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Report on a belt of Kentucky timbers : extending east and west along the south-central part of the state, from Columbus to Pound Gap / by Lafayette H. DeFriese. DeFriese, Lafayette H. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b97-22-37601841 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Report on a belt of Kentucky timbers : extending east and west along the south-central part of the state, from Columbus to Pound Gap / by Lafayette H. DeFriese. DeFriese, Lafayette H. Yeoman Press, Frankfort, Ky. : [1884, 1880] p. 171-232 : charts ; 26 cm. Coleman Issued as a reprint with Report on the forests of Greenup, Carter, Boyd, and Lawrence counties; Report on the botany of Barren and Edmonson counties; Report on the timbers of Grayson, Breckinridge, Ohio, and Hancock counties; Report on the timbers of theNorth Cumberland: Bell and Harlan counties; Report on the timbers of the Tradewater Region: Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties; and Report on the timbers of the district west of the Tennessee River: commonly known as the Purchase District, as Timber and botany, B. Index follows last report in collection. Reports have individual and collective pagination, the latter of which is used in this report. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1997. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN06859.16 KUK) s1997 gaun a Printing Master B97-22. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Timber Kentucky. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY. N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR. REPORT ON A BELT OF KENTUCKY TIMBERS, EXTENDING EAST AND WEST ALONG THE SOUTH- CENTRAL PART OF THE STATE, FROM COLUMBUS TO POUND GAP. BY LAFAYETTE H. DEFRIESE. ST"RUOTED FOR THE SURVEY BY MAJOR, JOHNSTON & BARRELT, YEOMAN PRESS, FRANKMECT, aC. 171 This page in the original text is blank. INTRODUCTORY LETTER. NEW YORK, February, 1879. Professor N. S. SHALER, Director Kentucky Geological Survey: DEAR SIR: I herewith submit a report upon a belt of Ken- tucky timbers, extending from Columbus, on the Mississippi river, to Pound Gap, on the Virginia line. The data for the report were obtained on a trip made for that purpose during the summer of 1878. The general plan of the report does not differ materially from that of previous reports; but the great extent of country covered by it, and the particular objects in view in this report, rendered neces- sary considerable differences in detail. Such of these as are important will appear from the body of the report. Very respectfully, LAFAYETTE H. DEFRIESE. 173 This page in the original text is blank. 'REPORT ON A BELT OF KENTUCKY TIMBERS, EX- TENDING IRREGULARLY EAST AND WEST ALONG THE SOUTH-CENTRAL PART OF THE STATE, FROM COLUM- BUS TO POUND GAP. PRELIMINARY REMARKS. In each of the several previous reports made on Kentucky timbers, attention has been called to a comparatively limited portion of country; and all the conditions of timber growth, the relative numbers of the different kinds of timbers, the changes that these several kinds of timbers undergo under certain circumstances of time or position, have been inquired into somewhat minutely, and in a detailed manner. Such previous reports have been occupied, therefore, each in its own locality, with minute examinations and discussions of tree life, growth and changes, and there has not been much effort to direct attention to the similarities and dissimilari- ties shown to exist, by comparison of reports, on widely sep- arated localities. In other words, each previous report has been detailed in character and limited in locality. This report is intended to be exactly the reverse. It deals with a very wide extent of country, and in a more or less general way. Its principal objects are to embrace under one view timber growths existing under the most widely different con- ditions possible within the State, and to call attention to any marked changes that may be found to accompany such dif- ferences of condition, and especially to discuss the effects of height above drainage upon such growths. A better oppor- tunity for the latter purpose could not be had than presents itself to one who passes from the swamps and hilly, rolling country of Western Kentucky onto the level and fertile Blue- '75 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A grass Region of the central part of the State, and thence- across the high mountains, deep valleys, and wild ravines of the eastern portion. Almost every variety of topographical and geological condition to be found in the State is met with on this journey. and the corresponding effects of such changes upon forest growths can be seen and studied. It should be borne in mind, however, in reading this report, that my observations were confined to a very narrow belt on either side of the line of travel; and that, while I brought to my assistance facts obtained from elaborate and minute study in various parts of the State, nevertheless I may have erred at times from having been necessarily confined to so narrow a strip of country. Conditions may exist at one point which are exceptional rather than general, and which, a few miles- distant, would cease to exist altogether. Erroneous reason- ings may thus arise, which could not be avoided under the circumstances; though, in preparing data, great care has been taken to avoid material error. Another source of possible error in such a report as this, to- which attention should be called at the outset, arises in deal- ing with comparative heights above drainage. In a rapid trip. over so great an extent of country it is impossible to keep a stationary barometer to correct the fluctuations of the instru- ments carried; so that, in many instances, heights had to be more or less estimated. Such a source of error was unfor- tunate; for a difference of level of a few feet will often make a material difference in the growth of timbers, and interfere with comparative work. GENERAL REMARKS. In passing from the extreme southwestern to the extreme southeastern part of Kentucky, almost a complete change in forest growth will be noted. This singular change-a great part of which I cannot account for at all at present-begins first to be noticed, along the belt covered by this report, in Madison county, in that cluster of hills of which "Big Hill" is the centre and the most conspicuous. An exception to 176 6 SECIHON FRONI TEII MISSISSIPPI RIVERl Tro P1OU-ND GAP. this statement should be made in the case of linden or bass- wood trees, a few of which skirt M\luidraugh's Hill farther to the west. (By MIulidraugh's Hill, is here meant the entire range of hills bordering the B3liegrass Region on the south.) About the vicinity of Big Hill the first pines (P. mi/is) make their appearance. Not a single coniferous tree or bush, with the exception of the swamp cypress and a few small cedars in Northwvestern KentUcky, is to be seen in the entire ie-t- ern part of the State. The pinles first appear on the dry Waverly shales, extend- ing down to the foot-hills along the knobs about Big Hill, and are also found on the Conglomerate, capping the tops of the highest knobs in this region. Their entire absence in WVest- ern Kentucky, and their presence in Eastern Kentucky, can- not be due to difference of geological formation, for both \Vaverly and Conglomerate are found in the western part of the State. Nor can it be due merely to the height of the hills and mountains in Eastern Kentucky; for pines are often found here on hills much lower than many in \Vestern Ken- tucky. In another place, and under its proper head, I shall give what I conceive to be the reason of this peculiar phe- nomenon in the growth and distribution of the pine in Ken- tucky. At present, I wish merely to call attention to the marked difference between the forest growths of the western and those of the eastern part of the State. In passing from the wvest to the east, the first hemlock trees (Abics C(zyznatensi's) were found by Professor Shaler in a De- vonian shale ravine, about five miles north of Irvine, in Es- till county. In a previous report oln the timbers of the North Cumberland (Bell and Harlan counties). I called attention to the fact that. in that part of the State, hemlock appeared only onl coal measure formations, and was confined almost entirely to the Conglomierate. The finding of hemlock on1 Devonian shale, in Estill county, showvs that in Kentucky, as in other States, that tree is not confined to particular formations. It should be said, however, that very little hemlock was found on this journey elsewhere than on coal-measures. TIM. 1.--12 177 7 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A The magnolias are likewise first met with not far' from Irvine, and between that place and Beattyville, while the American laurels (Rhododendron and Kalmia) are not found until the rockier mountains and wilder ravines farther east and south are reached. The saine may also be said of the Amelanchiers and some other smaller shrubs. Thus, within comparatively few miles, and without any apparent topographical or geological reason for it, the whole character of the forest growth changes; and while the oaks and hickories of the vest remain, there are added to them lindens, pines, laurels, and magnolias- stately and beautiful trees of the east alone. I say, without any appareznt topographical reason, because these timbers are found alike on the mountains and ill the valleys of Eastern Kentucky, while in Western Kentucky they do not appear. even on the highest lhills. The same geological conditions can be found in the western part of the State as those on which these timbers grow in the east; so that the only point Jof difference which suggests itself, is in the higher mountains and hills of the east. It may be, therefore, with some of these timbers, that a wild and mountainous country is a necessary condition precedent to their introduction, and that their sub- sequent spread over the lower hills and valleys is a matter of course; but this is a subject which would require a great deal of preliminary investigation, before an opinion upon it could be safely hazarded. Nothing is more certain to attract the attention of students of forestry in Kentucky, than the contrast met with in passing from the splendid woodlands of Muldraugh's Hill onto the Cincinnati limestone of the Bluegrass Region. near Danville. Especially is this contrast striking in Garrard county, which, though one of the finest and richest in the State, is neverthe- less, with the exception of a few fenced-up groves, a treeless waste, devoid alike of water and forests. Coursing across it here and there can still be traced the dried-up beds of numer- -ous streams, in which, within the memory of citizens living along them, water continuously flowed. Inasmuch as the Cin- cinnati limestone is an exceedingly waterless formation, or one J178 8 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. the surface of which is not adapted to the holding and flowing of water, I should have been in doubt whether to attribute the dry character of the country to the destruction of the timber or to the formation, had I not been told that water once flowed the year round through the now parched stream-beds. All that can be said is, that the people owe their present dearth to their past thoughtlessness; and the reckless destruction of forests now going on throughout the State portends an even greater calamity before there is a turn for the better. An able investigator of this subject well says: "Since i835, the forest area of the western hemisphere has decreased at the yearly average rate of 7,600,000 acres, or about I i,ooo square miles, and this rate in the United States alone has advanced from i,6oo square miles in I835 to 7,000 in i835, and 8,400 in i876, while the last two years have been scarcely less ex- haustive. Statistics for eighty years previous to 1835 show that we have been wasting the supply of moisture to Ameri- can soil at the average rate of seven per cent. for each quar- ter of a century during the last one hundred and twenty-five years, and that we are now approaching the limit beyond which any further decrease will materially influence the cli- mate of the entire continent. Many eastern regions, such as Afghanistan, Persia, India, and Asia Minor, once possessed of a fine climate and abundant harvests, are now often scourged by pestilence and famine; and it is altogether probable that their misfortunes began with the disappearance of their native forests. It is quite likely that we shall suffer in climate, fer- tility, and health before a great while, if we continue to de- stroy our trees as recklessly as we have done, and it behooves us to be warned in time. ' For one hundred and fifty years we have been felling the forest; for the next one hundred and fifty we should try to restore what we have taken away." In previous reports attention has been called to the fact that certain timbers, especially white oaks, do not seem to return again to forests from which they have once been driven by such an agency as fire. It has also been men- 179 9 ON TIHE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A tioiied, that the formations best adapted to the growth of chestnut timber are the Conglomerate and Chester sand- stones. Onl soils from these formations chestnut is normally found in the greatest abundance, and growing to the greatest perfection. In passing from Western to Eastern Kentucky, my attention wvas therefore attracted to the fact that when the Big Clifty (Chester) sandstone first appeared, which was ill the neighborhood of Hopkinsville and oil Pilot Knob, no chestnut appeared with it. Moreover, the white oak and liriodendron, away from the streams, seemed scrubby and scarce. Otherwise the forest was normal, and I searched in vain for any clue to the absence of these timbers. I finally came to the conclusion that, long ago, the entire country through here, reaching probably as far west as the Cum- berland river, had been laid -waste by fires, and had been barrens similar to those still remaining in the Purchase, and further east in Barren and other counties. Mr. Irvine Kennedy, who has lived in this part of Ken- tucky for sixty-eight years, and who now resides near Elk- ton, informed me that my conjecture was correct, and that he could remember when all these heavy forests were a uniform growth of young trees, with not an old tree stand- ing. except on streams too large for fires to sweep through their swamps. I was afterward informed that some chestnut groves exist not far from Elkton, though I did not see a tree. It is pos- sible that they stand in a piece of woods for some reason protected from the ravages of fires. \Witlhout special inves- tigation made for that purpose, it is impossible to arrive at anything near the extent of Kentucky forests which repre- sent, not the original growths of the State, but a kind of sec- ond growth, sprung haphazard from the burial-place of the primeval forests. In a previous report on the timbers of the Purchase Dis- trict (see Report, volume V, this series), attention was called to the remarkable absence of chestnut from that part of Ken- tucky, although the formation is a mill-stone grit waste, on 180 IO SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. -which chestnut should be found. A closer examination of the timbers surrounding the present barrens of the Purchase shows that there is very little white oak among them, except along streams and on low grounds. AMy present opinion is subject of course, to correction upon closer study-that the high grounds of almost the entire Purchase, from Tennessee river on the east to the Mississippi on the west, have been swept by fires and denuded of their timbers, and that the only difference between the other forests of this part of Ken- tUcky and the present barrens is one of age. Both are sec- ond growvths, and in both cases the primitive forests have been swept away by long-continued fires. In this report I give my reasons for believing that in former times the bar- rens have extended east beyond the Cumberland river, at least as far as Hopkinsville, if not, with local exceptions, to the waters of Big Barren river, leaving the narrow strip be- tween the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers alone unswept by fires. Big Barren river is probably the eastern limit, in this locality, of the ancient barrens, part of which are still to be seen along it. The location of the northern limit of these -ancient barrens isv worthy of special investigation, if the view here advanced be correct, for they have certainly never ex- tended to the Ohio river. Further on in this report I have called attention to certain chestnuts, evidently dropped by passers-by, having sprung up in the Purchase, near Clark river, and died. In this connection, an interesting question presents itself, and that is, whether chestnut and white oak will grow again in a forest once 1/wrouag/d burnt out, even if planted. If not, it may be that the barrens were never burnt over so long as to kill the roots and seeds of existing timbers, but only long enough to destroy the chestnut, white oak, &c., which would not grow again on the burnt-over grounds. Thle whole subject is one of the deepest interest, and should be thoroughly investigated. REMARKS ON SPECIAL LOCALITIES. There are some peculiarities connected with timber growth in certain localities which are worthy of mention. For in- 18i I I ON THE TIMBER LA.kN'DS TRAVERSED BY A stance, speaking broadly and generally, timbers are far better- on the north sides of hills than on the south sides. This is- doubtless due to the north side of a hill being shadier and damper than the south side, which is exposed directly to the drying heat of the sun. There are some exceptions to the statement that the finest forests grow on the north side of the bill. When the hill is very high, the observation made in the report on the timbers of the North Cumberland, that white oak flourishes best on the south side of the hill, is true. It is- also true, even to a greater extent, of pines. If the hill be low, the best white oak, as will be noticed further on, like other timbers except pine, grows on the north side; if it be high enough to affect much the temperature of the north side, the white oak is found on the warm side; and where white oak is found on the north side of a high hill, it is found right at the base, where it is sheltered, or right on top, where the sun reaches it. In the case of the pines, it may be that the method of their distribution, of which I shall speak fur- ther on, has something to do with their confinement largely to the southern slopes of hills; but that cannot fully account for- the fact, and it must be that the pines of -IKentucky are not hardy, and seek the southern sides of mountains for warmth and sunlight. Again, it wvould be natural to suppose, inasmuch as there are several belts of distinct timbers on each large hill, each belt composed of those timbers adapted to its height above- drainage, that the various species of timbers would shade off gradually in ascending a hill; for instance, that the best white oak would be found at the base of the hill, that that a little higher up would be not quite so good, and that the quality would gradually grow poorer, until the white oak ceased alto- gether. To my astonishment, this did not seem to be a rule. That is, in descending a hill, the very first trees of a particu- lar species are often as fine as any others found on the hill, unless want of richness of soil prevented. The observation certainly holds good with the beeches, hemlocks, and other timbers with which moisture of soil is the controlling requisite! . . I 2 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. of growth. They remain of the finest quality till they cease altogether, and their line of growth often forms a sharp and well-defined band around the hill. As would naturally be expected, the timbers characteristic of a mountain top are not found directly on top of the moun- tain, but a few feet below the top, on the brow. The reason is, that oln the level top there is usually a considerable depth, of detritus and decayed vegetable matter, more or less moist, which gives to the timbers somewhat the characteristics of lowland timbers. SPECIAL TIMBERS. Reference has already been made to the peculiar, and, in many respects, remarkable distribution of pines in Kentucky. They are not found further west, in the timber belt here spoken of, than the Big Hill region, in Madison and Garrard counties; and the same counties are almost the northern limit of pine growth likewise, though scattering ones may be found on Muldraugh's Hill, still farther north. The pines met with. are principally of the P. mitis or yellow species, though con- siderable numbers of P. rigida or pitch pine, P. strobus or white pine, and P. taeda or loblolly pine, are also met with. The question presented by this pine growth is, why is it lim- ited so absolutely and arbitrarily to the southeastern part of the State Is the reason to be found in the geological forma- tion of that part of the State, or in its topographical nature, or in some problem connected with the original appearance of the pines in the Kentucky forests As I have already said, the reason cannot be a geological one, for the exact geologi- cal counterpart of this section of the State can be found in Western Kentucky, where there are absolutely no pines. The true cause must then be sought in the other two alter- natives-topographical nature of the country and method of original appearance and distribution-and I think that these two causes supplemented each other in producing the present peculiarities of pine growth. In order to fully comprehend the matter, let these facts be kept in mind: v Si IS ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A i. The pines of Kentucky (hemlock is excepted for the present, and will be spoken of later) require a very dry soil, and for this reason are confined to the rock ledges of the high mountain tops, or to the dry shales of the lower levels. For this reason pines rannot be distributed by the carrying power of water, as in that case the seeds would be deposited in low, wet places, where growth would not take place. 2. In a general way. pines gradually increase in numbers from where they are first met with on the north to the south- ern border of the State, and from where they are first met with in the west to the eastern part of the State. This state- ment is subject to some modification on account of variations in height of the hills in this part of Kentucky, to be explained presently. 3. Pines are distributed over slopes of hills and mountains facing south and southeast. A little reflection will show that only one hypothesis will satisfactorily explain all these peculiar facts in relation to the present growth and distribution of the pine ; and that is, that the pine forests of Kentucky were introduced at a compara- tively late date, and spread, from the vastpine forest and mountain growths of North Carolina, to the south and southeast of this section. Inasmuch as they could not have been distributed by water, for the reason already given, we must look to the wind as the motor power in their distribution. I was informed by all the citizens questioned on the subject that the prevail- ing winds in Kentucky are from the south and west. Of course, it is apparent at once that the pine seeds are carried north from North Carolina by the prevailing southern winds, while the western winds are almost a perfect barrier to con- fine them to the eastern part of the State. The trees work wvestward very slowly against the prevailing winds; and when the wind does blow from the east, it is liable to be accom- panied by rain. which would destroy its power to carry the seeds to any great distance. If the pine seeds were carried by the winds from the south, of course they would be lodged on the south sides of the hills and mountains, and the pines 184 1 4 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. I 5 -would naturally be first found there. I do not say that this is the reason why they are found on the south, and not found on the north sides of the mountains, for they would, if conl- -ditions were suitable, soon work over from one side to the other. I merely say that, given the conditions here present, the pines would certainly be first found on the south sides of mountains. It must be said that there are some tolerably strong argu- ments against the view I have here advanced as to the distri- bution of the pines, and one of these is, that in the very section of Kentucky where the pines are found, they are by no means uniformly distributed, and oftentimes miles of low hills will intervene without a single pine, and a comparatively 'solitary high hill will have several on its summnit. I can only suggest, in explanation of this, that the high hill-tops are the ones which would most catch the wind-carried seeds, and that, should they be dropped on the low intervening hills, they would probably not grow, unless the formation happened to be one of the dry shales. As I have previously said, my observations go to show that the pines in this part of the State (as also in the Pine Mountains further southwest) grow oQrly oln high hill or mountain tops, or else oln dry shales, like the Devonian or some of the Waverly shales. Inasmuch as the hemlock is always fouLnd within comlpara- -tively few feet, in barometric height, above /ecird drainage, and is therefore usually in the hollows and ravines, rather than on the hills, we must look to the water for its distribution. Such seeds as the wind might pick up and lodge on mountain peaks certainly would not grow. To appreciate the peculiar distri- bution of hemlock, its characteristics must be understood. These I have studied minutely, so far as their growth in Ken- tucky is concerned. and am convinced- x. That they do not glow, oln the avereag,-e, at a greater height than fifty feet above the local drainage. 2. That, nevertheless they require a veziy dry soil, the more rocky and precipitous. usually, the better. These two conditions can be satisfied only by small mniuntain streanms, i85 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A which have a very limited extent of bottom land (hemlock will not grow on bottom land at all), and where the surround- ing hills come down to the water edge, forming more or less ravines and precipices. The consequence is, that while the head waters of the Kentucky river on the one hand, and of the Cumberland on the other, penetrate into the very heart of the hemlock region, and are the mountain streams along which this timber grows to the greatest perfection, yet the Kentucky river does not carry it far northward, nor the Cum- berland river far westward. The seeds will be carried down- ward and deposited by these streams, and will take root and grow, just so long as the above conditions are complied with; but, whenever the streams become large enough to have a belt of bottom lands along them, the possibility of a further spread of the hemlock ceases in Kentucky. The conditions. of growth of that timber may be different elsewhere. It is worth while, in speaking of special timbers, to call attention to a somewhat remarkable forest of beeches, which occupies a belt of country eight or ten miles wide, beginning about three miles from Greensburg, and extending to within about the same distance of Campbellsville, and lying in Green and Taylor counties. The extent of the belt in other direc- tions I could not determine. In this belt, beeches form the forest timbers to the almost entire exclusion of other growths. They not only occupy the valleys, but extend to the tops of the highest hills. The reason is to be found in the formation, which is a reddish, very much decayed St. Louis chert, out of the very top of which the water oozes, and which is there- fore always wet. Inasmuch as height above drainage is the principal determinant of beech growth, it is natural that these- hills should be covered with such a heavy forest of that tim-- ber. As to the distribution of the magnolias, the so-called Amer- ican laurels (rhododendron and kalmia), and the linden trees, 1 confess that I see no reason why they should be confined to. the eastern part of Kentucky, unless it be the purely topo- graphical one, that high mountains and deep and ragged 186 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. ravines are necessary conditions of their introduction and growth. On the other halid, all these timbers grow and flourish onl ground in this part of the State, which has less of those very characteristics than grounds further west, on, which they do not grow at all. So far as I can, see, the only difference is, that there are high mountains in Southeastern Kentucky. and there are no high mountains in Western Ken- tucky. 'rhe subject of the growth and distribution of these timbers is full of interest, and should be investigated. I should speak, also, before leaving this head, of the oaks in Kentucky and the West generally. So far as their classifi- cation is concerned, they are in a very unsatisfactory condi- tion; and in dealing with them, our botaiiies are practically worthless. In all of them, the best of which are those of Gray, Wood, and Chapman, the basis of distinction is their leaf or fruit. About the former, a great deal of space is occupied discussing distinctions which do not exist at all; for the leaves of the oaks, with a.few marked exceptions given below, shade into one another in such a way that it is impos- sible to distinguish the trees in that wvay. It is nearly as bad with the fruit, with the additional inconvenience that it is only for a short portion of the year tkat such a distinction is available at all. I am convinced that the only character- istic suitable for a basis of classification in forestry, is the bark, and that seems to have been studiously ignored by our best authorities. For my own part, while I desire to be very conservative in speaking on a subject which requires much labor and study. the more attention I devote to the oaks, the more I am inclined to believe that there is no foundation in fact for more than seven oaks in this part of the United States, viz.: white oak, black oak, red oak, Spanish oak, post oak, laurel oak, and chestnut oak. There is exceedingly small basis for a distinction between the red oak and black oak, and I question if they merit the dignity of separate species. All of the many species of our oaks, beyond these six or seven, rest, I believe, upon illusory distinctions, and can be traced through all gradations into one of the seven divisions here given. Of J87 ' 7 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A course, in the following pages, the usual botanical classifica- tions have been made, as a matter of convenience. There is an oak found near streams, and in rich woods and glens in Kentucky, which cannot be classed, according to the distinctions now in use, as a variety of red oak, nor as a dwarf oak, nor as a Quercus lyrata. It resembles Q. macro- carla more than any other oak, perhaps, except that the leaves are not downy or tomentose beneath; but, on the contrary, are a dark, rich, smooth green, and are shining like the leaves of Q. lyrata. I have called it rich red oak, and have classified it as macrorarpa. There is another oak, called by the people chinquapin oak, and which I have classed as Q. prinoides, on account of its very great resemblance to chinquapin oak, but which often grows fifty feet high in the mountains of Kentucky. There is also in the mountains a low, rich green oak, the bark of which is darkish to whitish gray, with long, straight, shallow furrows at the base of the tree, growing more deep and chipped up the stem; branches smooth, gray, with brownish rough spots or dots; acorn broader than long, dorsally compressed, and one fourth buried ill a brittle, scaly, flat cup. The leaf lobes -are 7, 9, II in number, and are awned. The little tree is very rich in fruit. I have called it Q. ilicifolia, on account of its great resemblance to that species, though it differs from it in some respects. TIMBER IN DETAIL. A mere running sketch of the Purchase country and its timbers will be given here, because a special report on the timbers of this section has been prepared and published, to which the reader is referred for more detailed information. (See Report on Purchase Timbers, volume V, this series.) In going eastward from Columbus, on the Mississippi, no timbers worthy of special mention are met with for some miles. The old forests have been cut away. About one and one quarter miles out the country is rolling, the soil white-sandy and damp, with large white oak and liriodendron 188 i8 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. in low places, as well as black ash, black gum, sweet gum., black and red oak, pawpaw, black sumach, and redbud. Undergrowth is chiefly black oak and red oak. These tim- bers vary little until Bole's Creek is reached, about three- miles from Columbus. Onl the creek are found sycamore, red elm, liriodendroll, white oak, black and honey locust, sweet gum, white wvalnut. small black walnut, and consider- able sugar maple and black ash. Five miles out frorn Columbus, toward Mayfield, the forests- grow heavier and more valuable, white oak forinhig a conisid- erable percentage of the timbers (as much as fifty per cent. in low places), liriodendron about twelve per cent., the remain- der being composed of black and pig hickory, red oak, black oak, some scarlet oak, white and red elm, sweet and black guin, and sycamore. The country is rolling, with long. damp, white-sandy levels. About five and three quarter miles out the first swamp laurel oak, the first white maple, and the first winged elm of any size are found. On Elsey Branch, a mile further on, shag hickory and pin oak first appear-the latter very large and fine. The other timbers remain as above noted,. with occasionally a fine black ash. Eight and one half miles fromn Columbus one prickly ash occurs. The timbers otherwise remain without change until North Fork of Obion river is reached, eleven miles out. There the first swamp chestnut oak appears. Spanish oak also begins to grow very prominent in these forests, and to form more than one half of the upland oaks. The first post oak seen appears between North Fork of Obion river and Milburn. Four miles beyond Milburn, toward Mayfield, the Purchase pebbles come to the surface, and a thin, dry soil, covered with post oak, scrubby black oak, &c., is the result. These peb- bles are the waste of the decayed mill-stone grit, and are found in every part of the Purchase at a greater or less depth below the surface. Upon it white oak is not found; but while, as a formation, it is very dry, it brings the streams 19 19 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A to the surface, and along them in this locality grow the first red or water birch met with. About seven miles from Mil- burn, on these surface streams, pin oak is found in the great- est abundance, while post oak and black-jack crown the low, gravelly hills. An occasional spotted birch is found along the foot-hills, and considerable willow along the branches. About eight miles from Milburn, and midway between there and Mayfield, the present " barrens " of the Purchase are en- tered. For a discussion of them, see the report on the Pur- chase timbers previously alluded to. While some of the views and the limits there expressed have been modified by later study, that is not true of Lhe cause of the original barrens there given. The boundary of the present barrens, between Mayfield and Cadiz. seems to be, in this locality, Mayfield Creek; but this is not true further south, between Mayfield and Murray. I have already given reasons for believing that all the upland of the Purchase has, in former times, consisted of barrens. On Mayfield Creek splendid cypress trees are found, asso- ciated with liriodendron. red birch, white and red elm, sweet gum, sycamore, black ash, pin oak, white oak, black gum, black hickory, &c., while in the upland forests beyond, toward Cadiz, post oak, scarlet oak, black oak, and black-jack are the principal timbers. On Panther Creek the timbers com- mon to Mayfield Creek. with the exception of cypress, are again found There is a marked absence also of sweet gum, for which I could assign no cause. On the hills through here grow white oak (at bases), red oak, black oak, and Spanish oak (about midway), and scarlet oak, post oak, scrub shag hickory. and black-jack (on top). The hickory here spoken of is a mountain variety of Garya sulcala. [The distribution of the timbers, as affected by height above drainage, will be illustrated by tables and discussed further on in this report.] Before reaching the West Fork of Clark river, I found two chestnut bushes, about six inches in diameter, which had evidently sprung up from chestnuts dropped by passers-by. They had grown up to this size, and both had died, without 19C& 20 SECTION FROM I111E 'MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. any apparent cause, except that the formation, in its present condition, is not adapted to chestnut growth. This matter has been previously discussed. The timbers on West Fork of Clark river have been spoken -of especially in a previous report, and do not need mention here. After passing the river the barrens continue, without interruption, except on small streams, until \Vadesboro is reached and passed. The shrub spirea is fotund near Wades- boro. On nearing East Fork of Clark river, about one mile beyond Wadesboro. considerable good timber is found, con- sisting of white oak, liriodendron, white ash, black and pig hickory, Spanish, scarlet, black, and post oak, dogwood, per- simmon, pawpaw, black sumach, spotted birch, sassafras, &c. On Clark river the usual swamp timbers appear in vast for- ests, and of the finest proportions. Sweet gum, black gum, shag and white hickory, white oak and liriodendron are espe- cially fine. After crossing Clark river, white oak is tolerably abundant, often extending to the hill-tops. This would seem to indicate that a ,Part of the strip of country between West Fork of Clark river and Tennessee river, as well as the strip previous- ly mentioned, between the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, was never swept by fires to the same extent as those parts of the Purchase west of this fork of Clark river. This inference is still further strengthened by the existence of considerable chestnut all through here. It may be that the fires from the west did not penetrate across \Vest Fork of Clark river, while those from the east found a western barrier in the Cumber- land river. A fact to be mentioned presently, however, throws -some doubt upon this, and leads me to believe that, at times, the fires swept across both of these streams. About one mile from the Tennessee river we strike the Protean or the Silicious group of rocks, without any marked change in the timbers. In the Tennessee river bottom are found splendid groves of cypress,- from three to seven and one half feet in diameter, nearly always standing in marshy places, in a few inches of water, with their knees reaching 19' 2 1 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A up into the air. The bark on the point of these knees is always very thin. In the Tennessee bottom, in addition to the Clark river timbers, are hlackberry and box-elder. After crossing Tennessee river, there is considerable chest- iut in spots, and white oak abounds on low grounds, where it does not seem that there would be much protection in case of continuous sweeping fires. Iniasmuch as this white oak and chestnut are found all through between the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. it seems very probable that the Cumber- land river was a fire barrier oin the east. It should be said, however, that the white oak between the rivers on upland soil is very unhealthy, and appears to be rapidly dying out, a very large proportion of the trees being already dead. The same is true of some white oaks that appear in protected spots after crossing Cumberland river. If it be true that occasional fires have crossed over and gotten between the rivers, not enough to kill out the white oak, but enough to affect the soil in such a way that white oak will not flourish on it, this decay becomes one of exceeding great interest and importance. For, in that case, the burning off of Black Mountains, now taking place regularly. will soon drive from the forests one of the finest bodies of white oak timber in the world, whether the burning be carried to sufficient ex- tent to injure the other timbers or not. In Trigg county, between the rivers, the first iron-wood (hop hornbeam) and the first chestnut oak are met with. A change of level, of comparatively few feet, here, is sufficient to completely change the character of the timber. Along the branches, the white oak, white hickory, shag hickory, and red oak are good, and there is considerable elm and some lirioden- dron, beside the usual small growth. Red birch, sycamore, laurel oak, and white oak appear in plenty on Gilbert's creek, about one and one half miles from Cumberland river. On Cumberland river grow the most beautiful cotton trees I ever saw, reaching a diameter of four feet and a height of eighty. Sycamore, black ash. sweet gum.i swamp red oak (the macro aiypa of Wood), swanip chestnut oak, and splendid 192 22 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. _ 3 hickories abound, with the other swamp timbers previously noted. No chestnut is to be seen after crossing Cumberland river, and the usual upland and lowland timbers are met with in succession, without any change worthy of note, for some miles. Little River flows, at the point crossed here, over a bed of St. Louis limestone, and has scarcely any bottom or swamp soil proper, and, consequently, no swamp timbers. After leaving Little River, the country is high, dry, and only slightly rolling, for three or four miles. The timbers are poor and valueless, with the exception of some black cherries and one hackberry found on this high level. About six and one half miles from Cadiz, toward Hopkins- ville, in a slight depression, pin oak, white hickory, black and sweet gum, sycamore, some black ash and honey locust, are to be noted. Not a white oak is to be found. The high, dry, nearly level stretch spoken of above lasts. with no surface water, until Hopkinsville is reached. There is nothing wor- thy of note in the timbers, except that upland and swamp laurel oak are plenty. After passing Hopkinsville, we begin to leave the St. Louis limestone, and approach the Chester sandstone, which already caps the highest hills. Some of the timbers normally found upon it, though, are absent. The introduction of red oak, forming the larger part of the forest growth, is a marked feature in passing onto the calcareous limestone and lower Chester from the St. Louis limestone. Scarlet oaks crowvn the hill tops. and post oaks are found in depressions, or large- ly on the hill-sides below the Chester. The latter feature is local, however, as on a high hill, about five miles from Hop- kinsville, post oaks extend tip onto the Chester. The black- jack, however, is clustered around the hills just at the base of the Chester, and this I noticed to be generally true. Su- gar maple, bartram oak, swamp chestnut oak, white elm, and black ash are found in considerable quantities along the streams. For six or eight miles beyond Hopkinsville, toward Fair- view, the timbers change little in kind or quality from those TIM. 1.-13 193 ON THE TIMBER LA,.NDS TRAVERSED BY A just noted, except that some red haw and winged elm are found. There is no white oak, no sweet gum, no chestnut (that I could find), and no liriodendron. On Pilot Rock, northeast of Hopkinsville. which is a lofty bluff of Big Clifty sandstone, cedar and liriodendron are both met with; but this is very local, and even here no chestnut is to be seen, so far as I could gather. Between Fairview and Elkton the timbers. as a whole, are not valuable; but in places black ash, white elm, pig and shag hickory, and such timbers, are exceedingly fine. Especially is this true on WVest Fork of Red river, about one and one half miles from Fairview. Otn this stream are also found splendid white oak, swamp chestnut oak, red and pin oak, white and shag hickory, black and blue ash, sweet gum, liriodendron, white elm, sycamore. box-elder, sugar maple, white maple, and redbud. All of these timbers are very fine. It is a pecu- liar, though an easily-explained fact, that in a large part of the country through here the timbers are better on the hill- tops than on the lower grounds. The reason is, that the hills ,are capped with Chester sandstone, the detritus of which forms a damp soil, favorable for large trees, while the upper St. Louis limestone here is not adapted to timber growth. Toward Elkton, scattering bartram oaks and cedars are found, in addition to the usual red oak, shag hickory, pig hickory, white hickory, winged elm. small black ash, scrub white oak (in spots), Spanish oak, black oak, post oak, black gum, &c. Yellow wood is also found near Elkton, with some honey locust, redbud, and red (slippery) elm. Of course the swamp timbers have never been affected by fire; and on streams fine white oak, liriodendron, white and sugar maples, -sweet gum, laurel oaks, &c., flourish. The upland and low- land timbers alternate, with no changes worthy of note, until Russellville is reached-and there our party took the train and went by rail to Glasgow Junction. Between Glasgow Junction and Mammoth Cave the topog- raphy is very different from that spoken of in the previous pages. There is no well-defined succession of hills and hol- 194 24 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. lows, the result of erosion, through the latter of which the streams of the country flow. The formation is a cavernous Saint Louis limestone, the roofs of whose caverns have given way in many places and let the surface of the ground fall in, forming regular sink-holes, more or less circular in form, often of the dimensions of wide and deep hollows, but with no out- lets. There are no surface streams, and into these sink-holes -the surface water flows, and the detritus washes and accumnu- lates. It is natural to expect in such places the most splen- did timbers, and such are often found there. Again, forest fires have evidently not denuded certain parts of the country in the neighborhood of Mammoth Cave. What is known as Doyle's Valley, for instance, has been, for some rea- son, largely protected from the ravages of fire, even if the entire district has not bL-en. From the growth of chestnut, I am in- clined to think that it has never been continuously burned over. On leaving Glasgow Junction, toward Mammoth Cave, plen- -ty of white oak is found in the sinks; post oak, black oak, scarlet oak, and red oak are found on the higher grounds, and as soon as Chester sandstone, which caps the so-called hills, is reached, chestnut is found in great abundance. This is the first chestnut worthy of note found, and all that has been found, so far, if a few bushes on the silicious limestone, near Tennessee river, be excepted; though doubtless all this Ches- ter sandstone, from Hopkinsville to Glasgow Junction, would have been covered with it, 'Out for the fires that long ago swept over this richly timbered country, year after year, and drove its choicest trees from the forests. On the hill sides facing Doyle's Valley the trees are mag- nificent, and white oak, liriodendron, white hickory, massive chestnut, scarlet oak, red oak. black oak, Spanish oak, chest- nut, ashes, redbud, &c., abound. The chestnut, however, is limited to the sandstone, and stops abruptly when the lime- stone is reached in descending the hill. On nearing Mammoth Cave, and all along the banks and cliffs of Green river, hornbeam (Carpinus Americana, often called iron-wood, but not the true iron wood) and hop horn- 195 2.5 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A beam (true iron-wood) abound. On the long, high level above the cave the principal timbers are red, black, and Spanish oak. They are worthless except for fire-wood. In the immediate vicinity of Mammoth Cave, and crowning the hill-side facing Green river, above and below it, the tim- bers are red oak, liriodendron, chestnut (on sandstone or its detritus), white hickory, white oak, black walnut, blue ash, an occasional sugar and rock maple, winged elm, &c. At the base of the hill, on Green river, are beeches, sycamores, spice- wood (the first met with), white hickory. liriodendron, and white oak. Black sumach, woodland huckleberry, buckeye,. dogwood, &c., are among the small growths. About two miles from Mammoth Cave, toward Cave City, the hill-tops are poor, and are covered with Spanish oak, scar- let oak, black-jack, and an occasional mountain oak. In the sink-holes and on their steep sides grow splendid chestnut, pig and white hickory, liriodendron, some white oak, post oak, and black locust. The chestnut is found only on the sand- stone. These upland and lowland timbers alternate, without any changes worthy of note, except occasional swamp chest- nut oaks, Bartram oaks, laurel oaks, and black hickory, until we begin to pass into the present eastern barrens, about twelve miles from Cave- City, and within about ei;lteen miles of Greensburg. White oak and chestnut cease to exist, except the former on streams, &c., and a repetition of the barren timbers of the Purchase occurs. There seems to e a neck of country about Mammoth Cave which has, for some reason, more or less escaped the ravages of fires. Nothing else of interest occurs until we begin to pass from the cavernous St. Louis limestone onto the Keokuk limestone, sixteen or eighteen miles from Cave City. The change of formation first attracts attention by the circular sinks begin- ning to fade away into valleys, and the steep cave-hills into the more gently-rolling ones, due to erosion. The normal hill and valley topography gradually succeeds again the wonderful cavernous district, of which Mammoth Cave is the most widely known, if not the most interesting and instructive part. 196 26 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. The Keoktik is an exceedingly fertile formatien. and its timbers are nearly always, on the limestone, of the finest. Its soils are rich in marls, it furnishes a good supply of stir- face water, and has all the requisites for the production of splendid forests. Timbers, therefore, grow better and more valuable at once on passing onto the Keokuk; but white oak chestnut, and most of the liriodendron, have beetii dritven frm the forests in this locality by fire. \With these except1ionis the hill-side facing Little Barren river on the wvest furnishes a good sample of the timbers that grow on the Keokuk limestone. They are black cherry, black locust, swamp chestnut oak, black walnut, some liriodendron, white and shag hickory, sycamore, mulberry, blue ash, red elm, white maple, redbud, water beech, hackberry, and cedar. On the same formation, immediately after crossing Little Barren river, plenty of chest- nut and white oak are found, with scarlet oak, black oak, pig hickory, and sugar maple, in addition to the timbers just men- -tioned above; and all through the hills white oak, chestnut, -and liriodendron become exceedingly fine and valuable. This points to the probability that Little Barren river was the east- ern barrier to the ancient fires. On nearing Green river, about five and one half miles from Greensburg, the forests are magnificent. They consist of large liriodendron, white oak, shag hickory, white hickory, black walnut, beeches, swamp (rich) red oak, hackberry, honey locust, red elm, box-elder, blue ash. sugar maple, water beech, and swamp chestnut oak. In the swamp, in addition to these, are black locust, big buckeye, and black ash. After crossing Green river, we ascend again onto a some- what sharply-rolling country, whose bed-rock is very mutch decayed St. Louis chert, and whose timbers for several miles, are nearly altogether beeches. This peculiar beech growth, occupying alike the highest hills and the lowest grounds, has already been spoken of. About five and one half miles from Greensburg. toward Campbellsville, the beeches begin to give way to black oak, red oak, liriodendron, chestnut, pig and black hickory, swamp 97 27 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A chestnut oak, white oak, blue ash, &c.; and within about three- miles of Campbellsville white oak forms as much as fifty per cent. of the splendid forests. Scattered through the woods are also found white walnut, tree of Paradise, fine black wal- nut, black cherry, iron-wood, shrub buckeye, big buckeye, red- bud, sassafras, dogwood, red oak, Spanish oak, scarlet oak, chestnut, red haw, black sumach, and pith elder. The entire absence of sweet gum, even from the swamps, all through the country, from the Cumberland river eastward, will have been. noticed. I could find no satisfactory reason for it. A long, dry shale level, covered principally with black, Spanish, and scarlet oak and black hickory, begins within about nine miles of Mansville (Buena Vista). Occasionally the shale is cut across by small streams, and in the depres- sions white oak, laurel oak, water beech, winged elm, spotted' birch, and some chestnut are found. In some of these de- pressions, where the shale is always moist, the forests are very heavy, and white oak, chestnut, liriodendron, pig and; white hickory, black and Spanish oak, &c., abound. About threc miles from Mansville, post oak and sweet gum are met with again. . At Mansville, on Robinson's Creek, we pass onto Devonian' shale, and the timbers become nearly worthless, except on streams where the usual lowland timbers are found. About three miles beyond Mansville, toward Staniford, there- is a small belt of country, less than half mile in breadth, on which thirty per cent. of the undergrowth is white oak. I have- seen only two or three other spots in the State where any con-- siderable proportion of the bushes consists of that timber. The tops of the hills in this locality are covered with post oak, scrub black oak, huckleberry, &c.; and the first moun- tain chestnut oak seen east of the Cumberland river is here- found. Pith elder and black sumach inhabit the fence-rows, with occasionally a shrub buckeye. some bushes of winged. elm, &c. The hills, in a wholly Devonian shale formation, are always low, and their timber growth is comparatively worthless, such as scarlet oak, post oak, Spanish oak, scrubL Z98 28 SECTION FROIM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. black oak, and scrub hickory. On low grounds considerable white oak, pig hickory, and winged elm are found, but they are not valuable. About five and one half miles from Mansville, we pass from the Devonian shale onto the underlying Corniferous limestone, of which there is a layer of only three to five feet in thickness in this locality. Underlying this again is the so-called Cum- berland sandstone, a bluish, silicious, almost semi-limestone formation. The only immediate change of timber noticed was the introduction of a few swamp chestnut oaks, and their presence cannot be attributed merely to change of formation. Some white and sugar maples appear on low grounds, with sweet and black gum, white oak, red oak, and iron-wood. On the Cumberland sandstone liriodetidron again becomes a conspicuous timber, and the forests become much better in every way. On a large hill, about seven miles from Mans- ville, the woods are exceedingly rich. The principal timbers are blue ash, Ohio buckeye, black walnut, white and shag hickory, liriodendron, and white oak. Big buckeye forms from forty to seventy-five per cent. of the timbers in this rich forest. On the eastern face of this chain of hills, not far above its base, and about ten miles from Mansville, we pass onto the Cincinnati limestone. The timbers do not vary in kind from those given above, and there are no changes for several miles, except that occasionally a hackberry or an aspen is seen. Taken as a whole, the standing forests are poo-r and valueless all along South Rolling Pork. The formation alternates be- tween Cumberland sandstone anti Cincinnati limestone-first up onto the former, then down onto the latter, and so on. All through the valleys the timbers have been cut away, and on the hills they are worthless. At about six miles south of Hustonville (twenty miles from Mansville), there is the largest forest of bartram oak I know of in Kentucky. The valuable timbers are all cut away, on low and high grounds alike. The standing forests are worth- less, and are likely to remain so. unless a thrifty cultivation and protection soon succeed the long-continued destruction. '99 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A At about two iniles south of Hustonville the Cumberland sandstone dwindles away to a shaly bed about ten feet in thickness, overlaid by heavy deposits of Corniferous; and in starting through "Nigh Gap," it gives out altogether, and the overlying Corniferous rests directly upon the underlying Cincinnati limestone. "Nigh Gap" is the passage way over Muldraugh's Hill, starting from Rolling Fork. The base of the hill here is Devonian shale, which is succeeded by Keo- kuk limestone at a height of sevenity-five barometric feet. The transition presents a marvelous change in the timbers, and brings into strong contrast the difference between these two geological formations, in their effects upon forest growths. On the shale the timbers are mountain chestnut oak, scrub white oak, sour-wood, red oak, a few beeches (right on the river.), some rock maple, &c. On the Keokuk, immediately adjoining, and on a higher level, grow splendid forests of white oak, black hickory, chestnut, black locust. liriodendron, white -and shag hickory. sugar maple, redbud, spicewood, mulberry, blue ash, black ash, black cherry, American linden or bass- wood (the first met with), black walnut, red haw, and the uisual small growth. The exceeding variety and richness of these Keokuk timbers is worthy of note. As to the questions pertaining to distribution, as affected by height above drain- age, they become of the first importance from this point east- ward, anid will be discussed and illustrated under a separate head further on in this report. After crossing Muldraugh's Hill, we enter the counties (north part of Lincolti and Garrard) the forests of which have been almost completely cut away. There are only scattering patches of fenced-ill groves, consisting mostly of black and blue ash, white oak, black walnut, pig and shag hickory, and hackberry, until Muldraugh's Hill is reached again, near Big Hill, in the southern part of Madison county. The geologi- cal changes are numerous. Stanford rests on Cincinnati lime- stone, and this continues to be the formation in depressions for some distance. On the higher grounds Cincinnati () sandstone appears. Between Paint Lick and Irvine, and 200 30 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. about twenty-nine miles from the latter place, we pass from Cincinnati up through about ten feet of Corniferous onto Devonian shale. Hackberry is found scattered all through the country. About twenty-seven miles from Irvine the formation is still Devonian shale; but its detritus forms a long, whitish level, oti which, in choice local spots. considerable white oak is found. Timbers are chiefly poor and valueless. We strike tile Lwuiiiiciou:va again near Silver Creek, about two -miles west of what is locally known as Johnson's Shop; but we pass onto-Devonian shale again on Silver Creek. Paw- paw bushes, black sumach, and scrub buckeye are found in the greatest abundance all through here, together with some laurel oak and post oak. The valuable timbers have all been cut out. Near Big Hill, while Devonian shale is still the lowland formation, Waverly (Keokuk) shales are the foot-hill forma- tion. The tops of the high hills, such as Big Hill and Buz- zard's Basin, are capped with Conglomerate; so that we have -a complete geological section, from Devoniain shale to Con- glomerate, on one of these hills. Here the first pines (p7inus mitis) are met with on the journey eastward. They crown Big Hill and other high points, and are found on the dry, thin shales of the foot-hills. After leaving Big Hill post-office, toward Irvine. on Red Lick Fork, red birch, holly (the first noted), sweet gum, white -oak, Spanish oak, red eim, spotted birch, service berry (Arne- lanchier), laurel oak, black ash, willowv, red oak, cedar, shag hickory, sugar maple, buckeye, pine, box-elder. redbud, black gum. pawpaw, and sour-wood are met with. A large part -of the valley timbers is still cut away. Some American lini- den, is found on the high knobs between Big Hill and Irvine, -associated with fine black walnut, white oak, white hickory, and liriodendron, about the heads of the numerous little branches that flow from the hill sides. The timbers remain iwithout essential change to Estill Springs. 201 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A After passing Irvine, and turning up the Kentucky river toward Beattyville, the formation is successively Devonian (on lower spots) and Waverly (chiefly cortigalli). The for- ests for some miles are not very valuable. A low, dark green, exceedingly fertile mountain oak (Quercus ilicifolii) appears in great abundance on the hill-sides, and about five miles from Irvine hemlock is first seen. Fine pig hickory, white oak, Spanish oak, red oak, blue ash, green ash (only one), sugar maple, buckeye, liriodendron, white hickory, and red elm are scattered all along the river and mountain sides. The timbers remain pretty much the same for three or four miles, when the first magnolias (cucumber trees) are met with. Associated with them are Ohio buckeye, black ash, redbud, winged elm, liriodendron, white maple, water beech, green! dogwood, amelanchier, rhododendron, and kalmia (the first of these laurels found), red elm, spotted birch, red oak, mulberry,. white oak, walnut, cedar, red sumach, and pawpaw. The for- mation is Keokuk. All of the hill-sides near Irvine are covered with splendid forests of black and blue ash, pig, shag, and white hickory, liriodendron, sugar maple, white oak, bartram oak, sycamore (on streams), box-elder, red elm, some American linden, mag-- nolias (rcucmber and Frazeri), red birch, mulberry, sweet gum, big buckeye, and catalpa. About fourteen miles from Irvine, toward Beattyville, the river valley contracts and becomes very narrow, the hills close in on all sides, and we pass through a deep ravine, the escape from which is over what is widely known, locally, as the Winding Stairs." in ascending the Winding Stairs, the fol- lowing timbers are found: linden, black and blue ash, rich red oak, chestnut, white oak, liriodendron, white maple, white and black walnut, white hickory, pig hickory, magnolias (umbrella and cucumber), black birch, black guLm, water beech, dogwood, mountain chestnut oak, spicewood, willows. (near a spring), rhododendron, kalmia, azalea (nudiflora and viscosa), Amelanchier (two varieties), pines (mi/is and rigi- da), black oak, scarlet oak, black sumach, sassafras, and dog- 202 32 SECTION FROM TIHE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. wood. The chestnuts begin as soon as Chester sandstone is reached, in ascending the hill. The timbers here given are nothing more than a fair average, and all of them may- be found on any high hill in this part of the State. After reaching the top of the Winding Stairs, there stretches out a long, irregularly-level expanse of country, on which the timbers are not worth special mention. From this level the road descends to Lower Stufflebean Creek. about two and one half miles from Beattyville. The formation is Sub con- glomerate shale, varying into Conglomerate sandstone. The timbers are not noteworthy, except that holly and swamp alder appear in considerable quantities. For several miles beyond Beattyville, toward Jackson, no great changes in the forests occur, and the timbers are such as are usually met with on the lowlands. We follow the Kentucky river tolerably closely for a considerable distance. About three and one half miles from Beattyville. along the river bank, grow perfect thickets of pawpaws, which often reach a height of fifty feet! With them, and along the foot- hills, grow red and white elm, sycamore, black and blue ash, linden, big buckeye. water and common beech, liriodendron, hemlock, swamp alder, pith elder, red oak, iron-wood. aimelan- chier, sweet guLm, golden alexander, red and black haw, and, hawthorn. On the higher hills are post oak, black oak, red oak, scarlet oak, mountain oak, black locust, and the usual hill timbers. About five miles from Beattyville the forests of white oak are as fine, along the rich hill-sides, as I ever saw. Hickories are splendid also, and walnut, liriodendron, chest- nut (on sandstone formations), and linden are unsurpassed along all the ravines whose waters head in the rich woods below the brows of the high hills. The tops of the hills are crowned with black oak, scarlet oak, mountain chestnut oak, rock maple, scrub hickories, and pines. The splendid timbers given above continue, with only local breaks, all along Lower and Upper Twin Creeks, and the hills through which they flow. The latter stream empties into Middle Fork of Kentucky river, within about twelve or thir- 203 33 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A teen miles of Jackson, Breathitt county: and at its mouth the road leaves the river and turns up it, follows it to its head, crosses the divide at its head waters, and descends onto West Fork of Cane Creek, down which it follows toward North Fork of Kentucky river. lThe timbers all through these high, abrupt, and inaccessible hills, and deep, rich, ravine-like hol- lows, are scarcely surpassed in the State. A considerable amount of fine old forest walnut, black birch, and cherry still stand in these fastn;esses. and gigantic liriodendrons, white oaks, ashes, lindens, locusts, chestnuts, elms, butkeyes, mag- nolias. and maples have, so far, bid defiance to the axes that have laid these timbers waste in other parts of the State. Civilization has not yet penetrated into these forest wilds, and the grandeur of the trees and the silence of the woods make a striking impression upon one. The tall, dark, rich-green oak spoken of heretofore, and which I have called rich red oak, flourishes all through these woods. It is probably the rnarrocarpa of the botanies. A few hackberries, considerable gray birch, some white pine, &c., are met with. High up on Upper Twin Creek, about seven miles from Jackson. on a hill-side facing north and east, at a barometric height of thirty-five feet above the small stream below, a rich belt of black walnut trees encircles the hill. There are not a great many trees in the belt, but some of them are exceedingly fine. Beds of coal are found along Upper Twin Creek, and the formation is coal-measure sandstone. All through the woods there is found, in great abundance, a hick- ory which I have called microrarpa, because it is evidently a variety of the " white hickory " of former reports on Ken- tucky timbers. It is a tall, clean-trunked, fine-bodied tree, branching high; bark comparatively thin, nearly smooth right at base, where the shallow interspaces of the bark are nearly straight, or only slightly chipped, bitt considerably more chipped higher up the trunk; leaves linear, acute at base, lance-tipped, serrate and smooth, except slightly downy at -base of veins. 204 34 SECrION FROM THlE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. 35 From Jackson to the mouth of Troublesome Creek, seven miles out toward Hazard, we pass right along North Fork of Kentucky river, with the usual lowland timbers along the river, and no changes of momnent on the hills. Our route now lay up Troublesome Creek to Lost Creek; up Lost Creek to its head waters, across the divide onto Lot's Creek, and thence to Hazard. The hill timbers along this course are very similar to those already given on Twin Creek, and the forests are everywhere of the finest. The question of dis- tribution, as affected by height above drainage, which is the most important one that presents itself in this part of the State, will be, as I have previously said, illustrated and dis- cussed separately. A list of the timbers noted in the Troublesome Creek re- gion, includes white, black, and pig hickory, white oak, holly, black and blue ash, white ash, black walnut, liriodendron, chestnut, black gum, black and gray birch, winged elm, white, rock, black and mountain maple, redbud, mulberry, red oak, black oak, mountain chestnut oak, scarlet oak, beeches, black cherry, hawthorn, red haw, big buckeye, black locust, linden, water beech. silver poplar, cucumber and umbrella trees, swamp chestnut oak, sycamore, bartram oak, scrub red oak, magnolia (Frazeri), pines. cedar, hemlock, elm (racemzosa), American laurels (rhododendron and kalmia). spicewood, pa- paw, pith elder, willows, persinmmon, dogwood (green and low cornel), black sumach, and svarnp alder. The scrub red oak is probably the ilicifo/ia of the botanies. The great variety, and the richness in valuable timbers, of these forests, I think, can scarcely be surpassed. The formation is coal-measure sandstone. The timbers above given are found, with local variations and alternations, until North Fork of Kentucky river is reach- ed again at Hazard. The usual swamp timbers are there found, and, in addition to them, hazelnut, aspen, and Solo- mon's seal. After passing Hazard, the road follows North Fork of Ken- tucky river about six and one half miles, to the mouth of 205 ON TIHE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A Carr's Fork. It then turns up that stream, follows it for about ten miles, crosses over the divide onto Rockhouse Creek, and strikes the Kentucky river again at Whitesburg, thirty-five miles froin Hazard. The upland and lowland tim- bers between these two places are precisely the same, with the addition of winitergreen and white willow (Salix tandida), as those given in the Troublesome Creek region. The old forest wvalnut is scarce ; but it is exceedingly large, and of good quality, on the heads of most of the streams, far lip under the brows of the high hills. White linden and iron- wood are found. The former has not been met with pre- viously, but it abounds on the mountains to the southwest. In about ten miles of Whitesburg quite a marked change in the distribution of the hill timbers occurs. The formation remains coal-measure sandstone; but the surface soils of the hills are a thin, whitish shale detritus, very poor, and there are no damp, dark, rich hill-sides, covered with splendid low- land timbers nearly to the top. The swamp timbers are niar- rowly confined to the margins of the streams and to the bottoms. In other words, the line of comparative moisture, if such line be imagined, has been removed down the hills; so that, to find a belt of given moisture, one would have to look much nearer the bases of the hills. A corresponding effect is, of course, produced upon the timbers. In passing over the divide between the head waters of Kolley's Branch and Sandy Lick, within about seven miles of Whitesburg, the road circles around the head of a branch which flows from a deep ravine to the left (northeast) of the road. Just above the head waters of this branch, on the sleep hill-side, grow some of the finest liriodendron and black walnut trees I have seen in Kentucky. One of the former reaches the enormous size of eighty inches in diameter, with fifty feet of clear, straight trunk. The walnuts are thirty- eight to forty inches, with fifty to sixty-five feet of beautiful body. White oak, white and pig hickory, buckeye, and other timbers, are prqportionately good and valuable. A few "burn- 206 36 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. ing bushes" (Eitony1,mus A4nericana) are also found. The formation is coal measures. At Whitesburg the North Fork of Kentucky river is reached again, and for some distance beyond the road follows the river pretty closely. The usual lowland timbers. of which lists have been given, are met with. A great deal of sweet _gum is found in localities, especially about five miles from Whitesburg. The hills near the river are largely covered with poor sandstone shale, and the timbers are not very good. At a distance from the river, however, the hills are richer, and the forests are very valuable. Considerable white wvalnut and black birch are found all through the woods. Otherwise, the timbers remain comparatively unchanged, until the head waters of North Fork of Kentucky river are reached, at the base of the mountain below Pound Gap. On the mountain sides near Pound Gap anid along the dark, rich ravines, stately and beautiful walnuLt, linden (Amer- ican and white), black birch, black cherry, white oak, lirioden dron, hickories, and most of the valuable forest timbers of the State, flourish in the greatest abundance. The ancient forests stand unharmed by the ax, and are likely so to remain for some years to come. About three quarters of a mile from Pound Gap, the road crosses the Pine Mountain fault, and we pass at once from the coal measures to Devonian shale. The shale is only a narrow strip, however, and we are soon on the overlying Keokuk, and, inasmuch as that is one of the richest timber- producing formations in the State, growing alike the timbers of the limestones and those of the sandstones, the splendor of the forests is only slightly interrupted. When I speak of the Keokuk being one of the richest timber-producing forma- tions known, I have reference to the Keokuk limestones of the East, for the Waverly shales are among the poorest of all formations-as dry, thin, and unproductive as the Devonian shales. The observer will notice, all through this part of Pine Moun- tain, that there are two belts of pine trees. The mountain 207 137 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A pine (P. pungeies) and the pitch pine (P. riqida) are found oil the dry, sandy bluffs and tops of the mountains; the long- leafed pine (P. palustris) and the yellow pine extend further down on the mountain slopes. At Pouiid Gap we pass across from Kentucky into Virginia, and at the base of the mouintaiin, on the Virginia side, flows Pound Creek. WVe follow this stream to Indian Creek, thence turn up Indiaii Creek to its head waters and across to Glades- ville. As soon as we pass Pine Mountain into Virginia, the hill-sides are covered with chinquapin (Cas/anea pumila), not one of which :as, so far as I could discover, crossed thie mountain northward. The chinquapins do not extend lu) nearly to the top of Pine Mountain, and evidently the climate is too cold for them, and this mountain is their northern bouti- dary. They are found in the greatest abundance all through. the woods of Virginia, and southward. The magnolias begin to die out after crossing Pine Moun- tain, though a few are found along shady ravines and on rich hill-sides in Virginia. The coal measures reappear again at a short distance from Pound Gap, on the Virginia side, and thence we pass onto the Conglomerate, which lasts nearly to Clinch river. There a fault of ten thousand feet, running along the line of Clinch river, brings up abruptly the Knox limestone, and between there and Abingdon, Virginia, a suc- cession of faults causes an almost constant alternation of the Cincinnati and Knox limestones. The forest timbers are not, upon the whole, so good as are those on the north side of Pine Mountain, in Kentucky; but they are everywhere valu- able. and there is no marked difference in kind, other than those noticed. TIMBER DISTRIBUTION AS AFFECTED BY HEIGHT ABOVE DRAINAGE. Although the data for this report have been prepared with special reference to a discussion of the effects of height above drainage upon timber growth, and, with that object in view, the following tables have been arranged, nevertheless it is necessary to point out some of the dangers of generalizing 208 38 SECTION FRONM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. from such data, and especially some of those disturbing ele- ments which render investigation in this particular direction liable to error. The first, and probably the most important, of these is sudden and abrupt changes ill the nature and rela- tive hardness of different parts of the same formation. In fact, to this cause is due, almost altogether in hi/ls, and very largely in mout/dainis, height above drainage itself; but it is in a narrower sense that it becomes a disturbing element in dis- cussing timber growth. The sudden cliffs and benches on hills and mountains are caused by difference in hardness of two successive strata; and a cliff of exceedingly hard rock, or hard, dry soil, even wvhen near the base of a hill, will often be permanently drier than a bench or hill-top barometrically much higher above drainage. The hardness of such a cliff prevents the formation of detritus and the retention of water For this reason a softer formation or bench, easily worn away, and capable of forming a surface detritus which will retain moisture, is, so far as effect upon timber growth is concerned, nearer to water than a hard cliff hundreds of feet below it. Another disturbing element is sudden change in geological formation. One of the dry shales, like the Devonian and some of the. Waverly shales, will cause as much change in timber growth as wvould be produced by the greatest height above drainage attainable in our mountains. Of course the change might be different in character, but in amount it would be as great. Changes of this nature, though, can usually be guarded against in gathering data. The natural difference in shade, moisture and coldness, between the northern and the southern faces of hills, also produces its effect upon the timber growth. All of these dis- turbing elements have been taken into consideration, and accounted for, as far as possible, in preparing the following tables. The liability to slight error, however, should be kept in view. In the tables, "N. F.," " S. F.," &c., under the barometric height at the head, mean, respectively, " North Face,"s South Face," &c., of the hill. TIM. 1-14 39 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A CJ 0 gCs -0 o C1 JC.)- Cs0 C 0 C a 0X 0. CS tCY 0 .X. C) a. -S .c; 0 ,0 es 0. 4, c. I- 00 _0 o oi .,S C Z tu U a 0 -_ 0 .: 0 CsW 4, E Q aea a es C 0 Cs 4 O O . I. o 0 4 0t -v th .4 0 .r. .QW 0 - E0 w0 V 0 In Ul J- J., & 82 , " V' ..- 40 6 6 z 02 e. I: C. 6 0 210 I I I i SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. 41 'A w: .0 43 00 43 d5 5 3 0 _ 1 E ' o (.3 .0u c 4 o43 O4 - u 4 -UC _4 .- '_- -0 .30 _ : 30 43 n -3 -DD e C _ O L0J 43e,-4e d u; -o -z -uu3 ,, .4 E e - o 43 _3 X04 O343 O2 .-E .u .0 o 43 E 0 a 43 4I - - - .4.04.In 6 :z mw -4 0 0 -b 44 0 0 M. .3 .tl 0 0 0m. E 44 0 44. t.44 '. M It 9Y C U. ,4, U Ca Y. C 0 Y4 0 4.3- - U. 1 0 0 0 to 0 0 , .5 I C = _ 0 -C O -.0 .O30- ,5u. X4 motr C i Oci IK , o ._ 44 4.. e ) U 63- e d 4- _44 E-- .0 E a A4 43M 43 n. 0 & 4-:I- C' p. q 4; 0 z w gut I ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A U 4) 0 .2 3 _ is 0 C. I 0 .4) .0 CF 5 ._E -0 0 4) s C 0 C - Cs O 0 ci 5 0J 4) ,0 - c 4) ,- ;.0CC Cc i c-i 0 ._ r- ._ cn -5 C; tr, 4) '0 4c. c ) 4s ) -.4 - '0Rs - -; _ _ 0., - -- 4) 4) V 4) o o o 0 Cl t'. o _ _0 42 6 z 6 z 212 I I SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. 43 'A W. ci 0E LT.. .) _A 0 0 Ul CA a . . 4 0 n .0. 1 U U V CA. - - = 0 .0CACA CA CA. CA = b-l bA U .U 0 m. r'5 z U v V ,...V 0 co e 31 0 X1 UU _ o o1 Ln 0 0 00 co LA 31 3:) i4 00 6 z F-. . 1 - 4 -- -Z -L - UV XF Q= -. .C - I-. qj e -. -C 0 U X0 -V4 7 2 .. ED- -aA= o-z. - -. - c 2.a :. --c C .L CA C- 0 A: 0 9. Z'6 '0 'i I- ' CA - -4 : n 0 . r = : = w = = Iq O ;_ _ z VS 1.2 LA 0 - - C- 2 .. . . O 0 3I-3'-00 6 z 04 F-' 213 I I ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A 3S _ a oo 0 o z 0 . C U :,S S 4, a s A g b4, aC ag Da .Y 0 a o o o ' -a 0 3 .x3 4 e 0 'a a a e cn 0 la 4' a.. ta Za 0 C,3 4, C/) 0 -a 4,_ C o Co a C 00 - , A 3 . A U 4, b.-A W o.S- - a.8.ao aEfE-- 0 o4 A L4 0 l : CsCo -0 n 0 as .2 oL a AA A '- A 1 4, rz z ; _ _ f T _ z _; _ _ 'iba 0 0 ai'0 a 42 J._o v-o. i 00 C4 D 00 00 40 :Ct I '0 1 r 44 6 C z4 14' SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. 45 V a- - -4: _ 0 Cs 0 .4:, 0 o 0 _ o ', 4,-Y - 4; 4,4:C0, _ -54:9 2 -Q- o 0. 05 - v U) 4:.04a-nU) ;_ QF :44 4, c= ; c :4:: 0 X E.O = c n; nu u ac n t _ '0 - C9 c o = Ut : E ,, Ei, C o e X r cn rn 2 d 0 o-. '4' U)C = r = 2 _ 4 .4: 4, 0 es _ _; _ _ _: _: _ _ , 4, :4, 4, 4, 4, - d 6 z 213 I I I I I i ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A CS 0 0 _C 0. g. - YC 4) - CS CS x . .CS - 5 CS: 0 C: CS ,. c: C a v. aS - C S _ a, 4) . C C, 1D S Vj -; -E v - .- . _ CS '. E' nC- o U 0 . u Q Cur - C; X .C 30 0 0;C., I _ C.)4) 0 , la 4- 4- 4. .u u " WtN Zt Z t o .,W. :2 -c CS C Is U v -; 4) 4 - cS4 C . 4 _C U . :' - 'C5 o -5 CSAS 4;1- - .CS C S.S Cs C's E ca 4). aUC S c4 c.. u U2 aa c;u c u CS 2 0 .CS o -B Q - _)4) 4 z 4) 4 - Z V v 0+ r - 0 .- Z .; Z 4) 4) 0 o : o 46 0 il W, ' . I M I I; i _4 , W .Z 4, 2 0 s MJ 216 I I i I I I SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. 47 V. x,4 o C '40 o 4 a 4 0 - - ,.= c O , =' -- - -' !) - '4 c4 '-.- r ,"o0: r 2 = o o44 4). 4) '4 22 2 -c7 C4 o .- 0 -o - o, o -'0 4) ,t_ ,,_ ___ n v vS VZ 00 t c le le _ _ _ 0 - E- '4 0- tr 10 4)V 4) 2 0 cn '5 e = Z E _ - c 'a '4 c cn tn cn cn 'I -e ID. Is U S 0 0 o - 0 c7 A F-. F vc _ _' - _ a 4;., Z 0_ o v 4) -' ,c 2 = '4 4 _2 _s _ :, _ - u- = -- ;; - 0 _ _; _ _; _; Z _; Z V) v 4) v v v 4 V 0 0 0 0 0 UI 0 Ua o ol 00 -t o - m r 217 '4 ad w go- 6 Z f-I -' 4) I tc e I m I I I I I i I ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A Ahi ad LI UI I0 0. la o 0 0. 0 .0 0 0I.. .0 : a 5 Vs 'A O I- . _ o C-S : Wn C' i .t LI ia 5 'bD C AC fo Q 0 'i 21 o .. LI L I L I I d 0 o CI O._._ El L -O o IA IA IA I _ - - _ ._ 0 4 I, cn C ..a r" _ a, _ V Li ,- 2I L LIU-I 41 v.-Is. 3- '0 an - 48 z In 218 I SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. 49 " 0. u0 C0 U -- l E CS C o Q' - S t Et O S d d CS.- _b _ O th - p - 7. 0 heD V 00 il v v) " q s ,U C.U.-v -vC- C- 0 0 0 0 - Nn A _:2 N N N N N 04 z _I ONT THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY 5 . - ._., o z o 2 c . o) Ol C 003x:0 v- e4o ,) o 4)4)0 -2eX Cs o 4) 2 S o 2 o c ' EE C 0 .X a aC - V )4 o W ;; 0 Z U__ A _ _ _4.2 _0 . z - 8 . . 5... . _ _: _ _ : _ 0 0 e 8 v 4 8 - " Ct - 50 oa3 6 z f-. .c b4 .0 .2 0 4 I I I I I SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. 5 r 4)0Es es (44 cS2c, -ov (4 (4 - C_C. ovs..oE-a. 4) 0 C)-o c c ns =Q c ( ,OO41 - ,., - f 4)0-t- _, s i ' -5d-3=-_ . 00v: o v VC _,at -- - 05 t C ,4(4 n4jC 25 nU'f '.: :S Ud c_, tS55-V C_,-V -i V =i1; O4)b 4.vO.- V .. 3 z -. a -o... -0 a- i40el)0 0 4)(21 cS (4 (4 (4 (4 (4 22 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A hi ad Ad - - -e a .0 4) - 4) .0 ,a 2 0 - u0 LI .0 0 a .0 - ---2 -c o - -- -0 0 a.0 , 4) a 0 0 0th :.0 a - - 0 a 0. o a..3 4) .aa .0 Lou 0: -0 U, 0. .0 Cl) 0 - c0 = - . ,.- -o a- ca X- O 0.- a o e2 a 2 o e C _ U,0= . 4)o= V _) 0nW. LIE __ : .C .0 LI 4, 2 0 4) W) 29 , Me. m 6 z coi .Z- a _-dZ _ -3= - ct -V C . Cs 0 E 4n ) 0 0 0 _ Ad oa t ! , _ 2 4 4 , U 4 3 a 00 0 0 0 i 5) o .g . d -Zc .V & & e 41 JJ. Uft4 I- O C o Cl C 0J i 2s d _ 0z _ _ : W W o W H I o St2 W C. E-- I ca X lh coc O, Gle SECTION FROM THE MUISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. 53 ' ' e,, D _ C - R a a qR rC X Q :: Q Z;;_ o _ _ , _ t am c 3 = 5 8 = s cc, 0 td es gV D C C -;x PC 0 _ 2=3=Q-(zb3 223 t 0 0 _ 54 ON THlE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A From the foregoing tables, taken from different parts of the forests throughout the entire length of the State, and, there- fore, as general as it is possible to obtain them, much informa- tion can be obtained as to the effect of height above drainage on Kentucky timbers. For instance, let us take white oak and go through the various tables. The following is the re- suIt: Timbers. I Height ofbill Height to which , in feet. white oak grows White oak.. 135 White oak.. 5 White oak. 16 White oak.. 173 White oak.. I 150 White oak.. 600 White oak.. 330 White oak. 235 White oak.. 435 White oak.. 85 White oak . 135 White oak ' ' 235 White oak,, 445 White oak . 401 White oak '. 365 White oak . 385 White oak . 8oo White oak . 580 White oak.. iogo 40 130 75 68 150 275 130 100 230 6o 135 90 250 251 265 150 520 260 336 Proportion of height to which white oak grows to entire height of hill. 30- 70+ 46+ 35+ 100 46+ 39+ 43- 53- 71- o00 38+ 56+ 63- 73- 40+ 65 45- 32+ Formation. Silicious Limestone. Silicious Limestone. St. Louis Limestone. St. Louis Limestone. Keokuk Limestone. Keokuk Limestone. Cincinnati Limestone. Devonian Shale and Candigalli. Candigalli. Conglomerate Sandstone. Coal-measures. Coal-measures. Coal-measures. Coal-measures. Coal -measures. Coal-measures. Coal-measures. Coal-measures- Coal-measures. From this table of all the hills in can readily Kentucky be deduced the average height selected for these experiments, the average height above drainage to which white oak grows, and the relation that the latter height bears to the entire height of the hill. The following table shows these deduc- tions: Timbers. Average height of Average height on hill to Proportion of latter to hill. which white oak grows. former. White oak.. . 308.8. 184 7 6o nearly. In other words, throughout the forests of Kentucky the white oak extends, on a general average, over sixty per cent. of the 224 SECrION FROM 'riE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. hills. A slight examination will also show that on Keokuk limestone white oak extends to seventy-three per cent. of the total height of the hills; on1 Conglomerate sandstone, to seventy-one per cent.; on coal-measures, to fifty-seven per cent.; on silicious limestone, to fifty per cent. ; and on St. Louis limestone, to forty per cent. This indicates that Keo- kuk, leaving out the Keokuk shales, is the richest of the formations in white oak growth. In the same way it may be shown, from the general tables, that liriodendron extends to an average of forty-five per cent. of the total heights of hills, or not quite half way. The reader can easily make deductions for all other timbers. It will be noticed that there is no general and definite relation exist- ing between the height of hills and the height to which any particular timber will grow. Everything depends upon the nature of the hill, and upon whether the formation is adapted to retaining moisture. On a damp hill, though very high, a timber will be found, growing entirely to the top, which would not extend more than a few feet up another and drier hill. It is exceedingly interesting, though, to know the average height above drainage to which the principal forest trees extend; and that can be deduced from the tables given. SUMMARY. A brief review of the foregoing pages will show- First. That changes in geological formation will produce immediate, and often exceedingly marked, effects upon the character of the timbers. Such changes are often noticed, in shallow-rooted timbers, before a change of formation is reached, owing to the effect of detritus from the neighboring formation. They may likewise be noticed in very deep-rooted timbers, for the opposite reason, that their roots extend down beneath the surface formation, and penetrate the underlying one, when, that is not visible. Second. That height above drainage always produces a marked effect upon timbers, whatever the formation; but that such effect is less in the case of a Keokuk limestone formation than in any other found in Kentucky. TIM. 1.-15 22S 55 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A Third. That there is no regular proportion between the total heights of hills and the heights to which particular tim- bers grow. Everything depends upon the nature of the form- ation. Four/lh. That of the marked difference in character between the forests of Eastern and those of Western Kentucky, only the distribution of the pines can be satisfactorily accounted for without further and special study in that direction. LIST OF TIMBERS. The following is a list of timbers met with and spoken of in this Report: ORDER CUPUlIFERAE-MASTWORTS. i. Genus Quercus-oak. White oak, Quercus alba (L.) Swamp white oak, Q. bicolor (Willd.) Bartram oak, Q. heterophylla (Mx.) Red oak, Q. rubra (L.) Spanish oak, Q. falcata (L.) Scarlet oak, Q. coccinea (Wang.) Post oak, Q. obtusiloba (Mx.) Rich red oak, Q. macrocarpa (Mx.) Black oak, Q. tinctoria (Bart.) Pin oak, Q. palustris (Mx.) Laurel oak, Q. imbricaria (Mx.) Swamp laurel oak, Q. laurifolia (Mx.) Chestnut oak, Q. castanea (Muhl.) Swamp chestnut oak, Q. prinus (Willd.) Chinquapin oak, Q. prinoides (Willd.) Black-jack, Q. nigra (L.) Scrub oak, Q. ilicifolia (Willd.) 2. Genus Castanea-chestnut. Common Chestnut, Castanea vesca (L.) Chinquapin, Castanea pumila (Mx.) 3. Genus Fagus-beech. Common beech, Fagus sylvatica (L.) Red variety, Fagus ferruginea (Ait.) 56 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. 4. Genus Corylus-hazelnut. Common hazelnut, Corylus Americana (Walt.) 5. Genus Ostrya-hop hornbeamn. Common ironwood, Ostrya Virginica (Willd.) Var. hornbeam, Carpinus Americana (L.) (NOIE.-I prefer giving the latter as a mere variety of the former, rather than as a distinct genus car- Pinlzus.) ORDER JUGLANDACEtE. i. Genus Carya-hickory. Black hickory, Carya tomentosa (Nutt.) White hickory, Carya microcarpa (Nutt.) Shag hickory, Carya alba (Nutt.) Shellbark hickory, Carya sulcata (Nutt.) Pig hickory, Carya glabra (Torr.) 2. Genus Jug-lans-wa/nul. Black walnut, Juglans nigra (L.) White walnut, Juglans cinerea (L.) ORDER BETULACEE. I. Genus Betula-birch. Black birch, Betula lenta (L.) Red birch, Betula nigra (Ait.) Yellow birch, Betula excelsa (Ait.) Spotted birch, Betula pumila (L.) -2. Genus Alnus-alder. Swamp alder, Alnus serrulata (Willd.) ORDER ACERACEf. x. Genus Acer-maple. White maple, Acer dasycarpum (Ehr.) Black maple. Acer nigrum (Mx.) Red maple, Acer rubrum (L.) Same, Var. tridens. Sugar maple, Acer saccharinum (L.) Mountain maple, Acer spicatumn (Lam.) -2. Genus Negundo. Box-elder; Negundo aceroides (Moench) 2f7 5'7 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A ORDER CONIFERS,;. i. Genus Pinus-pine. Yellow pine, Pinus mitis (Mx.) Pitch pine, Pinus rigida (Miller.) Loblolly pine, Pinus taeda (L.) White pine, Pinus strobus (L.) Mountain pine, Pinus pungens (Mx.) 2. Genus Abies. Hemlock, Abies canadensis (Mx.) 3. Genus Taxodium. Bald cypress, Taxodium distychum (Rich.) 4. Genus Juniperus. Common cedar, Juniperus Virginiana. ORDER ULMACELE. i. Genus Umus- elm. Red elm, Ulmus fulva (L.) Winged elm, Ulmus alata (Mx.) Cork elm, Ulmus racemosa (Thomas.) White elm, Ulmus Americana (L.) 2. Genus Cel/is. Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis (L.) ORDER ROSACEE. x. Genus Cerasus-cherry. Black cherry, Cerasus serotina (D. C.) 2. Genus Prinus-plum. Common plum, Prinus Americana (Marsh.) 3. Genus Cralegus-thorn. Black thorn, Crategus tomentosa (L.) Yellow thorn, Cratxgus punctata (Jacq.) Hawthorn, Cratacgus oxycantha (L.) 4. Genus Amelanchier. Service berry, Amelanchier canadensis (T. & G.) Same, shrub, Var. oblongifolia (T. & G.) 5. Genus Spiran. Ninebark, Spira opulifolia (L.) Mountain spirx, Spirae corymbosa (Raf.) 828 58 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. 59 ORDER OLEACEA:. I. Genus Fraxinus-ash. Black ash, Fraxinus sambucifolia (Lam.) Blue ash, Fraxinus quadrangulata (Mx.) White ash, Fraxinus Americana (L.) Green ash, Fraxinus viridis (Mx.) ORDER MAGNOLIACE2E. I. Genus Magnolia. Big laurel, Magnolia grandiflora (L.) Cucumber tree, Magnolia acuminata (L.) Umbrella tree, Magnolia umbrella (Lam.) Big-leafed magnolia, Magnolia macrophylla (Mx.) Ear-shaped magnolia, Magnolia Fraseri (Walt.) 2. Genus Liriodendron. Tulip tree (yellow poplar), Liriodendron tulipfera (L.) ORDER TILIACEE. x. Genus Tilia-linden tree. American basswood, Tilia Americana (L.) Canadian or white basswood, Tilia heterophylla. Canadian or white basswood, Var. alba (Vent.) ORDER ERICACEzE. I. Genus Kalmia. Spoon-wood, Kalmia latifolia (L.) 2. Genus Gaultheria. Wintergreen, Gaultheria procumbens (L.) 3. Genus Vaccinium. Blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (L.) 4. Genus Oxydendrum. Sorrel tree, Oxydendrum arboreum (D. C.) 3. Genus Azalea. White azalea, Azalea viscosa (L.) Pinxter-bloom, Azalea nudiflora (L.) Tree azalea, Azalea arborescens (Ph.) 229 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A 6. Genus Rhododend)-on. Large rhododendron, Rhododendron maximum (L.) 7. Genus C/el/ira. Sweet pepper, Clethra alnifolia (L.) ORDER SALICACEiE. I. Genus Populus. Cotton tree, Populus Angulata (Ait.) Aspen, Populus tremuloides (Mx.) Balm of Gilead, Populus candicans (Ait.) Silver-leafed poplar, Populus alba (L.) ORDER LEGUMINOSjE. i. Genus Gymnocladus. Coffee tree, Gymnocladus canadensis (Lam.) 2. Genus Gleditschzia. Honey locust, Gleditschia triacanthus (L.) 3. Genus Robiniia. Black locust, Robinia pseudacacia (L.) 4. Genus Cercis. Redbud, Cercis canadensis (L.) 5. Genus C/adastris. Yellow wood, Cladastris tinctoria (Raf.) ORDER CORNACE&. i. Genus Ayssa. Black gum, Nyssa multiflora (Wang.) Swamp black gum, Nyssa uniflora (Wang.) 2. Genus Cornus. Common dogwood, Cornus florida (L.) Yellow dogwood, Cornus sericea (L.) Green cornel, Cornus alternifolia (L.), ORDER SAPINDACEf. i. Genus ZFsculus. Big buckeye, Esculus flava (Ait.) Small buckeye, IEsculus pavia (L.) no0 60 SECTION FROM THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO POUND GAP. 6I ORDERt HAMAMELACEAE. I. Genus Liquidamber. Sweet gum, LiqLfidamber styraciflua (L.) I. Genus Hamamelis. Witch hazel, Hamamelis Virginiana (L.) ORDER ANACARDIACEAE. i. Genus Rkus-sumach. Smooth stimach, Rhus glabra (L.) Large sumach, Rhus typhiina (L.) Mountaini sumach, Rhus copallina (L.) Poison oak (sumach), Rhus toxicodendron (L.) ORDER AQUIFOLIACE,2E. I. Genus Ilex. Holly, llex opaca (L). ORDER CAPRIFOLIACE)E. i. Genus 'Sambucus. Pith elder, Sambucus canadensis (L.) 2. Genus Liburnum. Black haw, Liburnum prunifolium (L.) ORDER ARTOCARPACEiE. I. Genus Morus. Red mulberry, Morus rubra (L.) ORDER PLATANACEAE. I. Genus Platanus. Sycamore, Platanus occidentalis (L.) ORDER RUTACEAE. I. Genus Xanfhoxylum. Prickly ash, Xanthoxylum Americanum (Miller.) 2. Genus Ailanthus. Tree of heaven, Ailatithus glandulosa (Desf.) ORDER BIGNONIACEA. I. Genus Catalpa. Catalpa, Catalpa bigionlioides (Walt.) 231 62 ON THE TIMBER LANDS TRAVERSED BY A ORDER LAURACE:E. i. Genus Benozon. Spicewood, Benzoin odoriferum (Nees.) 2. Genus Sassafras. Common sassafras, Sassafras officinale (Nees.) ORDER ANONACEiE. i. Genus Asimina. Papaw, Asimina triloba (Dunal.) Same, Asimina parviflora() (Dunal.) ORDER CALYCANTHACE-E. i. Genus Calycanthus. Sweet shrub, Calycanthus floridus (L.) ORDER EBENACEIE. i. Genus Diospyros. Persimmon, Diospyros Virginiana (L.) ORDER CELASTRACEIA. I. Genus Enonyrnus. Burning bush, Enonymus Americanus (L.) ORDER U.NBELLIFERzE. I. Genus Tzaspium. Golden Alexander, Thaspium cordatum (Nutt.) ORDER CAMELLIACEiE. I. Genus Stuartia. Stuartia, Stuartia Virginica (Cav.) 232 INDEX. [The figures refer to the bottom paging.] American Laurels, conditions of their growth; their distribution, &c . 186, 187 Barren and Edmonson Counties, botany of, by Prof. Jno. Hussey ... 27 botanical notes of. . .... . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . 37 catalogue of native vegetable species of...... . ...4.5... . . . 45 economical notes on the timber of..... .. . . .. . . .. . . . . 40 floraof. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 45 fruit-raisingin.... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 4 hardwood of. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 41 Barren County, soil and timber growth of . ..... . . . . . 34 to 40 Beattyville, topography and timbers along the Kentucky river near and above. _202 Beeches, conditions of the growth of, where found, dcc. . . . . . . . . . . .186 Bell and Harlan Counties, report on the timbers of the North Cumberland and.............. .7..... . .. . ...... 9 to 102 tables of the timbers of. 9 -.9............ . .. . . 9 to 102 Big Hill and Irvine, topography and timbers near .201, 202 Black Walnut and black locust timber, value of .. . . . . .. . . . . 3 timber, largest amount found on Beech Fork of Clover creek . . . 66 trees, increased percentage in second growth of . . .17 where found in the Purchase district ..148 Botanical Notes of Barren and Edmonson counties .... . ...... . . 37 Botany, general, of Edmonson anid Barren counties. . .... . . .. . . . . 34 of Barren and Ednionson counties by Prof. Jno- Hussey .... . . ... 27 Boyd, Carter, Greenup, and Lawrence Counties, Crandall's (A. R.) report on the forest timber of...... . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . 3 Breathitt County, topography and timbers of . . .... 202 Breckinridge, Grayson, Ohio, and Hancock Counties, report on the tim- bers of 5.... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 9 to78 tables of observations on timber in . ... . ..... 69 to 7-2 Caldwell County, timbers of. (See Tradewater Region.) Carter, Boyd, Greenup and Lawrence Counties, Crandall's (A. R.) report on the forest timber of - .. . . ... . . . 3 Catalogue of native vegetable species of Barren and Fdnionson counties . . . 45 Causes affecting the growth of timbers briefly reviewed. 225, 226 Clark River, timbers found on West Fork of.. . 1... . . . . .. . . . . 191 Classifloation of oaks. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 187, 188 Columbus, timbers found eastward from. . . .. . . . . . . .. .. 188 to 190 Crandall's (A. B.) report on the forest timber of Greenup, Carter, Boyd, and Lawrence counties . . - . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . 3 Crittenden County, timbers of. (See Tradewater Region.) 'Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers, timbers on the . . . . . . . . . . 191, 1924 23: DeFriese's (L. H.) report on a belt of Kentuckv timbers, extending East and West along the South-central part of the State, from Columbus to Pound Gap. .. . . . 173 to 232 report on the timbers of Breckinridge, Grayson, Ohio, and Hancock coun- ties..... ...................... . 59 to 78 report on the timbers of the district West of the Tennessee river, commonly known as the Purchase d.strict. . . . . . . . 139 to 170 report on the timbers of the North Cumberland; Bell and Harlan counties, 79 to 102 report on the timbers of the Tradewater Region, Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties.15 . . to 136 Distribution of timber as affected by height above drainage, in the section from the Mississippi river to Pound Gap.. . . . '08 to 226 Drainage, expos.ure and geological formation, effects of, on timber . 64 Drains on timbers of the Tradewater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hop- kins, Webster, and Union counties). . . . . . . 110 to 112 upon the timber in, and timber resources of, the Purchase district . 143 to 146 Eastern Kentucky, relative proportion of different kinds of trees in . . . . 10 second growth of timber in. . . . . 21, 23, 24 tables of relative abundance of different kinds of trees, &c., in . . . 12, 13 tables of second growth of timber in. ..... . 23, 24 Economical Notes on the timber of Barren andi Edmonson counties. . . 40 Economic Value of, and trade in, wood . ...... . . . . . . . . . 29 Edmonson and Barren Counties, botany of ...... . . . . . . . . . . 27 eatalogue of native vegetable species of.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 45 economical notes on the timber of... . . . . . . . . ..... .. . 40 flora of.. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . 45 fruit-raising in... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 44 har-lwood of.. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .............. . 41 Effects of exposure, drainage, and geological formation on timber . . . 64 Exposure, drainage, and geological formation, effects of, on timber. . . . 64 floods, relationof to forests. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 6 Flora of Barren and Edmonson counties. ...... . . . . . . . . . 45. Forest growth in Kentucky, general remarks on. . .. .. .. 176 to 181 timber of Greenup, Carter, Boyd, and Lawrence counties, Crandall's (A. IL) report on the. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. trees, remarks on the various kinds...... . .. . . . . . . . 14 to 21 trees, remarks on the various species of . . . . ....... . . . . 14 to 21 Forests, influence of on floods, &c.. .6. . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . G value of.. . . . . . ................... . . . . 5, 29 Fruit-raising in Barren and Elinonson counties.4.4.... . . . . . . General Remarks on forest growth in Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . 176 to 181 Geological formation, drainage, and exposure, effects of, on timber. . . . 64 Geology and topography of the Purchase district, and their effects upon the dis- tribution and general character of the timbers. . . 1i to 143 Glasgow Junction and Mammoth Cave, topography of the region between . 194 to. 197 Grayson, Breckinridge, Ohio, and Hancock Counties, report on the tim- bers of . . . . . ....... .................. 59 to 78- tables of observations on timber of . ............... . 69 to '7 Green and Little Barren Rivers, timbers on .............. . 197 234 2 INDEX. INDEX. 3 Greenup, Lawrence, Boyd, and Carter Counties, Crandall's (A. R.) report on the forest timber of.. . 3 Growth of timbers, brief review of the causes affecting the ... .. ... 225, 226 Hardwood of Barren and Edmonson counties . . . . .. . .... ... 41 Hancock, Breckinridge, Grayson, and Ohio Counties, report on the tim- bers of.. . . . . .... ... . .... .... 59 to 78 tables of observations on timber of... . . . . . .. .. . 69 to 72 Harlan and Bell Counties, report on the timbers of the North Cumberland and, 79 to 102 tab'es of the timbers of... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 to 102 Hazard, Perry county, topbiography an(1 timbers of the region between Whitesburg, Letclier county, and. . . . . . . . ... . . 205 to 207 Hemlock anld laurel abundant on coarse sand8.tone .............. 18 conlitions of the growth of, where found, &ch .1.8......... 185, 186 Hopkins County, timbers of. (See Tradewater Region.) Hopkinsville, timbers near. . . . . . . . . . . . . 193, 194 Hussey's (Prof. John) report on the botany of Barren and Edinonson courriies, 27 to 58 Irvine and Big Hill, topography and timbers near . . . . . . . . 201, 202 Kentucky river, topography and timunbes near an(l al)ve Beattvvihle along the . 2(2 timbers, report on belt of, from Columbus to Pound Gap, by Lafayette H. DelFriese..... .. . ..... . ..... .... . 2.8. 287 to 348 Laurel andl henmlock abundant on coarse sandstone..... . 18 Lawrence, Greenup, Boyd, and Carter Counties, Crandall's (A. R.) ral ort on the forest timber of.. . . . . . ....... . . . 3 Letcher and Perry Counties, topography and timbers of .... . . 205 to 207 Lincoln County, topography and timbers of. . . . .. . . 198 to 200 Linden Trees, conditions of their growth; their distribution, &c ... . . . 186, 187 Liriodendron Tulipifera abundant on coal measures and St. Louis limestone, rare on Clester shales . . ..4, 65 List (complete) of timbers found in the Tradewater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crit- tenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties) . . . 132 to 136 of timibers f'Nnd on the timber lands traversed by a section from the Missis- sippi river to Pouind Gap.. . . . .. .... 26 to 232 of the timbers found in the Purchase district.. . . . . . . . . . . 167 to 170 Little Barren and Green Rivers, timbers on . . . ..... ..... . . 197 Locust (black) anal black walnut timber, value of. . ..... o Lyon County timbers of. (See Tradewater Region.) Magnolias, conditions of their growth; their distribution, &c. 188, 187 Mammoth Cave, topography of the region between Glasgow Junction and. 194 to 197 Method of studying timbers adopted ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 64 Narth Cumberland and Bell and Harlan counties, report on the timbers of the . 79 to 102 Oaks, classificationof... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187,188 Ohio, Hancock, Grayson, and Breckinridge Counties, report on the tim- bers of . ........... ........................... ..59 to 78 tables of observations on timber of... . ... . . . . . .. . . . 69 to 72 Paducah, value, in 1877, of timbers in the log, at . . .143 Percentage, increased, in second growth of black walnut trees . . . . . . 17 Perry and Letcher Counties, topography and timbers of . . .. . . 205 to 207 235 4 INDEX. Pins, conditions of the growth of; where found, &c. . . . . . . . . . . 183 to 185 Pine Mountain and Pound Gap, topography and timbers of ... ... 207, 208 Poplar (yellow), properly called liriodendron tulipifera, or tulip tree, abundant on coal measures and St. Louis Limestone, rare on Chester shales.. . . . 64, 65 Pound Gap and Pine Mountain, topography and timbers of . . 2... . 207, 208 Prairie Fire., influence of, on character and distribution of plants . . 35 Proportion, relative, of different kinds of trees in Eastern Kentucky . . .. 10 Purchase District, abundance of Spanish oak in the . ........ . 147 black walnut, where found in the. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 geology and topography of the, and their effects upon the distribution and general character of the timbers in the .... . .... .... 141 to 143 list of timbers found in the .167 to 170 report on the timbers of the................. . . 141 to 170 succession of timbers in the.1.5....... . .. .. .. .. . 150 to 154 summary of report on timbers in the . .1.6....... . 166, 167 tables showing the occurrence of timbers in the . . . . . . . . . . 159 to 166 timbers in detail, as found in the .154 to 159 timbers of the .... . ...... . ......... .. 188 timber resources of, and drains upon the timber in the .... . . . 143 to 146 timber variations in the ........... . . ... . 146 to 150 Red River, timbers on West Fork of ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Relative Abundance of different kinds of trees in Eastern Kentucky, tables of, 12, 13 Remarks (general) on forest growth in Kentucky.......... . . 176 to 181 on the various species of forest trees.. . ..... . . . . . . . . . 14 to 21 on timber growth in special localities . . . 181 to 183 Report on a belt of Kentucky timbers, extending East and West along the S'outh- central part of the State, froni Columbus to Pound Gap, by Lafayette H. DeFriese 7.. l 3 to 232 on the timbers of Grayson, Breckinridge, Ohio, and Hancock counties . 59 to 78 on the timbers of the district West of the Tennessee river, commonly known as the Purchase district, by Lafayette H. DeFriese. . 139 to 170 on the timbers of the North Cumberland, Bell and Harlan counties . 79 to 102 on the timbers of the Tradewater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, hlop- kins, Webster, and Union counties), by Lafayette H. DeFriese 105 to 136 Restoration of timber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Rhododendron. (See Magnolias.) Second Growth of black walnut trees, increased percentage in .... . . . . 17 of timber in Eastern Kentucky . . . .... . 21, 23, 24 of timber in Eastern Kentucky, table of . . . ...... ....... 23, 24 Silver Creek, topography and timbers near. . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 Shaler's (N. S.) introduction to Crandall'Ls report on forest trees. 3 introduction to Prof. Hissey's report on the botany of Barren and Edmon- son counties .29 Soil and timber growth of Barren county . . ... .. ..... ..... 34 to 40 Spanish Oak in the Purchase district, abundance of . ...... . .. 147 special Localities, remarks on timber growth in . ........ . . 181 to 183 Species of timber as affected by topography .. . . ........ 25 Succession of timbers in the Purchase district . ........ . . 150 to 154 Summary of report on timbers in the Purchase district. . . 166, 167 236 INDEX. S Table of second growth of timber in Eastern Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 24 of the timbers of Bell and Harlan counties . . . .9... . . . 99 to 102 Tables of observations on timber in Grayson, Breckinridge, Ohio, and Hancock counties. -.69 to 72 of relative abundance of different kinds of trees, &c., in Eastern Kentucky, 12, 13 of the timbers found in the Tradewater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties) . . ... 1 25 to 131 showing the distribution of timber as affected by height above drainage, in the section from the M\ississippi river to Pound Gap 210 to 224 showing the occurrence of timbers in the Purchase district . 159 to 166 Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, tinkbet- on the ......... . 191, 192 Timber, black walnut and black locust, value of . . . . . . ... . ... 5 clearing in the Tradewater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins: Webster, and Union counties), some effects of . . - . . 116 to 120 distribution as affected by height above drainage, in the section from the Mississippi river to Pound Gap . . . . . . . . . . . 208 to 226 effects of exposure, drainage, and geological formation on .. . .6. .64 growth and soil of Barren county 34...3 to 40 growth in Kentucky, general remarks on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 to 181 growth in special localities, remarks on .... ...... . . . . 181 to 183 in (letail, as found in the Purchase district . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 to 159 in detail, to be found in the Tradewater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties) . .... ... . 1 20 to 125 in Grayson, Breekinridge, Ohio, and Hancock counties, tables of observations on . .. .. . . ... . 6) to 72 of Barren and Edinonson counties, economical notes on.......... . 40 resources of, and drains upon the timber in the Purchase district . . 143 to 146 restoration of . . . . .......... I . 31 second growth of, in Eastern Kentucky..... . . . . . .. . . 21, 23, 24 species of, as affected by topography. 25 table of second growth of, in Eastern Kentucky. . . . . 23, 24 tables for the Tradewater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties). ........ ..... . . . 125 to 131 value of an acre of.. . ......... ...... 5 value of in Western Kentucky .... 29 variations in the Purchase district. .. . . 146 to 150 variations (special) in the Trade'vater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties) 112 to 116 Timbers and Topography near and above Beattvville, along the Kentucky river . .202 near Big Hill and Irvine.. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . 201, 202 near Silver creek. . .201 of Lincoln county .198 to 200' of Pine Mountain and Pound Gap . .207, 208 of the region between Hazard, Perry county, and Whitesburg, Letcher county, 205 to 207 Timbers, brief review of the causes affecting the growth of . . . . . . . . 225, 226 found eastward from Columbus, on the Mississippi. ....... 188 to 190 found in the Purchase district, list of... . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 to 170- 237 6 INDEX. Timbers found in the Trade-water Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union coiinties, complete list of . . . . . . . . . . 132 to 136 found on West Fork of Clark river. ...... . .. . 191 in the log, their value at Paducah in 1877.... . .1..... . . . . . 143 in the Purchase district, succession of-. .... . . . . . ..150 to 154 in the Purchase 1litrict, summary of report on . . . . . . . . . . 166, 167 in the Purchase district, tables showing the occurrence of. .... . 159 to 166 method of studying adopted 6:3, 64 near Hol)kinsville. ....................................... 193, 194 of Bell and lharlan counties, table of the .......... . . . 99 to 102 of Breckinridge, Grayson, Ohio, and Hancock counties, report on 59 to 78 of the district West oif the Tennessee river, commonly known as the Pir- chase district, report on the. . . . .... . 141 to 170 of the North Cunmberland, Bell and Harlan counties, report on the. . 79 to 102 of the Iurchliase country ..... .... .... 188 of the 1Purehisw distlrict, effects of the geology and topography of the region upon the distribution and general character of the . ...... . 141 to 143 of the Tradewater Region (Caladwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties), draius on the .112 of the Tradewater Rl-gion (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties), general remarks on the .......... . 107 to 110 of Western Kentunck, value of the....... . . . . . . . . . . 66 to 74 of West Fork of Red river ............... . . . . . . . . . 194 on Little Barren and Green rivers ..... . ..... . . . I. . 197 on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers.. .. .. . . .. . . 191 to 192 on the timber lands traversed by a section from the Mississippi river to Pound Gal), list of .. . .. .... . .. . .. . 226 to 232 what kinds and where found in the Tradewater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Critrenden. 11op1kins, Webster, and Union counties) . 131, 132 Topography and geology of tthe Purchase district, and their effects upon the dis- tribution and general cliaracter of the timbers .... . . . . . 141 to 143 and timber4 near and above Beattyville, along the Kentucky river . . . . 902 and timbers near -Big Hill and Irvine.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201, 202 and timbers near Silver Creek . . ...... ....... ... .. . . 201 and timbers of Lincoln connty..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 to 200 and timbers of Pine Mountain and Pound Gap .... . . . . . . . 207, 208 of the region between Glasgow Junction and Mammoth Cave. . . . 194 to 197 and timbers of the region between Hazard, Perry county, and Whitesburg, Letcher county . . . . ..... ......... . 205 to 207 as affecting species of timber. . . . 2.5 Trade in, and economic value of wood ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Tradewater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster. and Union counties, complpete list (f timbers found in the .... . . . 132 to 136 general remarks on the timnbers of the. 107 to 110 (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union connties), special timber variations in the. .. . ... 112 to 116 (Caldwell, Lyon, Criltenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties), some effects of timber clearing in the. . . .... . . 1 16 to 120 (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hqtins, Webster, and Union counties), timber in detail to be found iinlthe........... .. . .....120 to 125 238 INDEX. 7 'Tradewater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties), timber tables for the .125 to 131 Treeless Regions, origin of, in Western Kentucky.. . . . . . . . .. . . 31 Trees, forest, remarks on the various species of . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 to 21 relative proportion of different kinds in Eastern Kentucky .... . . .. 10 tables of relative abundance of different kinds of, in Eastern Kentucky . 12, 13 Tulip Tree, abundant on coal measures and St. Louis limestone, rare on Chester shales ... . .... . .. ....... . . 5 Union County, timbers of. (See Tradewater Region.) Value, economic of, and trade in, wood. . .9...... .. . 29 of an acre of timber. . . . of black walnut and black locust timber.... . .a of forest trees .............. ... .5...... . a, 29 of timber in Western Kentuckv . . .2.9...... . 29 of the tinblwrs of We-stern Kentucky .(6 to 74 Variations (special) of timber in the Tradewater Region (Caldwell, Lyon, Crit- tenden, Hopkins, Webster, and Union counties) .112 to 116 Walnut (black) and black locust timber, value of... .. ........ . a. 5 (black), where found in the Purcha-se district. 148 trees, black, increased percentage in second growth- . . . . .17 Webster County, timbers of. (See Tradewater Region.) Western Kentucky, origin of treeless regions in .. . 31 value of its timbers .66 to 74 value of timber in .. .... .. . . . ....9. . 9 West Fork of Clark river, timbers found on ..1.9.1..... . . . l9l of Red river, timbers on - .. ..... .............. . 194 Whitesburg, Letcher county, topography and timbers of the region between Hazard, Perry county, and...... . . .. . ... . . 205 to 207 Wood, economic value of, and trade in.. . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . 2N9 Yellow Poplar, properly called liriodendron tulipifera, or tulip tree, abundant on coal measures and St. Louis limestone, rae on Chester shales.. . , 65 239