organicand vola- -t- X It or, X tile matters t N C ' Z-4" , 1 6L-:t; :Z-IT i . . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .... . c ....................:;... .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. Z . . .).v - . . .. ._ x x -..,.,,,,.... . -nMM i7-i,-,7ZZZZzzZzzzzzzZZz 51tn,r n e[-a-I'I-r::.: c.--C 4 -1 - ,, - - . .. _. I - ,, ,:0 -1) o ;Z _ Z _ _ -,- 7 -1 7,71 . 14 -I' 74,q ;ports .. t- L- t-- " "r-O-r t- -t- L-lt-L -t- t- t-7.lX: i' I ports - - - - - -.I IN q TI _ 56 nd fr4 z 3 0 v 0 z (.)4 c,: z GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. No. i is virgin soil taken from near Beech Creek, Spencer county, and is derived from the sandstones and shales of the Middle Hudson beds. No. 2 is from the same farm and a field which had been cultivated between fifty and sixty years, while No. 3 is the subsoil beneath No. 2. No. 4 is a marl or blue clay which is so often seen between layers of hard rocks through this part of the state. It was taken from near Taylorsville. These clays are sometimes used as fertilizers and produce good effects when used with phos- phatic manures. Nos. 5 and 6 are mentioned in the body of this report as taken from the farm of D. C. \Vigginton. No. 7 is a ", woods pasture virgin soil," and is perhaps a mix- ture of the Upper and Middle Hudson River Beds. No. 8 is the same soil, but, which had been cultivated for thirty-three years, while No. 9 is the subsoil from the last. Nos. io and ii are under earths collected in the northeast- ern part of Nelson on Chaplin river by Dr. Owen. His notes are not such that they can be definitely located. No. I 2 is from an uncultivated soil, collected near Cedar Creek Church, and derived from the upper part of the Niagara section where the best building stones are found. No i3 was collected from the lower part of the Upper Hud- son beds, where the timbers are blue ash, sugar maple, wild cherry, etc. No. 14 is the same soil after forty years of culti- vation, and No. I5 the subsoil of the same. No. i6 is a shell earth from the same farm. No. 17 is a virgin soil, blue ash land, Upper Hudson River beds. No. i8 is the same soil after fourteen years of cultivation. No. i9 is a marl or clay from the Lower Sub-carboniferous, two and a half to three miles from New Haven. This is the clay which is so often seen at all the licks and waste places at the foot of the knobs. This contains valuable proportions of pot- ash, sulphuric acid, magnesia, lime and soda. To exhausted lands the application of this marl would often prove of great benefit if mixed with bonedust or other phosphatic manures. No. 20 is a marl from the same horizon. No. 2I is a shell 5 7 GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. earth taken from the northern portion of the county on the blue ash land. No. 22 is from the eastern part of Nelson and taken from the mixed soils of the Corniferous Limestone and the Black Slate. No 23 is the subsoil of the same, while 24 is the under clay taken two feet beneath the surface, where no roots had penetrated. The soils on the Upper Silurian are often of that character which allows them to wear away easily, and much care is re- quired to keep them up to a standard of excellence. Over them every diversity may be seen from the poorest sterile spots, to those which rank high in the quantity and good quality of the grains and grasses which they produce. In a number of places can be seen fields or farms which have been much improved by a careful system of tillage and fertiliz- ing. Though living on lands which were wasted and worn at the time of their purchase, the Monks of La Trappe have wrought great improvements in some of their gardens, fields and pastures, and have every reason to continue to improve them in the future. 58 APPENDIX B. STATISTICS OF NELSON COUNTY, COMPILED FROM THE UNITED STATES CENSUS OF 1880 AND OTHER SOURCES. 1880. Total population . . . . . . 16,609 18 7 0. Total population . . . . . . 14,804 1860. Total population . . . . . . 1.5,799 1880. White population ..1.1.. 11,893 1870. White population .. ... 10,886 1860. Whitepopulation .. 10,160 1880. Colored population . . 4, 716 187 0. Colored population .. 3,918 1860. Colored population .. 5 ,639 1880. Native population. . 16,353 1870. Native population . . 14,348 1860. Native populati on. . 15,283 1880. Foreign population. . 256 1870. Foreign populatioll .. 456 1860. Foreign population.. 16 1880. Bardstown, population . . . 1,803 1880. Bloomfield, population . 455 1880. Fairfield, population . . . 189 1880. New Haven, population. . 437 1880. New Hope, population . . . 204 Number of farms .. . .. .. . 1.453 Acres improved land.. . . . . . 170,934 Value of farnms, buildings and fen- ces. ........... S4,513,697 Value of farm implements and ma- chinery ... ........ 5122,220 Value of live stock . 637,658 Cost of building and repairing fen- ces, 187d9. . . . . . . . . . S43.484 Cost of fertilizers, 1879 .. . . . . 2,520 Estimated value of all farm pro- ducts, 1879. . . . . . .. . S18,901 Assessed valution, real estate . S3.006,480 Assessed valuation, personal prop- erty . . . . . . 1,686,460 Assessed valuation, total . . . 4,692,940 Taxation, State...... .. .. 21,353 Taxation, county . . .7..... 7,500 Taxation, town and school district. 1,511 Taxation, total ...... .. . :30,364 Miles of railroad.. . . . . . . 26.45 -Value of railroads in county .413,625 Miles of turnpikes. Average cost of turnpikes per mile Number of horses. . . . . . . . 5,079 Number of mules and asses. . 1,139 -Number of working oxen . . 89 Number of milch cows .. . . . . 3,434 -Number of other cattle.. . . . 7,930 Number of sheep . . . . . . . . 15,554 Number of swine . . . . . . . . 29,279 Pounds of wool... ..... . 68,519 Pounds of butter . . ..... . 168,720 Pounds of cheese... .... . 265 Gallons of milk. ... . . . . . Bushels of Indian corn . . ..8. 987,007 Bushels of wheat. . . . . . . . 177,020 Bushels of oats.. . . . . . . . 59,783 Bushels of rye... ..... . 10,434 Bushels of Irish potatoes ... 21,947 Bushels of sweet potatoes. .. 3,725 Bushels of barley... . . . . . .. Bushels of buckwheat... ... 103 Tons of hay .... ..... . 4,469 Value of orchard products . . . . 15,266 Pounds of tobacco.. . . . . . . 4,722 Manufacturing establishments . . 80 Capital invested in .. .... 913,915 Number of hands employed . . . 288 Amount paid in wages .... .. . S96,846 Cost of material........ . 839,941 Value of products .1.. . . . 1,238,896 Bonded debt ...... . . . . Floating debt. Total debt. Sinking fund .. Net debt. Total acres of land, 1880. Average listed value per acre . Bloomfield Branch not added. k 0ot4A Nrnlz cr N -d . .' - SPENC.ER AND NELSON ,-' COUNTIES. ] K /2iel, ' ,a fi A X ' ;D''sa Ttjct:i . V;u7',.' K -' ; 'K '"3Z N--gX-0X - ' ' 4 0 , . .A la 5Bouse _ j,.f aC I i i i I i i i KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. JOHN R: PROCTER, Director. LISTr 0F THI B-- BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. BY CHARLES WICKLIFFE BECKHAM. ELFCTROTYPED rTIM THam EUtVEY By' JoII( D. M-JO0E, PU BLIC PRINTER AND BISNlFR, RANKrORT, KY. This page in the original text is blank. INTRODUCTORY. TILE following paper is based almost entirely upon my for- mer list of the birds of this locality, written in January, 1883, and is prepared at the suggestion of Professor Procter, State Geologist, to accompany Mr Linny's report on the geology of Nelson county. So short a time has elapsed since the former paper was writ- ten, and my opportunities for field work have been so limited, that I can only add four species to the fauna as herotofore given, namely: Coturniculus henslowi, Jonornis martinica, Nettion carolinensis, and Fuligula collaris. The first, third and fourth of these were all taken by myself, and the circum- stances which induce me to include the latter are fully set forth in another place. Most of the observations were made in the immediate vicin- ity of Bardstown, which is situated in N. Lat. 3752', W. Long. 85O18', just on the western limit of the "Bluegrass Region," forty miles southeast of Louisville,. and about one hundred southwest of Cincinnati. The sylvan flora of this locality is quite diversified. The v A list of the birds of Bardstown, Nelson county, Ky. By Charles Wickliffe Beckbam.-Jour- nRl of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, Vol. VI., July, I183, pp. 136-147. BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. most characteristic trees are beech, red and white oak, black walnut, butternut, poplar, (Liriodendron tulipifera), sycamore, black gum, dogwood, white elm, and hickory (Carya alba, to- mentosa et glabra), and in some places there are dense and ex- tensive glades of red cedar. The country is gently undulating, and is mostly in a high state of cultivation. In summer the greater part of the small .water courses become dry, and there is a corresponding scarcity of that desirable liquid. In the western part of the county there are still many large tracts of wild, uncultivated land, where such birds as the Pileated Woodpecker, the Ruffed Grouse, and the Wild Turkey are still to be found. The list represents barely two-thirds of the birds that are, doubtless, to be found here at one season or another, but it is thoroughly trustworthy, as far as it goes, for no species has been admitted on any but the best of evidence. Out of the one hundred and seventy-one enumerated, the writer is personally responsible for all but eight of them. He here takes the opportunity to say that any information in regard to the birds of this and neigh- boring counties, that may be in the possession of any one into whose hands this paper may fall, will be gratefully received. The nomenclature followed in this catalogue may strike some as being rather peculiar-which it doubless is-but I am merely adopting the emendations and corrections that are being carried out under the authority of the American Ornithologists' Union, principally by Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, whose intimate acquaint- ance with the classical literature of ornithology fit him particu- larly well for this difficult task. The reasons for all of these changes are clearly set forth in his "Analecta Ornithologica" articles, already published and to be published in "The Au/c." The average ornithologist loves diversity in the closet as well as in the field-when he can't find a new bird to describe, he 4 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. 6 will go to work and give a new name to an old bird-and for most of them- "-the new has charms which the old has not, And the stranger's face makes the friend's forgot." But let us hope that, with the "Stricklandian Code" as a beacon-light, our nomenclatural pilots will be enabled to steer the name-battered old bird-ship into a safe andfinal port before she is engulfed by the sea of synonyms that just now surges around her. This page in the original text is blank. BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Species known to breed here are indicated by an asterisk (); those strongly inferred to do so, by a dagger (t). Order PASSERES: Perching Birds. Suborder OSCINES: Singing Birds. Family TURDIDR: Thrushes. Genus Hylocichla. 1. Hylocicbla mustalina (GMEL.). Wood Thrush. A common summer resident; arrives about April 20th; departs about October 15th. In quality of tone perhaps the most gifted of our woodland vocalists. The song of no bird that I know comes anywhere near the full, liquid timbre of the note of the wood thrush. It is most often heard during the last hours of the long spring and early summer afternoons; and he also, when in pursuit of the " early worm," doubtless serenades the rising .sun, but I have never heard him at that unseasonable hour. The song, however, lacks one important element of attractive- ness-that is, quantity. The bird generally stops sing- ing just as you prepare to give him your undivided atten- tion. Their food is composed almost entirely of insects. BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. 2. HylOclchla fuSCen (STPn4 Wilson's Thrush. Transient; uncommon in April and May. I have only een this bird upon two occasions in the spring, and have never recognized it at all in the3 fall. It breeds in the northern part of the United States and in Canada. 3. Zylocichls alicim BAem. Grey-cheeked Thrush. Transient; common during the last week of April and the first week of May. Generally found in company with the next, which it much resembles, as I have taken speci- mens that gave me considerable trouble to distinguish from the other sort. 4. Hylocichla ustulta swainsoni (CABAN.). Olive-backed Thrush. Transient. The most abundant of the thrushes during the migrations, except the robin. A few stragglers are seen as late as May 20th. 5. HZlocichia =wa1c pallasl (CABAN.). Hermit Thrush. Transient; common; arrives last of March; leaves for the South about November 1st. It is highly probable that a few of these thrushes winter here in sheltered places, as I have found them common at the same latitude in Maryland, where the temperature was as low as 60 Fah., and they are known to winter north of here in Illinois. Genus Merula. 6. JferDa migratoa (LINN). American Robin. A permanent resident. It is quite likely that the Robins we see during winter leave in the spring, and are suc- ceeded by birds that have wintered farther South. On the 15th of February, 1881, immense numbers of these began to congregate in the dense cedar groves near Fred- ricksburg, in Washington county, nine miles from Bards- 8 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. town, and remained about there until March 8th. Thous- ands of them were captured by merely picking them off the branches of the cedars at night, and were sold as low as ten cents a dozen. The "roost " was raided in force, by a lot of men and boys, on the night of February 21st, and eight thousand birds were killed. [See files of Nel- son C(outy Record for February and March, 1881. Genus Mimus. 7. Jimus polyglottus (LINN.). Mocking-bird. A common summer resident. A few remain all the year, as I have observed them in every one of the twelve months. Ten years ago they were comparatively rare here, but now there are few gardens or yards where one or more pairs do not nest. They often sing quite late in the fall. I heard one in full song on the 8th of Novem- ber. Genus Galeoscoptes. 8 Galeoscoptes carolinesis (mINN.). Catbird. A common summer resident. An inveterate bug-hunter, hence a good friend to the farmer, but he also enjoys strawberry and cherry time about as well as the rest of us, and on this account the small fruit grower regards him with an evil eve. Genus Harporhynchus. 9. Hvjporhynchus rufus (LINN.). Brown Thrasher. " French Mocking-bird." Common summer resident. Always one of the earliest of the spring arrivals. In 1881 I saw one on March 3rd. Found almost exclusively in thickets and dense shrub- bery. 9 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Genus Sialia. 10. Sliaa sia1l (LiNN.). Blue-bird. A common permanent resident. The habits of this popu- lar bird-"with the sky on his back"-are too well known to require comment here. Family SYLVIIDA: Old World Warblers. Genus Polioptila. 1. Pofiopta cwrulea (LiNN.). Blue-gray Gnat-catcher. An abundant summer resident. Arrives about April 1st. Fresh eggs are found July 2nd, when fully fledged young are flying about. The nest of this dainty little midget is a marvel of avian architecture, rivalling in the delicate beauty of its structure, and its ingenious illustration of what may perhaps be termed the principle of protective imitation, that of the humming-bird. On account of its outer covering of lichens, which give it the exact ap- pearance of the limb to which it is attached, it is very difficult to find. The bird can not sing, but apparently has a good time trying, as they are quite noisy after their puny fashion. Genus Regulus. 12. Regalus calendula (LINN.). Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Transient. Abundant in spring and fall. Arrives about April 1st; departs about October 16th. Mlost abundant in cedar and other evergreen trees and shrubbery. Their- song, which is not often heard with us, is one of surpris- ing depth and sweetness. 13. Regulus Sairapa LICHT. Golden-crowned Kinglet. Transient, but a good many winter here. Inhabiting the 10 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. same places as the last, with which it often associates. The last of them leave for the North about April 25th. Family PARIDIE: Titmice, &c. Genus Lophophanes. 14. Lophopnes bicolor (LINN.). Tufted Titmouse,"Tomtit." Also known as "Peter-peter," in imitation of one of its notes. An abundant permanent resident. Never taken its nest, and it is a standing mystery why the nest of so common a bird should be so difficult to find, as I have no trouble in finding those of other hole-breeding species. Genus Parus. 15. Parus carolnensis AUD. Carolina Chicadee. An abundant permanent resident. Fond of the society of the preceding. The Chicadee raises quite a large family for such a small bird. I have several times counted seven young "chicks" in a nest, and other observers have re- corded as high as ten. It must keep the industrious lit- tle birds always "a hustling" to provide for so many gaping mouths, and they doubtless make it lively, if not interesting, for the bugs and other creeping things. Family SITTIDAE: Nut-thatches. Genus Sitta. 16. Sitta carolinensis GMEL. White-bellied Nut-thatch. A common permanent resident. This Nut-thatch is popu- larly "lumped" with that imaginary group, the "Sap- suckers;" i. e., the smaller woodpeckers, but I have yet to see the man who ever saw this useful little bird pursu- ing this nefarious practice. Their food is strictly insect- iverous. 11 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. 17. Sitta cNdes N. Red-bellied Nut-thatch. An irregular fall and winter visitant, but whenever pres- ent, always quite common. Family CERTHIIDA: Creepers. Genuo Certhia. 18. CsrtaU AmIaris rufa (BARTR.). Brown Creeper. A winter resident; sometimes quite common in spring. Arrives about October 15th; leaves about April 15th. Family TROGLODYTIhA: Wrens. Genus Thryothorus. 19. Tyothoru ludovicianus (GMEL.). Carolina Wren. An abundant permanent resident. The liveliest and noisiest bird for its size that I know. Appears to always have a quarrel on hand with somebody, and their ire reaches fever heat whenever the ubiquitous cat happens around. Their song is very strong and melodious, and is often heard in mid-winter. Genus Thryomianes. 20 tomn" bewicki (AUD.). Bewick's Wren. Not uncommon. Probably a permanent resident, as I have seen them in mid-winter. Found almost exclusively in the vicinity of dwellings. Genus Anorthura. 21. Anorthura hiemalis (VIEILL.). Winter Wren. A rather common winter resident; arrives about October 15th. Genus Cistothorus. 22. Cistothorus stellar (LIcmr.). Short-billed Marsh Wren. 12 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. I have never seen but one specimen of this wren, a male, which was shot May 1st, 1882, from the top of a smalL blackberry vine in a rye field, while singing, if the queer stridulous noise he made can he called singing. Family MOTACITLI. : Wagtails and Titlarks. Genus Anthus. 23. Anthus ludovicnlauus (GMEL.). American Titlark. Transient. Captured as late as April 19th. Generally found in wet fields. In my former list it is stated that this bird was sometimes seen here in winter. This state- ment was made upon what I am now convinced, was insuf- ficient evidence, although it doubtless does occur here at that season. Family M IOTILTIDE: American Warblers Genus Muiotilta. 24. Mniotilta varia (LINN.). Black and white Creeper. An abundant summer resident. Arrived, in 1882, as eaxly- as April 1st. Genus Helminthophila. 25. tHelminthophbla pinus (LINN.). Blue-winged Yellow Warbler. Common from April 10th to May 26th; a few probably remain to breed. Unlike most of the arboreal Mniotilti- dae, which generally do their so-called "warbling" while flitting about amongst the tree-tops in pursuit of insects, this dainty little beauty perches himself in the top of some small tree thirty to forty feet high, and at intervals of two or three minutes, pours forth his " screepy" solo; sometimes remaining fifteen or twenty minutes on the la BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. same perch. On several occasions, although knowing that the birds were generally only twenty or thirty feet from me, I have haa a great difficulty in finding them, so well do they conceal themselves in the foliage. 26. elminboph chrsoptera (LINN.). Golden-winged War- bler. Rare; one specimen only. On May 11th, 1877, while sauntering through my favorite collecting ground, I saw four or five warblers skipping about the top of a small willow tree; getting two of them in line, I fired, and down came this bird and a Cape May Warbler-two species entirely new to me, and both very rare in this locality. Only those who are "in the secret" can appreciate my feelings upon that occasion. 27. Helmlnthopbila ruficapa (WILSON). Nashville Warbler. Transient; not uncommon. 28. IelmLbthophIa celata (SAY.). Orange-crowned Warbler. Transient. 29. Helmintophila perefgina (WILSON). Tennessee Warbler. Transient; sometimes common in the fall. Genus Compsothylpis. 30. tCompsothylpis american (LINN.). Blue yellow-backed Warbler. A common summer resident. Very abundant in spring. Exceedingly variable in plumage. Genus Perissoglossa. 31. Perissoglossa toiga (GMEL). Cape May Warbler. Transient. Rare; two specimens only; both taken in May. 14 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY- Genus Dendroeca. 32. Dendimes wstiva (GMEL.). Summer Yellow-bird. A common summer resident; arrives about April 15th. This warbler, which is found all over the United States during the breeding season-"from Sandy Hook to the Golden Gate," is perhaps the most abundant representa- tive of the genus here. 33. Dendrmca carndescens (LINN.). Black-throated Blue Warbler. Transient. Common; arrives about May 5th; departs October 10th to 12th. Frequenting the lower limbs of trees and bushes in preference to the tree-tops. 34. Dendrwca maculosa (GMEL.). Black and yellow Warbler. Transient; abundant. Arrives about May 7th; departs about October 1oth. 35. Dendrmca coronata (LINN.). Yellow-rumped Warbler. An abundant winter resident; arrives about October 10th and the last of them leave about AMay 8th. They winter in the cedar glades near Bardstown, where their lively " tsip " is often the only sound to be heard in those dis- mal solitudes. 36. Dendroca cmrulea (WILSON). C.rulean Warbler. A common summer resident; arrives about April 10th. Very abundant in the spring. I have several times killed two at one discharge of my gun. 37. Dendrwca pe=ylvanica (LINN.). Chestnut-sided Warbler. Transient. Common; particularly so in September. Ar- rives about May 7th; departs about October 10th. 38. Dendrwca castanea (WILSON). Bay-breasted Warbler. Transient. Not common; arrives about May 10th. BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. 39. Dendrca strata (FORST.). Black-poll Warbler. Transient. Rather uncommon; arrives May 7th to 10th;: departs about October 10th. 40. Dendzca blackburniw (GMEL). Blackburniaen Warbler. Transient. Very common in September; but all of them are very plainly colored then as compared with the fiery hues of the vernal costume. Generally an early arrival. In 1882 I took one on April 3rd. They leave towards the last of September, but I have taken stragglers as late as October 13th. 41. .Dendreca dominica albilora BAIRD. Sycamore Warbler. A common summer resident; arriving very early in April. Almost always found along streams in the sycamore trees (Plantanus occidentalis), amongst the branches of which. they creep in their search for insects with more of the habits of a Certhia than those of a warbler; occasionally uttering their rather musical song, which is singularly like that of the Indigo Bird. Their nest I have never been able to find, although they undoubtedly breed here. 42. tDendrxca vins (GMEL.). Black-throated Green Warb- ler. Transient. Very common. Arrives about April 18th; departs October 10th to 15th. I saw and identified one on July 14th, 1882, but, of course, didn't have a gun along, and the bird was not captured. All the specimens I have ever taken show great variation in the amount and intensity of the black on the breast. 43. Dendrwca pinus (WILSON). Pine-creeping Warbler. Transient. Common in April and September. It is quite likely that this bird breeds here. 16 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. 44. Dendrxca palmarum (GMEL.). Red-poll Warbler. Transient. Quite common. A few undoubtedly winter here in sheltered places, as I have seen them in December and in the middle of January. Exclusively a terrestrial bird; generally associating in flocks with the smaller sparrows. 45. tDendimca discolor (VIEILL.). Prairie Warbler. Common in the spring. So far as my observations have extended, this warbler is transient here, but for reasons too lengthy to mention now, I feel quite sure that a few of them breed. An inhabitant of sassafras and cedar bushes, etc., that have grown up in old abandoned fields, where its curious song, which Dr. Coues likens to "a mouse complaining with the toothache,' can always be heard in spring, during the intervals between his short flights after mosquitoes, flies, and other pestiferous flying things. Genus Siurus. 46. tSiurus auricapillus (LINN.). Golden-crowned Thrush. Common in spring and fall. Nearly always found in wood- land, where their loud monotonous chant "drowns" all other bird music. 47. Siurus noreboracensis ( GMEL.).Small-billed Water Thrush Transient. Rare, as I have never seen but two here-on May 17th, 1882. 48. Siurus Motacilla (VIEILL.) Large-billed Water Thrush. An abundant summer resident; arrives about April 1st. Frequenting small woodland watercourses, every one of which generally has a pair. They are first-class musi- cians, but do most of their singing during the first two 17 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. weeks after their arrival from the South. They are said to build their nests among the exposed roots of trees along the streams, but I have never been able to find one of them. Genus Oporornis. 49. Oporornis agilis (WILSON). Connecticut Warbler. Transient; rather rare. I have taken it only twice in the spring-May 12th and 13th, and once in the fall-Octo- ber 11th. 50. Opororij formosa (WILSON). Kentucky Warbler. A common summer resident; arrives about April 20th. This handsome ground warbler is another bird that in- dulges in the erroneous idea that he knows how to sing, if one may judge from the stolid persistency with which he grinds out his wearisome ditty, but it doubtless has the desired effect upon "Mrs. Kentucky," and he cares not for the plaudits of any one else. Genus Geothylpis. 51. Geothylpis Philadelphia (WILSON). Mourning Warbler. Transient; rather rare. I have only taken three speci- mens, all in May. Its habits are very similar to the next, but its song impresses me as being much finer. 52. Geothylpis trichas (LINN.). Maryland Yellowthroat. An abundant summer resident. Arrives about April 20th; departs October 10th to 12th. An inhabitant of bushes and tangled thickets in the neighborood of streams. Very suggestive of the wrens in its nervous, jerky disposi- tion and quick movements. Sometimes, during the breed- ing season, the males indulge in a curious habit of flying up obliquely to the height of thirty or forty feet, and then descending, singing volubly all the time. 18 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Genus Icteria. 53. cteria virens (LINN.). Yellow-breasted Chat. A common summer resident; arrives about April 25th. If birds were not known to be temperance folks, the Chat would be accused of "alcoholisni," for this would be a very logical explanation of his absurd squawkings and clown-like gyrations in mid-air when the nuptial ecstasy is upon him. Like the preceding species they prefer the seclusion of thickets to all other places, and in such haunts they generally bring up their families; but I once knew a pair to build their nest in a wren box on a piazza. [See Bulletin Nuttall Ornithological Club, 1881, Vol. vi., P. 115]. Genus Sylvania. 54. Sylvania mitrata (GMEL.). Hooded Warbler. Transient. One of our rarer, as well as most beautiful warblers. I have never taken but two specimens-April 19th and May 9th, 1877. 55. Sylvania pusilla (WILSON.) Black-capped Yellow Warbler. Transient in May; not common. Generally in low trees in sparsely wooded thickets. 56. Sylvania canadensis (LINN.). Canadian Fly-catching Warbler. Transient. Abundant in May; arrives May 10th to 15th. A bird of the forest. This and the Black-poll generally form the "rear guard" of the great sylvicoline army in their annual march towards the North, as it is always, with us, the last of the warblers to appear. 19 20 BIRDS Of' NELSON COUNTY. Genus Setophaga. 67. Setophaga ruticilla (LINN.). American Redstart. Summer resident. Very abundant during the migrations, but not very common in summer. Arrives April 23rd; departs about September 15th. Fresh eggs found May 27th. One of the handsomest representatives of our syl- van orlis, and unrivalled as an insect-catcher; it must be a very " cold day" indeed when the Redstart has to go without his dinner. Family VIREONIDA: Vireos, or Greenlets. Genus Vireosylvia. 58. 7 Vreosyuia olivacea (LINN.). Red-eyed Vireo. An abundant summer resident; arrives April 10th. They nest in the immediate vicinity of dwellings as well as in the forest. 59. Mir=osylvia philadeiphica CASSIN. Philadelphia Vireo. Rare. One specimen only; shot May 19th, 1877. 60. VireosylVia gilva (VIEILL.). Warbling Vireo. A common summer resident; arrives about the 1st of May. All the nests of this species I have ever seen were placed near the tops of trees instead of within a few feet of the ground-situations that the Red-eye and White-eye generally select. This dull-looking, inconspicuous little bird is one of our sweetest songsters, although his voice is not particularly strong, and the variety of his notes is limited. Genus Lanivireo. 61. tLanvrkes Gavfrons (VIEILL.). Yellow-throated Vires. Rather common; arrives about April 20th. I have never BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. taken the nest of this greenlet, but I think that they breed here. 62. Lanivireo solitarius (VIEILL.). Blue-headed Vireo. Transient. Not common. Arrives about April 20th; leaves about October 20th. Genus Vireo. 63. Vireo noreboracensis (GMEL.). White-eyed Vireo. Abundant in spring, and rather common in summer. Ar- rives April 15th to 20th. Fresh eggs found May 16th. An inhabitant of the thicket, exclusively, and an exceed- ingly lively little bird, with a voice loud enough for one four or five times his size. Capt. Saville Reid, in his "Birds of the Bermudas" likens one of its characteristic calls to the suggestive phrase "ginger-beer-quick." Family AXPELIDA: Waxwings. Genus Ampelis. 64.t Ampelis cedrorum (VIEILL.). Cedar Waxwing. "Cherry Bird." An irregular, but at times very abundant, permanent resi- dent. Common in the cedar glades, whenever here. In Louisiana this bird is known as the "Ortolan." There are no less than five different birds that have had this name applied to them: 1st. The true Ortolan, Emberiza hortulana of Europe. 2d. The Sora-Rail, Pozana caro- lina. 3d. The Bobolink or Reed-bird, Dolichonyx oryzi- rorus. 4th. The Shore Lark, Otocorys alpestris (see Lemoine' s " Oisseaux du Canada," p. 225); and 5th, the bird under consideration. It is suggested that those who contend for a vernacular nomenclature, instead of a Latin and Greek one, put this in their pipes and smoke it. 21 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Family HI lUNDINIDA: Swallows. Genus Progne. 65. Progne subis (LINN.). Purple Martin. A common summer resident; arrives about March 20th; sometimes as early as the 10th. A general favorite, breed- ing here, as elsewhere, in boxes put up for their accom- modation, which sometimes occasion a triangular fight between this bird. the Blue-bird and the English Sparrow. In one three- or four-days battle, which I witnessed, the Blue-birds came off victorious. Genus Petrochelidon. 66. Potrochelidon lunifrons (SAY). Cliff Swallow. A rather common summer resident. I have never seen their nests, Genus Chelidon. 67. Chelidon eryhrogastra (BODD.). Barn Swallow. An abundant summer resident; arrives about April 20th. These swallows do not appear to be nearly as common about here as they were ten or fifteen years ago. Boys destroy a great many of their nests, in the barns and other out-buildings, which has doubtless had a very appreciable effect upon their numbers. Genus Clivicola. 68. tClivcola riparia (LINN.). Bank Swallow. "Sand Martin." A common summer resident. Genus Stelgidopteryx. 69. Stelgidcpteryz seripenis (AUD.). Rough-winged Swal- low. 22 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY- A common summer resident. In the immediate neighbor- hood of Bardstown this is the most abundant of all the swallows. Their favorite nesting places about here are natural cavities in the limestone cliffs that surround the town. Family TANAGRIDE: Tanagers. Genus Piranga. 70. Piranga erythromeelas (VIEILL.). Scarlet Tanager. Transient. Abundant in May and September; not seen during the summer; arrives about May 1st. A bird of the forest; rarely seen about cultivated places. 71. Piranga rubra (LJNN.). Summer Red-bird. A common summer resident; arrives April 20th to 25th. Fresh eggs are generally to be found about May 15th. Their nesting sites are confined exclusively to " the open," and almost always near a path or road. The terminal portion of a lower limb is selected, upon which the nest is " saddled;" the beech being their favorite tree. They frequently build in the immediate vicinity of dwellings. One was taken by me in May, 1882, in a small dogwood near a cistern, directly over a paved way, and within twenty or thirty feet of the house. About four- fifths of the nests contain three eggs-the remainder four. They have a rather pleasing song, which is heard only in May and June. In September they seem to become particularly abundant, and wander around in an uneasy, anxious sort of way, constantly uttering their querulous call-note. Family FRINGILLIDAE: Finches, Sparrows, &c. Genus Carpodacus. 72. Carpodacus purpureus (GMEL.). Purple Finch. A common transient. A few probably winter here. Prin- 23 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. cipal food the leaf-buds of trees; those of the " poplar " (Liriodendron), being apparently preferred to any other. I have heard them singing in October, but have never seen any birds in the red plumage at that time, all of the males being then in the sombre plumage of the female. Genus Loxia. 73. Loxia curfrdstra =m cana (WILSON). American Cross- bill. A flock of six or eight of these birds appeared here on November 18th, 1882, in some pine trees, the first time I had ever observed them. They remained only a day or two, and none were seen until the 17th of March, follow- ing, when I shot eight out of a flock of about twenty, in the same place where they had previously been seen. Sev- eral flocks were observed about the same time near Bloom- field and Glenville, in this county, and excited considerable comment on account of their queer bills. The weather at the time was quite mild, so their appearance here was probably due to some other cause. Genus Spinus. 74. spiz trtiStls (LINN.). American Gold-finch. "Yel- low-bird." An abundant permanent resident; more so in spring and fall than in summer and winter. Always in flocks, except for a short time while they are nesting. 75. Spinus pinus (WILSON). Pine Gold-finch. I observed two small flocks of this bird here in November, 1882. Their habits appeared to be very similar to those of the last species. 24 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Genus Passer. 76. Passer domesticus AUCT. English House Sparrow. These obtrusive aliens made their appearance here about the year 1879, and are increasing at a rapid rate, and are to be found at several places in the country, as well as in town. They are generally appreciated by the poople at their true value, and are regarded as an unmitigated nuis- ance. Pert and impudent here, as everywhere else, they act as if they owned the town. There must be something wrong about a theory-" survival of the fittest "-that lets this bird live-what are they fit for anyway Genus Passerculus. 77. Passerculus sandwichensis savanna (WILSON). Savanna Sparrow. Transient; abundant; arrives about March 20th. Most common in w-et meadows. Genus Pocecetes. 78. Powcetes gramineus (GMEL.). Grass Finch. A common summer resident; arrives about the middle of February, and leaves about November 20th. A first-rate songster; although eminently a "ground bird," when- ever one of them experiences the musical impulse he flies to the top of the nearest high tree, and perching himself upon the topmost twig " turns himself loose." Genus Coturniculus. 79. Coturniculus savanrum (GMEL.). Grasshopper Spar- row. A common summer resident. Fresh eggs found May 20th. I have taken the bird here as late as October 26th. They build on the ground in open fields, and conceal their nests 25 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. with more dexterity than any other sparrow that I know of. Their note is about on a par with that of an able- bodied Kansas grasshopper. 80. Cotuniculus henslowi (AUD.). Henslow's Sparrow. On October 30th, 1884, while out quail shooting one of my dogs, a green pointer puppy whose field education was just beginning, "came down" in a wet clover field. Going up to the spot I flushed the bird, which turned out to be Henslow's Sparrow, and a new one to this locality. Of course the dog escaped the threshing he deserved for not distinguishing the difference between a "jack-spar- row" and a Bob White. The bird flew a few yards before alighting, and then scurried through the short tangled clover like a mouse, which it did so dexterously that I had great difficulty in getting a shot. The only other Ken- tucky record of this sparrow that I am aware of, is that given by Audubon (Birds of America, 1841, iii, p. 75), who took the type of the species near the Ohio river, oppo- site Cincinnati. Genus Chondestes. 81. Chondestes grammacus (SAY). Lark Finch. An abundant summer resident; arrives about April 22d. They hatch two broods; the young of the first brood are fully fledged and able to fly about June 25th. A most accomplished musician. In California, according to Mr. Ridgway, they are in great demand as cage birds. Wal- lace, in his "Geographical Distribution of Animals" (vol 1, p. 24), mentions two species of North American birds, Thryothorus ludovicianus, and Petrochelidon lunifrons, that have greatly extended their range since the time of Alexander Wilson (the beginning of the century), and he 26 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. might also have included this bird. In Bonaparte's edi- tion of Wilson's work (1834), the Mississippi river is given as the eastern limit of their range, but now they are very common hundreds of miles to the East of that stream, and have even been seen at Washington (Ridgway) and in Massachusetts (Brewer). They certainly have increased in numbers in this locality since I first began to " notice" birds. Genus Zonotrichia. 82. Zonotrichia leucophlrs (FoAST.). White-crowned Spar- row. Transient. Common in May. I have seen them in the fall as late as October 31st. 83. Zonotrichia albicollis (GMEL.). White-throated Sparrow. Transient. Very common. A few winter here, as I have seen them on December 24th, and on February 1st. One of the last of our birds to leave for the North; stragglers sometimes seen as late as May 18th. Genus Spizella. 84. Spizella monticola (GMEL.). Tree Sparrow. A common winter resident; arrives about October 12th. 85. SpizellaS0Cialis(WILSON). Chipping Sparrow. "House Sparrow." An excessively abundant summer resident. It is proba- ble that some of them winter here, as I have seen them here in cold weather, as late as December 28th, and as early as February 24th. Here, as in most places, the best known and most familiar of the sparrows. 86. Sp.zella pusilla (WILSON). Field Sparrow. An abundant summer resident; arrives about March 1st; 27 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. leaves about December 1st. One of the last of our birds to leave off singing in the summer, as their pleasing song is heard all through " blackberry-time." Genus Junco. 87, AWo hyema&i (WILSON). Junco. "Snowbird." An abundant winter resident, from October 25th to April 15th. Often caught around barns, when the snow is on the ground, by boys in "figure 4" traps. Genus Peucma. 88. tYucca mstinlis bachmani (AUD.). Bachman's Finch. Rare. Only one specimen; shot April 28th, 1877, from a low limb of a small oak while singing. The song was an exceedingly soft snd sweet strain, and seemed to be some- what ventriloquial, apparently issuing from several dif- ferent places, as it was sometime before I could discover the bird. Genus Melospiza. 89. 1(elospi faxscata (GMEL.). Song Sparrow. In the previous list this bird is given as "an abundant resi- dent." This is partially incorrect as they are quite scarce in Summer. I have never found the nest. One of the earliest of our birds to "tune up" for the great Spring song festival, and on this account quite a general favorite. 90. Malospiza georgiana (GMEL.). Swamp Sparrow. Transient. Rather uncommon; arrives April 1st to 10th. 91. Melospiza Lcolhi (AuD.). Lincoln's Finch. Transient. Not uncommon in May. Like the last an inhabitant of wet and swampy places. 28 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Genus Passerella. 92. Pagserella iliaca (MERREM). Fox-colored Sparrow. Abundant in March and November, and common during some winters. A bird of the thickets, in preference to all other places. Genus Pipilo. 93. tPipio erytphthalmus (LINN.). Towhee. " Joree." A common permanent summer resident. Thickets and brush-piles are their favorite resorts. Genus Cardinalis. 94. Cduis calis (LINN.). Cardinal Grosbeak. "Red- bird." An abundant permanent resident, and a favorite cage-bird. Three is the most usual number of eggs that their nests contain. Genus Habia. 95. Habla ludov'cian (LINN.). Rose-breasted Grosbeak. I have never met with this beautiful grosbeak but upon two occasions. Oii May 1, 1882, I shot one out of a flock of eight or ten individuals, and the following day, in the same place, I saw the same flock and four more were sac- rificed to the cause of science. They were feeding appar- ently upon the seeds of the sycamore tree. I heard no note from them whatever. Genus Passerina. 96, Passo cyanea (LINN.). Indigo Bunting. An abundant Summer resident from April 20th to October 18th. A voluble, but rather poor singer, compared to some of his Fringilline cousins, but his intentions are good and he doubtless does the best he "knows how." 29 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. At least one-third of the nests I have found contained eggs of the cow-bird. Genus Spiza. 97. Spizp americana (GMEL). Black-throated Bunting. A very common Summer resident, but they conceal their nests with so much skill that I have never been able to find one. During May they sing a great deal; their fa- vorite perches when they are uttering their stridulous notes being the tops of the stakes of rail fences. Family ICTERIDA: American Starlings. Gentus Molothrus. 98. Jolot ater (BODD.). Cow-bird. A common Summer resident. The only parasitic bird we have in the Eastern part of North America. They con- gregate in large flocks in the Fall, and leave for the South about November 20th. Genus Agelaius. .99. AgpJWu Phniceus (LINN.). Red-and-buff-shouldered Blackbird. A common Summer resident. Arrives in large flocks early in March. Genus Sturnella. 100. Stunella magna (LINN.). Meadow Lark. 'Field Lark. " Resident all the year. Abundant in Spring and Fall. There is a current belief, doubtless well founded, that, at certain seasons, the flesh of this bird is infested with worms, perhaps some species of cestoidea, but I have never observed the phenomenon myself. so BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Genus Icterus. 101. roterus spuius (LINN.). Orchard Oriole. A common summer resident. Arrives about April 20th. Sings a great deal on the wing. 102. .:Ctelas galbula (LINN.). Baltimore Oriole. A common Summer resident. Arrives about the same time as the preceding. A great depredator upon grape arbors. Gov. J. Proctor Knott finds them a great nuisance in his large vineyard near Lebanon. When engaged in their robberies they are absolutely silent, and are perfectly aware, that, as far as they are concerned, grapes are for- bidden fruit, for whenever a man with a gun comes into view, they are "off like a shot"-and it may be super- fluous to add, before they are shot. Genus Scolecophagus. 103. Scolecophagus carolinus (MULL.). Rusty Blackbird. Transient. Common during the migration. Sometimes appearing as early as the middle of February, and occa- sionally seen as late as November 4th. The " rusty " part of his name will apply as well to his voice as to his coat. Genus Quiscalus. 104. Qwscaluspurpuxusnoeus RIDGWAY. Bronzed Grackle. A summer resident; very abundant in early spring. This is the commonest and best known of the three blackbirds we have here. A noisy colony of them have for many years bred in some tall pine trees in a large yard in Bards- town, and one night in August, 1880, during an exceed- ingly violent storm many of them were killed, probably by flying, or being violently blown against obstacles of some sort. 31 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Family CORVIDA: Crows and Jays. Genus Corvus. 105. Corvus americanus (AUD.). Crow. An abundant permanent resident. Here, as everywhere else, a pariah amongst birds, but the brainiest of them all. He has no friends, and apparently doesn't want any, for he increases and multiplies in the face of the most unrelenting persecution. He knows the range of every gun in his bailiwick, and in him the honest farmer's unsightly "scare-crow" excites no emotions, save those of derision and contempt. Genus Cyanocitta. 106. Cywcitta cristata (LINN.). Blue Jay. A permanent resident; very abundant in the fall. Nests generally placed in tall trees near dwellings. A noisy, quarrelsome, and nest-robbing pirate. The popular belief that he is in league with the devil and visits his sulphur- ous majesty every Friday, to report to him and consult upon mundane affairs, is amply supported by his wicked disposition and general "cussedness." Family ALAUDIDA: Larks. Genus Otocoris. 107. Otocoris alpestris praticola HENSHAW. Prairie Lark. A common winter resident; appearing in irregular flocks about the first week of November. Suborder CLAATORES: Songless Perchers. Family TYRANNIDE. Genus Tyrannus. 108. Ty ustyzmrzs(LINN.). KingBird. "Bee Martin." An abundant summer resident; arrives about April 20th. 3i2 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Several years ago, in May, I saw one of these birds occu- pying an exposed perch on a pear tree in bloom, about which many bees were darting. Several times I observed that the bird caught the insects without leaving his perch, by quickly turning his head and "grabbing" them. My attention being thoroughly aroused, I noticed that many of them seemed to fly directly towards him; the majority appearing to "shy off" at a short distance and change their course, but very few that came within reach escaped him. The question naturally suggests itself: did the thrifty Hymenopterc mistake the fully displayed crimson crown (I could see that the crest was erected) for a flower Once since I have observed the same phenomenon, but not as well as upon this occasion. Mr. C. C. Nutting, who has spent considerable time studying the birds of Costa Rica and Niagara in their native haunts, states that he has seen Mlfucivora nexicana perched upon a twig, and waving its curious and brilliant fan-shaped crest after the manner of a flower swayed by a gentle breeze, and thus attracting insects within reach. In fact the majority of the fly-catchers, a family that numerically reaches its great- est development in the Neotropical Region, all have some lively colored coronal decoration, which, perhaps, has been evolved for the special purpose above suggested. I understand that this subject has been discussed by Mr. H. K. Coale in a recent paper read before the Ridgway Ornithological Club, of Chicago, but I have not seen it, and am unaware whether or not he has touched upon this particular phase of the matter. Genus Myiarchus. 109. MJarchus crinitus (LINN.) Great-crested Fly-catcher. An abundant summer resident; more numerous than the 33 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. preceding. They arrive about April 20th when they im1l- mediately begin to make the wood, orchards and gardens ring with their loud call-notes. They all appear to put in their appearance on the same day, and do not straggle in from the South like most of the migratory birds. Fresh eggs are to be had about a month after their arrival. All of the few nests I have found of this species-they breed in hollows in trees-contained the inevitable cast-off snake skins. Whether or not they act upon the idea that "the hair of a dog is good for his bite," which is merely a homely rendition of the homeopathic canon of "similibus similibus curantor," and put the skins in to keep the snakes out, I leave for the determination of some of our ornithological quiduncs. Genus Sayornis. 110. Say-ornispbbe (LATH.). Pewee. A common summer resident, and one of our best known birds. On account of their confiding habit of building their nests in conspicuous and easily accessible situations, they are the most common victim of the nest-destroying- small-boy vandals, who on account of the vast amount of total depravity and original sin that is in them, break up their well made houses "just because," as one of the little fiends said to me, "they's so easy to punch with a stick." The pewees build much earlier than any of our common birds. I have found fresh eggs on March 29th. A few undoubtedly winter here, as I have seen them in Decem- ber, January and February. Genus Contopus. 11. Contopu irens (LNN.). Wood Pewee. An abundant summer resident. I have seen them here as 34 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. late as October 10th. As its name indicates this fly- catcher is exclusively a woodland bird, and builds the handsomest nest of any eastern representative of its fam- ily, but it is a very difficult one to find. Genus Empidonax. 112. Empidonax flaviventris BAIRD. Yellow-bellied Fly- catcher. Transient. Rather uncommon. 113. Empldo=u scadicus (VIEILL.). Acadian Fly-catcher. A common summer resident; arrives about May 1st. Fresh eggs found May 20th. Their nests are quite strong, but are so slightly built that the eggs can be easily seen by anyone standing beneath them. 114. Empidonaz minimus BAIRD. Least Fly-catcher. Transient in April and May. Common. An inhabitant of orchards and open places, in preference to the wood- land. Order PICARIA: Picarian Birds. Suborder CYPSET OR EES. Family TROCHlThMM: Humming Birds. Genus Trochilus. 115. Trochlus colubrs LINN. Ruby-throated Humming Bird. A common summer resident; arrives about April 25th. On account of the differences of plumage between the male and female Ruby-throat, it is popularly believed that we have two species of humming birds, but out 35 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. of the four hundred kinds known to inhabit the two American continents, only one is found east of the Mis- sissippi river. This particular little " winged gem" has a curious habit, when just caught alive in the hand, of " keeling over" on its back and feigning death, but they always neglect to close their eyes and so rarely deceive anyone. One spring, many years ago, dozens of them frequented an extensive honeysuckle vine, in a large tree within ten or twelve feet of the house, and at least twenty of them, at different times, flew into the open windows, and were captured, all of which invariably " played possum" in the way above indicated, to the great interest and amusement of the inmates of the house. They can be easily tamed and taught to feed upon sugared water, and make very interesting pets. Family CYPSELIDI: Swifts. Genus Chatura. 116. asxt= pelaca (LmN.). Chimney Swift. " Chim- ney Swallow." An abundant summer resident; arrives about April 10th. A general favorite, all of whose habits are too well known to bear repetition here. Family CAPRIMULGIEDR: Goat-suckers. Genus Caprimulgus. 117. tCaprlmulgus vociferus WILSON. Whip-poor-will. An uncommon summer resident. I have never heard it in the vicinity of Bardstown. Genus Chordeiles. 118. tChordeiles vrgianus (GMEL.). Night Hawk. "Bull Bat." Summer resident. Abundant in August and September, 36 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. and excessively so during a warm "spell" which lasted during the first three days of October, 1879. Bull Bat shooting is a favorite sport here during the last hour of the afternoon in August and September, but their uncer- tain and devious flight taxes the skill of the most expert gunner. Suborder PICIFORE3S: Piciform Birds. Family PICIDN: Woodpeckers. Genus Dryobates. 119. Dryobates dlosn (LI.). Hairy Woodpecker. Permanent resident, not very common, but more so in winter than at any other time. A rather shy bird. 120. Dryobatespubescons (LiNN.). Downy Woodpecker. A common permanent resident. Genus Sphyrapicus. 121. Sphympicus varlus (LINN.). Yellow-bellied Wood- pecker. Winter resident. Rather common in the Fall, when they are most often seen about orchards, etc., where they are supposed to carry on their nefarious practice of "sap- sucking." The name "sap-sucker," is popularlyapplied to this bird as well as the two last, but the others should certainly stand acquitted of the crime. In fact all of the woodpeckers are insectivorous and are of incalculable ben- efit to man. Genus Ceophleus. 122. Ceophlwus pileatus (INN.). Pileated Wood-pecker. "Wood-cock." An uncommon permanent resident in heavily wooded por- tions of the county. Less than fifteen years ago I often 37 BIRDS O' NELSON COUNTY. noticed them within a mile or two of town but now they seem to have entirely disappeared from this vicinity. Always, a wary bird and very difficult to approach except in Florida where I found them quite tame. Genus Centurus. 123. Centur cuolinus(Lni.). Red-bellied Wood-pecker. "Checker-back." A common permanent resident. Also, accused by the farmers. without reason, however, of being a "sap-sucker." Genus Melanerpes. 124. J4Ujrp2es erbrcuphlus (LINN.). Red-headed Woodpecker. A permanent resident. Very abundant at times, but dur- ing some years none are seen for several months. They are rolicking, noisy sort of birds, and sometimes in Octo- ber the racket that two or three dozen of them will make in the woods is almost deafening. Like the rest of his family he is eminently an insect eater, but is also very fond of a nice ripe cherry, and during the season makes frequent excursions to the orchard, where he is often shot for his pains, along with the Cherry Birds, by the watch- ful boy on guard-if the latter isn't up the tree himself. Genus Colaptes. 125. Colaptes auratus (LiNN.). Yellow-shafted Flicker. "Yellow hammer." An abundant permanent resident. Stays much on the ground, feeding in company with robins. Very fond of the berries of the black gum. Here the Flicker is the principal "game" of juvenile sportsmen, and some people eat them, but they are not popular as an article of diet. 38 BIRDS OF i(ELSON COUNTY. Suborder CUCULIFORMES: Cuculiform Birds. Family ALCEDINIDE: Kingfishers. Genus Ceryle. 126. Ceryle alcyon (LrNN.). Rather common. Not observed in winter, but a few are doubtless to be found here at that season. Family CUCULIDE: Cuckoos. Genus Coccyzus. 127. Cocczpus americanus (LIuN.). Yellow-billed Cuckoo. " Rain Crow." A common summer resident; arrives about May 1st; de- parts about October 12th. An inhabitant of the densest foliage of the tree-tops, where it is easy enough to hear him, but very difficult to see him. 128. tCoccyzus erytrphthalmus (WILSON). Black-billed Cuckoo. " Rain Crow." A rather uncommon summer resident. Similar in habits to the last. As is very well known these two birds get the name of " Rain Crow" from the wide-spread popular belief that their mournful notes are only heard before a rain. Like most signs it signally fails in dry times, Order RAPTOREB: Birds of Prey. Suborder STRIGES: Nocturnal Birds of Prey. Family ALUCONIDE: Barn Owls. Genus Aluco. 129. Aluco flammeus pratlcolus (BONAP.). American Barn Owl. 89 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. In the museum of the Louisville Polytechnic Society there is a mounted specimen of this owl, which was shot in Bullitt county, fifteen or twenty miles north of here. Family STRIG AE: Owls. Genus Asio. 130. Aslo accipitrinus (PATL..). Short-eared Owl. Rare: one specimen only, flushed from a clump of briars, November 17, 1881, and shot by Mr. W. H. Rowan, of Bardstown. Genus Scops. 131. Scops aJo (LNN.). Little Screech OwL A common permanent resident. I have seen fually fledged young birds on the wing May 31st. For two or three years a pair bred in a locust tree on the edge of a carriage way, and within thirty feet of the door of a large house. Genus Bubo. 132. Bubo Jrainus (GMIEL.). Great Horned Owl. A rather common Summer resident. A gentleman near here caught six or eight within a week with steel traps placed on a conspicuous perch in his barn-yard where the big marauders were accustomed to get their suppers. Genus Nyetea. 133. Hyctea nivea (LINN.). Snowy Owl. A circum-polar bird that occasionally visits these climes during severe winters. I know but two records of its capture: Audubon mentions one being taken "neat Bairdstown, Kentucky," and several years ago Mr. E. E. McKay, of this place, shot one sitting on a gate-post dur ing a snow-storm. 40 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY, Suborder ACCIPITRES: Diurnal Birds of Prey. Family FALCONIDE: Hawks, Etc. Genus Falco. 134. Falco sparverius (INN.). Sparrow Hawk. A common permanent resident. Very wary; understand- ing as well as a crow how to take care of their skins. Genus Accipiter. 135. Accipitercooperi (BONAP.). Cooper's Hawk. Sometimes rather common. 136. Acciplier fuscus (GMEL.). Sharp-shinned Hawk. A common permanent resident. Genus Buteo. 137. Buteo l]eatus (GMEL.). Red-shouldered Hawk. "Chicken Hawk." Permanent resident; probably the most common hawk found here. Genus Halietus. 138. Halietus lencocepbalus (LiNN.). Bald Eagle. "Gray Eagle." A newspaper paragraph (Nelson County Record, June 27, 1881) mentions the fact of one of these birds having been seen for several days near Boston, in this county. Family PANDIONIDA: Ospreys. Genus Pandion. 139. Pandion hlietus carolinensis (GMEL.). Fish Hawk. Rare. Mr. Rowan Wickliffe, of Bardstown, shot one in April, 1882, which is the only record of its occurrence here that I am aware of. 41 4BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Suborder ATA ET:B American Vultures. Family CATHARTDIE. Genus Cathartes. 140. Cathate aura (IDNK.). Turkey Buzzard. A common permanent resident, most abundant in sum- mer. Genus Catharista. 141. Cath At trata (WULsON). Black Vulture. Carrion Crow. An uncommon summer resident. Order COLUXBAE: Columbine Birds. Suborder PI8TEM RME. Family COLUMBIDE: Pigeons and Doves. Genus Ectopistes. 142. Zctoplstesmigrato (LINN.). Passenger Pigeon. Wild Pigeon. Excessively common during some falls, but not nearly as abundant as formerly. There was an enormous flight of them here about fifteen years ago. The following extract from Alexander Wilson's account of this species in his "American Ornithology," published about the year 1810, will doubtless prove interesting: " Not far from Shelby- ville, in the State of Kentucky, about five years ago, there was one of these breeding places, which stretched through the woods in nearly a north and south direction, and was several miles in breadth, and was said to be upwards of 42 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. forty mines in extent! In this tract almost every tree was furnished with nests, wherever the branches could ac- commodate them. The pigeons made their first appear- ance there about the 10th of April, and left it altogether, with their young, before the 25th of May. As soon as the young were fully grown, and before they left the nests, numerous parties of the inhabitants, from all parts of the adjacent country, came with wagons, axes, beds, cooking utensils, many of them accompanied by the greater part of their families, and encamped for several days at the immense nursery. Several of them informed me that the noise in the wood was so great as to terrify their horses, and that it was difficult for one person to hear another speak without bawling in his ear. The ground was strewed with broken limbs of trees, eggs, and squab pigeons, which had been precipitated from above, and on which herds of hogs were fattening. Hawks, buz- zards, and eagles were sailing about in great numbers, and seizing the squabs from their nests at pleasure, while from twenty feet upwards to the tops of the trees the view through the woods presented a perpetual tumult of crowding and fluttering multitudes of pigeons, their wings roaring like thunder, mingled with the frequent crash of falling timber, for now the axe-men were at work cutting down those trees that seemed to be most crowded with nests, and continued to fell them in such a manner that in their descent they might bring down several others, by which means the falling of one large tree sometimes produced two hundred squabs, little inferior in size to the old ones, and almost one mass of fat. On some single trees upwards of one hundred nests were found. It was dangerous to walk under these flying and 43 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. fluttering millions, from the frequent falling of large branches, broken down by the weight of the multitudes above, and which, in their descent, often destroyed num- bers of the birds themselves, while the clothes of those engaged in traversing the woods were completely covered with the excrements of the pigeons. These circumstances were related to me by many of the most respectable part of the community in that quarter, and were confirmed, in part, by what I myself witnessed. I passed for several miles through the same breeding place, where every tree was spotted with nests, the remains of those above de- scribed. In many cases I counted upwards of ninety nests on a single tree; but the pigeons had abandoned this for another, sixty or eighty miles off, towards Green river,.where they were said at that time to be equally numerous. From the great numbers that were constantly passing overhead to or from that quarter, I had no doubt of the truth of this statement. The mast had been chiefly consumed in Kentucky, and the pigeons, every morning a little before sunrise, set out for the Indiana territory, the nearest part of which was about sixty miles distant. Many of these returned before ten o'lock, and the great body generally appeared on their return a little after noon." Shelbyville is about thirty-eight miles north of Bardstown. It is hardly necessary to state that no pigeon "roost " is known to exist in Kentucky at this day. Genus Zenaidura. 143. Zenaiduza caroinensis (LINN.) Mourning Dove. A common permanent resident. They congregate in large flocks in the corn-fields during the fall and wintO. 44 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Order GALLINAX: Gallinaceous Birds. Family MELEAGRIDIDA: Turkeys. Genus Meleagris. 144. tMea8eagris g1lopavo LiNN. Wild Turkey. Said to still occur sparingly in the western part of the county. Family TETRAONMID: Grouse. Genus Bonasa. 145. Bows umbellus (LINN.). Ruffed Grouse. "Pheas- ant." Permanent resident. Not uncommon in. deep wooded ravines and other suitable places in the western part of the county. Family PERDICIDR: Partridges and Quails. Genus Colinus. 146. Coinus irginianus (LINN.). Bob White. American Quail. " Partridge." A common permanent resident, but with hawks, cold weather and sportsmen, has a hard time of it in " the struggle for existence." They sometimes breed very late. On October 15, 1884, I found a large bevy in a corn field so young that they were unable to fly. During the early part of the shooting season the birds spend most of their time in the woods; only taking to the stubble during cold weather. 45 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Order HERODIONES. Family ARDEIDL: Herons. Genus Ardea. 147. Ardea herodlas LINN. Great Blue Heron. Transient. Rather uncommon, on account of the absence of suitable places for them. Genus Herodias. 148. Herodls egrtta (GMEL.). American Egret. Mr. J. W. Fowler, of Louisville, informs me that he shot one of these herons in October 1881, near Fairfield, in this county. Genus Garzetta. 149. Gaetta candidi&lma (GMEL.). Snowy Heron. A hunter informs me that several years ago he shot a "white fly-up-the-creek" near here, which is probably referable to this species. Genus Butorides. 150. Butorfdas Vrscens (JLNN.). Green Heron. "Fly-up- the-creek." A common Summer resident. Arrives about April 20th. Fresh eggs obtained May 12th. Nests generally placed in cedar trees, ten to twenty feet from the ground near streams. 46 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Genus Nyeticorax. 151. fycticorsz ariseus nwMvuS (BODD.). Black-crowned Night Heron. Transient in May; not very uncommon. Genus Botaurus. 152. BOtauZislentiginosuS (MONTAG.). American Bittern. Transient; rather uncommon. Order LIMICOLIE: Shore Birds. Family CHARADREIIDI: Plovers. Genus Oxyechus. 153. Oxyechus vociferus (LINN.). Killdeer. A permanent resident. Common in the Spring, but rare in summer and Winter. Family SCOLOPACIDA: Snipe, Etc. Genus Philohela. 154. tPhlohela minor (GMEL.). Woodcock. Transient, so far as I know, but a few probably breed here. Not very common. Genus Gallinago. 155. Gallinago wilsoni (TEM.). Wilson's Snipe. "English Snipe. Transient. Abundant in March and the first part of April. 47 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Genus Rhyacophilus. 1 56. hywCopbhus solitalus (WILSON). Solitary Sandpiper. Transient. Quite common in Spring. Genus Actitis. 157. Acttsk macu1&a (LINN.). Spotted Sandpiper. Transient, so far as my observations have extended. Ar- rives April 5th to 10th, when it becomes rather common for several weeks. Order ALECTORIIDES: Cranes, Rails, Etc. Family RALLIDS : Gallinules, Rails and Coots. Genus Rall. 158. R us vUS laianus LINN. Virginia RaiL Transient. Rare; but one specimen-May 10th, 1882, which was killed with a stone by a boy, who brought it to me. Genus Porzana. 159. Pora cUOina (LINN.). Sora Rail. Transient; rather common in October in fields overgrown with briars, where they are very difficult to flush. Octo- ber 12th is the latest record I have of their occurrence here. Not seen at all in spring. 160. Porzt noveboracensis (GMEL.). Little Yellow Rail. Transient; rare. The only time I have ever met with this rail was on October 1, 1880, when a male and female were shot in an old briary field. 48 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Genus Ionornis. 161. lonomas marUica (LINN.). Purple Gallinule. Fourteen or fifteen years ago, when the writer was a boy of ten or twelve years of age, a strange looking bird was caught on " the creek " by one of his juvenile companions in iniquity, and for several days we held it captive with a string tied around one of its legs, and finaJly, I believe, not knowing what to do with it we turned it loose. The appearance of the bird with its brilliant plumage, its queer feet with the long toes, &c., made such a lasting impression upon me, that years afterwards, when I first saw a Purple Gallinule in Florida, I immediately recog- nized it as the counterpart of our quondam pet in Ken- tucky. On account of what I am now satisfied was over caution, this bird was not included in my former list. Genus Fulica. 162. FuBca americsaw GMEL. American Coot. Transient. Rather uncommon. In October, 1880, two were captured alive and brought to me. They were con- fined during the winter in a dry and well-lighted base- ment room, by themselves, and became very tame, always coming up when called by the person who fed them. Their food consisted of corn-bread crumbs and other mis- cellaneous table " scraps," upon which they throve finely. In April they were liberated in the yard with the poultry, and made no attempt at all to leave, but soon made them- selves at home, and, by their strongly evinced disposition to assert their rights, enforced the respect of the numer- ous domestic birds with which they were brought into contact, who seemed at first inclined to regard them as intruders, who were to be vigorously put down. After 49 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. the first two or three days it was quite amusing to watch the other fowls sidle off when the Coots came up for their rations. The nearest water was a spring branch a hun- dred yards distant, which they regularly visited two or three times a day. They remained all summer, appar- ently perfectly satisfied with their humdrum domestic life, but in September they wandered off, probably im- pelled by the migratory instinct. An account of these two birds was published in Forest and Stream in July, 1881. Family GRUIDA: Cranes. Genus Grus. 163. GUn american (LINN.). Whooping Crane. Mr. E. E. McKay informs me that many years ago he ob- served this bird near Bloomfield in this county. 164. Gras meazcan (MuLL.). Sandhill Crane. Inserted on the authority of Mr. E. E. McKay, who has frequently seen it on the Beech Fork of Salt River in this county. Order ANSERES. Family ANATIDE: Swans, Geese and Ducks. Genus Branta. 165. Brta canadensis (LINN.). Canada Goose. "Wild Goose." Rather common in the air; but very few are seen on terra firma in these parts. BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Genus Anas. 166. Anw boscas LrNN. Mallard. Transient; common. Genus Querquedula. 167. Querquedula drscos (LINN.). Blue-winged Teal. Transient; common. The last of the ducks to pass north- ward in the spring. Genus Nettion. 168. Nettion caolinensis (GMEL.). Green-winged Teal. Transient; common. By one of those slips that happen to all of us, this duck was omitted from the former list. Genus Aix. 169. 4Iz sponsa (LINN.). Wood Duck. Summer Duck. An uncommon summer resident. Genus Fuligula. 170. Fuligula collar): (DONOV.). Ring-billed Blackhead. The only time I have ever met with this duck was on February 16, 1883, when a solitary female was shot on a small pond in a woodland. Order PYGOPODES: Diving Birds. Family PODICIPEDIDIE: Grebes. Genus Podilymbus. 1 7 1. Podilymbuspodiceps (LINN.). Thick-billed Grebe. " Di- dapper." " Helldiver." Transient; common on the streams and ponds in early spring. 51 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. It will be at once observed that, as regards the ]Birds of Prey and Water Birds, the list is very incomplete. Not being suffi- ciently acquainted with the former to infallibly identify them at a distance, or expert enough, as a collector, to shoot them, I have to leave out many species that undoubtedly occur here; and on account of the almost total absence of marshes, sloughs and ponds, very few water birds ever halt here during the migra- tions. The Passerine portion of the list is very much better; the only additional species that can reasonably be expected to occur here being Parus atricapillus, Troglodytes edon, Telmatodytes palustris, Protonotaria citrea, Helmitherus vermivorus, Hi- rundo bicolor, Lanius ludovicianus, Plectrophenax nivalis, G(uiraca carulea, and Empidonax pusillus trailli. Audubon speaks of Protonotaria citrea as being common near Louisville, and there are many other birds he alludes to as being found in Kentucky, which on account of the local character of this list are not included. The following tables of seasonal distribution of the differ- ent species will doubtless prove interesting: Winter Residents. Birds that go north in Summer but spend the Winter here. 1. Regulus satrapa. 2. Certhia familiaris rufa. 3. Anorthura hiemalis. 4. Dendrceca coronata. 5. Dendrceca palmarum. 6. Carpodacus purpureus. 7. Zonotrichia albicollis. 8. Spizella monticola. 9. Junco hyemalis. 10. Passerella iliaca. 11. Otocorys alpestris praticola. 12. Sphyrapicis v,-arlus. 52 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. Summer Reidents. Birds that spend the Summer here but winter further south. 1. Hylocichla mustelina. 2. Galeoscoptes carolinensis. 3. Harporhynchus rufus. 4. Polioptila ceruilea. 5. Mniotilta varia. 6. Helminthophila pinus. 7. Compsothylpis americana. 8. Dendroaca estiva. 9. Dendramca cierulea. 10. Dendrceca discolor. 11. Dendrcpca dominica albilora. 12. Siurus auricapillus. 13. Siurus motacilla. 14. Oporornis formosa. 15. Geothylpis trichas. 16. Icteria virens. 17. Setophaga ruticilla. 18. Vireosylvia olivacea. 19. Vireosylvia gilva. 20. Lanivireo tiavifrons. 21. Vireo noveboracensis. 22. Pronge subis. 23. Petrochelidon lunifrons. 24. Chelidon erythrogastra. 25. Clavicola riparia. 26. Stelgidopteryx serripennis. 27. Piranga rubra. 28. Pocecetes gramineus 29. Coturniculus passerinus. 30. Chondestes grammica. 31. Spizella socialis. 32. Spizella pusilla. 33. Peucawa aestivalis bachmani. 34. Passerina cyanea. 35. Spiza americana. BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. Molothrus ater. Agelains phconiceus. Icterus spurius. Icterus galbula. Quiscalus purpureus mneus. Tyrannus tyranuus. Myiarchus crinitus. Sayornis phcebe. Contopus virens. Empidonax acadicus. Trochilus colubris. Chaetura pelagica. Caprimulgus vociferus. Chordeiles virginianus. Ceryle alcyon. Coccyzus americanus. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus. Catharista atrata. Butorides virrscens. Aix sponsa. Traliente. Birds that are only fouand here during the fepring and Fall migrations. 1. Hylocichla fuscescens. 2. Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni. 3. Hylocichla aliciae. 4. Hylocichla unalascev pallasi. 5. Regulus calendula. 6. Cistothorus stellaris. 7. Hel-minthoprifla ruficapilla. 8. Helminthophila celata. 9. Helminthophila peregrina. 10. Helmmthophila chrysoptera. 11. Anthus ludovicianus. 12. Perissoglossa tigrina. 54 BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. 13. Dendrceca cwrulescens. 14. Dendxreca maculosa I5. Dendmcca pennsyivanica. 16. Dendrxca castanea. 17. Dendrceca striata. 18. Dendrceca blackburnite. 19. Dendrceca virens. 20. DendrcLca pinus. 21. Siuras noveboracensis. 22. Oporonis agilis. 23. Geothylpis philadelphia. 24. Sylvania mitrata. 25. Sylvania pusilla. 26. Sylvania canadensis. 27. Vireosylvia philadelphica. 28. Lanivireo solitarius. 29. Piranga erythromelas. 30. Passerculus sandwichensis savanna. 31. Coturniculus henslowi. 32. Zonotrichia leucophrys. 33. Melospiza georgiana. 34. Melospiza lincolni. 35. Habia ludoviciana. 36. Scolecophagus ferrugineuts. 37. Empidonax flaviventris. 38. Empidonax minimus. 39. Ectopistes migratoria. 40. Ardea herodias. 41. Herodias egretta. 42. Garzetta candidissima. 43. Nyticorax griseus naevius. 44. Botaurus lentiginosus. 45. Philohela minor. 46. Gallinago wilsoni. 47. Rhyacophilus solitarius. 48. Tringoides macularius. 49. Rallus virginianus. 50. Porzana carolina. 51. Porzana noveboraeensis. GEOLOGY OF NELSON- COUNTY. Number. ... ... ... R o ck fragments and raeI. . . . . . ............ Soda- intheinsol- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uble Silicatf ...:'. .... .... Potash in the in- =............... Soluble silicates Z Ifois;ture expelled ;i- at21l --F. .... . . . ... Sand andJ inisl;-u- hie silicates . Water expelled at : .3680zF. ..... ..... Soda extracted by - Potash extracted 1:1= : I C -' bv acids.. Phozpho-ric a cid 3 P2 0.5 .7-7-. . Mlaznesia. ide;, etc. TI - ' qX... zz'-2Z r t r n ,and vola f f f :77ZZ77 7 N umiber in Po- Drts. :i:)riI = -'f= rX = - 7= - I Z C Z= T-z i 56 T: 7r, 1: :7 -I 7 7: 7- GEOLOGY OF NELSON COUNTY. 5 7 No. i is virgin soil taken from near Beech Creek, Spencer county, and is derived from the sandstones and shales of the Middle Hudson beds. No. 2 is from the same farm and a field which had been cultivated between fifty and sixty years, while No. 3 is the subsoil beneath No. 2. No. 4 is a marl or blue clay which is so often seen between layers of hard rocks through this part of the state. It was taken from near Taylorsville. These clays are sometimes used as fertilizers and produce good effects when used with phos- phatic manures. Nos. 5 and 6 are mentioned in the body of this report as taken from the farm of D. C. Wigginton. No. 7 is a " woods pasture virgin soil," and is perhaps a mix- ture of the Upper and Middle Hudson River Beds. No. 8 is the same soil, but, which had been cultivated for thirty-three years, while No. 9 is the subsoil from the last. Nos. io and i i are under earths collected in the northeast- ern part of Nelson on Chaplin river by Dr. Owen. His notes are not such that they can be definitely located. No. I2 is from an uncultivated soil, collected near Cedar Creek Church, and derived from the upper part of the Niagara section where the best building stones are found. No i3 was collected from the lower part of the Upper Hud- son beds, where the timbers are blue ash, sugar maple, wild cherry, etc. No. 14 is the same soil after forty years of culti- vation, and No. I5 the subsoil of the same. No. i6 is a shell earth from the same farm. No. I7 is a virgin soil, blue ash land, Upper Hudson River beds. No. i8 is the same soil after fourteen years of cultivation. No. i9 is a marl or clay from the Lower Sub-carboniferouts, two and a half to three miles from New Haven. This is the clay which is so often seen at all the licks and waste places at the foot of the knobs. This contains valuable proportions of pot- ash, sulphuric acid, magnesia, lime and soda. To exhausted lands the application of this marl would often prove of great benefit if mixed with bonedust or other phosphatic manures. No. 20 is a marl from the same horizon. No. 2I is a shell BIRDS OF NELSON COUNTY. 9. Ardeidwe-5 specic. 10. Anatid&e-6 species. 11. Hirmndinidae-5 species. 12. Strigidme-5 species. 13. Ralidve-5 species. 14. TroglodytidT-4 species. 15. Scolopacidw 4 species. 16. Sylviidie 3 species. 17. Paridw 2 species. 18. Sittidw 2 species. 19. Tanagridm-.5 species. 20. Corvide-,.2 species. 21. Caprimulgid-e 2 species. 22. Cuculidaw-2 species. 23. Cathartidaw-2 species. 24. Columbidw 2 species. 25. Tetraonidoe 2 species. 26. Graid-e 2 species. 27. Certhiida-l species. 28. Motacillidi-1 species. 29. Ampelidte 1 species. 30. Alaudidae-1 species. 31. Trochilidae-1 species. 32. Cypselidoe-1 species. 33. A-cedinidfe-1 species. 34. Meleagridae-1 species. 35. Charadriidae-1 species. 36. Podicipedidfe 1 species. MARCH 25, 1885. 58