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Chemical report of the soils, coals, ores, iron furnace products, clays, marls, mineral waters, rocks, &c., of Kentucky / by Robert Peter ; assisted by John H. Talbutt. Peter, Robert, 1805-1894. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b97-22-37599340 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Chemical report of the soils, coals, ores, iron furnace products, clays, marls, mineral waters, rocks, &c., of Kentucky / by Robert Peter ; assisted by John H. Talbutt. Peter, Robert, 1805-1894. Yeoman Press, [Frankfort : 1884, 1878] p. 181-345 : charts ; 26 cm. Coleman "Second chemical report in the new series and the sixth since the beginning of the survey." Issued as reprints with first and third Chemical Reports and Chemical examination of the ashes of the hemp and buckwheat plants as Chemical analyses A [vol. I] Maps not reproduced in this series. Index follows last report in collection. Reports have individual and collective pagination, the latter of which is used in this record. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1997. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN06859.02 KUK) s1997 gaun a Printing Master B97-22. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Geology, Economic Analysis.Talbutt, John Holliday. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR. CHEMICAL REPORT OF THE SOILS, COALS, ORES, IRON FURNACE PROI)UTS, CLAYS, MARLS, MINERAL WATERS, ROCKS, &C., OF KENTUCKY, BY ROBERT PETER, M. D., ETC., ETC., CHEMIST TO THE KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. ASSISTED BY JOHN H. TALBUTT, S. B., CHEMICAL ASSISTANT. SECOND CHEMICAL REPORT IN THE NEW SERIES AND THE SIXTH SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE SURVEY. -18 This page in the original text is blank. INTRODUCTORY LETTER. CHEMICAL LABORATORY OF THE KENTUCKY STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, LEXINGTON, February, 1877. Professor N. S. SHALER, Chief Geologist, &c.. DEAR SIR: I have the pleasure to report the results of the chemical work performed by myself and Mr. Talbutt, for the State Geological Survey, during the past year, or since the preparation of the last report nearly up to the present date. Very respectfully, ROBERT PETER. 183 This page in the original text is blank. CHEMICAL REPORT OF THE SOILS, COALS, ORES, IRON FURNACE PRODUCTS, CLAYS, MARLS, MINERAL WATERS, ROCKS, &C., OF KEN- TUCKY, BY-ROBERT PETER, M. D., ETC. The chemical analyses of eighty-three soils, from twelve counties of the State, are given in the following detailed re- port. The limits of the variations of their several essential ingredients are shown in the following table, viz: Pr. cet. No. County. Per cent No. County. Organic and volatile matters vary frrm ... t1. 363 in 1684 in Bell . . . to 1.052 in t9o3A in Muhlenb'rg. Alumina and iroi and Iang.aes: ,xide_, vary from.19.921 .... in 1783 in Fayette to 2 815 in 1692 in Bell. Lime carbonate varies from . 1.145 in l-81 in Fayette a trace. ill 187 in Lewis. agn:esia varies.rn......... . . -394 M 178. in Fayette. to .o- in.853 in Laurel. Ph.sph,.ric acid varies from....in 17.. 5 in F .yette t i, .c.6 in s ever .1. Potash varies rr ,m.......... ... .755in1783inFayetteto. c68in,68inBell. Soda varies from .477 in9.3o in lthlenbimto tracesin sever.d. Sand and ninlitlc silicates vary from . 72. 540 in 1783 In Fayette . . to 95. 115 in 1683 in Mell. Water expelle:l aIt 380,0 F. varies from . 515 in .696 in Bell - . . t. -.35 iI 1684 in Bell. Water exp-lld atI 2120 F. varies from. 3 525 ill 1783 In Fayette . . o 4 35 in t8j-e in Knox. Pota.h in the iii-oiilie silicate, varies frrom - 2.640 in .696 in He I-. tO- .399 in .8sadi11n Knox. Soda in the in..oluble si ic.ite, varies rrni . . 1-.044 in 17X8 in Christian to traces ill everAl. This table of extremes of composition shows wider limits than that of volume 1, and may be supposed to exhibit the relative chemical composition of very good anid very poor soils. Tlhe rich soil being characterized by larger proportions of organic and volatile matters (within certain limits), causing the soil to absorb alid retain much hygroscopic moisture (ex- pelled at 2 12' F.); larger relative quantities of alumina. &c., &c., which hold more water, &c., expelled at 3800 F.; but especially being more rich in the available alkalies, !)otashl and soda (particularly potash); by containing more phosphoric acid, lime. &c.. and having less sand and insoluble silicates. The poor soil generally contains a larger quantity of sand and insoluble silicates and smaller proportions of the other named ingredients. Exceptions occur to these general statements, of course; for great excess of lime or magnesia carbonates, VOL. I.-CHEM. 13. 185 CHEMICAL REPORT. of organic matters, or of clay, may make a poor soil; or, on the other hand, the absence of any single essential element in it may render unavailable normal proportions of all the others. The study of the soil in relation to its productiveness presents, indeed, a complex problem; many conditions, both physical and chemical, enter into it, all equally important. Even the relative state of division, whether fine or coarse, of two soils otherwise presenting similar chemical, physical, and atmos- pheric conditions, is found greatly to influence its fertility. Another varying condition is the influence of water upon the soil, which, in the valley, may bring fertilizing ingredients to the soil from the higher grounds by deposit of suspended mud left by the overflowing fluid, or may carry dissolved ele- ments of plant food into its interior by gradual infiltration. On the other hand the flood, on the higher slopes, not only carries off to the lower levels the richer and finer solid mate- rials, but, by a continued leaching process, may actually dis- solve and remove the alkalies, lime, magnesia, phosphates, and organic matters, and even gradually decompose the insoluble silicates and carry off the store of alkalies naturally contained in some of them. The examination of some of the soils of the mountain region seemed to show that underground drainage, through a measurably open subsoil. had thus acted on the silicates contained in them. In many cases the subsoil in the samples examined was richer in the mineral elements of fertility than the surface soil, and in some few cases it seemed to have had a different origin. The influence of the subsoil, when more or less mixed with the tipper soil in the processes of cultivation, was measurably observable in studying the gradual exhaustion produced by cropping. In some cases seemingly making the soil of the old field fully as rich as the virgin soil, supposing both orig- inally to have been similar in composition, which is not always true. The comparison of the old cultivated soil with the vir- gin soil of the immediate vicinity does not, therefore, in all cases, show an apparent reduction of the elements of fertility in the former; yet, the fact is demonstrated, in a large propor- i86 6 CHEMICAL REPORT. tion of cases, where the soil is uniform in the region and care has been taken in the selection of the samples. Superficial impurities, which might greatly interfere with the results, are easily to be avoided in the collection of the soils in most cases. But the subsoil, although quite rich in potash, soda, phos- phates, and other mineral fertilizers, does not always improve the immediate fertility of the soil when brought up to the sur- face in too large quantity at one time. Indeed gardeners find, generally, that it reduces the fertility of the surface unless it is liberally mixed with organic manures. Hence, while they may loosen the earth to a considerable depth, by a process of subsoiling, to favor drainage, the penetration of the atmos- pheric gases and the free spreading of the roots of their veg- etables, they are generally careful not to trench the soil so as to throw much of the heavy subsoil upon the surface. Of course subsoils vary in composition; but the subsoils of this region are usually quite rich in potash, soda, and phosphates, held in firm combination, however, in the silicates which are insoluble in the ordinary acids; they contain more of the ma- terials of clay-alumina, iron oxide, &c.-than the surface soil generally, and but a small quantity of organic and volatile matters. As the organic compounds of the soil are greatly instru- mental in bringing the mineral elements of plant food into a soluble or available condition, and as they even act on the insoluble silicates, to set free and make soluble their constit- uent alkalies and phosphates, &c., the measurable absence of the organic matters from the heavy subsoil may have much to do with its inertness as compared with its chemical composi- tion. The extensive study which has been made in this laboratory of the insoluble silicates of our soils, during the past year, has thrown much light on this subject, as well as on the probable origin of some of our soils. All of the soils examined were found to have a notable quantity of alkalies in the silicious residue left after a ten,or twelve days' digestion in chlorohy- dric acid of the density of I.I, and, as may be seen by refer- 187 7 CHEMICAL REPORT. ence to the table of extremes of composition given above, this quantity varies from 2.640 per cent. of potash down to, 0.399 per cent., which was the smallest proportion found in any, and which, as is universally the case, is much greater than the amount removed from the soil by the action of chlo- rohydric or nitric acid. The silicious residue of our Kentucky soils, left after pro- longed digestion in the acids, is generally in such a fine state- of division that all or most of it will readily pass through fine bolting-cloth. Hence our best Kentucky soil has been popu- larly said to have no sand in it. Indeed, in the " Blue Grass Region," so-called-the most fertile part of the State-sand is so scarce that it usually must be hauled from the river beds at some distance, and its cost to the builder is quite considerable. But a large proportion of the very fine silicious residue of our soils is really very fine quartzose sand, some grains being clear and colorless, some milky or colored, and only a few, of the- same character, separable by the bolting-cloth from some of the soils, are of a somewhat larger size, indicating the fact that our soils, or the rocks from the disintegration of which they are derived, have been deposited under comparatively quiet waters, possibly of a deep sea at a distance from its shores. But, mixed with the purely silicious grains is quite a con- siderable quantity of grains of silicates, containing the alkalies in considerable proportions, doubtless of the nature of the felspar and mica of the granitic rocks and other minerals analogous in chemical composition, holding in reserve a great treasure of these important elements of organic nourishment, the alkalies. Wohen we consider the wide diffusion of these finely divided silicates-for it is probable they enter into the constitution of all the soils of the world-we may well be astonished at the vast extent of rock disintegration which was necessary to their production, and admire this wonderful provision for maintain- ing the productiveness of the soil. 188 8 CHEMICAL REPORT. As regards the proportion of phosphates contained in these insoluble silicates, it is the design of the writer to institute an investigation, as occasion may favor, during the progress of -the Survey. It has been conclusively established that mineral fertilizers -alone will not suffice to render soil productive. The greater proportion of vegetable and animal bodies is made up of the so-called atmospfheric elements, viz: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; and the latter element, although entering into their composition iii much smaller proportions than the other three, has most attracted the attention of vegetable physiolo- gists and agriculturalists; mainly for the reason, that while the carbon is readily appropriated by the plant, in the decomposi- tion of carbonic acid under the influence of the sun's light- this acid being never absent from the soil or the atmosphere- and water, always present, yields the necessary hydrogen and oxygen, nitrogen cannot, as a general rule, with some excep- tions, be directly assimilated from the atmospheric gases by the growing vegetable. With the exception of plants of the clover or pea family, and a few others, all growing vegetables must be supplied with this essential elenuent, nitrogen, in some -form of compound, they not seeming generally to be endowed with the force requisite to coerce into the liquid or solid state this gas. which has withstood all the efforts of man, by the use of immense pressure and intense cold, to condense it even into the liquid form. Unider ordinary circumstances of natural vegetable growth, nitrogen is presented to the plant, sometimes in the form of amnmonia (composed of nitrogen and hydrogen), or of some of its compounds, resulting from the decomposition of animal bodies and products; sometimes in that of nitrates or analo- gous compounds, which originate in the union of nitrogen and oxygen and some base; all of which nitrogenous compounds are easily soluble in water, and thus readily enter the vege- table tissues. But the ordinary natural supply of these com- pounds is limited, and hence, when the soil is to be stimulated to its highest degree of productiveness, and its fertility made 189 9 CHEMICAL REPORT. continuous, the cultivator necessarily resorts to the admix- ture of nitrogenous compounds of some sort with his fertil- izers. The nitrogenous organic compounds of both animals and plants are always associated with phosphates; and it is believed, that while potash is absolutely necessary in the grow- ing vegetable for the production and transfer of its non-nitro- genous constituents, nitrogenous compounds and phosphates are also mutually dependent-all being equally indispensable. So that the agricultural chemists of the Liebig school, who contend for the exclusive importance of the mineral elements of fertility, and those of the French and English schools, who see no value in manures outside of the nitrogen compounds, are equally too exclusive, and equally in fault. These questions have long been of vital interest in the older and more thickly populated countries, while in our compara- tively new continent the virgin soil still bountifully responds to the labor of the farmer without the aid of artificial fertil- izers, and with but little evidence of exhaustion. But here, as everywhere, except where the soil is continually renewed by exceptional and local causes, such as the existence of an unusually rich and readily decomposable sub-stratum, or the periodical fertilizing overflow of rivers, the continued demands of the farmer upon the land inevitably reduces its productive- ness--an effect which is increased as population enlarges. And it is even now the fact that, over a large portion of our State and country, profitable farming without the aid of ma- nures is practically at an end. The future of our husbandry will be mainly the application of fertilizers to the soil, as a vehicle of production, by the aid of capital, skill, and indus- try; which will be the more profitable as the population be- comes more dense, and the home market is enlarged by the increase amongst us of other industrial occupations, more especially of the manufactures. Kentucky is eminently endowed by nature for the support of extensive and most important manufactures. Her im- mense natural resources in coal, iron ores, clays, limestones, salt, &c., &c.-materials which are essential to almost all the 190 IO CHEMICAL REPORT. arts of civilization, and give employment to more individuals than any other natural products, those of the field, perhaps, ex- cepted-only await development to make her one of the most powerful Commonwealths of the world. The great wealth and power of Great Britain rest on her coal and iron fields mainly. During the past year, proximate analyses have been made, in this laboratory, of one hundred and forty-seven several samples of Kentucky coals, in addition to those reported in previous volumes of the reports. As might have been ex- pected, these exhibit a considerable variety in their composi- tion, as may be seen by examining the table at the end of this chemical report. The general average of ash and sulphur in the coals ex- amined this year doubtless falls somewhat below that of the samples examined in the previous year; but, as might be expected, very great differences are to be observed among them. Thus the limits of the ash per centage extend from 2.60 per cent., in Nos. 1908 and i8io, from Ohio county, to 34.72 per cent., in No. 1914, from Ohio county. The great proportion of the ash of No. I914 is exceptional, however, and although this coal is called a cannel coal by some, it doubtless should be denominated a bituminous shale. Indeed, where the earthy matters exceed twenty per cent. of the material, the name coal is not as appropriate as the latter term, although the mineral may yet be made quite useful for fuel, or possibly for distillation, in the vicinity of its bed. The limits of total sulphur in these coals examined this year are from 0.530 per cent., in the cannel coal, No. 1966, from Wolfe county, to 7.959 per cent., in No. 1923, from Ohio county. A remarkable fact in relation to this latter coal is, that while the sulphur per centage is nearly eight the ash per centage is only a little above twelve, indicating that much of this com- bustible substance is either in the free state or in some form of organic compound in the coal. Other coals, with a large quantity of sulphur, show the same fact, and the inference is that a considerable proportion of this sulphur may be removed X91 I IX CHEMICAL REPORT. in the operation of coking the coal. Remarks on the prob- able condition of sulphur in coals, and on its removal, will be found in the succeeding detailed report, especially under the head of Bell county. As was remarked in the previous volume, the coals of the eastern coal field appear to be somewhat less sulphurous, in the average, than those of the western. Recent imperfect investigations into those parts of the eastern coal field which are yet measurably unexplored, and which are beyond the usual channels of communication, have shown the existence there of coals of great value and remarkable purity, some of which. like the celebrated Indiana -1Block coal," may be used in the smelting of the abundant iron ore without the prelim- inary process of coking. Under the heads of Bell and Breathitt counties, the general correspondence between the specific gravity and the ash per centage was again exhibited; and it is to be noted, that while the density of the coal, as a general rule, increases with the ash per centage. the cannel coals offer a marked exception, or exhibit a ratio of their own. What the ratio is, in the differ- ent sorts of coal, cannot well be made out at present, espe- cially because the different varieties shade into each other, and difference of age and the action of physical agencies may affect the relative density, independent of the earthy matters, as well as the various kinds of organic materials from which the coals were derived. To illustrate more filly this correspondence between specific gravity and ash per centage, another table, viz: that of the coals from Ohio county, is appended, as fAllows: 192 1 2 CHEJAICAL REPORT. 13 Number. Specific grav- Ash per cent- Number. Specific grav. Ash per cent- ity. age. ity. age. 1910 1.251 2.60 1907 1.336 10.30 1915 1.273 4.00 1919 1.340 8.30 192(3 1.282 3.16 1927 1.348 7.72 1908 1.295 2.60 1913 1x345 9.28 1917 1.295 5.00 1920 1-356 9.94 1909 1.297 3-40 1921 1.357 8.14 iq16 1.305 4.00 1922 1.380 9-34 1924 1X310 5-94 1911 1382 9.96 1925 1.310 9.92 1918 1.384 14.20 1906 1.310 7.46 1912 1.386 9.24 1904 1.318 7.54 1929 1.411 12.50 1928 1.321 4.36 1923 1.413 12.10 1905 1.331 8.44 1914 1-593 34.72 SA bituminous shale or impure cannel coal. It is believed, that notwithstanding the large proportions of ash and sulphur in some of these samples of coals analyzed, the general, or average quality of the coals of the very exten- sive coal fields of Kentucky will compare favorably with that of the coals of any other region. Only about twenty-four iron ores, of the limonite variety, and five clay iron-stones have been analyzed since the last report. These are from seven counties only, and are found to vary in their proportions of iron between the extremes of twenty-three and more than fifty-three per cent. of that metal. Their proportions of phosphorus vary from i.6o to o.o65 per cent., the largest proportion of this injurious element having been found in the "Clinton ore," of Old Slate Furnace, of Bath countyt. As is pretty well established, phosphorus is more injurious to the quality of the iron than any other ingredient of the ore, especially in causing it to be "cold-short," or, in other words, dliminishing its tenacity or toughness. Silicon, in cer- tain proportions, is also injurious in this respect; but the presence of phosphorus in the ore is more to be deprecated, because it is to be removed with more difficulty from the iron in the subsequent refining processes; silicon being easily oxidated, or burnt out with the excess of carbon and some other impurities of the pig metal, in the puddling or even in 193 CHEMICAL REPORT. the Bessemer process, while phosphorus is believed to main- tain more obstinately its union with the metallic iron. The general belief was, even among modern scientific ob- servers, that all the phosphoric acid in the iron ore, or in the- flux material and fuel, used in the ordinary smelting furnace, finds its way into the reduced metal, pig iron, produced, and is held in it, in firm combination, in the form of iron phos- phide. Hence, it was claimed, a phosphatic ore necessarily pro- duces a yet more phosphatic iron, because the phosphorus, all of which is supposed to combine with the metal, is, of course, in larger proportion to the iron than to the ore, &c. But analyses, made by the writer, of samples of iron furnace cinder or slag, published in the volumes of the first series of reports of the Kentucky Geological Survey, as well as in the present report (see Greenup county), show the presence of notable quantities of phosphoric acid in this slag, and thus lead to the conclusion that it is possible, by a proper manage- ment of the furnace and of the fluxes used, to eliminate, in this form, a considerable proportion of this injurious ingredient in the smelting of the ore. If the phosphatic iron ore, in the high furnace, be subjected to a very intense heat, in presence of the reducing gases, the phosphoric acid will be reduced to phosphorus. which will unite with the reduced iron when it melts, provided a proper basic flux material be not present to fuse with the phosphoric acid before it is deoxidated, and thus protect it from reduction. But, in the presence of such a basic flux material, it is probable that the iron of the ore, if it be reduced at a more moderate heat, and while yet unmelted, may afterwards melt at a heat not quite high enough to reduce the phosphoric acid, which then would go off in the slag. The strong affinity which exists between alumina and phos- phoric acid justifies the belief that this material, in the flux or in the ore, may be especially useful in this process of purification in the smelting furnace; when used in combination with a sufficiency of lime or other fluxing materials to make a rather fusible basic flux, and with not too high a temperature 194 14 CHEMICAL REPORT. in the reducing part of the furnace. It is well known that alumina is an essential ingredient of all clays. It has long been known that the phosphorus of the impure iron may be removed, in great measure, by the aid of oxygen and fluxing materials; and this fact has long been practically applied in the various refining processes, in which the melted pig metal is exposed to the oxygen of the air, or to that which is separated from powdered iron or manganese oxides, or derived from common nitre or nitrate of soda. The oxygen burns out or oxidates the phosphorus (together with the other oxidable ingredients-carbon, silicon, sulphur, &c.), and the phosphoric acid which is formed unites generally with iron or manganese oxides, as phosphates, in the melted cinder. This is the the- ory of all the various refining processes, including that called puddling and the Bessemer process, Which latter process, how- ever, because, probably, of the want of a fluid basic flux to dissolve compounds of phosphoric acid, is not effectual in the removal of phosphorus. Amongst the modern processes for iron purification is the patent one of Henderson, originated in England, but which seems to have been employed in this country, at the Hamburg Iron Works, Hamburg, Pennsylvania. An English pamphlet, obtained by the writer at the Centennial Exhibition, gives many interesting facts in relation to it and its results. The refining process is, to pour the melted impure pig metal on a mixture of powdered fluor-spar and titanic iron ore (ilmen- ite), or peroxide of manganese, &c., placed on the floor of the ordinary puddling furnace; " the furnace door being then closed, the powdered mixture fuses, and the iron is allowed to boil for about half an hour; the rabble is then worked for about ten minutes, and the metal is balled up in the usual way. The whole time occupied by one charge, with ordinary grey forge pig iron, being a little under an hour." It is claimed, that in this time the commonest and most im- pure pig iron may have most of its phosphorus, sulphur, sili- con, and carbon removed; and that it may be brought to a state of purity, toughness, and ductility equal to that of the- 195 IS CHEMICAL REPORT. best Swedish iron. In this pamphlet this claim is. corrobo- rated by numerous chemical analyses of the pig metal and of the purified wrought iron, by Dr. Henry M. Noad, F. R. S.; Mr. Edward Riley, F. C. S.; and Mr. W. Matthiew Williams, F. C. S., as well as by many mechanical tests of the metal by Mr. David Kirkaldy. The chemical analysis of the slag produced in this pro- cess throws a little light upon the theory of the depurative action of the re-agents used. (See table 19 of the pam- phlet.) Some of this slag, analyzed by Mr. Edward Riley, F. C. S., gave the following results: Silica..... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .11.12 Titanic acid ........... . . . 5.02 Protoxide of iron . . .. 56.411 58. per cent. of iron. Peroxide of iron.. . . . 18.20 Alumina. . .1....... ... .... 1,73 Manganese. .. .. .. . .. . . . . 2.22 Phosphoric acid...... .. .. .1.. . X 19 - .47 per cent. of phosphorus. Sulphur.... .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .09 Lime. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .I 3.51 99.49 The author of the process asserts that most of the phos- phorus goes off in the form of vapor; but it is evident that it mostly separates in the slag, after having formed phosphoric acid by union with oxygen. No doubt the manganese oxide aided in the oxidation of the carbon, sulphur, and phosphorus of the pig iron. and the fluorine of the fluor-spar may have combined with the silicon to produce a volatile fluoride of sil- icon; for we see no statement of any fluorine in the analysis of the slag; but it is believed, that in the ordinary operation of puddling, the atmospheric oxygen, or that derived from a lining of powdered iron ore, &c., may remove all these, if it be carefully performed, more especially if materials be brought in contact with the boiling iron, which may readily melt into a sufficient basic cinder to carry off the fixed impurities, including phosphates which may result from the oxidation of the phos- phorus of the iron. That the fluor-spar may both serve to form the flux and quicken the separation of the silicon and phosphorus, was fully established by Carron. i96 i6 CHlEMI[CAL REP'ORT. A large quantity of iron oxides appears in this cinder, in the above statement of the analysis, equivalent to fifty-eight per cent. of the whole slag. But it is probable that most of this was derived from the powdered ilmenite (titanic iron. oxide) used in the process. In the ordinary puddling slag the large proportion of iron oxide always present is derived from the pig iron. It is very probable that the mixture of the powdered iron ore with the fluor-spar may lessen the loss of metal in the puddling. According to the published state- ment, the loss in purifying the most common pig iron into fine wrought iron, by the Henderson process, is only ten per cent. It is generally believed that, in the ordinary refining pro- cesses, the agent which is especially effectual in the removal of the phosphorus is the tri-basic silicate of iron, which forms a fluid cinder or slag, and which is produced by the oxidation of the ingredients of the pig metal at a great expense of iron. There can be no doubt that this loss may be measur- ably prevented, and the purification facilitated, by the use of a "elining" of powdered oxide of iron (iron ore), with some compound of lime (fluor-spar or limestone), to give oxygen and form a fluid basic flux to carry off the phosphoric and silicic acids, &c. Whether the use of similar materials, to furnish oxygen and the ingredients for a somewhat basic flux to carry off phosphoric acid, is possible in the Bessemer process, is well worthy of trial. Fluor-spar commends itself because of its ready fusibility and its power of fluxing earthy materials generally, so that it possibly may dissolve, retain, and pro- tect from reduction the oxidated phosphatic compounds, at a temperature sufficient to melt iron, and thus aid in their re- moval. The presence of alumina in the cinder seems also to be beneficial in this respect. Not the least interesting of the iron ores analyzed, during the past year, are those described in the Appendix as Clinton iron ore, dyestone ore, or fossil ore, from very extensive beds in the mountainous region of Tennessee, near the Kentucky State line, in the Cumberland Gap region, which, because of 197 1 7 CHEMICAL REPORT. their abundance in the vicinity of our coal beds, their general richness in iron (one sample giving more than fifty-six per cent. of this metal, on analysis), as well as because of their unexpected moderate proportion of phosphorus, in this local- ity, promise to become of great industrial value. Some of the iron smelted from this Clinton ore, at the Old Clinton Furnace, at Cumberland Gap, the analysis of which is also given in the Appendix, corroborates this expectation. The twenty-two samples of pig iron analyzed, from five counties of the State, vary in their specific gravity from 6.i63 to 7.435; in their per centage of iron, from 89.687 to 94.764; in their per centage of total carbon, from 2.800 to 4.720; in that of phosphorus, from i.o8o to O.I20; in that of szzicon, from 5.o82 to 0.363, and in that of sulzphur, from 0.278 to o.o0i. This includes samples of hot-blast stone-coal iron, as well as cold-blast charcoal iron. From these and the analyses previously made, it is evident that iron of almost any desir- able quality can be manufactured in our State from her natural products, which are unusually abundant, and await only the judicious application of capital, skill, and labor to give to her great prominence as a manufacturing State. An interesting discovery of a phosphatic layer in the blue lime- stone (Lower Silurian) is recorded under the head of Fayette county; and some suggestions as to the use of the Bittern water of our salt works, and other means in rendering more available for fertilizers the beds of marls of our State, will be found under the heads of Clay and Grayson counties. Another interesting fact reported is the existence of barium and strontium chlorides in the brines of Clay and Meade coun- ties. BAT`1H COUNTY. LiMonite iron ores, labeled as follows: No. 1652-LIMONITE, from Slate Furnace ore banks, "Howard's Hill;" Upper Silurian formation. Collected by P. N. Moore. In porous, or fine cellular, irregular, thin laminae; o6litic in parts; of a dark-brown color, with ochreous incrusting mate- rial. 198 IS CHEMICAL REPORT. No. i653-LIMONITE, from Slate Furnace ore bank. Upper part of the bed. Collected by P. N. Moore. Mostly of a yellowish-brown color, and somewhat friable, with some darker-brown and denser irregular laminae. The whole presenting a fine-grained oolitic appearance, from the presence of small spherical cavities, more or less incrusted with whitish and yellowish material. No. I654-LNIONITE ORE at the Chalybeate Springs, Pilot Knob. Collected by P. N. Moore. In thin irregular laminae, of a dark reddish-brown color, with some bright red and yellowish ochreous material. No. I655-LMONITE (with carbonate), said to be eighteen to twenty feet thick, from near Owingsville, on the road to Slate Creek. Collected by P. N. Moore. Of a fine odlitic structure. Colors varying from yellowish and reddish-brown to greyish-brown, with greenish-grey infil- tration in some parts. No. i656-LMONITE, from "Old Coaling Bank," head of Clear Creek; in Sub-carboniferous limestone. Average sample col- lected by P. N. Moore. Principally of a dark reddish-brown color, with some little ot lighter color. No. I657-LMONITE, from the "Richardson Bank," Clear Creek; in Sub-carboniferous limestone. Average sample col- lected by P. N. Moore. A dense ore, generally of a dark brown color, with a small proportion of greyish. No. i658-LIMONMTE, from the -Pergam Bank," Clear Creek; in Sub-carboniferous limestone. Average sample collected by P. N. Moore. A dense ore, generally of a dark brown color, with some little ochreous. 199 I9 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE BATH COUNTY LIMONITE ORES, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1652 No. 1653 No. 1654 No. i655 No. 1656 No. 1657 No. i658 Iroll peroxide... 70.05069.728 47.321 39. o6859.621 66.329 65.310 Iron carbonate. . . . ..... . .. 11.479 .. . . . . Alumina. . .. . .. 4.540 8.642 5.418 8.346 12.370 12.532 11.947 Manganese peroxide . not est. not est. not est. not est. not est. not est. not est. Iuine carbonate.. .040 .170 .69o 18.710 .500 a trace. .730 Magnesia. . 021 .045 .079 6.159 .144 - 173 .140 Phosphoric acid.... .620 I.154 .i6i .868 .709 .70) .825 Sulphuric acid..031 .1.4 .376 .185a trace. a trace.a trace. Combined water 12.300 i3.60 12.0,0 7.835 10.400 9 580 11.000 Silicious residue... 11.530 7.9 0 33 330 7 350 15.830 9.720 9.580 Total. . . .. 100142 100.453 99.425 100l00099 574 99.043 99-532 Iron, per cent. 49.042 48.809 33.125 30-734 41-735 46.40 440 570 Plios'phorus, per cents-.707 .504 .070 .379 .309 . 309 .360 Sulph ur, per cent... .012 .053 . 150 .074 a trace. a trace.a trace. Silica, per cent. 11 -5307.750 27.60 0 7.56o 13.960 9.o60 9.580 Specific gravity . . . . 3.470 3.405 not est. not est. not est. not est. not est. All of these ores are sufficiently rich for profitable smelting. Nos. i652, i653. and 1657 are more than usually rich in iron. The first two contain more phosphorus than is desirable, but much of this may be removed in the slag, if there be much alumina present; moreover, it would not be seriously objec- tionable in ordinary castings. No. 1655, containing quite large proportiolis of lime and magnesia, might profitably be mixed with more siliciotus and richer ores for smelting. Sul phur is not superabundant, except in No. 1654. PIG IRON FROM BATEH COUNTY. No. 1659- LABF.En D -'o. I Cold-blast Charcoal Iron; Bath F urnace. Collected by P. N. Afoore." A dark-colored, moderately coarse-grained iron. Yields readily to the file; flattens considerably under the hammer. No. i66o--Piga Iron from Old Slate Furnace." Collected by P. N. Moore. Finer-grained, harder, and less tough than the preceding, but yields to the file and extends somewhat under the hammer. 200 20 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I66i-LABELED "NO. I Cold-blast Charcoal Car-wheel Iron," from Co//age Furnace. Sent by G. S. Moore & Co., of Louisville. Moderately coarse-grained; somewhat dark grey. Yields with difficulty to the file; extends somewhat under the ham- mer. No. i662-"No. 2 Cold-blast Charcoal Pig Iron,"from Bath Furnace. Collected by P. A. Moore. A moderately fine-grained grey iron. Yields to the file; extends considerably under the hammer. No. i663-'NV. 3 Cold-blast Charcoal Pzg Iron,"from Bath Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore. Finer-grained than the preceding. Yields to the file; ex- tends rather more under the hammer than the preceding. No. I664- "NAo. 4 Cold-blast Charcoal Pig Iron, from Ba/h Furnace. Co/lec/ed by P. N. Moore." Finer-grained than the preceding. Quite fine-grained, and dark grey. Yields to the file; extends somewhat under the hammer. COMPOSITION OF THESE BATH COUNTY PIG IRONS. No. 1659. No. 166o. No. i66X. No. [662. No. 1663. No. 1664. Iron. ..... 92.631 92.056 93. io6 91.924 93.472 93.004 Graphite . 3.840 3.640 3. 6o 3 -440 3. 100 2.700 Combined carbon. .710 .310 . 590 i.o6o 1.510 1.410 Silicon. .1.520 1.760 .914 [.-;19 .652 1.007 Slag. ...... .I .100 . i6o0 .260 . i6o .260 Calcium. ..o.. ii6 not est.not est.not est. not est. Phosphorus. . .363 oo80 .527 .220 .290 .26z Sulphur. .... .278 . z8 .011 .107 .121 .172 Total... .. . 99532 99.280 99. 1 6898-.330 99305 98.815 Total carbon 4-550 3.950 4.450 4.500 4.610 4.110 Specific gravity 7.070 7.067 7-142 7.017 7.092 7.168 21 VOL. I.-ACH EM. 14. 20K CHEMICAL REPORT. The pig iron of the Bath Furnace has a well deserved rep- utation for yielding iron of great tenacity, and hence is pre- ferred for railroad axles. Its small proportion of phosphorus does not seem to injure it in this respect. It, as well as the other specimens from Bath county, contains more than the usual proportion of carbon. The iron of the Old Slate Fur- nace, prepared from the phosphatic ores of the Upper Silu- rian Group, contains more phosphorus than is desirable in the manufacture of tough bar iron or steel. This impurity does not prevent it from being available in almost all ordinary cast- ings. BARREN COUNTY. No. I665-' Marly Deposit in Proctor's Cave. In the cavernous Sub-carboniferous limestone, Barren county." Said to be good for polishing metals. The dried lumps are very fine-grained, and are light-grey, nearly white. Adhere to the tongue. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Lime carbonate............................ 66. .66 Magnesia carbonate. 14.083 Alumina and iron and manganese oxides, and phosphoric acid . . ... .. 5.8oo Water, alkalies, and loss. 5-97 Silica and insoluble silicates .8.86o Total... . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. 100.000 If in sufficient quantity. it might not only be useful for pol- ishing the soft metals, but might be used as a fertilizer, or, very probably, it would make a hydraulic cement, if properly calcined. No. i666-" NITRE EARTH. From Grand Avenue Cave, three miles northwest of Glasgow Junction, Barren county. Col- lected by Prof. N. S. Shaler." A light cinnamon-colored earth, containing excrements of bats, &c., &c. It is believed by the writer that, in consequence of the difficulties attending the esti- mation of the phosphorus in iron, this ingredient has been often under-estimated by chemists, and, consequently, its evil influence has been over-estimated. 202 22 CHEMICAL REPORT. Qualitatively examined, it was found to contain ammonia salt, or some nitrogenous matter which yields this alkali under the action of lime; also much lime sulphate. Quantitative analysis showed, however, that it only con- tained of nitric acid 0.0025 per cent.; of potash, .0129 per cent.; of soda, .0024; so that it would not prove valuable as a source of nitre, although, if in sufficient quantity, it might be useful as a fertilizer. BELL COUNTY. COALS OF BELL COUNTY. No. 1667- "Coal, from Abraham Lock's coal bank, Straigkl Creek, Bell county. Collctd by A. R. Crandall." A somewhat soft, pure-looking splint coal. Very little fibrous coal and no pyrites apparent. Some ferruginous stain in the seams. No. i66 8-Canxel Coal, from Col. John G. Eve's land, Fork Ridge, near Stoxy Creek. Fourteen inches thick. Taken from the bed of Mountain Creek. It is probably better be- yond the opening." Tough; fracture somewhat conchoidal; lustre satiny. No appearance of pyrites. Some ferruginous stain on the sur- face. No. i669--Hignite Coal, from Hignite Branch of Yellw Creek. Upper bed. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A splint coal, with very little fibrous coal or granular pyrites between the laminae. No. i670- "Coal, from the same locality as the last sample. Middle bed. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Does not differ much in appearance from the preceding. No. i671 - "Coal, from the same locality. Lower bed. Col- lected by A. R. Crandall." 03 23 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I672-" Coal, from Little Clear Creek. In the shales above the Conglomerate. Bed two feet thick; fifteen feet above the creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A semi-can- l1 or splint coal. Very little fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites between the laminae. Lumps slightly soiled with r ad. No. i673- Coal, from Little C/ear Creek, &c., &c. Bed two feet thiu a, in the bed of the creek. Collected by A. R. Cran- dall." Resembles the last. Some little ferruginous stain on exte- rior surfaces. I674-" Coal, from Fork Ridge, on Stony Creek. A four- feet bed, above the cannel coal. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A pitch-black, pure-looking coal. Has very little fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites. No. I675" Coal, from James Barnef's bank, six miles north of Cumberland Gap, on a branch of Clear Fork, which runs into Big, Yellow Creek. Bed forty inches thick, with no shale parting. Average samtle collected by Jno. H. Ta/butt. (Three other beds in the same hill; one below, eighteen inches- thick; two above -one eighteen inches, the other, on the top, about three to four feet thick.)" A pure, glossy, pitch-black coal. Has very little fibrous coal or pyrites. No. 1676-" Coal, from the same locality as the last. A sample from such as is sent to market." Collected by John H. Tal- butt." Resembles the preceding. 204 24 CHEMICAL REPORT. Is 10 C5 Z u 0 o ' ' 0" u N 4 0 ' C en.A I I 0 .A " IQ . _ 'N - fl IN '0 . 190 I 18 I _ _ _ _ __1 11 - _11 _1 _ N _ ll N e . . - ,0 C. A N0 eixteI . 0 H 8_ u D t00Q N U 8 ' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0 I_ z I 11 1 - 1- 1 1 1 _ _ _ _ _ I _ o 8l N8__l ODol - - eo 5o a 8 -' eb _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _b oor o 0Q - N'0 I Q II0 wc mI '0 0 080 0I I -I '0 CI 8 0_ _ K _ _K6 _ _ ItC: CI IUt u0 U= v 0.. 0 H- -.. I. . 0 - -Wu E U - - -5 ;. a _ - C -o ._ ;5 C - _ O . 16.D ,_ 0 w 0 U1 .0 0 A 0 0. 0.. =1 s 4-1 CI- e11 0 1 o 11 41 0 w 0: D- Ur 0. Sz 0 u, 0 u 0 n ra Cw F- 6 i asA ;3 1 -i 205 Ill I I 11 Il 25 3: A 0 P. CHEMICAL REPORT. These coals are all good, and some of them would rank amongst the very best, and might be made available in the smelting of iron ores without the preliminary process of cok- ing, like the so-called "Block coal" of Indiana, which they resemble. The proportion of sulphur, it will be seen, is gen- erally sufficiently low, but varies in the different samples from 0.42 per cent., in No. 1671, Up to 2.672, in No. 1674. It must be remembered that these proportions given in the table rep- resent the total sulphur of the coals, in whatever form it may exist in them, and that, in the practical use of the coal for smelting or manufacturing purposes, a considerable proportion of this total sulphur is removed in the preliminary heating in the upper part of the furnace, or in the coking of the coals, or is in such a state of combination in them as to be harmless. As shown in volume I, new series, of these reports (lower page 287), some of this sulphur is in the free or uncombined condition, especially in the fibrous coal, or mineral charcoal, which is found between the lamina. When in this state this injurious element is quite easily removable. Indeed, it is continually undergoing oxidation, when the coal is exposed to the air, even at the ordinary temperature, forming, with the atmospheric oxygen and moisture, sulphurous acid, which, being gaseous, is constantly escaping, causing the well-known sulphurous odor of the coal mine or coal heap, and enabling us to understand how it is that coals gradually become less sulphurous on exposure to the air. When the coals are heat- ed the rate of the evaporation and oxidation of the sulphur is rapidly increased, so that at 300 F. or below it takes fire. Hence, none of the free sulphur of the coals used in the smelting of iron ever gets much below the top of the furnace, where it can do no harm, and all of it is burnt out even before the heat is sufficiently great to coke the coal. Possibly much of it escapes in the process of heating the coals to 2120 F., with a view to ascertain the proportion of hygroscopic moist- ure, thus increasing the apparent quantity of that ingredient 206 26 CHEMICAL REPORT. -a supposition which will be made subject of further investi- gation. Some of the sulphur of coals exists in combination with iron, as sulphide or bi-sulphide. When it is in the form of bi-sul- phide, one half of the sulphur of the compound is always burnt out in the process of coking, or in the upper part of the smelting furnace. It will be seen, therefore, that while a portion of the sul- phur of coals may, in the ordinary process of analysis, cause an error of excess in the estimation of the hygroscopic moist- ure, another portion increases the quantity of so-called vola- tile and combustible matters. Still another portion may, on incineration of the coke, be miscounted as fixed carbon. That portion of the sulphur of coals which is not removed by the process of coking or preliminary heating is either in combination with iron, as iron proto-sulphide, which may injure the quality of the metal smelted with it, or it is-most proba- bly in combination with calcium, magnesium, or the alkaline metals, in which form it probably exerts little or no injurious action. Hence, as practical experience has measurably dem- onstrated, a coal may show a pretty large proportion of total sulphur in its chemical analysis, and yet answer for the smelt- ing or working of iron when properly managed. Even the iron proto-sulphide, which is the most injurious of all the forms of sulphur in coals or coke, may be easily removed, because it speedily oxidates into iron proto-sulphate when exposed to a moist atmosphere; and this salt, being quite soluble in water, is readily to be washed out. It is interesting again to notice in this series of coals the pretty constant relation between the specific gravity and the ash per centage, as follows: As stated by Berzelius, all the sulphur may be burnt out of gunpowder at the heat of boiling water without exploding the powder. Examined in the dark, a faint flame ap- pears above it, in this experiment. 207 27 CHEMICAL REPORT. Number. Ash per cent- Specific grav- Number. Ash per cent- Specific grav- age. ity. age. ity. 1667 2.70 1.276 i668 7.60 1.262 1671 2.36 1.277 1674 9.36 1 344 1675 3.30 1.282 1669 10.50 1.346 i670 3.30 1.290 1672 1300 1.360 1673 6.80 1.325 0A cannel col. Bell county, undoubtedly, is endowed with great wealth of coal of every good quality, as well as of iron ores, &c.; which only await development. SOILS AND SUBSOILS OF BELL COUNTY. No. 1677-I" Viigin Soil, John Turner's land, in the valley of Big Yellow Creek, three and a half miles west of Cumberland Gap. Be/I county crawfish land; subject to overflow in high water. Timber: some trees five feet in diameter; burr-oak, beech, sweet gum, maples, poplar, sycamore, ec., &c. On the coal measures. Collected by John H. Ta/butt." Soil a light buff-grey color when dry; cloddy; clods mot- tled with light-ferruginous. No. 1678-' Old Field Soil, sixty years in cultivation, mostly in corn; John Turner's land. Same locality as virgin soil. Sample taken to the depth of thirteen inches. Field lies at the base of Fork Ridge of Canada Mountain, between Bennett's Fork and Stony Fork. An ancient mound exists on the same land, which is said to have had the remains of ancient earth- -works on it. Maniy flint implements found on it. Collected hy J. H. Ta/butt." Substratum of rounded sandstone boul- ders and pebbles; on coal measures. Soil of a light umber color. No. i679- Subsoil of the preceding, &c. Collected by J. H. Ta/butt." Subsoil of a light grey-buff color. 208 28 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. i68o-" Virgin Soil to depth of three inches. Woods. B. F. Turner's land, three miles west of Cumberland Gap, on the foot-hills of Big Yellow Creek. Slope to the south. Timber: oak, beech, poplar, with underbrush. Coal measures. Col- lected by John H. Ta/butt." No. 1681- Subsoil to the preceding. Collected by J. H. Tal- butt." Subsoil of a buff color. No. i 682-" Soil from a field which has been cleared ten years. Has been six years in corn and four in pasture. Average yield thirty bushels of corn. Surface soil. The land slopes gently to the south. Woodland above it and to the north. Coal measures. Collected by John H. Ta/butt." Soil of a light buff-umber color. No. 1683-" Subsoil of the preceding. Collected by JH. Tal- butt." Subsoil of a light buff-grey color. No. 1684-" Virgin Surface Soil, from the narrow plateau on the highest point of Brison Mountain, a fork of Mingo Ridge, near the line of Bell county. Eleven mi/es south-southeast of Cumber/and Gap. Sample taken to the depth of nine inches. Underlying rock sandstone. Has on it a fair growth of chest- nut, oak, sugar-tree, poplar, hickory, &c., &S. Collected by John H. Ta/butt. " Soil of a dark grey-brown or umber color when dry; nearly black when wet. No. i685-' Subsoil of the preceding. Co//ected by John H. Ta/butt." Subsoil of a lighter color and more sandy than the surface soil. 209 29 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1 686-" Vigin Soil, from the fool-hills of Mingo Mountain, Big Yellow Creek Valley. Land of William T. Moss. Slope to the north. Timber.- black oak, dogwood, mapile, chestnut, &c., &c. Sampled to the depth of ten inches by John H. Talbuit." Soil of a dirty grey-buff color. No. i687-" Soil from an old field fifty years in cultivation_- thirty-five in corn without change, seven years thereafter in clover and grass, and then two years in corn; now in wheat. Average yield: of corn, forty bushels; of wheat, ten bushels. Timber was black walnut, burr-oak, poplar, gum, maple, sycamore, &c. Land of William T. Moss. In Big Creek Valley, near the head of Big Yellow Creek. Carbonzferous formation. Top soil seventeen inches deep. Collected by John H. Talbult." Soil of a light, grey-umber color. No. I 688- " Subsoil to the preceding; taken eighteen inches below the surface. Collected by John H. Talbult." Subsoil lighter colored than the surface soil preceding. No. I689-" Soil from an old field in cultivation seventy years. Farm of Henry Lane. Foot-hills of Mingo Mountains, Big Yellow Creek Valley, three and a half miles from Cumberland Gap. Cultivated for the last ten years in corn and wheat alternately; previous to which in corn for twenty-five years; now in wheat. Originally covered with a dense forest of black walnut, burr-oak, beech, poplar, sycamore, and gum. Yield of corn, thirty to forty-five bushels; of wheat, fifteen bushels. Value of the land, fifty dollars per acre. On the carbonif- erous formation. Sampled to the depth of fifteen inches, by John H. Talbutt." Soil of a yellowish-grey, light umber color. No. x 69o-' 'Subsoil of the preceding. Collected by John H. Tal- butt." Subsoil of a lighter and more yellowish color than the sur- face soil preceding. 210 30 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I 69 I1 'Soil ta the depth of nine inches front an old field now in corn, on John Co/son's land, foot of Cumberland Range, near Cumberland Gaap. Slope to the west. On coal measures. Collected by J. H. Ta/butt." Dried soil of a light, brownish-umber color. Contains many small fragments of decaying vegetable roots, &c., and some small rounded quartz pebbles, and fragments of ferruginous sandstone. No. 1692-" Subsoil of the preceding," &c., &c. Of an orange-grey-buff color. Much lighter colored and, more cloddy and adhesive than the preceding, and contain- ing fewer pebbles. The silicious residue of both of these, after digestion in acids, contained a considerable quantity of small, rounded, clear quartz grains. No. I693-Surface Soil to five inches in defth, from a field ten years in cultivation; now in corn, of which it yields about twenty bushels. J. C. Co/son's land, one mile west of Cumber- land Gap; foot-hills of Dark Ridge. Slope to the southeast. Carboniferous formation. Collected by John H. Ta/butt." Soil of a dirty buff-grey color. The coarse sieve removed from it some small fragments of ferruginous sandstone. The silicious residue all passed through fine bolting-cloth, except a very few small clear quartz grains. No. I694- zSubsoil of the preceding. Collected by John H. Ta/- butt." Resembles subsoil No. i692, but is a little lighter colored and more cloddy. Contains no silicious sand. No. I 695-" Top Soil to depth of nine inches, from an old field fifly years in cultivation. For the last twenty-five years in corn, wheat, oats, and clover; two thirds of time in corn. Av- erage yield of which, thirty bushels per acre. Does not pro- duce good wheat or oats. J. C. Co/son's land. North side of Big Yellow Creek Valley, near the foot-hills of Log Moun- 211 31 CHEMICAL REPORT. tain, three miles northwest of Cumbertand Gap. ous formation. Collected byjohn H. Ta/butt." Soil resembles No. i693. Carbonxor- No. x696-"'Subsoil of the preceding, taken one foot below the surface. By John H. Talbutf." Subsoil of a reddish-brown, grey-buff color. Contains very few grains of fine quartz sand. 212 32 CHEMICAL REPORT. . ........ . .......... . .......... . .......... . .......... . S U0 S ..L... . eS oeet . -.a'. or. ; ocr o l 0 I.- C U, En Cl z z 0 r Nj W Li4 0 z 0 H 0 0 u 33 213 CHEMICAL REPORT. I"1 '0 v'N + - '0 00 :-I NQ tf . .. . l Ul'N! 00 N .............. -.-d- S a ......... .......c.. SX .4 . . .. . _ m. 0 . .K C. . .. _2 34 0 a .C 0 CE 1- S4 n :" _ a 0 z .4 U, 0 LI [2 E U, 0 z 0 Z- so U, 0 p4 0 Lz 2 x .4, ;;2. _ C - 4J. .0 _ - .= O O C _S ._._ I .20 0 O oI En 214 S -S LI A. I- a C' I I !l CHEMICAL REPORT. As might have been expected, considerable local differences are exhibited by the chemical analyses of these mountain soils, caused, probably. in most cases, by the action of the drainage; as may be seen by comparing the relative propor- tions of the potash, phosphoric acid, the organic and volatile matters, lime, magnesia, and alumina, &c., &c., with the silex and insoluble silicates, as well as by the relative quantities of alkalies in the insoluble silicates. Thus the soils of the valley, or those subject to overflow, as for example, Nos. i687-'8-'9-'9o, as well as i693-'4-'5-'6, located in the valley, are richer than those on the mountain slopes. A remarkable difference in the proportions of phos- phoric acid can be observed in soils Nos. i677 and i678, which may possibly have been caused by the residence on the latter of the prehistoric people who built and occupied the ancient earth-works located there. The subsoil No. I679, underlying the latter, is by no means as rich as the surface soil, based as it is on a substratum of rounded sandstone boul- ders and pebbles, and no doubt offering quite a free drainage to the waters from above, which tend to wash away the soluble ingredients. The soil from the plateau, at the summit of Brison Moun- tain, No. 1684, is much richer than might have been expected. Its large proportions of organic and volatile matters, as well as of alkalies in the insoluble silicates, indicate the influence of the primeval forest growth, with which it is yet covered, in retaining the elements of fertility on the surface. The unu- sually large proportion of silicates, rich in alkalies, in the rock material from whence the soil was derived, may have been another cause. BOONE COUNTY. No. 1697-" CLAY, from three miles west of Burlington. Sent by W. W. Walton." Presents thin stratified layers of various tints of light- brownish-grey and light dove color. Burns hard, and of a PA similar increase in the proportion of phosphates on and near the site of these pre. historic earth-works was observed in Fayette county, on the farm of the writer. 215 35 CHEMICAL REPORT. handsome light brick color. Melts at a high temperature; hence, is not a fire-clay. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Alumina, with iron and manganese oxides and phosphoric acid ...... . 33-06- Silica.... . .. . . .. . .. .. . . . ... 48. 360 Lime.. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . 3.057 Magnesia.... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .367 Potash... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 4.664 Soda.. . .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. ..... 706 Combined water and loss........... . .. .. .. . ... 8.786 Total... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100.00 While its large proportions of alkalies and of lime, as well as of iron oxide, prevent it from withstanding the melting influence of a high heat, it may yet be quite available for so- called terra cotta articles. It is probable, also, that, if found in sufficient quantity, it may be quite useful in the improve- ment of worn-out sandy soils in its vicinity. BOYD COUNTY. No. i698-",GREY LIMESTONE ORE, from J. P. Jones' drift, near Ashland. Collected by P. N. Moore." Interior portion-Grey clay iron-stone, made up of fine light-brownish granules, embedded in a whitish material. Ex- terior portion-Generally dark reddish-brown, with some little lighter ferruginious and ochreous, the whole exhibiting a fine granular or oolitic structure, and showing the same whitish material observed in the grey interior portion. The analyses of the interior and exterior portions were made separately, with a view to the study of the changes which occur when clay iron-stone is changed into limonite. Similar comparative analyses are recorded under Carter county. No. I699-"YELLo'w KIDNEY ORE. Point of hill. Catletts- burg, Boyd county. Collected by A. R. Crandall. A cabinet specimen." A kidney of fine-grained iron carbonate, invested with thin layers of reddish and yellowish-brown and brownish-yellow limonite. Interior and exterior portions separately analyzed. 216 36 CHEMICAL REPORT. 37 COMPOSITION OF THESE ORES, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1698. No. 1699. Interior. Exterior. Interior. Exterior. Iron carbonate..... . .. . .. . . 62.002 none. 69.912 none. Iron peroxide.... .. . .. . .. . . none. 65.395 none. 61.14z Alumina.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 2.900 3.484 6.128 7.964 Manganese carbonate... .. . .. . . 553J Manganese oxide. .......... . .. not est. not est. not est. Lime carbonate...... ... .. . . 6.880 8.580 8.280 3.530 Magnesia. .. . .. . .. . .. . . 2.243 1.938 3.314 .424 Phosphoric acid.. 149 .441 .686 .414 Sulphuric acid..302 .336 .147 .199 Combined water........ .... . . ..... 9-3X6 ..... 12.600 Silicious residue... .. . .. . .. . . 22.660 10.480 8.930 14.180 Total. .. . .. . .. . . . .. . 97.689 10_.000 97-397 100a453 Per centage of iron.29-932 45.77i 33.751 42-799 Per centage of phosphorus.. 06 .192 .299 .181 Per centage of sulphur... ..... . . I . 134 .059 .080 Per centage of silica.16.360 9.360 7.460 i.86o. e Carbonate. Taking for a basis of iron in the two portions, comparison the relative quantities of which are nearly in the proportions of one in the interior part to one and a half in the exterior in No. 1698, and somewhat less in No. 1699 (or as I: 1.27), we find that in the former there has been a notable increase of phosphorus, a slight increase of lime, a great diminution inr the proportion of silica, and slight diminutions in the propor- tions of sulphur, magnesia, and alumina; in specimen I699, a decrease in the phosphorus, and an increase in the sulphur, silica, and alumina. The lime and magnesia are also greatly diminished. So that there seems to be no regular law in relation to the changes which occur; wvhich may be effected by very varying conditions of chemical action and infiltration. PIG IRONS FROM BOYD COUNTY. No. 1700-"Pig Iron. Ho/-blast. Mill iron, from Be//fontf Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." A fine-grained, dark-grey iron. Yields readily to the file. Extends quite considerably under the hammer. VOL. I.-CHEM. 15. 217 38 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I 701 i' Hot-blast, Silver-grey Iron, Bellfonte Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." Coarser grained than the preceding; somewhat harder and more brittle. Of a light silver-grey color. COMPOSITION OF THESE PIG IRONS. No. 17oc. No. 1701. Specific gravity....................... 6.921 6.163 Iron.. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. 92.962 89.902 Graphite. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . ... . .. .. 2.100 2.900 Combined carbon.1.310 .070 Silicon..... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 2.525 5.082 Slag. a . .. ...... . .. .. . .220 .280 Phosphorus..... .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .568 .417 Sulphur.. ....... .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 114 .114 Other ingredients............ ........ not est. not est. Total.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 99799 98-765 Total carbon.3.. ....... . 3-410 2.970 The principal difference in the composition of these two samples is in the much larger proportion of silicon and some- what smaller amount of iron in No. 1701. BREATHITT COUNTY. COALS FROM BREATHITr COUNTY. No. 1702-" Coal, from Roberts' bank, on Troublesome Creek. Upper seam. The so-called bituminous coal. Collected by P. N. Moore." A splint coal, splitting into very thin laminae, with fibrous coal between, but with no appearance of pyrites. The sam- ple has a weathered and tarnished appearance, showing ferru- ginous and earthy stains. Hence, the ash per centage found is greater than that of the clean coal of the interior of the bed. No. 1703-" Coal, from Roberts' bank, Troublesome Creek. Sam- ple from the lower part of the bed, called cannel coal. Aver- aged by P. N. Moore." 2J8 CHEMICAL REPORT. A pure-looking coal, with but little fibrous coal and no ap- parent pyrites. Sample somewhat mixed in character. Some pieces of cannel coal; others splint coal; others apparently shaly. No. I 704-' Coal, from the same bank. Sample from the mid- dle part of the seam. Called bituminous. Collected by P. N. Moore." Rather a dull-looking coal. Apparently pretty pure, having but little apparent fibrous coal or pyrites between its laminae. Exterior of some of the lumps covered with ferruginous in- crustation. No. 1705-" Cannel Coal. Haddock's bed. North Fork of Kentucky river, above the mouth of Troublesome Creek. Col- lected by P. N. Moore." A very tough coal. Sample somewhat tarnished by weath- ering, &c., showing ferruginous and clayey incrustation on parts of the surfaces, which may probably make the ash per centage found greater than that of the bed. It has but little fibrous coal, but some evident pyrites. See volume I, page 354, old series, &c., for other analyses of this coal. No. 1706-" Cannel Coal. G. W. Johnson's. Nichols Fork of Frozen Creek. Sample from near the outcrop. Collected by P. N. Moore." A dull-black coal, very difficult of fracture. Has some lit- tle appearance of bright pyrites, and some ferruginous incrus- tation. No fibrous coal. Some of the seams beautifully polished. No. 1707-" Cannel Coal. G. W. Johnson's. Same locality as the preceding. From another outcrop. Sample from hand specimen only." Similar in appearance to the preceding. No. I7o8- Coal, from Frozen Creek, a 9uarter of a mde above Wm. Day's. Collected by P. N. Moore." 219 39 CHEMICAL REPORT. A pure-looking splint coal. Has very little fibrous coal and some little fine granular pyrites between the lamina; is easily fractured. No. 1 709 " Cannel Coal. Quicksand Creek. Alfred Little's- drift. Collected by John R. Procter." Contains some small bright scales of pyrites. Some por- tions give an imperfect bird-eye fracture; others show an im- perfect fibrous structure, somewhat like that of lignite. Coal generally tough. No. I 7yxo" Coal, from Jackson Wells' bank. Near the mouth of Troublesome Creek. Sample from the outcrop, where the coal is dirty, and hence will give somewhat more than the aver- age ash per centage. Collected by P. N. Moore." A splint coal, with thin partings of fibrous coal containing fine granular pyrites. No. 1 71 -" Cannel Coal, from George's Creek. Collected by P. N. Moore." A pure-looking coal. Has some ferruginous stain on the exterior surfaces, but no apparent pyrites. No. 1712-" Coal, from Simon Holland's bank. Collected by P. M. Moore." A pure-looking, splint coal, with not much fibrous coal be- tween the laminae, and no apparent pyrites. Easily fractured. No. 1713 -,Coal, from Wolf Creek bank. Collected by J. R. Procter and P. N. Moore. Sample from coal long weath- ered." A pure-looking, soft splint coal, in thin laminae, which have quite a glossy cross fracture. Very little fibrous coal or fine granular pyrites between the laminae. No. 17 I 4-" Coal, from William Spencer's mine. North Fork of Kentucky river. Collected by P. N. Moore." A bright, pure-looking coal, showing very little fibrous coal or granular pyrites. 220 40 CHEMICAL REPORT. 41 N-T8 X00 iiI t 8 - ,,I & I,50 8II IC 1.i 1 Il8 8 I - 8a. 8 a-2 n_8 U I8 a n-_ g B1 OD11 0 9 ;9 O SwO I eo1 o1 I gaul 11 ;1 1 X _ _ _ IIeS1nI 8_ 181U R.1 Z1n' --8 ! 2 o o . n28 8 - 8 8 I.11 1 118 18 o 0 0-2 880 08 I . 8 08 .2 0 0.8 2 -8 8 5 0 '00 02 Z Z -n 00 0 8- CL. 5__ _ _ _ 221 CHEMICAL REPORT. These coals are, generally, superior in quality to the aver- age. Some few of them contain an inordinate proportion of ash; but this will not prevent them from being quite valuable as fuel. The per centage of sulphur in them is generally low. Some, however, exceed somewhat inb this respect, especially No. 1712, which contains much more than is indicated by its external appearance, amounting to about three fourths of the weight of the ash-a fact which shows that much of it is in a free state, or in organic combination in the coal. The usual relationship of specific gravity to ash per centage is shown in these coals, as follows: Number. 'Ash per cent- Specific grav- Number. Ash per cent- Specific grav- age. ity. age. ity. 1713 4.00 1.290 1704t 7.46 1.290 1712 4.30 1.290 1711 11.14 1.280 1714 4.50 1.297 1709' 11.44 1.398 1707 4.70 x.180 1702 15.50 1.405 1703 6.24 1.280 1710 16.76 1.398 1708 7.18 1.300 1706 21.40 1.360 1705 7.30 1.265 A cel COW. t P,"y -A. The cannel coals are well known to be less dense than the splint and bituminous, and hence show a discrepancy in the comparison instituted. They contain a much larger quantity of hydrogen also, as exhibited in their large proportion of volatile combustible matters, as shown in the above table. CARTER COUNTY. No. 1715-" BLOCK ORE. Joe Harms'. Jordan Branch of Ty- gert's Creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A cabinet speci- men. A kidney of dark-grey, fine granular iron carbonate, in- vested with concentric layers of limonite ore (hydrated per- oxide) of various tints, from dark-brown to brownish yellow. The interior and exterior parts were submitted to analysis separately, as were Nos. i698 and i699 (which see), for the purpose of studying the causes of the change from carbonate to limonite. 222 42 CHEMICAL REPORT. 43 COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Interior. Exterior. Iron carbonate...... .. ... . .. . .. .. . .. . . 33-189 . Iron peroxide......... ....... 5.616 42-548 Alumina and manganese oxide.... .. . .. .. . .. . . 27.105 22.984 Lime carbonate..... . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . . 12.180 5- 18 Magnesia carbonate. ............... .. . ..............1.095.. - Magnesia... .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . . .. . .119 Phosphoric acid. . . ....... 2.060 2.218 Sulphuric acid......... . . .. .. .. . .. . .. . a trace. a trace. Water and loss.4................. 4-375 7.671 Silicious residue..... . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . 14.380 19.280 Total... .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. I o. ooo oo. ooo Per centage of iron.. . .............. . . 19.953 Per centage of phosphorus................ . . . .; Per centage of sulphur.................... a trace. a trace. Per centage of silica.... .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . 14.300 19.280 The relative proportion of iron is notably increased in the limonite; the water, phosphoric acid, and silica are also in- creased; while the lime, magnesia, and alumina are diminish- ed: indicating, like the previous analyses above referred to, no regular order of change. PIG IRON OF CARTER COUNTY. No. 17I6-" Hot-blast Mill Iron, from Mount Savage Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." A dark-grey, fine-grained iron. Yields to the file; extends considerably under the hammer. No. 1717- dHot-blast No. 2 Foundry Iron. Mount Savage Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." A moderately fine-grained iron. Yields to the file; extends somewhat under the hammer. No. 17I 8-"Hot-blast, Silver-grey Iron, from Mount Savage Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." Whiter, coarser grained, and more brittle than the preced- ing. 223 44 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE MOUNT SAVAGE PIG IRONS. No. 1716. No. 1717. No. 1715 _- I Specific gravity.................. 6.930 7.042 7.435 Iron... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 93.268 91.584 89.687 Graphite.... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 3-950 2.600 2. 300 Combined carbon....... .. .. ...............-770 1.070 . 500 Siliconi.l.c.n...... . .. .. .. . ..... 1.799 3.058 5. 575 Slag.. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . i6o .6zo .66o Phosphorus..... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .680 .609 .609 Sulphur..... .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .081 .152 .136 Total.... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 100.708 99-693 99.467 Total carbon.... .. .. .. . .. .. . . 4-720 3.670 2. 80o A regular diminution in the proportions of iron and carbon from No. 1716 to 1718, together with a similar increase in the proportions of silicon, slag, and sulphur, as well as of the spe- cific gravity, may be noticed in these samples, corresponding with the quality of the iron. The phosphorus, which is in full -average quantity, seems more constant. CHRISTIAN COUNTY. COALS. No. I 719 ".Coal I, from Coal/on banks. Sample from the stock pile. Collected by C. J. ATorwood." A glossy, black splint coal, breaking into thin lamine, with very little fibrous coal and some little granular pyrites between -them. No. 1720-" Coal L. from two miles south of Petersburg. Sam- 'pled for analysis by C.]. Norwood." A splint coal, showing fibrous coal and some pyrites. Sam. ple appears to have been weathered. No. 172I-dCoalJ. At Petersburg S/a/ion. St. Louis and Southeastern Railroad. Miners' Cobperation Mine. Aver- age sample by C. J. Norwood." A dull-looking splint coal, but glossy on the cross-fracture of the thin laminge, between which there is some fibrous coal and granular pyrites. 224 CHEMXCAL REPORT. 45 COMPOSITION OF THESE CHRISTIAN COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1719. No. 1720. No. 1721. Specific gravity.................. .307 1-332 1.398 Hygroscopic moisture. .4.60 510 3.70 Volatile combustible matters. .3194 32.50 32.56 Coke.. ... .. . . . .. . .. . .. .. . . 63.46 62.40 63.74 Total... .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . 100.00 zoo.oo zoo.oo Total volatile matters. .36.54 37.60 36.26 Fixed carbon in the coke. .54.36 55-70 50.04 Ash. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . . . 9. To 6.70 13.70 Total... .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . 100.00 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke..... . .. . .. .. . . Dense. Very denseLight spongy. Color of the ash..... . .. . .. .. . .. . . Light Light Greyish- lilac-grey. lilac-grey. brown. Per centage of sulphur..... . .. . .. .. . . 1.469 1. 277 3.716 MINERAL WATER OF CHRISTI IbN C(OlNTY. No. I 72 2-" Sall Sulphur Water, from a so red well five incites in diameter; bored one hundred and thirty-fonur fret deep; on the premises of Mr. John B. Trice, Hopkinlsvil/e." Bor-ed thz rough .solid rock, except through the ftrst sixteen ftel. The water stands at about one hundred feet higher in the well than the level of the lowest part of the town. The sample of the water, although brought to the lab- oratory in a well-corked stone jug, had lost its free hy- drosulphuric acid. It smelt slightly sulphurous. and tasted pleasantly saline. It had a light greenisli-yellow tint, in- dicative, probably, of the presence of a little sulphuretted sulphide. It exhibited a slightly alkaline reaction with red- dened litmus. 225 46 CHEMICAL REPORT. SPECIFIC GRAVITY - i.ooS TO i.oo6. COMPOSITION IN 1000. PARTS. Lime carbonate..... . .. . . 0.12231 Magnesia carbonate..0.... . .253 [Held in solution in the water by Iron and manganese carbonates, with carbonic acid. a trace of alumina.... .. .0013 Silica.... . .. .. . .. . . .0112 o. 16i In the sediment formed on boiling. Sodium chloride. 3.3647 Sodium sulphidc .. . . . ... . not estimated. Soda carbonate........ . . .2366 Soda sulphate.... .. .. . . . 5347 Potassium chloride....... . a trace. Lime sulphate..... . .. . . .1156 Magnesia sulphate.... .. . 4329 Magnesium iodide...... . . Cw8 Lithia and bromine.. .marked traces. 4.6863 In the boiled water. Total saline contents ...... 4.8464 In iooo. parts of the water. The water at the well contains free hydrosulphuric and car- bonic acids, the proportions of which can only be found by operation on the freshly drawn water. The analysis of this water shows it to be quite a good salt sulphur water, which may be made available in the treatment of many diseases under proper medical advice. SOILS OF CHRISTIAN COUNTY. No. 1723-" Virgin Soil, from woods adjoining the cultivated field from which the next described soil was taken. Farm of H. C. McCord. Crofton Siation. On the flats. Underly- ing rock sandstone. Collected by C W. Beckham." Dried soil of an ashy-grey color. It contains a small quan- tity of shot iron gravel. The silicious residue, after digestion in' acids, all passed through bolting-cloth, except a few small angular grains of white and red quartz. No. 1724--Surface Soil, from a field fifteen years in cultiva- tion, adjoining the woodland from which the preceding sample was taken. (Principal crops cultivated, corn and tobacco.) Collected by C W. Beckham." Dried soil of a brownish-grey color; much darker colored than the preceding. Contains a little iron gravel. Silicious residue contained fewer quartz grains. 226 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I 72 5-"Subsoil of the next preceding. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil of a grey-buff color; contains a little iron gravel. Silicious residue like next preceding. No. 1726-" Virgin Soil; farm of S. W. Williams. St. Louis and Southeastern Railroad. Petersburg. Forest growth prin- cipally oaks. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil of a light brownish-grey color; contains very little iron gravel. Silicious residue passed through bolting- cloth, except a few fine round grains of clear quartz. No. I727'"Surface Soil, from an old field forty-five years in cultivation in corn and tobacco; on same farm, and about a quarter of a mile distant. Field about thirty feet above the flats. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil of a grey-buff color; contains no gravel. No quartz grains in the silicious residue. No. 1728-''Subsoil of the next preceding," &'c. Dried soil of a light yellowish-brown color; contains no gravel or quartz grains. No. 1729-" Virgin Soil, from the farm of Mr. Durty, near Hopkinsville. Forest growth: cedar, white and red oak, black jack, white walnut, &c. Underlying rock very compact lime- stone. Collected by C TV. Beckham." Dried soil of a light-greyish color; contains no gravel. The silicious residue passed through bolting-cloth, with the exception of a few small angular quartz graius. No. I 730'Surface Soil, from an old field about fifty years in cultivation in corn, tobacco, and wheat. From the same farm as the next preceding. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil of a light yellowish-grey-brown color. The bolt- ing-cloth separated but few small angular quartz grains from the silicious residue. 227 47- CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1 73 I -Subsoil of Ihe next preceding, &c., &c. Dried soil of a light brick color. Silicious residue contains a few small angular quartz grains. No. 1732-" Virgin Soil; farm of E. F. Kelly. Kelly's Sta- tion, on the L. & E. E. Railroad, eight miles north of Hopkinsville. Underlying rock, sandstone. Principal forest growth: white, black, and post oaks and hickory. Collected by C W. Beckham." Soil of a dirty-buff color. All passed through the coarse sieve, except two small ferruginous concretions. The silicious residue all passed through bolting-cloth, except a few small grains of clear quartz and of reddish silicate. No. 1733-' 'Surface Soil, from afieldfiftyyears in cultivation; principal crops tobacco and corn. From the same farm as the next preceding. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil of a light grey-brown color; contains no gravel. Silicious residue contains a few more small quartzose grains than preceding. No. 1734-"Subsoil of the next preceding. Collected by C W. Beckham." Dried soil of a dark grey-buff color; contains no gravel and very few fine quartzose grains. No. I 735-" Virgin Soil, from woods. Farm of Mr. Campbell, near Hopkinsville. Underlying rock, limestone. Collected by C W. Beckham." Dried soil of a dirty, dark-grey color; contains no gravel. The silicious residue all passed through the bolting-cloth, ex- cept a few quartzose grains, clear and reddish and blackish, and a small silicified entrochite. No. 1736-'Surface Soil, from an adjoining field, about forty years in cultivation, in corn and tobacco and meadow. Col- lected by C. W. Beckham." 228 48 CHEMICAL REPORT. 49 Dried soil of a light-grey-brown color; contains no gravel. The bolting-cloth separated more fine quartzose and entrochi from the silicious residue than from that of the preceding. No. 1737-"Subsoil of the next p-eceding," &c., &c. Dried soil of a light brick color; contains no gravel. Sili- cious residue contains about the same proportion of quartzose- grains, &c.. as that of the preceding. 229 2 4:. .Z SI O O -l v 0r t u nooota _D0,: O . Z , _ , -8Iv _ .. . ... NS _ . , Il :;0 CHEMIICAL REPORT. . Z ,--I NV -v o, -X I oIC. -: G :---,v oo 1 "I . wn-y k,1 iten o m zs l! .n I a, c.1 O._0 _i ;4 0 2 F- 0 w 44 1:4 i 0 U) Z 0 u Z 4 0-4 fl-, 9 Z L) w cn 94 :Z I- fr., 0 Z 0 E- I-- W 0 04 :9 0 L) .aI .I . i . 3 a _ . 5 tJ a . 'ei -i t m j 230 I.......... . I........... I.......... . I a3 ........ i ' ....... . I,.0, Ie tJ4w .v......... I , 5,...... . 0 y su,,,.,., 3. . . _ t: ......... _ . . EX ' ' ' 'o.8 ' I v e + qg I _ c .. . . - 6 re ru O o XS x s 1 's Effi -N CHEMICAL REPORT. Several facts may be noticed, in a comparative view of these soils; especially that the soils based on limestone are richer in essential mineral ingredients than those on the sandstone; that the soil on the very compact limestone is not so rich as that on the more friable rock; and that the subsoil, as a gen- eral rule, containing more alumina and iron oxide, &c., in pro- portion to the insoluble silicates, is generally richer in potash, phosphoric acid, and other essential ingredients, than the sur- face soil. Another fact, very generally to be noticed in the comparative analyses of soils is, that, except in certain anom- alous cases, and where a richer subsoil has been mixed with the surface soil by the processes of culture, the old field soil generally exhibits, in its analysis, a diminution of the propor- tions of the essential mineral ingredients, as well as of organic and volatile matters, and an increase of the proportion of sand and insoluble silicates. CLAY COUNTY. SALT WATER. No. 1738-"'Salt water, from Goose Creek Salt-works, as it is pumped from the well. Sent by General T. T. Garrard, of Manchester." The water came in a stone-ware jug, which was stopped with a corncob. It was slightly turbid or opalescent, prob- ably because of the escape of some of its carbonic acid, and the consequent precipitation of part of its earthy carbonates, &c. COMPOSITION IN woo. PARTS. SPECIFIC GRAVITY - I.o65. Lime carbonate.... . .. .. . . o. 048 Magnesia carbonate.. . . . . . . . . a trace. Held in solution by carbonic acid, and Iron and manganese carbonates ... 00. .038 precipitated on boiling the water. Alumina, phosphoric acid, and silka . .0140J Sodium chloride (common salt)... . 65.oooo Calcium chloride........ . ... 18.8960 Magnesium chloride...... ... 5.oo80 Barium chloride....... . .. . .3930 Strontium chloride. . .8...o043 Lithium chloride. . . a trace. Potassium chloride......... . a trace. Iodine and bromine.......... a trace. Total saline matters (dried at 212). . 89.4039 In iooo. parts of the water. 231 5I CHEMICAL REPORT. A remarkable circumstance is the existence, in this Goose creek brine, of notable quantities of barium and strontium chlorides. The former salt is present in quantity equal to nearly twenty-three grains to the wine gallon of the water, and the latter in the proportion of nearly five grains. As it is well known that the soluble salts of barium exert an injuri- ous influence on the animal economy, it is important that this should be removed in the manufacture of the salt. It is for- tunate that this may be very easily and economically done by the addition of sulphate of soda, Glauber's salt, which, added in the quantity of about forty-five to fifty grains of this crystal- line salt to the gallon of the fresh brine, will completely pre- cipitate all the barium and strontium in the form of insoluble sulphates, and doubtless also aid in the clarification of the brine. The cheap salt, sulphate of alumina, in equivalent quantity, would produce the same effect, and perhaps aid more com- pletely in the clarification. Soda ash, carbonate of soda, would be equally effectual. Barium and strontium salts are also present in the brine ot the Glenfont Salt-works of Meade county, but in somewhat smaller proportions. Of course, where these salts are pres- ent we find no sulphates in the water. No. 1739-" The Bittern Water, left after g-raining the salt." Goose Creek Salt-works. COMPOSITION IN tooo. PARTS. SPECIFIC GRAVITY = 1 .309. Calcium chloride . ................ ......... . 350.49 Magnesium chloride............. . ...... .. . . 92.3& Sodium, potassium, and lithium chlorides ....... . . ........ 24.53 Barium and strontium chlorides .not est. Sodium bromide. 5.27 Sodium iodide.......... ... .. not est. Various useful applications have been made of the bittern water of Salt-works; as in the preparation of bromine and the manufacture of artificial stOne. Doubtless it might also be 232 52- CHIEMICAL REPORT. 53 used (if, like this, it contains much calcium chloride) in set- ting free the alkalies, contained in the form of insoluble sili- cates, in some of our marls and clays of the character of the Leitchfield marls. This may probably be done by mixing the marl witt4 a considerable quantity of lime or powdered lime- stone, making the mixture up into a plastic mass, with the bittern water sufficiently concentrated by evaporation, and then calcining, at a low red heat, the properly prepared lumps or bricks of the mixed materials. These lumps or bricks, if properly calcined, will slack into a crumbling mass when ex- posed to moisture, in which the alkaline ingredients will be in a soluble condition, available for plant nourishment. No. I 740-" The deep-brownish or Spanish-brown colored deposit adhering to the interior of tihe wooden tube (or " g-um") which conducts the brine from the well to the pans. Goose Creek Salt- works." COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Iron peroxide......... ................... . 74.304 Alumina, phosphoric acid, &c..7.............. .016 Lime carbonate ..280 Magnesia carbonate........ . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . 6So Silicious resi(Iue........................... . 6.89 Saline matters and loss.0......... . .. .. . .. .. . .. . . 10.830 T otal.... .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. _ CLINTON COUNTY. No. I741" MARLY CLAY. Cumberland City cosines. Chester Group. (Leitch/ield marls.) Collected by N. S. Shaler." A dull olive-grey, indurated marly clay. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Silica w h. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . 70.8 Alumina, with a little iron and manganese oxides and phosphoric acid . . 18.840 Lime. . . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. 594 Magnesia.. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . 4.358 Phosphoric acid . ..... .. ... . not est. Sulphuric acid . ..... .. ... . not est. Potash.. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . 4.240 Soda. ... .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . ... 794 Total......... 99.626 quWW to z.060 per cmt. of lime carbona. VOL. I.-CHEM. a6. 233 54 CHEMICAL REPORT. (See Grayson county in this and the preceding Chemical Report for similar marls.) No. 1742-" COAL, from tihe Cumberland mines. Conglomerate main coal. Collected by N. S. Sha/er." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal, with very little fibrous coal or pyrites. SPECIFIC GRAVITY - 1.329. COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED. Hygroscopic moisture................ . 1.56 Volatile combustible matters .37 74 Coke. .. . .. .. . . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . 60.70 Total... . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. loo.oo Total volatilematters..... .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . 39.30 Carbon in the coke.. ...... .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . 50.20 Ash.. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . 10.50 Total... . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. 100.00 Character of the coke .Light spongy. Colooftheash....... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Light Color of the ash . .......... . lilac-grey. Per centage of sulphur..... . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . 2.911 DAVIESS COUNTY. MINERAL WATERS OF DAVIESS COUNTY. No. I 743 -" Chalybeate Water, from Murray's Spring, near Lewis. (E., 0. & N. R. R.) Collected by Capt. R. S. Trip lett." It came to hand in a stone-ware jug, stopped with a corn- cob, which may have somewhat altered the character of the water. The reaction of the water is neutral. No effort was made to estimate its gases. 2 34 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION IN 1000. PARTS OF THE WATER. Lime carbonate.. . ........ Magnesia carbonateo.n ....... Iron carbonate ............ Alumina. . Phosphoric acid ........... Silica.... .. . .. .. . .. . Lime sulphate............ Magnesia sulphate .......... Potash sulphate. Soda sulphate ......... ... Sodium chloride ........... Lithium chloride ........... Silica, &c............... 0.11551 .oo46 Held in solution in the water by car. 0229 - bonic acid, and precipitated on boil- .0027 ing. .0107 J .0204 .0768 .0403 ;0476 .0146 .0013 .0142 Total saline matters .0....... . O.3720 Dried at 2120 F. It is doubtless a valuable saline chalybeate water. MINERAL WATERS from Dr. Hickman's Springs. Crow's Sta- tion (E., 0. & A. R. R.). Coal measures. Daviess county. Collec/ed by C J. Norwood, as follows.. No. 1744-"Alum Spring" (labeled No. I). This water has a brownish color and a strong acid reaction. The cork of the jug was blackened by the presence of iron salt. No. I 745-"Alum Spring " (labeled No. 2). This water resembles the preceding, but is of a lighter color. No. 1746--Alum Spring " (labeled No. 6). -Sweet Spring." Resembles No. 2 in the appearance of the water. No. I 747-"Sulphur Spring " (labeled No. 3). Reaction neutral. Has no peculiar taste or smell, having lost all its sulphuretted hydrogen gas. No. 1748--Brick S'pring" (labeled No. 4). Resembles the next preceding. No. 1749" Yellow Spring-" (labeled N!o. 5). The water has a slightly astringent taste; reaction is neutral. no color. In 235 55 56 CHEMICAL REPORT. All the alum waters deposited a brownish ochreous sedi- ment on standing, which is mainly basic persuphate of iron, as shown by the following analysis (made by my son, Alfred Meredith Peter, who also made the analyses of the several waters, under my general supervision), as follows: One thousand parts of the water. No. I (i. e., No. I744) gave on boiling O.1938 part of brownish precipitate, dried at 2120, which became bright red on ignition, and had the fol- lowing described COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Iron peroxide....... . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . 78.64 Combined water..................... . . 14.74 Sulphuric acid (anhydride)................ .. . . .. . 5.24 Silica... .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. ..64. Loss . ...................... 74 Total.1.............................. . 100.00 COMPOSITION OF THE ALUM WATERS IN wooo. PARTS. No. 1744(l) No. 1745(2) No. x746(6)- Basic iron persulphate (Fe2O3, 2SO3).. . . 0.8756 0.0484 0.146o Alumina sulphate.1............... . 1.2468 .3303 .3500 Manganese sulphate..... . . .. . .. . . .. .0032 .0102 .0721 Lime sulphate..... . .. . . .. . .. . . .. .5996 .3947 .3271 Magnesia sulphate.......... . . .. . .. . 3330 -3315 .2513 Potash sulphate.................. .ooo5 .oo68 .0074 Soda sulphate.4. ....... . .2959 Copper sulphate........ .. . . .. . . . . .ooo9. Sodium chloride.........................0031 .0127 .0651 Lithia................. . a trace.a trace. a trace. Silica.... .. . .. . . .. . .. .0 ..... .. .0013 0014 .0022 Organic matters and loss..... .. . . .. . .. . . . .. .0279 .187S Total saline matters, dried at 2120 F.3. . . . ,, 3.1364 1.4598 1.4090 Specific gravity of the water... .. . .. . . .. 1.00304 I.00164 i.ooi62 230 CHEMICAL REPORT. 57 COMPOSITION OF THE "SULPHUR," "BRICK," AND "YELLOW" SPRING WATERS IN 1oo0. PARTS. No. 1747(3) No. 1748(4) No. 1749(5) Iron and manganese oxides........ .. . . . traces. 0.0004 0.0018 Lime carbonate... .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. o. i io6 .1196 .0256 Magnesia carbonate..... .. . .. . .. .. ..o96 .0331 .0211 Lime sulphate..... . .. .. . .. . .. .. .1306 .0838 1379 Magnesja sulphate...... . .. . .. .. . .. 1594 .1057 .o65E Potash sulfhate..0.0........ . .. . .. . 35 .0129 .0103 Soda sulphate ...4567 .5019 .2082 Sodium chloride. . . .0o80g .0213 .0127 Lithia... . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . traces. traces. traces. Copper......... . ..... ...... ..... ...... a trace. Silica. ..o74 .0254 .098 Organic matters and loss...0............ 373 . .0357 Total saline matters, dried at 2120 F ........ i.oi6o 0.9041 0.5482 Specific gravity of the water.1........ .. . x.00115 1.00120 i.ooo86 These alum waters, doubtless of analogous composition with others of the name in Virginia and elsewhere, are highly as- tringent, and are doubtless too strong for internal use without dilution, in most cases. They will find their remedial applica- tions, however, under the advice of the educated physician. The saline and sulphur waters would prove alterative, slightly aperient, diuretic, or sudorific and hence depurative, accord- ing to the manner of their administration, under medical ad- vice. The small amount of copper in the alum waters will not materially affect their influence. SOILS OF DAVIESS COUNTY. No. I 750-" Virg-in Soil, from the farm of H. Riley, on the E., O. & 6N. R. R. ,fifteen miles from Owensboro. On a hill-tot. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Soil of a light grey-brown color; contains no gravel. The bolting-cloth sieve separated from its silicious residue a con- siderable quantity of fine, rounded quartz grains, both hyaline and opaque. No. 175 I'Surface soil, from an old field sixty-five years in cultivation, in corn and tobacco princifially; now overgrown with sassafras. Same locality as the preceding. Collected by C. W. Beckham." 237 58 CHEMICAL REPORT. Soil of a lighter and more yellowish light-grey-brown color; has no gravel. Silicious residue contained very few small quartz grains. No. 1 752 -"Subsoil to the next preceding," &c., &c. Soil of a brownish-yellow ochre color; contains no gravel. Very few fine quartz grains. No. I753 -" Virgin Soil. Upland. From the farm of the Rev. A. Hopkins. Crow's Station, E., 0. & N. R. R., nine miles from Owensboro. Collected by C W. Beckham." Coal meas- ures. Soil of a brownish umber-grey color; contains no gravel nor fine quartz grains. No. 1754-"Surface Soil, from an old field about forty years int cultivation. Same locality as preceding. Substratum; sand- stone. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Soil -of a dirty buff color; contains no gravel or fine sili- cious sand. No. I755 "Subsoilof the nextfpreceding," &c. &c. Soil of a brownish-orange-buff color; contains no gravel or fine quartzose sand. COMPOSITION OF THESE DAVIESS COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1750No. 1751 No. 1752 No. 1753 No. 1754 No. 1755 Organic and volatile matters. . 5 475 3.150 2-715 5.875 2.550 3-175 Alumi'a and iron and mang. oxides 6.174 7.o65 10.654 5 349 5.502 12.958 Lime carbonate... .. . .. .120 .245 .095 .220 .085 .075 Magnesia. ..... .. . .. oi6 .034 .021 -04e .133 .c8a Phosphoric acid... .. . .. .141 .125 .061 .o86 .083 .102 Sulphuric acid ......... not est. not est. not est. not est. not est. not est. Potash. .. . .. . .. . .. .134 .053 .244 .407 .265 .474 Soda. . .. . .. . .. . .. 301 .. . . .. . . . . .075 Sand and insoluble silicates . . . 86.6o5 88.390 85.415 86.593 90.890 81.300 Water expelled at 38o0 F.. . 975 .925 .910 1.453 .6oo 1.175 Total........... . 99.941 99-987 100.115 100.021 100.10899.414 Hygroscopic moisture. ..... 1-775 1.515 1.565 1.700 0. 875 3.500 Potash in the insoluble silicates . .887 1.122 1.386 975 1.396 1X457 Soda in the insoluble silicates. .581 -7o9 .68o .403 .729 .639 Character of the soil. . ............ Virgin jOld field o irgin Old field SbiL soil. soil. Sol3. soil. 238 CHEMICAL REPORT. The comparative analyses of these soils show the usual in- fluence of continued exhaustive culture in the diminution of some of their essential mineral ingredients. The soils are of full average natural fertility; the subsoils would doubtless benefit the surface, if gradually brought up in the cultivation, and organic matters supplied by the ameliorating influence of clover and other green crops wholly or partly plowed in. A considerable reserve of the alkalies is seen to be present in the insoluble silicates, which will add greatly to the durability of the soil; but, doubtless, the application of available phos- phates, and the use of wood ashes, would be beneficial in increasing the productiveness of the old field soils. No. 1756-" CLAY,from the same locality; twentyfeet from the railroad and ten feet be/ow the surface of soil No. 1754. Below the coal at Dr. Hickman's Springs. The layer is about thir- teen inches thick." A sandy clay; generally of a light-grey color, with ferrugi- nous infiltrations in the fissures, and some old obscure vegeta- ble impressions. It contains about fifty per cent. of fine clear sand. It burns quite hard, and of a handsome light-salmon color, and hence may be quite valuable for terra cotta work or- bricks or tiles. The air-dried clay lost 1.500 per cent. of moisture at 2I2' F.; .oo; per cent. of moisture at 3800, and i.500 per cent. of combined water at the red heat. It would probably shrink less in the fire than most clays, but would not answer for a fire-clay. COALS OF DAVIESS COUNTY. No. I757 Coal No. DP Montgomery's coal mine, about one and a half miles above Owensboro. Collected by C. J. Nor- wood." A pure pitch-black coal. Has but little fibrous coal. Some thin scales of pyrites in the seams. No. I 758-" Coal D. Dutch mine, about one and a hal miles above Owensboro. Average thickness about three feet. Aver- age sample by C. J. Norwood." 239 59F CHUICAL REPORT. A splint coal; some reedy fibrous coal between the laminae, and much show of bright pyritous scales in the seams. No. I 759-' Coal D. Bon Harbor mines. Average thickness four feet and a hal. wood." A splint coal, with much fibrous coal and granular and bright lamellar pyrites. of the seam faces. Barrett's new bank. Sample by C J. Nor- between the lamina, Iridescent on some No. 176-" Coal D. Dean's mine, about one and a half miles above Owensboro. Collected by C J. Norwood." Resembles the preceding. No. 176 I -" Coal, from Duncan's bank. Richardson's property. Friendly Grove, near Knottsville. Collected by P. N. Moore." Mostly splitting easily into thin lamina, with considerable fibrous coal and some granular pyrites between. Some bright scales of pyrites in the seams. COMPOSITION OF THESE DAVIESS COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1757. No. 1758. No. 1759. No. 1760. No. 176i. Specific gravity...............1.323 1.340 1.318 1.337 1.285 Hygroscopic moisture. 6.20 4.10 5.80 5.12 6.20 Volatile combustible matters.36.0o 38.50 35.o6 34.72 41 90 Coke . . .. . .. .. . . 57.63 57.40 59.14 6o.j6 51.90 Total.. .. . .. .. . . . oo., soo.oo 0oo.oo ioo.oo Total volatile matters.. 42.40 42.63 40.86 39-84 48.10 Carbon in the coke.... .. 5. 51.03 50.40 51.44 47.40 Ash. . .. . .. . .. .. 6.70 6.40 8.74 8.72 4.50 Total.. .. . .. .. . . zoo.oo oo.oo 100.03 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke..... Light Spongy Light Light Light spongy. spongy. spongy. spongy. Color of the ash ...... . Lilac-grey. Lilac-grey. Ligh t Light Grey-lilac. lilac-grey, lilac-grey. Per centage of sulphur... 1.519 1-538 3.985 3.513 3.743 240 CHEMICAL REPORT. EDMONSON COUNTY. LIMONITE IRON ORES. No. I 762-" Ore, from Still-house Branch of Bear Creek. Av- erage sample by P. N. Moore." In irregular curved lamina, of a deep brown color; fre- quently inclosing nuclei of softer yellowish and reddish ochre- ous ore. No. I 763-" Ore, from the south side of Dismal Creek, near Thomas Meredith's. Average sample by P. N. Moore." Mostly in dense dark brown irregular curved lamina, with -some softer and lighter colored ore. No. I764-" Ore,from the head of Sycamore Branch of Bear Creek. Average sample by P. N. Moore." Much like the preceding. No. 1765-" Ore above the coal. Mill Branch of Bear C-eek. Average sample by P. N. Moore." In thin irregular lamina, cellular in parts, of a brown color; mixed with yellowish-brown ochreous ore. No. i766-"Limestone Ore. Jacob Snider's. Cane Branch of Gulf Creek. In the Chester Group. Cabinet specimen. Col- lected by P. N. Moore." Mostly dense dark-colored ore, in carved laminae or cellular masses, with some little brownish-ochreous softer ore. 241 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE EDMONSON COUNTY LIMONITE ORES, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1762. No. 1763. No. 1764. No. 1765. No. 1766. Iron peroxide....... . 40.798 47-724 49 906 32.820 77.871 Alumina . . . . ........ ..... .. . .444 Manganese oxide.1.293 2.501 3-330 2.356 not est. Lime carbonate. a trace. a trace a trace. a trace. a trace. Magnesia.a trace. a trace.a trace. a trace. .070 Phosphoric acid..... . . 1.019 .697 .694 .984 .505 Sulphuric acid.360 .315 .395 .285 a trace. Combined water.......-.... 7.250 8.z2o 9.320 8 330 11.050 Silica and insoluble silicates . 50.030 41.145 36.780 55.z8o 8.660 Moisture and loss. . . . .......... . ....... . 045 .400 Total.. .. . .. . .. . 100l750 1oo.632 100.425 100.000 100.000 Per centage of iron.28.559 33.407 34-407 22.974 54.510 Per centage of phosphorus.. .445 .304 .303 .430 .221 Per centage of sulphur.... .207 .125 .158 .114 a trace. Per centage of silica.... . 46-760 39.560 33.460 48.960 8.660 With the exception of No. 1766, which is quite good and rich, these are rather poor, highly silicious ores, with a full amount of phosphorus, which might be profitably used with richer aluminous ores. EDMONSON COUNTY CLAYS. No. 1767- "Silicious Clay, from Sowder's farm, near Green river. Chester Group. Bed/our to six feet thick. Collected by John R. Procter." In irregular lumps; friable; of an olive and brownish-grey color. Powder light grey. No. 1768-" Clay, from Sowder's farm, on Caney Branch, one mile from Green river. Bed seven to eight feet thick; in lay- ers of various colors. Collected by John R. Procter." (a) The upper or light-dove-colored layer. (b) The second, light grey, nearly white layer. (c) The third, grey layer. (d) The lowest layer. Olive-grey, mottled with yellowish- grey. 242 52 CHEMICAL REPORT. 63 COMPOSITION OF THESE EDMONSON COUNTY CLAYS, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1767. No. 1768 a. No. 17686. No. 1768 c. No. 1768 d. Silica... . . .. . .. . 8o.16o 77.660 74.460 71560 67-.560 Alum'a and iron and mang. ox's II.6oo i6.Soo 20.440 22.860 22.540 Lime carbonate....... . .760 .480 .640 .680 .980 Magnesia.. .... .. .. .560 not est.not est. not est. .671 Phosphoric acid...... . not est. not est. not est.not est. .o25 Potash..... . . .. . . 3.854 1.002 not est. not est. 2.470 Soda..583. .. .......8 .484 not est. not est. .oS8 Water and undetermined... 2.483 4.340 4.460 4 900 5.696 Total.. . .. . .. . . l oo. 100.766100.000100.000 100.000 While these clays would not prove very refractory in the fire, they may be made very useful for common pottery ware. ESTILL COUNTY. No. I769- CLAY IRON-STONE. "Carbonate ore, front Tubb' s bank, near Estill Furnace. Has been weathered two Y'ears. Collectea' by P. N. Moore." A granular carbonate ore, of various tints of grey, with more or less of limonite. In some parts somewhat oolitic. COMIPOSITION', .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. ., DRIED .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . Iron carbonate ..... Iron peroxide ..... Alumina . Manganese carbonate Lime carbonate..... Magnesia carbonate. Phosphoric acid .... Sulphuric acid . Silicious residue .... Undetermined and loss AT 212 F. 76 4915 39.758 per cent. of iron. 2.014 not est. 5.400 514 .409 - 0 178 phosphorus. .267 .107 sulphur. 9.330 Containing 7.660 silica. 1.526 100.000 Quite a good ore of its kind. ESTILL COUNrY LIMONITE ORES. No. 1770" Ore, from Luster drift. Thacker Ridge. road west of Fitchburg. Sample has been exposed weather for some time. Collected by P. N. Moore." Rail- to the In irregular, dense, dark-colored, curved lamina, with some- soft ochreous ore between. 243 64 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1771I- Limestone Ore. Logan Ridge. Estill Furnace. Has been weathered two years. Collected by P. N. Moore." Resembles the preceding. Ochreous matter brownish. No. 1772-- Ore, from Tubb's bank. Estill Furnace. Has been weathered two years. Collected by P. N. Moore." Resembles the preceding. No. 1773" Ore, from Horse-ridge banks. Cottage Furnace. In sub-carboniferous limestone. Average sample from a pile of ore weathered more than a year. Collected by P. N. Moore." Mostly in dense, dark-colored laminae, irregularly curved or forming a cellular structure, with some whitish and light-brown softer material. COMPOSITION OF THESE ESTILL COUNTY LIMONITES, DRIED AT 212z F. No. 1770. No. 1771- No. 1772. No. 1773- Iron peroxide. . . .. .. . . 74.127 65.535 75.598 65 -591 Alumina.. . .. . .. . .. . . 3.542 2-798 1.971 5.762 Manganese oxide.not est. not est.not est not est. Lime carbonate.390 .450 .540 traces. Magnesia. .. . .. .. . . .. 461 1.073 .258 .248 Phosphoric acid..6oi -537 .60' .447 Sulphuric acid.not est. not est.not est. traces. Combined water... . .. .. . .. . 11.270 9.800 11730 11.000 Silica and silicates. 9-580 20.480 8.910 16.230 Moisture and loss..029 .392 .722 Total.. . .. . .. . .. . . . .. cs.ooo 100.673 100.000 100.000 Iron per centage....... .. .. . 51.889 45-874 52.918 45.914 Phosphorus per centage... . .262 .234 .262 .195 Sulphur per centage..... . .. .. . not est. not est. E not est.traces. Silica per centage........... . 7.860 18. 26o 7.260 14.160 PrG IRONS OF ESTILL COUNTY. No. I774-"'No. 3 Cold-blast Charcoal Pig Iron. Red River Furnace. Fitchburg. Collected by P. N. Moore." A moderately fine-grained, somewhat dark-colored iron. Yields to the file and extends a little under the hammer. 244 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1775-"No. 5 Cold-blast Charcoal Pig Iron. Red River Furnace, &c. Collected by P. N. Moore." A silvery-white iron. Hard, brittle; but the small fragments- extend a little under the hammer. No. 1776-' Car-wheel Iron. No. i Cold-blast Charcoal Iron. Red River Iron Works, at Fitchburg. From G. S. Moore & Co., of Louisville." A moderately coarse-grained, dark-grey iron. Yields with difficulty to the file; extends somewhat under the hammer. No. 1777" Car-wheel Iron. No. I Cold-blast Charcoal Iron. Estill Furnace. From G. S. Moore & Co." Resembles the preceding, but is somewhat coarser-grained, with some spots of finer-grained in the centre of the pig. COMPOSITION OF THESE ESTILL FURNACE IRONS. No. 1774. No. 1775. No. 1776. No. 1777- Iron... .. .. .. .. .... 93.728 93.963 94- 174 92.582 Graphite..... .. . .. .. .. .. 3 - 520 2.000 3-340 3.500 Combined carbon........... . .780 2.550 1.110 1.200 Manganese........ .. .. . . . .389 .181 not est. not est. Silicon...... .. . .. .. .. .. 1.202 363 447 .960 Slag ..360 .320 .360 .360 Aluminum...... .. .. .. . . . .264 .648 not est. not est. Phosphorus...... .. . . . .. . .200 .338 .402 .444 Sulphur... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .o80 .104 .182 .o66 Undetermined and loss . . . ..... . . .888 Total.. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 1o0.613 100.467 100.015 100.000 Total carbon.... ..4.3...0.. .. 43 4.550 4.450 4.700 Specific gravity..... .. .. .. .. 7.168 not est. 7.226 7.272 The high character of these pig metals for producing tough malleable iron is well established. FAYETTE COUNTY. No. I778-"PHOSPHATIC LIMESTONE. Forming a thin layer hn the Lower Silurian (Blue) limestone (Cincinnati Group). McMeekin's quarry. Newtown Turnpike, about three miles xorth of Lexington. Said by the quarryman to be somehtme as much as a foot in taickwes. Collected by R. Petr." 65 CHEMICAL REPORT. A somewhat friable rock of a bluish-grey color; brown- ish-grey on the weathered surfaces. Containing many mi- croscopic marine univalve shells. Adheres strongly to the tongue. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Phosphoric acid, lime, magnesia, alumina, iron oxide.......... . 85.270 Fluoride of calcium......... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . not est. Carbonateof lime..... .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 9.180 Carbonate of magnesia............. .. . ... . .. .. . . -371 Silica and insoluble silicates ................. . . .. 4.780 Alkalies, organic matters, &c., -not estimated........... . .. . . 399 Total.... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. O. The phosphates in this limestone were found to contain as much as 3P.815 per cent. of the weight of the rock of phos- phoric acid, equal to 69.452 per cent. of tribasic phosphate of lime! This -remarkable rock, on a pile thrown out for turnpiking purposes, attracted the attention of the writer, while riding along the road. Although it has been long known that the friable layers of our - Blue limestone" are quite rich in phos- phates, a fact which the writer brought to the attention of the agricultural public as early as April, 1849, in the Albany Cul- tivator, of New York, yet no one up to this time, as far as is known to him, has found any so rich in them as this. The subject is worthy of further investigation, especially in view of the agricultural and commercial value of the phos- phates for use as fertilizers. As is well known, the abundant phosphates of the rock substratum is one of the main causes of the great and durable fertility of our "blue grass soil," so-called, as well as of the superior development of the ani- mals reared and nourished on its products. SOILS OF FAYETTE COUNTY. No. I 779-" Virgin Soil, taken from one half inch to six inches below the surface. From woodland pasture, which has been grazedfor about seventy years. On elevated ground, near the remains of the old ear/h-works of the mound-builders. (De- scribed in Collins' History of Kentucky and elsewhere as on ;46 66 CHEMICAL REPORT. the farm of Col. Meridith, who was the earliest proprietor of the farm.) On the farm of R. Peter. Same as described in No. 27 in volume I, old series, Kentucky Geological Reports. On the Lower Silurian formation. Collected byr B. D. Peter." A rich grey-brown loam, containing a little fine-grained shot iron ore, and some small silicious particles. The bolting- cloth separated from the insoluble silicates, left after digestion of the soil in acids, a small portion of small roundish-whitish grains of partly decomposed silicates, but no pure quartz grains. No. I 78o- 'Subsoil of the preceding, taken from six to fourteen inches below the su rface." Soil rather more reddish than the surface soil. Contains, like that, a few small grains of shot iron ore and silicious par- ticles. The bolting-cloth separated a rather larger quantity of small rounded grains of undecomposed silicates; some appearing as casts of minute globular shells. No. 178i1-" Virgin Soil. Open pasture. J. H. Talbutt's farm ("The Meadows"), late Warfields; half a mile northeast of Lexington. From the top of a hill to the east of the house, heavily set with blue grass. Sample taken to the depth of six- teen inches. Primitive growtlh: black walnut, black, blue, and white ash, elm, hickories, oaks, sugar-tree, &'c. Has been long cleared. Lower Silurian formation. Sample collected by John H. Talbutt." Dried soil of an umber color; contains no gravel, but some little shot iron ore, &c. No. 1782- Subsoil of the next preceding; taken to the depth of three feet from the surface," &'c., &c. No. 1783-" Underlying clay of the same; taken at the depth of three feet below the surface. Contains shot iron ore, manga- nese oxide," &c. Dried subsoil of a dirty light-brown color. The silicious residue contained a few small quartzose grains. 247 67 68 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE FAYETTE COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 210 F1_ No. 1779. No. 1780. No. 1781. No. 1782. No. 1783. Organic and volatile matters. 4.676 3.085 7.800 4.410 4.400 Alum'a and iron and mang. ox's 9 570 10o445 12.286 14.427 19.921 Lime carbonate.. .230 .220 1.145 -545 .13O0 .Magnesia... . . .140 .140 394 .340 . 376 Phosphoric acid.. .. . .. 444 .540 .364 .358 .364 Sulphuric acid ....... . not est. not est. not est. not est. not est. Potash... . . . .. . .. .287 .343 -735 .402 .755 Soda. . . . . . .. . .. not est . 192 .084 .301 . Sand and insoluble silicates . 82.860 83,260 76.69o 77.440 72.540 Water, expelled at 380 F... 1.824 1.234 1.300 .925 1.200 Undetermined and loss. ....... . 541 .. .... ..852 .314 rotal.......... . 100.031 100.000 100.798 100. OO 100.000 Hygroscopic moisture.. .. 2.165 1.965 2.975 3.135 3.525 Potash in the insoluble silicates.1.274 1.314 .718 .910 .644 Soda in the insoluble silicates. .211 .583 .200 .212 .167 Character of the soil.Woodland Subsoil. Subsoil. Under clay. pasture.Vignsi.SbolUnecay Containing: of alumina, 6.093; iron peroxide, 4.33 ; and mauganese oxide, .023 per cent. The analyses demonstrate the richness of these soils, more- especially of Nos. 1781-'2-'3, which is shown in the small rel- ative quantity of silicious residue, and the comparatively large proportions of phosphoric acid and potash, &c. Although they may not have been submitted to the plow, they yet cannot be considered virgin soils, having been for a long time grazed, and been thus altered in composition. The "Meadows" has been mostly cultivated as a stock farm, mainly for the raising of fine race-horses and improved cattle; and there is reason to believe, from the large proportion of potash in the soluble form in this pasture land, that it was improved rather than deteriorated by the feeding of the stock upon it: the loss by grazing being more than compensated by the additional food supplied to the animals, in winter as well as other times. FLOYD COUNTY. COALS. No. 1784-" Coal. Snipe's bank. Branch of Abbotts Creek. Acverage sample from the outcropf About two fat shown. Collected by A. R. Craadwl" CHEMICAL REPORT. A pretty pure splint coal. Some fibrous coal and fine gran- ular pyrites between the lamina, and some external ferrugi- nous stain. No. 1785-" Coal, from Harris' bank, on Muddy Creek, one mile from Prestonsburg. Forty-four inches thick. Average sample by A. R. Crandall." A bright, pitch-black coal, with some bright pyritous scales, and but little fibrous coal. A somewhat hard coal. No. 1786-" Coal. Jas. H. Hatcher's bank. Mouth of Abbott's Creek. Bed forty-two to forty-six inches thick. Average sam- ple by A. R. Crandall." A bright-looking, somewhat firm coal, with very little fibrous coal or pyrites. COMPOSITION OF THESE FLOYD COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1784. No. 1785. No. 1786. Specific gravity.. . . . . . . . . . . . 1.289 1.274 1.307 Hygroscopic moisture... . . . . . . . . 3.20 2.50 2.50 Volatile combustible matters.. . . . . . . . 38.80 4080 I 38.56 Coke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58.co 56.70 58.94 Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.00 100.00 100.0o Total vola ile matters... . . . . . . . . 42.00 41.30 41.06 Fixed car bon in the coke... . . . . . . . 5504 56.70 53.44 Ash .2.96 3.24 5.50 Total.100.00 100.00 100.00 . . ... . . . . L i ghIt Tplgyight Character of the coke.spongy. spongy. Light Light Light Color of the ash.. . . . . . . . . . . . chocolate. brownish. lilac-grey. Percentage of sulphur.. . . . . . . . . . 1.895 1.915. These are all remarkably pure and good coals. Their small ash per centage corresponds nearly with their low specific VOL. I.-CHEM. 17. 249 0CHEMICAL REPORT. gravity. Their proportion of sulphur is also moderate. Their large yield of volatile combustible matters, and their spongy coke, may make them profitably available for use in the gas- works. Doubtless they will be found very good for the smelt- ing and manufacture of iron. GRAYSON COUNTY. COAL. No. 1787-" Coal, from the South or Allen, bank, near the Falls of Rough Creek. Two feet thick. Collected by P. N. Moore." A pure-looking coal, breaking easily, with a shining pitch- like appearance, and an irregular, so-called, bird's-eye frac- ture. Has very little fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites, except some fine granular. COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED. Specific gravity . ....... 1.343 raygroscopic moisture ....... . 650 Tota volatile matters . ..36.54 Volatile combustible matters. 30.04 v. Coke (quite dense).. ' ' 63.461 Carbon in the coke . . ... 55.54 (t Light lilac-grey ash .7.92 100.00 o 0.00 Percentage of sulphur. . . . 1.972 FERRUGINOUS AND MARLY CLAYS OF GRAYSON COUNTY. No. I788-"1Ferruginous Clay. Nodular. Below the upper limestone. Hat Branch of Bear Creek. Three and a half to four feet thick." Of a handsome chocolate-brown color. Not adhering much to the tongue. Powder of a handsome grey-chocolate color. No. 1789- 'ATodular Ferruginous Clay. Canolaway Creek." Resembles the preceding. No. I790- "Marly Shale, found below the limestone. Hat Branch of Bear Creek. Four feet thick. Collected by John R. Procter." Breaking easily when dry. Of a greyish-olive-green color, -with some parts brownish. Not adhering much to the tongue. Powder of a handsome greenish-grey color. 250 70 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1791-ReMarly Shale. Haycraft's Lick. Similar to pci. ceding." Of a dark olive-grey color when dry. No. 1792-'"Red Marly Shale, same locality, &c., mixed with the preceding in the sample." Of a chocolate brown color. No. 1793-"-Brown Marly Clay. Cedar Knob Lick." Of a dark reddish-brown or chocolate color when dry. Conglomeratic, with fragment of material similar to No. I792. COMPOSITION OF THESE GRAYSON COUNTY FERRUGINOUS AND MARLY CLAYS AND SHALES, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1788. No. 1789. No. 1790oNo. 179r No. 1792 No. 1793 Iron and manganese oxidesa 14-451 b12.282 26.221 27.811 25-758 23.071 Lime carbonate... . .. .1r6o 1.380 9.16o .880 I.580 1.180 Magnesia. . . . .. . . 1.715 1.643 6.629 .824 4-437 497 Phosphoric acid... . . .o89 see h. 1.089 .109 .102 .o89 Potash Total, obmained by fiLton; 4.240 5.-049 4-944 5.-554 5.145 4.093 Soda I indudesinsolublesilicate:..948 1.o6o i.o6t .657 .347 .438 Silica and insoluble silicates . 74.360 d68.380 44.760 59.920 58.960 60.760 Water expelled at red heat, &c. 7.000 8.250 6.136 4.245 3.671 9.872 Total . . . . . . . . . . a104-963 a105.632 100.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 (a) The apparent excess La due to the alkalies in the Insoluble silicat, which are estimated also in the alkliesiven above. (b) Including phosphoric acid and manganese oxide, not separately estimated. (e Iron peroxide. (d) Containing of silica: 51.02o; of alumina, iron and manganese oxides, and phosphoric add, 14.330. These ferruginous and marly shales and clays, when of a good color, may be termed mineral paints, and be very profit- ably used in that way; but, in consequence of their large proportions of alkalies, especially of potash, as well as of phosphoric acid, they promise to be quite valuable, applied as top dressing, for renewing old worn-out tobacco soil. As they are found in enormous quantities over a very great ex- tent of country, the best method of making them profitably available is matter of great interest. Chemical analyses show that, while a portion of their alka- line constituents is soluble in acids, the larger part of them is locked up in the insoluble silicates. Spread upon the soil, 251 7 L CHEMICAL REPORT. therefore, without admixture or preparation, their ameliorat- ing influence would probably result more from their large proportion of the elements of clay, giving the soil more con- sistence, and increasing its power of absorbing atmospheric agencies, &c., than from the alkalies or phosphoric acid, &c., they contain. In short, the application of these marls to the surface might be like the plowing up of a subsoil, rich in the mineral elements of plant food, but poor in the organic com- pounds which help to bring them into a soluble and available state. Exposed to the atmospheric agencies, however, the insolu- ble silicates undergo a gradual, slow decomposition, and their valuable ingredients are thus set free for the use of plants. The decomposing remains of vegetables accelerate this pro- cess, and hence the great propriety of using these marls to- gether with stable manure or other organic fertilizers, or of employing a clover or other green crop, plowed in, as a means. of distintegrating the silicates. Doubtless poor exhausted land, which had been top-dressed with the marl, and then sowed in clover, which, after the growth of one or two sea- sons, was plowed in, would be found to be greatly improved in fertility. A similar result, in some degree, might possi- bly be obtained, in a single season, by the use of buckwheat, plowed in at maturity. A quicker mode of setting free the alkalies, &c., of these marls, would necessarily be more expensive. The process used in the chemical analysis, viz: that of heating. to a mod- erate red heat, the mixture of the finely-groUnd marl with a large proportion of pulverized carbonate of lime, and about an equal proportion of sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride), is. quite effectual in separating all the alkalies of the insoluble silicates. But it is somewhat expensive on a large scale. In this process the mutual reaction of the carbonate of lime and sal ammoniac produces carbonate of ammonia, which evapo- rates and is lost, and calcium chloride, which, together with the excess of carbonate of lime present (calcined in the pro- cess partly into caustic lime), cause the decomposition of the 252 72 CHEMICAL REPORT. silicates, and set free the alkalies. Calcium chloride and car- bonate of lime, then, are the essential decomposing agents in this process; and as calcium chloride is present in the bittern water of all salt-works, and frequently thrown away as a waste product in other manufactories, or may be cheaply made by the application of hydrochloric acid to limestone, this process would be much more economical than that of the use of the ammonia salt. Under the head of Clay county, in the present volume, are some remarks on the proposition to use the bit- tern water of salt-works for this purpose-an application of this waste product, which is yet more promising, from the fact that this water contains potash and other salts, which may also be valuable on the exhausted soil. But, for the decomposition of the marl, not only must it be brought into a plastic state or be powdered, but the limestone or lime, with which it is to be mixed, must also be in the form of powder, so that they may be intimately mixed together and fully incorporated with the calcium chloride. With a cheap power and a good mill this might not be very expensive. In order to calcine the mixture, the plastic mass, produced by working up together the marllime, and solution of calcium chloride, should be made up into lumps or brick-like masses, dried to a certain extent, and then calcined at a moderate red heat, not sufficient to fuse them. The time during which they should be maintained at a red heat need not exceed a few hours. Other modes might be available; as by the uise of chlorine gas, which, if the lumps of the marl are porous, would not necessitate pulverization. This gas is to be cheaply obtained from the low-priced hydrochloric acid and oxide of manganese mixed, and if it be allowed to pass slowly from above through the marl lumps contained in a tall, tight cylindrical receptacle, would exert considerable decomposing influence upon the sil- It is generally believed that magnesium chloride is injurious to vegetation. As this is present in the bittern water, careful experiments to test its utility would be necessary. But the magnesium chloride would be decomposed by the lime in the process of calcina. tion, and the free magnesia thus separated would not probably be injurious, notwith- standing the long-standing prejudice against this earth. 253 73 CHEMICAL REPORT. icates. This process would doubtless be at least as expen- sive as the above named. The mere mixture of slacked lime with the powdered marl, when applied to the land, would doubtless be beneficial in accelerating its decomposition, and calciniiig them together at a moderate red heat might be yet more useful, especially if a little common salt be added. Indeed, merely calcining the clay alone, if the heat is not sufficient to fuse it, seems to set some of its alkaline constituents free; and hence, proba- bly, one reason of the improvement of old soil by the English practice of paring and burning it. In numerous cases the writer has found the insoluble silicates to become more de- composable by the action of the acids after ignition. No. I 794- 'LIMONITE IRON ORE, containing clay iron-stone. Old No/in Furnace property, three and a halaf miles north of Bee Spring. West of the road at the head of one of the forks of Decker Branch. On the road near the Brownsville and Grayson Springs road. Average sample by P. N. Moore." Generally soft and porous, of a brownish-yellow color, with denser and darker colored irregular laminae, and some nodules or portions of bluish-grey, fine granular clay iron-stone, which is somewhat o6litic, with small whitish particles. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Iron peroxide.... .. .. . .. .. . .. . 48.913 1 Iron carbonate. ......... . .=. 5.735 J 36.526 iron. Alumina. . .. .. . .. . : . . . .. : 7.125 Lime carbonate .9410 Magnesia carbonate. . . ... .144 Phosphoric acid..... . .. .. .. . .. . .489 = .209 phosphorus Sulphuric acid.. .19 = .o8o sulphur. Combined water and loss .8.905 Silica and insoluble silicates .9.... . . . . . . ig.080 Containing 16.760 silica. 100.000 A good and sufficiently rich ore, with but a moderate pro- portion of phosphorus, likely to yield a good quality of iron, if properly smelted. It contains nearly ten. per cent. of car- bonate of lime, which will aid in fluxing it. The simultaneous use of the marl and slacked lime as a top-dressing on a clover crop, or as a preparation for a crop of clover, which is subsequently plowed under, would no. doubt be quite ameliorating to the soil. 254 74 CHEMICAL REPORT. GREENUP COUNTY. COALS. No. 1795" Coal, from Turkey Lick bed, on Turkey Lick. Col- lected by A. R. Crandall." A splint coal. Some parts seemingly quite pure, with but little fibrous coal; other portions in thin shaly layers, with granular pyrites in the fibrous coal. No. 1796-" Coal 3. Turkey Lick Coal. Pennsylvania Furnace. Average sample from the lower and middle parts of the coal." A splint coal, separating into thin lamina, with fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between. No. 1797-" Coal, from Turkey Lick coal mines. Main entry. One hundred and eighty feet from the outcrop. Average sam- ple taken at that spot. By A. R. Crandall." A splint coal, pretty pure looking, but has some fine granu- lar pyrites in the fibrous coal between its thin lamina. No. I798--Turkey Lick Coal. Old entry. Hunnewell. Av- erage sample by A R. Crandall." Like the preceding, but having less of the thinly laminated portion, with fibrous coal and granular pyrites between. No. 1799-" Coal. Raccoon Furnace. Average sample by A. R. Crandall." A splint coal, splitting into quite thin laming, with much light fibrous coal and some fine granular pyrites between them. No. x 8oo-" Coke, from Coal No. 3. ;Turkey Lick coal. Hun- newell Furnace. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A bright spongy coke. 255 75 76 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY COALS AND COKE, AIR- DRIED. No. 795 No. 1796. No. 1797. No. 1798 No. 1z99g No. ilSoo. Specific gravity..... .......... X 347 1.331 1.280 I-.3321.384 . Hygroscopic moisture... . ::: a42 4.00 4.56 4.60 4.22 92 Volatile combustible matters . . 34 76 37 70 36 68 34.80 30:20 - Coke... .... ... .... ... ... 6i 0o 58.30 58.76 ho. 6o 65 68 go. so Total.10.00 100.00.0 1..00.0.0..1- 00..0 200.00 Total volatile matters ............ . 39. oo41.70 41.24 39.40 34.32 19.20 Carbon in the coke. ............ 48.70 51.60 52.40 Si-0 53.68 75.10 Ash............ 12.30 6.70. 6.36 960 12.00 5.70 Total.. ........... loo.oo 100.00 loo.oo 00.001o00.o 100.00 Character of the coke .... Spongy. Dense Light De.ne Fiable...... spongy. spongy. spongy. Color of the ash .. . . . . . . ...... . , ,Light Lilac-grey Very light Very light L ight Narly Color of the ashllac-grey. li-. ailc-grey. lilac-grey. white. -Per centage of sulphur ....... . . . .. I.601i 2.645 0 .682 0667 0 925 o.666 By comparing the sulphur per centage in No. 1796, and in the coke made from it, No. i88, it will be seen that more than three fourths of the sulphur of the coal appears to be removed in the process of coking. But the smaller ash per centage in this coke seems to indicate that a purer sample of this coal was used in its manufacture. GREENUP COUNTrY PIG IRONS. No. 180I --" ig Iron. No. I Foundry iron. Hunnewell Fur- nace. Quite a coarse-grained, light-grey iron. Somewhat hard, but yields to the file. No. 18o2-"Pig Iron. No. I hot-blast silver-grey or glazed pig. Pennsylvania Furnace." Moderately fine granular; whitish. Yields to the file and extends very little under the hammer. Quite brittle. No. i8O3-rzNo. I Found y Iron. Pennsylvania Furnace.' Coarser grained and darker than the preceding. Yields to the file; extends a little under the hammer. 256 76 CHEMICAL REPORT. 77 No. I 8o4_-Mi11 Iron. Pennsylvania Furnace." Finer grained, darker, and more dull than the preceding. Extends considerably under the hammer. No. i805-"No. 2 Foundry Iron. Pennsylvania Furnace." Moderately fine-grained. Yields to the file; extends but little under the hammer. No. i8o6-"1No. 2 Cold-blast Iron; made from blue ore alone. Laurel Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." A dark-grey, fine-grained iron. Extends somewhat under the hammer, but is brittle. No. i8O7-"Mill Iron. Hot-blast. Third casting with stone- coal. Raccoon Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore." A fine granular iron. Yields to the file, and extends some- what under the hammer. COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY PIG IRONS. No. i8oi No. 18O2 No. i803 No. i804 No. 1805 No. 18o6 No. 1807 Specificgravity.... . . . . .. . .. ....... ..... .. . . Iron... . .. .. . 92.28490. 63092. o6094.764 Graphite.. .. .. 2. 960 2.500 2. 7002.900 Combined carbon... .69o .830 .630 .7SO Silicon... .. .. . 3.011 4.969 3.104 1.193 Slag.. .. .. .. .8o .36 30 .2oo0 Phosphorus.. 474 .741 .710 .860 Sulphu.. not est . .000 ;3 .033 Undetermined and loss....... . .463 Total.... .. .. 100.299 [Co.-00 100.000 100.730 92. 856 3.230 2 .545 .817 .046 .1 46 100.000 92.697 91.596 2.100 2.900 1.000 .250 1.813 3.477 not est. .800 .454 .247 .218 .237 1.7.8 .493 100.000 100.000 - Total carbon .3. .650 3.330 3.330 3.680 3.230 3. 100 3.150 While the total quantity of carbon in these pig irons does not vary much, there is a considerable difference in the pro- portions of silicon and phosphorus, both of which tend to make the iron brittle in the cold. The condition of the car- bon, whether it be in the state of graphite or in combination 257 I I I CHEMICAL REPORT. with the iron, makes a great difference in the quality of the metal, as is well known. The cold-blast iron, No. i8o6, made mostly from the "blue ore" (clay iron-stone), seems to contain nearly as much sul- phur as the hot-blast iron, No. I807, made with stone coal. The label does not state what was the character of the fuel used to smelt the former. No. I 8o8-" IRON FURNACE SLAG, from Raccoon Furnare, Green- ufi county. 'Mine-fall cinder, with which little iron is made, but much slag. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Of a dark bottle-green color; nearly black in the mass;. transparent in the thin edges. Quite fusible, without intu- mescence, before the blow-pipe. SPECIFIC GRAVITY - 2.868. COMPOSITION. Silica........ .. . 47.960 Containing of oxygen... .. 902 Alumina... .. . .. .. 18.841. .. . .. .. .. . 8.807 Lime... .. .. .. . . 20.462. .. .. .. .. . 5.819. Magnesia.. .. . . .. I 354. -. .. .. .. .451 Iron protoxide...... . 8.489 = 6.o62 iron.1.... z.887 Manganese protoxide . . not est. Phosphoric acid . .... . .127 .055 phosphorus. Sulphuric acid.... ... 192 .077 sulphur. Potash.... . .. .. .. 2.045. .. . .. .. .. . .347 . Soda.. . .. .. .. . . .405. . .. .. .. . .. ..104. Loss............ .125.......... . 17.415 24.902 Total... .. .. . . 00 . 0oo The proportion of oxygen in the bases to that in the silica is as I: 1.423 in this slag, and as the proportions in a good slag are about as I: 2, it is evident that too little lime has been used in the flux, and that consequently a large proportion of iron oxide has formed glass with the excess of silicious matter, causing a serious loss. This cinder contains quite a consid- erable proportion of alumina, which seems to have carried with it more than the usual quantity of phosphoric acid into the cinder. The fact that the iron furnace slag may contain this injurious ingredient, and that probably alumina, lime in sufficient quantity being present, might be more instrumental 258 78 CHEMICAL REPORT. than any other material in the flux in removing it from the ore in the smelting furnace, contrary to the prevalent belief, was pointed out by the writer in volume 4th of the first series of Kentucky Geological Reports, page 44. SOILS OF GREENUP COUNTY. No. I 8g9-" Virgin Soil. Woods. Sample taken to six inches below the surface. Top of a hill (ridge), eight feet above bed of coal. White Oak Creek, near Kenton Furnace. Collected byJ. A. Monroe." Dried soil of a brownish-grey color, mostly in friable lumps. Contains some fragments of ferruginous sandstone, and no quartz sand. No. I 8 IO-IISubsoil to the preceding, taken eig-hteen inches below the surface. By J. A. Monroe." Dried soil somewhat lighter colored than the preceding. Contains more ferruginous sandstone fragments, and some small hollow nodules of limonite ore. The bolting-cloth sep- arated from the silicious residue a few minute quartzose parti- cles. No. i811 -I"Surface Soil to the depth of six inches, from a corn- field which has been in cultivation ten years. Valley of White Oak Creek. About ten feet above the bed of the creek. Col- lected by J. A. Monroe." Soil of a light umber-grey color. mostly in friable lumps. The silicious residue contained a few small rounded grains of hyaline quartz. No. I812 -'Subsoil to the preceding, taken at eighteen inches below the surface. J. A. Monroe." Subsoil of a light umber-grey color, slightly darker than the preceding. Contains fragments of brownish ferruginous sandstone. 259 79 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 2120 P. No. iogNo. 18i1 No. iSisNo. 1812 Organic and voiatile matters....... . .. 5 590 5.600 4.375 3.790 Alumina and iron and manganese oxides,,. 12.357 15.693 7.060 6.656 Lime carbonate...... ....0.... .. . . 045 .070 .270 .745 Magnesia. .... . ..... .. .366 375 .083 .o67 Phosphoric acid............ . ...... o83 .147 .115 .109 Sulphuric acid ....003 . ..... . . . .... a trace. .027 .033 Potash.. ..... .. . . ..... . .. . .. 433 .474 .o98 .193 Soda.. . ..... . .. . ..0. .. . .. . . .23 .305 .068 .163 Soluble silica. ...... . .. . .. . .. . . .130 0.95 .o8o 135 Sand and insoluble silicates. .......... . 79 500 76.o60 86.89o 87.665 Water, expelled at 3880 F... ..... . .. . . 1.250 .950 1.100 .910 Loss.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .220 .231 Total. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ioo.ooo ioo.ooooo. 166100.466 Hygroscopic moisture ...... . .. .. . .. 1. 2.235 1.150 1.000 Potash in the insoluble silicates........ . 2.301 2.829 1.220 0.817 Soda in the insoluble silicates.... .. . .. . . .509 .368 .520 .380 gVri Susi Cutia Character of the soil........... . woodla.d Subsoil. Cultiva- Subsoil. As is frequently character of these c the case, there is oal-measure soils; great variety in the those from the hill- top being quite rich, while the others from the valley are much less fertile: anomalous differences, evidently attributa- ble to the original sources whence the soils were derived, or to the action of drainage waters. or other causes not known to us. HANCOCK COUNTY. COALS. No. 18I3-" Cannel Coal. Cloverport Oil Company's mines, about eight mi/es south of Cloverport. Entry No. I2, at main breast. Base of the coal measures. Average sample by C J. Norwood. Average thickness of the coal two and a ha/ feet. It varies from twenty-two to thirty-six inches." A dull-looking, very tough cannel coal. Has no marked appearance of pyrites. 260 so CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I814-" Coal, from Hancock Coal Company's mines, below Hawesville. (Owned by the American Cannel Coal Com- pany.) Collected by P. N. Moore." Quite a pure-looking, firm, pitch-black coal. Has some lit- tle bright pyritous scales and fine granular pyrites between. the laminae. No. ISI 5- Coal, from Milton Lawson's bank. Lead Creek, three miles from Hawesville. Average sample by P. N. Moore." A splint coal, splitting into thin laming, with considerable fibrous coal and some granular pyrites between. Some exter- nal ferruginous stain. Has the appearance of having been weathered. No. I 8 I6-" Coal, from Robt. Estes' bank. Back of Lewisport. Sample by P. N. Moore. " A pitch-black, rather firm coal, not all breaking into thin laminae. Has much fibrous coal and granular and lamellar pyrites. No. i817-"Coal, from James Mason's bank, between Hawes- ville and Lewisport. Sample by P. N. Moore." Generally pitch-black and glossy-partly dull-on the cross fracture. Not generally breaking into thin lamina. Has not much fibrous coal, but considerable appearance of granular pyrites, and some external ferruginous incrustation. No. I 8 I 8-" Coal, from Colbert's bank, near Lewisport. Sample by P. N. Moore." A firm, pitch-black, glossy coal. Not much fibrous coal, but considerable shining pyritous scales and granular pyrites. Does not all split into thin laming. No. I8I9- iCoal, from Bergenroth's bank, near old Reverdy mines. Sample by P. N. Moore." A firm coal, not all breaking into thin laminae. Has consid- erable fibrous coal between the lamina, and some granular pyrites and external ferruginous stain. 8x CHEMICAL REPORT. No. i820-"Coal, from Jolin C. Schafer's bank. Blackford Creek. Sample by P. N. Moore." A pitch-black, firm, glossy coal. Considerable fibrous coal between some of the laminae, and a few thin shining pyritous scales in the seams. No. I82I-" Coal, from the Breidenback bank. Lead Creek. Sample baa P. N. Moore." Generally glossy pitch-black, with some dull, thin lamina, having fibrous coal between, and visible pyritous scales and granular pyrites. No. I822 2 Coal, from the Davidson bank, near Hawesvile. Sample by P. N. Moore." Appears to be a weathered specimen, having considerable ferruginous stain. Otherwise resembling the preceding. No. I823 " Coal, from R. S. Lanum's bank, near Hawesvile. Sample by P. N. Moore." Resembles No. I821. 262 82 CHEMICAL REPORT. 83 n 8 8 8 - 8 c O- _. 81oR.0. 0_ Ci2 oa 8:O a t B 8 e 8 v.-cn r no-sogso 8. tmsol8o: 81 ' OOOg _ S28 - u 8 c _ 1-n Z Z 0 11 T3881- '8"181;l- 1 eo 0. a .0 Q I jT :z;_t11- t 1 0 u fl' - '08 11o1i - + I N 11 "en93 8 18 1 "8 18 ' o o _ _ _ _ __ U1 1i -s 1 3 1 1 O &2 8 1- o1 8n -" o 0 \ I Z _I _ o I jgInI j 0 2 ____ _____I ___ - I- 08 263 CHEMICAL REPORTf. Coal No. i813, from the Cloverport Oil Company's mines, is remarkable for the large proportion of volatile combustible matters it yields. HARLAN COUNTY. COALS. No. 1824- "Cannel Coal or Bituminous Shale, from Long- Branch of Martin's Fork. Average sample of the weath- ered outcrop by P. N. Moore. Bed thirty-eightf inches thick." A dull-black, tough cannel coal. Fracture large conchoid- al, somewhat in layers. Some ferruginous and earthy incrus- tation. No. 1825- Coal, from J. C. Howard's bank. Clover Fork of Cumberland river, one mile above Mount Pleasant. Sample by- P. N. Moore from near the limited outcrop. Bed four and a half feet thick." A bright, pitch-black coal (semi-bituminous), having very little fibrous coal, and no visible pyrites. No. I 826-" Coal, from Martin's Fork, Skidmore Creek. Taken from near the outcrop, by A. R. Crandall. Bed forty-two, inches thick." A much weathered sample, containing much powdered coal. 264 84 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE HARLAN COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1824. No. 1825. No. 1826. Specific gravity............... ..510 1.289 1.356. Hygroscopic moisture.1.40 1.70 5.20. Volatile combustible matters.34.60 35 70 31.26- Coke.. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . . 64.00 62.6o 63. 54 Total.... . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. o.oo0 oo.oo 0oo.oo. Total volatile matters.36.0o 37 40 36.46 Fixed carbon in the coke..... . .. .. . .. . 39.40 59.60 6o.o8 Ash. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. 24.60 3.00 3.46 Total.. . ...... . .. .. . .. .. . .. o0.00100.00 I 0.s loo. Character of the coke....... .. .. . .. . Dense. Very light Pulveru-. spongy. lent. Color of the ash.......... Chocolate. Light buff. Light buff.. Per centage of sulphur......... .. . .. . 1.271 0.750 o.6i& No. i824 contains a very large proportion of earthy matter, and might probably be considered bituminous shale. This, however, does not prevent it from yielding even more volatile combustible matters than i826, and nearly as much as 1825. Its specific gravity is correspondingly high. The other coals yield less than the average quantity of ash, and give a large proportion of coke, and are superior coals, especially for the manufacture of iron, &c. HENRY COUNTY. No. i827-" METALLIC LEAD, from tlze Szlver and Spar Mines, three miles below Lockport, in the Lower Silurian. Collected by C J. Noi-wood." Brought to the laboratory to be examined for silver. On a careful analysis, by the wet way, no evidence of the pres- ence of that metal was found, although more than fourteen grammes were examined. VOL. I.-CHEM. 18. 265 8s CHEMICAL REPORT. No. i 828-"LIMESTONE, Lower Silurian, from the same locality as the above. Collected by C. J. Norwood." A fossiliferous, coarse granular limestone, of grey and buff colors, containing more or less calc. spar, and having small irregular cavities lined with ochreous iron oxide. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Lime carbonate..... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 95 770 Magnesia carbonate............ .. .. ... . .. .. .. . 1.378 Alumina and iron and manganese oxides, and phosphoric acid . . ... ..... 1.o6o Sulphuric acid, alkalies, &c ..n............... . . ...... deter'ed Insoluble silicates........... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .980 Total.... .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 99.188 A good limestone, containing 53.631 per cent. of lime. HOPKINS COUNTY. COALS. No. I 829-" Coal D, from Diamond coal mine, about three quarters of a mile south of Earlington. (St. L. e S. E. R. R.) Average sample from along the entry, by C J. Nor- wood." A splint coal. Outer surfaces of most of the lumps some- what soiled with dirt. No. I 830-" Coal D, from Saint Bernard coal mines, near Earl- ington. Upper drifl. Bed tiree to four and a half feel thick. Average sample by C. J. Norwood." A deep black, glossy splint coal, with but little fibrous coal between the lamine, and no appearance of pyrites. Some thin plates of gypsum in the seams. No. i83 I-Coal B, from Fleming coal mine, one mile below Earlington. Bottom part two feet thick. Sample by C. J. Norwood." A pitch-black, glossy coal. Some fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between some of the lamina, and bright py- ritous and lime sulphate scales in some of the seams. m66 86 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I832-" Coal B; same locality as the preceding. Tfop por- tion; fourfeet thick. Collected by C. J. Norwood." Resembles the preceding. No. I833- Coal B, from Hecla coal mines. St. L. & S. E. R. R., near Earlinglon. Average sample by C. J. Norwood." A pitch-black, glossy coal. But little fibrous coal between the lamina. The sample has some thin scales of gypsum in some of the seams, and has some fragments in it of a thin pyritous shaly parting. No. I834-" Coal B. Hecla mines, near Earlinglon. Average sample from the lower bench; about two feet four inches thick. By C. J. Norwood." Resembles the preceding. No. I835-" Coal B. St. Bernard coal mines, near Earlingtm Lower drift. Average sample from the upper member; four feet th ick. By C. J. Norwood." (See also I830.) Resembles No. I830. Has some scaly incrustations of lime sulphate. No. x 836" Coal D,from Hecla coal mines. Earlinglon. Care- fully sampled by C. J. Norwood. A pitch-black coal. Very little fibrous coal. Some scales of lime sulphate, stained with iron oxide, in the seams, with some little shining pyrites. 267 87 CHEMICAL REPORT. O CZ I " o o M`. o -, M 8 888 0.0 o _ o 8 I CL Ii N A a. N IvN j8. A. i' z X X18 -Xto118 , =s -l 0 :Nc 0 6 6eI _ _ _ _ _ K,,o 8I_,o ,1 , 11l- O 1_lY08 bUt- 8 In n O en_ I ..;.10 _ _ z _ ___ ___e _- _ _ I IIoolo0 0I 40 H . C 6 0 In I S1.. 44ela, 8Q,0 -8 U'4 z - o - 1 1 - T II0 z __ ___n-o I ___ CY,___ I2 a. w 42 U, . . .U . . 1.2 Z2. c0 C .0 .2 9 In. ' .0 _ to .-, -o o ub C2 . 0 414 - . r. 0 . g.0 wC t; et -'a C Ca o '! .0 HLO- 0 I.4 4, 0 m .5 .01 4' ID I.- 0 u :0 I.- S0 a S. 88 a r) z 0 en 0 U, '4' z '4 U2 0 0 U w :Z) 0 2 gn 268 i .1 I' 9. 41 I ., CHEMICAL REPORT. All of them good coals, although some few of them exceed the average per centage in ash and sulphur. HOPKINS COUNTY SOILS. No. I837-" Virgin Soil, from woods, at Harrison Station, L. & S. E. R. R., about thirty mi/es from Henderson. Forest growth: white and red oaks, hickories, &c. GeoloZicalform- ation above the sandstone. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil of an umber-grey color; contains a very little ferruginous gravel. The silicious residue all passed through the bolting-cloth. No. I 838--Surface soil, from a field twenty years in cultiva- tion in corn and tobacco; adjoining the locality of the preced- ing soil," &c., &c. Color of the soil like that of the preceding. It contains no gravel nor fine silicious sand. No. I839- 'Subsoil of the next preceding," &c., &c. Dried subsoil of a brownish-buff color; contains no gravel nor fine silicious sand. No. I 840" Virg-in Soil, from woods. Farm of J. D. Morton. Morton's Gap. St. L. &8 S. E. R. R. Forest growth : dog- wood, sweet gum, white oak, cc., &c. Substratum sandstone. Collected by C. W. Beckham." No. 184-I ' Surface Soil, from an old field fifty years in cul- tivation; next adjoining the preceding locality. Field said to have been once exhausted and overgrown with sassafras, black jack, elm, &c. Has been cleared again, and is now in tobacco. It has been most of the time in red-top meadow. Collected by C. W. Beckliam." Contains no gravel or fine silicious sand. No. I 842-"Szbsoil of the next preceding," &c., &c. Contains no gravel or sand. 269 89 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I843-" Virgin Soil, from the farm of John Wilson, mear Nortonsville. St. L. & S. E. R. R. Underlying rock sand- stone. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Contains no gravel, but the bolting-cloth separated from the silicious residue a considerable quantity of clear quartz grains, rounded and angular. No. I 844- 'Surface soil, from an old field fifty years in cutiva- tion; now overgrown with blackberry, sumach, 6c., &c. Same locality as preceding," &c., &c. Contains no gravel, but a considerable proportion of fine clear quartz grains, rounded and angular. No. x845-"Subsoil of tke next preceding," ac., cc. Like the preceding, contains fine quartz grains. 270 90 CHEMICAL REPORT. 91 __ _ _ _ a _ _ __ _ _ o 00 i 0 deo 8 N _. XA e oO It. NtfC aNO In f4 CC z oo U8.. ; I Ez 00 tq 6nu T : _. eN N g e O ,v-II 0-_ n _...... .N X z-.wo oo 8_I___ ___ Z 0 :0-o"18o _e 4 8 0 -no 0 I n .i 10U Z4 4: ______Ig ___n 9 z 'gII NNo SIf = c__o __o. __ I Z a1 I II,"oQ+--1" 1-02 u I ee-4 811 --DU) - 0C- 7,'I 0S 2m:( 0t ,z2Io .t rn1_ 1ow eq (.)8- oc0 z __ N. . . . 0. - E.0 , I I U . :::31 271 CHEMICAL REPORT. These soils do not appear to have been derived from the sandstone which underlies them, being richer than might be expected from such an origin, and containing no great quantity of sand. They have doubtless been formed by the disinte- gration of other superincumbent strata, richer in the fertilizing mineral elements, or been modified by the admixture of light drift material. The exhausting influence of culture is to be seen in each case, as shown by the generally smaller propor- tions of potash, phosphoric acid, organic and volatile matters, &c., and the large quantity of sand and insoluble silicates in the old field soil, as compared with the virgin soil of the next adjoining field. These soils are not generally deficient in potash, except soil No. 1838, but their proportion of phosphoric acid is generally small, so that there is every reason to believe they would be much improved in productiveness by the use of phosphatic fertilizers, such as bone dust, superphosphate, or guano. As the tobacco culture is especially exhaustive of- potash and lime, wood ashes, or some other fertilizer containing potash, might be advantageously used, together with the judicious application of lime. Both of these are best used with a clo- ver crop, which should be plowed in after a growth of one or two years. By such a process the old exhausted fields might be greatly improved. JACKSON COUNTY. COALS. No. I 846-" Cannel Coal. from Tom Coyle's bank. seventeen miles southeast of Richmond. Represented to be twenty-one inches cannel and twenty-one inches bituminous coal. Bed about one hundred feet above the conglomerate. Sample from the weath- ered outcrop. By Wm. A. Gunn, Esq., Civil Engineer." A rather dull-looking cannel coal. Splitting, with difficulty, into layers, with not enough fibrous coal to soil the fingers, and no apparent pyrites. 272 92 CHEMICAL REPORT 93 No. i847-" Cannel Coal, from T. J. Ballard's bank. Branch of Horse Lick, twenty-six miles from Richmond. A sub-con- glomerate coal. Specimen from the outcropf. By Wm. A. Gunn, Esq.," &c. Resembles the preceding. Has a bird-eye structure in parts. COMPOSITION OF THESE JACKSON COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. NO- 1846. No. 1847. Specific gravity.1........... .. .... ... . I 338 1.321 Hygroscopic moisture........ .. .. . .. .. . . . 2.00 2.00 Volatile combustible matters........ .. . .. .. . . 41.00 43.66 Coke.. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . 57.00 54-34 Total... . . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. 100.00 oo. Total volatile matters . . . . . . . . ..........................43. 00 45.66 Fixed carbon in the coke..... . .. .. .. . .. .. . . 43.10 45.58 Ash. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . . 13.90 8.76 Total.. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke................... . Spongy. Dense. Color of the ash..................................... Very lightGrey- .buff-grey. lavender. -Per centage of sulphur............. . 1.049.. 3-384 Although No. 1846 contains more than the average pro- portion of earthy matters, it is yet quite valuable for fuel, especially for domestic purposes. No. 1847 is not so liable to this objection, and is a very good cannel coal. JESSAMINE COUNTY. MINERAL WATER. No. I 848-' Salt Sulphur Water, from a bored well, ninety feet deep, at Nicholasville. Brouhth by Mr. R. A. Dowuning." The water was obtained at eighty feet, and stands in the well at sixty feet from the surface. Lower Silurian formation. 273 CHEMICAL REPORT. Specific grazrty of the water = I .023. The water when brought to the laboratory smelt slightly of sulphuretted hydrogen, and was quite cloudy from the pres- ence of free sulphur, derived from the decomposition of that gas. It also contained free carbonic acid gas. The per centage of saline matters contained in it is 2.828, dried at 2120 F. They consist of lime and magnesia sul- phates, and a considerable proportion of sodium chloride, with some lime, magnesia, and iron carbonates, marked traces of lithia, iodine, and bromine, and doubtless of salts of potash and soda. A quantitative analysis was not made at this time, but the water resembles the salt sulphur waters generally obtained by boring into the Lower Silurian limestone formation, of which several analyses are given in previous volumes, and all of which are more or less like the celebrated waters of the Blue Lick Springs. JOHNSON COUNTY. COALS. No. I849 " Cannel Coal, twenty-seven inches thick. Lick- Branch, half a mile above the mouth of White House Creek. Ten miles above Peach Orchard. Collected by A. R. Cran- dall." Contains some bright pyrites, and is somewhat incrusted with ferruginous material. Is generally a tough cannel coal. No. i856o-" Rice's Coal. Head of Jenny's Creek. Thirty inches thick. Average sample by A. R. Crandall." A pure-looking, glossy-black coal, with but very little fibrous coal or pyrites. Somewhat hard and not breaking into so thhi lamina as the usual splint coals. Ferruginous stains on some of the seams. No. i851-- Coal, from Wheeler's bank, near Paintsville. Bed four feet six inches thick, without parting. Average sample by A. R. Crandall." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Rather firm. Has but little fibrous coal. Some few bright pyritous scales apparent. 274 94 CHEMICAL REPORT. 95 COMPOSiTION OF THESE JOHNSON COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. i849 No. 1850. No. 1851. Specific gravity.1.291 1.294 1.281 Hygroscopic moisture... . . . . . . . . 2.00 3.0 2.66 Volatile combustible matters... . . . . . . 38.20 36o Coke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59.80 58.30 59.30 Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. 1o0.00 oo.oo Total volatile matters... . . . . 40.20 41:70 40.70 Fixed carbon in the coke... . . . . . . . 51.00 53.SO 56.30 Ash.8.80 4.80 3-00 Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .o. oo 1.0 io0.o0 Character of the coke... . . . . . . . . Dense. Light Spongy. Spongy. Lgt Light FWik Color of the ash.. . ligrey.ownishBrownish lilac-gry. grey- grey. Percentage of sulphur... . . .. . . . . o.956 1.735 1.291 Remarkably good coals, containing less than the usual pro- portions of sulphur and earthy matters. Being also quite firm, they might very probably be employed, without coking, in the smelting of iron in the high furnace. KNOX COUNTY. No. I852- FERRUGINOUS LIESTONE. Labeled '"Rok from Poplar Creek; farm of W. H. Hutching. Speciwen oxtailed from Col. John G. Eve by Prof; N. S. Skaler; together with a specimex of metal smne/ted from it." A compact, fine granular. grey rock; weathered yellowish- brown on the exterior. Fracture flat conchoidal. Some very small bright crystals of pyrites on the seams. 275 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Iron carbonate ................ 13.532 _ 6.532 per cent. of hon. Alumina.. .............. 2.699 Manganese carbonate ........ . . ... not det'd. Lime carbonate...... .. .. .. .. .. 42.26o Magnesia carbonate ............. . 3.072 Phosphoric acid .0.8.9........... .o-g Sulphuric acid .n............... not det'd. Silicious residue..... .. .. . .. .. . 31.860 Undetermined and loss.... .. .. .. . . 6.488 100. 00 This ferruginous limestone is too poor for use in smelting, except in mixture with richer pres, to answer as flux. Possi- bly it might make a hydraulic cement if properly calcined. The bright white metal which accompanied this limestone, said to have been smelted from it, and supposed to contain silver, is simply white pig metal, containing more than ninety- two per cent. of iron, nearly one per cent. of phosphorus, 0.785 per cent. of silicon, 0.104 per cent. of sulphur and car- bon, &c. It is quite brittle and crystalline, somewhat in ap- pearance like antimony. Its color is more grey than that of silver. KNOX COUNTY SOILS. No. i852 (a) " Virgin Soil, from the farm of A. B. Britton, three mi/es north of Barbourville, at the foot of Paint Hill Knobs. Collected by C. W. Beckham. Rock substratum; sandstone." Dried soil of a light-brownish-grey color; contains some rounded ferruginous concretions. The bolting-cloth removed from the silicious residue a considerable proportion of small irregular particles of partly decomposed silicates, and a few minute scales of mica. No. 185 2 (b)- 'Surface Soil, from a field twentyyears in cul- tivation, front same farm and near the locality of the next pre- cediwng. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil, containing some friable lumps, of a light-grey, clayey soil, mixed with a light mouse-colored powdered soil and some ferruginous sandstone and cherty fragments. The bolting-cloth separated from the silicious residue a consider- 176 96 CHEMICAL REPORT. able portion of particles of partly decomposed silicates (as. above). No. I852 (c)-" Virgin Soil, from the top of Paint Hill Knob, three and a half miles north of Barbourville. Forest growth almost exclusively oak, hickory, and chestnut. (Location of a Signal Station of the U. S. Coast Survey.) Substratum sand- stone. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil of a dark, brownish-grey color; contains small cherty and ferruginous sandy fragments. The bolting-cloth removed from the silicious residue a considerable portion of minute particles of undecomposed silicates, a few reddish rounded quartzose particles and minute scales of mica. No. I 85 2 (d)- I Virgin Soil, from woods, on the farm of Judge Tuggle, one and a third miles south of Barbourville, in the Cumberland River Valley. Princizpal forest growth: oaks, hickories, &c. Substratum sandstone. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil of a light-umber-grey color. Quite a light soil- as light as wood ashes-contains no gravel. The bolting- cloth removed from the silicious residue a considerable pro- portion of small rounded quartzose grains. No. 1852 (e)-"'Surface Soil, from an old field sixty years in czltivation; now in meadow. Same locality as the next pre- ceding," &c., &c. Dried soil of a lighter umber-grey than preceding; resem- bles it in other respects. No. I 85 2 (f )-I 'Subsoil of the next preceding," &c., &c. Dried soil of a lighter grey-buff color; contains no gravel, &c. (as above). 277 97 98 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE KNOX COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F. No. 852 a No. 1852 a No. z85ac No. 1852d No. .832e. No. 1852/. Ovpnic and volilen matte....... .. 3.453 4. 374 5.658 2. 800 2.765 t. 750 Alumina and iron and manganese oiides... 5.456 8.781 7.825 2.835 1.904 3-644 Lime carbonate.......... .... .. . I.. .120 . .045 .130 .045 ]lagnesia..1.....58 .018 8 ot6 .29 .o05 Phosphoric acid......... 4 ..as .O5 .u6 .o31 Sulphuric acid................ not cit. not est.not est.not est.not es.not est. Potash........... ... .... .. .1'25 .261 .467 .112 .094 .130 Soda........ ' .576not est.not est..02s not est.not est. Sand and insolublesilicates.89.15 85. 16584.765 93 79094. 53 93.215 Water expclled at 38oO F.......... .. .i74 .621 .909 .525 .535l 675 Loss..0.9................ . . -97 _ 416.. ..... ..... ..... ... Total... - .loo...o .... Ioo.o o 100.005 .2 100.199100.048200.515 Hygroscopic moisture........... ..o815 o9. 1.025 0.950 0.435 -0435 Potash in the insoluble silicates.1...... 1.648 x. 2.320 0.399 .409 .718 Soda in the insoluble silicates..i30 ..4 .546 .35 .150 .119 Character of the soil ......................... .........VwinCultiva.-Vign irginOld fiddSuboil . Soils -a, b, ana c contrast favorably with soils d, e, and f; containing less sand and insoluble silicates and more potash, phosphoric acid, organic and volatile matters, &c. A marked difference may also be observed in the proportion of alkalies contained in the insoluble silicates. The first three named soils, indeed, are peculiar in containing more silicates of the felspathic and micaceous character than common, indicating a different origin from the latter named soils, and containing a large proportion of the alkalies. The soils d, e, and f may be called quite poor, naturally; but they can be made produc- tive by proper management and the use of fertilizers, if they are sufficiently drained. LAUREL COUNTY. SOILS. No. I853-" Virgin Soil, from a farm near Jackson's Steam Mill, nine miles south of London. Forest growth principally oaks and hickories. Geologicalformation, carboniferous sand- stone. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil, of a brownish umber-grey color; contains some irregular fragments of ferruginous sandstone. The bolting- cloth separated from its insoluble silicious residue quite a large proportion of small rounded white quartz grains. 278 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I 854-"Surface Soil, from an old field. Same locality as the preceding, " &'c. Dried soil of a lighter and more yellowish color than the preceding; contains less of fragments of ferruginous sand- stone, but fully as much of fine rounded white quartz grains. No. I855-"Subsoilof the preceding," &c. Of a still lighter and more yellowish color (brownish-grey); contains no gravel, but a large proportion of minute white quartz grains. No. 1856-"D Virgin Soil, from woods. Farm of Jefferson Can- nifax, half a mile south of London. Forest growth almost exclusively oaks, a few maples, hickories, &c. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil of a brownish umber-grey color; containing clods of somewhat lighter color. Contains fragments of fer- ruginous sandstone or concretions in considerable quantity. Silicious residue contains some rounded white quartz grains. No. I857 Surface Soil, from an old field sixty-five years in cultivation; uninclosed. Said to be worn out. Adjoining the woods from whence the preceding sample was taken. Substra- tum, carboniferous sandstone. Collected by C W. Becklham." Soil lighter colored than the preceding; contains fragments of ferruginous concretions or sandstone. Silicious residue contained some rounded white quartz grains. No. I858-'Subsoil of the next preceding," &c. Dried subsoil of a brownish-buff color; contains some fer- ruginous sandy concretions; less than in the two preceding. The insoluble seicious residue contained but a few quartzose grains. 279 99 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE LAUREL COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F. No. 1853 No. 1854 No. 1855 No. 1856 No. 1857 No. i85& Organic and volatile matters. . 6.iio 3.625 2.450 5.990 3-475 3.740. Alumina and iron and mang. ox's 5.298 4.882 5-719 7 339 7.36i 9.385 Lime carbonate . ..... .. . X130 145 .070 .120 .110 Magnesia.. . .. . .. . . . .011 .025 .oi6 .124 .053 .075 Phosphoric acid..077....7 . .077 .083 .071 .o96 .099 .100. Potash. . . . .. . . . .229 .312 .110 .217 .074 .447 Soda. . .. .. . .. . . .149 .268 .228 . .. . . . .. . Sand and insoluble silicates . . . 87.330 90.230 90.780 84.415 87.740 85.365 Water, expelled at 380 F.... x. io .725 .400 .075 .675 .725 Loss. . .. . . .. . . .. . . o8i .674 .403 .053 Total. ...... . . .. . 100-414 100.280 loo.OOO 100.000 100.000100.000. Hygroscopic moisture.... . . o.865 0 550 0 575 1.535 o.800 1.425 Potash in the insoluble silicates. .843 .66i .892 .939 .862 .975 Soda in the insoluble silicates.. .171 .211 .214 .400 .623 .575. Character of the soil . . . . Virgin Old field Subsoil. Virgin Old field Subsoil. soil. soil. soil soil. i These soils are pretty uniform in character, and, but for a paucity of phosphoric acid, which may be seen in them all, would be classed as of good average quality. LAWRENCE COUNTY. BLACK BAND IRON ORES. No. i858-"1Black Band Ore, from near Louisa; sent by Col. John Rice. Bed said to be thirty-one inches thick, of which twelve to sixteen inches are black-band, the rest bituminous shale." A dull greyish-black, fine granular ore; some little bright- yellow pyrites apparent. No. 1 858 (a)- "Black Band Ore, from same locality as preceding. (Gavat farm, on the west fork of Big Sandy river. A four to six feet bed of coal just below it.) Brought by Mr. John R. Procter. " No. 1858 (b)-"Average sample of the Black Band Iron Ore, on Louisa Fork of Big Sandy river, six miles south of Louisa. Collected by A. R. Crandall." 280 IOO0 CHEMICAL REPORT. Thickness of the layer about two feet, of which only about eight to twelve inches are of Black Band Ore. Latterly it has been reported as sixteen inches, at the bottom of the black shale which constitutes most of the bed. These several samples were examined as to their propor- tions of iron, phosphorus, sulphur, &c., with the following re- sults: No. 1858. No. 1858 a. No. 1858b. Specific gravity..... . .. .. .. .. .. . . 3.151not det'd. not det'd. Iron... .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 33. 264 33 -923 25.746 Phosphorus............... not det'd. not det'd.55 Sulphur. .483 nut det'd. .354 Lime ............... . not det'd. not det'd..924 Magnesia.... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. not det'd. not det'd..150 Bituminous matters............... not det'd. not det'd.13.700 Silica . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . 7.460not det'd. 6. 36o Alumina..... not det'd. not det'd.17.g2o The iron is mostly in the form of carbonate in the ore. as are also the lime and magnesia, and the phosphorus and sul- phur in that of phosphoric and sulphuric acids. The propor- tions of these two latter ingredients are somewhat large, but yet not so great as to prevent this ore from being made prof- itably available for foundry iron, &c.. if it is to be obtained in sufficient abundance and as rich in iron as the samples 1858 and 1858 (a). LAWVRENCE COUNTY COALS. No. I859- 'Peach Orcihard Coal. (Coal No. 3.) Miller's Branch opening. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A pitch-black coal, breaking in thin lamina, with some fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between. Some exter- nal ferruginous stain. No. I86o-"-Peach Orchard Coal. (Coal No. 3.) Same local- ity. Sampme somewhat weathered. Collectd by A. R. Cran- dall." VOL. I.-CHEM. 19. a81 1011 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. i86i-" Cannel Coal. Little Laurel Creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Shows very little pyrites. COMPOSITION OF THESE LAWRENCE COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1859. No. i86o. No. 186i. Specific gravity. ..... ...... ...... 1-317 not est. 1.245 Hygroscopic moisture..... .. .. . .. .. . 3.26 3. 24 1.84 Volatile combustible matters..... .. .. . 34.22 36. 56 48.16 Coke. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .50.00..... 6 2 .52 6 0. soox Total.... .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. ioo.oo oo.o oo100.oo Total volatile matters.37-48 39.80 50.0o Fixed carbon in the coke.55-36 54.96 44.74 .Ash... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . 7. 16 5.24 5.26 Total.... .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. 100.00 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke.Dense. Dense. Dense. Light Lih Color of the ash..... .. . .. .. .. .. . . bgrey. lilac-grey.Buff. Per centage of sulphur. ......0.. ..1. .. . .189 1.076 The Peach Orchard coal has brought into market, and many proportion of ash than is given a high reputation where it is samples show a much smaller above. An analysis reported by the late Dr. Owen (volume I, old series, Kentucky Geolog- ical Reports, page 69) gives only the small ash per centage of 2.85. The proportion of sulphur is also quite small. This coal is a semi-cannel or splint coal, and might very probably be employed with advantage in the smelting of iron, without coking. It is an admirable fuel for domestic purposes. LAWRENCE COUNTY LIMONITE IRON ORES. No. I 862-"Limestone Ore; portions of three samples,from dif- ferent localities, mixed. On upper Blaine Creek. Collected by A4 R. Crandall." 282 102 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I863"Red Kidney Ore, from near the mouth of Cherokee Creek, about ffty feet above the limestone ore. Collected by A. R. Crandall." COMPOSITION OF THESE LIMONITE ORES, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1862. No. 1863. Iron peroxide......... . ............. . 67.515 55.693 Alumina .1.280 1.151 Manganese oide .not est. not est. Lime carbonate.a trace. a trace. Magnesia .a trace. a trace. Phosphoric acid. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 135 .284 Sulphuric acid ..423 .302 Combined water.10.150 10.510 Silicious residue.20.480 31.280 Loss. .. . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. .017 .780 Total... . .. . .... .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 100.000 100.000 'er centage of iron.47.250 39.105 Per centage of phosphorus..... . . .. . .. . .. . .. 059 .124 Per centage of sulphur..... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 175 .111 Per centage of silica.16.96o 25.66o These are quite good iron ores, rich enough in iron, and containing less than the usual proportion of phosphorus. No. I864-"'BITUMINOUS SILICIOUS PETRIFACTION. Irish Creek. Probably associated with Coal No. 2. Collected by A. R. Crandall. " Presenting the appearance of fibrous coal which has been infiltrated with silica. COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED. Silica and silicates .80.66 Carbonaceous matter .13.40 Alumina and iron oxide, &c.. 1.80 Lime carbonate ..26 Water and loss .3.88 Total .100.00 LEE COUNTY. COALS. No. 1865" Coal, from Daniel Scott's bank, three quarters of a mile above Proctor. Bed thirty-six inches thick. Sample by A. R. Crandall." 283 103 CHEMICAL REPORT. A pitch-black splint coal, having but little fibrous coat Some fine granular pyrites between the thin laming. No. 1866-" Coal, from the same locality as the last, from another entry. Bed forty-one inches thick. Sample by A. R. Cran- dall." Resembles the preceding. No. I867-"Pryse's Coal. Lower Stufflebean Creek. Three quarters of a mile west of Beattyville. Average sample from two places, two hundred and two hundred and eighty-six yards from the mouth of the entry. By A. R. Crandall. Thick- ness of bed thirty-six to forty inches." A pure-looking, pitch-black, glossy splint coal, with very lit- tle fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between the laminat No. I 868-Ad Coal, from Phillips' bank, on Mirey Branch. Prob- able average thickness of the bed forty inches. Average sam- ple from the stock pile, by A. R. Crandall." Resembles the preceding; contains some small scales of bright pyrites. No. i 869-" Coal, from R. B. Jameson's bank, two miles belozw, Beattyville, on Mike's Branch. Averago-e sample by A. R. Crandall." A splint coal. Has some fibrous coal and granular pyrites. 284 104 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE LEE COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 3865. No. i866. No. 1867. No. 1868. No. i869. Specifc gravity.. 1331 1.334 1.307 1.307 1.330 Hygroscopic moisture.2.30 2.10 4.00 3.10 3.40 Volatile combustible matters. 38.10 38. 10 35 - 50 36.64 32.70 Coke . .. . .. . .. . .. 59.60 59.80 60. 50 60. 26 63.90 Total. .. . .. . .. . . zoo.oo oo.o 100.00 ioo.oo ioo.0o Total volatile matters.... . 40.40 40.20 39. 50 39.74 36. to Fixed carbon in the coke... 51.64 51-54 55 50 56.96 57.60 Ash. ...... . .. . .. 7.96 8.26 5.00 3.30 6.30 Total.. . . .. . .. . . 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke.Light Spongy. Light Dense Spongy spongy. spongy. spongy. Color of the ash ...... . Lilac-grey. Lilac-grey. Light Light Light lilac-grey, buff-grey. lilac-grey. Per centage of sulphur... 2.356 3.991 1.041 1.030 1.368 These coals resemble, in their general properties, those of Lawrence county, reported on above; and although some of these contain a little more sulphur than those, the remarks appended to the latter are equally applicable to these. LEWIS COUNTY. SOILS. No. X 870"Soil, from the Ohio bottom, border of creek; ten feet from its surface, about three and a half miles above Quincy. Collected by A. S. Shaler." Dried soil mostly in friable lumps, of a light brownish-grey color; contains no gravel. Silicious residue contains quartz- ose sand, which will not pass through fine bolting-cloth. No. i87i- 'Subsoil of the preceding; taken one to three feet below the surface." &c., &c. Dried subsoil in friable lumps, somewhat lighter colored than the surface soil; of a light yellowish-grey color. 285 I05 106 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I 872 -" Old Field Soil, cultivatedfor over fifty years; never overflowed. Back of the Ohio bottom, on Scaffold (or "Scuf- fe") Creek, three and a half miles above Quincy, and above- locality of the two preceding. Produces forty bushels of corn- to the acre on an average. Collected by N. S. Shaler." Dried soil of a light-grey color, slightly less yellowish than the next preceding, and slightly darker. COMPOSITION OF THESE LEWIS COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1870. No. 1871. No. 1872. Organic and volatile matters...... . . . . 3.325 2.665 4.425 Alumina and iron and manganese oxides .o... . . . 10.965 8.995 9.545. Lime carbonate.... .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .125 a trace. . 180 Magnesia. .266 .092 .208 Phosphoric acid..... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .125 .125 .203 Sulphuric acid.................. . a trace. .015 .050 Potash... ...... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .501 .387 .462 Soda....... . .. . . .. . .. .. . . . . ii6 .128 .134 Soluble silica................... o95 .o95 .o85 Sand and insoluble silicates..... . . .. . . .. 83.465 86.365 83.100o Water expelled at 38o0 F..3...... . . . .. . 1.025 .685 1.725 Loss ..48. . . . Total... .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. . .. ioo.oo8 1oo.00o 100.119 Hygroscopic moisture... .. . .. . .. . .. . 3.000 2.225 2.335 Potash in the insoluble silicates..... .. . .. . 1.843 1.233 1.138 Soda in the insoluble silicates.3.......... . x.036 .868 954 Character of the soil ............... . Surfacel Subsoil. Old field soil. soil. These soils, evidently composed of fine detritus deposited by the water of the river, contain more than the average quantity of potash in a state of combination soluble in acids, and hence immediately available for plant growth. The pro- portions of organic and volatile matters, of phosphoric acid and lime, as well as of the alkalies in the insoluble silicates, are not more than the average. No. i87I subsoil is especially deficient in lime. Yet they may well be characterized as fer- tile soils, more especially No. 1872. 286 CHEMICAL REPORT. LINCOLN COUNTY. No. I 873- CLAY, from the head waters of Green river, on the land of Mr. Thos. W. Varnon. Bed two to four feet from the surface, and said to be forty-two to forty-five feet thick; resting on black shale, which is fifty feet thick. Salt water is- found by boring at the depth of eighty-four feet, and some little- petroleum in the sandstone. Sent by Senator Varnon." Clay imperfectly laminated, of a dark olive-grey color. Fuses before the blow-pipe. Burns of a grey-buff color. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F. Silica................................. 61. s580 Alumina........................... .. . 23.946 Iron protoxide .5.814 Lime.. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 201 Magnesia. ...... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .850 Potash. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. 1.542 Soda.. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . 36z Water and loss... .......... 5-7 Phosphoric acid... . ........ not det'd. Total... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . loo.oo The considerable proportions of the iron oxide, lime, pot- ash, and soda prevent this clay from being refractory in the fire. But while it is therefore unfit for the manufacture of fire-bricks, it will yet answer well for ordinary pottery, terra cotta work, or tiles. CRAB ORCHARD SALTS (SO-CALLED). The saline matters obtained by the evaporation of the saline waters of Crab Orchard and vicinity, Lincoln county. No. I 874- Crab Orchard Springs Salts; put up by the Crab Orchard Salts Company. Said to be obtained from the waters of various springs mixed. Evaporated at the Springs, and warranted genuine, as sold in sealed bottles by J. B. Wilder & Co., Louisville." A granular salt, colored light-buff with iron peroxide. Dried for about a month, in the water-bath it lost 33.715 per cent. of 28z I07 io8 CHEMI!CAL REP&RT. its weight by the evaporation of water; mainly water of crys- tallization. No. 1875 - Crab Orchard Salts; furnished by Messrs. Arthur Peter & Co., Louisville, from their stock; obtained by Dr. Laney Egbert, druggist, of Crab Orchard. Said also to be derived from various springs." This also is in granular lumps, and presents various shades of buff color, from the presence of iron peroxide. COMPOSITION OF THESE SAMPLES OF CRAB ORCHARD SALTS, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1874. No. 1875. Magnesia sulphate.......... .. . .. .. . .. . . 54.842 60.627 Soda sulphate...... .. .... .. .. . .. .. .. . . 13. 566 8. 260 Potash sulphate...... . 2.707 2.814 Lime sulphate....... . 2.149 1-795 Lithia sulphate........ . .. .. .. . .. .. . . . .038 .028 Sodium chloride......... .. . .. .. .. . .. . . 2.954 1.874 Lime carbonate......... .. .. .. .. . .. . . . 032 .oz8 Magnesia carbonate..... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . . .089 .036 Ironperoxide... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .078 .028 Silica..... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . .124 .118 Water of crystallization and loss ............... . 23.421 24.402 Total.... . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . _ . _ _ . These salts have quite an extensive medicinal use in some localities. The proportions of lithium salt shown in the above analyses is not so great as is generally claimed for these salts. MADISON COUNTY. CLAYS. No. I 8 7 6 (a) Potter's Clay (quality No. I). Upper Silurian. Waco, nine nziles east of Richmond. Collected by A. R. Cran- dall." A light-grey soft clay, with some ochreous stains and infil- tration. No. I876 (b)-"Potter's Clay (quality No. 2). Same locality." &c., &c. Of a bluish-grey color. 288 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE CLAYS, DRIED AT we F. No. 1876 a. No. 1876 5. Silca.. 59.976 56.960 Alumina, iron and manganese oxides, and phosphoric acid . . 21.640 28.740 Lime carbonate ..280 .2o Magnesia.... .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .606 .752 Potash... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 3931 2. so Soda.. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. - 547 .315 Combined water and loss...... .. .. .. .. .. . .. 7.020 10531 Total.................. .o.o.o.o. . . . uoo.oco Neither of these would answer for fire-clay, because of their large proportions of alkalies, lime, magnesia, iron oxide, &c. The iron was not separately determined, and hence the rea- son why the one is better than the other for the use of the potter was not clearly ascertained. Possibly the smaller pro- portion of silica and larger amount of alumina, iron oxide, &c., have something to do with it. These are good clays for ordinary stone-ware, &c. MADISON COUNTY COALS. No. 1877-" Goal, front Cox's coal bank. Top of Big Hill. Bed forty inches thick. A sub-conglomerate coal. Average sample by A. R. Crandall." A deep-black splint coal, splitting into very thin laminae, with much fibrous coal and some little pyrites, some of which is in a small shot form. No. ' 878-" Coal, from M. Moran's mine. Top of Big Hill, on the road. Bed said to be thirty-six to forty-four inches tzick. A sub-contgl-omerate coal Sample (more sdp hurous than usual) brought by Mr. Wm. A. Gunn, Civil Engineer, A pretty pure-looking splint coal, with very little fibrous coal, but considerable fine granular pyrites between the lami- nae. 289 I0( CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE MADISON COUNTY COALS. No. 1877. No. 1878. Specific gravity........... .. 1.281 1.282 Hygroscopic moisture.... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. 2.66 I.90 Volatile combustible matters.33.68 45-76 Coke.. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. 63.66 52.34 Total.... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . 100.00 100.00 Total volatile matters.... .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. 36.34 47.66 Fixed carbon in the coke. 56. 6 44.86 Ash .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. 7.50 7.48 Total.... . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . ioo.ool oo.oo Character of the coke.Dense Dense. spongy. Color of the ash........... . . . Nearly Nearly white. white. Per centage of sulphur.o.824 2.888. These two samples, from the same bed evidently, present remarkable differences; No. 1878 giving off much more vola- tile combustible matters, and leaving less carbon in the coke than the other, approaching more nearly to the character of a cannel coal than that. The relative proportions of sulphur are also very different; all illustrating the great variations in composition which may appear between a selected hand speci- men and an average sample of the whole bed. The coke obtained from No. 1877 is somewhat dense and fine cellular. MAGOFFIN COUNTY. COALS. No. I 878 (a)- Salyersville Coal. Lower part; fourteen inches- thick. Ha/f cannel. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A sample partly cannel and partly bright bituminous or splint coal. No apparent fibrous coal or pyrites. 290 110 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I879- "Salyersville Coal. Upper part; eighteen incihes- thick. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal, with very little fibrous coaL and no apparent pyrites. No. I 88o- ICoal, from Amos Davis' bank, on Licking river. Bed forty-four inches thick, with a five-inch parting. Sampe by A. R. Crandall." A firm, pitch-black splint coal, with some fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between its thin laminae. No. 1 88 I ' Coal, from Stacye coal bank, near the mouth of John- son's Creek. Bedfour feet thick, without parting. Average sample from near bite outcrop. By A. R. Crandall." A somewhat mixed sample. Mostly bright, pitch-black coal, with some little dull, and seemingly cannel coal. No. I 882-" Co/viz's Cannel Coal. Bed three feet thick. Aver- age sample from the main outcrop. By A. R. Crandall." Rather a dull-looking cannel coal. Portions showing aL somewhat fibrous structure; other portions splitting into thin. laminae. Has very little fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites. Surfaces soiled somewhat with dirt. 291 I I I CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE MAGOFFIN COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1878a. No. 1879. No. 1880. No. 1881. No. 1il Specific gravity........ 1. 27S 1.292 1.309 1.270 1.235 Hygroscopic moisture... .. l.80 2-70 4.34 3.70 2.30 Volatile combustible matters.. 45.60 38.04 37-36 36.64 51.90 Coke. . .. . .. .. . .. 52.60 59.26 58.30 59.66 45.80 Total. ...... .. . . 0o.oo100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Total volatile matters..4740 40.74 41.70 40.34 54.20 Fixed carbon in the coke. 43.40 51.62 53.14 54.68 37.56 Ash.. .. . .. . .. .. . 9.20 7.64 5.16 4.98 8.24 Total.. .. .. . .. . . 00.00 100.00 100.00 300.00 l 00.00 Character of the coke. Dense Light Spongy Light Very spongy. spongy. spongy. dense. Color of the ash ...... . Buff-grey. Very light Light pur.. Light Brownish- bro'h-grey. plish-grey. buff-grey. grey. Per centage of sulphur.,.. o.688 1.470 1 357 0.944 1.415 All of these coals are good, and most of them very good, containing but a moderate or small proportion of ash, and less than the usual quantity of sulphur. The cannel coals, al- though leaving more ash than the others, would doubtless produce fully as much heat, in equal weights of the coals, because of their larger proportions of hydrocarbons: it be- ing a well-established fact that hydrogen will give out three times as much heat as carbon, when they are burned in equal weights. MARTIN COUNTY. COALS. No. 1883-" Coal No. I, from Warfield. Mouth of Collins' Creek. Entry near the salt-works. Average sample from upper four and a hal/ feet bed. By A. R. Crandall." A jet-black, pure-looking coal, breaking into thin lamina, with some fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between. 292 I 1X CHEMICAL REPORT. No. i884" Coal. Warfield. Opening in the face of the hilt on Tug Fork, three hundred feet above low water. Sample by A. R. Crandall." Aspect of the coal a little more dull than that of the pre- ceding. No. I 885-" Warfield Splint Coal. Three hundred and one feet above the main Warfield coal. Bed three feet thick, with two thin clay partings. Sample by A. R. Crandall." Has fibrous coal between the lamina, but little appearance of pyrites. Some little ferruginous stain on the seams. No. i886-"lEight Feet Coal. Head of Laurel Fork of Nat's Creek. Sample from an old opening. By A. R. Crandall." Rather a dull-looking coal. Has but little fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites between the lamina. Some little ferrugi- nous stain. No. i887-" Coal No. i. Warfield. Sample from two roomis. By A. R. Crandall." Generally a glossy, pitch-black splint coal. Has very little fibrous coal, generally, between the lamina. Some thin scales of brassy pyrites in some of the seams, and occasional layers of fibrous coal with granular pyrites 293 I 1s CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE MARTIN COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No.1883. No.1884. No.1885. No.1886. No.1887. Specific gravity...... .. 1x351 1358 1.358 1. 367 1.302 Hygroscopic moisture. 2. 16 2.50 2.24 3. 50 2.00 Volatile combustible matters.. 33.60 33-70 33.06 31.94 35-12 Coke. . .. . .. .. . .. 64.24 63.80 64.70 64.56 6z.88 Total.. .. . .. .. . . 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Total volatile matters. ., 35-76 36.220 35.30 35.44 3712 Fixed carbon in the coke.. 55.06 52.62 52.70 52.o6 54.82 Ash. ... . .. . .. ... 9. ISi.8 12.00 12. 50 ..6 Total . . . ...... . . 00o. olo.oo. W 100. 100.00 Character of the coke.... . Lighyt spongy. Dense. Dense. Dense. Color of the ash. ......Brownish- Light Very light Very light Lilac-grey. grey. lilac-grey. lilac-grey. lilac-grey. Per centage of sulphur.... 2 563 0 754 o. 6o4 0. 873 0983 These Martin county coals generally contain rather more than the average amount of earthy matters, but less than the usual quantity of sulphur. Their rather large proportion of ash, however, does not materially detract from their value for use in manufacturing processes, or for fuel. M'LEAN COUNTY. No. X888-"BITUMINOUS SHALE (so-called cannel coal), from near Wrightsburg. Collected by C J. Norwood." A somewhat tough, dull-looking bituminous shale. Some ferruginous stain on the exposed surfaces. No. x889-"COAL, from near Wrightsburg. Average sampAle by C. J. Norwood." A jet-black, splint coal, with very little friable fibrous coal and granular pyrites between some of the thin lamina. 294 11I4 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION, AIRt-DRIED. No. s888. No. 1889. Specific gravity.... . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . not det'd. 1.2l41 Hygroscopic moisture.i.................. . 1.6o 3.30 Volatile combustible matters............ ... . . 36.40 36.oo Coke.. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. 62.00 60 . 70 Total... .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. _ o o oo.oo Total volatile matters................. 38.00 39-30 Carbon in the coke................ ....... 31.36 57.88 Ash .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . 30.64 2.82 Total ..... .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. loo. o 00.00 Character of the coke............... . Friable. Light spongy. Color of the ash..... .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . Brownish Buff-grey Color of the ashlilac-grey. Bf-ry Per centage of sulphur................. ... . -not est. 1.024 The coal No. I889 is remarkably pure and good. The bituminous shale or impure cannel coal might, in many cases, be profitably used as fuel, notwithstanding its large ash per centage. MORGAN COUNTY. COALS. No. i890o-Pierat's Cannel Coal. Collected by A. R. Cran- dall." A tough, somewhat dull-looking coal, breaking with diffi- culty into thin laminae. Has a satiny lhstre on its cross frac- ture. Contains no apparent pyrites or fibrous coal. The sample is mixed with a little attached brittle, glossy, splint coal. No. 1 89I-" Cannel Coal, from Maynhier's bank. Elk Fork of Licking river. Layer of cannel coal two feet two inches thick. Collected by A. R. Crandall." 295 I I5 uu6 CHEMICAL REPORT. A dull-black, clean-looking coal. Fracture somewhat fi- brous across the lamine. No fibrous coal or apparent pyrites. No. 1892-- `Six-foot Coal. Near West Liberty. Co/lected by A. R. Crandall." A soft splint coal, breaking into thin laminae, with fibrous coal between, but no apparent pyrites. COMPOSITION OF THESE MORGAN COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1890. No. 1891. No. 1892. Specific gravity.1.230 1-331 1.353 Hygroscopic moisture.2.o6 2.30 4.26 Volatile combustible matters..... .. .. . 49.64 41.60 35 24 Coke... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . 48.30 56. to 60. 50, Total.. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. ioo.ool oo.oo oo.oo Total volatile matters.51.70 43.90 39. 5 Fixed carbon in the coke.... .. .. . .. .. . 43.20 44 70 50.10 Ash . ....... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . S. lo 11.40 1 0o40 Total . ...... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. l oo. 100.o0 C. Spongy. Very dense Dense Character of the cokue Spongy. spongy. spongy. Color of the ash....... . .. .. . .. .. . Light NGrey-buffNearly buff-grey. Grybf. white. Per centage of sulphur. 0.955 1.271 1.011 Cannel coal No. I890 is remarkably pure and good; the others contain more than the average quantity of earthy mat- ters, yet are profitable coals. MEADE COUNTY. No. I 893-"SALT WATER, fresh from the well. Glen Font Salt- works. Coected by C. J. Norwood." The water deposits a reddish sediment in the bottle, and gives an alkaline reaction after a time. 296 CHEMICAL REPORT. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF THE WATER - 1.065. COMPOSITION OF THE WATER IN 1000. PARTS. Iron and manganese oxides, alumina and phosphoric acid, 0.0551 Contained in the sed- Lime carbonate............... . .... .654. iment deposited on. Magnesia carbonate. .... . oi8 boilng. Silica.... . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .005 J Sodiumchloride... .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. 74.750 Potassiumchloride.... .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .250 Calcium chloride .9.050 Magnesium chloride................ . . 2.080 Barium chloride..06........... .o6 Strontium chloride .. .026 Lithium chloride................ . . .284 Bromides and iodides ................ not est. Soluble silica................. not est. 87. 208 This brine, like that of the Goose Creek Salt-works, in Clay county (which see), contains notable quantities of bari- um and strontium chlorides; and as the former salt is consid- ered injurious to the animal economy, it is well to get rid of it in the manufacture of the salt. This is easily to be done, as described under the head of the Goose Creek Salt-works. One thousand parts of the wvater evaporated to dryness left a little more than one hundred parts of saline matters, dried at 212 F. The difference between that amount and the sum of the solid ingredients given in the analysis is doubtless owing to moisture, the undetermined ingredients, and una- voidable loss. No. I894-"THIE BITTERN WATER, from tIe Glen Font Salt- work.;." The water has a slightly brownish color. Sperzfic gBoavi/i = 1.270. This water, analyzed by my son, Alfred M. Peter, gave the following results: OL Flr _Frl20. 297 I117 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION IN 10. PARTS. Sodiumchloride............................ 3.206 Potassiumchloride.......... .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 553 Calcium chloride........................... . 12.043 Magnesiumchloride......... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . 13-314 Lithiumchloride...... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .658 Barium chloride... . o96 Strontiumchloride... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . 147 Copper chloride......... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .oo8 Iodine... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .002 Bromine.... .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .382 Total.. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. 30.409 The trace of copper is doubtless due to the copper pipes, &c., in contact with the water. The proportion of lithium chloride is considerable. Whether there is enough bromine in it for profitable extraction depends on commercial and other circumstances. Remarks on other probable useful applications of the bittern waters of salt-works will be found under the head of Goose Creek Salt-works, Clay county; also under the head of Gray- son county marls. With these samples there came a specimen of the "e salt water from the first settler," which also had a brownish tint, and deposited a brownish sediment in the bottle. Its specific gravity was 1.205, and it contained nearly twenty- six per cent. of dry saline matters. Also "water from the Grainer," which had crystals of salt at the bottom. Specific gravity 1= .2I0. It gave a little more than twenty-four per cent. of dried saline matters on evaporation, and was found to contain iodine equal to o.oog per cent. of potassium iodide. No. I895-"SALT, manufactured from the Glen Font brine. Col- lected by C J. Norwood." A moderately coarse-grained salt. Slightly damp with bit- tern water. Of a very light pinkish tint in the mass, from the presence of a little of the red sediment. 298 I 8 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Sodium chloride (common salt) with traces of potassium and lithium chlo- rides. . .. ..... .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . 97-317 Calcium chloride. ... . . ......... . 1.235 Magnesiumchloride...... . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 1.415 Barium and strontium chlorides ........ . .. .... . . tracesonly. Insoluble residue (remains of red sediment) ........ . . .033 Total. .............................. .o This may be considered quite a pure salt as compared with the usual products of our salt-wells. The traces of barium salt are too small to be injurious; nor is the residue of red sediment injurious. The deliquescent salts, calcium, and mag- nesium chlorides, keep the salt always moist; they are said also to injure its antiseptic properties somewhat. These are easily removed by the addition of a little carbonate of soda- soda ash will do-which will precipitate lime and magnesia carbonates, and leave an equivalent of sodium chloride in solution. Thus purified, in the last operation before graining, the resulting salt would be perfectly dry and white and pure. In addition to the above-described samples, the following were also received and examined from these salt-works, viz: (a)-- The hard red crust formed around the steam-pfipe, where the heat is not great." (A rather indefinite description.) This crust, of a handsome orange-red color in the interior and brown on the exterior, having a radiated fibrous structure, dissolved in chlorohydric acid with effervescence; and was found to consist mainly of lime, iron, and magnesia carbon- ates, &c. (b)- I The sediment formed inside the copper pipes conveying steam into the salt water." A greenish-white, fibrous crust (colored thus slight by the action of the water on the copper), mainly made up of hex- agonal prisms of lime carbonate. An artificially formed ara- gonite. Testing showed no evidence of strontium in it, and only a trace of magnesium. The crystals, under the microscope, 299 I I9 CHEMICAL REPORT. appear beautifully transparent and colorless. The crust has the external form of the interior of the pipe, and is somewhat impregnated with the soluble salts of the water. (c)-" Thze sediment from the bottom of the settler." A yellowish-brown mud, containing saline matters. When these were washed out the insoluble residue was found to con- sist mainly of lime carbonate and a little magnesia carbonate, colored with iron oxide. These samples were all collected by C. J. Norwood. MENIFEE COUNTY. COALS. No. I 896 (a)- Coal, from Price and Fitch's bank. Top of the mountain. Bed thirty-four inches thick. Sample from the coal yard of Richardson and Bosworth, Lexington." A bright splint coal, breaking with difficulty across the lam- inae; easily in their direction. Some reedy fibrous coal and bright thin pyritous plates between them. No. i896 (b)--"Coal, from Adams' bank, near Frenchburg. Old Slate Branch. Average Sample collected by A. R. Cran- dall." In the Sub-carboniferous limestone. A very pure-looking coal; glossy, pitch-black. Has very little fibrous coal or pyrites. No. I896 (c)-" Coal. Old State Road Branch. Samphlefrom the stock pile. By A. R. Crandall." A very pure-looking, glossy, deep pitch-black coal. Very little fibrous coal or pyrites apparent. No. i896 (d)-" Coal, from Steele's bank. Mouth of Brushy Fork of Beaver Creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A pitch-black splint coal; not so glossy or black as I896(b). Has some fine pyrites and fibrous coal between the laminae. 300 120 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE MENIFEE COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1 I 8a . No. 1896 c. No. 18g6 d. Specific gravity ............ . 1.300 1.300 1.318 1.301 Hygroscopic moisture.5....... 5.00 5.00 2.70 3.80 Volatile combustible matters...... . 39.06 32-40 38.22 38.60 Coke . . .. . .. . . .. . . ... . 55-94 62.6o 59.08 57.60 Total. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . 100.00 100.00 100.00 ICO.00 Total volatile matters....... .. . 44.o6 37-40 40.92 42.40 Fixed carbon in the coke.... . .. . . 53.18 I 58.40 54.82 52.00 Ash .. .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . . 2. 76 4.20 4.26 5.6o Total. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke........ . . Spongy. Dense. Spongy. Light spongy. Brownish- Ligh tBrwih Color of the ash ...a.-.g.r.e.y..... B rwni yellowish- Lilac-grey, Bro-grise- lilacgrey. grey.lia-ry Per centage of sulphur ....... . . 1.x I9 0.614 1.615 2.095 These are all remarkably good coals, containing less than the average of earthy matters, as well as of sulphur. No. I897-"LIMONITE IRON ORE. Branch of Beaver Creek. Menifee county. Average sample by P. A. Moore." COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Iron peroxide ................. Alumina.. . Manganese oxide ............... Lime carbonate ................ Magnesia . Phosphoric acid ................ -Sulphuric acid. ............... Combined water..... ....... ... Silicious residue ................ Loss.... . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . . 54.750 - 38.750 per cent. of iron. 14- 517 not est. a trace. .047 .697 - .304 phosphorus. a trace. 8.600 20.830 Containing 19.300 silica. .559 100.000 This is quite a good iron ore, with an average proportion of phosphoric acid, which will not injure it for all ordinary iron production. Its considerable proportion of alumina may help 301 121 CHEMICAL REPORT. to carry off much of this injurious ingredient in the furnace slag or cinder. MUHLENBURG COUNTY. COALS. No. I 898- Coal B, from the Louiszille and Stroud City mines. Owensboro Junction. 'Gas coal;' sixteen inches thick; at the top of the bed. Collected by C. J. Norwood." A bright jet-black coal, with very little fibrous coal or py- rites apparent. No. I 899-" Coal Bfrom the same mine. Bed three to four feet thick. Owensboro Junction. Sample by C.. Norwood." A pitch-black, glossy coal. Has some fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between some of the laminae, and thin, bright pyritous and gypseous scales in some of the seams. No. i900-, Coal B, from the Memphis Coal Company's mine, four mi/es south of Owensboro Junction, E., 0. & N. R. R. From stock pile; probably from the top of the bed. Has been weathered for eighteen months, and is not a fair sample. Col- lected by C. I. Norwood." A pitch-black coal, with but little fibrous coal or pyrites apparent. No. i901i-" Coal B. Bed four feet four inches to four feet eight inches thick. Saint Louis mines. Owensboro Junction. Sam- ple by C. J. Norwood." A pitch-black coal. Has some fibrous coal, and a few shin- ing pyritous scales. No. 1902-" Coal B. Same mine as the next preceding. The gas coal;' sixteen inches thick. Collected by C J. Norwood." A pure-looking pitch-black coal. Has very little fibrous. coal and no apparent pyrites. No. I903" Coal B. Rothrock's coal mine, a mile and a half north of Owensboro Junction. Upper bench; three feet nine inches thick. Average sample by C.. Norwood." 302 122 CHEMICAL REPORT. Generally a pitch-black, glossy coal, with but little fibrous coal, &c., but the sample contained portions of an inch thick pyritous layer, weighing about nine per cent. of the whole, which was separated from the coal analyzed and examined separately (see I903 a). COMPOSITION OF THESE MUHLENBURG COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1898 No. [899 No. 1900 No. 19g1 No. 1902 No. 1903 Specific gravity........ . 1.280 1.309 1.313 1.235 1.307 1.332 Hygroscopic moisture. .. 4.60 3.36 5 40 5.40 4.60 3.80 Volatile combustible matters. . . 42.60 37 90 35.90 34.20 37.60 36.20 Coke.... ....... . . 52.80 58.74 58 70 60.40 57.80 6o.oo Total.. .. . .. .. . .. too.0oo ioo.oo oo.oo 1oo.00 loo 100 100.00 Total volatile matters .. . . . . 47.20 41.26 41.30 39.60 42.20 40.00- Fixed carbon in the coke ... . 50.o6 52 74 53.60 54.20 52.64 51.80 Ash. . ...... .. 2.74 6.oo 5.10 6.20 5. 16 8.20 Total.. .. . .. .. . .. loo. 100.00100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00- Character of the coke ..... . Spongy. s Light Light Light I Light Light spongy. spongy. spongy. spongy. spongy. Lgt Light Light Brigh t Dark Llc Color of the ash . . .l..lac. . . Lih lilac lilac- lilac, brown- Lilac- _ grey. grey. grey. grey. ish-grey. grey. Percentage of sulphur.... . 1.60i 2.686 2.219 3-136 2-372 3-194 No. I903 (a)-The pyritous shale, separated from the gen- eral sample as above stated, left on incineration 65.90 per cent. of its weight of red-brown ash. It contained 27.64 per cent. of its weight of sulphur. If it had been left in the sam- ple it would have increased the aski per centage of the whole to 13.394 per cent., and the sulphur per centage of the whole to 5.410 per cent. It was probably only accidentally present in the sample. This pyritous layer would certainly be rejected in preparing the coal for the market. MUHLENBURG COUNTY SOILS. No. 1903 (a)-" Virgin Soil, from the farm of A. Stroud, twenty- seven mizles from Owensboro. Collected by C. W. Beckham." 303. 12 3 CHEMICAL REPORT. A clay soil, generally in lumps, breaking of a light bluish- grey color, with ferruginous infiltrations. Contains a small proportion of fine iron gravel. The bolting-cloth removed from the silicious residue a small quantity of small rounded grains of reddish and hyaline quartz. No. 1903 (b)-"'Subsoil of the preceding," &c. Dried soil somewhat lighter colored than the preceding; contains rather more of rounded ferruginous concretions. The silicious residue contained some fine rounded quartzose grains. No. 1903 (c)--Surface Soil, from a field about thirty years in cultivation; in grass all the time exceptjfor the lastjfouryears, when it was in corn and small grain. Underlying rock; sandy shale. Collected by C. W. Beckham." Dried soil of a light, buff-grey color; contains some few ferruginous sandy concretions. The bolting-cloth separated from the silicious residue a considerable proportion of small rounded, clear and reddish quartz and silicate grains. COMPOSITION OF THESE MUHLENBURG COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1903 a. No. 1903 5. No. 1903 e. Organic and volatile matters.3...3... 3-325 I.052 1.242 Alumina and iron and manganese oxides. 4137 3.548 3.749 Lime carbonate..... . .. . .. . .. . .. . 345 .oo6 .145 Magnesia. . .. . .. . .. .. . .176 .167 .122 Phosphoricacid..... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .198 .102 .121 Sulphuric acid.a trace. a trace. a trace. Potash. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .145 .i67 .255 Soda.... . . ............ not est. not est. .477 Sand and insoluble silicates....... . .. . .. . 215 94 340 93.-140 Water, expelled at 380 F. 1.222 1.050 1.242 Total... .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. 99-763 100.432 100.493 Hygroscopic moisture. 1.800 0 775 o 965 Potash in the insoluble silicates. . 1.339 1.091 1.113 Soda in the insoluble silicates..716 .564 474 Character of the soil..... .. . .. . .. . .. Virgin soil. Old fieldSubsoil. soil. Soils of good average quality. 304 124 CHEMICAL REPORT. OHIO COUNTY. COALS. 1No. 1904-" Coal D, from Mclenry coal mine. McHenry Sta- tion. This sample does not include the ' sulphur band.' Col- lected by C J. Norwood." Quite a handsome, pitch-black, glossy coal. Has some fibrous coal between some of the laminae, with granular py- rites, and some thin pyritous scales in the seams. No. i905-" Coal D. Same locality as the preceding. This sample includes the 'sulpfhur band.' Collected by C. J. Nor- wood." No. i906-" Coal D, from Render mine. Hamilton Station. Sampflefrom the nut coal pile. Collected by C J. Norwood." A pure-looking, glossy-black coal; somewhat soft. Has very little fibrous coal, and no apparent pyrites. Some thin incrustation of gypsum in the seams. No. I 907-" Coal D, from same locality as next preceding. Sam- ple from the slack pile. By C. J. Norwood." No. 1908-" Coal, from C(zarles Wesley Stephens'. On Rouggh Creek, above Hartford. Collected by C J. Norwood." A bright, pitch-black coal, breaking easily into irregular lay- ers. Fracture often in natural joints, showing a coarse, irreg- ular fibrous structure on surfaces. Contains but little fibrous coal. Some pieces show some thin scales of bright pyrites and gypsum. No. 0gog-" Coal, from G. B. Hocker's coal bank. On Rough Creek, aboutfour and a hagl miles above Hartford. Collected by C J. Norwood." Resembles the preceding; has fewer irregular seams, more fibrous coal, and fewer pyritous scales. Exterior with ferru- ginous stain. 305 125 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. i91io-"Coal, from same locality as the next preceding," c&,c., &c. Resembles the preceding, but is brighter and has less py- rites, &c. A very pure-looking coal. Some exterior ferru- ginous incrustation. No. i91 I- Coal, from Marion Sandifer's coal bank. Big Muddy Creek, one mile southwest from Elm Creek. Sampled from near the outcrop. May not be a fair sample of the bed. Collected by C. J. Norwood." A dull-looking splint coal, with but little fibrous coal be- tween the laminwe. Apparently weathered. Somewhat soiled with dirt, which will increase the apparent ash per centage. Sample also contains some bituminous shale, which will exert the same influence in the analysis. Not much apparent py- rites. No. 1912-" Coal, from L. M. Patterson's mine. Point Pleas- ant. Collected by C J. Norwood." A splint coal of irregular appearance. Portions are pitch- like; others are quite shaly. (Excluded from the sample a lump which seemed to be a portion of a pyritous parting.) No. 19I3" Coal D, from Williams' coal bank. On Ben's Lick. Point Pleasant road. Collected by C.. Norwood." Resembles the preceding; not much of it pitch-like on the cross fracture. Shows some scales of bright pyrites and some of gypsum. Not much fibrous coal present. No. 1914" Bituminous Shale (so-called cannel coal). H. D. Bennett's coal bank; three miles north of Hartford. A lower- coal Collected by C J. Norwood." A dull, brownish-black, tough bituminous shale; in thin ad- herent laminae, the cross-fracture of which is jet-like. Some exterior earthy stain. 306 I126 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I 915-_" Coal, from Berry and Walker's land. Head waters of North Fork of Muddy Creek, four miles east of Hartford, near Ben Hines' coal bank. At the old opening, first above the bank at Stanton Baltzel's. Probably not a fair average sam- ple. Collected by CJ. Norwood." (See No. 1922.) Much ferruginous and earthy incrustation on the exterior. Fracture bright, pitch-like. Very little appearance of fibrous coal, but some of pyrites. It seems to be a pure coal, with less lamination than ordinary splint coal. No. I9I6-" Coal, from Bill Hines' coal bank, four miles east from Hartford. Sample from above the clay parting. By C. J. Norwood." A bright, generally pitch-like coal, with some little fibrous coal, but with little appearace of pyrites between the laminae. Not so much laminated as ordinary splint coal. Some ferru- ginous stains in the seams. No. 1917-" Coal, from the same bank. Sample from below the - clay parting. By C. J. Norwood." Resembles the next preceding; but more of it cleaves into- thin laminae, with fibrous coal between. No. I9I 8- Coal E. On Rough Creek; mouth of Brush Creek; three miles below Hartford. Collected by C J. Norwood." A splint coal, mostly splitting into very thin lamina, with reedy or dull-looking fibrous coal between. Very little ap- pearance of pyrites. Some of the thin lamina are pitch-like on the cross-fracture. Ferruginous and earthy stain on the exterior surfaces. No. i9i9-"1L. D. Taylor's Coal. Collected bj' C J. Norwood." A firm splint coal, splitting into pretty thin laminae, with fibrous coal and some fine granular pyrites between. Some little bright pyritous scales in the seams. No. I 92-" Coal D, from Brown's coal bank, three miles south 40 west from Hartford. Taken from an entry where pyrites were abundant. By C. J. Norwood." 307 I2 7 CHEMICAL REPORT. Some portions pitch-like; others dull. Generally separat- ing into thin lamina, with fibrous coal between. Bright pyri- tous scales and some scales of gypsum in the seams. No. I92-"I William Warden's Coal; near the roadside, about ha/f a mile northwest from Centre/own. From a heap, and consequently may not be an average sample. Coal covered. C. J. Norwood." A rather firm coal. Some portions pitch-like. Some fibrous coal and granular pyrites between the lamina. No. 1922-" Coal, from Berry and Walker's land. Hines' tract; in a ravine draining into North Fork of Muddy Creek. Sam. pIe from the lower two feet. An outcrop sample. By C. J. Norwood." A splint coal, mostly splitting into thin lamina:; generally dull, with some pitch-like layers. Much fibrous coal-dust in the sample. No. 1923 3 Coal, from A. Woodwards coal bank, on Barrett's Creek. Bed twenty-four to thirty inches thick. A Zow coal. By C J. Norwood." Sample evidently from an outcrop, considerably soiled with ferruginous dirt. Coal easily broken and split into quite thin laminae, some of which present tarnished irised colors. Con- tains much fibrous coal and bright pyrites. No. 1924-" Coal, fi-om Gaines' bank, near Fordsville. Bed four feet thick. Average sample by C J. Norwood." A firm splint coal, some of it pitch-like on the cross-fracture. Not much fibrous coal, but considerable fine granular pyrites. Some external ferruginous stain. No. I925" Coal, from H. Dooring's mine. About four miles east from Point Pleasant. Lower member four feet five inches thick. Collected by C J. Norwood. A bright, pitch-black, firm coal, handsomely iridescent on some of the seams. Has very little fibrous coal and some fine granular pyrites between the laminae. 308 128 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 1926-" Coal, from Henry Thompson's coal bank. One and three quarters of a mile from Elm Lick. A lower coal (Ha). Sample from below the parting, three feet five inches thick. The whole bed, including the parting, four feet ten inches. Collected by C. J. Norwood." A pitch-black coal, in very thin laminae, with much fibrous- coal of a reedy appearance. No apparent pyrites. No. I927-" Coal, from Morton's coal bank, two miles northwest from Centretown. Bed from eizfht to nine feet thick, with a- thin clay parting. Sample from the lower member four feet four inches to four feet seven inches thick. By C. J. Nor- wood." A pitch-black, pure-looking coal. Iridescent on some of the seams. Not easily breaking into thin laming, with very little fibrous coal. Some pyritous and gypsum scales in the seams. No. 1928-" Coal, from Martin's coal bank, near Elm Lick. Coal H From the lower member; not a fair sample, as it- is from a new opening just begun. C. J. Norwood." In quite thin lamina, with fibrous coal and some granular pyrites between. Seems to have been much weathered. Is much stained with ferruginous clayey matter. No. 1929-" Coal, from Henry Davis' mine, about four miles east from Point Pleasant. Sample from the upper member three feet nine inches thick. By C J. Norwood." A pure-looking, pitch-black, firm coal. Not all easily break- ing into thin lamina. Has some fibrous coal and granular pyrites. 309 129 CHEMICAL REPORT. ;A & 04IQQQ - As cod 0 .6 3 - -a 2C 0 - 0 80 - 0 8 -.V00 I a o 1 C t. -20 s -Z 0 2 b fI. a-M Es 0a 0 A A LI A .2 0 LI2 S0 la 0. 130 PU. F- z1 0 0 L)., 0 - M fr. 0 0 0 0 L) 310 I I I I I I - 1 8 'T I. 8 ;,I 1 8 I . T -&. I I . I 11 , __18 I - CHEMICAL REPORT. I - n tl 8 8 _S o. 2.P 8 e -" C'u 14 _ _ J. _ o ,Qg n u8 suq 8 Q 2 a- ;., 8 A 6 O'8 ___ 000 . . C . nov-o X8a D 01 80. C_.W ..0 00 - U. Df0_1 7:11 1 11 1 I In 8 8 01 .9. . .8 . ge 1Jvs88 Ul+ool8 1l".1 0 - 0 o .9 8.08 8 :C _ o_11, 161 8 a. o - Co ..n . C CC8 C 'u _Olw I84asn8 1 l Y l _ _ _ __1 a 18 1 t8 18 1 _ __ _ _ _. 1l ___Il ___ -l ". - i- . 2onn8- l IL uW I w 0 . . S I I . ' u S1 .5 2 _ 0 0 .3 .0 0. C! 8 'i 131 0 f-i o I w 0 cn : f-i 0 z 0 p-i 0 u f: z U) u :Z 0 k-4 311 I I I i I I I I I I I I I l I '-S: 8 z! o ;: o 4 -3 " to I; r-I m CHEMICAL REPORT. These Ohio county coals are generally good, and some of them are very good; the ash and sulphur per centages of some of them, it will be seen, exceed the average; but none, except the one characterized as bituminous shale, is very seri- ously injured for all ordinary applications: even this might be utilized as fuel in its own vicinity. The general correspondence between the specific gravity and ash per centage is still further exhibited in these analy-- ses. 01110 COUNTY LIMONITE IRON ORES. No. I930-"Limonite Ore, from A/fred Ashby's land, on the waters of Walton Creek. Seems to be slightly magnetic It Collected by C J. Norwood. Coal measures." A porous, cellular, somewhat friable ore; generally of a deep-brown color, with blotches and thin laminae of light ochreous and irregular portions of denser, fine granular, or specular ore, of a steel-blue color, which is slightly magnetic and gives a red streak. No. 193 I-' 'Limonite, from Dooring's iron bank. Coal meas- ures. Sampledfor analysis by C J. Norwood." Composed of irregular laminae; generally of a dark-brown color, with lighter, ochreous ore mixed and incrusting. Some- what friable. Powder of a handsome bright yellow-ochre color. No. I932 - "Limonite, from same locality as preceding," &c. &c. Resembles the preceding. Probably a little more dense. No. 1933-" Ochreous Limonite, from Mrs. Kate Inglehart's place. eight miles southwest of Hartford. Coal measures. Collected by C. J. Norwood." A fine granular, friable ochre, of a handsome brownish-yel- low color. 312 132 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE OHIO COUNTY LIMONITE IRONY ORES, DRIED. AT 2120 F. No. 1930. No. 1931. No. 193z. No. 1933. Iron peroxide. 75-845 55.357 56.972 18.676, Alumina. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .837 9.656 1.148 2.481 Manganese oxide. . . not estnot est. not est. not est. Lime carbonate........... ... a trace.a trace. a trace. a trace. Magnesia. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .176 .248 .176 338- Phosphoric acid...... . .. . .. . .648 .287 .283 .-073 Sulphuric acid....... .. .. . . not est.not est. not est. not est. Combined water... .. . .. . .. . 9 273 8.86o 8.920 6.z152 Silicious residue... .. . .. . .. . 13.830 26.550 32.504 72.28 Total.. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. loo. 609 100.958 loo.ooo too.oo Iron per centage.. .. . .. .. . . 53.091 38.750 39.880 13-073 Phosphorus per centage.... . . . .283 .125 .177 .032 Sulphur per centage .......... . not est. not est. not est. not est. Silica per centage........... . 9.960 23.420 24.460 69.10oo No. I930 is a good iron ore, containing not more than the average proportion of phosphorus, which may be partly re- moved, in smelting, in combination with its large proportion of alumina, if sufficient lime be employed as the flux. Nos. i93i and I9 32, although containing much less iron, may be made available in mixture with other richer ores. But No. I933 is too poor for iron production, and could only be em- ployed as a pigment, or in mixture with very rich ores, to fur- nish silicious matter to aid in fluxing them. OWEN COUNTY. No. 1934-" GALENA,frOni a veinl about twenty-three inches thick, on 7T'in Creek. Sent byf Tios. J. Jenkins, Esq., Arew Libert'." A digging has been made more than eighty feet deep, and the vein gradually widens as it descends. The specimen sent- was obtained about five feet below the surface. Lower Silu- ri'an formation. The galena has some little zinc blende mixed with it, and has a gangue of baryta sulphate and calcareous spar (lime- carbonate). It contains, of course, the usual per centage of lead, being a definite chemical compound of lead and sul- phur; and, if found in sufficient quantities in the vein, for the VOL. I.-CHEM. 21. 313. 133 cheap production of lead, would be valuable; but in this re- gion, where galena is very frequently found, mixed in large or small (but generally small) proportion with the baryta sul- phate, which forms numerous veins in our "blue limestone," the prevalent idea is that there is a large quantity of silver in this shining ore. Indeed, companies have been formed, and much capital sunk in the opening and working of so- called silver mines in the baryta veins of our Lower Silurian limestone; with the usual result, that even the lead obtained and the spar sold would not repay the cost of the labor, while silver is not found. The specimen above described was examined carefully for the presence of silver, in the wet way, with the result that no ponderable quantity of that metal could be separated from it. This has been the usual result of the analyses of the galenas of this region. They all appear to be remarkably poor in silver. The only practical question in relation to these metal- lic veins seems, therefore, to be, whether they can be profita- bly worked for the lead alone. The baryta sulphate, which is quite abundant in these veins, has not yet found a profitable application in any quantity. No. I935 -" BARYTA SULPHATE; massive. (Ponderous spar.) From the same locality as the above. Hunter's Mill. Twin Creek. Collected by C. J. Norwood." This spar was analyzed by my son, Alfred M. Peter, mainly for the purpose of determining the proportion of strontium contained in it, with the following result: COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 2120 F. Baryta sulphate.......... .. . .. ... . .. .. .. .. . 80.31 Strontia sulphate............ . 17.05 Lime sulphate............ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 34 Iron peroxide...5.......... ... . .. .. .. .. .. .. . IS Silica. .29 Loss, &c., &c............................... i. 86 Total.... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 100.00 The proportion of strontia sulphate is larger than was sup- posed. The presence of strontium in this spar corresponds 314 CHEMICAL REPORT. 934 CHEMICAL REPORT. '35 with its existence in association with barium in some of the saline waters of our State, as shown under the head of Clay -and Meade counties in the present report. OWSLEY COUNTY. COALS. No. I936-" Coal, from the mines of Steffee & Samuel. South Fork of Kentucky nver, four miles above Boonesville, on the east bank of the river. Sample sent by Mr. J. T. Steffee, and analyzed at the request of tIe Governor. Bed three feet thick." A good-looking splint coal. Iridescent on some of its sur- faces; containing some bright pyritous scales, and showing marked reedy impressions on some of the laminae. No. 1937"Cannel Coal, owned by Steffee & Samuel. South Fork of Kentucky river," 6c., &c. (as above). A handsome cannel coal. Very tough. Jet-black and glossy on its cross fracture. Has no apparent pyrites. COMPOSITION OF THESE OWSLEY COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1936. No. 1937- Specific gravity...... . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 1.294 i.i6i Hygroscopic moisture.... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 2. 10 0. so Volatile combustible matters ................. 35.24 59.70 CJke............................ 62.66 39.80 Total.... . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 100.00 1oo.oo Total volatile matters.............. . 37-34 6o.20 Fixed carbon in the coke............ . 58.66 32.34 Ash .4.00 7-46 Total.. 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke.. Spongy. Dense. Color of the ash....... .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . Light Light Color of the ashlilac-grey, brown. Per centage of sulphur .................. . 1.424 not det'd. 315 CHEMICAL REPORT. These coals are both remarkably good and pure of their kinds. The cannel coal exceeds the celebrated Haddock's cannel coal in volatile matters fully ten per cent., and equals the Breckinridge coal of Hancock county in its volatile com- bustible matters (see No. I813, Cloverport Oil Company's coal), than which it has a smaller ash per centage. It greatly resembles this celebrated coal, but is purer. Should our pe- troleum wells run low, coals of this character will be again profitably available for the production of so-called coal oil, lubricating oils, and other paraffins, with the lighter hydro- carbons, now derived almost exclusively from the mineral oil. A greater economy in the manufacture of these from the can- nel coal, and the profitable use of the gas and coke, which are simultaneously produced, may favor the competition of the coal distillates with those from the petroleum. PERRY COUNTY. COALS. No. 1938-" Coal, from Josiah Cobb's bank, near Hazard. Av- erage sample taken from the ulpper part of the bed, the lower part not being uncovered. By P. N. Moore." A pure, pitch-black splint coal, having very little fibrous coat between the laminae, but with ferruginous stain and appear- ance of pyrites in parts. No. 1939-" Coal, from Campbell's bank. Aface's Creek. Sam- pled from near the outcrop; hence probably will give more ask than the coal further in. Collected by P. N. Moore." A splint coal, very much weathered and soiled with dirt; hence the ash per centage is probably greater than that of the bed. The sample has much powdered (fibrous) coal in it; probably more than belongs to it. No. 1940" Coal, from R. C. Combs' bank; below Hazard, on the North Fork of Kentucky river. Collected by P. N. Moore." A pure-looking, pitch-black splint coal. Has some ferrugi- nous stain on some of its seams, but very little fibrous coal or apparent pyrites. 316 136 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I94I -" Coal, from Logan's drift. Brashear Salt-works. Collected by P. N. Moore." Resembles the preceding, but has no ferruginous stain. No. 1942-" Coal, from David Grigsby's bank. Lot's Creek. Bituminoijs coal, above the cannel coal. Collected by P. N. Moore." Coal, breaking into thin lamina, with but little fibrous coal or granular pyrites between them. Exterior of the lumps dull and much stained with ferruginous and clayey matters, as though they had been weathered, which probably may some- what increase the ash per centage. No. 1943" Coal, from the same bed as the next preceding. Lower part of the bed. The cannel coal. Collected by P. N. Moore." Mostly tough, compact cannel coal, with a satiny lustre on its cross-fractured surfaces. Some pieces more readily sepa- rate into thin laminae. The exterior surfaces are soiled with ferruginous and clayey matters, which will probably make the apparent ash per centage greater than that of the clean coal of the beds. 317 137 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE PERRY COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1938 NO 39 No. 193 No. 1940 No. 1942 No. 1943. Speciicgravity.1....... . x.289 1.370 1.303 1.288 1.274 1.290 Hygroscopic moisture.. 2.10 3.70 2.o6 x.6o 1.80 1.20' Volatile combustible matters36.2030.64 36-74 36.0 40o.9o 40.86 Coke..... ....... . . 61.70 65.66 61.20 62.30 57.30 57-94 Total .100.00 100.00 l oo.o 100.00 oo .co 100.00 Total volatile matters... .. 38.30 34-34 38.80 37 - 7042-70 42.o6- Fixed carbon in the coke.... 58.20 57.02 56.30 56.40 53.70 48-44. Ash. ...... .. .. . .. 3.50 8.64 4-90 5.90 3.60 9.50 Total ...... .. .. . . 0oo.o o 0.oo 100.001oo.ooICO.00 zoo.oo- Character of the coke. Light Pulvreru- Light Light Dne Chs racter of the coke...... spongy. lntspongy. spon Lgy- Dense. spongy.lent.Spny pgysog. Color of the ash.Buff. Grey- Brown- Light Brown- Light grey. buff. ish-grey. grey.grey. grey. Per centage of sulphur..836 o.654 1.436 0.836 X339 o.634. These Perry county coals are remarkably good, containing much less than the average quantity of sulphur, and leaving, generally, but a small amount of ash. With the exception of the cannel, they are semi-bituminous or splint coals, of the same character as the celebrated Block coal of Indiana. The coals of the eastern coal field of Kentucky, as yet measurably unknown and undeveloped, promise to be more valuable in the future than any in the State. PULASKI COUNTY. COALS. No. 1944-" Coal, from the Cumberland coal banks; mine owned by W. S. Brown and Wm. Owens; two miles south from the Cumberland river; nine miles from Rockcastle Springs; eigh- teen miles from Somerset. Sub-conglomerate coal. Bed forty inches thick, without a parting. Average sample taken fifty feetfrom the mouth of the mine. By John H. Talbuti." 318 CHEMICAL REPORT. '39 A pure-looking coal; somewhat tough, with but little fibrous coal and some fine granular pyrites between the lamina. No. I945 " Coal, from Doolin coal bank; owned by Allen Jones; one mile from Cumberland river; ten miles from Rockcastle Springs. A sub-conglomerate coal. Average sample taken from the head of the drzift, seventy-five feet from the mouth. By John H. Talbutt. Bed fifty-one inches thick, containing a good deal of pyrites in some places." A pitch-black splint coal, with but little fibrous coal between the laminae, but much pyrites. COMPOSITION OF THESE PULASKI COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 944. No. 1945- Specific gravity...................... . 1-357 1.357 Hygroscopic moisture........ .. .. . .. .. . 2.40 2.00 Volatile combustible matters........ .. .. . . . 36.76 35-30 Coke.. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . 60.84 62.70 Total ...... . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . loo. o lo.00 Total volatile matters .................. . . . . . .. 39. i6 37.30 Fixed carbon in the coke................... 50.24 52.94 Ash .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. . .. . . .. .. . . io. 6o 9.76 Total.... .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . 100.00 00. Character of the coke................... . Spongy. Light spongy. Color of the ash...... . .. .. .. . .. .. . ..... Brownish-.Dark lilac-grey. lilac-grey. Per centage of sulphur............. . . ... .. 2-494 3-565 These two samples They are good and resemble profitable each coals, other considerably. although their ash and sulphur per centages somewhat exceed the average. No. I946-" CHALYBEATE WATER, from Rockcastle Springs. From a natural spring on the north side of Rockcastle river, near its margin, and below high-water level. Water said to 3L9' CHEMICAL REPORT. come from a bed of shale; is confined in a box about eighteen inches in diameter, from which it flows in a ha/f-inch stream. Brown-ochreous, ferruginous incrustation on the box. Sample collected by John H. 7a/butt." COMPOSITION OF THIS CHALYBEATE WATER IN 1000. PARTS. Iron carbonate ........ Lime carb'rnate ........ Magnesia carbonate e..... Lime sulphate........ Magnesia sulphate ....... Soda sulphate ......... Sodium chloride ........ Silica . 0.0145 .0438 Held in solution by carbonic acid. .0148 - .0731 .0029 . oo36 .0531 . c026 .0128 0.1481 The water contained 0.0930 per thousand, by weight, of free carbonic acid. Although containing but a very small proportion of saline matters or of iron. this water may be not the less available in the treatment of many diseases. Indeed, some of the most celebrated mineral waters of the world are nearly pure -water. The undoubted curative or restorative effects of such waters depend, not only on their depurative influence, when regularly taken in proper quantity, and the alterative influ- ence of minute proportions of iron compounds or other ingre- dients present in them, but also on the exercise, change of scene, relaxation of mind, and regular diet and regimen, which are generally to be found at the watering-place. (See Whit- ley county for other chalybeate springs of this neighborhood.) ROCKCASTLE COUNTY. COALS. No. 1947-" Coal, from Myzner's and Myers' bank. Living-ston. An inter-conglomerate coal. Average sample by A. R. Cran- dall; taken one hundred and fifty yards in entry No. I. Av- e)-age thickness of the bed twenty-eighzt inches." A pure-looking, glossy-black splint coal. But little fibrous coal between the laminae, and no apparent pyrites. No. 1948-" Coal, from same minze. Entry No. 2. Average Samiple collected by A. R. Crandall." Much like the preceding in appearance. 320 140 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. I 849.-" Coal, from Grisham's coal mine, near Livingston. First above the conglomerate. Upper ' brashy coal' bed; aver- age thickness two feet. Average sample by C. J. Norwood." A splint coal. Fibrous coal and much granular pyrites be- tween its thin laminae. No. I950" Coal, from same mine. From the lower nine inches of the two feet bed. Local name, 'Block coal.' By C. J. Nor- wood." A deep-black, glossy coal, iridescent in parts. But little fibrous coal or pyrites apparent. COMPOSITION OF THESE ROCKCASTLE COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1947. No. 1948. No. 1949. No. 1950. Specific gravity......... . .. . 1.318 1-357 1.327 1.374 Hygroscopic moisture........ . . 2.00 2.20 2.20 2.10 Volatile combustible matters...... . 36.66 36.50 35.86 39-50 Coke.. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 6.34 6.30 6.94 58.40 Total. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . . 100.00 oo.o oo.oo oo100.00 Total volatile matters....... .. . 38.66 38.70 38.o6 41.60 Fixed carbon in the coke........ . 51-94 51-70 54.94 49.86 Ash. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 9.40 9.60 7. 00 8.54 Total.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 100.oo0 io. oo.o oo100.00oo Character of the coke.Light Light Character of the coke .. . . . . . . . . spongy. spongy. Spongy. Spongy. .Lilac-grey Dark Light Purplish- Color of the ash . . . . . . . . . . . . Lilac-grey lilac-grey. chocolate. grey. Per centage of sulphur......... 2.205 4.802 4.302 2-933 These coals greatly resemble, in general composition. those from near the Cumberland river, described tunder the head of Pulaski county. No. T95 I-- CLAY, from Pine Hill coal Jmiles. Rockcastle county. Collected by John H. TalbulIt." A light-grey plastic clay, mottled with ferruginous. 321 141 CHEMICAL REPORT. This was only examined for its proportion of alkalies. It was found to contain of potash = 3.o83 per cent. of the dried clay (at 2120); soda = 0.524 per cent. It therefore would not probably prove to be a very refractory clay. No. 1952-"METALLIC IRON. Brought by Mr. Jones, of Lex-- ington." Said to be from Holley farm, on the dividing ridge between Goose creek and Rockcastle river, head waters of Rockcastle- river, near the line of Laurel county. It is similar to a speci- men brought to the writer from near Manchester, Clay county, in i854, by the late Daniel White. Said by both these indi- viduals to be abundant on the surface. It is similar in appear- ance to some specimens obtained by Mr. C. J. Norwood and others from near Manchester, Clay county, and said to be abundant there. It presents the appearance of medium fine-grained "d mill. iron;" is dark-colored; yields to the file, but is quite brittle, extending very little under the hammer. The surface of Mr. Jones' specimen was polished and treated with nitric acid; but while this produced a fine-radiated, Damascus-like appear- ance, no Widmanstattian figures were produced. The pieces obtained all seem to be portions of a slab, about one and a half inches thick, the exterior surfaces of which have a coating about one sixteenth of an inch thick of oxide, which looks as though it had either been caused by heat or by a long exposure to the atmosphere. It was found, on examination, to contain of carbon, about two to three per cent.; silicon, about one per cent.; a doubt- ful trace of copper, but no nickel. The per centage of iron was not ascertained, nor was the analysis carried further. The fact that so many pieces of this iron have been brought to the laboratory, and that so many persons bear testimony to its abundance on the surface in the region in question, is interesting. Is it a meteoric iron If not, how 322 142 CHEMICAL REPORT. came it to be scattered over the ground at such a distance from iron furnaces Persons in the part of the country where it is found might perhaps throw light on the subject. WEBSTER COUNTY. MINERAL WATERS. No. I 953-" Water, from the 'Sulphur Spring.' Sebree Spinxgs. Collected by C. J. Norwood." The water, when brought to the laboratory, had deposited a slight black sediment in the bottle, containing some iron sul- phide, and had lost its sulphUretted hydrogen. It still con- tained free carbonic acid gas, the amount of which was not estimated. It gave a slight alkaline reaction. (Analyzed by my son, Alfred M. Peter.) COMPOSITION IN 1000. PARTS OF THE WATER. Iron and manganese oxides . .27 Held in solution in the recent- Lime carbonate. . . 7 8. . Magnesia carbonate ..............0499 1water by free carbonic acid.. Lime sulphate.... ..... ...... .0617 Magnesia sulphate......... .. .. . 0570 Potash sulphate .............. . .0042 Soda sulphate..... .. .... . . . ..1433 Sodiumchloride........ .. .. . . .2760 Silica.... .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .0176 Organic matters and loss.0.0....... . .0076 Total saline matters ... . . ...... o.8358 Dried at 2120 F. Unquestionably a very good saline sulphur water, contain- ing traces of iron and manganese. Part, if not all of the organic matters, may have been derived from the cork. No. 1954 -" Water, from the 'Chalybeate Spring.' Sebret Springs, cc., ec. Collected by C. J. Norwood. This sprinsg is frequented by people from Henderson and Evansville, &c., and has considerable local reputation." Most of the iron had been deposited in the bottle as a brownish sediment; but this was re-dissolved, analyzed, and calculated into the whole amount in the following report of the analysis. This analysis was also made by Alfred M. Peter.. 323 143 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION IN I000. PARTS. Iron carbonate...... . .. .. . . 0027 1 Manganese carbonate.... .. .. . . [race. H Lime carbonate.0247. . Held m 0solution by carbonic add Magnesia carbonate.......... . 0179 Lime sulphate .0218 Potash sulphate............ . 0042 Soda sulphate........ .. .. . .0205 Sodium chloride....06........ .oo26 Silica... .. .. . .. .. . .. . .001o Organic matters and loss....... . . oo66 Total saline matters .0......... 0. 1290 Dried at 2120 F. The proportion of free carbonic acid in the water was not determined, as doubtless much of it had escaped in transpor- tation. There can be no doubt that it may be made available in the treatment of many maladies, under proper medical ad- vice. WEBSTER COUNTY SOILS. No. 1955-" Virgin Soil. Woods pasture. Farm of Mr. Bow- land, near Madisonville. Forest growth.z elm, black walnut, red and white oak, &c., &c. Underlying rock; sandstone. Collected by C. W. Beck/ham." Dried soil of a brownish-buff color; contains no gravel. The silicious residue contained a few small rounded grains of clear quartz. No. 1956-"Surface Soil, from a field twelve to fifteen years in cultivation in corn and tobacco; from same farm and near the same locality as the abave. Collected by C. TV7. Beckham." Dried soil of a dark brownish-buff color; contains no gravel. Silicious residue contains a few small rounded quartz grains. No. 1957' Subsoilof the next preceding," &c., &c. Dried soil of a buff color; contains no gravel. residue like the preceding. 324 Silicious 144 CHEMICAL REPORT. '45 COMPOSITION OF THESE WEBSTER COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. i955 No. 1956 No. '957 Organic and volatile matters..... ..... . .. . . 4.010 2.975 3.575 Alumina and iron and manganese oxides... . 4.664 3.997 7.289 Lime carbonate.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .145 .220 .145 Magnesia. ..... . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 178 . i6o .124 Phosphoric acid ............ . . 071 .118 .o6i Sulphuric acid. not est. not est.not est. Potash.. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .288 .104 135 Soda.. . .... .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 55 .152 .415 Sand and insoluble silicates ............... . 91-350 -91.490 88.015 Water, expelled at 380 F................ . .400 .225 .500 Loss.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. . 559 . Total. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. .56 oo. ooo100.29 Hygroscopic moisture... . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . 1.500 1.375 2.105 Potash in the insoluble silicates........ . .. .. . 1.461 1.534 1.619 Soda in the insoluble silicates............... . 759 .698 .912 Character of the soil.V....... .. . .. . . .. . . virgin Cultiva- Subsoil. soil, ted soil. These soils are good for quite productive by proper sandstone soils, and can be made management and the j udiciOUS use of manures, of which phosphatic fertilizers are indicated. They promise a considerable durability in the considerable proportions of alkalies contained in their insoluble silicates. WVHITLEY COUNTY. MINERAL WATERS. No. I958-" iCtalybeate Water. L. Renfro's. Cumberlana Falls. Spring about one hundred yards below the falls, on the north side of he river. From just above the Lower Conglomer- ate. The sandstone from which it flows is near the level of high water in the river. The wafer is contained in a small rock basin. It forms an ochreous deposit, and contains some flocculent matter. There are other similar sources in the neigh- borhood. Collected by John H. Talbutt." No. 1959- " Chalybeate Water. L. Renfro's. Cumberland Falls. Spring on the south side of the river, just under th- falls of Eagle Creek, and about three hundred yards below- the falls; above high water. This water deposits an ochreous 32S CHEMICAL REPORT. sedimemt also. It issues from the Conglomerate rock in a wooden spile. Collected by J. H. Ta/butt." COMPOSITION OF THESE CUALYBEATE WATERS, IN looo. PARTS OF THE WATER. No. 1958. No. 1959.1 Iron and manganese carbonates. 0.0082 0.0072 Lime carbonate...0..... 0476 .0405 Held in solution in the water Magnesia carbonate...0..... 0327 .o266 by carbonic acid. Silica... .. . .. .. . .. .OO07 not det'd. Lime sulphate.... .... . .0141 .0049 Magnesia sulphate. .. . oo6o .oo6o Iron and alumina sulphate.... .0038 .0053 Potassium chloride ....... . not est. not est. Sodium chloride........ . not est. .0031 Silica... .. . .. .. . .. .0297 .0176 Undetermined and loss...... .0432 .oo88 Total dry saline contents.... 86 0 o. In ooo. parts of the water. The amount of free carbonic acid in these chalybeate waters was not determined. The judicious use of these waters could no doubt be made quite beneficial in the treatment of many maladies. No. 960- 'Bituminous Shale, 'or impure Coal; from Louis Renfro's land; Cumberland Falls. Bed fifteen inches thick; one hundred and sixty yards below the falls, and one hundred and eighty feet above the river, and about the same distance from it. In massive sandstone; fort), feet thick, immediately above. Inter-congl-omerate. Collected by John H. Talbuti." This shale, air-dried, gave off 2.84 per cent. of ljgroscopic moisture at 2(2 F., and 27.16 per cent. of volatile combustible matters. leaving 70.00 per cent. of dense coke, which contained 26.60 per cent. of ash. The fixed carbon thus amounted to 43.40 per cent. Its per centage of sulphur was found to be 2.562; SO that it may be made available for fuel, &c., in its vicinity,, notwithstanding its large proportion of earthy matter. WHITLEY COUNTY SOILS. No. i96i -"Soi1; uncultivated; from the bluff opposite Rock- castle Springs. On the Conglomerate. Collected by John H. Ta/butt." 326 146 CHEMICAL REPORT. Dried soil of a light umber-grey color. Contains a few small fragments of ferruginous sandstone. the bolting-cloth separated from its silicious residue about one fourth of its bulk of fine, rounded, colorless quartz grains. No. I962-" Virgin Soil; from the top of King's Mountain. Eight hundred feet above the valley. (U. S. Coast Survey Station.) Collected by C W. Beckham." Dried soil of a brownish-grey color; contains about twenty to thirty per cent. of small shaly ferruginous sandstone frag- ments. The bolting-cloth separated from its silicious residue a large proportion of fine, rounded grains of hyaline quartz, and greyish, partly decomposed silicates, and a few mica scales. COMPOSITION OF THESE WHITLEY COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 2120 F. No. 1961. No. 1962. Organic and volatile matters........ .. . .. . .. . 3-075 4.265 Alumina and iron and manganese oxides......... .. . 3.429 2.695 Limecarbonate.... . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .115 .110 Magnesia... .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .o80 .084 Phosphoric acid..... .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .o6i .140 Sulphuric acidc..d..... .. . .. .. . .. ..................8 not est. Potash. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .194 .052 Soda....... . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. . .164 not est. Sand and insoluble silicates..... .. . .. .. . .. .. . 91-105 91.465 Water, expelled at 38o0 F.... .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . , .500 .782 Total....... .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . . . 99.731 99 593 Hygroscopic moisture......... .. .. . .. .. . . 1.200 0.950 Potash in the insoluble silicates......... . .. .. . . .692 o.989 Soda in the insoluble silicates......... .. .. . .. . .120 .291 Character of the soil.... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. Virgin soil. Virgin soil. Better soils than might have been expected from their loca- tion. WOLFE COUNTY. COALS. No. 1963" Coal, from C. M. Hanks' bank. Compton. Bed twenty-eigzht inches thick; without parting. Sample by A. R. Crandall." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Has but little fibrous coal. Some shining pyritous scales in the seams. 327 147 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. i 964-" Cannel Coal, or Bituminous Shale. James F. Ely's. Gilmore Creek. Sample by P. N. Moore." Hand specimen. A dull-looking cannel coal, breaking with difficulty. No appearance of fibrous coal or pyrites. Small glimmering mi- caceous scales abundant in it. No. I965" Cannel Coal. John W. Faukner's. Stillwater Creek. Collected by P. N. Moore." Not an average sam- ple. A dull-black, pure-looking coal, with a large conchoidal fracture. No. I1966-" Coal, from Hobb's bank, on Benjamin Baker's land; four and a half miles from Compton. Collected by P. N. Moore!." A pure-looking splint coal. A little fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between some of its laminw. One piece con- tained some particles of light reddish-brown resin. COMPOSITION OF THESE WOLFE COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED. No. 1963. No. 1964. No. 1965. No. 1966. Specific gravity. . . 1-336 1.434 1.383 1.294 Hygroscopic moisture........ .. 3 74 1.30 1 .i6 3.50 Volatile combustible matters... .. .. 35.52 41.40 44.58 35.20 Coke... .. . .. . .. .. . .. . 6.74 57. 30 54.26 61.30 Total.. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . 100.00 oooo oo.oo Ioo.oo Total volatile matters..... . .. . . 39.26 42.70 45 74 38.70 Fixed carbon in the coke.52.64 28.20 32.76 56.70 Ash. . .. . .. . .. .... . . .. 8.lo 29.10 21.50 4.60 Total.. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . l oo. 100.0010).O0 1O0.00 Character of the coke.Spongy. Pulveru- Pulveru.Spongy. Color of the ash......... . Lilac-grey. Nearly Light Lilac-rey. white. lilac-grey.Licgry Per centage of sulphur.... . .. .. 2.466 o.846- 0.530 328 148 CHEMICAL REPORT. 149 The so-called cannel coals contain so much earthy matter that they might (one or both) be properly called bituminous shales. They are remarkable, however, for the large propor- tion of volatile combustible matters they yield; and hence may be made available, if the petroleum production fails, in the manufacture of the coal oil and other hydrocarbons, &c., which are now so extensively used. They will make quite good fuel, notwithstanding their large ashy residue. Coal No. i966 is exceptionally pure and good, and No. i963 is also quite a good coal. VOL. I.-CHEM. 22. 329 CHEMICAL REPORT. rA. vn_ rv.._v:A.u L.- '5 & -S o E-' '' - - '_-0Z _ A '.= mS=; -Iu! tp !CrS bo-, -5-....0.0 C.c..js cn m-Y r. - nr_ _o -_ - ' r - o0a -am XB - l z z :z L) o zd c0 i 0 0 o r o: _ n 0, a15! 341 U! UP'S 0 -lloonsiqn , onon qn_ - - - -- ---- --oV -saets f _ i o tnet r:et :Oc o8c 82 .ce o-3 Mo o.o u' -a fS 'of oob 31 -jOSnlo oc3e41o S-0- - -c r ' ns] o.n rl:' o orf nn 1wwoS -pJ1f - O On U r _ on _f.Sr alqnjosuu puupaueS&6.c.Aa .S A.d 55..co.n.,. o .-'''S' - ---, . e. . .................. . + nr o O LLn En or onno n _r no o_ 1..r. .T.r... . 'pp. pnqdjng L .- -.- -.- -.O -.-- - oUi....rn.. rno..t er Ln...rn. a. n..r. n. n... o... b.. r.. o. . '4 Od K O gC gre _ oD ' --nnrn+s - Q 0 cn cc'-rn r. '40-00- - n n r _ocn cr -p!3c apnq1djS VV 6 Z. V t J08oooovv' V' J' UA A - c e - _ c c S - - - - - - -C-DDDOs- 31 2 sosnoovrs g o: 8scZrZ. n rlo 3I o f -o no; no rao -pot!uoqdsoqj0- --- oao_ - - o o o 0 0 ,nc-c rc'z -.n-"nrn o n n1OI o (4'nOW'C n c 0 rnot O- Knn rr OOZEuv _a _a- uiva_- _oniv v"n n 4 4 n n' _ OE mc _ oW CnC_ : 'n _o-- n 09n -0 n01 o C as0rv n O ;ver u nn r w r nno l Do rsOnnno" eDnS v- snc rn nzvD o e nrn - on __ _n n _osrn nnn rnODn n O n G A! pivulmniv+ rwrnn+st S abbna ns nin v - 6 sssouu .I. Xn o I r s o IIIII iJ- O I - r.- . ................. L) - - nwdal al -qU O Ac 91.-m o m.cEe ro - nmtAnc N v T2 ....... m......0.'KK.. K......... ..nn.nn I 'o succncnc cnt r- N r.n+ nEo rnInNN N NN'N. _. S bot Onr 150 gI: C,0 N f-a. -c 0 0 6 i u e; U) U) ce .4 0 Eo U4 4 330 0 O oo :._...-. _.. ........... ............. ............ ... .. ,. _ ,... . .............. ... . XZ -X,lU t' - - - _! '8.___e 0 0 I! v 1 8 0 nO o !. a iUs 9 1- !U A I v Ov 9 2 o o o 5 u ............. .................. ...... . o o s. rNonInN+00 00 lW IOC70 Q Q 11. .......... .... - I T...... .............. ...... . ... ...... .... . O _ O &s - - O nQOli-VKi no v neo ovsoow r. ...n.o....r.r... ..s...sc..a.i-oT..-o rn I CHEMICAL REPORT.I5I 5i ou 0 ej 0 a _w 5" . =P r- -.2= 3l -SX vO a e 3 = ': _ E 0 4SZZVvEX:g 3V C . v2- v -__ vV V D- .._a: _ - e:a o T- rf _V_w __-_ fOv. O a5 v O.OA ' ' 'V._,_ An_. 01 __n - 7O _ . rcC s r -' 6:Cs OoL oCn nozt tn Oonm0_0_0 _ _ n n _ - _ - _ . - - _. _ _ _n. - . . c H-- I "''- ...,........ ........... ....n.ntlonVe o VnQ.n. n...o........V VbQ CO -n rnonN0 -C0+ -O o \ - _0- _ o o _.O i O nA X bz ._., , . ......_. _.......... ... ..... X st t _b 0 I D D DD5 D DC0-O0 I IhSC 01 0 0 v 'D 8 K O 0z -0 cE d to 2 Ie I clI 33r 152 CHEMICAL REPORT. !,saa.",;.'rE i - ua -0 rz1 . 0 .... ,..... ... , E 1 ...... ..........----------- ---- 9B E _z, EX -t 2n E .t& E E o ,E X o 2=E i g ff u Ucse-S O o8 L) -uo""YMuYM""st u e co 3 & i a X 2 r U. aff vf oi ,o c, 1 Z cn .9- e8 .-.- 3, 7 El . 5: C C - a E E: ES s ,CV __V_ : E1J 3 X3_3 3 v 3u:3v)3_3_x. 3__aZn- _ o 2 t o ' +50 t oX 80 t' Gt J D _ O v S so t O O O s m _v r r,i -r ree svnr e soosea ;sobe- tr _q _tt o r C C0 ESE Xto _ _ _ ,, _ _ _ _ _.. _ ) - OOO ew O n t :- _x xoJoao+OOt DvZD8C+ +-g ;a0:0st t O t n t X + 0 _ D n )te ) o )v ue ir nl t -v++,qr i-o aqlal uoqno pax!, + eso -=VT T--VZe+ ,9 : -E lZ'S -. t- i:2tl ,4 -iVwV -CU l "nq lo 8 S 33oJts w oo8 08n -m- JinoA +-as 0 _e 0 05 a rn ,_ o- ;Io .... ... . ..................o +EXDvtro O&8 ';t03 vb4 __ C;t SO w- ej O+ _ao t " ; r j W............ . o snwo ac so s o o o U v t 0t00 'D. 0eZm00 o o o6 o 14 oo.oeogooonXows -1C+0 ._ _._ m uwsD aos OoO t EA Ez O5 ag A M lr nOo t ov nDr wzXvCr "bt -1w= nXnu __n0 v au -Nao m_e -0 .2qo 111Aeeode+eeeenntemne .,..... . --'. ,. ____ .. 1. 6.....:. E... =.=-=.. &-.; . .............................,,.EA .......... , _____"____,"_",_",_. . . . . . . . . . .......................................... _. ,_"_ I 332 CHEMJICAL REPORT. 153 1 ,t i3 g-. A -MB2 !D 0 ji.sj3';-j, 8 5 tcu c , :e 'VtE:6on= _v J=Z=Xn.] cUj ;3'JJ' N; s ; Rgs 8 ; n a , o ti83 o Eio _ E _s oo o c _o a + s + s rv s s X + re r o s - I .. ...a; - t o i _,3 _3 rC C i ._- , _ !a 'X r l T T I a -oc-o; S- rsoXo ............. ........... . ......S.e.F.. .. . cuU.- a, u c v uy ve E1 .:.c S-i'XsAz.B 3 g o= c DB =a C q j,U,_533c u L, :rAA :. - - ,:i- -: _ - ..................... .-.. .-. ...-............... . ... , ,.. .. ............ ....... . , ............ ss ' t OI. sO + 0 1 A, 8 ' 1 I-- Og ,O_.,, 8.! -. U i. toV i V -s -O w0 -O O O--O '' - ;- 0-s "O-'+r - . - J 8 vs s; t- A w I n sT 8s a o 3 5- 0 --. -. 0-o P o - R' 0 0 _oa_ ogo s8 .g 81 4- 10 O' -O 2 Is n ,oSru -o ,o nNoO -0. aB _ O. 4: r, HQ C c, c 8s Fn gs b ;o v, : c _ ,0 ,! r n l\ iv oQ- s 0 2 , N S , .s Z 2 _ Sc a .9 v-', 11 Z C AO .0 07 -2 s OR9O O -O O' o ,0 A s E ' n Of qNrr o- e Nceve65i8o- O s ..S .n...n.e....r..e.nrr..n.n.1. f. _....e...W._Ty__SV S- _-,---__I_-- ____ __ __ II I___ ___LI______,-:.__ ............................. .......... ... .... . .. . . .........- . ... . .. .. ....... .... . .- . .... .... . O g 8Y888Yg8Y-ccrssss33,,,,....... ......................................... . p 4 44gV C. , lga ;r e DDDs8 Es5s DXsai iE F-33 I154 CHEUMICAL REPO RT. r- C r' Z: W _1 . .. W ,c.,- '- US- a . . , . . ' ' . ' . ' ' ' . . ' be ' ,'3 U 1 . V ",,,, V, ............. S UU V ,j , ., ,,,O ........... . _.5 UP ,,UU,w E Us=U ) r __=:iL =, ,d __U ltel.= u n- Om C- E C OT V 0_.; Xo 9.-R uc- -uz4 Y - 0 ="u3=uMYM"c o ; CE -- ; u 8 b a:Sc 4=0 V- 4e w-ede 3.0 OoO 00+t00. 0 00 Cov gq aul ul uoq P4X!.!l-z m - e n ,i--von n u rE r a -.E-cn o- L, 0 0 ' OOOOOs MO Z C0 ' ' F am v O+osr cmsoorZZ +a n+mn n+ -n8qm sU E EI9 E4 E- 5 E E E E E E E O+nn,]teO0 +0 +t++tOboC 1 aOOoJDts oOooooo oooa n og _t eov rnx aou ts vsotons oXsos pJoa f w.a ..................................... aqnmql=O).t ll,. _. ,. y... 9XOe , ' f..s.wwee )e ne ' aob o o" o 3ooooooooooovooooot oooo+ovzooooos 4UkN3D !Sds -s-fbsn-bwn -Wseen n n mcnen en nonneen, 2tT - n, CO be q'A Wu ba 0 re=_-.,,,,,OOOOOOOOOOOOOO_b - no 'a. = , R= =. A= 'OI c0 ... ............EOOOO OOX 0 ow e0oo+8o onr orxaon+t vetoseo L)da z1swN8coc c eo .o oo z Z ct Sto U ob o i00 n r bs n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 334 et-l s o Is Is 4W1i ioso3 Is n2 1 8 intdins 8 O e; O- n V , uj a _uuuU ]O.2enuaa .a.. . . ......... . uo..!o-x 2O 2 uO. ZTI "I -C 10,n 5o JO aSelu33 "d ornos onooeXO 'so -. c2 .o. o121 N ooooooo o o -Ws pUl! 1e:!lTS -bnw s 0XOOX ;O-Ors O011 C ..O -- 0- -00 O. oOOQnO -iarepo qtno mol ... X._n2.. - +s h Oulv s,olnn -ppve 3!..nqdlnS o ;VY a efs XUVGU' sS UVUGP . .5 O cc6_ _. ........... 0 _ -e Z -nws _.n S;t n - O - . - o e2srue oy oo!- 2 'L ' UZV VO v,., L. 1w 'ap. Z xoZ uv a v Z a C a v uJuuJuDDt uJ asaueaucji oo o Oo ... . . ......... ......... _' UOIJ.... ..... .... . . . aleuoqeo.oJ.. r8 E E E E Eo E dduauuqe u- v O _ _ _ _ _ : e c r:a c o o o ooooooeloe 0 0 0 0 0 0 _t ...... ..... . . ...... ..... . . N _ 0wSf , Oos o 3-1 w O. 8 9 . 6 6e; n n II XOXI I OO;Zwo IIs S '2 0 n'O-t S1 nO - n v6ur, ouni -. 6 ub o6r TO Os-w Ow ,w Q- 8s g -8 IsJ sw O Z i tw I - 0.0.... 0. 2 Z... . ............. . in.b e oO h O iv -R -3 a o o mc _ nn 0i0-& ...... . ... ...... ..... .... ...... . .... ..... .... ; r cc C e;E , E E E _ _.. e c1 X..S.:.S _. , CH EMICAL REPORT. I55 A O11 9 ew C1 cn CZ 0 i9 tw cn ..... ..... ... . ...,.......... U.. . ;' u , , u ffi tA G G .. = _ fA u 3 _ u B ti - _ - _ U r. fl tA ,- tA -ap!.oiad uoJi nf . . OZGrSw n..LO _- n- . & n-;-..rv- n r 1 . b. 1. I L. I 12O - -o -o - - -b i -h .-.t .. sO -- 0 - O --- O - s - __ - _lw0 335 = O-= L) t-- 4 t e - E1- E - u Z u G 5ew -vvuO C '. u a 'Ov - ._ S , S;;4- _AXro CHEMICAL REPORT. e -P 414 1.. 'i u 'L .M 0. 05 . 0 - G : Y: tl C = = e '.., Is 00001 E = = = Z: Y 0 .0 .S -pns Jo 2esuaa 120 d ' '_ _ snzoqd tc- -soqd Jo 2seu2a2 I -c U0.1! Jo 23,.nua3 .2 j s-sol pue ;,.nls! l ow J.1214 pou!qwo s -p!Dz 3!..nqdlnS : ppC ouoqdso q -2iruoqiv3 21uf-l uAojq asuaue , -s QlwuoqJeo 0u0 ., , 2puxoJad uoijl - ___________Iz - APYIdOI -XS rr 0 joda&j m UNt N A' a F- . U, v 0 9- o . , z 0 - - 0 2 0. 'I I . YV I m 00- =. - = a 0 0e 1.a ,1 nd!1!n Jo l3U23 12d j .nuqdns jo l3ua: ] =d o siuoqd 7- -soqd jo u1o3 J2d o -UOI! JO 023O2d o .. .. sso pue J2IeM -uoqe3 !2supuesvj 0 .00 2pLxd , uozf 21euoqJe0 uoJI1 kA!Atzigi2dS o -uoda-H U! jqmnM 0 F-4 C4 F- W 0 0 F- II .0 i 0 0 0. i 0.E 336 rmrl........ .0 . I..O....-. . , S _w, ,_ _' _A eXoX50: t,- Jsnuqdloqj I n 0, _ _ _-_ _. _ _ :Uo . ... ...rD.v........... .. 0:XnSc o-r )or s+_eu FI'U0. 4d4 r nn-vt_00r l t1-t 4 , l O-- 0 70-- ----- _____ ____ 393:d_ 0.; JJ'J JJ' . ..-.- - - - -.- -._ -._ _._ _. _ _ _ _. _. U..UUV.... .v. .... . . ooo:O ''C 3 ''---ee I 1,57 -e El11 Ix U5 z 0 1 0 P. I; w m - F- 3iodall u! jqwnN s1 .z 3 S: 0 le - c a N,N :z -- ,,, -I 1 4: f 337 CHEMIICAL REPORT. 'i u. Sn!= 2 g O 0 be O4 O .! O O O , O OO .2 79 E _ O, CHEMICAL REPORT. at E" E , a..0 a0 u L) V L9 C a--c , m g C U C t 3 5.0 o 0 0 o o 2C 2F- O0 ooE 33 o I ' C o 8 0 -0 - inq pol0 &t Id-- 6 10, Al 0i Io n-m-m m o -ppw -poqdsoqj o Z uv ,s 3P! 0n 0 ___________ I. &C r.C mow11! pU0 w - Ul!S -.0 000 v. v,1 v.v. nv o l oo o o D -salzlsPuz3!1!s.. . . .... C C CC __V__U ---.. uv X o 0 wm- S iooonnn . -=E: izodaud al jN-Mi e0 H F- N w od ce n 'C 0 U Z 0 U 0 U) U, Q Z En ..I ci GZ w I-, 4 cn 9 m FC I, E t 51 i .S I e , a u.Y 0. . o' 4 Z Z .] ''MAT, 'v18s 'lale n _n c __ +' OM_ 0 m 0 O fl- t C qsuiodno Ie ..- . _______ J.4. .n. t'c.0+ ppe ounqdnS 3 .at, C=== I 00 0 0 -aiwuoqi tvesaifhjq ' C C . . . aisuoq e jr' o.wr - __ :&. . l& ' P03 tD!:!s Oa_ bZ ' _ ._ 0n 0a CI_ ,I .... I e I V - _ uodDa2d tq 22mnN I v k z 9 ' in- o -- 0-mm. - 158 I 0. 9z COT Pi_ cc a -J 338 I APPENDIX. - THE CLINTON IRON ORE. DYESTONE ORE OF TENNESSEE. FOSSIL. ORE. In consequence of the great abundance of this valuable ore in the mountainous region of Tennessee, very near to the Kentucky line, and in view of the proximity of Kentucky coal beds to these ore beds, the members of the Geological Sur- vey collected some characteristic average samples from them, which have been analyzed, with the following results: A. "sC/in/on Ore,; upper bed, in Poor Valley Ridge. Cumber- land Ga;p, Tennessee. Averag-e smlple fromn a number of exposures of the beds. By P. N. Moore. Clinton Groucp." A soft ore, easily breaking into irregular lamina or scales; filled with small disc-formed concretions or fossil casts. Pow- der of a blood-red color. B. "Clinton Ore; upper bed. Foot of Poor Valley Ridge, on a branch down from the Virginia Road. Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. Collected byr P. N. Moore." Very much like the preceding. C. Clinton Ore. Middle bed of the ore; twenty-six inches thick. Cumberland Gap, &c. Collected by P. N. Moore." Harder and more compact than the preceding; contain- ing but few fossil-like concretions or casts. Externally of a brownish-ochreous appearance. Powder of a light reddish- brown color. D. "Dyestone Ore, from near Cumberland Gap, . Tennessee. From old Clinton Furnace. Clinton Group." For comparison with the above, the analysis of a similar ore from Pennsylvania, analyzed by Professor Persifer Fraser, of the University of Pennsylvania, is appended. 339 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. E. "Hard Fossil Ore, or Clinton Ore. Middle bench of Dry- sari's mine. Pennsylvania." COMPOSITION OF THESE CLINTON ORES, DRIED AT 2120 F. A. I B. C. I D. E. Specific gravity.... .. . .. . . 3.942 3.914 3.190 . .. . , Iron peroxide............. 77.380 73 935 47.965 80.820 38.48 Iron protoxide . . .4. .. . . .. . 4 37 Alumina.. . 3-941 5.776 2.130 9.56 Manganese oxide ........ .. 9 not est. Lime carbonate... ......... . .420 4510 1.230. . .o6 Magnesia.a trace. .266 .194 ..... a trace. Phosphoric acid .319 .319 '575 ' ' ' '1.48 Sulphuric acid............ . a trace. a trace. a trace. t-05 Combined water. 2-500 3.850 4.000 ... . 4-500 2-54 Silica and insoluble silicates.... .. . 15.960 11-730 43.690 . .. . 37 99 Total ..... .. . .. . .. . .. 1oo.520 100 38699-784. . .. ioo.oo Per centage of iron..... .. . .. . 54. 16651754 33 - 57556. 574 30-34 Per centage of phosphorus... .. . . .140 .140 .251 ... . .21 Per centage of sulphur..... . .. . a trace. a trace. a trace.... . .05 Per centage of silica... .. . .. .. 15.760 11.730 42.760 11.260 37 99 t Sulphur. tAlkalies. Professor J. P. Lesley, Chief of the Pennsylvania Geo- logical Survey,. states that the iron produced from this ore is always "cold-short," but that it is valuable to work with richer and less fusible ores. This is the character of this ore in other localities, and it appears to have a wide range, ex- tending even into Wisconsin. But the samples examined in this laboratory do not yield as much phosphoric acid as the usual average of this ingredient; and from experiments which have been made in smelting this Tennessee ore, it is believed that a good tough iron can be made from it. F. A sample of the Pig- Iron made at the furnace at the Curm- berland- Gap. from the Clinton Ore, was obtained by Mr. P. N. Moore, and analyzed. The iron is fine-grained mill iron It yields with difficulty to the file, but extends under the hammer a little more than is usual with pig iron. 340 I Lime. 160 Graphite . Combined carbono.. Manganese . Silicon . Slag. Aluminum Calcium. Magnesium . Phosphorus ......... Sulphur . It will be seen that this best quality of pig metal. 3: 6o Total carbon - 4.100. .'S3 I.668 .480 .766 .112 .270 .145 .o68 100.590 iron will compare favorably with the- G. iCoal from Winter's Gap, near Knoxville, Tennessee." In a valley about ten miles from the Cincinnati Southern- Railroad. The bed is said to be seven feet thick, and three- acres of it have been mined out without leaving a pillar. Said to be the best pit coal in Tennessee. The sample was pre- sented by Gen. Winder at the Centennial Exhibition. It is- quite a pure-looking, firm-, pitch-black, glossy coal; not break- ing into thin laminx; having no apparent fibrous coal, and very little granular pyrites. COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED. Specific gravity........ . 1.256 Hygroscopic moisture . . '.64 Ttl volatile matters.. .. -4 Volatile combustible matters . . . . 36.76Toa Spongy coke . ..... .... . 61.60 Fixed carbdn in the coke. 59.90 Carrot-colored ash. 1.70 100.00 100.00 The per centage of sulphur is . 1.450 This is a coal of remarkable purity, leaving a smaller pro- portion of ash than any coal examined during the Geological Survey of Kentucky. Of course it cannot be considered an average sample of the bed, yet it is evidence of its superior quality. The proximity of this bed of coal to the Cincinnati Railroad makes it matter of interest to our citizens. 34[ Iron . CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. COMPOSITION OF THIS CLINTON PIG IRON. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . 92.828 i6i : : : : :.... . : : ......... :. .. . .. .. : , .. . .. .. . . :.. : , CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. GERMAN GLASS POT FIRE-CLAY, AS COMPARED WITH SAMPLES OF KENTUCKY CLAY. On a recent visit to the great International Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, the attention of the writer was attracted by a l exhibit of this fire-clay, supposed to be one of the most refractory known, and imported for the construc- tion of crucibles to wvithstand a very high heat, but particu- larly for our glass manufacturers, who seem to agree that no other knowvn clay vill so completely withstand the great heat of their furnaces, and the fluxing influence of the melted glass, as this. It is consequently almost universally used by them as the material for the construction of the glass pots or large crucibles, in which. the glass is made and melted. The exhibit of this clay at the Centennial Exhibition was made by J. Goebel & Co., importers of German clay, and manufacturers of crucibles, &c., Maiden Lane, New York. It showed the clay in its natural and prepared conditions; and accompanying the specimnens was a report of the chemical analysis of the material. said to have been made in Germany, a copy of whiclh is appended. With a view to study this valuable clay, in comparison with some Kentucky samples from our coal measures, the Writer secured a sample from what appeared to be a washed and pre- pared specimen on exhibition, which had been moulded into a cubical block, and which he has analyzed. H. The Clay is of a ligzht grey color; adheres strongly to the tongue,; and exhibits a large irregularly conchoidal fracture. Before the blow-pzie it fitsed only on the extremity of the small poin'ed fragment, into a white slag. 1. Another specimnen of this German Glass Pot Clay was ob- tained at the Co-operative Window Glass Works, at the foot of Coal Hill, opposite Pittsburg (near the inclined railroad). The pot-maker, who furnished the sample from a partly used barrel of the material, stated that it was in the condition in which it was zmyported from Germany. 342 x62 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. This had not been re-worked or washed. It resembles the preceding, but is a little more friable, and slightly lighter col- ored. Its powder, however, is somewhat darker than the powder of that. Before the blow-pipe it acted like that. J. Copy of the analysis of this clay made iZn Germany, as ex- hibited by J. Goebel &F Co. For comparison with these, I append a copy of the analysis of some clay from Carter county, Kentucky (see volume I, Kentucky Geological Reports, new series, page 179, lower paging), labeled- No. 133 7-Fizle-clay, asterage sample from the upper bed, four feel thick, ou both sides of /le hiZ. Ridge between Grassy and -Three ProngCreek. Boone Furnzace properly. Whole bed ei-ht to ten fetelthick. Collected by P. NM Moore." This clay, forming a heavy stratum, is in a compact state- so hard as scarcely to.be scratched with the nail; breaking into angular fragments. It is of a light-grey color, and be- comes plastic when reduced to powder. COMPOSITION OF THESE FIRE-CLAYS, DRIED AT 2120 F. (Except J. which seems to have been more thoroughly dried). H. I. J. No. 1337. Silica. . .. .. . .. . .. . 70.860 t73.66o 70.60 48. 560 Alumirn ia. .. . .. .. . . . .. . 20.900 19.460 23.60 37 471 Iron oxide (calculated as peroxide).... . 560 1. 560. .. a trace. Iron sulphide. . ..... .. . . .. . . 1.10 Lime . . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. 347 .168 .36 .112 Magnesia. . . . .. . .. . .220 .209 .45 a trace. Phosphoric acid............. . not est.not est. not est. .255 Sulphuric acid........ . .. . . not est.not est. not est. not est. Potash. . .... ....... .. . . .578 .520 not est. .289 Soda... . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .112 .046 not est. .283 Water expelled at red heat....... . 6.800 6.200 13.S9 12.030 Total. ...... . .. . .. . .. 101 377 o10.823 100.00 99g.0 e Including about four per cent. of fine sand. . Including about three and a half per cent of fine sand. Organic matters and loss. The iron peroxide obtained in the analyses of H and I was doubtless derived from iron sulphide in the clay. The appar- ent excess is probably due mainly to fixed alkalies in the pre- 343 x63 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. cipitated alumina, which may be estimated correspondingly too high. The large proportion of silica in the German clay (a part of which is in the state of fine sand) is notable in comparison with the Carter county clay; and this large proportion of silica or sand increases the refractory quality of the clay. But pure fine sand or pulverized quartz could quite cheaply be added to our clay, which, in other respects, seems to be at least equal in quality as a fire-clay to the German article, containing even less of those ingredients which increase the fusibility of clay, viz: iron oxide, lime, potash, soda, and mag- nesia. How the phosphoric acid acts in this relation is said not to have been fully determined by experiment; but it tun- doubtedly increases the fusibility. As will be seen, the pro- portion of this ingredient was not ascertained in the German clay, although it is no doubt present in notable quantity. There can be little doubt that some of our native fire-clays can be made quite refractory by a judicious process of prepa- ration or purification, including, perhaps, washing with water, or water containing chlorohydric acid, which is very cheap, the addition of pulverized quartz, &c. In this relation we may notice a beautiful hydrated silicate of alumina-the Indiana kaolin, or what is denominated midi- anaite by Prof. E. T. Cox, of the Indiana Geological Survey- a large and handsome sample of which was exhibited at the Centennial. This remarkable clay-like mineral, which was discovered first in Illlliois, and called Golconda clay, was found in Lawrence county, Indiana. in 1875, forming a six feet bed, just under the coal measures conglomerate, and over a bed of brown hematite iron ore. Where it has not been impregnated with iron oxide it is a pure hydrated silicate of alumina, of the composition of halloysite, passing in its greenish portions into alophane. This so-called porcelain clay soon attracted the attention of potters, and is now in great demand for the manufacture of the finer qualities of pottery ware. The writer believes, how- ever, from the brief examination he has given it, that it de- 344 x 64 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. serves a more exalted application, being, when pure and free from infiltrated iron oxide and lime, more refractory before the blow-pipe than any clay he has examined. It is therefore believed that it might find a more suitable application in the manufacture of the most refractory crucibles, and that, when mixed with pure fine sand or pulverized quartz, it might very well answer for glass pots. The general composition of the white variety, as reported by Prof. Cox (Geological Report of Indiana, 1874, page i8), is as follows: Silica...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 45.90 Alumina..... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 40.34 Lime.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . trace. W ater...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 13.26 A specimen of this mineral, obtained by the writer from that exhibited at the Centennial (beautifully translucent; nearly white, with a slight greenish tint), when examined for fixed alkalies, gave 0.198 per cent. of potash, and 0.204 of soda, when dried at 212 F. It was not examined for alkaline earths or phosphoric acid. This mineral, which may be made so useful in the arts, may doubtless be discovered in Kentucky in a similar geological position with that in Indiana. VOL. 1.-CHEM. 23. 34i i65