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Report on the timbers of Grayson, Breckinridge, Ohio, and Hancock counties / by L.H. DeFriese. DeFriese, Lafayette H. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b97-22-37599969 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Report on the timbers of Grayson, Breckinridge, Ohio, and Hancock counties / by L.H. DeFriese. DeFriese, Lafayette H. Yeoman Press, [Frankfort : 1884, 1876] p. 59-78 : charts ; 26 cm. Coleman Issued as a reprint with Report on the forests of Greenup, Carter, Boyd, and Lawrence counties; Report on the botany of Barren and Edmonson counties; Report on the timbers of the north Cumberland: Bell and Harlan counties; Report on the timbers of the Tradewater Region: Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties; Report on the timbers of the district west of the Tennessee River: commonly known as the Purchase District; and Report on a belt of Kentucky timbers: extending east and west along the south-central part of the state, from Columbus to Pound Gap as Timber and botany, B. Index follows last report in collection. Reports have individual and collective pagination, the latter of which is used in this record. Microfilm. Atlanta,Ga. : SOLINET, 1997. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN06859.12 KUK) s1997 gaun a Printing Master B97-22. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Timber Kentucky. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR. REPORT ON THE TIMBERS OF GRAYSON, BRECKINCRIDGE, OHIO, COUNTIES, AND HANCOCK BY L. H. DEFRIESE. 59 This page in the original text is blank. INTRODUCTORY LETTER. Professor N. S. SHALER, Director Kentucky Geological Survey. DEAR SIR: In 1874 the Geological Survey commenced a study of Kentucky timbers with special reference to the eco- nomic features of the State. In pursuance of the plan inaugu- rated then, and followed out by Messrs. Crandall and Hussey in their outcoming reports on the timbers of Greenup, Carter, Boyd, Lawrence, Barren, and Edmonson counties, I now sub- mit a report on the timbers of Grayson, Breckinridge, Ohio, and Hancock counties. The report is based upon a careful study made in those counties during May and June, 1876, and will be found, I think, tolerably thorough and accurate. Very respectfully, L. H. DEFRIESE. 6i This page in the original text is blank. REPORT ON THE TIMBERS OF GRAYSON, BRECK- INRIDGE, OHIO, AND HANCOCK COUNTIES. In the following report it will be noticed that I have con- fined my attention mostly to the trees, descending occasionally to the shrubs. The reason is obvious. In a report, whose object is mainly to give what is of economic value to the State, the timbers must occupy the chief place. While it would have been a pleasure to me to embrace in my study endogenous botany, especially the cryptogamia, every moment devoted to them would have been that much taken from the too short time that I had to devote to the timbers themselves. The method of study pursued has been as follows: start- ing out from Leitchfield I followed the Leitchfield and Clover- port road northwest to the Ohio river, at Cloverport; thence down the Ohio to Hawesville; then southwest, across Han- cock county, and back southeast, across Ohio county, to the Paducah Railroad, at Rosine Station. In this way I obtained two sections of timber, from Leitchfield north to the Ohio river, far enough apart to give any marked changes in the timber. Along the road, in both cases, I selected stations varying from four to eight miles apart, according to the local changes in timbers, and took a plot of representative ground, usually 50 or ioo yards square, on which I took the number of trees of different kinds. I carefully separated the old timber from the younger growth in all cases, in order to see how the future forest of Kentucky would compare with the present one in the relative per cents. of different kinds of timber. I also noted the position of the plot chosen for such enumeration-whether level, hillside, or hilltop; whether the exposure, if on a hillside, was north or south; the geological formation, the relative size, height, etc., of the 63 REPORT ON THlE TISIDERS OF GRAYSON, different kinds of trecs. Mr. Crandall originated the idea, in i874, of studying hill timber with reference to the points of the compass, in order to see the difference in timber pro- duced by a northern, southern, eastern, or western exposure. In order to do that a rounded hill is selected, and at its base four plots of ground are chosen, on the north, south, east, and west sides respectively, and the per centage of different tim- bers carefully noted; then four other plots, half way up the hill, are chosen and counted in the same way; and finally the timber of the hilltop is carefully noted. Observations of this kind, extending over a considerable area, give sufficient data to show the effects upon the timber, both of the height above drainage and of direction of exposure. On page i6 of this report is a diagram giving the result of such observations made by me in Western Kentucky. I have also tried to con- nect any marked changes in the timber with the geological changes that caused them. Of course this is not always pos- sible, for the conditions of timber growth are confined largely to the surface of the ground. It is, therefore, possible that a local change of the surface stratum will produce a change in the per centage of different timbers without the geological change being sufficient to notice. It is a question whether, if the flora of a country were closely studied with reference to its condition of growth, it would not form a nicer index to the surface changes of soils than the geologist now possesses. Up to this time, however, botany and geology have not been sufficiently connected to render them mutual aids in difficult cases. While speaking of the connection between geology and botany, I wish to call attention to a rather marked example of it in Grayson county. The coal-measure series crosses the Leitchfield and Hartford road, in a very irregular northwest and southeast direction, about 12 miles from Leitchfield. The line of juncture between it and the Sub-carboniferous can be easily traced towards the Paducah Railroad. After crossing this juncture. on through the coal measures north to the Ohio, the liriodendron tulipfera (tulip tree, erroneously called yellow 64 BRECKINRIDGE, 0110, AND HANCOCK COUNTIES. poplar all through the country), forms a conspicuous part of the forest. Its massive, cylindrical trunk, from two to five feet in diameter, is seen everywhere, on lowland and highland alike. But after crossing over into the Chester shale, near Leitchfield, scarcely a liriodendron is to be seen. So marked and conspicuous is its absence that the eye can trace the giv- ing out of the Chester shale toward the coal measures by that alone. A very few scrubby liriodendrons are found in choice locations (heads of branches, streams, etc.) near the juncture on the Chester shale side; but these soon give out, and within three or four miles of the juncture not one is to be seen. This marked disappearance in that region is doubtless due to sur- face changes caused by the change of formation, the coal measures supplying more of that loose, sandy, moist surface so suitable to the liriodendron. This absence of the lirio- dendron is confined to the Chester shale, however, and does not extend through the whole of the Sub-carboniferous; for further on, in the -"sinking region," the surface exposure is the St. Louis limestone, on which the tulip tree grows in great numbers, and to great size. Another instance of change in timber, due to a modification of the surface soil, is found in a remarkable belt of woods crossing the Hartford and Cloverport road about twelve miles from Cloverport. The belt is about five miles wide, on a soil of thin. shaly sandstone, which forms a nearly level tract of land. Although the ground is at least one hundred and fifty feet above the drainage of the country, the loose sandy soil is always moist. The consequence is a forest of liriodendron, chestnut, white oak, and three varieties of hickory, whose noble size and height I have not seen surpassed in Kentucky. In addition to these, but in less numbers, are also found laurel oak, black sugar maple, water beech, white elm, etc. The change is very marked on passing from this wood-belt into the ordinary timbers that bound it on each side. In addition to the methods of choosing plots and numbering trees, mentioned before, between these plots I walked along, noting down every variety of tree that occurred, so as to TIM. I.-5 6s 7 REPORT ON THE TIMBERS OF GRAYSON, correct any error that might be made in choosing a piece of ground which did not fully represent the timber of the imme- diate locality. I then walked off the road on each side, mak- ing my observations extend over a belt about five miles wide, so as to still farther insure a correct representation of the timber. The chief timbers of value in that part of Western Ken- tucky studied by me are: black walnut (Juglans nigra), white walnut (J. cinzerea), white hickory (Carya microcarpa), shagbark hickory (C. a/ta), white oak (Quercus a/ba), swamp white oak (Q. bicolor), post oak (Q. ob/usi/oba), chestnut oak (Q. casta- nea), mountain chestnut oak (Q. montica), swamp chestnut oak (Q. prinus), tulip tree (Liriodendron fulziffera), hop hornbeam (ironwood [Ostrya virginica] ), white ash (Fraxinus americana), blue ash (F. quadrangu/a/a), black ash (F. sambucifo/ia), black cherry ( Cerasus serotina), sugar maple (Acer saccharinum), black sugar maple (Acer nigrum), black birch (Be/uda len/a), beech (both B. sylva/ica and B. ferrugizncea), and chestnut (Castanea vesca). Of these the black walnut is of course the most valuable. It is found scattered all through Western Kentucky, in open places and about fields, where other timbers have been cut away or deadened. It is nearly all second growth, however, the old forest growth having been ruthlessly destroyed. The largest amount of primal walnut timber I found was on Beech Fork of Clover Creek, up near the head waters. Occasion- ally a forest tree of it is left standing in other localities, but it is very rare. Even the second growth, which would be very valuable in time, is meeting with the same fate as the first; and reckless hands are cutting it away for such rude purposes as rail-making as fast as it springs up. From the study I made of the walnut, I find the second growth comes up only in open spots of ground, where it is not overshadowed and choked out by other more rapidly growing and less valuable timbers. That causes it to spring up mostly about dwelling- houses and cleared pieces of ground-the very localities where it soonest meets with destruction. If farmers could only con- sider that a single tree of good walnut timber is worth more ,66 8 BRECKINRIDGE, OHIO, AND HANCOCK COUNTIES. than their best acre of land, they would take more pains to encourage the growth of a timber which is becoming so scarce in our country, and for which there is such great demand. I believe, with a little extra care, such as trimming out and killing other fast-growing timbers of little or no value, taking moderate pains to secure, in such localities as best suited the walnut, a good undergrowth of it, etc., that a considerable forest of this valuable timber might be secured and kept in Kentucky. Next to the walnut in value, and fully as scarce, is the black cherry. The wood is so valuable in cabinet work, for the reason that it is very compact, close-grained, and receives a high polish. In a few years, at the present rate of destruc- tion, it will have disappeared from our Kentucky forests. The great forest timber of Western Kentucky is the white oak, which probably forms forty or fifty per cent. of the entire forest trees, or nearly as much as all other species together. Its timber is so valuable in the making of wagons, agricul- tural implements, and all other articles where a tough, dura- ble, nicely-grained wood is required, and one which warps but little in seasoning, that no special mention of its claims is necessary. But the very abundance of white oak in the Ken- tucky forests to-day obscures the extermination to which it is liable, and which is fast approaching. I took particular pains to notice the conditions of growth of the white oak, and I find that, while at present it forms the large per cent. of the forest timbers given above, in the undergrowth, which is to be the future forest of Kentucky, it falls from 40 or 50 per cent. to about 8 per cent., while its place is taken by such valueless timbers as the pin oak, black oak, Spanish oak, and black hickory. This proves that the latter timbers are of more rapid and hardy growth than the white oak, and that, in a contest for supremacy, the white oak will finally be exter- minated. The extinction of our white oak would be nothing less than a calamity-one which should be avoided if possible. The white walnut is found in considerable quantities, as sec- ond growth, all through Western Kentucky near the Ohio 67 9 REPORT ON THE TIMBERS OF GRAYSON, river. Its reddish-colored, light wood is very valuable in pan- eling and all ornamental works. Its bark is cathartic. The white hickory is likewise a valuable timber, found in consider- able quantities, scattered all through these counties, and very extensively used in making ax-handles, hammer-handles, axle- trees, and other such work. The wood is much smoother and finer-grained than that of the shagbark hickory, though the timber of the latter is likewise valuable. The larger part of the chestnut oak in Western Kentucky is of the swamp vari- ety, though the monticola, a mountain variety of the same, is. met with on the mountain tops. The former is valuable for its timber, and has a straight, unbranching trunk 40 to 6o feet high. The latter (monticola) is valuable only for its bark, which contains a large amount of tannic acid that renders it useful to the tanner. Along the line of the Paducah Rail- road, where transportation facilities can be had, quite an im- portant traffic is going on in this bark, car-loads of which are constantly shipped. Every lumberman knows the value of the liriodendron or tulip tree. It is one of the noblest forest trees of Kentucky, with its massive, cylindrical trunk, two to five feet in diameter and forty to sixty feet long. It is found everywhere between Leitchfield and the Ohio river, after crossing the Chester shale near Leitchfield. While not quite so large a per cent. of it is found in the undergrowth as in the old forest timber, still its growth is rapid, and I see no reason to apprehend its early extinction. The white and blue ash are also common timbers in West- ern Kentucky, which are exceedingly valuable. They grow best in moist, loose, sandy forests and along streams, and their wood is tough, elastic, light, and strong. They are the woods used in the best buggies and carriages, where lightness and durability are both required. The black ash is found mostly near water, in swamps and moist woods, and is largely used by the cooper in barrel-making and other such work. The hop hornbeam (iron wood) is a very hard, tough, strong wood, and is mostly used in making levers. The sugar maples 68 10 BRECKINRIDGE, OIIIO, AND HANCOCK COUNTIES. are too wvell known to need mention. There are fine forests of them along the streams and in the damp woods toward the Ohio river, but little use is made of them except for local pur- poses. They are very rich in sap, however, and with the same industry the region might be made as historic as the sugar forests of New England. There is a very small amount of black birch in Western Kentucky, so far as I could discover. In my entire study I only saw one or two trees, on Panther Creek. It may be common in secluded and limited localities. Its timber is very valuable and is used in the manufacture of mahogany furni- ture. The beeches, which exist in almost endless quantities on all the streams of Western Kentucky, are coming largely into favor in the manufacture of benches, desks, etc. The -wood is the hardest found in our forests. Beside the tim- bers mentioned here, which are the most valuable ones, many others, varying in usefulness, were noted, a complete list of which will be found at the end of the report. I give below, in table form, the observations made upon a belt of timber about five miles wide, stretching across all four of the counties-Grayson, Breckinridge, Hancock, and Ohio. The belt is as nearly representative as I could get it, so that the table of locations, given in the order of observation, with -the per cents. of different timbers, etc., will well represent the timbers of all the counties. In location No. I, at both stations, -the timber was mostly second growth, the old forest timber having been cut away. The small proportion of white oak .am101ong the second growth is conspicuous. LOCATION I-STATION (A). REMARKS. White oak (o. f.)... .. ... . .4 0. f., old forest.Y. f., young forest.I to White oak (y. f.)...... .. .. . s miles fromLeitchfield.Hill slope 70 Black oak (n. f.) .. . . .. ... .. I W. Plot of ground, 2,500 square yards. Black oak (y. F.) .41 Formation, Sub-carboniferous Limestone Pin oak (o. f.). -Chester. Pin oak(y. f.). . 57 Post oak (-. F.) ..... . . .. .I Chestnut (o. f.) . Black gum (y. f.). 6 69 I I REPORT ON THE TIMBERS OF GRAYSON, Small undergrowth of flowering dogwood, hickory, severab varieties, sourwood, etc. STATION (B). REMARKS. White oak (o. f.) ... . . ..... . 2 Location, i)g miles from Leitchfield. Ches- White oak (y. f.).......... . ter formation.Hill slope 8 E. The Black oak (y. f.) .......... 22 two stations face each other like the twc Pin oak (y. f.)....... .. 4 faces of a synclinal. Average diameter Laurel oak (y. f.) .. . . . . . . . . . 3 (a. f.), z feet. Average diameter (y. f.). Hickory (pig and shag.). .6 . oinches. Some sycamore in the region, Mulberry (y. f.).2 though not found in the plot of ground Ironwood . .3 chosen. Black ha. . 2 Willow. ............ . 3 Dogwood (flowering). 2 LOCATION II-STATION (A). REMARKS. White oak (o. f.) . 13 av. diam. . 23 in. Location, 8 miles from Leitchfield, on near- Black gum.. . 5 " . 7 A ing the edge of the Chester shale. Note Dogwood .... 4 " . 6 the introduction of Liriodendron, which, Liriodendron.. 3 4. 24" takes place on nearing coal measures and Hickory (pig).. 2 " . leaving Chester. Area of plot observed, 2,500 square yards. Small undergrowth of pin oak, black oak, Spanish oak, mul- berry, dogwood, hickory, chestnut, and some maple. STATION (B.) REMARKS. White oak .... 8 av. diam. . . 20 in. Area 2,500 square yards. Tulip tree and. Black oak . . 2 " . . 28 " pin oak occur, though not in plot of Spanish oak... i " . . 26 " ground chosen. Location, hill-top, 145. Pig hickory.. . 2 . . 23 " feet above drainage. Sassafras.... 2 s . . 7 d Black gum.. . i Persimmon . . X Undergrowth: pin oak, sweet gum, sassafras, dogwood (flowering), sumach (black), hickory, persimmon, and small per cent. of white oak. Between Location II and Location III is introduced the "sinking region," a cavernous St. Louis limestone, in which all the streams run below ground. The timber here is lirio- 70 1 2 BRECKINRIDGE, OHIO, AND HANCOCK COUNTIES. '3 dendron, redbud, mulberry, black walnut, beech, black hick- ory, etc. LOCATION III-STATION (A). REMARKS. Post oak.. ... ... .. .. . . . 8 Area, 2,500 square yards.Location, it Black oak. .. . . . . . . .. . 6 miles from Leitchfield, on Falls of Rough 3panish oak..... .... .... . 2 road. Formation Chester. Note the ab- Pin oak . ... i sence of liriodendron on the Chester White ash . ... x again. Average diameter of trees, 19 inches. Some dogwood and hickory not shown in the plot. Situation, hill.-top, with a long western slope. STATION (B). REMARKS. White oak (o. f.) . 14 av. diam. . 21 in. Station B is a bench of the hill slope, 2,500 White oak (y. f.). square yards in areas. It shows well the Pin oak (y. f.) . . 15 I . 1134 " decrease of white oak in the young tim- Pin oak (o. f.).. ber, as well as the timber taking its place. Black oak (o. f.) Black oak (Y. f.). 13 A . 8 " Post oak (y. f.).. 5 . 8 Prot nak (o. f.). Pig hickory (o. f.), 2 . s6j4 Pig hickory (y. f.), 8 7. Ironwood. .. . i The small bushes are about the same. LOCATION IV-STATION (A). REMARKS. Black sugar maple . 8 av. diam. 2 . Location, lowlands on Pleasant Run, one White sugar maple.7f .. 2Z mile from Falls of Rough. Area, 2,500 Flack walnut (y. f.).4 square yards.The timber here is dis- Sycamore (y. f.). 2 .. 13 A tinctly swamp. Shag. hickory.. X diam . .. 24 Chinqnapin oak . . 2 Red elml (small) . . 2 Hawthorn. . 3 Buckeye . i WilloW.. ... 2 In the Rough Creek region hackberry and box elder, prick- ly ash, liriodendron, white and red elm, spicewood, hickory, three varieties, white oak, beech, and the other common for- est timber is noted. Owing to the making of two long sec- tions off the regular belt of timber, during which I made only running notes, the next plot of ground on which I numbered and averaged the timber was about ten miles from Cloverport. 7L ' 4 REPORT ON TIHE TIMBERS OF GRAYSON, LOCATION V-STATION (A). REMARKS. White oak . . 6 av. diamr . . .9 in. Location, hill top io miles from Cloverport. Black oak. . . ..3 24 " Area, 2,500 square yards. Pin oak, etc., Chestnut. 3 IS.. 8 are also found in the locality, though not Liriodendron.. . 2 . 18 in the plot. Undergrowth largely pin Pig hickory . . -r diam.. 13 oak. STATION (B). REMARKS. White oak ... 21 av. diam.. ig in. Station (B) is a water shed nearly level. Pig hickory.. 5 i84 " Area, 2,500 square yards. Pin oak, Span- Black gum . 10 " ish oak, and black oak are represented in Liriodendron.. 2 " . 17 " the timber there, though not in the plot. Sugar maple . diam..8 .[ LOCATION VI-STATION (A). REMARKS. Dogwood (flowering).261 Location, near Hawesville.Area, 2,500 White oak. . . 12 square yards. Formation, coal meas- Liriodendron. 1.. i3 ures. Situation, level. Pig hickory. . 2 [av. diam. of Black oak. 2 oid timber, 25 in. Red oak.1... . . 4;accn fra .I J Black zugar maple. I A little generalization from the tables, which were carefully prepared with that object in view, will give an instructive idea of the present and future conditions of the timber in Western Kentucky. For instance, restricting ourselves to the old for- est growth, a little calculation shows that it is composed as follows: WVhite oak. ........................ Post oak........................... Red onk........................... Black oak . ........................ Hickory. .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . Chestnut. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . Spanish oak.. . . . .. . . . . . Liriodendron............. .. . .... Black gunm.......... ...... ......... Pin oak . ......................... Dogwood . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . Sugar tree. . ....................... S cvamore.. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . White ash.. . . . . .. .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . Maple. .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . 72 40 per cent. 7 4' .7 v2 2 .' 10 9 4 I .. . 1 3t66 BRECKINRIDGE, OHIO, AND HANCOCK COUNTIES. This table is not absolutely perfect, for no such tables could be. For instance, black walnut should appear in it, as a small amount of old forest walnut is found on the waters of Beech Fork of Clover Creek. But if I had introduced a section from that locality, walnut would have had a prominence which it cannot claim in Western Kentucky. For the same reason I did not introduce a section from any prominent creek bottom, where there would probably be ioo beech trees per acre, and no other timber at all. However, the table is as accurate as it is possible to get it, and fairly represents the timber of all the counties under consideration. Now let us go over the tables and take the young forest timber only. In the same way we shall find its composition to be: White oak ...... .. . 9.4 per cent. Post oak...... .. 3 " nearly. Black oak . . ,6 " Hickory .................. .. 6.6 6 Liriodendron..... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .2.36 " " Black gum..................... .. .. 5.2 " Pin oak . . 36 " Sycamore .. . " Blackwalnut...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . The difference between the two tables, showing the differ- ence between the present and the coming forests, is remarka- ble. White oak has fallen from 40 per cent. of the old growth to a little over 9 per cent. of the young; while black oak and pin oak have risen from almost nothing in the old to 36 per cent. in the new forest. In other words, these worthless tim- bers are fast supplanting the white oak in Kentucky. To these tables I shall now add a diagram showing the result of my observations in regard to the effect that height above drainage has upon the growth of timbers. While there are, of course, exceptions to this arrangement, still it is the most general expression of the distribution of timber, with reference to drainage, that can be given. The hills are so low in Western Kentucky that the points of the compass pro- duce no appreciable effect on the timber: 73 15 REPORT ON THE TIMBERS OF GRAYSON, If the hill, D, be divided into three belts, as in the diagram, each belt will be seen to have a growth somewhat peculiar to, itself, wholly dependent upon its height above drainage. The timbers peculiar to each are indicated in the diagram. It will be noticed that the belt at the base of the hill is the narrow- est, showing that, as a rule, swamp timbers do not extend very high above drainage. The middle belt of timber is the widest. The reason is, that timbers on a hillside change but little after- leaving local drainage, until the rocky outcrops or the poor, thin shales near the top of the hill are reached. These shales or rocky cliffs, again, have their own timbers, the whole making three tolerably distinct belts, which can be easily traced on any considerable hill. I also give below, condensed into table form, a complete- list of the trees met with in my study: 74 s6 BRECKINRIDGE, OHIO, AND HANCOCK COUNTIES. ORDER CUPULIFERAE-MASTWORTS. I. Genus Quercus. White oak, Quercus alba (L.) Red oak, Q. rubra (L.) Pin oak, Q. palustris (Mx.) Spanish oak, Q. fulcata (L.) Black oak, Q. tinctoria (Bart.) Post oak, Q. obtusiloba (Mx.) Black jack, Q. nigra (L.) Swamp laurel oak, Q. laurifolia (Mx.) Swamp white oak, Q. bicolor (Willd.) Chestnut oak, Q. castanea (Muhl.) Swamp chestnut oak, Q. prinus (Willd.) Var. monticola (Michx.) Dwarf chestnut oak, Q. prinoides (Willd.) 2. Genus Castanea. Chestnut, Castanea vesca (L.) 3. Genus Fagus. Common beech, Fagus sylvatica (L.) Red beech, F. ferruginea (Ait.) 4. Genus Os/rya. Hop hornbeam or ironwood, Ostrya virginica (Willd.) ORDER SALICACEA-W [LLOWWORTS. I. Genus Salix. Basket osier, Salix riminalis (L.) Green osier, S. petiolaris (Smith.) Purple willow, S. purpurea (L.) 2. Genus Populus. Western cotton tree, Populus angulata (Ait.) American aspen, P. Tremuloides (Mx.) Balm of gilead, P. candicans (Ait.) Silver leaf poplar, P. alba (L.) ORDER BETULACE-BIRCHWORTS. I. Genus Betula. Black birch, Betula lenta (L.) Red birch, B. nigra (Ait.) 75. 17 REPORT ON THE TIMBERS OF GRAYSON, 2. Genus Alnues. Smooth alder, Alnus serrulata (Willd.) ORDER JUGLANDACER-WVALNUT. I. Genus Jug/ans. White walnut, Juglans cinerea (L.) Black walnut, J. nigra (L.) 2. Genus Carya. Shagbark hickory, Carya alba (Nutt.) Shellbark hickory, C. sulcata (Nutt.) Mockernut, C. tomentosa (Nutt.) Pignut hickory, C. glabra (Sorr.) White hickory, C. microcarpa (Nutt.) ORDER PLATANACER-SYCAMORE. I. Genus P/a/anus. Sycamore, plane tree, Platanus occidentalis (L.) ORDER OLEACEA-OLIVES. I. Genus Fraxinus. White ash, Fraxinus americana (L.) Blue ash, F. quadrangulata (Mx.) Black ash, F. sambucifolia (Lam.) ORDER ULMACEIE-ELMWORTS. i. Genus Ulmus. Slippery elm (Red elm), Ulmus fulva (L). White elm, U. americana (L). Cork elm, U. racemosa (L.) Winged elm (Whahoo), U. alata (Mx.) 2. Genus Ce//is. Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis (L.) ORDER CORNACEC-CORNELS. I. Genus Corneas. Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida (L.) Low cornel, C. canadensis (L.) 2. Genus Nyssa. Black gum, Nyssa multiflora (Wang.) Swamp black gum, N. uniflora (Walt.) 76 BRECKINRIDGE, OHIO, AND HANCOCK COUNTIES. ORDER LAURACEAE-LAURELS. i. Genus Sassafras. Common sassafras, Sassafras officinale (Nees.) 2. Genus Benzoin. Spicewood, Benzoin odoriferum (Nees.) ORDER ROSACEA-ROSEWORTS. . Genus Cerasus. Black cherry, Cerasus serotina (D. C.) 2. Genus Prunius. Red and yellow plum, Prunus americana (Misch.) 3. Genus Cratagus. Hawthorn (not a native) Cratagus oxycantha (L.) ORDER ARTOCARPACEAE-ARTOCARPS. x. Genus Morus. Red Mulberry, Morus rubra (L.) ORDER. LEGUIMINOSA. i. Genus Gleditscihia. Honey locust, Gleditschia triacanthus (L.) 2. Genus Robin ia. Black locust, Robinia pseudacacia (L.) 3. Genus Cercis. Redbud (Judas tree), Cercis canadensis (L). ORDER ACERACEA-MAPLES. I. Genus Acer. Red maple (trident), Acer rubrum tridens (L). White maple. A. dasycarpum (Ehrh.) Sugar maple, A. saccharinum (L). Black sugar maple, A. nigrum (Mx.) 2. Genus Negundo. Box elder, Negundo aceroides (Moench). ORDER SAPINDACEAE-SOAPWORTS. I. Genus zEscu/us. Ohio buckeye, iEsculus glabra (Willd.) ORDER ANACARDIAcE-SUMACHS. I. Genus Rhus. Smooth sumach, Rhus glabra (L.) Large sumach, R. typhina (L.) I9 REPORT ON TIHE TIMBERS OF GRAYSON ORDER RUTACEAE-RUEWORTS. I. Genus Xanthoxy/urm. Prickley ash, Xanthoxylum americanum (L.) ORDER BIGNONACEA-TRUMPET FLOWERS. I. Genus Catalpa. Catalpa, Catalpa bignonioides (Walt.) ORDER MAGNOLIACEE. I. Genus Liriodendron. Tulip tree (erroneously called yellow poplar), Lirlo. dendron tulipfera (L.) ORDER BERBERIDACEL. I. Genus Berberis. Berberry, Berberis vulgaris (L). ORDER ANONACEE. i. Genus Asimina. Common papau, Asimina triloba (Dunal). ORDER HAMAMELACER-WITCH HAZELWORTS. I. Genus Liquidambar. Sweet gum, Liquidambar styraciflua (L.) ORDER EBENACE)E. I. Genus Dyosfiyros. Persimmon, Dyospyros virginiana (L.) ORDER ERICACEAE. I. Genus Oxydendrum. Sorrel tree, Oxydendrum arboreum (D. C.) ORDER CAPRIFOLIACEA!. i. Genus Sambucus. Pith elder, Sambucus canadensis (L.) 2. Genus Viburnum. Black haw, Viburnum prunifolium (L.) ORDER CALYCANTHACEAE. I. Genus Calycanthus. Sweet shrub, Calycanthus floridus (L.) 78 20