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Constitution week celebration in Louisville 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b97-24-37872552 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Constitution week celebration in Louisville s.n., [S.l. : 1923] 39 p.,  leaf of plates : ill. ; 27 cm. Coleman Cover title. Constitution week celebration in Louisville -- The constitution maintained is freedom preserved / Wallace McCamant -- America's rock of ages... / Ethel Allen Murphy -- The story of an immortal document: 1787-1823 / Nannie Lee Frayser -- Executive committee for Constitution week celebration -- Testimonial to Judge McCamant. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1997. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PS-21089) ; SOL MN07003.01 KUK) s1997 gaun a Printing Master B97-24. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. United States. Constitution. United States Constitutional history.McCamant, Wallace. Constitution maintained is freedom preserved. Murphy, Ethel Allen. America's rock of ages. Frayser, Nannie Lee, d. 1924. Story of an immortal document: 1787-1823. The Purpose in publishing this pamphlet is to preserve a record of Louisville's celebration of Constitution Week in the year 1923-Sept. eleventh to the seventeenth inclusive- and perchance to afford a suggestion or two to organi- zations for similar celebrations in the future MARVIN H. LEWIS, Chaas.Eiecacive Cifndmtee Louisville, Kentucky October lat, 1923 Message from the President The annual observance of September 17 as Constitution Day, in honor of the fact that it is the anniversary of the signing of the great charter, is a customi altogether worthy of continuation and perpetuation. I am glad to know that the day will be so widely celebrated this year, for I am very sure that, as the American people appreciate the blessings that their Constitution has insured to them, so they will be the more disposed to live in accordance with its precepts and purposes. CALVIN COOLIDGE. The above message was wriclle by the President at the request of the Constitutiox Week Committee Constitution Week Celebration in Louisville The celebration of Constitution Week in Louisville was under the joint auspices of the Kentucky Society Sons of the American Revolution and a committee of one hundred citi- zens appointed by the Mayor of Louisville. As a result of various meetings called by Mayor Huston Quin an Executive Committee was appointed with power to arrange for the cele- bration. Marvin H. Lewis, Director General of the Sons of the American Revolution, was named by the Mayor as chair- man of this commu-ittee, the personnel of which was composed of a number of active business men and club women. Plans were adopted by the Committee with a view to a celebra- tion which would reach the whole people. Four-minute speakers, were sent into the factories and theatres to tell the story of the Constitution. Slides were also used in the moving picture theatres. Mr. James P. Barnes, President of the Louisville Railway Company, headed the Speakers' Bureau. A Speakers' Bulletin of twelve pages was prepared, which contained practical information about the Constitution. The Louisville Cour- ier-Journal offered cash prizes for the three best four-minute speeches on the Constitution. The competition was state- wide, and several hundred manuscripts were received. Three prize winning speeches were printed in the Speakers' Bulletin. The Louisville Times offered cash prizes for the two best slogans for use during Constitution WAeek, and these were also printed in the Speakers' Bulletin. This Bulletin was not only sent to speakers, but to every school and Sunday school superintendent and minister in Louisville and to all the newspapers in the state. The ministers co-operated by preaching appropriate sermons on the Constitution. Exercises were held in all the Sunday schools on the Sunday preceding Constitution Day and in all the public and parochial schools on Constitu- tion Day. Story hours were held in the community centers and libraries during the week, and the story of the Constitu- tion was told to the smaller children at these gatherings, Page Three and also in the schools. The story of the Constitution was written for this purpose by Miss Nannie Lee Frayser. It is printed herein. At the State Fair audiences repeated several times each day the Allegiance to the Flag, which was printed on oil-cloth banners so that it could be seen from all parts of the auditorium. This feature was managed with appropriate ceremony. The success of the celebration was largely due to the splendid co-operation of the daily papers. About fifteen pages of newspaper publicity were given gratis by the news- papers prior to and during Constitution Week. The Louis- ville Post printed in full "We, the People," a pamphlet analyzing the meaning of the Constitution clause by clause. The Louisville Courier-Journal and the Louisville Herald printed special articles on the Constitution . A daily con- test for the best fifty word definition of the meaning of the Constitution to the individual citizen was conducted by the latter newspaper. The. Louisville Times published each day during Constitution Week articles by leading lawyers on various topics relating to the Constitution. The Louisville Railway Company, as its contribution, furnished 100,000 copies of the Constitution in pam- phlet form, with marginal notes in black face type giving the story of the Constitution and its value to the individual citizen. The Allegiance to the Flag was printed on the outside cover of the pamphlet. The Associated Press supplied stories of the celebration to all the newspapers in Kentucky which subscribe for its service, and also sent a full story of the celebration of Con- stitution Day proper to fifty of the larger newspapers of the country, including a synopsis of Judge Wallace McCam- ant's address. Judge McCamant's complete address was supplied to fifteen daily newspapers in Kentucky. It was published in full in the Louisville Courier-Journal and the Louisville Herald and to a considerable extent in the afternoon papers on the day following its delivery. The combined circulation of the four daily newspapers in Louis- ville is about 200,000, with probably twice that number of readers. It is estimated that the speakers addressed at least 227,000 people. Hence, it may be truly said that the story of the spirit and meaning of the Constitution Page Four reached practically the whole people of Louisville and a great many in the state during Constitution Week. Proc- lamations calling upon the city and the state to appropri- ately observe Constitution Day and Week were issued by the Mayor of Louisville and the Governor of Kentucky. On Constitution Day, a mass meeting was arranged in Lincoln Park at the noon hour, which was well attended. At that hour whistles and bells throughout the city sounded, and each citizen, no matter where he might be, was requested to stop for a moment and offer the following silent prayer: "I am an American citizen. God help me to do my duty as such. " In the evening of Constitution Day a uniformed parade passed through the heart of the business section, large searchlights playing upon it throughout the line of march. Color bearers of fifty or more organizations participated, and in addition there were four hundred large American flags carried in the parade. The 138th Field Artillery acted as color guard. This proved to be one of the most impres- sive spectacles ever attempted in Louisville. The parade marched to the Kosair Auditorium, where a big mass meet- ing was held. This meeting was attended by about 7,000 people. Fol- lowing the invocation, the first number on the program con- sisted of the Massing of the Colors. Five hundred flag bearers carrying large American flags were massed on the stage with the Kosair Band in the center playing "The Star- Spangled Banner." Mayor Huston Quin then read a brief message from the President of the United States, written especially for the Louisville celebration, and most graciously introduced Judge Wallace McCamant, of Portland, Oregon, who delivered the Constitution Day address. His able and scholarly address is published in full herein. It will also be published at an early date in the Constitutional Review. The closing feature of the exercises at the Auditorium was the pageant, entitled "America's Rock of Ages," re- markable for its beauty and impressiveness. It is printed herein in full, and may be used by anyone for a patriotic celebration without charge, provided the author, Miss Ethel Allen Murphy, and the Kentucky Society Sons of the American Revolution, are given due credit. The Page Fire pageant closed with a prayer for our country by the Voice of Patriotism, and the singing of the last verse of "Amer- ica." Thus ended a celebration which was noteworthy in the history of Louisville. The experience of the Committee is that if people can be inspired to co-operate in a great patriotic celebration like this, they will better appreciate the fundamental principles of our government and make a greater effort to preserve those principles for their own benefit and the bene- fit of future generations. Page Six The Constitution Maintained is Freedom Preserved ADDRESS DELIVERED BY JUDGE WALLACE MCCAMANT, OF PORTLAND, ORE The complete text of the speech of Judge Wallace McCamant of Portland, Ore., at the Constitution Day Celebration at Kosair Auditorium in Louisville, Ky., on the evening of September 17, 1923, follows: I am not laboring under the delusion that Kentucky has any occasion to look to Oregon for instruction in Amer- ican fundamentals. The Commonwealth which maintained Henry Clay in public life for a generation, which was the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln, whose roll of fame contains such names as Robert Anderson, Robert J. Breckinridge, and John J. Crittenden, and which has enjoyed the journal- istic leadership of Henry Watterson, has no occasion to go beyond its own boundaries for instruction in those lessons which the 17th of September suggests. I am here tonight because I received an invitation signed by a number of gentlemen prominent in your civic life, two of whom are my personal friends; an invitation so persuasive that it was easier to travel 5,000 miles than to say " No. " We are accustomed to think of the War for Indepen- dence as the fount from which our political blessings have flowed. As a matter of fact, the Revolutionary War only cleared the way for the great constructive work which was to follow. At the close of the war the country was in a pitiable condition. Great stretches of territory had been ravaged by hostile armies. The accumulated wealth of the country had never been great and it had been swallowed up by the war. Measured by the standards of that time, the national debt was a crushing burden. There was but little cohesion between the several States. The Articles of Confederation were a rope of sand. They gave Congress no direct touch with the people. It had no power to levy taxes. It could raise money only by loans or by requisi- tions on the States. These requisitions were tardily and scantly paid. As the year passed they were treated with increasing neglect. With no dependable revenue the gov- ernment could expect but little credit and the time came Page Seven when it had none at all. The country defaulted in the payment of interest on its debt and our representative at the Court of France was obliged to listen to the burning reproaches of French statesmen that we were neglecting the payment of interest on the loans which had financed the revolution. The government had eyes and ears, but no hands. It could see the distress of the people; it could hear the complaints which welled up on every hand; but it could do nothing to discharge the governmental functions essential to normal industrial and commercial life. No Banking System There was no national circulating medium, no banking system, and but little hard money. The paper money of the several States circulated at a discount within their territory and elsewhere scarcely at all. The facilities for the transaction of business were lacking and there was little business. Before the Revolution our maritime trade had been chiefly with Great Britain and her dependencies. After the war the British navigation laws cut us off from that trade, except as the cargoes were carried in British vessels. There was but little national spirit. The means of communication were poor and the great mass of the people had little touch with the world outside the communities in which they lived. The Revolutionary War had but slightly affected the situation. The campaigns in the North were fought chiefly with northern troops and the campaigns in the South with southern troops. Only a small percentage of the men of the American Revolution rendered service in sections remote from that in which they lived. The relations of the States to each other were not har- monious; in several cases they were positively hostile. The dispute as to the sovereignty of the Wyoming Valley es- tranged Connecticut from Pennsylvania. The controversy over the territory which is now Vermont created a bitter feud between New Hampshire and New York. Each State erected custom houses at its borders and discrimi- nated against interstate and in favor of domestic commerce. So burdensome were the restrictions imposed by New York that the merchants of New London, Connecticut, entered into an agreement to have no business dealings with her. Page Eight The private indebtedness of the country was large, and with trade stagnant there were many who could not pay. The conditions sorely tested the conscience of the people. Many who in normal times would have recognized and en- deavored to meet their obligations were swept from their moral balance. They were unable to see the guilt and the folly of repudiation. Shay's rebellion was an effort of the debtor class to prevent the functioning of the courts that they might not be called upon to meet their obligations. This incident revealed a most alarming spirit of lawlessness, dishonesty and class hatred in the important Common- wealth of Massachusetts. George III and the Tories, who had supported his policy, viewed this situation with satisfaction. They frequently expressed the belief that impossible economic conditions would drive the States to seek protection under the British crown. These were the conditions under which the Constitu- tional Convention met. There is no new life without travail. Such is the law of nature, applicable alike to man- kind and to nations. Without the tribulation of the crit- ical period there would have been no Constitutional Con- vention. But for the approach of the Ship of State to the reefs and breakers of anarchy, her pilots would not have dared to steer her into the uncharted seas of government under the Constitution. Leaders Were Sought In 1787 all thoughtful men were sobered by the signs of the times. The temper of public opinion was not re- ceptive to the appeals of demagogues. In each of the twelve States represented in the convention, the people sought out their true leaders, men qualified for constructive political work. There were but forty-five delegates to the convention. It would be hard to find another case in history where it has been given to so small a body of men to achieve so much for their generation and for posterity. Mr. Gladstone did not err when he declared our Federal Constitution "the most wonderful work everstruck off at a given time by the brain and purpose of man." The rev- erent student of history cannot fail to see the hand of God Page Nine in the deliberations of the convention and in the circum- stances which brought the delegates together. The delegates to the convention were not all great men. Some of them were disappointingly narrow, bigoted and opinionated. Yet nearly all of them were patriotic to the extent of their lights. They had given the best possible evidence of their patriotism. On Christmas night, 1776, several of them had crossed the Delaware amid the floating ice, and on the following day had participated in the victory at Trenton. Some of them had fought under Pulaski, Lincoln and Greene in the campaigns of the South. Others had wintered at Valley Forge. One of them had given all his money and then pledged his plate to raise additional funds with which to equip the troops who fought under John Stark at Bennington. Eight of them had signed the Declaration of Independence; they knew that if the revo- lution failed this act would be treated as high treason and treason in that day under British law was punished with barbaric cruelty. The delegates had all learned the lesson which the tyranny of George III was calculated to teach; no one among them subscribed to the doctrine of the divine right of kings. With entire unanimity they incorporated the clause forbidding all titles of nobility. They were agreed that in this country all power should spring from the people. Most of the delegates had learned from the infirmity of the Government under the Articles of Con- federation, the necessity of a Government with powers adequate to the common defense and the general welfare. Washington a Delegate The list of delegates included Washington. He was unanimously chosen chairman, and presided with dignity and fairness over the deliberations. His great name gave the highest credit to the convention and assured support for the Constitution from many who were intellectually incapable of weighing the arguments for and against rati- fication. Benjamin Franklin, then in his eighty-second year, rendered in the convention his last conspicuous public service. Since the Albany Conference of 1754 he had consistently advocated a Federal union. Notwithstanding Page Ten his advanced years, he retained his strong mentality and his marvelous endowments of good common sense. When the heat of debate threatened the harmony of the proceed- ings, he reminded the delegates of their trust and brought them back to temperate deliberation. Alexander Hamilton of New York and James Madison of Virginia were the most constructive members of the con- vention. Hamilton was 30 and Madison 36. With the vigor of comparative youth, they united a maturity born of intellectual honesty, single-minded patriotism and pro- found consideration of the problems to be solved. Both were gentlemen, mindful at all times of the courtesies ap- pertaining to forensic discussion, and Hamilton particularly had a personal charm which spelt power over his fellowmen. Both were eloquent. Both labored with consummate tact and unfailing industry during the four months that the convention deliberated. Rufus King of Massachusetts was the author of the provision which forbade all laws impairing the obligation of contracts. This inhibition has powerfully contributed to the establishment of public and private credit. It has delivered the people from penalties incident to their own brain storms. Morris Was Leader Gouverneur Morris of Pennsylvania was one of the ablest and most eloquent men of an era which was more prolific in great men than the golden age of Athens. He was charged with the duty of revising the verbiage of the Constitution. To his command of the English language we are largely in- debted for the accuracy and felicity of expression which have been remarked by all students of the Constitution. The membership of the convention included John Rut- ledge, the great war governor of South Carolina; Charles Coatesworth Pinckney of the same Commonwealth, already distinguished for his military services and destined to be still better known as the author of that sterling American sentiment: " Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute"; John Dickinson of Delaware, author of the "Farmer's Letters, " which had contributed mightily to support of the patriot cause at the outbreak of the revo- Page Eleven lution; Robert Morris, financier of the revolution; Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut; William Paterson of New Jersey; and James Wilson of Pennsylvania. All in all, they were the master architects and builders of the political world. Yet there was no man among them wise enough to have drafted a constitution so good as that which was the product of their collective wisdom. Their work was done with much travail and anguish of spirit. The fear that the people would reject the Constitution was ever with them, but the courageous words of Washington, guided their deliberations: "If to please the people we offer what we ourselves disapprove, how can we afterward defend our work Let us erect a standard to which the wise and just may repair. The event is in the hands of God." Tells Accurate Prophecy On my last visit to the hall in which the convention deliberated, the custodian called my attention to the figure of a sun sending out its rays engraved on the back of the chair occupied by Washington. When the Constitution had been signed, Franklin said that he had been depressed by the acrimony and the sectionalism which had charac- terized the convention's debates; more than once he had thought that the engraving was a setting sun and that it typified the setting of the hopes of those who had endeavored to build up in this country a great republic. But now that the Constitution had been adopted and signed, the old man cried out with the fire of prophecy in his eye, "It is the rising sun, it is the rising sun." Thirteen decades of government under the Constitution attest the accuracy of this prophecy. Our population has expanded with a mighty growth and our wealth has in- creased in still greater ratio. Our boundaries have stretched westward from the Alleghanies to the Pacific and across the Pacific to the isles of the sea. But we have not outrun the protection or the benefits of our Federal Constitution. The confidence of the people in Washington assured that the experiment should have a trial. It is one of the marks of Washington's greatness that he attracted to him- self the finest intellects of his time. Witness his selection of the first Secretary of the Treasury. The career of Alex- Page Twelve ander Hamilton demonstrates that the age of miracles did not cease with the Incarnation. With the wand of a wizard he transformed insolvency into prosperity. He provided a national revenue, established a circulating medium, and created a national credit. Alexander Hamilton was the most constructive thinker in all American history. Terms of Constitution The Constitution was couched in terms which under a narrow and technical construction would have dwarfed the new government and denied it the essential attributes of sovereignty. But the Divinity which shapes our ends gave us John Marshall. Without a judiciary charged with the interpretation of the Constitution and with the vindi- cation of its guaranties, the bill of rights would have been empty rhetoric. Marshall established the Federal Ju- diciary, defined its functions, created its ideals and launched it on its great work. He had the vision of a seer, the wisdom of a constructive statesman and the courage of a hero. In accord with Washington on all Washington's funda- mental beliefs, Marshall was an apostle of the national idea. He believed that the people had established a more perfect union; that they had created a nation; and that there was to be found in the Constitution authority for all those activities which are essential to national life. Marshall's great decisions spanning thirty-four years of the life of the Republic make up the most fruitful and the most con- structive work ever performed in any country by any man. When the work of Marshall was well nigh done, the ringing periods of Daniel Webster in his reply to Hayne proclaimed to the world the beauty and the glory of the structure. In 1835 old Liberty Bell cracked as it tolled at the funeral of John Marshall. The incident symbolized that the American Revolution was a completed work and that the last of its great men had passed to his reward. The Constitution had knit the States into a compact whole. A generation was growing up in which love for flag and country was a deep-rooted sentiment. The mystic chords of memory stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone in the land were ready to swell the chorus of the union. The Page Thir/een foundations of the American Commonwealth had been builded broad and deep and the structure was to stand four square against the storms of disunion. The prowess of the Army of Northern Virginia and the genius of Robert E. Lee were to try the faith of a generation of brave men and good women, but it was written in the eternal decrees that they could not overthrow the temple founded and reared by the fathers of the Republic. Guarantees of Constitution The first ten amendments, proposed by the first Congress, under the leadership of Madison and speedily ratified by the States, are to be treated as a part of the original in- strument. With the guarantees of freedom contained in the thirteenth amendment and of protection to life, liberty and property contained in the fourteenth, they constitute a great grant of franchises for the protection of which the humblest citizen is entitled to invoke the power of a hun- dred millions of people. The Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and the right of the people peaceably to as- semble and petition the Government for the redress of grievances. These guarantees assure the application of the collective wisdom to all our national problems. Under their operation we have evolved a school system which looks not to the higher education of the few, but to the adequate education of all. Our public school system is the bulwark of our free institutions and a demonstration, as well, that those institutions are adapted to the highest type of public service. Guided by public opinion, Congress adopted a public land code, of which the homestead and mineral entry statutes are foundation pillars. It is the wisest agrarian legislation the world has ever seen. Under its operation the untilled prairies and the mountain wastes have been transformed in a generation into prosperous commonwealths where men and women fear God and love this old flag. Under these constitutional guarantees public opinion has become so powerful that no remediable abuse can stand against it. Page Fourteen The Constitution assures to every person the equal protection of the laws. In adversity and unpopularity it is our protector. The rights guaranteed by the Constitution were not voluntarily granted by arbitrary power. They are the fruition of struggle and sacrifice. They speak to us of Runnymede and Naseby, of Leyden and Nieuport, of Bunker Hill and Valley Forge. They are the rights whose value has been demonstrated by experience, rights with which, God helping us, we will never part. Power from People Under the Constitution all power springs from the people. Through a system of checks and balances there is some assurance that the laws which we all must obey shall be shaped and moulded not by temporary gusts of public opinion, but by the sober second thought of the people. National powers for the Federal Government and local powers reserved to the States. Power and security are the key words of the Constitution. Power adequate to preserve the Union, to protect against invasion and dis- order, to promote the general welfare. Security in the enjoyment of fundamental rights, a security which no officer or branch of the Government may disturb; a secur- ity guaranteed to every citizen and to the stranger within our gates. The vigor and power of our Government under the Constitution had their supreme test in the World War. Russia had been conquered. Great Britain, France and Italy had wrought valiantly, but their backs were to the wall. Their military leaders admitted privately that they could not subdue that gigantic military machine of the German Empire. Our people heard the President's clarion call, "The world must be made safe for Democracy." From farm and workshop, from mountain and prairie, the flower of our young manhood came forth to battle for the right. The war power under the Constitution placed four mil- lions of freemen with the colors, and at Cantigny and Belleau Wood, at St. Mihiel and the Argonne, they demon- Page Filleen strated the might of American manhood nurtured under free institutions and zealous for international righteousness. The world moves. We must not permit our attach- ment to the past to blind us to the importance of correcting abuses as they appear from time to time. New conditions will always require new laws. But the fundamental prin- ciples on which the Constitution is built are as true as the multiplication table and as worthy of veneration as the Rock of Ages. Rights of Property Centrifugal and disintegrating forces have been in oper- ation throughout our national life. They fought the rat- ification of the Constitution; they contended for a strict construction of its provisions, which would have shorn the Government of its power and robbed the country of its glorious future; they contended for the principle of se- cession. In these days their attack is directed against the right of private property guaranteed by the fifth and fourteenth amendments. This right is fundamental. It is essential not alone to the perpetuity of our institutions, but to the preservation of civilization itself. Show me a place where the right of private property is lightly esteemed and I will show you a place where life is cheap and where women are unsafe. The right to acquire, possess and enjoy property is important not to the well-to-do alone Everyone has some piece of property which to him is dear. Ask the child for his toy, the musician for his instrument, the Christian for his Bible, or the wife for her wedding ring. Each of these possessions is property held by the same title as that by which the Pennsylvania Company owns its railroad. Everyone is interested in the maintenance of good order, stability and respect for the rights of others. Radicalism makes its converts by appeal to the dis- contented. For the most part these converts are super- ficial thinkers. They have not thought out a rational remedy for the abuses of which they complain. They think that in any shakeup they would have a chance for betterment. They figure that they have nothing to lose. Page Sixteen No one would reason thus, but for the habit men have of taking their blessings as a matter of course. Everyone has much to lose. The heritage of orderly government, of respect for law, which has come to us from the fathers is beyond all price. Recent experiences in Russia should convince every American of the folly of exchanging it for the communistic mess of pottage. The communistic state is hopelessly impractical. Divide up all property per cap- ita and a new state of inequality would develop in a week. The strong, the thrifty and the crafty would soon possess the share of the weak, the careless and the foolish. Scores Destructive Critics We hear a great deal of criticism of the action of courts in declaring statutes unconstitutional. Some of this crit- icism is due to legitimate difference of opinion in the in- terpretation of the language of the Constitution. But the man who would deny the courts this power is a destructive critic. Without this power the bill of rights is a house of cards. We have many of these destructive critics, but I know of no responsible leader of public opinion who will say that we should have any such law as the Constitution forbids. Ought we to have a law forbidding the free exercise of religious opinion Should we have a censorship of the press such as obtains in Russia Should the people be subject in their persons, houses, papers and effects to un- reasonable searches and seizures Should any man be convicted of crime without a trial in which he is confronted by the witnesses in his favor Should any man be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law The man who will answer any of these questions in the affirmative is unworthy to be called a free man, nor does he deserve the protection of the flag. A political, like a religious, creed is of value only so long as it expresses the genuine belief which moulds the life and conduct of its adherents. If the day ever comes when the people cease to believe in the principles of the Consti- tution, the work of the fathers will not save them. The safety of the American people in the future is to be found in loyalty to their heroic past. Page Seventeen Sentinel at Doorways For a hundred and thirty-six years the Constitution has been to the American people a pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night. It stands as a sentinel at our doorways while we sleep. It has banished autocracy, and it is the armor of every citizen against the tyranny of the majority. It vests our children with a birthright more to be desired than the trappings of royalty. It has made a poor nation rich, a weak nation strong, a small nation great. It has given us the magician's wand by which we have subdued a continent. It has made America the land of opportunity. It has enshrined justice and fair play in the hearts of the people. It has consolidated our forty-eight States into a nation united by ties of a common loyalty and affection. It has given us the power by which in the World War we saved civilization from thralldom to a pitiless and barbaric military autocracy. It has made the American flag the most meaningful of all emblems and American citizenship the proudest of titles. The Constitution has not lost its usefulness. The gov- ernment for which it provides always has been and always must be a government by the people. If the people be vigilant and worthy, it will always be a government for the people. We owe it to those who are to come after us to guard and transmit our political heritage. It is for Americans of this generation to look backward with grat- itude and forward with faith. "God of our fathers, be with us yet." Page Eighteen America's Rock of Ages (A Choral and Pantomime Interpretation of the National Hymn and the Spirit of the Constitution.) Written for the Kentucky Society, Sons of the American Revolution by ETHEL ALLEN MURPHY Presented by the Woman's Club of Louisville, under the chairmanship of Mrs. Shackelford Miller, President. Directed by the author. Synopsis As the orchestra plays the opening strains of "America," the parted curtains reveal America in starry mantle, seated on her rocky throne; at either side two soldiers bear the flags. At her feet is the Spirit of the Constitution in purple robes with gilded scroll. Attendant on the Constitution are four white-robed figures, symbolic of the four Guar- antees of the Constitution, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Religion, Rights of Property, Right of Trial by Jury, who carry golden symbols, a golden incense burner, a golden trumpet, a golden key and golden scales. At che base of the height are the Pilgrim Family and the three heroes of 1776. The second stanza brings upon the scene a processional of American children in red, white and blue, who carry green garlands which they uplift to America. America blesses them. Then follows a symbolic dance, "The Rain- bow of Promise," which leads in a processional of foreign- born Americans in their national costumes. These offer their allegiance to America and receive her blessing. The Voice of Patriotism then presents to all Americans the Constitution, the four Guarantees of the Constitution, and the fruits of the Constitution-Opportunity, Educa- tion, Prosperity and Peace. The latter, in beautiful sym- bolic robes of sky-blue, green and rose, golden yellow, and white, bless the assembled people. The Voice of Patriotism utters a prayer for a united people, and to the strains of the last prayerful stanza of "America" the curtains close. Page Nineteen SETTING AND CHARACTERS The setting shows wings of woodland greenery and back-drop with mountain scene. Any simple background of curtains or screens may be substituted for the scenery. The chorus and orchestra or band may be massed in the front of the auditorium below the stage, as convenient. At the center, just in front of the back-drop, is a dais in three levels, so constructed that there will be places upon it for figures to sit and stand. The dais is painted or covered to resemble a natural rocky height, and trails of ivy or other greenery are arranged upon it to suggest natural growths. To the right or left of the dais is a small platform also banked with greenery. The levels of the dais should be wide enough to allow the symbolic figures to take one or two steps forward at fitting points in the action. America is seated on the highest level of the dais. On the level below America stands, or sits, the Constitution. On either side of the Constitution, in graceful poses at the corners of the dais, stand four figures with appropriate symbols representing the four great Guarantees of the Con- stitution, Freedom of Religion, Freedom of Speech, Rights of Property, and Right of Trial by Jury. On the lowest level of the dais, at the front corners, are groups representing the Pilgrims and the Revolutionary Heroes. The Pilgrim Group consists of a Man, a Woman, and a Child. The Revolutionary Group consists of a re- production of the picture, "The Spirit of Seventy-Six"- two men and a boy. Copies of this picture may be found in the "Perry Pictures." At either side of America, just below her, may stand two men in khaki, with beautiful American flags. A figure called the Voice of Patriotism stands either at the center front of the stage, on a flight of steps a little below the stage, or at the left or right of the stage, as con- venient. The point to be considered in placing this figure is that she should not interfere with the audience's view of the tableaux. The Voice of Patriotism, at fitting points, interprets the Pantomime. Page Twenty The Children of America enter at suitable points in the Pantomime. They are in two groups, of any convenient number, the Native-Born and the Foreign-Born. As pre- lude to the entrance of the Foreign-Born, a Dancer interprets the Rainbow of Promise. The Fruits of the Constitution, Opportunity, Education, Prosperity and Peace, enter sep- arately at appropriate moments. COSTUMES The women or girls of the chorus should be in white. The Voice of Patriotism is draped in classic tunic of vivid red, with red fillet in her hair, and gold sandals. She may, if desired, carry a scroll on gilded rods. America wears a robe of white, with long drapery of red so arranged that it falls from the shoulders in graceful suggestion of the red and white of the flag. A voluminous mantle of thin, sky-blue material, studded with stars, is caught around her head, with a crown of stars, and attached to her wrists so that when she lifts her hands the starry mantle is extended behind her. The Constitution is dressed in classic robe and drapery of purple, with gold sandals and fillet. She carries a large scroll mounted on gilded rods. The Four Guarantees of the Constitution are in white classic draperies, with gold sandals and gold fillets binding the classic coiffures with two bands. Freedom of Religion may wear her hair hanging, and part of her long white drapery may be caught by the gold head bands, so that it falls veil-like from her head, as in the picture of a Vestal Virgin. Freedom of Religion carries an antique lamp or censer. Freedom of Speech carries a golden trumpet. Rights of Property carries a golden key large enough to be seen at a distance. Right of Trial by Jury is blindfolded and carries the scales, like Justice. The Pilgrim Woman wears the traditional Pilgrim cos- tume of gray, with white kerchief, cap and cuffs, and a red cape. The Child may wear a miniature duplicate of the woman's costume in brown, with brown velvet cap, from which a white band flares back. The Man may wear the Page Twenty-One traditional costume in black or brown, with white collar and cuffs and tall-crowned hat. He may carry a Bible. In the group he stands slightly behind the Woman and Child. The Woman holds the Child's hand. The well- known picture, "Pilgrims Going to Church," will give suggestions. The Revolutionary Group or "Spirit of Seventy-Six," may be costumed like the picture. As in the picture, the middle-aged man carries a fife, while the old man and the boy carry drums. The Rainbow of Promise is dressed in soft, white tunic, falling in simple lines a little below her waist and lightly girdled with a silver cord. Fastened to her wrists and to the back of her tunic she wears a rainbow-shaded scarf, which flutters and curves in glowing folds as she dances. Her feet may be bare or sandalled with silver. Her hair is bound with silver bands. The American-Born are in simple white. The Boys wear white shirts and trousers, with red and blue sashes, and dark stockings and dark low shoes. The Girls wear straight white tunics, sleeveless, with blue and red sashes which cross one shoulder and tie loosely under the opposite arm, hanging to the bottom of the tunics. The length of the tunics may be appropriate to the age of the children, probably a little below the knee. If older boys and girls take part, the costumes may be adapted to their ages. The uniform effect of the red, white and blue should be maintained. The Foreign-Born are dressed in native costumes, the more vivid and varied the better. Both Native-Born and Foreign-Born carry graceful green garlands of ivy, smilax, or any obtainable foliage. Opportunity is draped in gauzy sky-blue robes, with crown of gold with sun-disk and rays above her brow. She carries a banner or shield of light and dark blue, with a gold-rayed disk rising like a sun from the darker blue. Education is dressed in a drapery of spring-like green, crowned with a wreath of violets, and carries a large crystal ball. She is accompanied by a Child in rose-colored tunic and wreath of flowers, who carries a vividly-colored fruit- ing branch. Page Twenty-Two Prosperity is dressed in golden yellow and carries a golden casket. Peace is in flowing white draperies, with wreath of green leaves or bands of silver in her hair. She may wear her hair dressed in classic style or flowing about her shoulders, as preferred. She may carry a dove in one hand, or she may be winged like a dove. While the materials of these costumes may include chiffons and silk gauzes, it is possible to secure very lovely effects in simpler materials. Three things should always be borne in mind-beauty of color, grace of line, and adapt- ability of fabric. Cheesecloth has rare possibilities in all these respects. The stage properties mentioned may all be made or adapted with a little ingenuity and an artistic use of cardboard, crepe paper, gilt, and Dennison's stars. Gilded tapes and felt may be adapted to very graceful classic sandals. Consistency of detail should be main- tained. The Revolutionary and Pilgrim Groups should be as literal in historic type as possible. The symbolic figures should not be modish or modern, but should maintain the classic spirit in drapery, foot-coverings and head-dresses. ACTION AND WORDS The orchestra or band plays "America" as prelude. Lights are turned out in the house, except on the stage and over the position where the Voice of Patriotism is to be. During the prelude, the Voice of Patriotism parts the cur- tains and comes down the steps till she is just a little above the level of the audience. (Of course, the manner of be- ginning may be adapted to the conditions of presentation. If it is preferable to have the Voice of Patriotism to one side of the stage, she may take that position, and she need not be revealed until the curtains are drawn.) The curtains are drawn, revealing America on the dais with the Constitution, the Guarantees of the Constitution, the Pilgrim and Revolutionary Groups, and buglers, as de- scribed. The Voice of Patriotism lifts her hand. Voice of Patriotism- "Unto the hearts of all Americans the Voice of Patriotism speaks, bidding the song of the people wake the hymn of loyalty to the Land of Liberty." Page Twenty-Three Chorus- My country, 'tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty, Of thee I sing. Land where mv fathers died, Land of the pilgrims' pride, From every mountain side, Let freedom ring. Bugle Calls-Salute to the colors. During the singing, America extends her hands in bless- ing, the Pilgrim and Revolutionary Groups take animated poses. Voice of Patriotism- The Voice of Patriotism calls the Children of America to pay their grateful tribute to the Motherland. " My native country, thee, Land of the noble free, Tny name I love. I love thy rocks and rills, Thy woods and templed hills, My heart with rapture thrills, Like that above. Bugle Calls-Salute to the colors. The Native-Born march on in expressive processional during the singing. Their faces and gestures show love of America. They pass to the front of the dais and uplift their garlands toward America, who blesses them with ex- tended hands. The orchestra or band softly repeats the strain and salute, during which the Children group on either side of the dais. Voice of Patriotism- "Brightly shines the promise of America, the Rainbow of the Nations. " The orchestra or band plays "Hail, Columbia" for the dance. Dance of the Rainbow of Promise. During this dance, colored lights suggesting the changing hues of the rainbow are thrown upon the dancer. She ends her dance with a gesture of beckoning, and takes her stand on the little platform to the right or left of the dais, uplifting her rain- bow scarf. Voice of Patriotism-To the promise of America turn many peoples, whose hearts are seeking fuller life, whose souls are fired by the Vision of bright Liberty. Page Twenty-Four Chorus- Let music swell the breeze, And ring from all tne trees, Sweet freedom's song. Let mortal tongues awake, Let all that breathe partake, Let rocks their silence break. The sound prolong. The orchestra softly prolongs the last measures. Bugle Calls-Salute to the Colors. The Foreign-Born march in during the singing, with gestures of appeal to America, who blesses them. They join the groups of Native-Born, who advance with gestures of welcome, and the two groups stand interlinked with the garlands. Voice of Patriotism-"Children of America, whether born under other skies or on her hospitable soil, bring to the Motherland their gifts of courage, aspiration, loyalty and love. She gives to them in return these priceless treasures, Liberty and Justice embodied and secured to them in the Constitution, which guarantees to every American Free- dom of Religion, Freedom of Speech, subject only to the safety of the nation, the inviolable Rights of Property, the sacred Right of Trial by Jury. Take up, 0 Americans, the sacred trust of your great heritage. Revere the Consti- tution, which is the strength of the nation, which by just law and government makes possible the unity of purpose based on the common welfare. So grow in purity of ideals and practice, so live in loyalty to your high trust, that the Liberty of America may be indeed a light to all the world." As the Voice of Patriotism speaks, the Constitution and the Four Guarantees rise or step forward, uplifting their symbols. The two groups of Americans make gestures of reverence. Bugle Calls. Voice of Patriotism-" Of this just government the Fruits are yours: Opportunity, Education, Prosperity and Peace. " As these symbolic characters are named, they enter, one at a time, from alternate sides. They first bless the assembled groups, then come to the stand at either side of the Voice of Patriotism and bless the audience. Page Twenty-Five Voice of Patriotism (introducing each character)- "Opportunity bestows on all impartially the chance to work out the best that is in them. Like the sky, her bounty is open to all; like the sun, her radiance shines for all. " "Education brings to flower and fruit the human per- sonality. She offers her gift to every child of America. Not alone in the mirrored story of the ages, but in the growth of the present, she brings to pass the miracles of progress. " "Prosperity is the measure of mutual service. In this fair land, her rewards are rich. So use her golden privi- lege, 0 Americans, that you may enrich all life with wealth that will not rust. " "Peace is found most often in the land where live the ideals of Liberty and Justice, and where Peace walks, the Gardens of Humanity grow fair with the fruits of high endeavor. " "Wherefore, Americans all, let us who enjoy these gifts unite in praise and prayer to the Universal Source: "Almighty God, Who hast given us this good land for our heritage: We humbly beseech Thee that we may prove ourselves a people mindful of Thy favor and glad to do Thy will. Bless our land with honorable industry, sound learning, and pure manners. Save us from violence, dis- cord, and confusion; from pride and arrogance, and from every evil way. Defend our liberties, and fashion into one united people the multitudes brought hither out of many kindreds and tongues. Endue with the spirit of wisdom those to whom in Thy name we entrust the authority of government, that there may be justice and peace at home, and that through obedience to Thy law we may show forth Thy praise among the nations of the earth. In the time of prosperity, fill our hearts with thankfulness, and in the day of trouble, suffer not our trust in Thee to fail; all which we ask in Thy name, our Saviour and Protector, Lord God of Hosts. Amen. " During the prayer all the persons on the stage stand in natural attitudes of worship, with clasped hands and bowed heads. Page Tuweiy-Six Chorus- Our fathers' God to thee, Author of liberty, To Thee we sing. Long may our land be bright, Witn freedom's holy light, Protect us by Tny might, Great God our king! At the last stanza the chorus should stand. During the singing, beautiful golden and rosy lights glow on the scene. All the figures uplift their hands. The Four Guarantees elevate their symbols. The Voice of Patriotism steps back with uplifted hand. The curtains are slowly drawn. Page Twenty-Seven The Story of an Immortal Document 1787-1923 For Use in the Public Schools, Community Centers and Sunday Schools Prepared for the Kentucky Society, Sons of the American Revolution By NANNIE LEE FRAYSER The old brick wall on Chestnut Street, in Philadelphia, stood bathed in sunlight one morning in May over two hundred years ago. The clock on the outside wall showed forth the hour on its well-marked dial, but the great bell in the tower hung silent. The doors of the hall stood open, as if in invitation to the illustrious company soon to be assembled within those walls to pass upon what should largely decide the future of a wonderful young nation. Down the street walked two men who were to be im- portant members of this assembly. They had grown old in the service of colonies that had become independent States, and they had contributed much to the making of the nation in the troublous days of the past. Though these men were dressed after the fashion of the day, yet there were distinct differences in their personal appearance. One was strong and heavily built, with a massive head resting on his thick neck. His hair was dark brown, with the faintest sprinkling of gray, and it fell in loose waves over his neck and shoulders. He wore a long coat buttoned up to the chin, and 'round his neck was the soft, high stock of the period. A simple, white ruffle fell from his stock over his chest and softened his heavy features. He had worn a garb as simple as this at the court of kings, for he was a great and unpretentious American, who scorned to assume any part that was not truly his. His companion bore every evidence of the man of wealth of that day. His hair was snow white and tightly curled below his ears; his coat had broad lapels of heavy black silk, and the wide ruffle which fell from his high stock was edged with the finest needlework. His features were fine, Page Tw ntv-Righl his countenance firm, yet benevolent, and his hands were delicately formed with the long, tapering fingers that re- vealed the lover of art and beauty. These two men, so uniike in personal appearance and the details of their dress, were nevertheless the best of friends, and they had stood together throughout the years and had saved the day for the people more than once in the crises that had already faced the young nation struggling for a firm foothold in a new and untried land. Proclaim Liberty They talked together as they walked along, and the heavy man spoke first, " Does this occasion remind you, Robert, of that day in the heart of summer, eleven years ago, when we came to this same hall and sat together hear- ing the words of the Great Document as they were read aloud with such fervor I can never forget the hour in which we set our names to that immortal proclamation. It seems to me I can hear again today the old bell in the tower ring out its message to the world. It seems to have been molded for that very end, and it is not so strange as it appears that it should bear the inscription, 'Proclaim Liberty Throughout the Land Unto All the Inhabitants Thereof,' for surely the Hand of God was in its molding as it was in its message. I seem to hear again this morning that lad call out to his waiting grandsire, 'Ring, grandpa! Ring!', and the old bell peals in memory in my ears today. Many dangers have we suffered since that day eleven years ago, and many whom we counted as friends and comrades then have laid down their lives in our struggles in this cause of in- dependence and freedom. Today is as great as was that day so long ago, if we but accomplish the purpose for which we are assembled in the end, for never was there greater need for wise action and seasoned council than now. I am glad that we have lived to see this day." "Benjamin, I remember as well as you the day on which we set our names to the Great Document, nor am I forget- ful of the fact that your name represented the longest term of service to God and man of any member of that company. You were the oldest signer there, and it seems good that you are spared to sit with us in this gathering to serve this Page Twenty-Nine country again with your seasoned judgment, ripe wisdom, and kindliness of heart. You are indeed one of the faithful." "None ever served more faithfully than you have, friend Robert, for our new land would never have come to this good day without your aid. We must never forget that your fortune was at the service of the country in its most desperate hours, and that the benefit of your credit was ever at the command of the army. But for you the story of Yorktown would undoubtedly have had a different end- ing, and against those dark days of 1781 you shine out as the silver lining to our black cloud of adversities." A Duty and a Privilege "It was my duty and my privilege, friend, to serve as I was best fitted to serve my country. These United States may command everything that I have, excepting my in- tegrity, and the loss of that would effectually disable me from serving now. I gladly gave my all to establish our National Ideal. It is true that the years just passed have demanded the closest attention to every detail of finance, and it has meant effort and sacrifice, but I am proud to have contributed my share to the great cause of freedom and independence. What is one's wealth good for if it may not be counted upon in the service of one's country I hold that what helps all, helps every individual, as well as the reverse of it. What could I have of joy with my gold stored in coffers while my countrymen suffered for the things that it might buy But I must not take credit that does not belong to me, for I could never have made the money do its work without the advice and the constant help of Gouverneur. He never failed me, and I am told he is to be one of the company that gathers today. I am heartily glad of that, for his wisdom and patience will be needed in this undertaking." Thus talking over the days of 1776, Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris of Philadelphia walked down the streets of their city and entered Independence Hall on the morn- ing of May 25, 1787. When they were seated in the Hall, Franklin looked around upon the company gathered there and said, "There are a few of us here today, Robert, who were here in 1776, Page Thirty for I recognize six of those who, with us, set their names to the Great Document oti July 4. There is James Wilson over there, and by his side is George Clymer. They have come to represent Pennsylvania, even as you and I, and that young Scotchman, James Wilson, is as fine a patriot as we have. He was only twenty-six years old when he was the recognized head of the Philadelphia lawyers, and wise lawyers will be needed in this company, for I doubt not that many a question will arise that can be settled only by the best of legal advice. Next to them I see George Read, of Delaware. He, too, was with us in 1776, and proved himself not only cool and deliberate, but just and generous as well. I remember that it was told of him there that his first act as a lawyer was to give up his rights in his father's estate, saying that his education represented his full share of the family fortune. He is certainly well qualified by his own conduct to discuss the rights and duties of American citizens. Beyond them I see Roger Sherman, of Connecticut. He is another wise man, well chosen for this assembly. What if he did sit cobbling shoes for twenty-two years, has he not become one of the best statesmen in Connecticut I have been told that he always had a book near at hand as he sat cobbling shoes, and I believe that every spare moment was put to good account. " "I am doubly glad that he is to be one of our number, Benjamin, for I remember that he was one of the five of whom you yourself were one, chosen to draw up the Great Document, which the hand of Thomas Jefferson finally made perfect. I think we shall have need in this gathering of those who can put the thoughts of many men into ac- curate words, and John Adams once said that this very Roger Sherman had a clear head and a steady heart, and Thomas Jefferson himself said that Roger Sherman never said a foolish thing in his life. There will be no time to spend on foolish speaking in this assembly." Page Thirty-One The Convention As the friends sat talking together, the company grad- ually assembled in the hall. All who came had been ap- pointed as delegates to represent the States from which they came to this convention, called by Congress for the purpose of framing a CONSTITUTION or organic law for the new United States of America. The Revolutionary War was over, the country had gained independence and freedom, but there were troubles on every side that threatened the peace and safety of the new nation which had fought so bravely for its coveted liberty. There was no money at its command save that of a few private fortunes; trade, commerce and manufacturing were at a standstill; no other nation would lend any money to help out this new and struggling country; the very States themselves, although they were few, were rent apart by jealousy and suspicion, and so no domestic trade rela- tions could be established. Congress could advise but not render final decision on these matters, and the thirteen States which had stood together in the days of war seemed likely to perish on rocks of their own making in time of peace. This convention had been called as a last hope in a desperate situation and each State except Rhode Island had sent the representative which it considered best to help in the solution of the national problems. When the body was finally assembled, it was truly an illustrious company. From New Hampshire came John Langdon and Nicholas Gilman, chosen for their ability to represent their particular State; from Massachusetts came Nathaniel Gorham and the celebrated Rufus King, a gradu- ate of Harvard University, an able lawyer, and later Min- ister to England; from New York the already famous Alexander Hamilton, Washington's close friend and ad- viser and aid-de-camp in the army, whose brilliant intellect and forceful speech were to have such a definite bearing upon the outcome of this gathering; from New Jersey, Livingston, Patterson, Brearly and Jona Dayton; from Pennsylvania, in addition to the four already mentioned, Thomas Fitzsimmons, Thomas Mifflin, Jared Ingersoll, Page Thirty- Two and Gouverneur Morris; from Delaware, in addition to George Read, John Dickinson, Jaco Brown, Gunning Bed- ford and Richard Bassett; from Maryland, James M'Henry, Dan Carroll, and Dan of St. Thomas Jenifer; from Virginia, David Blair and James Madison, that great defender of religious freedom who came to be called the "Father of the Constitution" and who was later to be fourth president of the very Republic which he helped to found; from North Carolina, William Blount, Hu Williamson and Richard Dobbs Spaight; from South Carolina, John Rutledge, the brother of Edward Rutledge, the youngest signer of the Declaration of Independence, Pierce Butler and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, who in later years gave voice to the saying now famous, which was his reply as an American to an offered bribe, "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute"; from Georgia, Abraham Baldwin and William Few; from Rhode Island, none. First Official Act The first official act of the convention when it was or- ganized was to elect George Washington President of the Constitutional Convention and William Jackson Secretary. For days and weeks and months the convention con- tinued its sessions behind closed doors and many a stormy scene was enacted there. It was soon evident that there was great difference of opinion among the men there as to what should go into a fundamental law that was to affect the entire country. One of the points most hotly debated was as to the power of the centralized government; some were very strongly in favor of it, some were very much afraid it would interfere with the rights of the States indi- vidually. Then it was that Alexander Hamilton brought all his eloquence and power in debate to bear, for he was strongly in favor of the centralized government. Those were days in which men spoke their minds freely, and at last the arguments grew so heated and the representatives so determined not to yield a single point, that it seemed as if the whole plan must be given up, and as if the convention had been called in vain. Page Thirly-Three Franklin's Influence Then it was that Benjamin Franklin did indeed bring his seasoned judgment and his kindliness of heart to the rescue. He rose in the meeting and said something like this: " I well remember, my fellow citizens, that in closing the Great Document which declared our country free and independent, we did affix our names to such a sentiment as this-'And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.' It seems to me that having failed to commit the deliberations of this convention to a Higher Power or to have called a Divine Providence to witness to our motives, that we are this day in danger of discord that shall lead to final disruption and the defeat of all cherished plans. Would we not do well to invoke Divine Aid in our further deliberations' Benjamin Franklin was honored and respected by his fellow citizens, and acting upon his advice, every day of the future proceedings was opened with prayer for Divine guidance upon the affairs of the nation then at stake, and different members of the clergy came in each day to per- form this service. After this it came about that those who had been most stubborn and resentful were willing to listen patiently to the arguments of those to whom they were opposed, and gradually peace and harmony was restored, each opposing wing yielding some of its cherished ideas to the other and each retaining many of the points for which they had firm convictions. Both those who stood for the strong cen- tralized government and those who stood for State's rights were satisfied with a compromise which gave greater power so the chief executive than was at first intended, and at the tame time limited the time of his term of office. Finally, on September 17, 1787, the great body of laws upon which the whole future of the United States was to be built was finished and ready to be submitted to the thirteen States for approval. Three of the States accepted it in 1787; eight more States accepted it in 1788; one in 1789; and Rhode Island last of all, in 1790. Page Thirty-Four Originally it contained seven articles, which seemed to meet the needs of that day, but from time to time the Con- stitution has been amended, or changed to fit the demands of the growing nation, until today we have a Nineteenth Amendment. One of the greatest things about our glo- rious Constitution is that it can be changed, but at the same time every amendment has to be ratified by a suffi- cient number of States before it can become part of the fundamental law, to keep the great statement truly the Voice of the People. Bill of Rights The first ten amendments which correspond to the English Bill of Rights were adopted in 1791, the year after the Constitution was accepted by all the States. The Eleventh Amendment was adopted in 1798, and deals with the question of the relation of the United States Courts to suits in individual States. The Twelfth Amendment changed the method of elect- ing the President and Vice President, and the system then inaugurated is the one we use now. The Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amend- ments were made necessary by the outcome of the Civil War in 1865, and have to do with the rights of citizens, irrespective of race, color, or previous servitude. The Sixteenth Amendment provides for an Income Tax. The Seventeenth Amendment deals with the method of electing United States Senators. The Eighteenth Amendment establishes Prohibition as a law. The Nineteenth Amendment recognizes women as citi- zens of the United States and gives them the right to vote. When the notable gathering which framed the Consti- tution in 1787 had finished its work and was ready to sub- mit the results of its labors to the people, the true and tr ed men of that distant day put certain words as an introduc- tion to the document which expressed the sentiment in their hearts as loyal American citizens. These words have never been rejected, but have remained as an evidence of the American spirit throughout these two centuries, and Page Thirty-Five please God, they shall find response in the heart of every loyal American today and through the ages: "We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure Domestic Tranquillity, provid& for the Common Defence, promote the General Welfare and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and to our Posterity, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the UNITED STATES OF AMER- ICA. " "There shall be a new friendship, There shall be countless linked hands. The most dauntless and rude shall touch face to face lightly, The dependence of Liberty shall be lovers, The continuance of Equality shall be comrades. I will make the most splendid race the sun ever shone upon, I will make divine, magnetic lands, With the love of comrades, With the life-long love of comrades." -Walt Whitman. NANNIE LEE FRAYSER. Page Thirty-Six Executive for Constitu tion Committee Week Celebration MARVIN H. LEWIS, Chairman, Director General National Society, Sons of the American Revolution. Chairman Committee of One Hundred- HUSTON QUIN, Mayor of Louisville. Chairman Speakers' Committee- JAS. P. BARNES, President Louisville Railway Co. Chairman Reception Committee DONALD McDONALD, President Louisville Gas and Elec- tric Company. Chairman Finance Committee- FRED M. SACKETT, President Louisville Board of Trade. Treasurer- W. E. MORROW Secretary Louisville Board of Trade. Chairman Parade Committee- MAJOR HENRY J. STITES, Attorney at Law. Marshals of Parade Divisions- HON. JAS. P. GREGORY, Commander of American Legion. CAPT. JOSEPH T. O'NEAL, Attorney at Law. COL. FORREST BRADEN, Chief of Police. Chairman Schools Committee- PROF. JAMES H. RICHMOND, President Richmond School. Assisted by: MRS. GEORGE R. NEWMAN, President Woman's City Club. Chairman Ministers Committee RT. REV. RICHARD L. MCCREADY, Dean Christ Church Cathedral. Assisted by: RABBI Jos. RAUCH of Temple Adath Israel, and FATHER CHAS. P. RAFFO, Pastor St. Charles Borromeo Church. Chairman Factories Committee WM. C. BLACK, President B. F. Avery & Sons. Chairman Decorations Committee- GEO. BUECHEL, President Sutcliffe Co. Chairman Pageant Committee- MRS. SHACKELFORD MILLER, President Woman's Club. Chairman Story Hour Committee MRS. JOHN W. CHENAULT, Regent John Marshall Chapter, D. A. R. Chairman of Young Women's Committee MRS. JOHN L. WOODBURY, Chairman Patriotic Education Com- mittee,John Marshall Chapter,D.A.R. Chairman Auditorium Committe W. R. R. LAVIELLE, Illustrious Potentate Kosair Temple. Chairman State Fair Committee D. B. G. ROSE, President Standard Printing Co. Chairman Platform Committee- T OSEPH BURGE, Vice President Peaslee-Gaulbert Co. Chairman Lincoln Park and Sunday Schools Committee- E. S. WOOSLEY, Second Vice President Kentucky Society, Sons of the American Revolu- tion. Chairman Moving Pictures Committee- W. M. HANNAH, President Hannah-Miles Company. Publicity Committee- MARVIN H. LEWIS, E. A. JONAS, Editor Louisville Herald. RICHARD G. KNOTT, Editor Louisville Post. BRAINARD PLATT, Assistant to Vice President Louisville Courier-Journal and Louisville Times JOSEPH LEE, Editor Journal of Labor. Page Thirty-Seen Testimonial to Judge McCamant On behalf of the Louisville Constitution Week Executive Committee and the citizens of Louisville, the tea service illustrated on the following page was presented to Judge Wallace McCamant, of Portland, Oregon, with appropriate resolutions, in recognition of his service to the people of Louisville on Constitution Day, September 17, 1923. The presentation wets made at a dinner party at Judge McCam- ant's home in Portland by Mr. Edgar B. Piper, Editor of the Portland Oregonian. The resolutions follow: WHEREAS, Judge Wallace McCamant, at great personal sacrifice of time and labor, to say nothing of financial ex- pense involved, made a special trip from Portland, Oregon, in response to an invitation from the Mayor of Louisville, and the heads of various patriotic and civic organizations, for the express purpose of making an address relating to the Constitution of the United States, which address was de- livered as an important part of the program for the cele- bration of Constitution Day and Week in this city. AND WHEREAS, said address has been widely and favor- ably commented upon, not only in Louisville, but through- out the country, by reason of the publicity given to it through the Associated Press, AND WHEREAS, Judge McCamant, in so generously rendering this splendid, patriotic service to the people of Louisville, exemplified in the highest degree the thought that should be uppermost in the minds of all true Americans, to wit, that citizenship and service go hand in hand. BE IT RESOLVED, That the people of Louisville, speak- ing through the Executive Committee, and the many patriotic, civic and business organizations, which did so much to make Louisville's celebration of Constitution Week a suc- Thirty-Eighi I This page in the original text is blank. cess, do hereby express to Judge McCamant their sincere appreciation of his unselfish service, and of the thoughtful, dignified and scholarly address made on the occasion re- ferred to. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, That a pamphlet be issued in attractive form, containing Judge McCamant's address, and information about Louisville's celebration of Constitu- tion Week; that the same be sent to various organizations throughout the country, and that a copy of this resolution be forwarded to him at Portland, Oregon, together with a slight token of the esteem in which he is held by this com- mittee and the people of Louisville. Mrty-Nine