You have found an item located in the Kentuckiana Digital Library.
Chemical report of the soils, coals, ores, clays, marls, iron, slags, mineral waters, rocks, &c., of Kentucky / by Robert Peter-- assisted by Alfred M. Peter. Peter, Robert, 1805-1894. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b97-22-37599595 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Chemical report of the soils, coals, ores, clays, marls, iron, slags, mineral waters, rocks, &c., of Kentucky / by Robert Peter-- assisted by Alfred M. Peter. Peter, Robert, 1805-1894. J.D. Woods, public printer and binder, [Frankfort] :  p. -261 : charts ; 26 cm. Coleman "The fifth report in the new series, and the ninth since the beginning of the Geological Survey." Issued with the sixth Chemical report and reprints of the fourth Chemical report and Comparative views of the composition of the soils, limestones, clays, marls, &c., &c., of the several geological formations of Kentucky, and index, as Chemical analyses A, vol. II. Index follows last report in collection. Reports have individual and collective pagination, the latter of which is used in this record. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1997. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN06859.07 KUK) s1997 gaun a Printing Master B97-22. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Geology, Economic Analysis.Peter, Alfred Meredith, 1857- GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. JOHN R. PROCTER, DIRECTOR. CHENIICAL RIPOR ET OF THE Soils. Coals, Ores, Clays, Marls, Iron, Slags, Mineral Waters, Rocks, Etc., OF KENTUCKY. BY ROBERT PETER, M. D., ETC., ETC., CHEMIST TO THE SURVEY, ASSISTED BY ALFRED M. PETER, S. MI. The fifth Report in the New Series, and the ninth since the be- ginning of the Geological Survey. JOHN D. WOODS, PUBLIC PRINTER AND BINDER. INTRODUCTORY NOTE. CHEMICAL LABORATORY OF KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY,I STATE A. AND M. COLLEGE, LEXINGTON, Dec., i883. f JOHN R. PROCTER, Director of Kentucky Geological Survey: DEAR SIR: Herewith I respectfully submit to you the report of the chemical work performed in this laboratory for the Geo- logical Survey since the publication of my last report. Yours, etc., ROBERT PETER. CHEMICAL REPORT. In the present report the results are given of more than two hundred chemical analyses. There are of Soils and subsoils ................ . 16 Coals.. .................. .......... 112 Cokes ... . . ........... ............ 19 Mineral wate.- .. 26 Limestones.. 19 Sandstones........................... . 2 Clays. . 2 Iron ores . .15 Pig irons and slags . . ..... ...... 4 Marls, ochre, coprolite. . .... .. 3 Total. . . .... 218 The SOILS AND SUBSOILs are from four counties only, viz.: MIorgan, Nelson, Shelby, and Spencer, representing, respect- ively, coal measures, upper Silurian, and upper Hudson river formation soils. The six coal-measures soils from Morgan county, with the exception of the virgin woodland soils, do not probably repre- sent the best average soil of that region, having been collected on the water-shed of the Licking river, where they have been subjected to the leaching action of the atmospheric waters, or on the bottom land bordering the stream. But they all may be profitably cultivated under favorable conditions. It will be seen that the subsoil contains less carbonate of lime than the surface soil, also less of rocky fragments, and the old-field soils show in every case a dimunition of the essential elements of fertility as the result of continued cultivation. The Shelby county soils, except No. 2436, which is on the upper Silurian formation, are located on the upper Hudson river beds. Nos. 2430, 243i, and 3432 contain more than the average proportions of all the essential elements of fertility, and less than the average of sand and silicates, and should therefore be quite fertile under favorable conditions. Numbers CHENTICAL REPORT. 2433 and 2435 are remarkable for their large proportions of organic and volatile matters, alumina, etc., etc., and especially of carbonate of lime, TNto. 2435 containing as much as 25.245 per cent. of that ingredient, constituting it a kind of marl, and No. 2433 contains 4.695 per cent. more than has been observed in any other Kentucky soil heretofore analyzed. Their propor- tions of potash, extracted by acids, is also exceptionally large, be- ing 2.0I5 per cent. in No. 2433 and I.772 per cent. in No. 2435. They also contain much less than the usual quantity of sand and insoluble silicates, these being in the proportion of 6i.045 per cent. in the former and only 47.295 in the latter soil. The former contains 8.2 per cent. of fragments of calcareous fossils and rock fragments, and the latter, which is a subsoil, as much as 41.2 per cent., and should be discounted in these proportions. A certain small quantity of lime in the soil is essential to pro- ductiveness, as this substance is an indispensable element of all vegetable structures, and the influence of very large proportions of carbonate of lime on the soil has been ascertained to a cer- tain extent by practical experiment and observation. Applied in quantity to a heavy, wet, clay soil, lime, which soon becomes carbonate, makes it more light and friable, lessens its tendency to shrink and swell in dry and wet seasons, and allows water to evaporate from it more freely. But when the carbonate of lime is in too large proportion, untempered by clay, it forms a soil which parts with its water too readily, and be- comes so light in times of drought that its surface may be blown away by the wind, conditions unfavorable to vegetation. The chemical relations of carbonate of lime are quite important. In contact with the insoluble silicates of the soil, it favors their de- composition, setting free, in a soluble form, their potash, soda, phosphoric acid, etc. It also greatly aids the decomposition, in the moist soil, of the organic matters present, causing the more rapid formation of carbonic acid and water and favoring the pro- duction of ammonia and nitrates-all essential food of plants. It also has the valuable property of absorbing and holding for the nourishment of vegetation, organic matters, ammonia, and other nitrogen compounds, and the phosphoric acid, which may 4 I 58 CHEMICAL REPORT. be in the air or water which penetrate the soil. Within proper limits, therefore, this ingredient of soils is very valuable, and the farmers of England especially, habitually apply it to their culti- vated soils. The old-field soil, No. 2434, from the same locality as these two calcareous soils, is remarkable for containing much smaller proportions of carbonate of lime and of the other essential in- gredients than those, although it contains more than average quantities. It differs from them greatly also in its 83.3 I per cent. of sand and insoluble silicates, and in containing no calcareous fossils or rock fragments, seeming to show that, although on the same farm, it may be located on a different geological sub- stratum or bed. The two Spencer county soils, soil and subsoil, from a very old field located on the upper Hudson river beds, yet retain full average proportions of the essential elements, organic mat- ters, or humus, excepted. The surface soil contains more than average sand and silicates and phosphoric acid, less than average proportions of organic matters and potash, and about averages of alumina, lime, and magnesia. The subsoil contains more than average proportions of alumina, etc., phosphoric acid and potash, less than average of organic matters and sand and sili- cates, and about average lime and magnesia. Its proportion of potash is much above the average, and in both organic matters are quite deficient. More than twenty years ago the late Prof. Liebig, then as now an ii authority " on agricultural chemistry, promulgated his opinion, based, as we believe, on imperfect data, that the chemi- cal analysis of soils is of no practical value. At once all the authors at second-hand took up the cry, and to this day copyists and others who have no taste for this kind of investigation, or who had not been trained to appreciate the value of its indica- tions, while in accordance with the progress of agricultural chemistry they are obliged to attach great importance to the presence or absence of certain elements of fertility in soils, still keep up an inconsistent opposition to this mode of interrogating nature in aid of agriculture. One principal argument used by S I 59 CHEMICAL REPORT. these objectors is that the acid solvents used by the chemists in their analyses differ from the natural agents of solution by which the soil elements are made available for plant growth. But Liebig himself measurably destroyed the force of this objection when he called attention to the fact that plants do not derive their soil ingredients from the so-called " soil water" alone, but exert, through their rootlets, a direct solvent action on the parti- cles of the soil; and the solvent is proved to be an acid one. The present writer, in experiments detailed in a previous report, proved that strong acids, such as oxalic and phosphoric acids, enter into the composition of this peculiar solvent or digestive fluid of plants, by means of which solid ingredients of the soil are dissolved and made available for their nourishment and growth. Time and experience have gradually set aside most of the objections which were made to this mode of studying the char- acter and value of soils, and in a new country no other method is known by which the capabilities of the virgin soil can be so cheaply, speedily and certainly estimated. More especially is this true in Kentucky, where the soils have mostly been formed in place by the disintegration of the subjacent rocks, and not of transported materials. We may briefly recapitulate some of the peculiar uses of soil analysis: i. To teach the natural capabilities of the soil; its present probable fertility and durability under existing conditions. 2. To detect elements or conditions injurious to plant growth, and point out available remedies. 3. To show any surplus or deficiency of essential elements, and indicate the best remedies-fertilizers or mechanical agencies. A good analysis of the soil of a homogeneous field may be beneficial for ages, if properly understood and judiciously taken as a guide in culture and the application of fertilizers. A good exemplification of these facts appeared in -a letter from Charles Bernard to the New York Evening Post, in I 87I, giving an account of the extraordinary farming operations of See Vol. V., Ky. Geological Reports, N. S., pp. 239, 244. 6 i6o CHEMICAL REPORT. Mr. John Prout, of London, on a worn-out clay farm of four hundred and fifty acres, near the town of Sawbridgeworth, in Hertford county, which were then making quite a stir in England. With underdraining, deep plowing, and the use of chemical fer- tilizers, bone-dust, superphosphates, etc., etc., without any barn- yard manure, he soon caused the unproductive soil to bear the largest crops ever known in the country. To obtain this high and profitable improvement, Mr. Prout kept a chemist constantly employed on his farm, who reported regularly the composition of the soil of each field, and directed and superintended the application of the chemicals and fertil- izers to make and keep the land fertile and productive. And Mr. Bernard reported the standing crops, which he personally examined, on the several fields to be, I without exception, of most extraordinary vigor and abundance." But the most remarkable novelty of Mr. Prout's management was that as the crops ripened they were all sold at auction and entirely removed by the purchasers from the ground, "s so that the harvesting and marketing occupy one day." This plan was successfully con- tinued year after year, and Mr. Prout's books showed a greater net profit than was obtained by any farmer in the country, although he expended 5,750 a year for fertilizers alone. Late reports, if the writer is not misinformed, stated that he was yet successfully carrying out this improved agriculture. The one hundred and twelve Kentucky COALS analyzed, which are here reported, are from eighteen counties, viz.: Bell, Breathitt, Carter, Elliott, Floyd, Johnson, Knox, Laurel, Law- rence, Letcher, Magoffin, Martin, Morgan, Muhlenberg, Perry, Pike, Pulaski, and Whitley. For comparison with our Kentucky coals, three samples each from Alabama and Tennessee and one from West Virginia were collected and analyzed, and the analyses of four celebrated Pennsylvania coking coals made by the chemist of the Geolog- ical Survey of that State are copied. Of the samples of Kentucky coals, eighteen were of cannel coals. Of these the average volatile combustible matters, includ- ing No. 2291, (which, having as much as 20.60 per cent. of ash, 7 i6i CHEMICAL REPORT. might probably be excluded as belonging rather to the bitumin- ous shales than coals,) was 46.32 per cent. The average ash percentage of the cannel coals examined, excluding No. 2291, was 9.36: varying from 2.20 per cent. in No. 2369, Letcher county, to i9.50 in No. 238i, of Morgan county. It will be seen by reference to the table that several of the Kentucky cannel coals are more than equal in gas-making or gas-improv- ing power, to the cannel coal of West Virginia, which is much used for that purpose. The specific gravity of the coals, here reported, varies from i.i9i in No. 2354, of Letcher, with an ash percentage of only 2.60, to 1.634 in No. 2286, in Carter, with an ash percentage of 40.00. This latter, however, should more properly be called a bituminous shale than a coal. It is proposed to draw the line between these shales and coals proper on the ash percentage of 20.00, giving the name shale to all which have a greater per- centage than this. The volatile combustible matters of these coals (excluding the cannel coals) varies from 22.70 per cent. in No. 2346, from Letcher, which had an ash percentage of 9.54, to 40.90 per cent. in No. 2354, of Letcher, which had an ash percentage of only 2.60. Thefixed carbon in the coke varied from 33.76 per cent. in No. 2381, of Morgan county, to 67.60 per cent. in No. 2404, of Pike. The sulphur varied from 4.527 per cent. in No. 2385, from Morgan county, to 0.390 per cent. in No. 2405, of Pike county. Those coals which have the largest proportion of fixed carbon with the smallest percentage of sulphur are the best fitted for coking purposes, provided they have enough volatile combustible matters to cause them to soften and become porous in coking, and to afford heat enough by their combustion to effect the pro- cess without burning fixed carbon. Cannel coals do not make good coke for the iron-smelting furnace, because, although they give more volatile combustible matter than most other coals, they do not soften much or become porous in coking. The so-called bituminous or soft coals, gen- 8 i62 CHEMICAL REPORT. erally soften ard swell too much for this use, and their coke consequently will not support the burden in the high furnace. But the so-called splint, or semi-cannel coal, known in Indiana as "s block coal," of which variety there is a vast quantity in Kentucky, characterized by its laminated structure and firm con- sistence, softens and swells less than the soft bituminous coal when exposed to heat, becoming a dense, firm coke with small pores, and consequently it is largely used without coking in the smelting of iron. The softer and purer varieties of this coal, such as are found in Pike and other counties, are admirably adapted to the pro- duction of good coke, which compares most favorably with the best and most celebrated cokes of Pennsylvania. (See context, Bell and Pike counties, and Table II.) Cannel coal, when heated, gives off without softening much combustible gas, which burns with a clear, luminous flame, from which it derived its name-cannel (Scotch) or candle coal. It owes this peculiar property to the fact that it contains oxygen in large proportion to its hydrogen and carbon. The soft bitumin- ous coal, on the other hand, contains but little oxygen; its gas, mainly composed of hydro-carbons, burns with a more smoky flame, and it appproaches in physical properties the " bitumens" proper. Anthracite coal is not to be found in Kentucky. This con- tains little or no volatile combustible matter, being mainly carbon and of the nature of a dense, compact coke. The Broad Top coking coal of Pennsylvania approaches anthracite in its large percentage of fixed carbon. (See Table III, and under Pike county.) In the analysis of coals much depends on the collection of average samples of the bed. This has been carefully done in most cases, and in some samples of the several benches or layers have been separately collected and analyzed. Of the nineteen cokes which have been analyzed, sixteen are from eight counties in Kentucky, and two are of the Jellico Mountain Coal and Coke Company's coke. The analysis of the celebrated Connellsville coke of Pennsylvania is copied from the Special Report L, of the second Pennsylvania Geological Survey. 9 i63 CHEMICAL REPORT. The average percentage of fixed carbon in the sixteen Ken- tucky cokes is 90.6i, including the very impure coke, No. 2326, of Hopkins county, which was made of unwashed impure slack coal; or, excluding this very exceptional sample, the fixed car- bon average is 91.I05 per cent., even when another very impure sample, No. 2325, from the same locality, is included; ranging from 77.20 per cent. in No. 2326, up to 95.70 per cent. in No. 2342, of Laurel county. The ash percentage averages 7.44 per cent, including No. 2326, and 6.6o per cent. when this very impure coke is excluded; ranging from only 2.60 per cent. in No. 2449, of Whitley county, up to 13.80 per cent. in No. 2325, of Hopkins county, while it is 20.80 per cent. in the excluded sample, No. 2326. The percentage of sulcphur in these Kentucky cokes is i.o88 per cent., including the very impure No. 2326, or 0.907 per cent. when this sample is excluded; ranging from only 0.517 in No. 2414, of Pike county, up to 3.799 in No. 2326, of Hopkins county, above described. Table III shows, however, that so far as chemical composition is concerned all of the Kentucky cokes reported, with two or three exceptions only, equal or excel the celebrated Connells- ville coke of Pennsylvania, and there is no doubt that Kentucky possesses a large area of coal which is eminently fitted for the smelting of iron ores, either in the coked or uncoked condition. Of the fourteen iron ores reported from Greenup, Johnson, and Pike counties, nothing especially new is to be stated. Num- bers 2309, 2310, 2312, and 23i6 contain a fair proportion of manganese, but not enough to make them available for the manufacture of spiegeleisen, used in the Bessemer steel process. In this connection, however, attention is called to a sample sent to the Chemical Laboratory of the Kentucky Geological Survey for analysis, in i858 or i859, by Messrs. Lampton, Nicholl & Co., the proprietors of Star Furnace, Carter county, labeled by them No. 6 and designated as "black ore," which on analysis was found to contain manganese equivalent to 39.677 per cent. of its brown oxide. (See Vol. 4, 0. S., Kentucky Geological Reports, pp. io6-7, No. 862 ) It is described as a " dark-col- .0 i64 CHEMICAL REPORT. ored, friable ore; a nodular mass, with a soft brownish-yellow nucleus." If this ore is abundant it might be made useful in the manufacture of Bessemer steel. The nineteen limestones described are from seven counties, viz.: Carter, Fayette, Franklin, Mercer, Nelson, Shelby, and Spencer; from the coal measures, upper silurian, chazy, upper Hudson, and Trenton formations. They vary greatly in their composition, as may be seen in the following comparative state- ment. Of the eleven samples of phosphatic limestone from the Trenton (lower silurian) formation of Fayette county, only their relative proportion of phosphoric acid was estimated. In the other eight different limestones; The Carbonate of Lime ranged From 96.380 per cent. in No. 2290, coal-measures limestone, of Carter county, To 40.780 per cent. in No. 2437, upper silurian ..... . of Shelby county. The Carbonate of Magnesia ranged From 80.720 per cent. in No. 2378, chazy limestone, . of Mercer county, To 1.135 per cent. in No. 2290, coal-measures limestone, . of Carter county. The Alumina and Iron Oxide, etc., ranged From 10.550 per cent. in No. 2379, chazy limestone, ... . of Mercer county, To .980 per cent. in No. 2290, coal-measures limestone, . of Carter county. The Phosphoric Acid in the Nineteen ranged From 11.650 per cent. in No. 2292-3, Trenton limestone, . . of Fayette county, To a trace . . . in No. 2290, coal-measures limestone . of Carter county. And the Siltiious Residue in the Eight ranged From 25.520 per cent. in No. 2437, upper silurian ..... . of Nelson county, To .380 per cent. in No. 2290, coal-measures limestone, . of Carter county. The alkalies, potash, and soda were determined only in the three limestones from Nelson and Spencer counties, all three from the upper Hudson river beds. The potash in the Nelson county limestones is severally 0.423 and 0.443 per cent., and the soda 0.248 and 0.254 per cent. In that of Spencer county they exist in the proportions of 0.154 per cent. of potash and 0.212 of soda. In this limestone the phosphoric acid is equal to 1.842 per cent.; in that from Franklin county (lower Trenton) the phosphoric acid is 2.968 per cent., and in No. 2394, Nelson county, it is 1.202 per cent. It will be seen that the coal-measures limestone is a remark- ably pure carbonate of lime, which would give nearly 54 per cent. of pure, white quick-lime, containing but little magnesia, alumina, and iron oxide, manganese and silica. The limestones, I I x65 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 2395 and 2437, from Nelson and Shelby counties, would probably yield good hydraulic cements, and those which have a large proportion of phosphoric acid are well fitted for improve- ment of soils, as well as for all the ordinary uses of lime or lime- stones. Of the twenty-six mineral waters examined, only twenty were submitted to quantitative analysis; and as these were analyzed in samples sent to the laboratory in bottles, etc., the proportions of the gases in them could not be determined with accuracy. Five, from Anderson, Boyle, and Ohio counties, are sulphur waters, so-called from the presence in them of hydrogen sul- phide gas, and as in the case with No. 2262, of Anderson county, a smali proportion of sodium sulphide. Five, all from Boyle county, are chalybeate waters, so-called because they contain a notable quantity of compounds of iron, and ten, from Bell, Boyle, Kenton, and Logan counties, are denominated saline waters, from the predominance of alkaline and earthy salts in the com- position of their saline materials. The sulphur waters vary considerably in their saline contents, some of them, such as Nos. 2274, 2275, and 2276, are called "black sulphur waters," from the circumstance that the iron carbonate, which they contain in notable proportions, varying in the several springs, undergoes decomposition, together with the hydrogen sulphide gas, when the water is exposed to the atmos- phere, and the sulphur of the gas uniting with the iron of the carbonate produce a black sulphide of iron, which forms the deposit from which the water takes its name. The black sul- phur waters, which should be used only fresh at the spring, are always somewhat chalybeate. The Boyle county sulphur waters, with the exception of No. 2275, which is simply a chalybeate sulphur water, contain enough saline matters to make them slightly aperient, especially No. 2276. In this respect No. 2379, from Ohio county, resembles them, but it contains much more sulphate of lime. The sulphur water from Anderson county, No. 2262, exceeds them all in its proportion of saline matter, mostly sodium chloride-common salt-and is a stronger and more durable sulphur water because of its sodium sulphide. In this ,2 i66 CHEMICAL REPORT. respect it resembles the celebrated Blue Lick water. It, like most of the others, contains traces of bromine, lithia, etc. The Boyle county sulphur waters are also slightly alkaline, from the presence of carbonate of soda. This is especially the case with black sulphur, No. 2274, which may therefore be more diuretic than the others. No. 2276 comes nearest to it in this respect. The five chalybeate waters are all from Boyle county. They are of two kinds, those which contain bi-carbonate of iron, such as Nos. 2269, 227i, and 2272, and those which contain sulphate of iron, viz.: Nos. 2270 and 2273. The latter, having 10.485 per thousand of saline matters, contains as much as 2.676i of sulphate of iron and 5.3477 per thousand of sulphate of alumina. It is more properly to be called an alum water than a chalybeate, and is too strong in these salts to be commonly used internally. It also, like No. 2270, is acid from the presence of free suphuric acid. The safest chalybeates are those which contain the iron in the form of bi-carbonate, which is the case with Nos. 2269, 227i, and 2272; of these the first named is the weakest. On exposure of these waters to the air, the bi-carbonate of iron, which is held in solution in the carbonated water, is changed into insoluble hydrated peroxide of iron, which falls as a brown- ish or reddish sediment. Hence such water should always be drank fresh from the spring, unless care is taken to exclude the air perfectly by inclosing it, without much agitation, in bottles with tightly-fitting glass stoppers. The ten salinewaters, from Bell, Boyle, Kenton, and Logan counties, may be divided into chloride and sulphate water. No. 2280 (a) is the only one which comes under the first division, and is simply a weak salt water, containing i3.878 per thousand of sodium chloride-common salt-the remainder of its 19.200 of total saline matters is composed of carbonates of lime and mag- nesia, and sulphates of potash, lime, and magnesia, with traces of lithia and strontia. The other nine saline waters mostly con- tain sulphates of lime, magnesia, potash, and soda, with a small proportion of chlorides, and carbonates of lime, magnesia, soda, and iron, all in variable proportions. Some, as No. 2263, from Bell county, and No. 2277, from Boyle county, contain so little 13 i67 CHEMICAL REPORT. saline matters-o. 1077 and 0.102I severally-in a thousand parts of the water, that they can not properly be included under the head of mineral waters, they being remarkably pure potable waters. No. 2280 (a), with its o.686 of Iotalsaline matters, comes very nearly under the same classification. According to recent reports of the influence of potable waters upon the health of communities, a certain amount of saline matter in the water is useful and necessary to health, provided these mineral substances have representatives in the animal economy, which is the case with lime, magnesia, iron, potash, soda, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, chlorine, etc., etc.; but if the potable water is too pure-too free from these wholesome saline matters-" the health of the community using it suffers." The recognized healthy proportion of such saline matters " does not exceed 0.500 in the thousand of water, nor fall below o. I30 to the thousand." It is evident, however, that this statement would not apply in all localities. Notwithstanding these facts it is well known that some of the most celebrated waters in the world-widely known from their great curative action in many cases of disease-are found to be, on analysis, like Nos. 2263 and 2277, nearly pure water; and the demonstration is thus given that in certain conditions of the animal economy, where a depurative remedy is necessary or ap- propriate, the free use of pure water becomes a good curative agency when applied with discretion. The remainder of these saline waters contain sulphates of lime, magnesia, potash, and soda, etc., in sufficient quantities to make them laxative in their action. Some, as Nos. 2280, 2278, and 2263, contain some carbonate of soda. All have a small quantity of carbonate of iron, especially No. 2371, of Logan county, which has 0.326 of this material, making it notably cha- lybeate, and No. 2278, of Boyle, which contains 0.102 per thousand. Under the head of Boyle county is the description of certain coprolites, No. 228i, found at the base of the WVaverley beds, See nrticle "Eaux Potables,' par A. Gautier. (JVurtz: Dictionnaire de Chemie, etc. T. 1 Part. 2. p. 1200.) 14 1r68 CHEMICAL REPORT. which gave on analysis as much as 29.I per cent. of phosphoric anhydride (P2 05). Under that of Floyd county, No. 2304, are described certain other phosphatic concretions, of irregular coni- cal and somewhat spiral forms, probably coprolites, which are found in apparently a more recent clay, which have the property of changing from their original light-grey to a grey-blue color on exposure to the atmosphere-which gave as much as 8 per cent. of phosphoric anhydride. A sandstone, No. 2393, from Nelson county, Boston district, collected by Mr. Linney in the black Devonian slate formation, very full of fossil relics of fishes, etc., gave on analysis i i.162 per cent. of phosphoric anhydride-equivalent to 24.372 per cent. of bone phosphate. ANDERSON COUNTY. NO. 2262-MINERAL WATER: -From a bored well, eighty, feet deep. Sample sent by Henry S. Carl, of Lawrenceburg." Re- ceived October 2, 1883. A sulphur water. It had made a slight light-grey deposit in the bottles. COMPOSITION, ill 1000 Parts of the Water. Hydrogen sulphide and carbonic acid gases . Not estimated. Iron carbonate .. . ......... 0.0046 Lime carbonate.... .. .. . . .. .1827 oeldinsolution d.car- Magnesia carbonate..... . .. .. .. .1434acid. Lime sulphate..... .. .. . .. .. . 0700 Potash sulphate. ......... . 0441 Calcium chloride. ........ . .0314 Magnesium chloride .. ......... . 1140 Sodium chloride . . .......... 4.5000 Sodiumsulphide.... .. . .. .. .. .0410 Silica.... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .0236 Lithia, bromine, etc., etc ........ . . Not estimated. Total saline matters . . . . . . . . . . 5.1648 in 1000 parts of the water. A good saline sulphur water, very slightly chalybeate, resem- bling in general properties the celebrated Blue Lick water, but containing somewhat less saline matters than that. The amount of the gases and of the minuter ingredients could only be ascer- tained by operating on the water fresh at the well and in larger quantities than was furnished for the present analysis. 15 169 CHEMICAL REPORT. BELL COUNTY. NO.2263-" MINERAL WATER: From Clear Creek Springs, about four miles above Pineville." Collected by Roger C. Ballard, July ri, z883. The water was brought in half-gallon glass preserve bottles, with tight metal covers and rubber collars. It had no percepti- ble odor when received at the laboratory, although Mr.- Ballard states it smells of hydrogen sulphide at the spring. It was almost tasteless and perfectly colorless, with a very slight flocu- lent, brownish deposit in the bottles. " The inhabitants of the region believe they derive benefit from its use as a mineral water. COMPOSITION, in 1000 Parts of the Water. Carbonate of lime..... .. . .. .. . 0.0356 Held in solution by car- Carbonate of magnesia..... .. . .. . Trace. t bonic acid. Sulphate of lime............. . . 0056 Sulphate of magnesia ......... .. . .0246 Chloride of calcium ........ . .... .0027 Carbonate of soda ... . .. ....... .0316 Silica.... .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .0076 Iron oxide, alumina, etc ........... . Trace. Total saline matters ... . . . . .... 0.1077 in 1000 parts of the water. This is nearly a pure water, which could not strictly be classed with mineral waters proper. This, however, does not prevent it from exerting a curative influence in many cases, as it is well known that several so-called mineral waters celebrated because of the cures attributed to their use have been found, by analysis, to be almost pure water. Pure water in proper quantity is a very good depurative agent. NO. 2264-COAL: " T. G. Killum's, four and a half miles from Pineville and eight and a hay miles from Cumberland Gap." Collected by Roger C. Ballard, August 5, 1883. A firm, pure-looking coal, containing very little fibrous coal'or mineral charcoal. Fracture generally irregular-cuboidal, with glossy, pitch-like surfaces. A few fragments of shaley coal included in the sample, and a little of bright iron pyrites on some of the surfaces. A portion of a pyritous layer was ex- cluded. i6 I 70 CHEMICAL REPORT. NO. 2265-COAL: "At the house of Ben]. A. Rice, six mi/es above Pineville, on Caney Fork of Straight creek. Collected by Roger C. Ballard, JuY 3, 1883. Bed of coal thirty-six znches thick without any parting." A remarkably pure looking coal; pitch black and very glossy on most of its surfaces; very little appearance of mineral char- coal or fibrous coal, and no apparent pyrites; fracture irregular. NO. 2266-COAL: "I Daniel Howard's, on Caney Fork of Straight creek, four miles above Pineville. Bed showing forty-eight inches of coal, including a three-inch parting of cannel coal." A pure looking,, pitch-black, glossy coal, showing very little fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites. NO. 2267.-COAL: "Fred. Barner's bank, Yellow creek. Col- lected by Roger C. Ballard, July 28, 1883. A sample of the coal which would be used in coking on a large scale, throw- ing out the upper two inches and the seam of iron pyrites." (See- next following coal.) A remarkable bright and and pure-looking, soft coal. Frac- ture irregular and cuboidal; bright, shining on all the surfaces. Hardly any fibrous coal or pyrites. Its fine powder is of a rich, dark chocolate-brown color. NO. 2268-COAL: "From same locality and bank as the next pre- ceding sample. An average sample from the entire bed of thirty-four inches. A seam of iron pyrites runs through the bed, twelve inches from the bottom, and another an inch or so from the top; the upper being not so regular as the lower." Resembles the next preceding, but is not so bright as that and shows more iron pyrites. No. 2269-COKE: "Made by Roger C. Ballard, from the coal of Fred. Barner's bank, Yellow creek, six miles from Pineville, and seven miles from Cumberland Gap, July 29, i883." Quite a hard, spongy coke. Most probably if coked in larger quantities its pores would be smaller. (2) 17 I71I 172 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE BELL COUNTY COALS AND COKE. (Air-dried.) No. 2264 No. 2265 No. 2266 No. 2267 No. 2268 No. 2269 Specific gravity....... . 1.344 1.241 1.254 1.270 1.281 a 1.871 Hygroscopic moisture. .... 1.00 Volatile combustible matters . . 32.70 Coke . .. . . . .. . .. . 66.30 To.)al . . ....... . . I 100.00 1.00 1.10 .86 .86 .06 37.46 36.44 :16.04 35.60 .60 61.54 62.46 63.10 63.54 99.34 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Total volatile matters. . 33.70 38.46 37.54 36.90 36.46 .66 Fixed carbon in the coke... 52.80 60.48 59.66 59.20 57.88 93.34 Ash. . . .. . . .. . . .. 13.50 1.06 2.80 3.90 5.66 6.00 Total......100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke. . . . h SSpongy Spongy. SpLigyht Light Spongy. Color of the .sh .. . . . . I Lt. ch'te- Salmon- Lt. ch'te- Br. lilac- Br. lilac- Dk. pur.- C grey. colored. grey. grey. grey. brown. Percentage of sulphur.... 2.115 .593 .613 2.032 2.455 1.335 a The specific gravity was taken with the coarsely-powdered coke. With the exception of No. 2264 these coals are remarkably rich and pure, containing much less than the average proportions of ash and sulphur. The coke, No. 2269, prepared from coal No. 2267, contains but little more than one half of the sulphur which was originally in the coal from which it was made, and, except in its sulphur, compares very favorably with the celebrated Con- nellsville coke of Pennsylvania, which is so extensively used all over the continent that 8,ooo coke ovens, of a daily capacity of 15,000 tons of coke, are in constant operation. The COMPOSITION OF CONNELLSVILLE COKE, made by Frick & Co., and analyzed by McCreath, at the Chemical Laboratory of Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, is as follows: Water (at 225 F.), hygroscopic moisture............. . .030 Volatile matters....... . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .460 Fixedcarbon. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . 89.576 Sulphur.. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . . .. . .821 Ash . ........ . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . 9.118 Total...... .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . 100.000 Scientific American, November 18, 1882, p. 323, from which the above analysis is copied. See Pike county for analysis of the Cormnellsville coking coal. is CHEMICAL REPORT. The Bell county coke contains nearly 4 per cent. more carbon, and more than 3 per cent. less ash than the Connellsville, and only has about half of I per cent. more sulphur than that. BOYLE COUNTY. Mineral Vaters. NO. 2269-CHALYBEATE MINERAL WATER: "From four miles, E. of N. of Danville, in a deep gorge on Harrod's Run, or Mock's branch, about 300 yards from where it enters Dix river. The cliffs of limestone are about 300 feet high, and the spring runs out about twenty feet above their base from a horizontal crevice in the rock. Clear as crystal when it first issues and colorless, but becomes red and turbid after a few hours. Wa- ter sent by Mr. Edward H. Fox, of Danville. Received Sep- tember r7, i88r." NO. 2270-CHALYBEATE MINERAL \VATER: "From a well eight feet deep, at the Camp Ground near Danville Junction. Sent by E. D. Fox, September 29, 1883." NO. 227I-OLD CHALYBEATE SPRING WATER: "From Alum Springs, on the Knoxville branch of the L. 6 N. R. R., and half a mile from Danville Junction, on the C. S. R. R. Water sent by Joseph Maxwell." NO. 2272-CHALYBEATE WATER: "From so-called Phosphorus Spring. From same locality as next preceding." COMPOSITION OF THESE CHALYBEATE MINERAL WATERS. In 1000 Parts of the Water. Carbonic acid gas, not estimated. Held in so- Carbonate of iron. lution by Carbonate of manganese carbonic ] Carbonate of lime ..... acid.. Carbonate of magnesia.. . Sulphate of iron (Fe S04) ....... Sulphate of potash..... .. . . .. Sulphate of lime.... ... . . . Sulphate of soda..... . ..... Sulphate of magnesia ......... Magnesium chloride .......... Sodium chlorider........... Free sulphuric acid .......... Silica. Undetermined and loss ......... No. 2269 0.0298 .2257 .0102 .0067 .0313 .0275 .0068 .0071 ... . Total saline matters in 1000 parts of the water . I 0.3451 No. 2270 No. 2271 No. 2272 . .0.1862 0.1654 trace. trace. ... .0199 .0307 ... ..0093 .0133 .1977. .0235 .0140 .0140 .2917. .. . . .1521. .. . . .2250.... .... ... .0042 .0078 .0082 . .0384 .0012 .0033 .0874. .. . .. .. 1.02400.2348 0.2345 19 173 CHEMICAL REPORT. The waters numbered 2 269, 227 I, and 22 72 are good chalybe- ate waters, containing their iron in the form of ferrous carbon- ate, which is held in solution by carbonic acid, but which on standing exposed to the air separates as ferric hydrate in a reddish sediment. The water No. 2270 contains its iron in larger proportion, in the form of ferrous sulphate-copperas- and hence should be used with greater caution and only under the advice of a physician. This precaution is yet more neces- sary in regard to the water next to be described. NO. 2273-ALIUM WATER: " Dipped from a small fifty yards from the Chalybeate well, No. 2270. ward H. Fox, September 29, i88i." COMPOSITION, in 1000 Parts (f the Water. Sulphate of iron (ferrous sulphate) .... . ..... . . . ... Sulphate of alumina . Sulphate of lime....... .. ... . . ... ... .. . Sulphate of magnesia ..................... Sulphuric acid.... .. ..... ..... . .. .. . . . Alkaline salts, silica, etc. (undetermined) ............ basin, about Sent bya Ed- . . 2.6761 .. 6.3477 .4994 .1350 .2871 .. 1.5397 Total saline matters. etc................. 10.4850 NO. 2274-SULPHUR WATER: "Pumpedfrom a bored well, forty feet deep, about 150 yards from the chalybeate well, No. 2270. Sent by E. H. Fox, September 29, z88i." COM1POSITION, in 1000 Parts of the W1ater. Hydrogen sulphide and carbonic acid gases Carbonate of iron ........... Carbonates of lime and magnesia .... Sulphate of potash .... ... .... Sulphate of soda ............ Chloride of sodium .. ........ Carbonate of soda ........... Silica... .. . .. .. . .. . . . Total saline matters ........ Not estimated. . 0.0097 H Held in solution by car- . . .0314 f bonic acid. .0164 .1841 .1204 - .5089 ..0191 . . 0.8900 in 1000 parts of the water. This is a mild, saline, alkaline sulphur water, slightly chalybe- ate. On exposure to the air, the iron combines with the sul- phur and forms the black sediment. NO. 2275-BLACK SULPHUR WATER: "From Alum Springs, a spring on the Knoxville branch of the L. & N. R. R., half a 174 CHEMICAL REPORT. mile from the Danville function on the C S. R. R. Sample sent by Joseph Maxwell." COMPOSITION, in 1000 Parts of the Water. Hydrogen sulphide and carbonic acid gases . . Not estimated. Carbonate of iron.... . .. . .. . . . 0.0342 Carbonate of lime . . . . . . . . 0396 1 Held in solution by car- Carbonate of magnesia... . . 0216 ) bonic acid. Sulphate of potash.... . .0066 Sulphate of soda ...... . .... ... .0080 Chloride of sodium . . . . .0040 Carbonate of soda.... . .. . .. . . . .0870 Silica. ... Not estimated. Total saline matters ... . ... ... 0.2010 in 1000 parts of the water. This water resembles the next preceding, but is more strongly chalybeate and much less saline and alkaline than that. NO. 2276-BLACK SULPHUR WATER: Linney's Well, at Linnietta Sprzngs, tucky Camp Grounds. Sent by J. S. ''Fromt a spring formerly Central Linncty, DLIanville, COMPOSITION, its 1000 Parts of the Water. Hydrogen sulphide and carbonic acid gases . . Not estimated. Carbonate of iron .... Carbonate of lime .-.. Carbonate of magnesia Sulphate of lime Sulphate of magnesia Sulphate of potash Chloride of sodium Chloride of potassium Carbonate of soda .. Lithia and bromine . . . Silica. Total saline matters . .0.010 + .. ....... . 1.490 3. Held in solution by car- .. . .. . . .. . .0231 bonic acid. .. . . .. . .. ..267 .. . .. . .. . ..160 .. . .. . . .. ...192 .. . .. . . .. ..247 .. . .. . . .. ..006 .. . .. . . .. ..288 .. ........ . Traces. . .. .... ... Not estimated. ......... .......... .2.683 in 1000 parts of the water. Also a mild, alkaline, chalybeate sulphur water, containing more of the aperient salts than any of the other sulphur waters described above. NO. 2277-WATER: " From a well ettlht feet deep, called Petro- leiem Spring, at Aliem Sprinigs. Locality given above. Sent by Joseph Maxwell." NO. 2278-EPSOMI MINERAL WATER: "From so-ca/led Fale's Sprzng at Linnietta Springs. Sent bys J. US. Linney, Septem- ber, i883." 21 called Ken- Ky. " I7 5 CHEMICAL REPORT. NO. 2279-MINERAL WATER: " Same locality; from so-called Knott's Spring. Sent by J. S. Linney, September, 1883." NO. 2280-MINERAL WATER: " Same locality; from so-called Peter's Spring. Sent by J. S. Linney, of Danville. Received September 13, 1883." COMPOSITION OF THESE BOYLE COUNTY MINERAL WATERS. In 1000 Parts of the Water. (Carbonic acid not estimated.) No. 2277 No. 2278 No. 2279 No. 2280 Held in solu- (Carbonate of iron........ a trace 0.102 0.015 0.010 tion by car- Carbonate of lime....... . 0.0151 .198 .150 1.490 bonic acid. Carbonate of magnesia.... .. .0278 .006 .017 .023 Sulphate of magnesia.... . .. . .. . .. trace 3.124 .930 .160 Sulphate of lime.... . .. . .. . .. . .. 0408 1.766 .601 .267 Sulphate of potash.... .. . .. . .. . .. .0024 .249 .050 .192 Sulphate of sods.... . .. . .. . .. . .. .0016 .152 1.624 . Ch oride of calcium..... . .. . .. . .. .0086. . .. . . .. . Chloride of potassium.... . .. . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .006 Chloride of sodium..... . .. . .. .. . trace n. e. .247 Carbonate of Soda.... .. . .. .. . . .. . . .. .078 . . .. .288 Lithia, (chloride or sulpbate).... . .. .. . . . . traces .031 t traces Silica..... . . 0058 n. e. n. e. n. e. Total salinemattersin 1000 parts of the water . 0.1021 5.675 3.418 2.683 Lithium chloride. t Bromine, a trace. Of these waters No. 2277 is nearly pure water, being only slightly calcareous and chalybeate. It may be used for all domestic purposes although a little "hard." No. 2278 is a moderately strong Epsom water and is also slightly chalybeate. No. 2279 contains more sulphate of soda than of Epsom salt as compared with No. 2278, and might also, like that, prove aperi- ent and alterative. No. 2280, containing less sulphate of mag- nesia than these, has more common salt (chloride of sodium) and sulphate of potash, and is slightly alkaline from the pres- ence of more carbonate of soda. No doubt it would prove diuretic, alterative, and slightly ant-acid. No. 2280 (A)-" Water from a salt well forty feet deep,four and a halfinches in diameter, about three orfour hundredyards from the yards of the Junction City depot, Danville, and about forty yards from the sulphur well, No. 2274. Owned by J. S. Lin- ney. Sample sent by Edward H. Fox, October, z88z." 22 I 76 CHEMICAL REPORT. 1 77 The water had deposited a slight whitish sediment. It had no sensible odor, but a salty taste, and was neutral with litmus paper. COMPOSITION, in 1000 Parts of the Water. Caebdmate of lime . Caibonati of magnesia Sulphate of lime ..... Sulphate of potash .... Chloride of sodium ... . Silica, traces of strontia and Total saline matters . . . . . . . . . 1.464 t Held in solution by car- ........ . 1 3 6 7b o n ica c id . ..... .. . ..139 .. .146 ..... ... . 13.878 lithia n. e., and loss 2.217 ..... .. . .19.200 in 1000 parts of the water. A weak salt water; too weak to be profitably used for the production of common salt. NO. 2280 (B)-MINERAL WATER: "From a well leneed deep, at Linnietta Sirings, called by Mr. LI'iney, 'Procter's Well.'" COMPOSITION, in 1000 Parts of the Water. Carbonic acid gas ...... Carbonate of iron . Carbonate of lime.... .. Carbonate of magnesia Sulphate of lime ...... Sulphate ot magnesia . Sulphate of potash. Sulphate of soda ...... Chloride of sodium ..... Silica . Lithia, etc., traces.... . . Total saline matters ...... . Not estimated. ..........0.035 .... .0118 Held in solution by car- ..... 014. bonic acid. ..... ..240 ..... ..128 .022 .112 ..... ..007 ..... ..010 ...... .......Not estimated. . ... . . . 0.686 in 1000 parts of the water. This is nearly pure water, very slightly chalybeate, which would be wholesome as ordinary drink. No. 228I-COPROLITES: "From the base of (lhe Waverly forma- (ion, Boyle county. Collected by William M. Linney. Received October 17, 1882. Shapes generally oblong, spheroidal or ovoid, somewhat flat- tened. Exterior of a dull brownish-grey color; interior darker and irregularly cellular. Some of them contained fragments of fossil bones. On examination they were found to contain bituminous mat- ter, ferrous carbonate, and a considerable proportion of phos- 23 I 78 CHEMf ICAL REPORT. phates, which in one analysis gave 29. IO per cent. of phosphoric acid (P2 05). Another specimen, of a dark olive-grey color, sent by Mr. Linney at the same time, found at the base of the Waverly, proved to be semi-crystalline barium sulphate. BREATHITT COUNTY. No. 2282 -COAL: "From Haddock's Mines, thirty inches of can- nel coal, with ten inches of other coal above, separated by one and a half inch parting. Sample collected by C. G. Blakely. Brought August 30, i88i." A pure-looking, firm, tough cannel coal. Fracture satiny in some of the laminxe. Some little pyrites observable, but no fibrous coal. Two other analyses of this celebrated cannel coal have been made by the present writer; one published in Vol. I, Old Series of Reports of the Geological Survey of Kentucky, page 354, No. i6o; the other in Vol. IV., N. S. of same Reports, page 39, No. I 705. These analyses are copied here for comparison. COMPOSITION OF HADDOCK'S CANNEL COAL. (Air-dried.) No. 2282 No 160I fLln_ 37 Specific gravity.... .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . 1.212 1.211 L r Hvgroscopic moisture................. . 1.60 1.10 1.30 Volatile combustible matters..... .. . .. .. . . 46.60 48.90 47.00 Coke. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . 61.80 60.00 61.70 Total.. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . 100.00100.00 100.00 Total volatile matters.48.20 60.00 48.30 Fixed carbon in the coke.46.80 47.00 44.40 Ash . . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . 6.00 8.00 7.30 Total........................ 100.00100.00 100.00 Character of the coke................ S n.. Dense. Color of the ash........ ........... Lt. bro'hBuff Brown'b I grey. colored. grey. Percentage of sulphur............. 0.824 0.241 1.574 24 CHEMICAL REPORT. These three several analyses, made in the years I855, I876, and I 88 I, severally, show that the bed has measurably preserved uniformity of composition during the twenty-eight years of work- ing. It is true that sample No. I705 shows a higher specific gravity and more ash and sulphur than the other two samples; but it was stated at the time that this was a somewhat weathered specimen, soiled somewhat with earthy and ferruginous matters and showing more than the usual quantity of iron sulphide. CARTER COUNTY. NO. 2283-COAL, NO. 7 OR COALTON COAL: "Sample from the Iifty-eight-inch bed, in about equal quantities from zupper, middle, and lower layers, by Mr. Robert Eliwood, who brought the sam- ple to the laboratory, November z8, i88i, from the Straight Creek Coal Company's mine, near Mt. Savage Furnace, by direction of H. W. Bates, Esq." Bright, pure-looking coal, with very little fibrous coal or pyrites, except a few minute scales of bright iron bi-sulphide on one fragment. The sample was pounded up and thoroughly mixed for analysis. NO. 2284-COAL: "Herron's cannel coal, on Little Sinking creek, near Aden Station; geological position No. 2. Bed twenty-six inches thick. Collected by A. R. Crandall, Decem- ber 21, z88i." A very tough, dull-black, cannel coal, showing no fibrous coal between its adherent laminae. On some surfaces are impres- sions of minute leaves of ferns; a little pyrites on some por- tions; fracture, on some of the thick layers, broad conchoidal. NO. 2285-CANNEL COAL: " Sent by J. M. Bent, Aden Station; owned by Mitchell&Bent, Mt. Sterling. Bedthirty inches thick." An exceedingly tough cannel coal, dull black, show'ing no fibrous coal and very little pyrites; not readily cleaving into laminae. Resembles the next preceding. No. 2286-CANNEL COAL OR BITUMINOUS SHALE: -From same locality as the next preceding; owned by same persons. Bed thirty inches thick; fifty feet below the next preceding. 25 I 79 CHEMICAL REPORT. Dull-black or dark slate-colored; cleaving into thin, hard, laminae, with no fibrous coal and very little appearance of pyrites; some ferruginous incrustations on the exposed surfaces. NO. 2287-CANNEL COAL: "From Little Sandy. Bed twenty- three inches thick. Owned by Mr. Parsons. Sample from the top and bottom layers, sixteen feet from the outcrop. Sent by J. M. Bent, Mt. Sterling, May is, 1882." A very tough, pure-looking cannel coal; a portion breaks with some difficulty into irregular laminae, with some reed-leaf- like impressions in the mineral charcoal between, with very little appearance of pyrites. Another portion is quite compact and homogenous, with flat semi-conchoidal fracture, showing no min- eral charcoal or pyrites. Exterior surfaces with ferruginous in- crustation. For comparison with these Carter county cannel coals, the following described sample was sent by Mr. J. M. Bent at the same time for analysis. The result is given in the following table: NO. 2288-CANNEL COAL: "From West Virginia, at Cannelton. Sample sent by Mr. J. M. Bent. Thickness of the bed, from fifteen to thirty-six inches. Owned-y the Cannel/on Coal Com- pany. This coal is sold for making gas, in combination with eighty per cent. of common gas coal, in New York and Bos- ton." A very firm, pure-looking cannel coal, glossy black on some surfaces, not readily breaking into layers; fracture broad, irreg- ular, conchoidal. Some little bright pyrites in some parts, but no apparent fibrous coal. By reference to the table of compositions, it will be seen that the Carter county cannel coals Nos. 2284, 2285, and 2287 ex- ceed this in their proportion of volatile combustible matter, while Table II., at the end of this Chemical Report, shows many can- nel coals of Kentucky which are superior in many respects to this for gas-making and other purposes. 26 I80 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE CARTER COUNTY AND WEST VIRGINIA COALS, ETC. (Air-dried). Specific gravity . Hygroscopic moisture ..... Volatile combustible mAtters. Coke. Total. Total volatile matters ..... Fixed carbon in the coke . . . Ash . Total. Character of the coke .... Color of the ash ...... Percentage of sulphur . . . No. 2283 No. 2284 No. 2285INo. 2286'No. 2287 1.299 1.291 1.203 1.634 1.233 6.30 2.80 1.46 2.04 1 1.46 35.54 61.20 54.74 25.86 64.04 68.16 46.00 43.80 72.10 44.50 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 41.84 54.00 56.20 27.90 55.50 54.82 35.30 33.80 32.10 34.76 3.34 10.70 10.00 40.00 9.74 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Spong. Pulver- Dense Pulver- Dense Spongy. ulent. friable. ulent. friable. Lt. ch'te- Grey- Lt. buff- Lt. buff- Lilac- grey. buff. grey. grey. grey. 0.881 0.753 1.274 0.731 2.164 NO. 2288.-CLAY: fire-clay ) " Clays from Carter County. --From the land of Mr. J. M. Bent. (Is it a A nearly white clay, slightly tinted with greyish, with some irregular ferruginous mottling and infiltrations in the cracks, and minute scales of mica; quite plastic; burns of a very light flesh color, fuses into a light-grey slag before the blow-pipe. It is, therefore, not a fire-clay, but would make good and handsome terra-cotta objects. If purified from the small amount of oxide of iron it contains it would burn white. NO. 2289-FERRUGINOUS MARLY CLAY: "From Limestone Min- ing Company, Limestone Station, Carter county. Sample sent by John R. Procter. Received August 23, 1883." In lumps, easily broken, of a chocolate-brown color, contain- ing small rounded grains of hyaline quartz, and small pebbles, more or less rounded, of various quartzose minerals. By wash- ing, about one-fourth -its weight of small rounded quartzose pebbles and fine sand was separated. The residue is a tough, 27 No. 2288 1.186 0.60 42.50 56.90 100.00 43.10 49.50 7.40 100.00 Dense. Grey. 1.162 18I1 CHEMICAL REPORT. plastic clay, of a light chocolate color, fusing before the blow- pipe into a dark-colored, nearly black slag. COMPOSITION, dried at 230O-240 F. (Exclusive of the pebbles and sand.) Silica. . ........... ..2.680 Alumina. . . ......... 14.803 Ironperoxide... .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. 6.160 Lime carbonate.... . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. 8.280 Magnesia carbonate.... . .. . .. . .. .. . .... .. . .. 1.650 Phosphoric acid (P2 06).... .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .217 Potah.. . . ......... 3.108 Soda. . . ...... . .149 Water and loss............. 2.953 100.00 This clay might be of some service as a marl on poor sandy soil, provided the cost of transportation does not preclude its use. The washed clay, or even the unwashed, might be em- ployed in the manufacture of common pottery of various kinds. No. 2290-LIMESTONE: 'just above the Limestone iron ore and under the plastic clay. Willard, Carter county. Collected by A. R. Crandall. Received July 9, 1883. A compact limestone of a cream color, or very light buff, nearly white. Hardness =3.5. Fracture flat conchoidal. Does not adhere to the tongue. COMPOSITION (Air-dried). Lime carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . 96.380 = 53.973 per cent. of lime. Magnesia carbonate... .. . .. . . 1.135 Alumina and iron oxide ... .. ... .980 Phosphoric acid (P2 05) . . . . . . . . a trace. Manganese brown oxide. . . . . . . . . .480= 0.958 manganese carbonate. Silica and silicates . . ........ . .380 Moisture and loss ........... . .645 Total............. 100.000 A very pure limestone, which would yield a pure, white lime, or, if slabs of sufficient size homogeneous in texture could be obtained, might answer for lithographic purposes. ELLIOTT COUNTY. No. 2291-CANNEL COAL: "From head of Buck Fork of Middle Fork of Little Sandy rver. Sample from a 1tree and half feet bed (weathered). An the branch. Colleced by A. R. Canmdal i82 CHEMICAL REPORT. Evidently a much weathered sample, with earthy and ferru- ginous incrustations, which increase the proportion of the ash. Fracture generally dull, with small specks of mica in some parts. Some laminx more dense and pure, with imperfect satiny luster on the cross fracture. No pyrites or fibrous coal apparent. COMPOSITION (Air-dried). Specific gravity 1.358. Hygroscopic moisture . . . . 2.10 Total volatile matters, . . . 43.44 Volatile combustible matters, . . 41.34 Dense coke.. . .. .. .. 56.56 f Carbon in the coke... .. 35.96 I Light lilac-grey ash, . 20.60 Totals.... .. . .. . 100.00 . . .. .. .. .. . .. 100.00 Percentage of suphur... .. .. . .. .. .. .. 1.150 No doubt the proportion of ash would be found much less in the unweathered coal deeper in the bed. FAYETTE COUNTY. NO. 2292-PHOSPHATIC LIMESTONE: "From the northern exten- sion, opened July, i88o, of the same quarry, on the ANewton Turnpike, about three miles north of the city limits of Lexing- ton, from which the other samples came, described in Vols. IV and V., N. S., under the head of Fayette county. Collected by Robert Peter. (Lower silurian formation.)" Sample from the lower part of the quarry bed, of a dark, dull, bluish-grey color, showing only a few glimmering specks. Ad- heres to the tongue when dry. Under the lens many minute irregular granules, apparently of organic origin, are visible, with minute fragments of shells or crusts and some very small specks of pyrites. By titration with uranic acetate this gave 11.34 per cent. of phosphoric acid (P2 05). Six other samples, from the same locality, some bluish-grey and others weathered to a brownish color, gave of earthy phos. phates an average of about twenty-seven per cent. Three other samples from the same quarry, collected later from the quarried rock on the turnpike, having the same gen- eral appearance, and showing the minute dark-colored granules and the small fragments of shells described above, gave on an- 29 I 83 CHEMICAL REPORT. alysis by the molybdic-acid process, severally 5.692, 6.oio and 13.048, an average 8.25 per cent. of phosphoric acid (P2 05). No. 2293-PHOSPHATIC LIMESTONE: "From another quarry on the Newtown Turnpike, about half a mile beyond the first toll- gate beyond Lexington, on the farm of Randall Haley. Sam- ples collected by Robert Peter from the rock used for mending the road." This resembles the samples from the other quarry in general appearance, as well as in the fact that it is found in irregular layers between harder and more crystalline, less phosphatic, rock. On analysis by the molybdic process this yielded 17.651 per cent. of phosphoric acid (P2 05). Subsequently, on a visit to the Haley quarry, four other sam- ples were collected, which on careful analysis yielded severally 16.745, 12.268, I4.3 -, and 5.597,-giving an average of 12.23I per cent. of phosphoric acid (P2 05). There is good reason to suppose that these thin layers of rich phosphatic rock are generally to be found in the so-called blue limestone, which underlies the rich territory of the "1 Blue- grass " region, and help to give to the soil its great and durable fertility. NO. 2294-WATER: "From a well bored 120 feet deep, in the southern suburbs of Lexington, in hikzh ground, beyond the State A. and M. College, on Tate's-creek road. Collected by the Rev. John L. Smith." The water had a slight odor and taste of petroleum, and was said to have a-slight sulphurous odor when fresh at the well, but when brought to the laboratory had no other gas but a small quantity of carbonic acid. It gave, on evaporation to dryness, only 0.335 of a part of saline matters to 0oo0 parts of the water. These consisted of carbonates of lime, magnesia and soda, and a small proportion of sulphate of potash, and some chlorides of sodium and lithium, the water being very slightly alkaline. It is quite a pure water, suitable for most uses. Taking into 30 i84 CHEMICAL REPORT. consideration the depth of the well in the rock, the very small proportion of saline matter contained in the water is quite re- markable. NO. 2295-WATER: P-From a well bored sixty-fourfeet deep, in the highest ground opposite Ashland (former residence of Henry Clay, deceased), in the suburbs of Lexington, on the old Men- telle Place. Sample brought by Mr. B. Treacy." This water, having no peculiar taste or odor, resembles the next preceding, in being slightly alkaline from the presence of a small proportion of alkaline carbonate. Its total saline mat- ters, amounting to only o.5 I of a part in a thousand parts of the water, consist mainly of carbonates of lime, magnesia, and soda, with a small propotion of chlorides. Like that, it contains some carbonic acid gas in solution, and is pure enough for all ordinary purposes and quite wholesome. NO. 2296-WATER: "IFrom the bored well at the Lexington sta- tion of the Cincinnati Southern Railroad. Welt 8oo feet deep. The water stands in it at thirty feet below the surface of the ground, which is somewhat elevated, and is pumped from a depth of 550 feet. Sample brought to the laboratory by C M. Johnson, Esq., Mayor of Lexington, March r6, 1883. The water is colorless, with a very slight cloudiness, owing perhaps to the new pump. It has a very slight bituminous odor and a very slight ferruginous taste. COMPOSITION, in 1000 Parts of the Water. Carbonic acid gas . Lime carbonate. Magnesia carbonate Iron carbonate ...... Silica . Lime sulphate ...... Potash sulphate. Soda sulphate..... . Magnesium chloride Sodium chloride .. Soda carbonate ... ... Silica . Traces of nitrates, etc., and Total saline matters . . . .. .. .. ... Not estimated. .. .. . .. . .0.0998 . .. ..0074 lHeld in solution by car- .. ........ . 0032 [ bonic acid. .. .. .. . ..0018 .. .. . .. ..0243 .. .. . .. ..0418 .. .. . .. ..0086 ........ . ... ,1184 .. .. . .. . ,.0049 .. .. . .. ..1368 .. .. . .. ..0022 loss.. .. .. . .0024 .. .. . .. ..0.4610 in 1000 parts of the water. Equal to 3.288 grains in the wine pint of 7,290 grains. 3r i85 CHEMICAL REPORT. This water is also remarkably pure in relation to the consid- erable depth in the limestone rock strata from which it is ob- tained. The small amount of saline matters it contains would generally be considered conducive to health when it is used for drink; and although slightly hard, it is probable that the pres- ence in it of carbonate of soda would measurably prevent the formation of a hard crust in the steam boiler in which it may be used. FLOYD COUNTY. NO. 2297-COAL (NO. 3): "From the mouth of Mud creek. Upper eighteen inches. Collected by A. R. Crandall, Novern- bet r8, i88r." Generally a firm, pure-looking, pitch black coal. (A piece of what seems to be shale in the sample.) Shows no apparent pyrites and very little fibrous coal. No. 2298-COAL: "From the same bed. Lower three feet five inches. Collected by A. R. Crandall, etc., as above." A bright, firm, pure, pitch-black coal, showing very little fibrous coal or pyrites. NO. 2299-COAL: "Laynesville, Floyd county. Middle of the upper part of the opening, measuring twenty-three inches. Col- lected by Roger C. Ballard, August 24, I882. A splint coal, breaking into irregular laminw. No apparent pyrites or fibrous coal. No. 2300-COAL: "From the same bed, lower portion, measuring forty-five inches. Collected by Roger C. Ballard, etc. A rather brighter coal than the next preceding, which it otherwise resembles. NO. 230I-COAL: "Mouth of Steele creek, branch of Beaver creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall. Average sample of the upper four feet. A pitch-black, pretty pure-looking coal. Some portions laminated and dull. i86 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 2302-COAL: "On Flemming's (orJack's) creek, leftfork of Beaver creek. Sample from a new outcrop of five feet four inches in thickness, without the parting. Some clay unavoidable in the sample. Collected by A. R. Crandall, August 8, 1883. A weathered sample of splint coal, with some ferruginous clay incrustations on some pieces. No pyrites apparent. COMPOSITION OF THESE FLOYD COUNTY COALS. (Dried at 212 F.) No. 22971No. 2298 No. 2299!No. 2300 Specific gravity Hvgroscopic moisture ..... Volhtile combustible matters . Coke. Total. Total volatile matters ..... Fixed carbon in the coke Ash. .. . .. . Total. Character of the coke . . . . I Color of the ash.... .. Percentage of sulphur . 1.302 2.04 87.42 60.54 100.00 _______________I l 39.46 56.34 4.20 1.281 2.10 37.16 60.74 100.00 39.26 57.74 3.00 1.359 1.30 36.70 62.00 100.00 38.00 51.70 10.30 1.284 1.90 35.30 62.80 100.00 37.20 58.94 3.86 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Spongy. Lilac colored. 1.475 Spongy. N early white. 0.596 Spongy. Lt. lilac grey. 1.356 Spongy. Light grey. 0.715 No. 2301 No. 2302 1.323 1.350 2.50 3.80 32.50 33.80 65.00 62.40 100.00 100.00 35.00 37.60 56.54 60.60 8.46 1.80 100.00 Dense. Light grey. 0.651 100.00 Pulvur- ulent. Reddish buff. 0.475 These are generally very good coals. Nos. 2299 and 2301 exceed the average proportion of ash somewhat but not excess- ively, and Nos. 2297 and 2299 show the most sulphur, while the rest of them contain less than the average proportion, and in none of them is this objectionable element excessive. No. 2303-COKE: "AMade from the Laynesville coal, No. 2299, middle bench, or upper part of the opening. Collected by Roger C. Ballard, August 22, 1882." COMPOSITION- (Air-dried). Moisture, driven off at 5000F ................. . 6.00 Fixed carbon .......................... . 88.50 Reddish-grey ash.... .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . . .. . 6.50 Total ............................. 100.00 Its percentage of sulphur is =0.788. (3) I -I - i87 CHEMICAL REPORT. The small proportion of ash in this coke, as compared with the sample analyzed of the coal No. 2299, from which it is said to have been made, seems to show that the sample of coal con- tained some accidental earthy impurity. No. 2304-PHOSPHATIC CONCRETIONS: "Found in tough clay, mouth of Sand branch of Sandy river,five miles above Prestons- burg, Floyd county. Collected by A4. R. Crandall, Aug-ust 20, i882. I White, turning to blue.'" Small concretions, irregularly spindle-formed, or like two cones joined base to base, sometimes tuberculated and irregu- larly spiral. Light grey-blue on the exterior surfaces, light grey in the interior, showing some minute spangles of mica. These singular concretions were found to contain about eight per cent. of phosphoric acid (P2 05), and otherwise were mainly composed of silica and sand, alumina and iron oxide-they may possibly be coprolites. The blue color is due to phosphate of iron. FRANKLIN COUNTY. NO. 2305-PHOSPHATIC LIMESTONE: "From the Lower Trenton formation, Big Benson creek. Collected by W. M. Linney." A drab-grey rock, mainly made up of small fragments of fossil shells, easily breaking into irregular lamelke. COMPOSITION (Air-dried). Lime carbonate . . . . . . . . .. ... 87.750 =49.157 per cent. of lime. Magnesia carbonate.... .. .. .. . 2.482 Alumina and iron oxide..... .. . .. 8.812 Phosphoric acid (P2 05) .... .. ... 2.968 Sulpburic acid (SO8) .... .... ... n. e. Silica and silicates ............ 1.780 Moisture and loss ............ 1.278 Total............ 100.000 Although this sample does not contain as much phosphoric anhydride as many others from the same geological formation from Fayette county which have been analyzed, it yet shows the general character in this respect of the so-called blue lime- stone of the lower silurian formation. 34 i88 CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 2306-WATER: "From a new reservoir about two miles from Frankfort, situated in a large ravine, across which a dam is built, forming the reservoir, which is said to have an area of an acre and a half, and an average depth of twenty feet. it is supplied by the surface water from the adjoining hills and some two or three low springs." One sample of this water was sent to the laboratory August I2, i88i, by Mr. E. A. Fellmer and Dr. J. Lampton Price, the City Physician; another was sent September Io, i883, by the City Council. The first sample had a slight fishy odor, was slightly turbid with a light brownish sediment, and the microscope showed in it the presence of alga more or less decomposed. The second sample had a more decided disagreeable odor, which resembled that of sewage or of a pig-pen, and on standing a day or two exposed to the air formed a handsome light green scum of liv- ing algae on the surface, while a slight brownish sediment of the dead and decayed organisms had formed at the bottom of the open bottle. The analysis of the first sample gave the fol- lowing results, viz.: COMPOSITION, in 1000 Parts of the Water. Total solid matters.... . .... .. ............ . 0.1000 of which, organic matters ............... . 0.0200 and flxed saline matters .0................ 0 Free ammonia. 0006 Albuminoid ammonia. .. 58 The fixed saline matters consisted mainly of carbonates and sulphates of lime and magnesia, with traces of iron and the alkalies. No notable chlorine was found in this first sample, and but a small proportion in the second, which, however, was not quantitatively analyzed. No nitrates or nitrites were de- tected in the quantity of water examined. Apart from the living algae and the organic matters resulting from their decay, which produce the offensive odor, and a little saline matter, this water is nearly as pure as ordinary rain water. The Rivers Pollution Commission, of Great Britain, obtained the following average results from the examination of seventy- three samples of rain water, all but two of which were collected 35 i89 CHEMICAL REPORT. at the experimetal farm of Lawes & Gilbert, Rothamsted, England: Total dissolved solids . .. .. 3.950 in 100,000 parts, .. 0.0395 in the 1000 Organic carbon, . 099 in 100,000 parts, ..001 in the 1000 Organic nitrogen,. .022 albuminoid ammonia, .0002 in the 1000 Ammonia ................... .050..0005 in the 1000 Nitrogen, nitrites and nitrates, . .007 Total combined nitrogen, .071 Chlorine..... .. .. .. . 630 The alge, which cause surface water to be so offensive, appear only during the warm season, and especially in shallow water freely exposed to the atmosphere. The odor, which is produced by the decay of the minute organism, has been described as a musty, fishy, cucumber, green-corn, pzig-pen, liorse-pond, oily smell. Sometimes, when the water contains sulphates, the odor is more sewage-like because of the presence of hydrogen sulphides. The practical question not yet fully answered is, whether or not such offensive water is productive of disease. It is highly probable, however, that the statement of the Massachusetts State Board of Health is true in this relation. They say the evidence tends to show that the plant (the alga) acts mechanically chiefly, perhaps, like unripe fruit, when affecting health at all, in causing diarrhea, but that the filtered water is harmless. NO. 2307-SALT WATER: "From a bored well one hundred and ten feet deep, four and a half inches bore, through solid lime- stone; the last three feet probably sandstone. Situated four miles east of Frankfort and one mile from the Georgetown Turn- pike. Sample sent by A. Stedman, owner of the well, Sted- mnantowun." Mluch gas escaped at the well at first. The water stands at about twenty-five feet from the top. It has an odor of petro- leum, some little of which is found in the well. The specific gravity of the water is I.02. Evaporated to dryness it left 29.70 parts to the iooo of the water of brownish saline matters, which are mainly sodium chloride (common salt), with carbonate of iron, lime, and mag- Quoted from Nichols' Wlater Supply, p. 48. John Wiley & Sons, N. Y., 1883. 36 Igo CHEM1ICAL REPORT. nesia, some sulphates and a little of bromides. The proprietor, believing he may " strike oil," or get a salt water strong enough to be profitable, continues to bore by latest account, although the probabilities seem to be adverse. GRAVES COUNTY. NO. 2308-MARL: "Sent by Mr. Frank Bray andJudge A. K. Boone, of Mayfield, June is, 1883. 'Is it a good fertil- izer' An olive-grey marl, partly in soft, friable lumps, containing many fragments of much decomposed shells, with fine-grained hyaline quartz-sand, about 34 per cent., and a small proportion of small, olive-greenish grains of what seems to be glauconite (so-called green sand). COMPOSITION (Air-dried). Lime carbonate.... .. .. .. .. .. .. . . Magnesia carbonate.... .. .. .. .. . . Iron carbonate (some iron oxide and alumina not esti- mated) . Phosphoric acid (P2 05) . Potash . Soda . Silica, sand, etc.......... .. . . . . . Moisture and loss .................. 38.840 =19.514 lime. 5.077 11.500 .180 1.002 .198 39.540 3.663 Total ..................... .100.000 It might prove useful on sandy or heavy clay soils which are deficient in lime, but would not bear transportation to any dis- tance. If its silica was not mainly in the form of sand it might probably be calcined into a water cement. GREENUP COUNTY. Carbonate Iron Ores. NO. 2309-GREY IRON ORE: "1 The blue interior portion of the red limestone ore. From near Hunnewell Furnace. Sam- pie sent by H. W. Bates, Vice President of Eastern Railway Company. May i, i88o." Ore of a brownish-grey color, compact, fine granular. Does not adhere to the tongue. Under the lens appears to be made 37 19 I CHEMICAL REPORT. up of minute light-brownish grains, with a small portion of whit- ish cement. Powder drab color. NO. 23 i0-GREY IRON ORE: "Found at the Pennsylvania Fur- nace, lying near the little block ore, between coals Nos. 3 and 4. Sent by H. W. Bates, Esq. Sample from near the outcrop, from a layer eizht to fifteen inches thick." An oolitic carbonate, made up of minute brownish spherules, united by a whitish cement. Weathered light-ferruginous on exposed surfaces. NO. 231 I-BLACK BAND IRON ORE: "From the head of Shultz creek. Base of the coal measures. An average sample from sixteen-inch thickness of layer. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July 12, 1882." In irregular laming, with some charred vegetable impressions and very thin, irregular lamine of coal between. Color vary- ing in the lamina from light to dark grey-brown, and blackish. Adheres to the tongue. No. 2312-GREY KIDNEY IRON ORE: "Hibler's Drift, on Shultz creek. Lower limestone ore. Thickness about five inches. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July, 1882. 'Is thi's the so-called Spiegel ore ' " Sample a very hard, irregular kidney, hard enough to strike fire with steel. Mainly light-grey, fine granular; not adhering to the tongue. Portions fine oolitic and brownish. NO. 23I3-GREY IRON ORE: "From Hibler' s Drift, lower limestone ore, accompanying the grey kidney ore. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July, 1882." A portion light slate colored, a portion mottled brownish- grey and blackish. Oolitic in parts. Adheres somewhat to the tongue. NO. 23I4-BOYCE'S LIMESTONE ORE: "From north of Dry Fork of Shultz creek. So-called grey limestone ore. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July, 1882. Determine the iron only." 38 I92 CHEMICAL REPORT. Partly brownish limonite, partly compact granular carbonate ore. COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY CARBONATE IRON ORES. _ No. 2309 No. 23N01Xo. 2311KNo. No. 2313!No. 2314 t t t t t Iron carbonate. .. . . .. 81.432 59.418 80.433 65.545 57.043 Iron peroxide. ......... ... 15.382 .829 .... ... .... . . Manganese carbonate... . 2.758 a 1 380 . .. . d 2.096 n. e. Alumina .... . . . . 6 4.580 3.172 2.752 2.901 Lime carbonate..... . . 4.140 2.800 1.790 1.360 1.310 . Magnesia carbonate.. . .. 2.187 2.134 6.617 1.316 1.370 . Phosphoric acid (P2 05).... .207 .690 .128 .128 .179 1.010 Sulphuric acid (S03)..5.. . .687 b.486 n. e. n. e. n. e. Silica and silicates.... . . 7.670 c 12.890 1.220 23.790 27.860 . Organicmatters,moistureandloski1.019 .248 6.911 3.013 9.337 . Total. . .. . . . .. . . 100.000 100.000100.000 100.000100.VqW 100.000 Percentage of iron... . .. 39.631 34.780 39.400 30.900 27.540 26.680 Percentage of phosphorous.. .095 .285 .066 .056 .078 .441 Percentage of sulphur.... .234 .486 n. e. n. e. n. e. Percentage of silica. 5... . 6.320 12.890 1.220.... ... .. .. . a Brown oxide of manganese. b Sulphur. c Silica. d = 1 p. c. manganese. Dried at 212 . tAir-dried. Generally good carbonate ores, requiring roasting before they are smelted. The two latter contain the most iron, and Nos. 23IO and 2314 are the most phosphatic. NO. 2315-GREY IRON ORE: "PA roasted sample of No. 2310. Sent by H. TV. Bates, Esq. COMPOSITION (Air-dried). Iron peroxide... . . . .. . . .. . . .. 71.680 = 50.180 iron. Alumina . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . 6.317 Lime . .. . . .. . . ........ 2.094 Magnesia .1.326 Brown oxide of manganese.1.980 = 1.379 manganese. Phosphoric acid (P2 05) ..8 .83 = .602 phosphorous. Sulphur . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .580 Silica .16.040 Hygroscopic moisture ..100 100.000 Limonite Iron Ores from Greexup County. NO. 2316-IRON ORE: "From Matthews' drift, Shultz creek, Lower limestone ore. Average sample from the eight-inch face, thirty feet in the drift. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July, 1882. 39 193 194 CHEMICAL REPORT. In irregular lamina of different tints of lighter and darker grey-brown, some thin lines nearly black. Adheres to the tongue. NO. 23I7-GREYCROFT'S BLOCK ORE: "Head of Shult creek. Thickness, about eight inches. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July, 1882. A limonite ore, containing soft, ochreous ore within hard brown layers. NO. 23I8-RED BLOCK ORE: "Rocklhouse branch of Schultz creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July, 1882." Resembles the next preceding. No. 2319-SO-CALLED LIMESTONE KIDNEY ORE: "Forty feet above the Waverley Ridge, head of Dry Fork of Schultz creek; six inches thick. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July 1882; Resembles the preceding two." NO. 2320-SO-CALLED LIMESTONE KIDNEY ORE: "Rockhouse branch of Schultz creek. Containing less ochreous ore than the preceding, etc. 'Determine the iron.' " COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY LIMONITE IRON ORES. (Air-dried.) Iron peroxide ...... Manganese peroxide Alumina. Lime carbonate.. .. . Magnesia carbonate . Phosphoric acid (P2 065) Sulphuric acid ...... Silica and silicates . Water, loss, ete...... . Total. Percentage of iron .... Percentage of manganese Percentage of phosphorous . Percentage of sulphur . . . Percentage of silica ..... !No. 2316 32.260 1.642 2.765 .490 1.318 .499 n. e. 50.390 10.636 100.000 22.750 1.037 .217 n. e. n. e. N to. 6171 IN O. 26118 39.290 51.170 n. e. n. e. 3.960 4.205 .320 .160 .439 .660 1.010 .945 n. e. n. e. 46.480 32.080 8.501 10.780 100.000 j100.000 27.500 35.820 n. e. n. e. .689 .412 n.e. ! n.e. n. e. n. e. INo. 2319 No. 2320 52.500. . n. e. 4.018 . trace.. . . .287. . .. 1.842. ... n. e. .... 30.480 . 10.873 . IiO.000. . 36.750 n. e. .804 n. e. n. e. 36.160 ... . These ores, of which the first is rather meager, and the sec- 40 ____ w. .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. . CHEMICAL REPORT. 195 ond not very much richer in iron, contain generally pretty large proportions of phosphorus. Pig Irons from Greenzip County. NO. 232 I-PIG IRON: "Labeled Strong Grey Pig Iron. Hunne- well Furnace. Made wit hot blast at 35o' F.Sample sent by H. W. Bates, Esq. December ir, r88o. (Marked Sample No. 1.)" A fine-grained, dark-grey iron. Flattened considerably under the hammer. Yielded easily to the file. No. 2322-PIG IRON: "Labeled Weak Close Iron, Sample No. 2. Made with hot blast at 500 F. at Hunne-well Furnace. Sent by H. W. Bates, Esq., December ir, z88o." Somewhat lighter grey and a little coarser grained than the preceding. Flattens somewhat under the hammer, but seems to break more readily. Yields easily to the file. COMPOSITION OF THESE HUNNEWELL FURNACE PIG-IRONS. No. 2321 No. 2322 Specific gravity......................... 6.944 6.839 I ron..... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 93.490 92.180 Graphite..... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3.300 3.000 Combined carbon........... ......... ... ... .180 .490 Aluminum and manganese..... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. n. e. n. e. Silicon...... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .624 1.760 Slag... .. .. ..... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. 2.380 1.7 80 Phosphorus... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .972 .932 Sulphur... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .450 .576 Total.. .. .. . 1...... . . .. .. .. . ... . 101.396100.718 Total carbon .3.480 3.490 The larger proportions of combined carbon, silicon and sul- phur in No. 2322 may possibly account for the difference in the tenacity of the samples. No. 2323-CINDER, OR FURNACE SLAG: "0Of sample No. 2, Hun- newell Furnace, etc. Sent by H. W. Bates, Esq., etc. 41 CHEMICAL REPORT. A homogeneous glass, resembling glassy obsidian, smoky black and only transparent-smoky in very thin splinters. Fuses easily, before the blow-pipe, into a white, blebby glass, in the oxidating flame. NO. 2324-CINDER, OR FURNACE SLAG: " Of samfple No. 2. Same as the preceding, etc. Hot blast Soo F. Weak, close iron made." Generally of a brownish-grey color, full of air-bubbles; only translucent in thin splinters. Fuses easily in the oxidating flame of the blow-pipe into a white, blebby glass. COMPOSITION OF THESE HUNNEWELL FURNACE SLAGS. (Dried at 212 F.) No. 2823 No. 2324 Silica..... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 56.080 55.000 Alumina, iron oxide, etc........... . .. .. .. .. . 23.980 23.240 Brown oxide of manganese.... ......... ..... . .680 .680 Lime. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 19.376 19.152 Magnesia.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 1.686 1.773 Total.. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .100.702 99.84.5 These slags are practically similar in composition. Accord- ing to Mons. P. Hautfeuille, in Wurtz' Dictionnaire de Chimie, etc., a normal iron slag should contain 45 to 60 per cent. of silica, 20 to 35 per cent., of lime, and 12 to 25 per cent of other bases (such as magnesia, oxides of manganese, alumina, etc). "Alumina makes the least fusible silicate and should not ex- ceed 15 percent.. Magnesia, .more fusible, may be 25 per cent. oxide of manganese, is yet more fusible; but if it exceeds 15 per cent., the iron becomes manganiferous." (Loc. cit.) HOPKINS COUNTY. No. 2325-COKE: ",From the St. Bernard Coal Compan: mines, Earlington. Sent by John R. Procter, April 4, r882. Sample in thle large bag is made from the washed slack coal. This coke was made at the request of Mr. Procter, the company sending two car-loads to the ovens. Samples carefully taken." 42 x96 CHEMICAL REPORT. NO. 2326.-COKE: "From the same source, made from tie un- washed slack coal. A smaller sample." The two samples resemble each other in their external char- acters, being bright, cellular, and light coke. COMPOSITION OF THESE TWO HOPKINS COUNTY COKES. (Air-dried.) No. 2326 No. 2326 Hygroscopi moisture, etc.-loaon ignition..... .. .. .. . 0.86 2.00 Fixed carn.. 86.34 77.20 Purplish-grey ash.. 12.80 20.80 Total................ 100.00100.00 Percentage of sulphur................ 2.233 3.799 It is to be seen that a great improvement in the quality of the coke is made by washing the " slack coal " before coking. JOHNSON COUNTY. NO. 2327-CANNEL COAL: "Smith's branch of Paint creek. Average of the cannel coal from the bench opening near the house of Daniel Smith; eighteen inches of cannel over/aid by eighteen inches of common coal; clay and shale below Col- lected by A. R. Crandall." Coal in thin lamina, some curved; cross-section generally glossy and pure-looking. Some layers dull. No pyrites or fibrous coal apparent. Seems to be a much-weathered sample. NO. 2328-CANNEL COAL: "From one mile north of the mouth of Little Paint creek. Upper twenty-two inches of cannel coal. Dr. WT T. Hagar. Collected by A. R. Crandall, August 23, r832." A dull-black, tough, laminated cannel coal. No. 2329-CANNEL COAL: "From same bed as the next preced- ing, etc. Lower eight inches of cannel coal of Dr. Hagar." Resembles the next preceding. Rather more dull and in thinner laming. 43 I97 i98 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE JOHNSON COUNTY CANN'EL COALS. (Air-dried.) No. 2327 No. 2328 No. 2329 Specific gravity....... .. . . .. . . .. . . . 1.279 1.248 1.223 JIVgr s o m isture.. .. . . .. . . .. . . .......................... 3.00 1.01.80 Hvgroscopic moisue..0 1.80 18 Volatile combustible matters....... . .. . . . . 49.80 49.10 49.20 Coke . .. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. . . 47.20 49.10 49.00 Total...... . . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. . . loo.o 100.00 100.00 Total volatile matters.6....... . .. . . .. . . . 52.80 50.90 51.00 Fixed carbon in the coke....... .. ....... . 37.94 41.16 44.00 Ash..................... ..... . 9.26 7.94 5.00 Total...... . . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . 100.00 100.00 I100.00 Character of the coke.... . . . .. . . .. . .. . Dense. Dense Dense I friable,friable. Color of the ash.... .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . t. gre Lt. buff Lt. buff I brown, grey- grey. Percentage of sulphur.... . . .. . . .. . . .. . . 2.609 0.816 0.846 Good cannel coals; especially Nos. 2328 and 2329. As fre- quently noticed before, the specific gravity of the coals increases with the ash proportion. No. 2330-IRON ORE (CARBONATE): "Fourteen incites thick, below Wheeler's creek, one and a hagf miles below Paintsville, Johnson county, below coal lo. a, fifty feet above low water in Big Sandy river. Collected by John R. Procter, A4ugust 23, 1882. A concretion of small nodules of grey iron carbonate, more or less converted into limonite on the exterior surfaces. Iron carbonate .... Iron peroxide . Alumina. Lime carbonate .... Magnesia carbonate . Phosphoric acid (P2 06) Silicious residue . Moisture, loss, etc. Total. 44 COMPOSITION (Air-dried). .18 . .. .1927.740 Containing 26.04 per cent. of iron. .......... . 8.565 ........... 1.780 .......... . 1.970 . . . . . . 1.206 Containing 0.626 of phophorus. . ....... 35.780 Containing 32.480 of silica. ...... . ..... 4.801 ..... . 100.000 CHEMICAL REPORT. I99 Not quitc as rich in iron as the average carbonate ores and containing a rather large proportion of phosphorus, it may yet be made available for common iron under favorable conditions. KENTON COUNTY. No. 233I-MINERAL WATER: -From a spring flowing out of the hill through which the tunnel goes, in the. "Big Bend" of the Licking river, one hundred and forty rods from the north end of the tunnel, and about the same distance from Grant's Station, ten miles from Covington. Water sent by Mrs. Julia V. Mc Vean, July 24, 1883." COMPOSITION, in 1000 Parts of the Water. Lime carbonate.......... . .. . 0.3558 Magnesia carbonate .... . ... .. . .0082 Held in solution by car- Iron carbonate.... .. .. . .. .. . ft traceIbonic acid. Lime sulphate............. 1.0039 Magnesia sulphate ........... . . 1.3311 Potash sulphate... .. . .. .. . .. .0267 Soda sulphate .. . ............ .3944 Sodiumchloride.... .. . .. .. . .. .1126 Silica.... . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .00;8 Total saline matters . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2345 in 1000 parts of the water. A saline, slightly chalybeate water. KNOX COUNTY. No. 2332-COAL: "FromJ. N. Wiggins'coal bank, three miles southeast of Barboursville. Collected by R. C. Ballard, May i6, 1883. A pure-looking coal, showing very little fibrous coal and no appearance of pyrites. No. 2333-COAL: "From head of Dean's branch, near the mouth of Greasy creek. Collected by R. C. Ballard, May 17, r883. A pure-looking coal, showing some little fibrous coal but no apparent pyrites. NO. 2334.-COAL: "From the sahe bed as the next preceding; lowerportion of the bed, thirty-five inches. Collected by R. C. Ballard, May 17, 1883. CHEMICAL REPORT. Like the preceding in general appearance. More firm: seems to be a good so-called "I block coal." No. 2335. COAL: -From head of Sandy branch, a mile to a mile and a quarterfrom Flat Lick, on the land of 0. P. Ely. Col- lected by R. C. Ballard, May 29, 1883. A pure-looking coal, showing very little fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites. COMPOSITION OF THESE KNOX COUNTY COALS. (Air-dried.) Specific gravity . Hygroscopic moisture ............. Volatile combustible matters . Coke . Total . Total volatile matters....... ... .. . Fixed carbon in the coke .... . ....... Ash. Total. Character of the coke . . . Color of the ash ... . Percentage of sulphur . . . No. 2332 No. 2338 1.289 1.382 1.80 1.60 34.00 33.80 64.20 64.60 100.00, 100.00 35.80 i 35.40 59.40 57.14 4.80 7.46 100.00 100.00 Spongy. Lt. rp'gy Lt. lilaRcLt. lilac grey. p grey. 0.981 1.110 No. 284 No. 2336 1.281 1.300 1.66 2.00 36.84 36.00 62.00 63.00 100.00 100.00 38.00 37.00 58.04 56.70 3.96 6.80 100.00 100.00 Lt. sp'gy Lt. sp'gy Nearly Lilac gy white. Lia 0.651 1.091 All remarkably good coals, especially Nos. 2332 and 2334. LAUREL COUNTY. No. 2335-`From a bed on Wood's creek, nearJohn Pitman's, on the line of the Knoxville Branch of the L. & N. R. R., in a hill about three hundred and fify feet high. Bed three feet two inches thick. Three samples, from top, middle, and bottom of the bed. Brought by J. R. Carrigan, of Danville. The samples resembled each other greatly, and were all ground together for an average sample. 46 200 CHEMICAL REPORT. Coal of a handsome pitch-like, glossy black color, with very little appearance of fibrous coal or pyrites; only a few bright scales on some of the seams. Fracture cuboidal and irregular; some " bird's-eye" structure in some of the pieces; not soiling the hands. NO. 2337-COAL (CANNEL): "Brought by Captain W. C. Cro- zier, of Covington, from one and a ha/f mi/es southwest of Lon- don, Laurel county. W. H. Hayden's; bed fifty-three inches thick." NO. 2338-COAL: "From the head of Raccoon creek, one mile from East Bernstadt, Laurel county, three hundred yards from the house of Dr. Ferris. Sample sent by John R. Procter. Received May 30, 1882." A pure-looking, pitch-black, glossy coal, showing very little fibrous coal or granular pyrites. Fracture of some portions conchoidal. No. 2339-COAL No. I: -Pitman Coal Company, Pitman Sta- tion. Bed thirty-six inches and a ha/f thick. Fifty yards from the edge of the hil/. Sample collected by R. C Ballard, October 20, r882. " A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. No appearance of pyrites and very little of fibrous coal. No. 2340-COAL No. I: "Laurel Coal Company mine, Pitman Station. A separate piece of two inches of the upper Part of the bed, resembling cannel coal in part, not included in the analysis. Collected by R. C Ba/lard." Resembles the next preceding. NO. 2341-SLACK: "Of the Laurel Coal Company coal (coal No. i). Taken from the dump-pile-(a) the unwashed and (b) the washed sample. Collected by R. C Ballard, October 23, z882." 47 201 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE -LAUREL. COUNTY COALS. (Air-dried.) Specific gravity . . . Hygroscopic moisture Vol. com' ble matters . Coke. Total. Total volatile matters - Fixed carb. in the coke Ash. Total . Character of the coke Color of the ash . . Percentage of sulphur No. 2336 No. 2337iNo. 2338 No. 2339'1No. 2340 1.221 1.496 1.245 1.277 1.267 2.60 1.30 3.30 2.80 2.72 35.30 31.00 34.44 35.30 35.32 62.10 67.70 62.26 61.90 61.96 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I - 37.90 60.30 1.80 32.30 43.96 23.74 100.00 100.00 Light spongy. Nearly white. 1.000 Dense friable. D'k pur- plish g'y 4.500 37.74 60.96 1.30 100.00 Light spongy. Brown'b grey. 1.055 38.10 59.10 2.80 100.00 Spongy. Lt. lilac grey. 0.650 38.04 58.60 3.36 10(00 Spongy. Nearly white. 0.679 No. 2341DNo. 2341 (a.) I (b.) n. e. 2.60 29.46 67.96 100.00 32.06 52.54 15.40 100.00 Spongy. Brown'h grey. 1.241 .n. e. 2.64 34.00 63.36 100.00 36.64 58.70 4.66 100.00 Spongy. Lt. lilac grey. 0.825 With the exception of No. 2337 and 2341 (a), which exceed in ash proportion and sulphur, these are all remarkably good pure coals. The so-called cannel coal has so large a proportion of ash material in its composition that it might probably be classed as a rich bituminous shale. While it might be used for ordinary domestic fires its large proportion of sulphur renders it improper for working iron. NO. 2342-COKE OF COAL No. I: "Laurel Coal Company, Pit- man Station. Sample obtained from the pile,, made of coal from al parts of the bed. Collected by R. C. Ballard, October 21, 1882." A moderately fine-grained firm coke. NO. 2343-COKE OF COAL man Station. This was best I could obtain here. 22, z882." No. I: "Laurel Coal Company, Pit- made from the slack coal, and is the Collected by R. C. Ballard, October Coke fine-grained and firm; irregularly columnar. 48 202 CHEMICAL REPORT. NO. 2344-COKE: "From (he Laurel Coal Company's Peacock coal, Pitman Station. Collected by R. C. Ballard, October 22, 1882." A dense, firm, and bright coke. COMPOSITION OF THESE LAUREL COAL COMPANY'S COKES. (Air-dried). No. 2342 No. 2343INo. 2344 Moisture driven off at 480 F....... .. .. . 2.40 Fixed carbon in the coke ... . . ........ . .. 95.70 92.60 89.20 Ash. 3.10 6.50 8.40 Total. . . 100.00 100.00 100.00 Color of the ash.tight Light Bro'.ish bro'nish. bro'nish. grey. Percentage of sulphur....... .. .. .. .. . 0.6659 0.739 0.939 Judging from their composition these cokes are both very good, and applicable to all the ordinary uses of coke. Com- pared with the celebrated Connellsville coke (see Bell county) Nos. 2342 and 2343 contain much less ash and sulphur and a larger percentage of carbon than that. No. 2344 approaches nearer in these respects to the Connellsville coke. LAWRENCE COUNTY. No. 2345-COAL: "Peach Orchard Coal, on Miller's branch of Nat's creek. Entry No. 2. Upper bench of fourteen inches. Collec/ed by A. R. Crandall, June, 1882." A splint coal, splitting into laminx of variable thickness, with not much fibrous coal between, and very little appearance of granular pyrites. Some of the lamina: are bright and pitch- black, and soften somewhat on being heated; others are more like cannel coal. NO. 2346-COAL: "From same bed; new en/y; minddle bench, ec. Coilec/ed by A. R. Crandall, June, i882." M\ostly in glossy, pitch-black layers. A pure coal, containing hardly any fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites. Swells up somewhat in the flame of the lamp. (4) 49 203, CHEMICAL REPORT. NO. 2347-COAL: "From same bed and en/iy. Lower bench of twenty-eight inches. New entry No. 2. Collected by A. R. Crandall, June 24, 1882." A firm, pure-looking coal, mostly pitch-black and glossy. Some parts more dull and like cannel coal. Some portions splitting into thin laminae, with fibrous coal, but no apparent pyrites between; other portions more compact and uniformly pitch-black and glossy on the fractured surfaces. These por- tions soften and swell considerably in the flame; the others are less changed in form by the heat. No. 2348-COAL: "Bone coalof the Peach Orchard coal. Eight inches at the top of the lower bench. Same bed and entry as the preceding. Colleccted by A. R. Crandall, June, z882." A dull-black splint coal, breaking with difficulty into irregular laminae. Mostly cannel-like; softens but little in the flame. NO. 2349-COAL: "Headley's coal, head of McHenry's branch of Levisa Fork of Big Sandy river. Sample from forty-eight inches in the middle of the bed. Collected byr A. R. Crandall, August 1882. A pure, pitch-black, bright coal, with no appearance of fibrous coal, but some bright pyritous scales in portions. No. 2350-COAL: "From the Headley coal bed, on the West side of the Levisa Fork of Big Sandy river, five miles above Louisa and two miles and a half from the Chattaroi Railroad. Sam- ple from the face of the central member of the bed, which is four feet eight inches thick. Sent by W. J. Headley. The whole bed is six feet two inches thick, including two slate partings, two andfour inches severally." Quite a pure-looking, pitch-black and generally-glossy coal, breaking irregularly, with a tendency to a cuboidal form; very little fibrous coal or granular pyrites apparent, but the sample contained a small portion of a pyritous layer; some ferruginous and earthy incrustations on the exterior surfaces. 50 204 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF Specific gravity ...... Hygroscopic moisture ..... Volatile combustible matters . Coke. Total. Total volatile matters . .... Fixed carbon in the coke . . . Ash . Total. Character of the coke .... Color of the ash .. . . Percentage of sulphur . i THESE LAWRENCE COUNTY COALS. (Air-dried). NO. 2345 No. 23461No.371 No 2 348 -o 23491 No. 2350 1.293 1.325 1.287 1.490 1.333 ii. c. 3.20 3.30 3.90 2.20 4.14 4.50 37.74 22.70 36.80 28.60 33.06 33.70 59.06 74.00 59.30 69.20 62.80 61.80 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 40.94 26.00 40.70 30.80 37.20 38.20 65.06 64.46 56.30 46.60 54.50 54.38 4.00 9.54 3.00 22.60 8.30 7.42 . 100.00 I 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Light Dense. Spongy. Friable. Ligt Light spongy. spongy s . Light Lilac- Nearly Nearly Purpls'h Bro'nish grey grey. white. white. grey. grey. 0.720 1.132 1 0.756 0.350 1..722 1.708 As may be seen from these analyses, as well as from those published in volume IV., N. S., and by Dr. Owen's analysis, volume I., 0. S., the so-called Peach Orchard coal varies some- what in different localities. It is a "splint" or semi-cannel coal, resembling the "1 block coal " of Indiana. Its best samples could no doubt be used with advantage in smelting iron ore without previous coking. It is an excellent coal for domestic and many manufacturing purposes, and for the production of steam. The so-called "bone coal," however, contains too much ash to be profitable. NO. 2351-COKE: "From Peach Orchardcoal, Williams'branch, Lawrence county. Collected by R. C. Ballard, Aug. 15, 1882." A bright, firm, dense coke. COMPOSITION (Air-dried). Moisture, expelled at 220 F. .3.............. ... . . 5.10 Volatile combustible matters, expelled at red heat . . . . . ...... .90 Fixedcarbon . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . 90S. Ash (browinish-grey) ....................... . 3.94 Total......................... 100.00 Its percentage of sulphur is =0.824. 5I 205 CHEMICAL REPORT. It is purer than the celebrated Connellsville coal, of Penn- sylvania, which has 9.113 per cent. of ash. (See Bell county, anti). LETCHER COUNTY. NO. 2352-COAL: -Holcomb's coal, head of Big Laurel branch, near the head of North Fork of Kentucky river, three miles from Pound Gap. Bed seven feet six inches thick, with an eikzht-inch parting two feet from the top. Sample from the out- crop, soiled with, dirt-hence the ash-finding may be too higii. Collected by A. R. Crandall, August 3, i88i." Sample much weathered; weathers in small cuboidal blocks. NO. 2353-COAL: "Field's coal, on King's creek. Splint and cannel coal, six feet thick. Avetage sample from a five-feet face. Collected by A. R. Crandall, August, iS8i." A mixed sample, partly of bright, pure-looking splint coal, of pitch-black color; partly of tougher, brownish-black, dull, can- nel coal, some small ferruginous stains on the exterior surfaces, no appearance of pyrites, and very little of fibrous coal. NO. 2354-COAL: J.J N. Thompson's coal, on Sandy Lick, a mile and a half from Whitesburg. Sample from the upper layer, twenty to twenty-eight inches thick. A parting of two to sixteen inches separates itfrom the lower layer, which is thirty to thirty- eigght inches thick. Collected by J. Shackelford, August, i88r." (See next number). A pure-looking, pitch-black splint coal, quite brilliant on the fractured surfaces and on some of the faces of the laminxe. Very little fibrous coal apparent, and no visible pyrites. NO. 2355-COAL: "Sample from the lower layer of J. N. Thzompi- son's coal, etc." This sample contains some dull layers, with a thin, pyritous laminx and more fibrous coal than in the preceding sample. NO. 2356-COAL: "From Mr. Nickel's coal-bank, below Whites- burg, on the Kentucky river. Collected by A. R. Crandall, Au1gust 3, ji88i." 52 206 CHEMICAL REPORT. A much-weathered sample of splint coal. Shows some fibrous coal in the form of reed-leaf-like impressions between the irregular laminw; no pyrites apparent, but a red-ochreous in- crustation on some of the exterior surfaces. NO. 2357-COAL: "J. M. Collins' coal, on Rockhouse creek. Bed three feet eight incites thick. Average sample. Collected by A. R. Crandall, August, i88i." A pure-looking splint coal. NO. 2358-COAL- "From Caudell's bank, a mile and a half below Whitesburg, on the Kentucky river. A sample of the upper layer, twenty-five inches thick, a state parting below of eight to fourteen inches, including a thin coal. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Appears to be a pure sample of splint coal, some fibrous coal between the lamina, but no apparent pyrites. No. 2359-COAL: "From the same bank. A sample of the lower layer, twent'-eigkht inches thick. Collected by A. R. Crandall. A weathered sample; approaches cannel coal in some of the lamina. No. 2360-COAL: "From Laurel branch of Kentucky river. Upper two feet. Sample from the weathered face of the bed. Collected by A. R. Crandall, November ro, is8i." Sample much weathered and somewhat friable, the seams cov- ered generally with a greyish incrustation, part of which seems to be clay, which may increase the apparent ash percentage. Some fibrous coal between the lamina, but no pyrites apparent. NO. 236I COAL: " From the same bed as next preceding. Sam- ple from the lower -sixty-eigkht inches. Thickness of the whole bed, eight feet." Generally a bright, pitch-black, pure-looking coal, except in the somewhat weathered portions. A little fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between the laminae, and a few bright, thin pyritous scales in some of the seams. 53 207 0 CHEIMICAL REPORT. NO. 2362-COAL: " From Cowan Ridge, opposite Whitesburg. A splint coal, four hundred and ninelj' feet above the bed of the river. Bed of coal forty-one incdes thick without parting. Entry, driven in twenty feet. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Quite a pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Some fibrous coal between the laminae, but very little granular pyrites. Quite a firm coal. NO. 2363-COAL: "Camp Branch of Rockhouse creek. Dr. S. H. Breeding's coal. The lower forty-five inches. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July 20, 1883." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Fracture irregular and cu- boidal, with generally brilliant surfaces. No fibrous coal and very little granular pyrites apparent. NO. 2364-COAL: "On J. Q. Benthey's farm, Rockhouse creek. Collected by J. A. Shackelford, Judlj 21, 1883." A cannel coal. Sample much soiled with argillaceous mate- rial. No apparent pyrites. It seems to be a weathered sample. NO. 2365-COAL: "On Sam Kiser's place, on Love Branch of Rockhouse creek. Collected by J. A. Shackelford, Jul1y 21, 1883." A much weathered sample of what seems to be a splint coal. Much soiled with ferruginous and argillaceous material. NO. 2366-COAL: " On Sam Kiser's land, Love Branch of Rock- house creek. From a big slip front an upper bed just below the other Kiser saimple. Thickness six feet. Not driven into the hard co2l. Collected by J. Shackelford, July 27, 1883." A much weathered sample, much soiled with clay, etc. In small pieces. NO. 2367-COAL: "From John Amberger's farm, on Wolf-pen creek of Carr's Fork of Kentucky river. Upper thirty-four inches of the cannel coal bed. The remaining thickness of the bed is represented by the next sample." 54 208 CHEMICAL REPORT. A much weathered sample, in small lumps and powder. Soiled with clay. NO. 2368-COAL: "Same locality and bed as next preceding. Thickness twenty-six inches. Lower part of the cannel bed. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July 27, 1883." A firm, pure-looking cannel coal. NO. 2369-COAL: IIOn Marion Hale's farm, Trace Branch of Rockhouse creek. Upper part of the cannel coal. Thick- ness thirty-two inches." A very pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Fracture generally irregular, with brilliant surfaces. Small bird's-eye structure in parts. No fibrous coal apparent, and very little of bright pyrites. 55 209 CHEMICAL REPORT. Ie tD CO eq 0 C'4 CO iI - 40 00 COI 0t-00 ;. . - 'o - , a _-_ h rcC C 0 - CO _ I C r e _ 001.w 68 Z;,,I n .4 , go0 g J3,1 8' - OL. l_ ooo !6 g i oc t f CO '' tD _cc i . l n 2 n O - _ o Hz S IC- IO 000 0 S, S ! _osoo ioo 0 '. c.-4 I ' _ :0 -: no - _ S o z i -4 I A r r 0 I " 113 clto o 111, z; - --r0 0 0 00L -q]_ ttO IC0100jg CZ ; i 10_ -/ 41-0.1 U I 0 0 I - I0I In a- Iq 00 000 COI-.-00:0 vj vliI .414 0 00") '-0-IV Q 01c. 0 I._ 0 C) C Q.4 I... I.. . I.. . 541 0 - IF... 0 0. I. 0 a .0 s Z =, . I- E = . _ 0 0-4 4 h - " 0 0 0 .. . ... .0 ,, . W Cv Z C . 0-. G J! E-4 rC -4 0. 0- - ---- 0 .. . Z - 0 0i .5Z = 0 .. uCcn) C.10 0 o Q /4 210 - -4 E-4. C z -4 - co ri. A C 54.4 0el I -c CO j., C.) I.X . sq 0 . 0 :2 -o eq CO o Oq -0F 0 10 - O0 Ce 00_ 'z, ._ 56 I I i I i I i CHEMICAL REPORT. 00 00 00 00'i X-v C, C. CR-! o I C, 0 C5 _' 01--0 0 C4 CsO0co "Z 00 lzo C i4C0LI4 C -I'- C 0- IR IC OR1tC C,--.,' I I cq 0cn0 L---I ow _ s 8 itC. 8 CCl --, t tc". 6o i a 0 iq e o A is 8. 0 .ct 8 ,AAcl ._ 0-i oI-r o c.qc-:j . o - 0 t ll C &i 5;1 I --c0 1 01Ci1 e0 0 l - c. :0i oCl I1- C) C p I00 I. ! . ,00I'o0 0 I- 1 0 I t-I 1 1o ICI o CI C5I CI _ i 0 . i1 I . I : I .I : I ! .S I .-; . . . . . . . .. . : : : . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . - C) A s X 5 _ ,, , C '" E t . . _ _ __ Cl ,, Ct _ . tn_, :ih 5 5 ='- I.0PX'. . g _. - -,C C m -- I . 00 A, CL H ' _ _ _ __ C_ c z -. -.._ C , . A C 7 2I I -4 -4 rj z C QI-. C z C -4 '-4 rJ C C Q I I I CHEMICAL REPORT. The effects of exposure to the atmospheric agenciesweath- ering-are shown in these samples by the great increase of hygroscopic moisture, owing to the disintegration of the coal; the diminution of their volatile combustible matters; the de- crease of their proportion of sulphur by oxidation and other- wise; the increase of their ashy or earthy constituents, and consequently of their specific gravity. Their coke made from the powdered coal is also pulverulent or non-coherent. LOGAN COUNTY. NO. 2370-MINERAL WATER: "From a spring, owned byAbram Sharp, five miles northwest of Lewisburg, on Raw-hide creek; three miles west of 0. & TV. Railroad. (N. W. part of Logan Co.) The water flows about forty ga/Ions per hour. Sanmple sent by B. G. Williams, of Lewisburg, July 27, 1883." NO. 237 I-MINERAL WATER: "From a spring, owned by C. P. Burgher; called by him 'Fountain of Life;' three miles north- west of Russellville. Sample sent by John W. Ca/dwell, of Russellville, October 6, 1883. COMPOSITION OF THESE MINERAL WATERS. In 1000 Parts of the lI'ater. Iron carbonate....... .. . .. . . ..... Lime carbonate.... . .. . .. . .. .. . . . Magnesia carbonate . Lime sulphate. Magnesia sulphate . Ironsulphate... . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . . Soda sulphate. Potash sulphate........ . .. .. . . . .. Magnesium chloride............ . ... Sodium chloride ............... Lithia . Silica. Total saline matters, in 1000 parts of the water 'Held in solution by carbonic acid. tContains mangai WNo. 2370 No. 2371 .0561 .3260t .0504X.3485 . .0094.0101 . .3134 1.1886 ........... 0000 .9373 ... . .0000a trace. ...... .1066 .0000 . .0142 .0000 ...... .0170 .0000 ...... .0000 .0900 ......0000m'rk'd .00 traces. ..... ..0100 .0048 ...... ....... .o15771 2.90.53 lese. These two mineral waters have a general similarity of com- position; being both saline chalybeate waters. But No. 237I 58 21I 2 CHEMICAL REPORT. 213 is much the stronger, especially as a chalybeate. The iron of this water is also accompanied by a small proportion of man- ganese, and lithia is present in it in notable small proportion. MAGOFFIN COUNTY. NO. 2372-COAL: "From Stone's bank, on Oakley creek, ha/f a mile from the mouth. Whole thickness thirty-five inches. Sample from the lower twenty inches. Collected by A. R. Crandall, November. s88i." Quite a firm coal, cleaving with some difficulty into irregular laminae, with some fibrous coal between, but no apparent pyrites. Generally pitch-black and glossy on the fractured surfaces. NO. 2373-COAL: "From same bank as next preceding. Sam- ple from the upper fifteen inches. Collected by A. R. Cran- dall, November, zpi88." Apparently a weathered sample. Friable, cleaving in thin laminae. Of a dark-slate color on the exterior surface (caused by weathering); black in the interior. No apparent pyrites. COMPOSITION OF THESE MAGOFFIN COUNTY COALS. (Air-Dried.) No. 2372'No. 2373 Specific gravity. ..... .. .. . . 1.303 Hvgroscopic moisture . . . 2.16 Volatile combustible matters.. . . . 36.98 Coke . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. 60.86 Total.. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . 100.00 Total volatile matters.. ................. 39.14 Fixed carbon in the coke .. . ... .. ... .. .. .. .. . 53.86 Ash................... . 7.00 Total................... 100.00 Character of the coke ................ . I Light Ispongy. Color of the ash..... ... .5. .... .... .. ... Nearly n white. Percentage of sulphur ......... ............0.535 1.482 6.92 29.28 63.80 100.00 36.20 46.80 17.00 100.00 Pulveru- lent. Light grey. 0.641 59 CHEMICAL REPORT. The upper layer seems to have been much "weathered," hence probably its larger proportion of hygroscopic moisture and its smaller proportion of volatile combustible matters. The lower layer gives very good coal, and further in the bed the upper layer may be found to improve in quality. MARTIN COUNTY. NO. 2374-COAL: "G. W. Ward's, head of Lick Branch of Cold Water Fork of Rockcastle creek. Sample from the upper two feet, the lower one foot being covered. Collected by A. R. Crandall, June 22, 1882." A pure looking splint coal (block coal), splitting with some difficulty into thin laminae, with some fibrous coal, but no appa- rent pyrites between. NO. 2375-COAL: "From Scaffold Lick Branch of Rockcastle creek. Six feet bed; five and a half feet, exclusive of pdrt- ing. Collected by A. R. Crandall, June 24, i882." A firm splint or block coal, with very little fibrous coal and no appearance of pyrites between the irregular lamina. Some of these, dull black, are of the nature of cannel coal; others are glossy and pitch-black, and soften somewhat in the flame of the lamp. No. 2376-COAL: "On Beech Fork. of Rockcastle creek. (Coal No. 2.) Bed three feet eight inches thick, with a five-inch parting. Collected by A. R. Crandall." A pure-looking coal; partly pitch-black, with shining frac- ture; a portion more dull and cannel-coal-like. NO. 2377-COKE: -Of the next preceding coal, No. 2. Made in an open fire. Collected by A. R. Crandall." 60 214 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE MARTIN COUNTY COALS AND COKE. (Air-dried). Specific gravity ................ Hygroscopic moisture ... ... . ...... Volatile combustible matters .......... Coke. Total . Total volatile matters ....... . . .. .. Fixed carbon in the coke .. . . ... ... .. Ash. Total . Character of the coke . Color of the ash. Percentage of sulphur . . . No. 2374'No. 2375 No. 2376 No. 2377 1.291 1.341 1.342 n. e. 2.60 I .64 2.20 0.80 36.60 31.86 33.10 . 61.90 65.10 64.70 . 100.00 I 100.00 100.00 . . . 38.10 34.90 36.30 . 56:86 56.30 65.10 90.20 5.04 8.80 9.00 9.00 100.00 100.00 1100.00 100.00 Spongy. Dense. Spongy. .... Nearly Lt. lilac Light Redish white. grey. grey. brown. 0.608 0.565 0.578 0.582 These are good coals, containing less than the average pro- portion of sulphur; but Nos. 2375 and 2376 contain more than the average ash proportion. It is probable, however, that this will be less in the coal deeper in the bed. MERCER COUNTY. NO. 2378-LIMESTONE: " Chazy Limestone (Sample No. i), from Kentucky river cliffs. Collected by Wm. M. Linney. Received February 23, r883." A compact, very fine granular limestone of a warm-grey color. Does not adhere to the tongue. Contains no appa- rent fossils. No. 2379-LIMESTONE: "GChazy Limestone (Sample No. 2), from Kentucky river cliffs. Collected by W. A. Linney. Received February 23, 1883." A compact limestone of a grey color, irregularly mottled with lighter grey in consequence of the presence of fossil remains. Does not adhere to the tongue. 21I5 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE MERCER COUNTY CRAZY LIMESTONES. (Air-dried.) 'No. 2378 No. 2379 Lime carbonate........................ 62.860 83.040 Magnesia carbonate..... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 30.720 10.560 Alumina in iron oxide with traces of phosphoric acid . . . . . . . 1.220 .980 Silicious residue (insoluble in acids).......... .. . .. 6.000 1 5.560 Moisture, etc..... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 0.1,30 2.30 Total....... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 99.930 100.360 No. 2378 contains 35.20 per cent. of lime, and No. 2379 con- tains 46.50 per cent. They are both magnesian limestones, and would calcine into very good white lime. Possibly No. 2378, which contains the most magnesia, might, if properly cal- cined, be found to produce a hydraulic cement, but not of so durable character as that prepared from more silicious lime- stones. No doubt they are both good durable building stones. MORGAN COUNTY. No. 2380-CANNEL COAL: "From Williams' bank, Rush branch of Elk Fork of Licking river. Average sample of thefifty- eight-inch bed. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Quite a tough cannel coal, with imperfect lamination. Frac- ture dull or brownish-black, with a few minute specks of mica on some of the surfaces. No appearance of pyrites and very little of fibrous coal. Ferruginous stain on the exterior surfaces. NO. 2381-COAL No. 2; "Forty-inch cannel coal, opposite the house of Joel Adkins, head of North Fork of Licking river. Sample from the outcrop. The whole thickness is in the bed of the branch. Collected by A. R. Crandall, June, i88z." A tough, dull-black cannel coal; laminated. Some of the thicker and more dense laminae break with a flat-conchoidal fracture. Not much fibrous coal or granular pyrites apparent but there are some small pyritous lumps in the body of the coal. Some of the lamina are quite shaley. Ferruginous stains on the exterior surfaces. 62 2i6 CHEMICAL REPORT. NO. 2382-COAL NO. 2: "Three feet cannel coal, left branch of Mordecai creek. Average sample from the upper thirty-two inches. Collected by A. R. Crandall, June r3, i88ri." Resembles the preceding, but darker colored than that, with less ferruginous incrustation and showing no pyrites. NO. 2383-COAL NO. 2: "Another average sample from the upper thirty inches of the same bed. (One foot uncovered. the lower six inches more slatey.) Brought by A. R. Crandall, April 6, (882." Resembles the preceding. NO. 2384-COAL: Prater's cannel coal, on Stone Coal branch :f Caney creek, one mile above Walnut Grove. Thickness two feet. Collected by A. R. Crandall, _June, i88ir." A pure-looking, firm, jet-black coal, showing only a few small scales of pyrites between some of the lamina. Some ferrugin- ous stain on some of the exposed surfaces. NO. 2385-COAL No. I: "On a fork of Smith's creek. Bed thirty inches thick. Average sample of the whole thickness. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Apparently a splint coal, breaking into thin laminae, with some fibrous coal and granular pyrites between. 63 21I7 2I8 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE MORGAN COUNTY COAIa. (Air-dried.) No. 230 No. 2381 No. 2382 No. 283 No. 2384'No. 2885 Specific gravity. . 1.332 1.348 1.373 1.303 1.294 1.358 Hygroscopic moisture.1.60 4.26 3.90 2.02 2.20 2.90 Volatile combustibl2 matters . 44.00 42.48 39.30 41.98 40.50 .39.10 Coke . .. .. . .. . .. . 64.40 53.26 56.80 56.00 57.30 58.00 Total. ..... .. . .. 00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Total volatile matters.... . 45.60 46.74 48.20 44.00 42.70 42.00 Fixed carbon in the coke... 38.86 33.76 38.80 44.06 50.30 51.84 Ash. . .. .. . .. . .. 15.54 19.50 18.00 11.94 7.00 6.66 Total. .. . .. . .. .. 00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke . . . . Dense. Pulven Friable. Dense. Dense. Dense lent. spongy. Color of the ash. Buff- Fawn- Grey- D'k pur- Nearly D'k lilac C grey. colored. brown. plish g'y. white. grey. Percentage of sulphur.... . 0.961 1.535 1.106 0.810 0.805 4.527 With the exception of Nos. 2384 and 2385, these coals greatly exceed the average ash proportion. Most probably this is partly owing to the fact that the samples in these cases were taken from the weathered outcrop of the bed. No. 2385 con- tains quite a large proportion of sulphur. Whether the sample was exceptional in this respect, can only be ascertained by the analysis of other samples from the same bed. Morgan County Soils. No. 2386-VIRGIN' SOIL: "From woods, with a northern expo- sure, one hundred and twenty-five feet above Spaw's creek, near Licking river. Timber, oak and maple, undergrowth the same, with dogwood, hickory, etc. Geo!ogzcal position, coal o. o3. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July zg, '88'." Dried soil, of brownish dark-grey color, with small friable clods, containing fragments of sandy and ferruginous shale or concretions, mostly of irregular, flattened forms. 64 CHEMICAL REPORT. The coarse seive removed from it 37.73 per cent. of hard sandy, ferruginous, shaley fragments, flattened, and with angles rounded. Its silicious residue all passed through the fine seive,t except a very few small rounded quartzose grains. NO. 2387-SUBSOIL: Of the next preceding. The dried subsoil is mostly in moderately firm sods, gener- ally of a light orange-brown color, light-grey in the course of the vegetable rootlets which penetrated it. Contains some frag- ments of soft ferruginous and sandy shale or concretions. The coarse seive removed from it I3.09 per cent. of ochreous concretions or ferruginous shale, containing fine sandy particles, flattened but rounded on all the angles, softer than those of the preceding sample. Its silicious residue all passed through the fine seive except a few small rounded quartz grains. NO. 2388-SOIL: "From an old field, taken three to six inches from the surface. Bottom land on Spaw's creek, near Lirking river. Geological position, coal No. 2. Soil derived fronm the rocks above. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July i8, i88i." The dried soil is friable, of a brownish-yellowish grey color. Contains but few shaley fragments or concretions. The -coarse seive removed from it 2.31 per cent. of ferru- ginous or shaley concretions, etc. The fine seivet separated from its silicious residue 21 per cent. of small rounded white quartz grains. N'O. 2389-SUBSOIL: "Of the next preceding, etc., etc., taken one foot six inches below the surface. Collected by A. R. Crandall." The dried subsoil is mostly in clods, of a lighter and brighter tint than the next preceding. (Light brownish-grey yellow.) Contains but few concretions or shaley fragments. The silicious residue left on the fine seive 2 i.8o per cent. of fine rounded white quartz grains. The coarse seive removed from it only 2. I I per cent. of ochreous and ferruginous concre- tions or fragments. The coarse seive has 64 meshes to the square centimeter. tThe fine seive has 1600 meshes to the square centimeter. 5) 65 2I 9 CHEMICAL REPORT. NO. 2390-OLD-FIELD SOIL: "From the land of Amos Fugilt, two mi/es above [est Liberty, near the Licking river. Geo- logical position, coal No. 3. On the hi//side, western exposure, onze hundred and fifty feet above the river. The hi/I is one hun- dred and fifty feet higher. Collected by A. R. Crandall, July 19, i88o." The dried soil is friable, of a warm brownish-grey color. The coarse seive removed from it I 1.85 per cent. of brownish ochre- ous concretions, etc. The fine seive separated from its silicious residue I 2.65 per cent. of fine white sand in rounded grains. No. 239I-SUBSOIL: Of the next preceding, etc., etc. The dried subsoil is mostly in friable clods of a handsome light brownish-yellow ochre color. This and the three preced- ing soiis contain fine quartz sand. The coarse seive removed from it only 0.51 per cent. of brownish ochreous concretions. The fine seive separated from its silicious residue I3.60 per cent. of fine rounded grains of white quartz sand. COMPOSITION OF THESE MORGAN COUNTY SOILS. (Dried at 21,2 F.) Organic and volatile matters . . Alumina and iron and manga- nese oxides..... . . . I Lime carbonate.. . . .. . Magnesia. Phosphoric Acid, (P2 05) . . . Potash, extracted by acids, (K2 0) Soda, extracted by acids, (Na2 0) Water, expelled at 3800 F. . Sand and insoluble silicates . . Total. . .. . . . . Hygrocopic moisture ..... Potash in the insoluble silicates . Soda in the insoluble silicates . Fine sand in the insoluble silicates Rock fragments or concretions . N o. 2386 No. 2387 6.595 4.240 8.429 6.577 .325 .120 .718 .699 .156 .118 .236 .153 .308 1.570 .835 82.170 87.570 100.199 100.620 2.415 1.600 2.384 2.757 .350 .380 .000 .000 3 a i ;s Virgin i Subsoil. soil. No. 2388 No. 2389 No. 2390 3.305 2.650 3.415 3.655 4.121 3.505 .335 .245 .170 .412 .232 .261 .115 .124 .'40 .104 .043 .082 .156 .071 . .810 .600 .860 91.450 91.682 91.485 100.342 99.768 99.918 1.150 0.960 0.885 1.727 1.911 1.410 .490 .410 .316 21.000 21.800 12.650 2.310 2.110 11.8511 Old-field Subsoil !Old-field soil. Isoil. The virgin soil No. 2386 is of rather more than average fer- 66 No. 2391 3.225 5.262 .120 .299 .108 .121 .625 90.180 99.940 1.115 1.723 .286 13.600 0.510 . Subsoil. Character of the soil . . . . Il I 220 1L3.WU CHEMICAL REPORT. tility, although it is to be discounted by 37.73 per cent. of rock fragments or ferruginous concretions. Most of these, however, may be gradually disintegrated into soil by the process of weath- ering. The subsoil seems to be less rich in the mineral ele.- ments of fertility, as well as in organic matters, than the surface soil. The old-field soils No. 2388, as well as No. 2390, show a diminution of the essential elements as compared with the vir- gin soils. With the exception of Nos. 2389 and 2390, which are somewhat deficient in immediately available potash, these soils may be considered as of average fertility under favorable conditions, and they all may be made permanently productive by judicious management and the proper use and economy of fertilizers. MUHLENBERG COUNTY. NO. 2392-COAL: " From (lie ' Mfud River Mines.' Samnpe clzp- pedfrom three large blocks taken from the middle and bottom of the bed. Sent by John R. Procter, Jutne 22, 1882." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal, glossy on most of the frac- tured surfaces. Very little appearance of fibrous coal. Some little bright scales of pyrites in some of the seams. Large fracture, in cuboidal blocks; smaller fracture irregular, with shining facets. Softens somewhat in the flame, and swells up into a spongy coke. COMPOSITION (Air-dried). Specific gravity.......... . .. .. . .. .. . 1.268 Hygroscopic moisture . . . . . 6.46 T Volatile combustible matters . . 34.04 t Total volatile matters . . 40.50 Spongy cake . . . . . . . . . . 59.504 Fixed carbon in the coke . . 55.50 Light lilac-grey ash .... . 4.00 Total. 100.00 Total..... .. . . 100.00 Its percentage of sulphur is 0.802. A very good, pure coal, which seems to possess coking qual- ities. The large proportion of moisture in this sample is some- what exceptional, and probably accidental. NELSON COUNTY. NO. 2393-SANDSTONE (PHOSPHATIC): 'From the black Devonian slate, in the Boston aistrict. Locally ten incihes thick. Con- 67 2 2 I CHEMICAL REPORT. tains fish and oltier organic remains. Collected by W. M. Lin- ney. Received June 29, 1883." A grey sandstone, mostly made up of hyaline grains of quartz, somewhat rounded, mixed with dark-colored granules and broken organic remains. On analysis this rock was found to contain 67.04 per cent. of silicious material, with smaller proportions of alumina, ox- ide of iron, lime, and magnesia, not determined, with which was combined ii.162 per cent. of phosphoric acid (P2 05), equivalent to 24.372 per cent. of bone phosphate. It also con- tained traces of the alkalies, in which was potash equal to o.oI 9 per cent. of the rock. No. 2394-LIMESTONE (FERRUGINOUS): "From near the top of the upper Hudson river beds. Cumberland sandstones and shales. Collected by W. M. Letiuey, near the farm o1 S. P. Stiles, four miles north of Bardstown, May 5, 1883." A fine granular rock of a dull-grey color; brownish-yellow on the weathered portions. Not adhering to the tongue. NO. 2395-LIMESTONE (FERRUGINOUS): "From near S. P. Stiles'. Cumberland sandstones and shales. Upper part of upper Hud- son river beds. Collected May 5, 1883, by W M. Linney." A fine granular rock of a brownish-yellow ochre color. Not adhering to the tongue. COMPOSITION OF THESE NELSON COUNTY FERRUGINOUS LIMESTONES. (Air-dried.) INo. 2394 No. 2395 Lime carbonate ......... ............... . 81.680 61.240 Magnesia carbonate ....................... 1.501 8.916 Alumina and iron oxide ..................... 2.978 4.317 Phosphoric acid (P2 05) ..................... 1.202 .663 Potash.... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .423 .443 Soda ....... .248 .264 Silicious residue....... ......... 11.120 22.520 Moisture and loss ........................ .948 1.748 Total........... .. .............. 100.000100.000 Percentage of lime ....................... 45.685 84.294 68 222 CHEMICAL REPORT. Judging by the composition of sample No. 2395, it is prob- able that by skillful management in calcination it might furnish hydraulic cement. No. 2394, containing less silicious matter, might be made available in all the ordinary uses of lime for building purposes; and both, if to be obtained in proper shape, would make good building stones. They would yield fertile soil by the slow process of weathering. NO. 2396-SOIL: "From the farm of S. P. S/i/es, four mi/es north of Bards/own. Derived from the Cumber/and s/tales. Geological position, upper part of the upper Hudson river beds. Collected by W. M. Linney, May 5, 1883. Said to be quite poor, soft, /zght soil. Has been cultivated for a long lime, perhaps forty years. Does not wash badly." Soil of a light brownish-buff color. Clods friable. All passed through the coarse seive, which has 64 meshes to the square centimeter, except a small quantity of ferruginous concretions- shot iron ore. Its silicious residue, from digestion in acids, all passed through the fine seive with i6oo meshes to the centi- meter square, except two or three small quartzose particles. COMPOSITION. (Dri at 212" F.) Organic and volatile matters . . . . . . . 3.020 Alumina and oxides of iron and manganese 9.772 Lime carbonate........ . .. .145 Magnesia.. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .305 Phosphoric acid (P2 05)..... .. . .173 Potash, extracted by acids (K2 0) . . . . .438 Soda, extracted by acids (Na2 0) . Water expelled at 340 F. .612 Sand nd soluble silicates . . . . . . . . 8.820 containing 1.200 . c. potash. and .646 p. c.soda. Total.. . 99.285 Hygroscopic moisture=2.350 per cent. No reason appears, except perhaps its small proportion of organic matters-hiumus--why this soil might not yet be rea- sonably productive under favorable conditions and good hus- bandry. A two-years' rest in clover pastured on the ground and then plowed under would greatly improve its fertility. 69 223" CHEMICAL REPORT. OHIO COUNTY. No. 2397-MINERAL WVATER1. "Fromt a spring on the hillside, two miles fromt Haynesville and three miles from Fordsvil/e- farm of J. M. Royal, on tle Hartford and Hawesville road. Sample sent by J. L. Royal." COMPOSITION-, in 1000 Parts of the Water. Iron and manganese carbonates . Small quantities Held in solution by not estimated. I carbonic acid. Lime sulphate..... .. .. . .. .. . 0.938 Magnesia sulphate ............. 1.630 Potash sulphate .............. . 023 Soda sulphate ............... . 185 Sodium chloride . .............. .200 Silica ................... . 078 Total saline matters ..... . ..... 2.954 in 1000 parts of the water. A good weak saline, chalybeate water. PERRY COUNTY. NO. 2398-COAL: "From J. H. Comb's bank, below and opposite Hazard. Bed three feet thick without parting. One hundred feet above the river. Collected by A]. R. Crandall. Brought August 3, i88i. " A pure-looking, pitch-black splint coal. Shows very little fibrous coal and no visible pyrites between its irregular laminae. No. 2399-COAL: "From the mouth of Sassafras creek. Az'er- age sample, from near the outcrop, from 'he whole face of the bed, of four and a half feet thickness, excluding two and a half inches of ' bone coal' near the middle. Collected by A. R. Cran- dall, July '3, 1883." Generally a bright splint coal. No apparent pyrites and very little fibrous coal between its lamina. Some little incrust- ing clay on some of the pieces, which will increase the ash per- centage. 70 224 CHE'MICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE PERRY COUNTY COAL., (Air-dried). LNo. 2397 No. 2398 Specific gravity ............... . 1.. .. 2721.30.a _ I - l_ Hev gocpcmisture.. .. .. . .. .. . . Hvgroscopic moisue Volatile combustible matters ......... Coke. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . . Total. Total volatile matters . . Fixed carbon in the coke Ash . Total. Character of the Coke . Color of the ash.... .. . .. . . Percentage of sulphur.... .. .. . .. These are both good pure coals, The apparent ash percentage of No. by the adherent dirt in the sample. out deeper the ash percentage will much less. 1.50 1.30 .......6.10 34.70 62.40 64.00 100.00 100.00 37.60 36.00 59.06 56.10 3.34 7.90 100.00 100.60 ........ ........ . Spongy. Spongy. a Light Bun:- grey. grey. .. .. .. . .. . 0.618 0.437 more especially No. 2397. 2398 is no doubt increased When the bed is opened probably be found to be PIKE COUNTY. "Elkhorn Coals" (so-called). NO. 2399-COAL: "On Bi' Elkhorn. Seven feet bed, wit/ a two- znc/ poarting six inches above the middle. Sample of an aver- age of the whole bed Collected by A. R. Crandall, November 12, i88i." A firm, pitch-black, pure-looking coal, showing very little fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites. NO. 2400-COAL: "From Isaac Patton's new bed, on branch, head of Elkhorn creek. Two fret thick or more. Collected by A. R. Crandali, November, i88i." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Shows but little fibrous coal or granular pyrites. 71 .. .. .. . .. . . .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. . . CHEMICAL REPORT. No. 2401-COAL: "On Big Elkhorn creek, at Mullen's branch, head of Kentucky river. Bed nearly four feet thick. Aver- age sample of the lower part. Collected by A. R. Crandall, November 12, i88i." Resembles the next preceding. NO. 2402-COAL: "Elkhorn coking coal. (Rice's coal.) On Mill branch of Elkhorn creek. (Coal No. i ) Whole thick- ness one hundred and one inches. (Sample I.) From lower forty-four inches. Collected by Roger C. Ballard, August 28, 1882." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal, breaking easily; fracture generally irregular cuboidal. No appearance of pyrites or fibrous coal. (Some portions of this coal were light enough to float on water, so that its specific gravity was taken by the use of alcohol. NO. 2403-COAL: "From same bed. Sample I1. (of the upper part of the bed), etc., etc. Resembles the preceding. NO. 2404-COAL: "RSlack Coal, from Elkhorn creek of Big Sandy, from which the coke No. 2413 was made at Connellsville, Pa." NO. 2405-COAL: "From Cane branch of Elkhorn creek. Geo- logical position, 'Main coal.' Sample from the upper five feet five and a half inches, above the six-inch parting. Collected by A. R. Crandall, August 22, 1883." A bright, pure-looking, soft coal, with very little appearance of fibrous coal or pyrites. A very free burning coal. NO. 2406-COAL: "From the same bed as the next preceding. Sample from the lower three feet seven inches. Collected by A. R. Crandall, August 22, 1883." Resembles the next preceding. No. 2406 A-BONE COA., (SO-CALLED): "From the lower stratum of the above. Collected by A. R. Crandall, August 22, 1883." 72 226 CHEMICAL REPORT. Resembles a splint coal. This gave a dense friable coke, and left only 4.40 per cent. of very light buff ash. COMPOSITION OF THESE PIKE COUNTY ELKHORN COALS. (Air-dried). Specific gravity ..... llygposcopic moisture ...... Volatile combustible matters Coke Total. Total volatile matters ...... Fixed carbon in the coke . - . Ash. Total. Character of the coke... .. J C.Iir of the ash .......... Percentage of sulphur..... . . No. 2399 No. 2400 No. 2401 No. 24W2, No. 2403 No. 2404 No. 2405 No. 24041 ..282 I.3O7 1.2T 1 I1.2T81.2TI,i. e.1.3Y55 1.314 =l - II---I__ 2.60 2.60 2.00 1.60I1.0 1.80LS6.00) 2.54 34.20 M.-340 1 33.50 1 32.10 1 2.31 261.80 31.21i a2.-2 .3.20 14.-00,4- O16.30b1 .1071.40 02.-7415.21) 100.00 It.O IIO.I 100.0)( 10).00 100.00 100U.0 100.0I) . 3F6 36.00 ai0 33.70 3T).9 628.11037.26131.8A) .uAtil1.)I 60414.4 tW N 7.40 67AA0 59. 3 62.'2) 2.40 2.70 3..96 I1.6 1.64 3.30 3.14) 3.04 100).00100o00100-00100()1)0) I (.X . W.ll- I__J.O_1. 00.0 100 00 100.00) O.J) llOU) 100).00 In\eD Denee.Light Verv ltIn- DeucePilcer- DeLce, /Dezlse. Deno-e. "ti' . Spongy f dateil. Slpogy.i ulent. hard. Light Light Light IA. rid. It niI Browrn- Lt.fawn Lt.ptt - I hulf,. buff. grey. di-hir. l i s jeb-red. colt'. bttl. .412 .4411 .42' .711 '1liltl. i,7.390 .547 Remarkably good coals, containing but small proportions of ash and sulphur. The " slack coal," No. 2404, of course con- tains more of these ingredients than most of the others. From the Coke Report 6f F. Platt, Second Geological Sur- vey of Pennsylvania, Special Report L, 1875, p. I20, we for comparison give the analysis of " three types of the best coking coals of Pennsylvania," including that of the celebrated Con- nellsville coal, as follows: Volatile matters......... . 31 Fixed carbon. . . .. . . . . . 5' Aszh.... . .. . . . .. . Sulphur ..... . . . . . . . . Total.9 .9... ......... C .,kv....... . . . . . .. . 68 Analvsts-a, MeCreath. b, c, T. T. 3Morall. I b I i Connellsv'e. Bennington. Broad Top. IPitts'g Seam. Mliller. b Batrnett. c Miller. .360 22.380 1 1 6.00 19.68 .620 68.500 7 4. 65 71.12 S.2:30 8.000 7 7.50 7.50 .784 1.120 1 1.85 1.70 1.994 100.000 I 100.00 100.00 8.000 76.000 f81.001 78.00 According to F. Platt, the requirements of a good coking coal are as follow: 227 CHEMICAL REPORT. Ii. Pure semi-bituminous coal. "A 2. Must contain enough volatile matters to supply heat in coking without expenditure of carbon. "3. Its coke must be tenacious enough to sustain, without crumbling, the burthen and blast of the furnace, and have an open cellular structure to facilitate its penetration by the car- bonic acid gas in the furnace." It will be seen that the Elkhorn coal and other coals of Ken- tucky compare very favorably with these celebrated Pennsyl- vania coals. Other Pike County Coals. NO. 2407-COAL: "From Stone Coal creek, four and a half miles beZow Pikeville. Upper two feet eight inches. Average sample. Collected by A. R. Crandall, September 4, 1882." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Some portions showing scales of bright pyrites and fibrous coal. One portion has ir- regular fracture; another portion breaks into irregular lamina. NO. 2408-COAL: "From the same bed. Average sample fronm the lower three feet. Collected by A. R. Crandall, September 4, 1882." A considerable portion of the sample is in tough laming, and like cannel coal, of a dull black, showing fibrous coal between the layers; another portion is of bright pitch-black and of irreg- ular fracture. NO. 2409-COAL: "Head of Chloe creek, two miles and a half south of Pikeville. Average sample from the lower four feet eight inches. Entry driven thirty feet." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal, showing very little fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites. No. 24I0-COAL: "From three-quarters of a mile above Pike- ville, on Little Chloe creek. An average sample from Syckes bank. Collected by A. R. Crandall, September 3, 1882." Mostly laminated, and showing a weathered appearance Some little fibrous coal apparent, but no pyrites. 74 228 CHEMICAL REORKT. COMIPOSITION OF THESE OTHER PIKE COUNTY COALS. (Air-dried.) Specific gravity ............... Hygroscopic moisture ............ volatile combustible matters. Coke . Total. Total volatile matters....... . Fixed carbon in the coke .... .. .. ... Ash. Total. Character of the coke.... . ... . Color of the ash .. . . ... .... .... Percentage of sulphur . .......... These also are good more sulphur and ash I No. 2407,No. 2408 No. 2409 No. 2410 . 1.279 1.293 1.273 1.367 2.20 2.40 1.40 5.06 . 36.10 35.40 33.66 29.84 61.70 62.20 64.94 65.10 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 . .38.30 37.80 35.06 34.90 58.1 i 58.26 58.60 57.50 3.6o, 3.94 6.34 7.60 1.1)0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 ' Spongy. SpgySPo. - lent. Lt. buff Lt. buff Lt. grey- Nearly grey. grey. ish. white. 0.651 0.692 0.825 1.038 coals, containing generally only a little than the average Elkhorn coals. No. 2410 shows the effects of weathering in the increase of its moist- ure, ash, etc. The coal is no doubt purer deeper in the bed. Elk/horn (Pike Count')') Cokes. No. 24I I-CIOKE: 'Made of t/e Elkhtorn coking coal, fromt Elk- horn creek, six miles above /he mon2// of Aill branch. Rzce's opening. NO. 2412-COKE: "Of /he Elk/horn coal, made in an oven in Cincinlinati. Scn/ by Mr. Jnzo. R. Procter, December 7, I882, who wrote. II see sonme small bits of slate in /he coke, which will doubtless make t/e percen/age of ash larger than were /1e coal carefully minzed.' " A firm, bright coke. No. 2413-COKE: "Made from /he Elk/horn slack coal (No. 2101), coked at Connellsville, Pa., by iniclosinlg die coal in a 75 229 CHEMICAL REPORT. wooden box, nailed uzp, and putting it in the midst of the Con- nellsville coal in a coking oven. Sent from Cincinnati Janu- ary i8, 1883, by H. W. Bates, Vice President of Eastern Rail- way Company." This coke is bright and firm and of moderate porosity. (The specific gravity was taken of a lump.) NO. 24I4-COKE: "Of Elkhorn coal, Wm. MAullens, on Elkhorn creek. AMade from a sample taken from the upper part of the bed. Sent by R. C Ballard, September 8, 1883." A firm columnar coke. NO. 2415-COKE: "Of coal from the same bed. Made from a mixed sample of the coal. Sent by R. C Ballard, September 5-Io, 1883." A little more porous than the preceding. COMPOSITION OF THESE PIKE COUNTY (ELKHORN COAL) COKES. (Air-dried.) No. 24111No. 2412 No. 2413 No. 2414 No. 2415 Moisture, etc., lost on ignition.2.86a 020b 1.20 1.10 1.06 Fixed carbon in the coke..... . .. 88.44 93.20 94.14 95.40 90.40 Ash .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 8.70 6.60 4.66 3.50 8.54 Total. . . 100.00100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Color of the ash... . Lt. lilac Brown'h Brown'h D'k lilac Lt. pur- . grey. red. red. grey. plish g'y. Percentage of sulphur........ . 0.844 0.734 1.484 0.517 0.598 (a) Moisture lost at 5000 F.; (b) at 2200 F. (c) Specific gravity 0.937. Another sample of No. 2412 sent by Mr. Bates, gave on analysis, moisture o.o6 per cent., fixed carbon 94.34, brown- ish-red ash 5.60 and sulphur 0.788. These cokes compare very favorably with the celebrated coke of Connellsville, Pa., which is exported to all parts of the country in immense quantities.' The Scentific American of November 18, 1882. page 323, states, that eight thousand coke ovens are in use at Connellsville, of a daily capacity or 15,000 tons, and that the coke is prized because of its high proportion of carbon, its freedom from impurities, and its hardness. (See Bell Gounty and a following page for the official analysis of the Connellsvillc Coke.) 76 230 CHEMICAL REPORT. Some experiments were made with Coke No. 2413 to ascer- tain its porosity; by first finding the cubic contents of a num- ber of weighed fragments; by immersion in water in a specific gravity bottle; then placing them, immersed in water, in the vacuum of an air-pump for several hours, to remove the air from the pores and fill them with water; then, by weighing them again, after wiping dry the superfices, to ascertain the quantity of water absorbed into the pores, etc. In this imperfect man- ner the cell space was found to be 41.46 per cent. of the volume of the coke. As, in the first immersion of the coke, to get its cubic volume, some water necessarily entered its pores, this es- timation is evidently only approximative. In experiments made by the officers of the Second Pennsyl- vania Geological Survey (See F. Platt's Coke Report of I875, Special Report L, p. 130), " the cellular space of coke was obtained by immersing an accurately cut cubic inch of the coke in a glass of distilled water under the receiver of an air-pump, exhausting the air and weighing the cube dry and wet, the difference indicating the cellular space, as the specific gravit es of coke and water are very nearly alike." (Not always.) According to that author, the best cokes have the cell space to the whole mass very nearly as one to two; but he states "these proportions can differ widely in cokes, giving equally good results in furnace use; 38 to 62 is obtained from a coke of a first-class order in strength and purity." The much larger surface exposed to the penetrating water in the small fragments used in our experiments, as compared with that of the solid cubic inch used in the Pennsylvania determina- tion, would expose more cells to be filled by the water, and hence increase the apparent cell space. NO. 24i6-IRON ORE: "On Elkhiorn creek, sixteen miles from its mouth, at Levi Potter's, Pike county. One hundred and fifty feel above the bed of the creek. In large blocks. Average sample from a large block. Collected by A. R. Crandall, Au- guSst 28, 1S82." A dark-colored, dull-brownish, cellular conglomerate or con- cretion. 231 CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION, Dried at 212 F. Iron peroxide ........... 69.630=41.74 per cent. of iron. Alumina, etc. .7......... .927 Phosphoric acid (P2 05) . . . . . . .563=0.234 per cent. of phosphorus. Combined water.o.. . Silicious residue . . . . . . . . . 29.720 centaining 21.98 per cent. of silica. Undetermined and loss . . . . . . 1.600 Total.. . 100.000 NO. 24i6 (a)-SO-CALLED - BRECCIATED OR DYE ORE." "Sample from a large block on the surface. Air. Gibson's place on Pigeon Roost branch, Pike county. Collected by A. R. Crandall, Aulgust 20, 1882." A friable breccia, mainly of argillaceous material, colored more or less reddish brown with iron oxide, and mottled with grey material, involving numerous fragments of ferruginous and grey sandstone or shale and chert. It contains too little iron oxide to be of value as an ore, and its finer, ochreous material is of too dull color to be of much value as a pigment. No. 2416 (b)-" CLAY ORE, "DYE ORE, "SO-CALLED: "On Mr. Roberts' place on Jacksoon branch, Pike county. Overlying the place of the so-called brecciated ore of other localities. Col- lected by R. C. Ballard, Auigust 27, i882." A bright red ochre or bole, slightly mottled with small yel- lowish-grcy portions; friable, involving fragments of silicious- ferruginous shale, which are rounded cn the edges; also some irregular fragments of greyish sandstone. Some of this bole, exclusive of the silicious fragments, pul- verized of a bright venetian-red color. No doubt if ground and washed from the silicious material it might serve for a pigment. PULASKI COUNTY. No. 2417-COAL: From Childer's opening, Capt. Geary's land, branch near the head of Indian creek. Average sample. Bed thirty-three inches thick. Six inches of the top semi-cannel; a parting an inch from the top. Thick sandstone rock next above it. Collected by A. R. Crandall, Afay 24. i88o." 78 232 C;HEMICAL REPORT. A firm, bright, pure-looking, pitch-black splint coal, showing ferruginous stains on some of the exterior surfaces. Breaks irregularly, some portions in irregular laminx, with fibrous coal and reed-like impressions between. Some portions show a bird's-eye structure. Shows very little granular pyrites. NO. 2418-COAL: "Forty-two inch coal, under a sandstone cliff. Head of Barren Fork of Indian creek, three and a half miles from Flat Rock station, on tAe Cincinnati Southern Railroad. Collected by A. R. Crandall." Resembles the preceding. Shows a little bright pyrites. NO. 2419-COAL: "Bird's-eye cannel coal, from near the head of Barren branch of Indian creek. Nine incies thick. The whole bed is thirty inches thick. Collected by A. R. Crandall. Quite a tough cannel coal, breaking irregularly, with a hackly fracture across the laminx, and showing the bird's-eye structure in the direction of the very irregular laminx. Some of the ex- terior surfaces much coated with reddish-brown ochreous ma- terial. Shows no fibrous coal and very little pyrites. No. 2420-COAL: "From the 'Big Vein Coal Comzpany's mine,' between the Cincinnati Southern Railroad and the South Fork of Cumberland river. Average sample. Sent by AMr. Procter, May 8, 1882." NO. 242I-COAL: "From the Barren Fork Coal Company, near Flat Rock station on the Cincinnati Southern Railroad. ( Con- glomerate) Sample of the marketable coal (thzirty-five and a half incites). There is also above in some places two to four inches of splint coal, and below ten to twelve inches of very slatey coal. Collected by R. C. Ballard, November 18, S882." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Some portions breaking with irregular and sub-cuboidal fracture with brilliant surfaces; other portions showing lamination, with some little fibrous coal. No apparent pyrites, except a very few granules in the fibrous coal. 79 233 CHEMICAL REPORT. NO' 2422-COAL "From Flat Rock mines, Flat Rock Station on the Cincinnati Southern Railroad. Collected by R. C. Bal- lard, November 20, 1882. (This is from the mine, including slack and all. )" Mostly dull, and apparently weathered, and fine laminated, with fibrous coal between the lamina. No bright pyrites ap- parent. No. 2423-COAL: "From Cumberland Coal Company, Green- wood. (Coal No. i.) Collected by R. C Ballard, November 23, 1882." A firm, pure-looking, pitch-black coal, breaking generally into thin laminae, with some little fibrous coal between, but no apparent pyrites, except some small bright scales on one por- tion. A splint coal, resembling so-called "block coal." NO. 2424-COAL: "From Beaver Creek Coal Company. Entry No. i. Lower twelve inches. Bed forty-eig-ht inches thick. Conglomerate. Collected by R. C. Ballard, November 20, 1882." Much of the sample is bright, pitch-black coal, with glossy, irregular sub-cuboidal fracture. A portion more dull, breaks into thin laming, with dense mineral charcoal between, and specks of bright pyrites. NO. 2425-COAL: "From same bed. Entry No. 2. Conglonl- erate. Bed forty-six inches thick. Collected by R. C. Ballard, November 20, z882." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Sample contains more of that with irregular cuboidal fracture and glossy surfaces than the preceding one, and a smaller proportion of the dull thin laminated coal, etc. No. 2426-COAL: "From same bed. Entry 6. Conglomerate. Sample of the middle thirty-one inches. Collected by R. C. Bal- lard, November 20, 1882." 80 2 't4 CHEMICAL REPORT. 235 Sample firm "d splint " or "n block coal." Breaks into irregular thin laminae, with but little mineral charcoal, and some little granular pyrites between. NO. 2427-COAL: "Same bed. Entry 6. ple from the lower seventeen inches of R. C. Ballard, November 20, i882." Conglomerate. Sam- the bed. Collected by Sample contains rather more of the laminated or splint ccal than the next preceding samples. Some granular pyrites appa- rent and a little dense mineral charcoal between the thin irreg- ular laminae. (6) 8 CHEMICAL REPORT. -" N' -"I O 4'l OR 0: C4X-I co 0D c It I _ .c u 0 2 o 0l 0 c1 o3o '0 it 000 8 iI ZII! 1 cq - r -. - 1 42e 8 c 1 Loc.- ____I! s.2 8 : _ __ _ , _ o]1 XCu1e0 I 040 q. .0 N t - I aot48 - .1 2 ,28o 1o coo 0 0 8 Il _2 .co - 0C -q0 0 r cq 0l 0 0 Cz s _ _ - 8 a o00 ' 0. 2 0404.0 co -0 0 0404o.00 D I Ico F I.. . I.. . .... .. 1'.. . I , E Y 1, 0 o I. . . i -e - 1 _e . ,IH E= x C 0 0 I -1 -, , Z o i 1i W2. I Z 1 1 1W 2s C Z 1. -. 0 04 4 236 _l eq c: 4z c: p.4 C Q w pq CI v p P4 E-4 ct C C 82 I._ I ! I C. ! . I I I =",= 8 q li " ,Z CD t- C --Z 8 CHEMICAL REPORT. Except No. 2424, which has a large proportion of ash, all these coals are good for all ordinary purposes. Even this may be profitably used when the large ash residue does not prove objectionable. The sample analyzed was only from the lower twelve inches of the bed. For all uses where sulphur would be injurious all these coals which contain more than two per cent. of that substance would not probably be applicable. NO. 2427-MARLY SHALE: "From south of the Cumberland river, on the line of the Cincinnati Southern Railroad. Collected by W. H. Pettus, October, z88o." A very friable marlite, generally of a light-chocolate color. Adheres slightly to the tongue. COMPOSITION (Dried at 21;2 F.) Alumina and iron and manganese oxides . . 15.814 Lime .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. 3.475 Magnesia.. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .542 Phosphoric acid....... . . ... . a trace. Potash, extracted by acids... . .. .. . 1.666 Soda, extracted by acids. ...... . . . .033 Combined water... .. .. . .. .. . 4.927 Carbonic acid and loss ... ....... . 3.603 Silicious residue.... .. . .. .. . . 69.940 containing potash, 2.360 containing soda, . .230 Total. 100.000 Total potash, 4.026 per cent., total soda, .263 per cent. Notwithstanding the rather more than four per cent. of pot- ash contained in this shale, it could not profitably be used as a fertilizer, because most of the potash is in firm chemical com- bination with the silicates, and the proportion of phosphoric acid is very small. NO. 2428-YELLOW OCHRE: ,From one mile north of Somerset. Collected by W. H. Pettus." In friable lumps which are mottled with various tints, from light yellowish to slightly brownish yellow. The general tint is a good yellow-ochre color. It contains a considerable pro- portion of fine sand. 83 237 CHEMICAL REPORT. If it is in a very large deposit, where there are facilities for cheaply washing it, a cheap pigment might possibly be made of it. ROWAN COUNTY. No. 2429-SANDSTONE: "From the base of the Waverley forma- tion. Sample suppplied by the Frees/one Company; Tyler, Pres- ident. Taken from quarry near Farmer's Station, on the Ches- apeake CM Ohio Railroad, thirty-five miles beyond Mf. Sterling. Brought by Mr. W. W. Monroe." A fine-grained sandstone of a handsome light-grey color on the recently exposed surfaces, showing a few minute spangles of mica. Adheres to the tongue. Stained light ochreous and brownish on the weathered surfaces. Showing no fossil re- mains, but Spirophyton cauda-gaili (Hall) on one of its surfaces. This rock is used in the construction of the new court house at Lexington. Specific gravity about 2.50. (This is somewhat difficult to take in lump, because it absorbs water.) COMPOSITION (Air-dried). Sand and insoluble silicates... .. . . ... . . .. . . . . 98.128 Iron carbonate,.. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . . .. . . .. 2.886 Lime carbonate,.... .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .578 Magnesia carbonate........ . .............. .266 Alumina, phosphoric acid, etc... .. .. . . 1.188 Moisture and loss...... . . .. ... . .. .. . . .. .. 2.514 Total.... 100.000 A small cube of this rock, measuring little more than a cubic inch, weighed 44.760 grammes, air-dried. Immersed in water for twenty-five minutes and wiped, it had gained 1.744 grammes. Immersed for forty-eight hours more, it gained only . . . . . . . .314 " more. In all .2.058 Equal to 4.59 per cent. After thorough drying at 212 F. it weighed 44.009 grammes, having lost 0.757 grammes, equal to 1.02 per cent. of its orig- inal weight, which probably represented hygroscopic moisture evaporated at this temperature. Again immersed in water for four hours, it absorbed 2.5 grammes. 84 238 CHEMICAL REPORT. In Vol. 4, Reports of the Kentucky Geological Survey, 0. S., p. 252, the present writer gave an analysis of another sample of this sandstone, from the mouth of Triplett creek, on Licking river, which contained somewhat less sand and more of the other ingredients than that described above; and in Vol. 3 of the same series the late Dr. D. D. Owen notices the rock in place, remarking: "d There is an excellent opportunity of open- ing fine quarries of fine-grained knob freestone without much stripping. The ledges are from one foot eight to two feet or more, and appear to be of good quality, as they form bold pro- jecting ledges along the declivities of the hills." That this freestone proves to be durable in masonry which has been exposed to the weather for several years, and presents such bold enduring outlines in its original ledges, seems incon- sistent with the fact of its porosity and its property of absorb- ing water to a considerable amount on its fresh surfaces. Its composition, however, explains this apparent discrepancy. It is composed of fine grains of transparent, colorless quartz- pure silica-united by a cement composed of carbonates of iron, lime and magnesia, with a little silicate of alumina, and, as al- ready stated, is quite absorbent of water on its freshly exposed surfaces; but the exterior surfaces of the bed or rock, which have been exposed for some time to the atmospheric agencies, are less porous and absorb much less water. The rock is com- paratively soft and easily worked when fresh from the quarry, but it becomes harder and less porous in the course of time when exposed to the weather, its color changing at the same time to a light buff or a light brownish tint on the exposed sur- faces. These changes depend on the chemical properties of the cementing material of the stone. The carbonates which mainly compose this cement are to a certain extent soluble in the at- mospheric water, which contains free carbonic acid, and which dissolves and holds them in solution as bicarbonates. But when this watery solution evaporates on the surface of the rock, the free carbonic acid and that of the bicarbonate of iron escapes and is replaced by oxygen and water; so that a hydrated per- 8; 239 CHEMICAL REPORT. oxide of iron, mixed with the alumina and the carbonates of lime and magnesia, is formed on the surface, which gradually fills up the pores and is not soluble to any extent in water, thus increasing the superficial hardness of the stone and its power of withstanding the action of the elements. This stone is of the same formation as that of the quarries of Berea, which is much used for constructions of various kinds. SHELBY COUNTY. NO. 2430-VIRGIN SOIL: "From the farm of John Davis, two miles east of Shelbyville. (Same as the soil from John Glen's.) Timber: Maple, walnut, yellow poplar, blue ash, white oak and white elm. Geological position, lower iart of the upper Hudson river bed4. Collected by W. M. Linney." The dried soil is of umber-grey or dark-drab color. In friable clods. The coarse seive removed from it about 3.5 per cent. of shot-iron ore. The silicious residue from digestion in acids all passed through the fine seive after crushing the small soft con- cretions which it contained. NO. 243 I-SURFACE SOIL: "From a field which had been culti- vated for some years and then set in grass. Farm of John Davis, etc., etc. (Same locality as the next preceding.) Col- lected by W. M. Linney." Soil darker colored than the preceding. Light snuff colored. Quite friable. The coarse seive removed from it a very small proportion of shot-iron ore. The silicious residue of this left.a considerable proportion of small rounded concretions of partly decomposed silicates, soft enough to be crushed under the finger, when all passed through the fine seive when thus crushed. No. 2432-SOIL: "Mixed to the depth of ten inches, from a field over twenty years in cultivation, on the farm of John Glen, two miles east of Shelbyville. Same geological position as the pre- ceding. Collected by W. M. Linney." 86 240 CHEMICAL REPORT. This soil resembles the next preceding in color, but is slightly lighter colored. Clods more firm than of that. The coarse seive removed a very small proportion of shot- iron ore. Its silicious residue was like that of the preceding." No. 2433-VIRGIN SOIL: "From the top of the upper Hudson river beds, five miles east of Shelbyville. Timber.- iralnut, white and red oak, elm and honey locust. Collected by TW M. Linney." Soil of a dark-brown color, containing fossil shells and por- tions of Chaetetes. Clods quite firm. The coarse seive removed 8.2 per cent. of calcareous fossil remains. The silicious residue resembled that of the preceding. Concretions harder. NO. 2434-SOIL: "From an oldfield. Same locality as the next preceding. Collected b6y TV. A1. Linne'." Soil in very firm clods, of a brownish-buff or drab color. The coarse seive removed a very small proportion of shot-iron ore. On the fine seive the silicious residue was similar to the pre- ceding. NO. 2435-SUBSOIL: 'Of the next preceding, taken one foot to fourteen inckes below the surface. Collected by U"'. M. Lintney." Subsoil of a light dirty brown color, lighter color than No. 2473. The firm clods contain many fragments of calcareous fossils, limestone fragments and shot-iron ore, of which the coarse seive removed 41.2 per cent. On the fine seive the silicious residue resembled the preceding, all finally passing through it, No. 2436-VIRGIN SOIL: "From Jeptha Knobs, five miles south- east of Shelbyville. Upper silurian formation. Collected by W. M. Linney." Dried soil of a brownish drab color. Clods quite firm. The coarse seive removed about i8 per cent. of silicious and ferru- ginous fragments. On the fine seive the silicious residue re- sembled the preceding. 87 24I CHEMICAL REPORT. COMPOSITION OF THESE SHELBY COUNTY SOILS. (Dried at 212' F.) No. 2430. No. 2431 No. 2432, No. 2433 Organic and volatile matters....... . 5.60004.840 4250 Alumina and iron and manganese oxides . . 9-044 8.82 9.494 Lime carbonate..... .) .645 .420 Magnesia .2Sl4 .322 .247 Pbosphoric acid (P2 05).'2i8 .M .211 Potash (NK2 0) extracted by acids.0.2 .618 .000 gods (K&2 0) extracted by acids...7 .048 .000 Water expelled at 380' F....1. ,4 .314..5 4 Sand and insoluble silicates .8.3.. . . .. 83.995 844245 Total. . . . . . .. 99.5-799.77199 616 Hygroocopic moisture ........... Potash in the insoluble silicates ....... Soda in the insoluble silicates ........ Rock fragments or concretions ....... Character of the soil..... ... .. . 1.8.5I 1.8651.6f55 1.773 1.385 1.429 .473 .348 .382 3.500.... .... Virgin Cultiv'd Cultiv'd soil. I field. field. 14.075 18.158 4.695 1.373 .412 2.015 .000 .750 61.045 100523 4.125 2.131 .1.50 8.20o No. 24 No. 2435 No. 2436 4.97011.315 5.015 9.49014.390 6.580 .72025.245 .24.5 .389 .805 .200 Wr 6415 AM .591 .064 .280 83.310 100.179 1.800 1.509 .241 ... . 1.772 trace. .315 47.295 101.i2 2.520 1.677 .075 41.20D .OW .570 86.545 99.701 1.165 1.401 .383 18.0O0 Virgin Old fieldlSbsol. Virgin soil,soil.I jsoil. All of these soils contain more than the average proportions of essential mineral plant food, and would be classed among the very fertile soils if all other conditions are favorable. Nos. 2433 and 2435 excel especially in their very large propor- tions of organic and volatile matters, phosphoric acid and potash. They are also quite calcareous, especially No. 2435, which ap- proaches the marls in this respect. They contain more alumina and oxide of iron than any of the other soils, and a smaller quantity of sand and soluble silicates. They are to be dis- counted, however, with the percentage of rocky fragments and fragments of fossil remains they contain. NO. 2437-LIMESTONE ROCK.: "Fromthe Jep/ha Knobs, five miles southeast of Shelbyville. Upper silerian formation. Sup- posed to be from the horizon of the Louisville cement rock. Col- lected by W. M. Linney." A fine granular rock of a dull olive-grey color. Adheres to the tongue. Lime carbonate .... Magnesia carbonate . . Alumina and oxide of iron Phosphoric acid (P2 05) Sulphuric acid (S03) . . Silicious residue .... Moisture, alkalies, loss, etc. Total. 88 COMPOSITION (Air-dried). .... . . 4 0.7 8 0e q u a lto2 2.8 3 7p e rc e n t.o flim e . .... . . 24.511 [, etc.... 5.917 .5..... .563 .... . . .941 ..... . 25.120 8...... 2.168 ..... . . 100.000 242 I I CHEMICAL REPORT. It would probably yield a rich soil on disintegration by weath- ering. The composition of this rock closely resembles that of the hydraulic limestone at the Falls of the Ohio in Jefferson county, an analysis of which was given in Vol. 2 of Old Series of Re- ports of the Geological Survey of Kentucky, p. 220, published in i857. For comparison the analysis of the Jefferson county rock and that of Jephtha Knobs, calculated as dried at 212' F., is here given: Jeptha Jefferson Knobs County Rock. Rock. Lime, carbonate....................... . 41.612 60.430 Magnesia, carbonate........ ... .. .. . .. . .. . 25.010 18.670 Alumina and oxides of iron and manganese.... .... . . . . 6.878 2.980 Phosphoric acid (P2 05)........ .. . . .. . .. .. . .664 .060 Sulphuric acid (SO8)..................... . .960 1.680 Potash .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. n. e. .820 Soda . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. n. e. .130 Silica and insoluble silicates......... . .. . .. . .. . 25.521 26.780) There is but little doubt that this rock hydraulic cement on proper calcination. would give a good SPENCER COUNTY. NO. 2438-PHOSPHATIC LIMESTONE: "From the lowerpart of the upper Hudson River beds. Collected by W. M. Linney, re- ceived July 5, 1883. Timber: Blue ash, walnut, chin que- pin, oak (quercus prunus), wild cherry, hackberry, etc." A coarse-grained semi-crystalline rock; grey, mottled with yellowish-brown, or ferruginous. Containing many broken or- ganic remains. COMPOSITION (Air-dried). Lime carbonate ..... . . . ... Magnesia carbonate..... .. .. Alumina and iron oxide .... . . .. Phosphoric acid (P2 05). Potash. Soda . Silicious residue ... Moisture, loss, etc .. ...... . . Total . .. 87.320=48.889 per cent. of lime. .. .787 .. 2.478 .. 1.842 .. .154 .. .212 .. 1.680 .. 5.527 . . 100.000 89 243 CHEMICAL REPORT. Contains more than the ordinary proportion of phosphoric acid, and would yield a fertile soil on disintegration. No. 2439.-SOIL: " Of an oldfield which has been in cultivation about seventy-fve years. Eight inches of the surface soil on D. B. Wigginton'sfarm, two miles north of Fairfield. Geologi- cal position, upper Hudson river beds, near the top of /le Lynx beds." Collected by IV. M. Linney. Received July 5, 1883. Soil with friable clods; of a light-grey-brown color. All passed through the coarse seive except a very small quan- tity of small ferruginous concretions. Its silicious residue all passed through the fine seive. No. 2440-SUBSOIL: -Ten inches. On the same farm as the preceding. Subsoil of a brownish-buff color; lighter colored than the preceding. Clods more firm. All passed through the coarse seive except a very small quantity of small ferruginous concre- tions. Its silicious residue all passed through the fine seive except two or three very small quartzose Particles. eOMPOSITION OF THESE SPENCER COUNTY SOILS. (Driedt (it 21_2 F.) Organic and volatile matters . . .... ... .. Alumina and iron and manganese oxide., Lime carbonate ............... Magnesia. Phosphoric acid (P2 05) Potash (K2 0) extracted by acids ....... Soda (Na20) extracted by acids ........ Witter, expelled at 380. F. . Sand and insoluble silicates..... .. . . . Total. Hvgroscopic moisture ...... Potash in the insoluble silicates Soda in the insoluble silicates . . Rock fragments in the soil . . Character of the soil .... No. 2439 No. 2440 3.550 3.205 7.809 11.849 .320 .295 .250 .274 .236 .221 .228 .470 .192 .117 .727 .830 86.175 82.320 99.487 99.581 1.850 2.875 . 1.UK3 1.206 .473 .384 .000 .000 1 'Old field Subsoil. SiI Susoil. Notwithstanding the long time during which this soil has 90 244 .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . CHEMICAL REPORT. been in cultivation, it yet retains more than average proportions of most of the essential mineral elements of fertility. It is somewhat deficient in organic matters-humus-and would be benefited by rest in clover, which, after being pastured for two years, should be plowed under. WHITLEY COUNTY. NO. 2441-COAL: -From the land of J. R. Ryan, on Marsh creek, near the line of Whitey county, Ky., and Scott county, Tenn. Sammple from the mouth of the mine, taken from differ- ent/parts of the bed, which is thirty-six inches thick. Collected by W. C. Crozier. Received June, 1882. A glossy, pitch-black, pure-looking coal, showing very little fibrous coal or granular pyrites. Softens and swells into a light spongy coke when heated. Nsr. :442-COAL: "From Bryvan's opening, on Worley branch of the South Fork of the Cumberland river. Conglomerate coal. Collected by R. C. Ballard, November 17, 1882. Upper part i ZsIkze coal 'ifty-five inches thick. It was from this that the coke L2a3 made." A pure-looking coal; fracture mostly irregular cuboidal, with shining surfaces; partly breaking into thin lamina, with more or less fibrous coai between. No apparent pyrites. NO. 2443-COAL: "From Devil's Jump opening, on the South Fork of Cumberland river. Bryvan's coal; conglomerate series. This sample is of the forty-six inches opened uzp. The ten inches of coal below it is not included. Collected by R. C Bal- lard, AT\ovember r6, i882." Resembles the next preceding. No. 2444-COAL: "From Bryvan's opening, Worleybranch of South Fork of Cumberland river. Conglomerate. Lowerfpart of the bed, fourteen inches. Collected by R. C Ballard, No- vember 17, z882." Appears to have more of the laminated coal than the pre- ceding and more fibrous coal, but no apparent pyrites. 91 245 246 CHEMICAL REPORT. NO. 2445-COAL: "Fprom Bryvan's Coal Company, etc.,eck. Col- lected by P. C. Balard, November ;6, 1882." Resembles No. 2442; fracture generally irregular, with shin- ing surfaces. Very little fibrous coal, and no apparent pyrites. No. 2446-COAL: -From J. S. Berry's, five miles north of Will- iamsburg, one mile north of Mahon's Siion. Sample from the lowest twenty-two inches of the fifty-six-inch bed. Collected by R. C. Ballard, October 2, 1882. A firm, pitch-black, pure-looking coal, generally breaking with irregular shining surfaces. Some little fibrous coal on some of the pieces. NO. 2447-COAL: "From the same locality as the next preceding. Sample from the upper seam of twenty-six inches. Collected by R. C. Ballard, October 26, 1882." A firm, pitch-black coal, breaking into irregular laming with generally shining irregular surfaces. Somewhat cuboidal in its large fracture. Very little fibrous coal apparent. COMPOSITION OF THESE WHITLEY COUNTY COALS. (Air-dried.) No. 2441 No. 2442 No. 2443 No. 2444 No. 2445 No. 2446 No. 2447 Specific gravity... 1.275 1.295 1.806 1.368 1.321 1.254 1.289 Hygroscopic moisture.2.08 1.40 0.94 1.34 1.60 2.00 2.00 Volatile comb. matters35.5836.74 39.86 33.06 39.40 34.64 33.40 Coke. 62.34 61.86 59.20 65.60 59.10 68.46 64.60 Total.. ... 100.00 100.00 000 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Total volatile matte- s37.6638.14 40.80 34.40 40.90 36.54 35.40 Fixed carb. in the coke58.9054.20 47.30 53.88 53.70 61.92 61.90 Ash . . .. . .. . 3.44 7.66 11.90 11.72 5.40 1.64 2.70 Total.. .. . .. 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Light Dene pny pn Lih Character of the cokeg Spongy. Spongy. Spongy. Spongy. Light Color of the ash f Lt.yel'h- Brow'h- Lt. grey- Nearly Brow'h- Lt.fawn- Light grey. grey. brown. white. grey. colored.buff. Percentage of sulphur0.5671.201 3.741 0.555 1.089 0.830 0.637 92 CHEMICAL REPORT. In these coals the ash percentage, varies from I. 54 in No. 2446 up to II .72 and I i.90 in Nos. 2444 and 2443, and the sulphur from 0.555 in No. 2444 up to 3.741 in No. 2443, which is excep- tional in this respect and may be accidental, owing possibly to some pyrites in the sample which might probably be excluded. With the exception of those which exceed in ash and sulphur, the coals are very good, and even these are valuable for most ordinary uses. No. 2448-COKE: "Made of Coal (A), or the lowest of this series. From the mouth of Worley; South Fork of Cumberland river; Captain Crozier's mines. Sub-conglomerate. Collected by R. C. Ballard, November i8, 1882. This was made from the up- per part of the bed and was coked in Auvgus at Rockwood, Tenn., in a box placed in an oven." A firm, compact coke. No. 2449-COKE: "Of J. S. Berry's coal, five miles north of Williamsburg, one mile north of Mahon's Station. Collected by R. C. Ballard, October 2, 1882. Coke made of the coal of the entire bed." A bright, firm coke, moderately porous. COMPOSITION OF THESE WHITLEY COUNTY COKES. (Atr-r&dd.) No. 2448 No. 2449 Moisture, etc., expelled at red heat . . .. ... .. ... .. .. 2.10 4.80 Fixed carbon in the coke.90.46 92.60 A sh... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 7.44 2.60 Total.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100.00 100.00 l Chestnut Lt. bren- Color of the ash........... .. . ... .. .. ... . . .. Chsn t L. brn C tbrown. ish gry. Percentage of sulphur.0.666 0.666 No. 2449 is a remarkably pure coke. No. 2448, containing more ash material, is not quite so valuable in equal weights. Its rather large proportion of moisture and volatile matters may be only accidental. 93 247 CHEMICAL REPORT. NO. 2450-1R4N ORE: "FxOm J. S. Berry's, five miles nor/k of Willtamsburg, oe mile north of Makan Stia . Colzectd by R. C. Ballard, October 28, 1882." Mostly concretions of impure concentric limonite layers, or irregular forms of the same, frequently with an internal cavity. Color from dark-brown to ochreous. COMPOSITION (Air-dried.) Iron peroxide ... ... .. ... .. .. 63.380-44.36 per cent. of iron. Alumina . .......... 3.776 Lime and magnesia...... .. . . . . Traces. Phosphoric acid (P2 05)..... .. .. . .946 Silica..... .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 15.280 Carbonic acid, water, etc., etc ....... 16.618 Total.. ........ 100.000 Although it contains more than average phosphoric acid, this ore might be available for iron production if it is found in suffl- ciently large quantities and under other favorable conditins. WOODFORD COUNTY. No. 245 1 -MINERAL WATER : "Su/ihur wa/er from a well bored seventy fret deep, on the farm of Mr. C/har/es Alexander, a mile and a ha/f from Versailles. Water brought up in a sand bucket. " The water, when brought to the laboratory had a yellowish color and a strong smell and taste of sulphides. Evaporated to dryness at 2120 F., it left 7.124 parts per iooo of saline mat- ters, which were found to consist of bicarbonates of lime, mag- nesia, soda, and a small proportion of lithia; sulphates of potash, lime and magnesia; chlorides of sodium, calcium and magnesium, with traces of bromides and iodides, a notable quantity of so- dium sulphide and a small trace of strontia. In short, it resem- bles the Blue Lick water in composition. A quantitative analysis was not made of it, and its proportions of hydrogen sulphide and carbonic acid gases were not ascertained. 94 248 APPENDIX. For the sake of comparison with our Kentucky coals, some analyses, made at the Laboratory of the Survey of coals from other States are here appended. ALABAMA. NO. 2452-COAL: "From Gazlies' bed, Wolfe creek, Milker county, Alabama. Sample of the bed taken by Jno. R. Procter." A pure-looking, pitch-black coal, breaking generally with shining fracture. Shows very little fibrous coal and no appa- rent pyrites. NO. 2453-COAL: "From Mt. Carmel bed, one hundred yards from Mt. Carmel Church, Walker county, Alabama. Sample of the bed by J. R. Procter, February i, 1883." A remarkably bright, pitch-black coal. Has very little fibrous coal between its laminax and no appearance of pyrites. NO. 2454-COAL: "From the Townley bed. Sample from the top of the bed above the four feet parting. Sampled by J. R. Proc- ter, February 2, 1883." Generally breaking into thin lamina, with some little fibrous coal between, but no appearance of pyrites. 95 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. COMPOSITION OF THESE ALABAMA COALS. (Air-drisd.) No. 2452 No. 2453 No. 2454 Specific gravity.................... 1.259 1.307 1.341 Hy roscopic moisture.1.30 1.34 1.94 VolFatile combustible matters.37.10 29.76 30.46 Coke .61.60 68.90 67.60 Total.. .. .. . .. . .. .. . . . .. . .. . 100.00 100.00 100.00 Total volatile matters.38.40 81.10 82.40 Fixed carbon in the coke... .. . .. . .. .. . .. 64.46 58.10 65.04 Ash. 714 10.80 12.56 Total.. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . 100.00 100.00 100.00 Character of the coke..... ..... .J.. . .. . . Light Light Dense I spongy. spongy. friable. Color of the ash.... . .. .. . ..... G. .. . Grey- Light Very Ii't I buff. buff. buff. Percentage of sulphur.1.425 0.665 0.473 Nos. 2453 and 2454 exceed the general average of ash pro- portion; otherwise all these coals could be classed with the best, for all ordinary uses. TENNESSEE COALS. No. 2455-COAL: IoFrom Jeilico Mountain Coal and Coke Com- pany's mine, Emmett, Campbell county, Tennessee. Five feet bed. Sample from the lower layer, which zs two to two and a half feet thick. Analyzed for Col. S. L. Woo/dridge, Presi- dent of the Company, April iw, 1882." A bright, pure-looking coal, showing very little pyrites or fibrous coal. Firm, so that it may be mined in large blocks. Fracture shining on all the faces. Small shining facets irregu- larly disposed on some of the cross fractures, approaching what is called bird's-eye structure. NO. 2456-COAL: "From the same Compoany's mines. Mine on 96 -250 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. Crooked creek, Campbell county, Tennessee. Sample collected by R. C. Ballard, November 8, 18S2." Generally jet-black, breaking with irregular glossy surfaces; some portions with small bird's-eye structure; other portions dull-black, and breaking into lamina, showing some granular pyrites, but very little fibrous coal. NO. 2457-COAL: "From the same locality. Collected by R. C. Ballard, November 7, 1882. Coal twenty-two inches thick; one hundred and seven inches below the main seam." Resembles the darker and brighter portions of the next pre- ceding sample. COMPOSITION OF THESE TENNESSEE COALS. (Air-dried.) Specific gravity .. ..... iNo. 2455INo. 2456 No. 2457 1.256 [I I Hygroscopic moisture ................. Volatile combustible matters .............. Coke. Total. Total volatile matters ... . . ........ .... Fixed carbon in the coke....... .. . . . .... Ash. Total . Character of the coke ........ Color of the ash.... .. ... . . Percentage of sulphur ........ 2.36 35.44 62.20 100.00 37.80 60.60 1LW) 100.00 - I 1.311 1.289 2.10 E 2.90 30.84 33.80 67.06 1 63.30 100.00 I 100.00 32.94 36.70 61.56 61.80 5.50 1.50 100.00 108.00 Spongy. Dense. Spongy. Salmon- Brow'h- Lt.yel'h- color. grey. brown. 1.162 2.285 .670 These are all very small proportion of amount of sulphur. good coals. No. 2457 has a remarkably ash, and contains less than the average No. 2455 also gives a very small quantity of ash. No. 2456 contains more than the average amount of sulphur. 251I 97 (7) CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. No. 2458-COKE: "From the Jellico Mountain Coal and Coke Company mine. Upper layer, etc., etc. Collected by R. C. Ba- lard." A bright, firm coke; quite porous. No. 2459-COKE: "From same mine; lower layer." A bright, firm coke; seems somewhat more dense than the preceding. COMIPO.SITION- OF THESE JELLICO M1OUNTAIN- COAL AND COKE COM- PANY'S COKES. (Air-dried.) -No. 2458 No. 24539 Mloisture, expelled at 220 F.............. .. . . 2.90 3.70 Volatile matters expelled at red heat.... .. .. .. . . .. 1.10 1.4) Fixed carbon in the coke.. ...... ...... ..... . 91.80 92.40 Light yellowish-brownish ash...... . .. .. .. . .. .. - 4.20 2.70 Total.. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . 100.00 100.00 Percentage of sulphur.... .. . .. . .. . .. . ... 1.027 7.2.5 These are remarkably pure cokes, equaling in this respect the best samples of the Kentucky Elkhorn coke and the cele- brated Connellsville coke of Pennsylvania. They have doubt- less been made of the pure coal of the mine, and not of the slack coal, which is always more impure. (See, under the head of Carter county, the analysis of a can- nel coal from XVest Virginia.) 98 252 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. 7i r S9 aU X i 7Et s _c e 7 _ - _ 4 .2ssb , ss_- - , :: = w D = E E = _ D =_ D ;oa - r a; x Rock fragments or gra,-el... I Z j_B: X _ Soda in insol-rz - U- ble silicates. o Potash in insol- uble silicates. ;________;_____ M1isture expell- -2 9 2 i ' ed at 212 F.. Sand and insolu- t _ 4 - ble silicates. , =_S- 'Water expelled at 380 F. ... Soda extracted by acids. . . Potash extract- , - S ed by acids.. . . - Phosphoric acid -i_ (P2 05) . . . o... . Linmbe caurbon]ate.ISaf i1 :a- D n ' o.. Alumiha, iron oxidle, tc... _ (irgauicantlvol- i.N '-t:'cZ aitle nmtter - ' .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . , I==== . ILIU!.,tr.... i. , I_ p 253 2 c-l -I W- ,; J2 - T- ,t, C; E-4 99 PI'rcentege of -ii]3jzi3W t8xr65 lRp 3g xulphilr ... ..wc:.c_...w o_. _ _ _ _ _ ....... . .. .. ... .. . ....... ... . I....................P. .............................................. 1 ti 'E ; 'L_ i -_F'ti t eD- eo Color eof the as - 51 -ir._ --Lo 'O J3 - t _ -Z- -CD 7,D:L ___D___ tecoke...... 7 5i;;3-i i r-:2. 3 32 3v;;5X ''xe cal- i:i"t ;0 '2 3..8..-52s.5 th -e i5 V.llaitil'. C.1n-_-:_ -lN-N---NUNNw te'r ._ l .. ......... .............................. . . . . I - -- ------ - -- .. ..... ............................................... '................... .... ...... .. .I ..... ..... ......'.. ....................... ..... ....._ . . ..... ..... ........ ,,,,,_5 C055o _ . ... . ..;..._ D _Z-;_ J ==C--- V. W. '-. ': Z'- ;Z-__ 5 _na_ m;_=ne ,e - ,c ,c - - - Yg: - Sceccf;d CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. 254 C U N d 2 n o a t b, A _ o _ . Y o ,; e t ' Z s Z X u X =.zx; E-0, O C s e a e PCrI 0t e f f O _ ' i X i 1'. t': tM , C -- --7- n-ce-Sc, - W I- 11 1! 04 ;_w P A -1, M .- Eq1 j Numlber . IO u l HIihN -1 L-- illglt n I.u fIR f4 iqu a Hun I-II IPerceutage of I g o o a O 3 3u rog O g X e li i sulphur- -_sN oB............................4 A Color of the ash =s t=n=c ;95_X=o x - Ir 1 - - :zt=zfeU; - : a - '...................................................... . Chsrscter of the .. ........ c..... .. ... . e;.. .... . coke..... V2" ,P;b = _ , Or Fixed carbon Ini .v5 c=v iO.03 0 Di: 3 g 3 the coke .8A .- . 35:i;3 23tw8cu3330 reo i 4 -.; CD ..-; i 33 Io volatil .: 7 88St 2. O8O8. .88. 8 mattLer.,, .9'0 Ggv A 't;n ittt 0 8i g 6 3S -5 , s5 2:33 3 3i S ; G 8 3253-' G L; 33i Sz 3cz 1 A 2 z -2 zE G bust ibl e ma t- s g 0 l t_ xC ,xS!0i 0 ter..... . v-,, r s c opie ;t0 39 it803 .9S- -" =R S z9 vi 9.:8 iRR .aigi i32 8 -S 8x Sp-eific gravityD ; . 42....i=00.0.I.0. I CHEMICAL REPORT .APPE-NDIX. 255 .. . _...........I - - _ D Sc8 , 10- U r 3Ue _ _ Da,. -s I'i 11 II 19 E- Ez ..................... ........... . ........ ............. .................. .......... ...... ...... .,....................... ......... . ... ........... . ........................... . ............. . __ Z................................... V ...... Number lor C 4 Z5 - ge I 1-49 -:, I C, T. . ' -, L1. R I R 214a gnn ------- a 1 -1 3.4, -4 - A -;IA R : .4-:, 71 7q 1 C, -q -4 4 EJ :1 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. ;: M w- -CU= - Y '- -. S - C C E;e 00oo aS-.QC 'or;sgC Percentage of sulphur... '__ot -040:90- -- M .M Ms0taso beao A.5 & Color Of the ash . s r 2 - c _ D' e __, 1___ ts 5 ib' Z J .Z ;a. ;.Z.A.......;;.. . Z. .. . .............M0.. ..... Character of the . jxj o iS . , coke.. .a, . .. , D - la 'eM_ _- WM. M D 0 to bM M __CJ C - D 0.a 0. s 0.s c- a.o.- g) ,;0) ao v... . . cr1-1,& ti r Pe.JZa CiM" r.;;aXe_ _4 MME M jo 5 Fixed carbon in ..... the coke... Total volatile - matter... ...A3 i SR 9 -'R -8 8 ' '7 S5 VZ RS-:Z3i V 1. = 5 - 0..Q-c2=.:0 Q=5 _g - b fi t Volatile co m-I bustiblemat- -. .... ... ... .... . . ter ..... Hygroscopic I - moisture. -.q- N Specific gravity .... .... ..D.. ........................... .. ,,----: ;- -c - a -is-a-.- !Z=-- ;-f ,0202...... ........02..........--=2e2- Numbr... Iz oo4 a _X ne _-, - -we t 44. CqL 4C q O ;---- NN A ".- A5" - 4 , __S A_23 " . " i : - 256 N p z Z Z z 0 C) I P; PA 0 C- 'A I. 0-4 -c4 EU 02 M A.i 0 0.I' 0l op CHEMICAL REPOtT--APPENDIX. 04 Ji Z z ;S; 4 -S b ___t f 'S X s j00 0C Z.2 9 U g.CaC .4 o o ... -. . .. -_. ...l._...- C - -- -a Sulphur. ., , . .. ... Ash .. . .. . = ;. . .. . . Fixed carbon . i Mboistllre expell -,3 li ; X _ , ed at red heat. O 0 o_ Moistureexpelf- 52, _7 r ed below 2500F.. .:. _ .... . . ..... .. .. . .. .. . , . . - .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . ........................ = .. .. .. . . .. . . . _ _ _ o _; ---- -_- -- - INumber . . . I N. tir-P-t--04 4 .: ,CA .4 S I. 9 IZI oA 257 0 Q 0-4 -4 103 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. 3 e. . Un . :- __U _ --e _ e- 3EE Percentage .0- s ccc ica e.CaC Percent'ge iron. Organic matter olsgi aR and moisture. _co6 cw 4 Silica and efli- 62 cates .... . Sulphuric acid ! (S03)....j 0 c-c0 Pbosphoric acid ;1R (P2. 05) . . . o - Alumina .. cmoqN cm Magnesia c a r - I s 4 X C bonate.. .. ci e4 o __ - Lime carbonate . . 3 -p'a--c Manganese car- c bonate. . ' e i nc d.c Iron peroxide . I ' o pl Iron carbonate. I7 3 ______ ... I. ;S.....z. 'F .......Z 258 C -.4 E-c -. Z 0 -4 d P; _; z _ 0 e bo _ ZC U Z A - _aY E-i _ H C: t 104 Number . .. R= f I I CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. a _a o_6 = - :Y a'-o o ;, e e - :. -=. Q_ , -w: Moisture, etc. Silicions res- 9 iE l9 idue.. .. . . _ - Manganese car- bonate.., a-= e Soda. ] ,Xi, Potash . Sulphuric ac ; c (803) .... Phosphoric acida a (P-205) E. Et I o c I-k- w Alumina and C S C., iron oxide .I Iron carbonate Magnesia c FL r- _ m bonate. _ i Equal to lime. . t t =;53 Lime carbonate z= E ai O .8 U I_ i Number 259 C6 E4 p2 .. 1C5 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. Total saline mat- ter. 9 0 11: .0 c1; T _: Jo f_ 0 . :.. = . . . = 4 arm= I s S 4 M - 12 Cky = AUC _f. 0i[ F Sodium suilph- _ ide. Sodium chlor- ide. Potass'mn chlor- ide. Magn'm chlor- ide., Calcium chlor- ide ...... Soda sulphate I if I Potash sulphatel EC Magnesia s ulI- phate . . . . Lime sulphate . Soda carbonate. Magnesia car - bonate. Lime carbonate a I Manganese car- bonate. I c Iron carbonate. Hydr. sulphide I and carbonic e. acid gases Si CAA . am oz X e Number . . I- 0 0 0 5.- 1.4 .14 0 I.) z z 4 14 W4 I -4 P4 _ -4 Q C4 A - 1.4 PA Ez .41 IN la oIiz _6 _ 'U S .Cc - . C4 ,'a. Total saline mat- ter.. I.. .. - 0 Potass'm chlor- ide.. . . . . Sodium chlor- ide . Magn'm chlor- ide ...... Calcium chlor- ide.. Soda sulphate . Potash sulphate. Magnesia su I phate . . . . Lime sulphate 8: Iron sulphate. Soda carbonate. Mgnesia car it o - bonate. . . Lime carbonate. Manganese car- bonate. . !! Iron carbonate Carbonic acid e e5 6i o gas S cea Si a) mom 0 Number . . 260 -n Z IC_ tl "I ;4 ;4 -4 .4 io6 CHEMICAL REPORT-APPENDIX. Total saline mat- ter . g E-.-X c -.- 0-b.i8e' , a a- a a a a - - 3e ; -v - - ; 9 CcI i A d I cQM - : _. -.,06.N Magn'm blor- ide.. .. .. . . .. Sodium ch I or- ide . Calcium chlor- tR ide . . ._._._.____g Alumina s u I -.. . - phate. . . . Sod .It........ Soda sulphate. : _l Potash sulphate Magnesia I I - =_ pbate .. , _ , Lime sulphate. iron sulphate. .. . Soda carbonate. s : : . Magnesia cr- S bonate. I.. Lime carbonate .... ..... b , I.'esco ca _b, b - go o i Aneoooe; Number 261 -. Z'. z 107