You have found an item located in the Kentuckiana Digital Library.
Right to be well born, or, Horse breeding in its relation to eugenics / by W.E.D. Stokes. Stokes, William Earl Dodge, 1852-1926. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b98-33-40282565 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Right to be well born, or, Horse breeding in its relation to eugenics / by W.E.D. Stokes. Stokes, William Earl Dodge, 1852-1926. C.J. O'Brien, [New York : c1917] 256 p.,  leaf of plates ; 20 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1998. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PA-23166-98) ; SOL MN08118.08 KUK) s1998 gaun a Printing Master B98-33. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Eugenics. Heredity. Horses Breeding. . This page in the original text is blank. W. E. D. STOKES. The Right to be Well Born OR Horse Breeding in its Relation to Eugenics By W. E. D- STOKES Prejait of the Pzirhmn k'z.ltes Stoae Farm, Inr. LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY. PRINTED BY C. J. O'BRIEN 22 North William Street, N. Y. Thtered according to Act of Congre5s In the year 1917 by W E In Stokes, In the omce of the Librarian of Congressp at Washington, D. C CONTENTS PAGE Humans and Animals Are Governed by the Same Laws of Heredity .......................... 9 Cause of Sex .................................. 12 Contribution of Horsemen to Eugenics ......... 20 Influence of Great Sires in Founding All Breeds. 24 Sterility ................. ................... 41 Education and Heredity ...................... 50 Defectives, Like Unfit Animals, Should Be Steri- lized.............................. F 6 The Number and Cost of Defectives ............ 70 Evils of Labor Unions ........................ 78 The Labor Registry .......................... 81 The Jockey Registry .......................... 83 Birth Control ................................ 90 Germs. ............. 93 Child Labor .................................. 96 How the City of Churches Looks After Its Children and Their Amusements ............. 98 Some Races Are Backward .................... 100 Subnormal Children in New York Public Schools 103 Public School Children of Seattle Show Great Intelligence and Seattle's Death-Rate Is the Lowest ............. ....................... 112 Infant Death-Rate in Seattle 1.44 in a Thousand; in Manhattan 43.37 in a Thousand ........... 114 Making American Citizens ....... .............. 115 Conservation of Brains Man's Greatest Luty .... 117 Evils of Social Diseases ....................... 120 Hereditary Insanity from Disease ............. 126 Needed Laws ......... .................... 132 Things to Avoid .............................. 134 The Importance of the Health of the American Hog ........................ 135 Alcohol America's Curse; Its E'ffeets on the Unborn . ................................... 137 Distillery Mash and Cattle .................... 141 Motherly Instincts ............................ 143, Relative Influence of the Sexes ................ 150 Laws of Heredity the Same in Pan, Plant or Beast . .................................... 152 My Duty . .................................... 154 The Wizard of the Thoroughbred Turf ......... 160 CONTENTS PAGE How to Establish a Family .................... 162 England's Strength Was Built 1Up by Younger Sons ................. 165 Some Races Possess No Elements of Improve- ment . ..................................... 167 Crossing of Distinctly Different Races Dangerous 170 Selective Breeding Among the Jews. ...........173 Inbreeding and Inherited Talents .............. 177 Record Office and Research Foundation ......... 182 Present System of Marriage Wrong in Theory and Practice ................................ 185 The Milxing of the Breeds .................... 189 Our Old New York Families Have Bred Out .... 201 In Old New York ............................. 202 The Old London Social Set Bred Itself Out ...... 205 Plain Facts ................................... 213 Records of Death ............................ 2 16 Modern Methods of Breeding Are Scientific ..... 218 Grading of Men Who Are Candidates for Mar- riage ...................................... 222 Government Records Prove That 75 of Our Young Men Are So Inferior in Breeding That They Cannot Pass the Simplest Army and Navy Mental and Physical Tests ............. 227 If Our Army and Navy Compel Examinations of Men Who Are to Be Food for Cannons and Submarines, Our Government Must Pass Laws Requiring the Same Kind of Examinations Before Marriage of Our Young Men and Women, If Their Offspring Are to Be Our Future Soldiers and Sailors ................. 230 America Needs Able Champions of Her Unborn Babes ...................................... 235 The Value of Registry Associations ............. 240 Medical Men Must Make a Record of All Cases of Syphilis ................................. 245 The German Kaiser's Contribution to Beneficial Sciences.......... 246 Our Government Exclu(des Ilibred or Unsexed Animals, Except Under a Penalty, But Wel- comes Human Curs ......................... 248 Conclusion ................................... 251 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN or HORSE BREEDING IN ITS RELATION TO EUGENICS. PREFACE. To the patriotic young men and women of our country, who contemplate marriage, and to the research workers in the field of eugenics, these few lines on heredity are dedicated lay a horse breeder, whose ex- periences have taught him to realize that the rights of our unborn children are not fairly or honestly protected. Every un- born child has an inalienabio right to come into the world free froti dissae, from hereditary ailment-s and from mental and physical defects. 'fShe Aicaighty never in- tended that any one man or woman should have all the attainments and all the graces, but that each child should have the right kind of inherent mental and physical abili- ties, which, if properly cultivated, would permit him or her to well fill the station in life to which each is destined. s 6 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN While I take onlv a bird's eye view of this wide field, over which my experiences have led me, my earnest hope and prayer is that I may cite practical illustrations in the animal kingdom which will open the eyes of the young to a clear understanding of their serious duties to the state, to them- selves and to their offspring. It may lead them to a study of the subject and to a perusal of the writings of some of our well known eugenic scholars, like Dr. C. B. Davenport, Dr. C. L. Reed, Dr. David Starr Jordan, and others, who have gone scientifically into the subject of heredity, in its cwery releasoe with a, uicroscopic ex- amination. If they are cQnvinced of the logic of these seientists' arguments, let them help along the good.work by putting into practice their. co-vvitntons, and join us in the advancement of the cause of eugenics. I feel certain that every sensible man and woman, who has given attention to this subject, must acknowledge that it is the all vital question of the hour; that it touches the foundations of society and the stability of our country. BREEDING BETTER MEN I realize that I throw myself open to criticism. Only the vital importance of the subject to the permanency or ruin of our American institutions gives me cour- age to express these views, for I have avoided even reading books on heredity or breeding, except as I now look up refer- ences. I have never so much as opened Mendel's Essay, "Investigations into the Hybrids of Peas." I determined to search out the truth of heredity, unbiased by other views. My sole object is to lead my countrymen to a vision of the need of breeding better men and better women, each superior mentally and physically, free from hered- itary ills and defects, which make life a burden. Let us breed men and women especially fitted by their mental and physical qualities to best fill the stations in life which they are to occupy. Let us all see that this problem of eugenics, which means "well-born," is given the public and pri- vate thought and attention it justly de- serves. For it means the elimination of sufferings from hereditary ills and the sav- 7 8 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN ing from over-straining the unfit, who at- tempt to do things which they were not ordained by nature to perform,-a "shoe- maker to his last" and each to his calling. It means the breeding out of weaklings and defectives, and the breeding in only of the fittest and the best. It means the saving of our country from moral and physical decay; and the preservation of its integ- rity as well as its position among nations. All this and more I hope to prove to you has been done in the horse family. If all this can be done in the horse family, it can just as easily be done in the human, if thinking people will give heed. If this can be done, let us start to do it now-right now, not wait another day or hour. If what I say in this book will only in- duce a few thinking men to discuss these matters with those with whom they come in contact I shall feel that the spare hours of my vacation which I gave to these lines were well spent. Lexington, Kentucky, August 15, 1916. THE LAWS OF HUMAN HEREDITY HUMANS AND ANIMALS ARE GOV- ERNED BY THE SAME LAWS OF HEREDITY. It is my pleasure to own the stock farm at Lexington, Kentucky, formerly owned by its Colonial Governor; the birthplace of America's greatest thoroughbred, "Lex- ington. " For a series of years, I have kept on this farm a band of well-bred brood-mares. Until February, 1916, "Peter the Great" was at the head of my stud. He is today considered by all horsemen the greatest producing stallion of any breed that so far has appeared. He has such great po- tency that every colt by him at 2 years can, if trained, trot a mile in 2:30 or better. I may speak frankly of his greatness, having only recently sold him in his twenty-second year for 50,000 cash. It has been a source of very great grati- fication to me to see how much this remark- able stallion has contributed to the upbuild- 9 10 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN ing of the American Trotting Horse. The winning race horses, which have been bred on my farm in the last few years, would fill a very long column. I always have believed that, if the prob- lem of producing great race-horses could be solved, much light would be thrown upon the question of human inheritance. I be- lieved this, because the highly organized race-horse is more like the high bred man in his physical and nervous constitution than any other animal. The laws of hered- ity, which govern the production of horses, govern the production of men. One of the greatest of living geneticists, Professor W1f. Johannsen of Jena, in his great book on Heredity, published in 1913, states: " The same Laws of Heredity govern man that we find in animals and plants. Any difference would be incon- ceivable." This is the opinion of every scientist in the world. It is possible to get the results of heredity so much quicker in horses than in men that eighteen years of horse breeding will give as many genera- FEW SIRES HAVE MAGIC FORCE tions of horses as one hundred and fifty years will give in generations of men. I have bred horses for the knowledge it would give me of human heredity, for I knew such knowledge would eventually be forthcoming and could be used for the up- building of the human race. This has been the dream of my life. Mly purpose in this volume is to state some conclusions to which I have been brought by my experi- ences of twenty years as a horse breeder. The first thing which the horse breeder has to learn is that only a few horses out of the many which are bred are of any value to improve the breed. At first, it is almost impossible for him to realize that this is a law of nature. To the young breeder, it appears that all the sons and daughters of a great sire or of a great dSam ought to have the power of building up the breed. He has to learn that the magic force for improvement resides in the very few. The trotting horse breed has had over fifty thousand registered stallions used in the stud and a far larger number of registered brood-mares. Only a few score of this vast 11 12 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN number have contributed, or can contrib- ute, to the evolution of the light-harness horse. So far as the influence of the re- mainder is concerned in the upbuilding of the trotting breed, they need not have lived. Before I have finished I shall show the same is true in the human family. CAUSE OF SEX. Let us agree, for the purpose of the fol- lowing contention, that the stallion and brood-mare, under consideration, are bred in the purple and are physically perfect. It has been found that every stallion and every brood-mare has two centers, one a male center and the other a female center, and, when mated, if the two male centers float over and join, the offspring will be a male-life; if the two female centers join, the offspring will be a female. These cen- ters or tendencies are stronger at one time to produce a male and weaker to produce a female; at other times, the tendencies are stronger to produce a female and weaker to produce a male. It is the predominance of these joint tendencies, either male or fe- CAUSE OF SEX male, which determines the gender of the colt. Let us, mathematically, consider these male and female tendencies or centers. In the stallion and in the brood-mare, each always has 100 of tendencies. And let us consider, for the sake of my combina- tions, the relative percentage division of each stallion's and each mare's tendencies to be 100. A = Stallion = 100 tendencies, male and female. B = Brood-Mare = 100 tendencies, male and female. M = Male. F = Female. Then, we have the following five combina- tions of tendencies, and as many more as you like, but always bear in mind that there are, after breeding, 200 tendencies to each offspring, 100 from each parent, and the gender of each offspring will de- pend upon whether the majority percent- age of the tendencies at the mating is male or female. 13 14 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN COMBINATION 1. A. = 100 M. + B. - 1007 M- 2007o A.B.M. This combination pro- duces a stallion colt of the highest order of potency with a male produc- ing vigor in his life germs of the order of " George Wilkes " or " Peter the Great"; a colt with a power to found a family, if properly crossed, and to stamp his individuality and his tem- perament on the offspring. COZMBINATION II. A. = 100 F. + B. = 1001 F. 200 A.B.F. This produces a brood- mare of the highest order of potency, with a producing vigor of the order of the "Bertha," "Beautiful Bells" or "Orianna" type. Any mathematician will tell you that for the stallion and the mare, at the moment of breeding, each to have 100 male, or each to have 100 female tendencies are very rare combinations. Great sires and great dams are few and far between. Hence it is hard to produce, even under the best conditions, a great stock stallion or a great WORTHLESS MALES AND FEMALES 15 brood-mare, and because of this a breeder, when successful, obtains such high prices. Some sires are known as brood-mare sires; others are known as sires of sires. There are only a very few all round sires of brood-mares and of sires. It is well known that in some families the boys are endowed with the ancestral ability, while in other families the girls are the fortu- nate ones. Very few families exist where both sexes have inherited distinguished ability. COMBINATION III. A = 60O M. and 40 F. + B. 40 M. and 60o F. = 100 A.B.M. and 100 A.B.F. This combination will produce either a male or a female, as it generally de- pends upon which tendencies are the more vigorous, and, if it be a male, it will be useless as a sire, and if it be a female, she will be hard to get in foal; and so far as the benefit to breeding is concerned, will be about worthless, whether male or female. This com- ijination shows to a breeder how some 16 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN brothers and sisters of great stallions or brood-mares vary in their value as producers. If all stallion colts of this combination were castrated and all fillies from this combination were never bred, it would be a good thing. In every big sales stable, you will find horses called "Dummies." They come from this combination, and are easily known by their lack of intelligence and physical vitality; and among humans, we have our "Sissie" and our "Tom- boy. " A "Sissie" has a soft voice and pre- fers to play with girls. As a general thing, neither have any great longe- vity. A "Tom-boy" has a man's voice, and prefers to play with boys. She often has coarse hair, sometimes growing in bunches. How many chil- dren have you ever known a "Sissie" or "Tom-boy" to have I confess my information in this particular is very meager, but it is to the effect that neither produce to any great extent. Dr. Robert T. Morris, in "Microbes and BREEDING SCIENTIFICALLY Men," has stated a law of cultural limita- tions; that culture is artificial, rather than natural. Nature makes a strong effort to preserve a mean or average type. The animal or human family degenerates and passes away, chiefly through the direct and indirect action of microbic enemies, which assail a weakened constitution. Humans have not as yet taken the lesson to them- selves; horsebreeders and fish-growers are the only ones to take up the question of breeding by impregnation in a scientific way. COMBINATION I-V. A = 60 M. and 407 P. + B. = 60 M. and 40 F. = 120 A.B.M. and 80 A.B.F. This combination will produce a male colt whose ability and vigor in the stud will be in the relative proportion, as 200 A.B.M. is to 120 A.B.M. COMBINATION V. A. = 40 M. and 60 F. + B. = 40 M. and 60 F. = 120 A. B. F. and 80 A.B.M. 17 18 THD RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN This combination will produce a fil- ly whose vigor and ability as a brood- mare will be in the relative propor- tion as 200 A.B.F. is to 120 A.B.F. At the time of mating, a marked impres- sion is made on the colt if both stallion and brood-mare are in perfect condition. I am satisfied that greater and better colts will be produced if the brood-mare has a colt every other year, or even every third year. It would give nature ample time to restore strength and vitality exhausted or given to the offspring. In every particular, as aboved noted, whatever holds good of the horse, holds good of the human. The day is not far distant when some scientists will discover how to regulate the tendencies which determine sex; and par- ents will only have to make their wishes known to have them realized. For three years, we have daily studied the question of sex control at the Patchen Wilkes Stock Farm, and have tried out every claimed method, finally having dis- REGULATING SEX carded each and every such known scheme for regulating sex. We have noticed, however, that, at cer- tain seasons, there is a predominance of male colts in our district and, at another time, a predominance of female colts. At the beginning of the stud season, we are inclined to believe that male colts predom- inate, but we have no positive proof. We sometimes think that if a mare is bred di- rectly after she has come in season male colts will predominate, and as the season advances female colts will predominate. The difficulty lies in the fact that a breeder can not always definitely ascertain the ex- act date when a mare commences to come in season. I have no doubt that I could breed stallions and mares to produce only male or only female colts by a continuous breed- ing from sires and dams coming from families that had produced only male or female colts. In this way I produced a herd of sheep that produced only twins or triplets. Whenever you find twins in humans, you will generally find an hered- 19 20 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN itary tendency to twins on the mother 's side. I have noticed, however, that the first colt of a young well matured mare of five or six years old is generally a stud colt, especially if she catches at first mating; and, if a mare aborts or loses her colt at suckling time, that the next colt is generally a stud colt. I sometimes have thought that the secretions from the cells that nourish the germ cells govern the inclinations, either male or female. When this discov- ery is once made, we shall have only full male and full females of the I and II combinations born, or close to them; no more ''sissies," no more "tom-boys," and our vigor, as a nation, in mental and phys- ical stamina, will be on the ascendency, provided laws are passed preventing the marriage of defectives and diseased per- sons. CONTRIBUTION OF HORSEMEN TO EUGENICS. To the Trotting Horsemen, more than anyone else, is due the advancement this HORSEMEN AND EUGENICS country is now making in eugenics. It was Governor Leland Stanford, owner of "Electioneer," and the great Palo Alto Farm, who placed David Starr Jordan at the head of Stanford University, with un- limited funds, to carry out his ideas on breeding and heredity. The trotting horse indutsry has in the United States and Canada, perhaps, a million or more persons financially or otherwise interested in its success. It has six or seven weekly papers entirely de- voted to its interests, and in every big city there are one or more daily papers that give a column or part of a column each week to matters relating to the trot- ting horse. The Grand Circuit consists of about fourteen large tracks. In addition to these, there are over 900 other tracks with their smaller circuits which work inde- pendently of each other and of the Grand Circuit. There are several thousand people who go through the Grand Circuit every year and thousands more that attend the various smaller circuits, half-mile 21 22 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN tracks and fair tracks throughout the country. There are three places where, each year, from two to three large trot- ting horse auction sales are held. At these tracks and auction sales, you meet the richest and the poorest, the most distin- guished jurists, railroad presidents, mer- chants, ministers, priests, and, in fact, representatives of all trades, mingling, hobnobbing and discussing horse interests and breeding with the most ordinary un- educated men on even terms. There is a spirit of comrade-friendship among trot- ting horsemen that is marvelous. Such a phenomenon does not exist in any other organization of business in the world. I have a list of fifteen thousand men who are in the habit of attending these various auctions and bidding. The trotting horse breeders' associa- tions and these newspapers have their various futurity stakes, which generally amount to several hundred thousand dol- lars and are raced off every season. All this gives competition and stimulates the breeding of good horses. With it all E. H. HARRIMAN; J. D. ROCKEFELLER 23 comes a knowledge of heredity the trans- mission of tendencies, an insight into the benefits of good ancestral histories, and the methods of combining the good qualities of different horse families by crosses and, in the same way, eradicating their failings. So is it any wonder that trotting horse- men should be the first to notice the utter neglect given to the breeding of humanst It was through the late E. H. Harriman, the owner of "Stamboul" and "John R. Gentry," that we have the Advanced School of Eugenics and Heredity at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York; and through his widow, the patroness of the Goshen Track, we have the priceless Eu- genic Bureau, which thinking people are now beginning to appreciate. It is to John D. Rockefeller, the owner of "Cleora" and "Midnight," and breeder of various other horses, that we are indebt- ed for the Rockefeller Institute of Research and the Rockefeller Foundation, both of which are bound to be of the greatest good imaginable to the health and happi- ness of the country and for the stability of 24 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN this nation. The thanks of a nation should go up to Mir. Rockefeller for his noble and generous gifts. I do not know whether or not Andrew Carnegie ever was interested in horses, but his greatest monument will be the Carnegie Institute for Experimental Evolution at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, which is a branch of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D. C. This great research in- stitution has an endowment of 25,000,000. INFLUENCE OF GREAT SIRES IN FOUNDING ALL BREEDS. The Orloff Trotter was founded by Count Alexis Orloff Tchestmensky. In 1775, he imported from Greece a horse, " Sme- tanka," an Arab or Barb, and, when mated to a cart-mare, produced "Polkan," who, from a Dutch mare, got "Barrs," in 1784. From three sons of " Barrs," all Or- loff Trotters have sprung. 1. The dam of the first son was by an Arab. INFLUENCE OF GREAT SIRES 2. The dam of the second son was by an English Thoroughbred. 3. The dam of the third was by a son of "Smetanka. " Here, we see that just one horse estab- lished the great Orloff Stud Book-whose registry numbers at least 1,000,000. The founder of the American trotting horse breed was "Hamiltonian 10." The number of his sons is, perhaps, 600. Out of these 600, four, alone, have made sub- stantial contributions to speed. These four are: "'Happy Medium,'" "'Electioneer,'" "George Wilkes" and "Strathmore." The other sons produced numbers, but not horses of value. An interesting fact con- cerning the four distinguished sons is that their greatness was sent on through only one or two sons of each, except in the case of "George Wilkes," who had four great producing sons. "Pilot Medium," who carried the on- breeding power of "Happy Medium," con- centrated all the great qualities stored in him into one son, "Peter the Great." " Happy Medium, " with the aid of the dams 25 26 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN of " Pilot Medium " and " Peter the Great, " concentrated in his famous grandson such qualities of real greatness as intelligence, early maturity, speed, and early speed, great lung capacity, soundness of bone, wind, tough tendons, stamina, great vital- ity, great endurance, beauty of conforma- tion and the "do or die spirit-" which they particularly show in long drawn out races. "Peter the Great" has, today, a stud fee of 1,000 and to his harem come more mares than he can cover. Other trotting stallions stand as low as 1 and get no patronage. "Electioneer," through his matchless grandson, "Bingen," who sold for a large sum when 18 years old, contributes to the trotting breed of horses early maturity, beauty of conformation and extreme and early speed. "George Wilkes" was able to distribute his heritage of greatness to four lines of descendants, as follows: " Bar- on Wilkes," "Alcyone," "Onward" and "William L." The characteristics, which he handed on to these four important strains of trotting horse blood, are: intelli- LONGEVITY IN ANIMALS 27, gence, speed, endurance, muscular develop- ment, hard bone, strong tendons and good wind. Strathmore's influence in the breed has been mainly in the quality of brood mares which trace to him. He gave to his progeny, stamina, hard bone, vitality, lon- gevity and toughness, while his greatest son, "Steinway," who was a world's cham- pion trotter at three years of age, was used successfully in the stud until he was well past the meridian. His son, "Charles Derby, " until he was 28 years old, was possessed of great potency. Longevity characteristics appear in certain strains of animals, just as we notice them in certain families among humans. All the English thoroughbred horses trace in their male ancestry to three great sires. These three are,-" Matchem, " "Herod" and "Eclipse." They, like the trotting horses, sent on their elements of greatness through one, two or three, at most, of their sons and daughters. The laws of heritage, it seems, decree that in the evolution of a breed improvement is 28 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN not due to the many offspring of a dam or sire, but to some one or two of the progeny, as I have explained under Combination 1. Great thoroughbred sires have sold for 200,000, and their stud service is 1,500, while others stand as low as 1. There is no better illustration of great- ness descending in a single line than the recent establishment of the American Sad- dle Horse. The foundation sire, "Den- mark," succeeded in contributing but one son. He, "Gaines Denmark," was out of a "Cock-Spur" mare, and of all his nu- merous sons, the one he got by being mated with another "Cock-Spur" mare is the im- portant one. His name would not even have been entered in the Stud Book had it not been for his son, "Washington Den- mark." The entries in the Stud Book trace back to "Gaines Denmark," through "Washington Denmark." "King William" carried the greatness of his sire, "Wash- ington Denmark," and he gave it all to "Black Eagle," and "Black Squirrel" car- ried the good points of his sire, "Black Eagle," and was able to pass on his great- GREAT FUTURE DEMANDS GREAT PAST 29 ness to two sons, 'Chester Dare" and "Highland Denmark." A great future demands a great past in breeding horses, as well as in breeding hu- man beings. That is to say, if your ances- tors are not the best, your family name will disappear from the honor roll, unless you mate your offspring well and continue to mate them well. You do not build a great building with- out an expert master-mind to advise and direct you. You cannot expect to build up a healthy, brainy, enduring family unless you have a competent expert to advise you. What do young people either know or care about racial improvement at that stage of the game, until some day, when it is too late, they are awakened by the sad results of their own ignorant marriages Hence it is the duty of all parents to have their chil- dren instructed in the fundamental facts of heredity and reproduction. Look at the trotting horse families that were once great and are now dead and for- gotten; where are the "Blue Bulls," the "Champions," the "Bashaws," the 30 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN "]Royal Georges," the "Messenger Du- rocs, " etc. When the crucial test of reproducing speed, stamina and intelli- gence, was applied, each failed. Each family went out of existence because their offspring began to show the undesirable qualities of their ancestors, as errors had been made in the crosses. Confucius, of old, was a great scien4- tist. When he discovered that ances- tral traits, tendencies, facial and bodily characteristics had been inherited by his own generation from generations that lived a thousand years before and were then be- ing passed on to future generations, it was too great a mystery for him to fathom, so he instructed his followers to cultivate an- cestor worship-and the Chinese practice it, even today. Stallions and mares sometimes cast back to an undesirable ancestor; and, again, to a desirable ancestor. Whenever my stallion "Onward" had a chestnut colt, I would be awakened at night by the brood-mare man, to be told that a "Champion" was born. That uneducated THE INTELLIGENT BREED OFFSPRING 31 colored man knew by instinct that a great ancestor's soul had come back to earth in flesh and blood. When you see a man of marked potency, energetic of mind and body and of distin- guished family features, carrying well along in life the high breeding of a dis- tinguished ancestor, you may be reasonably sure that it is a case of atavism, and he is very close to Combination No. I. Some people try to raise children; others, who know their business, breed them. They carefully select the cross to mate with what they lack in their own make-up, and to strengthen their own good quali- ties. They know the "Golden Cross" be- cause they have studied the pedigrees of the man or woman to whom they were mated; the good points and the failings of each other's ancestors were well con- sidered. The horse that carries a pedigree finally proves his worth by the perform- ances of his get. Each succeeding cross or breeding or in-breeding increases the speed quality or the intelligence, the stam- ina and value of the offspring, as it moves 32 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN forward from the parent stem, until a time comes when we need an outcross, be- cause of too much in-breeding. What is true of the horse is true of the human. Some years ago, people with more imag- ination than good common sense went to Arabia to get an Arabian horse to cross back on the English thoroughbred. The re- sult was an absolute failure, because the English thoroughbred, in good breeding, had moved ahead a thousand years. In raising trotters, breeding back to mares carrying thoroughbred blood, has given us our greatest and fastest trotters of the day. In the human family, breed- ing back to families who carried the best ancestral blood, has given us the greatest men of the day. The family is stronger than the individ- ual. That is to say, the handsomest finest looking man of no blood and no ancestry will never sire children equal to even the more ordinary individual of good blood and good ancestry. I once drove forty miles to purchase "Wiggins," a great son of "iberdeen," as I needed certain of his THE SIRE PLANTS THE SEED hereditary qualities to combine in my crosses. One look at him was enough; no one but an expert breeder would send his mares to this stallion's court. Rather than have such a looking horse on my farm, I decided to pay the stud fee. The sire plants the seed, and, if that seed comes from a failure, you may expect a failure. If it comes from a successful healthy man of good parentage, good an- cestry, and devoid of bad inclinations or tendencies, you may expect a successful child. In breeding horses we learn what the families of the dams have produced and we follow them in the male line and use mares from families producing health, speed and good traits; and one generally does not make failures, unless there is too much inbreeding, and then an outcross is needed. If the same rule were followed in the human family, we should have continual successes and the man who works hard to have his name handed down to posterity, if he only lived, would be gratified to see the results. 33 34 [HE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN The present day breeds of Dairy Cows owe their profitable production to a few family strains, all on the sire side. A striking example is to be found of the in- fluence of the prepotent sire among the "Holstein-Freisian" breed. In this breed, only seven cows are on record as producing forty pounds of butter in seven days. All seven are descended from "Netherland Prince." There are 41 cows, whose seven day record is 35 pounds of butter. 39 of these trace their ancestry to "Netherland Prince." 100 cows of this strain have rec- ords of 33 pounds, and 97 of them go back to "Netherland Prince." 473 cows have been able in a week to make the enviable record of 30 pounds. 463 of them claim "Netherland Prince" as a near or remote ancestor. So far as the improvement of the breed is concerned, the facts stated show that the evolution largely centers around "Nether- land Prince" and his get. Two other facts should be remembered in the great change which has been made in the productive powers of the dairy cow by intelligent EARLY MATURITY PROFITABLE breeders in the last forty years. One is that their maturity has been secured at an earlier age. A cow of today comes into profitable production nine or twelve months earlier than some years ago, and steers are marketable at one and two years in- stead of four or five. Think of the im- mense saving to the farmer and cattleman ! This valuable trait has been evolved by the power of sires prepotent for early ma- turity. The other fact, which must be men- tioned, is that the evolution of the dairy cow, by the judicious conservation of pre- potent strains, gives dairymen a greater profit on their investment and maintenance than their predecessors enjoyed. The same is true of cattle for beef. Today, cattlemen use bulls one and two years old, where they formerly used four or five year old bulls. Careful breeding from early maturing an- cestors brought about this early maturity. It costs more to feed and keep a cow pro- ducing 20 pounds of butter per week than it does to feed a cow that yields 5 pounds; but, there is a larger ratio of profit to the dairyman in the 20-pound cow; and a cer- 33 36 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN tain loss in the 5-pound one. Great bulls of the "Netherland Prince" strain sell for from 15,000 to 25,000, others for the price of beef; one commands a stud service of 100 and others go begging at 1.00. This is true of the various other breeds of cattle, of the ox type, that pull heavy weights. That strain comes from its one sire that produces great strength. The best example of improvement by breeding in domestic animals is shown in the great change brought about in the hog. The despised swine of the ancients and the wild fierce boar of the forest have yielded to the influence of breeding and care as few animals have done. This is true, because, as improved today, all that is required of the hog is that he be fed and be converted into pork. No intelligence, endurance or foraging powers are required of him. To eat, grow and grunt is the end of his exist- ence. By breeding and feeding, the mar- ketable age of the hog has been cut from 24, 18 or 15 months, down to as low as 7 or S months. I believe that the hog is the best bred of any domestic animal and the one WELL-BRED AMERICANS CALLED HOGS 37 from which the farmer is gaining the most profitable returns as the result of good breeding. Once, I used to be indignant when foreigners referred to Americans as "hogs." At last, I consoled myself with the thought that they so admired our hogs that they associated all well-bred Ameri- cans with hogs. Hog-breeds of today come from two or three potent ancestors. Each breed has but a few potent representative sires and they sell for a big price, as a "Duroc Jer- sey" boar sold for 5,000 and his stud serv- ice fee is 50.00, where others stand at 50 cents. The Stud Books of the Kennel Club tell the same story. The blue ribbons of the bench, the winners in the fields, are dogs which all run hack through two or three strains in the Stud Book. It is not this or that breed, but the breed as a whole, and each breed has a limited number of indi- viduals which makes the Kennel Stud Book worth-while. Even the poultry breeders have learned the value of the rare sire, as some cocks 38 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN sell for 1,500; and a setting of his fertile eggs sells for 100. The male bird, which improves most the egg production of his daughters, becomes the bird that is needed in the flock and his "cockship" really be- comes the "hen that lays the golden egg." Few people realize that our egg crop is worth 50 more than our wheat crop. Two score years ago, poultry men were content to secure from 60 to 90 eggs per year from each hen. By taking advantage of the reproductive powers of a few males of each breed and breeding only to these, the egg production has been increased to 150 or 200 per hen for the average flock, while the hen already has been evolved which has layed 315 eggs in one year. Pullets now lay at six months and hatch at eight months, while they used to lay at a year or a year and over. There is no doubt that such remarkable results are due to the breeding power of a few males. This is proved by the following: A cock from a 250 egg strain is bred to the hens of a 100 egg strain. The pullets of this cross will produce, say, 200 eggs; IMPORTANCE OF EXCEPTIONAL SIRE 89 but, if you breed a cock from a 100 egg cross to hens of a 250 egg cross, the pul- lets of this cross will only produce 100 eggs. This explains why, when you have 100 young hens and your next door neigh- bor has the same number and same variety, you get 100 eggs, whilst he gets 200 eggs- both chickens having the same range and the same food. The heavy table fowl have their exceptional cock from which all the best market poultry come. I do not want to be misunderstood when I emphasize the importance of the excep- tional sire. While, at most, only a few sons of any sire can irnprove the breed, at the same time, his other sons and daugh- ters are far more valuable than the produce of inferior sires. In other words, the least desirable of the get of a great sire usually- is worth more than the most valuable of an inferior sire; and, among horses, a great sire marks his colts and gives them his disposition, his intelligence, his speed and individuality. Among market poultry, a great cock also does the same; he gives them weight and early maturity. 40 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL-BORN If the domestic animals furnish absolute proof of my statement, that only a few sires of a breed can improve it, the applica- tion to eugenics is apparent; that only a few men come under Combination I. I have explained in the five combinations why "Peter the Great" is the great sire he is; why it is that one stallion has more vitality, more stamina than another, even if it be his own brother; and why one stallion produces a better colt than his own brother, even when both have been bred to the same mare. WV e know why a mare produces a male colt at one time and a female colt at another. WYe do not yet know how to regulate sex, but we undoubtedly will know before long. When a scientist is imbued with a truth, he is sure to dis- cover its cause. Ahliat is true of the horse family is just as true of the human family. We see this today when our N. Y. City Health Department is unable to secure pure human blood for their serums for the cure of Infantile Paralysis. They use the blood of young horses. Some strains of LONGEVITY IS HEREDITARY horses, just as some human families, carry their potency and vigor to greater ages than others. It is a hereditary trait. Fer- dinand de Lesseps, as a man, is an example, and "Charles Derby," in horses, is an- other. The betterment of the race will come through a feiv families, and, of those fam- ilies, not all will contribute an equal share to human improvement. STERILITY. We all know that the instant a hen is hatched, the number of possible eggs she can produce is known and limited. It is the same with every human female,-and, as the greatest glory of womanhood is motherhood, it should be the duty and the pleasure of every woman to practice self-denial; to train herself and mate her- self so that her offspring will be the best; and then to raise her children so that they may be an honor and glory to their name and a credit to the state. In some coun- tries, chiefly polygamous, the offspring used to take the name of the mother until 41 42 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN scienceproved it was the sire that stamped the child's mental and physical powers and gave it vigor and stamina. Dr. Robert T. Morris, of New York City, has given more important and successful study to the cause of sterility in the human female than any other living physician. His book, "Tomorrow's Topics," is most interesting and has shown that most cases of sterility are caused by the presence of bacteria, which devour the fertilizing germs, and by their indirect action on the structures of the developing organs pre- vent conception. With the simplest meth- ods, lie has most successfully treated these "so-called" pronounced cases of barren- ness-and brought joy and happiness into desolate homes, where motherhood had been longed for, but despaired of. When, for reason of malformations or other causes, there are physical obstructions, he uses certain methods of impregnation with marvelous success. Dr. Morris concludes, from his study and experiments with the nature of living protoplasm, that each race has so much protoplasmic energy. Each MORE HIGHLY BRED, LESS PROLIFIC 43 family has only a given amount of energy when it splits off from the original stock. The more highly bred it becomes, the less energy it retains for reproductive purposes. The high-bred race mares have lost a great degree of fertility. Not more than 50 of them produce any one year. Professor W. S. Anderson, of the Kentucky Univer- sity, at Lexington, Ky., endorses this and understands how to remedy it in horses and in human beings. Such well-bred liens as the ever-laying strains of Leg- horns will not incubate their own eggs. The Indian-Runner Duck, which has laid as many as 320 eggs in a year, is not in- clined to spend her time hatching and rearing the young birds. Fertility is lessened in the plant, the moment you breed its petals double. The number of roses decline, as you add petals to the fl ower. The more highly-bred an animal or human becomes, the more barrenness there is. The "Dutchess" strain of "Short- Horned" cattle sold in New York for more money than ever was paid before or since 44 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN for cattle. Females of the Dutchess strain sold from 10,000 up to 40,000. This very cow that sold for 40,000 never had a calf. Today the family is extinct. The champion high bred 10,000 White Leghorn hen, "Lady Eglantine," had a record of 315 eggs a year. Though the eggs were all set, they only produced to her matings 12 chicks that lived to maturity-9 cocks and 3 hens. The champion Plymouth Rock, "Lady Cornell," who had a record of 285 eggs, never, so far as I know, raised a chicken that lived to maturity, although she was repeatedly well mated. The late Robert Bonner's champion, "Maud S.", was splendidly bred, and mated to about all of his stallions, but never had a colt. To illustrate the value of the well-bred sire and to show how much more prolific the common bred female is over the high- bred, I visited today a large hog-farm, from which the best of Kentucky hams come. Here I found, running- wild, several hun- dred splendid, young, fine looking fat pigs as you want to see, a small number of high- bred boars and Reveral hundred of the com- CROSSING HIGH AND LOW BREEDING 45 monest razor-back sows I ever saw. I asked the owner why he did not use better bred sows and his reply was that high-bred sows were only half as prolific as common sows and were not so hardy; that the high- bred boar improved the flavor of the meat and insured the proper bone and frame to the pig on which to put the right kind of meat; that he averaged from eight to four- teen pigs per litter and at least three litters a year; that if he used high-bred sows there would not be 60 of this increase. On most of the sheep farms, where they raise lambs for the market, I found they used the cheap Kentucky Mountain ewes with the high- grade rams-for the same reasons. Some years ago, I secured a flock of very young inbred prize game bantams, weighing from one-half to three-quarters of a pound each. They had been bred for size and feathers. Thev laid at six months and had chicks at eight months. For sev- eral seasons, nearly all the young chicks died. Thinking there was some local trouble, I divided the flock in two and put one flock on another farm, with the same 46 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN result. One of the cocks dying, I secured another of different strain. This flock be- gan at once to increase. In like manner, in this country, a lot of the oldest and best families have run out, become deca- dent, or else have entirely disappeared from lack of intelligent mating and breed- ing of their members. Some years ago, I was invited to witness the re-interment of the bodies, on the male line, of a distinguished family that had been buried in a New England cemetery, back in 1637. They were all in the same soil and all were buried about the same depth. The bones of the oldest were as hard as flint, and those most lately buried, the softest. The older bones were solid and heavy and indicated that their owners were tall and possessed large frames; while those of our times were smaller and lighter and indicated that 'their owners were shorter and stouter. If this does not tell the story of present degeneracy in the human frame of our American citizens, I do not know what does. MATING A LADY TO A GROOM 4 Let me give a curious illustration: I once knew intimately a great, grand, proud old family, whose name is now absolutely extinct, sprung from one illustrious ances- tor. They had a daughter who, at the age of 35 or 40, ran away with a young, unedu- cated, but bright Irish groom, whose an- cestral breeding was lost, and who died about the time of the birth of her second son. She was forgotten by her family and forgotten by the world. Of her two sons, one was no account, the other exceptionally bright; at one moment he showed his high breeding and, at the next, all the charac- teristics of a tricky, suspicious fellow. How I have enjoyed watching him. Now the peacock! Now the duck! Then to watch the countenances of high-bred people in their intercourse with him, for he is exceedingly clever; now they lean forward to catch his witty, choicely put together sentences; suddenly, they draw back, they have caught a whiff of the stable. If I only dared to tell that fellow how to marry! He might bring back from the grave the soul of that ancestor. 47 48 TILE RIGHT TO BEI WELL BORN Nature imposed on the pioneers of New England such a selective eliminating proc- ess as never before or since has been imposed upon any people. The rigors of the climate and unproductiveness of the soil killed off the weak and diseased of the Ply- mouth Rock Colony. From the rugged ones left, there sprang up the New England families, who have since played such com- manding parts in American history. But this virile strain is disappearing. No con- scious effort has been or is being made to conserve the good. Soon, it will have sunk to the level of the mediocre. Our pure healthy New England blood can no longer cross with or assimilate the rotten, foreign, diseased blood of ages, which the gates of our immigration laws now swing wide open and allow to flow in upon us. For the sake of our "American baby," and the future of our American people, will not our Representatives in Congress pass more stringent immigration laws to stop this inflow of diseased blood It is time we Americans who have patriot- ism in our hearts, and gratitude to our an- MEN DO NOTHING TO IMPROVE RACE 49 cestors for the privations and sufferings they underwent to give us this beautiful land, assert ourselves and announce to the world that America must be for Amer- icans, and not for the imported scum of the earth. If the truth were known, there are not, today, in the United States, 4,000 men of the right ancestral history, conformation, constitution and of mental and physical force, horn under or even near to Combi- nation I., who could, by themselves, im- prove the breeding of our human family. If this improvement is to become per- manent, these 4,000 must be mated and bred to the highest bred females, of the right conformation, constitution, and of mental and physical force, and whose an- cestry and blood must be free from phys- ical and mental defects, and they them- selves born under or near Combination II. The obvious conclusion from the preced- ing statements is that the average man is doing nothing and can do nothing to im- prove his race. He adds to the numbers 50 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN only. They are, so far as eugenics are concerned, simply drones in the human bee- hive. EDUCATION AND HEREDITY. Another important observation can be made by the horse breeder. Training, edu- cation and feeding can add nothing to a horse which he can pass on to his offspring. The school, the college and the university do not give anything to the boy which he can hand on to his own sons. We train and race horses to find out if they are fit to breed, and I, in addition, examine their life germs under the microscope to find out whether they are worthy or unworthy to stand in the harem. "Many come, but few are chosen" to my Stallion Court, and the horse who has not the right kind and num- ber of life germs and right kind of ancestry and with it the vitality, bone, muscle, ten- don, stamina, lung power and intelligence to be trained and raced, lacks something which we need in the race horse. We refuse to breed him. Often do we hear an old breeder say, "I shall not breed my good EDUCATION WITHOUT HEREDITY mare to such and such a stallion, because he is not game; he is a quitter; he is soft and he comes from a family of quitters." A well-known trainer, who made fame and money three years ago, has just pur- chased two colts. His remark is: "I have been a loser for two years, because I tried to race fast horses that came from sires whose ancestors were not game. Whenever I got in a tight spot, they quit." The Bible tells us the sins of the fathers are visited upon the children unto the third and fourth generation. Horse breeding proves this. The breeders of "Fighting Cocks" are about as careful of pedigrees and hered- itary taints as any you ever met. They know one drop of cur blood in their breed- ing cock means their ruin. "Patchen Wilkes," a son of "George Wilkes," was considered, in his time, about the best bred and handsomest horse in America, but, as a great sire of early speed, was an absolute failure. His female off- spring, however, became good broodmares. Afterwards, when "Onward," the great- est son of "George Wilkes," was bred to 51 52 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN young mares that had had their first colts by "Patchen Wilkes," I noticed that the heads and tails of these first colts were like "Patchen Wilkes," and that they often were marked like "Patchen Wilkes" on the fetlocks. I noticed this same phenom- enon in colts by "Peter the Great," out of young mares that had their first colts by "Onward," that they had an inclina- tion toward "Onward" heads and tails. I observed mule colts that looked very much like horses. On investigation, I dis- covered that the dams of these mule colts had first colts bv a stallion. I noticed this particularly in the heads, neck and tails of these animals. There is just one conclusion I can draw, and that is, ai young mare carries certain elements of life that she gets from the first mating over to the second mating by an- other stallion. What is true of the mare is true of humans. If a widow, who has had a child by her first husband, should have a child by her second husband, the child by the PECULIARITIES TRANSMITTED second husband, to a certain extent, would get the leavings of the first husband. Certain great stallions of the thorough- bred and trotting horse families have pe- culiarities and habits which they as surely transmit to their descendants as the black man transmits his black skin or the white man transmits his white skin. These ti'aits are not as apparent among the stallions of today as they were thirty years ago, as intelligent breeders have, by judicious crossing, outbred these tempera- mental defects, as well as the physical de- fects. But, in the human, these traits of character, and hereditary physical traits and peculiarities of families, are almost as apparent today as they were one hundred years ago. There has been no scientific breeding to eliminate them. Often we find that a son or daughter of exceptionally fine parents is a brainless good-for- nothing. In nine cases out of ten, if you will trace back his or her ancestry, you will find it is a case of heredity. In the horse, some families are inclined to kick with the hind feet and others to hit 53 54 THE _LIGHT TO BE WELL BORN with their front feet. Some bite, and some watch their opportunity and grab their vic- tims with their teeth, kneel on them and kill them. I went into a sales stable yesterday and the owner called my attention to a very valuable mare. "Look out for her," he called, as I entered her stall, "she belongs to such and such a family." Now, men who amount to anything have peculiar family traits, just as they have dis- tinctive physical features, as the shape of the nose, the ear, the mouth, the teeth, the chest, etc., etc. These they transmit to their offspring just as surely as do the stal- lions to their colts. Others have family in- clinations to consumption, to cancer, to con- stipation, to asthma and mental troubles, which can be outbred by judicious mar- riage. All have heard of the Indian baby that was reared and educated from birth in a family of culture and refinement; and, when the first opportunity came, heredity prevailed and he took to the woods-and of TWELVE-YEAR-OLD EQUALS BOY TWENTY &j the Eskimo baby, reared in the same way, who longed for ice and cold weather. The boy who has not the natural powers to secure an education, when he reaches manhood, cannot give to his children that which he, himself, does not possess. It matters not how you may work upon the fellow to cover up his lack of talent by long training, he only can transmit that which he inherited from his ancestors. Nothing of his culture and training can be handed on. When you see a man of great activity of mind, body and energy, and with an iron constitution, carrying his life giving powers well on in years, you may be sure of one thing,-his parents were wise in the selec- tion of their ancestors. There is no reason why, by judicious crossing and breeding, you cannot produce a boy of twelve who will have the same mental and physical development of a young man of twenty of today. Wte have done this in the horse, and we can do it in the human, but it will take from fifteen to twenty times the amount of time. As a 56 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN proof of this, I wrote an article, some ten years ago, predicting that a colt would soon be produced, which at the age of two would have the intelligence, physical development and stamina of a horse of six or seven; and I had the good fortune to produce that colt in "Peter Volo," who took a record of 2:041j. at two years of age and 2:031/2 at three years, and 2:02 at four. From his breeding and from our microscopic examination of his germs, he can not but be a great sire of early and extreme speed. DEFEC(TIVES, LIKE UNFIT ANI- MALS, SHOULD BE STERILIZED. In breeding horses, we render impotent the unfit. We -never try to render fit a sire by education. We have no sanitariums for weak horses, to keep them alive at public expense, and then turn them loose to repro- duce their unfitness, to refill more homes for defectives. The same rule should apply to humans. Go to Randalls'Island with Pie, and see there 2,000 defectives-some with heads not bigger than your fist, two or three from the same family and others with DEFECTIVES SHOULD BE STERILIZED less intelligence than animals, so low in in- telligence that they cannot care for their own simplest wants, all supported by New York City tax-payers, and you will say that it were better for these children and better for the world had they never been born. Ninety-nine per cent. of them are chil- dren of the diseased offscouring of Europe and the Orient. Take one good look at this bunch of 2,000 defectives and ask yourself the question: Is it just and fair to the un- born to allow them to grow up, mate and breed more defectives Is it not the duty of the state to, at least, sterilize the malesl On examination, I found that not one of the parents of these defective children ever paid one cent of city taxes; that they or their parents had been simply dumped on our shores; also that, at least, some of their parents had been a further burden on our city by having been inmates of our city hospitals and our charity insti- tutions. Is this sort of business fair to those who pay taxes The community pays well our law makers to make laws to protect 57 58 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN us. Instead of this they neglect their duty, to put it mildly. The army of field workers sent out by the Eugenics Record Office has traced and tab- ulated pedigrees of enough human defec- tives to prove that defectives come from defective parents. Insane parents produce children who are subject to the same afflic- tion. Weak-minded men and women beget children of the same kind. Erratic ner- vous temperaments also are transmitted. Sex offenders and criminals, in large meas- ure, transmit the lack of self-control, which results in anti-social acts. The remarkable results obtained by the Eugenics Record Office have convinced the scientist of the correctness of the foregoing statements. Their field workers have quietly traced from court, asylum, cemetery, etc., records and other sources, the cause of the death and the weak points of 10,000 families for 100 years back. Undertakers, doctors, cemetery books, etc., are secured, and these records tell a story of goodness or rotten- ness; of what diseases or family failings are to be out-crossed by proper mating. "JUKES" PRODUCED DEMORALIZATION 59 Dugdale, in 1877, through Putnam's Sons, published a study of crime, pauper- ism, disease and heredity, and brought to light the history of the "Jukes," who in about 1780, originated from one, "Jukes," a hard drinker, who lived in the upper part of the State of New York, and who, in that short period, had 1200 descendants. Today, after a lapse of 130 years, old Jukes' descendants number 2820 of which five of his daughters, all own sisters, have descend- ants that number 2094, all of whom carry Jukes' blood, and of these 1258 are alive today. Of these, down to 1871, 300 received pauper support, equal to 2300 years of pauper support to one person. 171 were criminal offenders; 250 were arrested and tried for various crimes; 60 were known as habitual thieves; and 7 were tried and con- victed of murder; 50 were prostitutes; 40 of the women were known to have syphilis; and it was estimated that these 40 syphil- ized 440 men, 40 of whom syphilized their wives, and their progeny became tainted and diseased up to an unknown number. Only 20 were known to have followed any 60 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN useful trades, 10 of whom learned these trades in state's prison. The prison terms of these people down to 1915 were 3751/'2 years for one person, and the aggregate cost of this family to the State was 2,100,- 000 and for pensions 650,000 more. These statements of Dugdale were thoroughly in- vestigated and, in 1877, startled thinking people, but, today, all is forgotten. Dugdale finished his work by adding, "It is getting time to ask, why do not our courts, our laws, our almshouses and our jails deal with the question presented" Then Dr. Esterbrook of Indianapolis, Ind., published the history of "The Nam" family, 852 persons, all from one ancestor, another defective family that cost the State and society 1.141,676. This family is still reproducing feeble-minded people, defectives and criminals. Dr. Esterbrook is now at work on the "Ishmaels," a family of over 9,000 members. They came from one parent stock. They left Kentucky some time after 1800 for Indiana, and, in 1840. this family was said to number 300. They have intermarried and intermarried THE FAMILY OF RICHARD EDWARDS 61 and it is estimated they have cost society and the State 2,000,000 or more, and are still producing feeble-minded or defective offspring. (See Dr. Esterbrook 's report.) They cost Indiana, alone, over 1,000,000. Let me contrast with you the family of Richard Edwards, a Connecticut lawyer, descended from a Puritan family, who, in 1667, married for his first wife, Elizabeth Tuttle, born of a family of physical and mental superiority and with a good healthy ancestry, evidently born with the high-bred female organism of Combination II. Among their descendants were 300 college graduates, 14 college presidents, 100 college professors, 30 judges, 60 physicians, 100 clergymen, missionaries and theological professors; 65 authors of 135 books; ed- itors, lawyers, politicians and leaders of in- dustry and owners of factories. Afterwards, Richard Edwards married Mary Talcott, of a family of very mediocre ability. She had a pretty face and nice figure, but little talent and no decision of character; she aged quickly and became 62 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN very ordinary in appearance as she grew older. This union produced five sons and one daughter. Not one of these children or their descendants ever gained the slightest reputation for ability or usefulness. They were, what would be termed in horse par- lance, "Idummies." If these contrasts do not show the young people of this country that it is time to con- sider the hereditary traits of contracting parties, before marriage, I do not know what will. I feel sure that every word which I have said about the horse, the cow, the hog and the hen, will be endorsed by men who have made a study of the methods by which the breeds of domestic animals have been brought to their present state of excellence; and, likewise by experts in eugenics, what I have said about heredity in the human race. Some of my readers may question my repeated statement, that what is true of the horse is true of the human. I could add other authorities, in addition to Professor Johannsen, of Jena, by quoting from the HEREDITARY DEAFNESS writings of Drs. Davenport and Reed, Prof. Popenoe, Editor of the organ of the American Genetic Association, "The Jour- nal of Heredity," and other great scien- tists, but to do so would be more like plating gold with gold to anyone at all ex- perienced in such matters. There are in the United States, at least 100,000,000 people. Of this number, 3 are sufficiently deaf to need help; there are adults to the number of 5,000,000 that are "hard of hearing" and there are 1,000,000 known deaf. 60 of these can trace their lack of hearing to deaf parents or deaf an- cestors. Dr. C. A. Fay has made a study of the records gathered by the Tolta Bureau. He finds that there have been 4,471 marriages between deaf persons. 14.1 of these deaf matings report no children. There are 6,782 children reported from parents, both of whom are totally deaf, 24.7 of children from these deaf parents are themselves deaf. Are not such marriages criminal and should not the State interfere! Thus Dr. Fay's tabulation shows that 63 64 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN deafness is hereditary. Among normal people, a child born deaf is very rare, un- less there is deafness in one or both families of the parents. Dr. Fay also finds that per- sons deaf by accident do not produce deaf children. Only the parents who are syphi- litic or have the tendency to deafness in their ancestry can transmit deafness. 80 of the inherited deaf mutes either lack cer- tain nerves in their inner ear or these nerves do not respond. The "Volta Review" gives, among the important causes of deafness, heredity, con- sanguineous marriages, tuberculosis, syph- ilis and infectious fevers. Alexander Graham Bell wrote, thirty years ago, "that if marriages between the deaf continued for several generations, there would result a new variety of the human, permanently devoid of the sense of hearing. "'When one parent is normal and one is hereditarily deaf, the children have an even chance of escaping the imperfection." Analogous marriages between persons afflicted with hereditary Bright's Disease INTERMARRIAGE OF DEAF OR BLIND 65 or hereditary Heart J)isease, etc., etc., have been tried, with the uniform result that in a few years all the descendants were so af- flicted that finally the family died out. Dr. J. Kerr Love, in his exhaustive treatise on "The Causes of Children Be- coming Deaf in Great Britain," states the causes: " First-meningitis; second-hereditary syphilis. " There are 58,000 blind persons in the United States. Of these, about 50 are the result of heredity and about 30 from social diseases; about 20 from inbred marriages and other causes. Will anyone question that it is the duty of the United States Government to pass laws that will prohibit two hereditarily blind persons marrying, or the marriage of two hereditarily deaf persons, or of one blind person, who is hereditarily blind, marrying into a family whose past history shows hereditary blindness; or, one hered- itary deaf mute marrying into a family whose past history shows hereditary deaf- ness Science, however, is now gradually 66 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN eliminating the number of the blind. The 1913 census shows a falling off of 11.1 per 100,000 from the census of 1905. Such afflicted people are, by nature of their affliction, thrown more or less into each other's society and it is only natural that marriages will occur among them, un- less the state steps in and forbids it. If something of this nature is not done, we will increase the number of our hereditarily blind and deaf. There is no question but that a large percentage of cancer and con- sumption cases are so by inheritance and that people are born with tendencies to can- cer and consumption; and it would not be wise for persons afflicted with cancer or con- sumption to marry persons who had con- sumption or cancer, or had it in their family history. Laws should be passed to pre- vent such unions. The same is true of peo- ple whose family history on both sides shows a tendency to Heart Disease or Bright's Disease. This doubling up and doubling up of tendencies to Bright's Dis- ease has continued until today it is not an uncommon thing to find children born with HEART DISEASE HEREDITARY Bright's Disease, from which they die shortly after birth. Today, in our New York City Public Schools, there are 15,000 children who have hereditary Heart Disease, and thousands more who have teeth rotted at the roots and other hereditary affections. People are born whose families show tendencies to asthma. It may skip a genera- tion, but it always appears again, unless eliminated by the right out-cross. It is in- herent in the physical make-up. so it is in- herent in the seed of the sire; that germ of life that gave you your origin. How mar- velous! How inexpressibly mysterious, and sublime! "Saint Vitus's dance" is hereditary in most cases and so are adenoids in chil- dren; others have tendencies to tumors, etc., etc. I have in my employ, today, a woman who had a tumor removed. She had two sisters who had tumors removed, and she has two sisters more who must have tumors removed. Her mother died of a tumor removed; and her aunt had tumors removed. As far back as she knows. 67 68 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN her family history shows her family had tendencies to tumorous growths on the female side. Anyone who works with Nature must ad- mit the existence of a Supreme Being-or a Supreme "something" that rules the uni- verse, foresees the future, and regulates our destinies. Let us call that "some- thing" God, and give him the gratitude and respect due. Fifty years ago, anyone who attempted the surgical operation of removing the ap- pendix would have been classed among lun- atics. Today, that operation is performed daily. Beneficial surgery has advanced far ahead of the science of medicine. Any thinking person knows it would be criminal to allow hereditary epileptics to marry hereditary epileptics, or if he or she does not think so, let them go with me into a colony of epileptics and see for themselves. The scientific expert human-breeder to- day knows how to eliminate this and other failings from the human family. In a certain Western section of our coun- try, there are people who have gone there HEREDITARY TUBERCULAR TUMORS 69 in time past for trouble of the throat and the lungs. Here they were thrown in each other's society and the result is that, owing to propinquity in that section, there is an unduly large percentage of people there to- day who have lung and throat trouble. As I dictate these words, a trotting-bred filly has just died. Her dam has had four colts, two of them by a well-known stallion. Both of these colts have met with peculiar deaths. The other two were by another well known stallion that had imported thor- oughbred blood from an illustrious sire. The life germs of this second stallion, un- der microscopic examination, are small and numerous, but well formed, and exceed- ingly quick and vigorous in their action. The two colts from this mating are per- fectly well; so, on the death of this second colt by the first stallion, an autopsy was held, and it disclosed by microscopic inves- tigation that the colt had tubercular tu- mors. This indicates that the sire of the two colts that died, somewhere in his past history, had an ancestor that had tumors, which stallion's tendencies to tumors, 70 THEI RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN added to the mare's tendencies to tumors, lroduced a colt with a tumor. This illus- trates my point, and also shows-that, by judicious selection in mating, ailments and defects can be bred out, and thus elimi- nated. The general public does not know of the work of the Eugenics Record Office to aid the public to avoid such errors in mating and is ignorant of the bearing of certain infallible laws of nature upon the problem of heredity. What their field workers do not uncover in the past history of any family under investigation is not discoverable. I claim that today this great nation of ours is rushing on to decay and degeneracy with the speed of a Twentieth Century Limited, and that our young men and women must open their eyes and take means to stop it, if they have an atom of American patriotism in their veins. THE NUMBER AND COST OF DEFECTIVES. If the following statistical summary of Public State Institutions for the Socially THE COST OF DEFECTIVES Inadequate in the several states of the con- tinental United States does not influence our Congressmen to pass the needed laws, I do not know what will. Let me quote from a Report prepared by Carnegie Institute of Research, Cold Spring Harbor, L. I., dated August 1, 1916. "This summary does not include the in- dependents that are taken care of in towns by the Town Authorities or County Poor- houses or Alms Houses, and, therefore, do not become a charge on the State. It does not cover the vast amount of inmates of private institutions, so that the expendi- tures for the socially inadequate would be at least 100,000,000 per year. "73,000,000 paid out per year by the states composing the continental United States. "27,000,000, at least, paid out per year by the county poorhouses, almshouses, town and private institutions- "Total, 100,000,000." 71 72 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN 1. Total number of stitutions. 2. Inmates: A. Total No. at time, 1913. a. Male. b. Female. b. Per 100,000 popu- lation of the U. S. 'A- M -0 14 V 0 x o C -4L 0 - 1- e C- C q s o In- eq , -o CO c4 00 e + C Ol OX 4' e CO t eq 00oCo Cl O 00 - ' C 02 Db0t CC 001 C17 OC)10COICr-CC)Nq _ 10I) 00 _- +0 10 10 10 N 10 _C0 OC vlN 2tD 10t -4 e q O O OI10COt0 1 0 0 0 X N 1 000 0 CSC l,- 4 10t _ 7 s C l - q e q c 00 _ I 10 c q N N ICq N 10 1 0 c. Per 1,000,QOO total ., q c o wealth of the States. 'eq 4 ' ' ' ' ' I 3. Expenditures: a. Total for 1913. O= 1-0 CO 1t- oCO Iliqo 10' O CD -4 C-. 0000" rC-- ,It _ 0X., coI. 4 -00 o- C 10001I 0 0l eq CO Nl1010eq'i 0 o to " aX C eq1 01-00eq10 000O10 CO N01N ' '0C O1 0e q e CO b. Per capita for the 4 1 0 o N "fi N 0 5 C people of the United o 0 ! C o o o o O 9 t States for 1913. C oC o C CI o C C c. Per 1,000,000 total "! 4 0 _ OD 0 t 0 `7 01 0 1 wealth of the United cS 10q' N ,i -, - 0 .0 0 States for 1913. l eq " ". t- C: 'Cl lCt to vi -4: '0 iE4 BREED PATRIOTISM; TEACH HYGIENE 73 The time has now come when thinking, patriotic citizens have to realize the neces- sity of breeding strong, healthy, brainy children with patriotism in their hearts, who will protect this country with their mental force, or, if necessary, by force of arms. Let us, at least for the present, cut out of our public schools and colleges, the dead languages, such as Latin, Greek, Sanscrit and Hebrew, also Music and Dancing, and, in their place teach, first, American Patriotism; then the Laws of Heredity and Hygiene, for these are live topics which affect the permanency of the family and the State. Shall we Americans have a land of our own; or shall we surrender it to the rabble -outcasts of other nations, whose per- verted views of life will sooner or later af- fect our nation and warp our opinions on national and other questions I trust there are enough Americans left to defend the Flag, for which our ancestors fought and died, and to see that laws are passed that will protect the unborn and give 74 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN them their rights and save this country to the worthy of the American-born. AVe can not forever absorb this influx of the scum of the earth, this offiscouring, dis- eased, imported blood, with its evil customs. What have they done for our country and this city, and the health of our nation, ex- cept to make trouble And the result of their matings with the healthy blood of our nation is a batch of unhealthy dis- eased children-weaklings who will breed weaklings and trouble-makers. The time has come when the man of the business world and every mother of sons and daughters should know these laws of nature and their meaning to the fu- ture of the American people. The cry of the world today is for facts-more light. Let prudery be banished forever. Tell the young people the truths of life. Give each a chance to know and decide for him or her- self. They should know what these laws of nature mean to our country, what they mean to the health and prosperity of our descendants, to themselves and to their own children. Every thinking man in this coun- CHILDREN NOT GIFTS FROM ANGELS 75 try will awake some day to find our people degenerating, our children growing men- tally and physically weaker and the lives of our people growing shorter, and even with the sciences of surgery and medicine vastly improved, their children suffering untold hereditary ills. These are the important questions of the hour. Children are not gifts from angels. Their bodies and brains are not products of occult forces. Each child has two par- ents, who give it all it has of a body, brain and talent. We know that, if we are to breed a trotter with extreme speed, we must mate a sire and dam, each of whom repre- sents a line of pure speed and healthy ancestry. We know there are many qualities, all of which must be united in one animal to make a great race horse, as conformation, health, lungs, speed, endur- ance, toughness, gait, intelligence, etc. Should a horse lack intelligence, so that he cannot be taught to stay on the trot. he will not race successfully. Noth- ing is better known to the horse breeder. than that if you breed to " fool horses," you 76 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN will get "fool horses," but, if "intelligent hoises" are Inmited, "intelligent foals" re- stilt. Like produces like, or a likeness of a former ancestor. This same law applies with equal accuracy in human heredity. Brain power, like gold, is 6c different de- grees of Iineness-it may be 1 carat, 14 carat or 21 carat, and can only be secured from its source. Neithier brains nor water will rise higher than their source. To ex- pect to produce a great or eminent man from the mediocre strata of the race is as foolish as to expect to secure a world's champion trotter from the mating of scrub horses. Not so many years ago, a few of us be- came interested in eugenics, and started a campaign of enlightenment. C. B. Dav- enport was our leader. Since that time, laws relating to the marriages of defectives have been passed in some 12 Western States; and laws for the sterilization of those who are hopelessly unfit to produce have been passed in some six Western States. In Indiana, alone, 900 defective men recently were sterilized. Our Eastern WRONG WAYS OF HANDLING DISEASES 77 States, respecting hygienic and eugenic laws and regulations, are behind the West, and as the result the appalling number of socially diseased people that we have in the East today is greater than the same class in the West. Not very long ago, the percentage was the other way. In Western mining towns, in some States, where the laws of examinations and certifi- cates are weekly issued, you seldom find a diseased man or woman today. In Lexing- ton, Ky., The Purity League broke up the fast houses, instead of enforcing the exam- ination and certificate system, with the re- sult that at night the Pikes and fields are filled with such people who formerly fre- quented the fast houses. Now, my indulgent reader, with these appalling facts before you, is it not time to call a halt, and for every parent to instruct his or her sons and daughters as to the preliminary investigations which they should make before they allow their fan- cis to run away with their reason Today young people who marry have as much thought about the offspring of their mar- 78 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN riages as the mustang on the prairies. Knowledge comes too late; they spend the rest of their lives in tears and regrets. Don't forget how often, on a moonless night, a stray Tom-cat from another block meets a young Tabby on your back fence, and awakens the whole block with her pain- ful eat-a-wails, and his joyous cat-a-balls, as they announce to the world that their happy marriage is one of love at first sight. The old shoes, tumblers aind angry words, which you and your neighbors fling at them, have no effect,-they are so madly in love! Pause! Is this not a fair example of some of the thoughtless marriages of today EVILS OF LABOR UNIONS. Today, we hear on all sides complaints as to our help, that help of today cannot do as much work as the help of 30 or 40 years ago; that they are not as healthy or as strong. The Labor Unions, today, recog- nize this fact and demand that the healthy vigorous laboring man must not do as much work as his physical and mental pow- ers will allow him to do, as it would reflect LABOR UNIONS BREED WEAKLINGS 79) on his weakling brother-workman to his det- riment; that all wages must be alike for the willing, strong, healthy and tem- perate workman as for the weak, drunken and dissipated workman. This is tan- tamount to putting a premium on drunk- enness and physical infirmities. That the weakling workman's hours, that he is able to stand up and work, shall be the limit of the number of hours that his stronger brother-in-labor shall be allowed to work; and the amount of work the weakling is able to perform, shall be the limit of work the strong, healthy, robust and temperate workman shall be allowed to work. That is to say, it shall be no bene- fit to a man to have the physique, the health and the inclination to work and to raise himself above his fellow-workmen, but that this good man shall be kept down to the level of his degenerate, weakling co-worker. The labor unions have declared that no man shall be paid on the scale of value his labors or his ability to accomplish import- ant matters should entitle him to receive, as it would reflect and expose to the world 80 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN his weakling fellow-laborer. If there be an argument to prove the decay of a nation's workmen and their open acknowledgment of it, we have it right here in the stand taken by the labor unions of the United States. We breed horses with even temperaments and quiet dispositions to be easily handled, to weigh 2,000 to 3,000 pounds or more, and to haul great loads and carry great burdens, such as the "Clysdales, " " Perch- erons," "Belgians," and the "Horse of Gaul." Each of these is classified; each has its own Registry; each its value as to its strength, disposition and ability to stand hard work or carry great loads; each their stud fee, graded as to their colt's value. The value of each is proportionate to the cost of his keep, his longevity and his ability to do the work which he is called upon to do without straining his reserve powers. We all know that during the times of the Knights in Armour horses were bred to carry over 600 pounds; and what can be done in breeding a horse can be done in the same proportion with the human. cn '4 u2 Ix 0 '-4e W 0 U cn .x: Z To W) AS This page in the original text is blank. LABOR REGISTRY VS. DELEGATES The ancestral records of these breeds take up all these points and establish the value of the draft horse of the different breeds, to the farmer, the cartman, the drayman, etc. The life germs in the semen of these horses of burden are large oval globules, docile and slow in their nature and movement; not of the fine, active, quick, energetic nature that one finds in the Thoroughbred or the American trotter, etc., the product of Combination Is THE LABOR REGISTRY Why do not we breed human beings to endure hard work and do it with ease, with- out straining, just as we breed the dray- horses, above cited Let us have a Regis- try for our laboring classes, and breed them so that their actual value will be known to themselves, the public and their prospec- tive wives; and the amount of labor they are able to perform can be estimated and they be paid accordingly. What an incen- tive this will be to elevate and improve the breed of the laboring class. This will do away with the crying need of labor unions, 81 R2 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN for walking delegates, business agents and bomb throwers to protect the weaklings of their number, for then there will be no weaklings for unions and walking delegates to protect. We can thus divide the laboring community into classes-those that come from healthy, good, sober, long-lived, hard- boned ancestry, with great strength, that have done great service for so many years, and lived temperate, good lives, and are able to work ten or twelve hours a day with- out straining themselves or to carry or lift from 200 to 1,000 pounds, and weigh from 200 to 400 pounds or more; and then the ages at which their ancestors died and from what they died, the number of their children and their children's strength and early ma- turity. These characteristics could all be arranged and the laboring men be graded in classes, A, B, C, D, E, and F; F being the lowest class, with low ancestry, ill health, soft bones, sluggish in their movement, and not calculated to produce children that would mature early and help along the household, etc. Why, there is no trouble to breed any kind of men you like, 4 feet men or 7 feet men-or, for instance, all to weigh PRACTICAL BENEFITS OF JOCKEY REGISTRY 83 60 or 400 pounds, just as we breed horses. It only takes a longer time and more patience. THE JOCKEY REGISTRY. There is need of five thousand to six thousand jockeys to ride the running races in this and other countries. One can see a score of them on our Pike on hot summer days, dressed in heavy woolen sweaters, running along and swinging their arms un- der the direction of their trainers to reduce their weight. In England and France, I often have met them in the hot steam baths, for twenty-four hours at a time trying to sweat off a few extra pounds, abstaining from water and food. Jockeys usually come from "Jockey families" and parents often stunt the growth of their boys by giving them coffee and other drugs to keep them small; for, as a general thing, an able small jockey makes much more money than a large one. The jockeys need intelligence, strength and activity. The severe starving and sweating before a race saps the acuteness of his intelligence, his energy and strength. 84 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN All this starving, suffering and grilling these boys undergo to keep down their weight can be avoided by breeding for smallness, strength and quick intelligence; and a family of jockeys can be produced who will always be fit and ready to meet any racing requirements. It is just as easy to produce the jockey of the right size, weight, and with it all, intelligence, as it is to breed ponies or half-pound chickens and the like. The trouble is that a good ninety pound jockey invariably marries a one hundred fifty or one hundred sixty pound woman, and, when he is sixty years old, his weight is one hundred and thirty pounds and her weight two hundred pounds. You see in their families one hundred sixty pound daughters and one hundred thirty pound sons, and you can better understand their bitter disappointment; how the extra twenty or thirty pounds their sons possess is their ruin. Their vocation is lost. In- telligent mating would have saved all this. A "Jockey Registry" will come some day on this same principle. I once collected and bred a small drove of miniature Al- LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS' REGISTRY 85 derny Cows, which were the result of breed- ing cows and bulls whose ancestry had all been small. Then will come "The Locomotive En- gineers' Registry," where men will be bred with hereditary physical and mental qualities that will best fit them for their special duties. On the Pennsylvania Rail- road already such families exist. No old established banking house in the world will take a clerk for a position of trust unless they are satisfied no thief or defaulter ever existed in the applicant's ancestry. When all this will have been accom- plished, the working girl will be able to look over the ancestral Labor Registry or Jockey Registry and the health certificate of her prospective husband and see in what class he belongs. She can go to the Pub- lic Record Hall of the town where he was born and there check up and verify this -whether he is in the A class or the F class. She would know at a glance what she was getting for a husband, if he would be able, when mated with her, to produce 86 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN healthy strong children that will mature early, and whether her prospective husband will be able to support her and their chil- dren properly. The trouble today is that the working-girl marries, without thought, some fellow who can dance nicely and dresses well, and, too late, often discovers she has married a weakling that she has to support. There is hardly a big office in Wall street where this has not happened to one or more of its pretty stenographers. The laboring classes are constantly in- terfered with by having thrown into their ranks the weaklings of the upper classes. Who is there that has not been importuned by this and that person to use as a laborer a relative or somebody of the upper classes If the males of laboring classes were com- pelled to have their own Registry, like the "Clysdales," "Percherons," and other heavy draft Registries, and submit to a microscopic examination of their life germs, as to whether this or that one had the abil- ity to produce large, healthy, strong, early- maturing children, free from physical defects, who would help to support the WALKING DELEGATES AND DYNAMITERS 87 family and the parents when they grow old-how much more happiness such a state of affairs would bring to them; how much more contentment you would find. There would be no need for labor agitators with big salaries, big traveling expenses, with retinues of clerks, to bring on strikes and such things. There no longer would be a need of large bands of dynamiters to blow up newspaper buildings in Los An- geles and in other civilized cities, nor bridges, so as to give more labor, or injure the property or lives of those who wish to work and be paid for the value of their services, nor would honest labor be as- sessed to pay for hired assassins to kill judges who render decisions that are not satisfactory to the laboring unions, or to pay attorneys to defend them or witnesses to prove alibis. These are all little things, but they count up to quite a sum in the end. It would do away with the expensive droves of W\Xalking Delegates, who take money from the employers and hold up their em- ployees. The lowest and the most miser- able trusts we have in this country are the 88 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN Labor Union Trusts. Instead of leveling up, they level down. They crush the ambi- tions to rise of those deserving. Their sole purpose is to uphold the drunken and dissi- pated weaklings of labor, and allow them to continue breeding inferior children to be a charge upon the state, and to handicap the industries of our country to their own detriment; and compel pot-house politi- cians to tell their Congressmen that they must pass laws which will exempt the Labor Union Trusts from being examined; but must hold to strict accountability all other trusts. To gain the labor vote one of our highest officials even sold his soul and be- trayed his country. The day is not far dis- tant when there will be a clash at arms. True Americans will not stand these im- ported ideas nor high handed methods. Stand at the gate of the Ford Factory, at Detroit, at the change of an eight-hour shift, either at four P. M., twelve P. M. or eight A. M., and you will see an intelligent body of 9,000 laborers marching out, and another body of 9,000 marching in. As I looked them over, I saw at a glance that FORD'S IMPORTED LABORERS not one-quarter of these men were Amer- icans and, on inquiry, I found that three- quarters were foreigners (imported skilled mechanics), as American laborers did not have the health, the strength and capacity to stand up, nor the stamina, to do the work that each was expected to daily accomplish. This discovery impressed upon me the im- portance of having the truth as to the de- generacy of our nation widely known. Ir have since made inquiry and find that only 6,800 of all these 36,000 workmen were reg- istered to vote. The Public can now realize why Labor Unions are silent regarding Ford. Not one of these laborers belongs to a. labor organization, for each man is paid according to his individual merit and value. The healthy, temperate, strong and ener- getic do not have to give up part of their life earnings to support their degenerate, drunken brothers-in-labor to keep them alive to produce more weaklings that their healthy children and the state will have, hereafter, to support. No man whose services are worth less 90 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN than 5.00 per day is employed at Ford's. They do not have to pay a share of their money to support drunken Walking Dele- gates. Ford has no strikes, no hold-ups and employs 36,000 men and earned last year about 60,000,000 net-and that is why, when your expensive auto breaks down, a Ford always helps you out.-A Ford always gets there! BIRTH CONTROL. When the defectives have been cut off from the power of reproduction, the next step is to teach the class above them how to practice "birth control" to which no excep- tion could be taken. The unskilled man plays an important role in the industrial world. He lacks the intelligence, the self- control, and the power to limit the number of his children. Two or three are all he can care for properly, yet the number nmiv go so high as to reduce the home to absolute want. Today, educated machinery is tak- ing the place of much of the manual labor, and the need of human labor will not in- crease in the same ratio as the increase in our population. BIRTH CONTROL IN OTHER COUNTRIES 91 From the report of the recent Eugenic Congress, it would appear that methods of birth control, other than those I advocate, are practiced in Australia and certain coun- tries of Europe, with the sanction of these Governments. Let us take Holland, for instance. Here, since 1895, Government officials have direct- ed physicians and midwives to instruct the common people how to practice birth con- trol, with the result that the recent death rate and infantile mortality has decreased while the population has increased. Fewer children are born, but more live, and these are better physically and mentally; and the indications are that the population is now increasing instead of steadily diminishing, as it had been. Much of the vast sums distributed as charity serves to house, clothe and feed families made indigent by a self-indulgence which gives to the family more children than their income can support. Organized society must protect itself in some way from this class. These people are a menace to society because of their rapid increase 92 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN in numbers. This is due to early mar- riages and exceedingly large families. The boys and girls of this class do not like school with its discipline and self-control. Most of them could not master more than a few grades at best. They leave school in the teens, get a "job" and then marry, if, indeed, they do not marry before the job is secured. There is no forethought, no calculating the cost of marriage, nor of their fitness to produce children that will be an improvement on themselves. The impulse to mate is there as in the wild things of the forest and it is exercised with almost as much indifference as to results. Should a child of ability, by some miracle, come into such a home, it would have no more chance to rise than a "Peter the Great" colt would have to distinguish him- self working with a team of mules on some remote farm. The hard knocks and labor soon would render inherent ability valueless. The small family of the better classes cannot be enlarged greatly. Their mar- riage is late, due to the necessity for an education. The actual time spent in school and university often brings the young peo- ple well up in the twenties. After gradu- ation, comes an apprenticeship, or some period of getting established, which runs over the thirties before marriage is pos- sible. The tremendous pressure under which the men and women who are carrying the burdens of industry must live, makes many children in the home impossible. The highly organized nervous system, neces- sary to exercise great brain power, often makes reproduction difficult. It has been found among female animals, as well as among humans, that the better the one is bred, the less the number of her offspring. GERMS. Speaking of germs-few understand that there are as many kinds and breeds of germs as there are kinds of flowers and kinds of leaves on the trees. Each germ has its specific duty and errand in life and, when it is performed, it leaves its abode for new quarters and new work. The germs of diphtheria neither inter- GERAIS 93 94 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN breed nor have anything to do with the germs of infantile paralysis. The same is true of the germs of grippe, and of the germs of syphilis. They are as widely sep- arated as the elephant is from the giraffe in larger animals. None of us appreciate the power or the rapid action and movement of germs. As an illustration, a scourge of abortions, or, as we breeders term them, "slips," visited the various stock farms of our district three years ago. These slips seemed to be abso- lutely painless and to have no injurious after-effects. I have seen a mare, while peacefully grazing, apparently, uncon- sciously slip her colt; and 26 others in the same paddock did likewise. Science was called to our aid, and we dis- covered, at last, the "slip-bug," bacillus abortive equinno, that produced these con- tagious abortions. It was isolated and grown in gelatine and the State of Ken- tucky today is spending a fortune to dis-- cover a germ that will kill the "slip-bug" germ. There, on my desk right from the labora- SEEMING INTELLIGENCE OF GERMS 95 tory of the Kentucky State University, is a small bottle of these cultures, peacefully growing and multiplying. No one to look at them would dream of their power or of their seeming intelligence. A small quantity of this culture injected into a mare, or, in fact, just placed on the eyelid, produces a certain and painless abortion in a few days. AVe have tried it on various domestic animals with the same absolutely certain result, the only differ- ence being the length of time it takes to accomplish its purpose. Now, just follow me. The instant that culture touches the blood of the system, it begins to reproduce and to breed by the millions-and away they rush, as with the speed of lightning, to just one spot. They know that spot by hereditary instinct. It is the membrane that holds the fetus; and, when they have eaten it up and detached It from its surroundings, out comes the fetus, germs and all, no blood, no pain, no after- effects, nature has attended to all-how marvelous! It is unfortunate that a combination of 96 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN causes, like education, apprenticeship and leadership, renders it necessary for the families to be small among the better class- es of society. There is no hope for a change. As a compensation, the improvi- dent must he taught to better their condi- tion by having only healthy early maturing children, who can be properly reared and educated so as to assist in the support of the family. CHILD LABOR. A well known magazine writer was dis- cussing with me, recently, the conditions of child-labor in the families of the South, which he had been sent to investigate. To this, he is much opposed. He described, in most graphic terms, the anemic, undersized. sallow-complexioned and narrow, flat- chested and stoop-shouldered children, add- ing that it was a crime for them to work. I insisted that the children must work or go hungry and naked, as their parents cannot support them, as 'they, also, are physical weaklings as were their ancestors. He replied that the United States Government CHILD LABOR should feed them and look after them and that was the only way out of it. I am opposed to child-labor; I am op- posed to the slum conditions in which chil- dren of laboring classes often are raised in our cities, towns, mining camps, and in cabins and tenement houses throughout our rural territory. What is the reason for slum conditions in cities, town and coun- try The cause is due to the inherent nature of the parents. They are content with mean surroundings; they are willing to have their children grow up in the filth and noise of the city. They little care, even if they are hungry and naked. They are indifferent to factory exactions, so long as the child can earn money for beer or whiskey. There were assembled in a poorhouse of New York State, some years ago, the in- mates, for inspection by a party of field workers led by a great scientist. Inmates were examined whose ancestors for four generations had been cared for in this same institution. 97 98 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN "Say something to my students," re- quested the learned professor to the super- intendent of the poorfarm. He replied, "I have but one thing to say to them and to society, 'quit breeding them.' " Many of us have found a nest of part- ridge eggs and put them under a hen and hatched them out. In a day or two, the call of the wild is so strong in their hereditary instinct, that off they go, and that is the last you see of them. Just so, poor-house bred children come back to poor-houses; it's inbred in them. A young lady, now 20 years old, when she goes to sleep, turns over on her back and hangs her head over the side of the bed. Her mother, whom she has never seen, did the same. Is this not proof that traits are hereditary HOW THE CITY OF CHURCHES LOOKS AFTER ITS CHILDREN AND THEIR AMUSE'MENTS. The Queens Borough Park Department of Brooklyn, in the past six years, has spent BROOKLYN'S INTEREST IN CHILDREN 99 37,984.00 for its Park Commissioners to ride around and see that the children in the parks of the congested districts were properly amused and cared for; but, in that time, they spent only 6,638.00 on amuse- ment for these children. This year, under the Municipal Central Garage plan, the budget assigned 5,386 to auto rides for these very busy guardians of our children to see that these children are properly amused; and 939. for the amuse- ment of the children. In 1914, one commissioner got a car from the city that cost 6,852.00. And, when an autoist injures one of these little ones, who is playing in the street, the Judicial Depart- ment of that great city, and that band of ambulance-chasing attorneys who infest our City Courts, cry out against the care- less rich auto owners who pay the taxes that give 6 to a few commissioners to ride around to every 1 given for the amusement of these children with the result that the children play in the streets. Let the think- ing voters decide, at the next election, if it 100 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN would not be better to let these Park Gruar- dians walk and these children do the riding. Straws tell which way the wind blows; and the above will give the public an idea of the thought given to children in the City of Churches by their city guardians. SOME RACES ARE BACKWARD. The humblest animal and the most un- civilized human instinctively know how bet- ter to care for themselves, to secure food, or to avoid injury, than do the more highly bred animal and man. But, when you start to train them, you will find that the better and higher bred have the greatest amount of intelligence. They yield to train- ing as the others do not. I breed wild turkeys because they are hardier than tame turkeys, and their de- scendants, even when crossed with tame turkeys, have hereditary instincts that make them take better care of themselves than the tame turkey, so that, in a flock of forty young turkeys that are half-wild, you are pretty sure to raise thirty-five of them. If they are tame and there is rainy YOUNG NEGRO CHILDREN'S PRECOCITY 101 weather, you probably would not raise twenty of them. The negro child appears very precocious during early life. I believe the natural in- stincts of the negro babe are more acute than those of the white child. His musical talent is pronounced in early childhood, but, when he reaches a certain stage, we find an inpenetrable wall, beyond which there can be no future accomplishment. The record in the first and second grades of school at Lexington, Kentucky, for negroes, shows that the grades are made with little diffi- culty. The third and fourth grades tell an- other story. Reports show a large per cent. who cannot make, in one year, the third grade, or any higher grades. The mind of the negro gets its maturity at the end of the second or third or fourth grade, as the case may be. No system of teaching can correct it. It is due to the inherent fiber of the brain that only can be changed by a process of evolution which may take some thou- sands of years to accomplish. There is in Africa, today, a race of black Jews, claiming to be descendants of King 102 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. These black Jews have followed the ancient usages and customs of the Jewish race from the date of the Christian era; they wander about only intermarrying among them- selves. I met one of these jet black specimens. He had a poise, a refinement and an intel- lectual development at least five hundred years ahead of the negroes we have here. His facial features showed he was Jewish. Breeding did this. I knew Booker T. Washington well, and felt sure that lhe must have white blood from ancestors of ability. I went right down into the country where le was born and soon found that his real father was a white man of old Virginia ancestry. When Mr. Washington next came to New York, I invited him to my home. I discussed with him how the negro race should be ele- vated and told him who his real father was. He did not deny it and stated that a lady relative of this gentleman had been very kind to him in early life, and he supposed that was the cause. SUB-NORMAL CHILDREN SUB-NORMAL CHILDREN IN NEW YORK PUBLIC SCHOOLS. To ascertain the trend of the American race, which is either on the upward or down- ward course, I have analyzed the statistics of the city schools of New York City, dated July 31, 1915. The statistics available show that New York City has as good con- ditions as the other cities of the United States, better in fact, than some cities like Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Boston, Newark, New Orleans or Cleveland. I believe we can count on conditions in New York being as good, if not better, than the average con- dition prevailing in the United States, as a nation. One exception, of course, must be made to this statement-in any comparison of subnormals, the negro of the South must be excepted, as the whole race is more or less backward. In the report ending June 30, 1915, I studied the figures, carefully compiled by the Superintendent of the Schools of New York, to ascertain the per cent. of those who fall below normal in their school work. There is in New York City, as well as in 1as 104 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN all average communities, a large number of defective children with troubles of the eye, ear, or defective throat, body or brain. These are not to be considered in the fig- ures to be given. These defectives that come under the School Superintendent's ob- servation will run close to two per cent. and, when the inmates of the asylums, jails, homes, retreats and penitentiaries are add- ed to the gross congenital defective chil- dren, we have about six per cent. of all our children who are so far below normal that they become a burden to the public or so- ciety. Superintendent Maxwell states that in New York City the average promotions for the years of 1914 and 1915 was 88.8. There were, in the grades from 1A and B, to 8A and B, inclusive, 640,534 children, (not counting defectives and irregulars), and of the number 582,909 were promoted June 30, 1915. As above stated, this is 88.8 as an average for each of all the grades. It is not so alarming to find that 11.2 of the children of each grade are sub- normal or unable to make the next grade N. Y. CITY SCHOOL REPORT without an extra year spent. But 11.2 of subnormality does not tell the whole story by any means. The 11.2o is the average percentage of deficiency for each grade. If 11.2o fail in the first grade and 11.2o fail out of the second grade, the next year, and in the same manner to the end of the eighth grade, it gives us the full amount of subnormality. The table exhibiting this is instructive. Should we start with a given number of 100 children, for illustration, the result would be, as follows: and would show the percentage of subnormals in each grade, each year. Grades A&B 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Pages ' Promoted 88.8 So 78.85o 70.02/o 62.18 55.22o 49.03o 43.54 38.70o 272, 273, 274, 11.2 9.94 8.83 7.84 6.96 6.18 5.49 4.83 " 17th Percentage Failed 11.2 21.15 29.98 37.82 44.78 50.97 56.46 61.30 Annual Re- port, 1915. " 105 106 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN Out of each hundred, if we take Super- intendent Maxwell's statements, there would be onlv 38.70 left on the average at the end of the eighth grade, or, according to the record of the New York Schools, 61.30 are subnormal when the eight years are in- cluded-that is, at the end of eight years, or, when the average child is, say, 14 years old. I am aware that, in my supposition to show the percentage that would fail each year, it is not quite fair. Some who fail in a low grade will be sure to fail in a higher one, and so be counted twice in my scheme. The actual figures are not easy to secure. During the school year, ending June 30, 1915, there was a total promotion from the 8th grade to the 9th of 45,730. Of these, 22,052 were promoted at the end of the first term and 23,678 at the end of the year, June 30, 1915. That is to say, 45,730 children completed in 1915 the eight grades of the grammar school. Contrast this number with the enroll- ment of the first grade for the same year. In the A. Division of the first grade, dur- ing the year, were a total of 117,516, or BELOW THE STANDARD 71,786 more entered the first grade than those who completed the eighth grade. The most optimistic view one can take is to say that from 507 to 60o of the chil- dren of the City of New York are below average normality; and, as subnormals, below the standard set by the common schools of New York for children of that age. To this must be added the defectives and irregulars. The actual figures for 1A grade are 71,- 322 enrolled; advanced to lB on January 31, 1915, 54,589; total dropped in five months, 25,128. There were enrolled in IA, for the second term, Feb. 9, 1915, 46,- 194, while, in the promotion on June 30, to lB were 36,099. The first term, the fail- ures in the 1A grade were 22.7j. The sec- ond term, the failures in the 1A division were 22.97o. To start with, there were 22.7 to 22.9 of subnormals in the 1st A grade. As above shown, the failures continue each year, which, on the average, through 8 years, amount to 11.2. The reason for this is that in different families the mental growth 107 108 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN is reached at different ages. Some cease to grow mentally at the end of the 3rd and 4th grade. Others go on to the 6th and 7th grade. When their mental growth ceases, it is useless to continue them in school and it is a burden to the taxpayers. Besides, none of those who pay 90 of our New York City's Public School expendi- tures which, for the year ending July 15, 1915, amounted to 44,970,857.28, send their children to our Public Schools. See p. 385, of "Board of Education Report, for year ending July 31, 1915." I can breed a horse that will trot as fast as a two-year-old as he ever will, but he is of no account. I want a horse to go on developing. So I explain the 50 fail- ures in the eight grades of the grammar schools on this basis. It is largely due to the fact that the brain power of the sub- normals carries them up to a certain grade, and then it ceases because it is full grown. It does not pay the State to try and edu- cate these 50o of subnormals beyond that age, or beyond the grade at which their brain power has reached its limit. QUIT BREEDING DEFECTIVES There are 60,000 feeble-minded persons in our public institutions, and over 20,000 outside. wVhen, in Russia, I tested their trotting horses, I found the breed to be peculiar; they were well calculated for the uses of the country, in that all of them could trot a mile in 2 :50, and pull heavy weights; few could do better. Few 2:50 horses could be trained, as a rule, to go faster. That was the limit of their speed. They suit the conditions in Russia. Just so, to try to educate these 50 of subnormal pupils beyond their limit, would make them un- happy and unfitted for the positions their breeding had preordained they should fill. Permit me to say to the parents and teachers of America, when the brain power of the child is limited, its education stops at that point. The remedy is not more schools for defectives, but to quit breeding that kind of children, as they do not repay the family and State for the expense of their keep or education, and it is not just or fair to the real taxpayers when, if proper laws were passed, two-thirds of this ex- 109 110 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN pense could be obviated. Why can not we have our Public Schools taken out of the hands of politicians, and have them run on a business basis Today, if a politician, or one of his henchmen, has a son or daughter who cannot earn a living and he or she has a fair education, that indivdual somehow gets into the public school either as a professor or as a teacher. Another classification gives some light. (In September 18, 1914, the schools of New York City had enrolled in the eight grades 684,000 students. 22 of them were six months or more in advance of their age in the classification, or 149,000 (See p. 308 of Report) were above normal. The normal children numbered 293,500, or 43. The grades and age correspond for this class. Those behind their grade for six months or more, numbered 241,500, or 35 of the whole. The defectives and special classes of students are not included in the num- bers given. It is now proposed to pass a general com- pulsory school law to compel children, whether fit or not, to go to public school PREMIUMS ON SUB-NORMALS until they are 14 years old, so as to get around the Child Labor Law; and to fasten a useless tax burden on property owners that will amount to 200,000,000 a year or more; as it were, to put a premium on sub- normals. The great per cent. of the subnormals is alarming. Heredity is the cause and the sole cause. I present this analysis to arouse an enlightened public sentiment. We first must know the facts and study the conditions, then we are prepared to act. This report of Superintendent Maxwell further sets forth on page 274, that the public school standard of scholarship in the City of Seattle, Wash., 93.6, shows the highest average of intelligence of any pub- lic school system of any city in the United States. 111 112 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN OF SEATTLE SHOW GREAT INTEL- LIGENCE ANT) SEATTLE'S DEATH-RATE IS THE LOWEST. Now, let us examine the history of the Health Ordinances of the City of Seattle. We find that weekly examinations and is- suing of certificates to prostitutes existed with great strictness in that city for a series of years, until recently, with the re- sult that it drove out all prostitutes from Seattle and the red-light district ceased to exist; that the health of its citizens increased marvelously, and its death rate decreased so that in 1914 it was 8.1 in 1,000 (See report of Board of Health and Sanitation, page 4), so that Seattle leads all cities in the United States of over 100,- 000 population in its low death rate; that the Public School children of Seattle lead in intelligence those of any other city in the United States. (See Supt. Maxwell's report, p. 274.) The people in Seattle, discovering this, recently passed an ordinance of the strict- SEATTLE PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN 113 est kind of prohibition, and all are now watching and waiting to see what effect it will have on the health and death rate and on the increase of intelligence of its Public School children. Of the small cities in the United States, in Norwood, Ohio, population about 18,000, where there is a very strict examination of prostitutes with certificates, and local option is in force, the death rate is 8 in 1,000, which is the lowest of any small or large city in the United States. Compare these two cities, Seattle and Norwood, with the following cities, where there are no examinations or certificates to prostitutes, and where liquor is freely sold. See U. S. Government Report of 1912, page 13. Baltimore 18.2 Boston - - - - - 16.4 New York - - - - - 14.66 St. Louis - - - - 14.9 Chicago - - - - - 14.8 114 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN INFANT DEATH RATE IN SEATTLE 1.44 IN A THOUSAND; IN MAN- HATTAN 43.37 IN A THOUSAND. Now, let us go back to Seattle, Washing- ton. The Report of the Department of Health and Sanitation of the City of Seat- tle for 1912 to 1914, page 10, gives the death rate of children in Seattle under 5 years as 1.44 per 1,000 children. Contrast this with the Report of the Department of Health of New York City for 1913, page 144, giving the death rate of children under 5 years as 36.25 per 1,000; and, on the Is- land of Manhattan, it is 43.37 per 1,000 for children under 5 years of age. I could go on and on, giving other illus- trations; but does any intelligent person want any better or more complete proof of the beneficial results to a community of the weekly medical examinations and l;- censing of prostitutes' Can you not see how it has decreased the death rate; how it has protected the unborn and decreased the mortality of children under 5 years of age How it has put the children in the Public Schools of the City of Seattle, in NO PROSTITUTION IN SEATTIE 115 intelligence, at the head of all cities in this country. Before me lays a letter from the Health Board of Seattle, which states that the enforcement of this Health Exam- ination Ordinance drove every prostitute out of Seattle, and such a person does not exist there today. Now when Seattle keeps up its two ordinances for 20 years you will see even a much better report. MAKING AMTERIC(AN CITIZENS. Some years ago, early one morning, I was going down Center Street, New York City; there I passed a line of the most curious specimens of humanity I ever saw collected. The line was being formed just south of the Tombs; it extended down Center Street and around Chambers Street, to the west, and up the stairs of our City Court House; and thence to the right into Supreme Court, Part No. 2 of the Special Term. I left my car and talked with the men who were starting and managing the line. They told me they were District Captains. They had a series of interpreters with them, who were getting this medley mass of humanity 116 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN into line. They were blind, halt, lame and deformed; many of them with unusually large heads; some had small heads; many had long beards; many had running sores at the ear and at the neck; some had goitres; some had sore eves; many had short legs and long bodies; and there were men of all shades of color, etc., etc. Every- one, as far as I could make out, was a for- eigner. They were a mass of physical monstrosities. God knows from whence they could have been collected. Up with this line, I went into Part No. 2 of Supreme Court of Special Term. I forced my way in and I saw this great crowd marching in and around, two and two, and marching out, never stopping a minute. A man stood up, and in a loud voice, as rapid as a gatling gun, read a long list of names, all foreign. Two Republicans and two Democrats who, I was told, were political leaders, each certified that they had known these men for a long period of time. The line never stopped; it was moving all the time. My heart sank within me at the sight, as LEGALLY MADE AMERICAN CITIZENS 117 I realized that these "IIhat-is-Its"-had become American citizens, their votes as good as yours and mine. Your ancestors and mine suffered and died from exposure and starvation, or were killed by the Indians in the Plymouth Rock Colony, that you and I might inherit this beautiful land, which, today, is in the hands of foreigners and "pothousel" politicians because of this foreign vote; in the hands of men who have no soul, no patriotism, whose sole interest is to find out how they can make money out of the Government by politics or by other methods. CONSERVATION OF BRAINS MAN'S GREATEST DUTY. It now becomes necessary to call atten- tion to the crime of crimes of this age. The greatest and most precious of the world's treasures is the brain power of its men and women. No man of talent springs from an ancestry which is without ability. Slowly and painfully have family strains evolved by means of happy matings, until men of worth are being produced. 118 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN The monumental folly of man is to do any- thing which will stop the evolution and turn the stream backward. There is a rather innocent way in which this is being done. Men of talent are marrying women of beauty, wealth, or social position, who lack the one necessary prerequisite for mar- riage. I mean the lack of ability; or, the reverse is all too often true. A woman of brilliancy marries a mediocre man. None of my stallions are ever mated with cold- blooded mares, nor are my mares bred to a "draft stallion." Speed and endurance do not come that way. To get speed and stamina, I must bring them from both sides of the ancestry of my foal. For men and women of brain power to marry into families lacking this power would be as foolish as for me to mate "Peter the Great" with a draft mare. I would thus ruin that much of the great stallion's blood. So does a man or woman dilute brain power when it is not matched by a strain of equal worth. So many ex- traneous considerations enter into mar- riage selections, such as beauty, social posi- A LADY'S SELECTION tion, wealth, etc., that the real object of marriage, the mating of appropriate equals, is forgotten. A scrub-horse and a scrub-mare some- times produce exceptionally fine appearing colts, but I invariably find they have "thrown back" to some well-bred ancestor. No sane breeder would breed from such specimens, for he would know of a cer- tainty he would get worthless colts. The day is not far distant when mar- riageable girls will realize this, and search the records of the Eugenic Bureau, and also insist on a Certificate of Health. A lady of rare breeding, beauty and re- finement of mind, born of illustrious par- ents, who had been reared on a breeding farm, by force of circumstances, married the son of parents of low unhealthy lineage, but who were possessed of great wealth. And, when forced to bear a child or be turned adrift in the world, she went outside and deliberately selected a stranger to be the father of her child, a man of good mind and healthy body, whom she discovered to be of good ancestry. She gave as her ex- 119 120 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN cuse that she could not go before her Maker with the crime on her head of bringing into the world an ill-bred child, with low tend- encies. And who could blame her, under the circumstances EVILS OF SOCIAL DISEASES. It is well-known that workers in lead fac- tories, where the protection from the pois- onous gases is not complete, may be injured. The very strange thing about the poisonous condition is that a man so afflicted is liable to beget children who will not be normal. The poisons penetrate the reproductive glands, and the effect of it on the growing embryo is to arrest normal development. The workers in lead factories are so few and the safeguards are improving so rap- idly that there is little significance attached to it, except to show that a poison can reach the glands and be carried over in the germ cells. In somewhat the same way, the social dis- ease acts as a cacogenic agency in race poisons. The presence of the disease ren- ders reproduction difficult and, in most EVILS OF SOCIAL DISEASES cases, when transmitted to a wife by her husband, it renders her sterile. Most ab- dominal operations performed on married women are due to the disease having been contracted from afflicted husbands. The operation, as a rule, leaves the patient sterile. How few women know it or what caused it! One of New York's leading spe- cialists in the social diseases has just stated to me that 60 of the men you meet on our streets are affected directly or by inheri- tance by the social diseases and that 80 of the abdominal operations on women are caused by contact with their affected hus- bands. Before me is a statement, for the year ending 1915, of Dr. Nevitt, who was for nine years head of the Kentucky State In- stitutions for the Insane. It appears that there were in Kentucky in public institu- tions for defectives, the following: 4500 Insane and deaf in public institu- tions. 400 Insane and deaf in registered insti- tutions. 600 Blind in public institutions. 121 122 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN Of the insane and deaf, 20 have be- come so from syphilis; and 50 from alco- holism and heredity. Of the blind, 90 have become so from syphilis and gonorrhea and 10 from he- redity. This does not cover the manv that are not in public institutions or those in private institutions that are not registered. This number, Dr. Nevitt, who is now the head of the Elmwood Sanitarium, informs me would be very much larger, but the dreaded "Pellagra" in 1914 affected, es- pecially, defectives and carried off over 80o of those affected. It is an hereditary germ disease attacking the brain, bowels and skin and is certainly contagious. An interesting case is on record at one of our asylums. Regarding a young married man, insane, the diagnosis of his insanity was given as being due to the poison of syphilis, and yet he did not have the disease. In fact, his life had been above reproach. His father soon followed him to the asylum and the diagnosis of his mental trouble was the same as that of his son. The father, MORAL EXAMPLE OF WOODROW WILSON 123 however, was free from the disease, and never had been a victim of it. A field in- vestigation revealed the fact that the father's father had died of syphilis. A son born to the young man, after he had been taken to the asylum, showed physical de- formities due to the toxin of syphilis. Here is a case of sending on a poison which cursed three generations of innocent people. Where normals pay 100o Life Insurance premiums, syphilitics pay 188. When The Honorable Josephus Daniels, editor and owner of the "Raleigh News,"' with a claimed circulation of 100,000, awoke after the first election of Wilson, he found that the Secretaryship of the Navy had been thrust upon him-some say because of his knowledge of inland navi- gation-and others because of the deep religious and moral influence of the "Ral- eigh News" in getting votes for Woodrow Wilson. He discovered that there was very little of the social diseases in the Navy, because a former Assistant-Secretary of the Navy had seen to it that the Medical Board 124 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN had given the rank and file of the Navy instructions in hygiene; and, whenever the sailors went ashore, a little cheap package of "Safety-aid" was handed to each. It so shocked the Honorable Daniels and President Wilson that they decided to stop all lectures on hygiene and the giving of "Safety-aid," with the result that today a large percentage of the rank and file of our Navy men are diseased and, as they sail from port to port, they are spreading the seeds of suffering and decay. Could anything be more shortsighted One has to learn to handle each situation as one finds it. With narrow-minded landsmen of such caliber in charge of our Government, how can we expect an improvement in our Navy affairs or in its general morale And is it any wonder that the physical and mental powers of our citizens are now on the wane It is eminently proper our spotless President and his Secretary of the Navy should set the sailors of our nation ex- amples by their own moral private lives; BRANDEIS, HOUSE AND UNTERMYER 125 but, any man experienced in naval or army affairs would know that this is not the proper way to cure this terrible evil. Why were not Col. House or the President's personal attorney, The Hon. Mr. Unter- myer, or Justice Brandeis, or one of the heads of the Department of Animal Indus- try, called on to give expert advice if the gentleman could not agree with the medical head of our Government The United States Government should now take upon itself to wipe out the social diseases as it is bound to do some day-just as the Kaiser did in Germany, where they now claim they have the super-man-and, if some day, why not today When this will have been accomplished the ills of man will be greatly diminished and there will not be the need of 60c of the doctors and surgeons we have today. America as a nation will be healthier, happier and longer lived and we will be capable of greater achievements. All this can be done if only the public are aroused to its crying need. To a lack of these hygienic laws, the great Roman Em- pire owes her downfall. Go to any of our 126 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN New York Hospitals and find the percent- age of cases due directly or indirectly to social diseases and you will be astonished. HEREDITARY INSANITY FROM DISEASE. Society owes it to itself to segregate or sterilize the unfit, so they cannot produce their defective kind, who must have insti- tutional care and be a burden to the state. From an insanity expert, for many years head of his state's insane asylum, to whom I submitted this manuscript, I have this message: "Many times, I have found patients whose symptoms indicated syphilitic insan- ity, but whose parents, apparently, were healthy. In such instances I invariably have found something like the following to be the case: I'A., ' once syphilized, marries a healthy energetic woman. Their son, 'C.,' is ap- parently healthy. " 'B.,' perfectly healthy, marries a healthy, energetic woman. Their daughter, 'D.,' is apparently healthy. DEMAND ANCElSTRAL HISTORY "'C.' and 'D.' marry and the result is 'K.,' my patient. " In some cases I have traced the syphil- ized ancestor to even a remoter ancestor. The most prominent infant doctors of to- day in New York City will not treat an ail- ing child until they know the ancestral his- tory of both parents; and other doctors who make a specialty of infants are doing the same. It is costing too much to support the poor- houses, feeble-minded homes, institutions for the blind and deaf, asylums, houses of correction, reform schools, jails and peni- tentiaries. I was not for two years president of two of our largest cemeteries in New York City without getting some insight into the life in this great city. Dr. Charles A. L. Reed, the well-known surgeon and scientist of Cincinnati, a man of about fifty-five, writes that he has had about 5,000 women patients who have been sterilized by gonorrhoea, nearly 2,000 of whom submitted to dangerous and muti- lating operations to save their lives; and he 127' 128 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN has had hundreds of men patients that have been sterilized by gonorrhoea. There are 150,000 members of the medi- cal profession in the United States and they have to attend to the ills of 100,000,000 people. Syphilis, he states, is the great hereditary disease of the American race and it is ever far-reaching in its degener- ating influence on humanity. A bright attractive young woman re- cently died of syphilitic cancer at the age of twentv-three. She had lived in a city a few hundred miles from New York, and occa- sionally came to New York to visit. In her native city she held a moderately good so- cial position. She had married at 16, and soon thereafter was divorced. She had been syphilized six years when she died. With a pretty face and attractive form, she soon had some of the finest fellows of the best families in New York at her court, six of whom she diseased-and one of them told me there were twenty more. What havoc she wrought in other cities, God only knows; and, when called to ac- count for what she had done, she simply SPREADING SOCIAL DISEASES said: "A nin diseased me, and I made up my mind to disease every man I could. " Dr. "T.," whom I knew well, was an as- sistant to a doctor in a small town of four thousand population, within a hundred miles of Chicago. He told me that their of- fice attended to men only, and they special- ized in social diseases; that once an attrac- tive young woman from Chicago came to this town and, within six months she had caused to be brought to their office, alone, four hundred men, whom she had directly or indirectly syphilized. What happened to the wives of these men-and to their children who afterwards were born I And finally, when they discovered the cause they went out and brought the woman to their office and asked her what she meant. "Well," she said, "I was driven out of Chicago, and what else could I do I had to live.'" As I am sending this manuscript to my printer, my 'phone rings and I am called to a physician' s office, where stands a young woman, of say 22 years, as refined and attractive in manner and dress and as 129 130 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN handsome and beautifully formed as one would see in a month. Not a scratch nor a blemish is on her skin,-but she is thor- oughly syphilized. The doctor said to her, "I can cure you, but you must go at once to this address--stay there and submit to treatment." Her reply was: "It is quite impossible, as it would interfere with my business." Her business was to lunch and dine at the most exclusive restaurants in New York and Boston and there secure her victims, especially among the rich of the college students. I said to her: "Just think of the damage you are doing! Are you not afraid of being shot" Her reply was: "There are plenty others doing the same. " If parents or teachers in our public schools have neglected to thoroughly ad- vise their sons or their pupils of such dangers, and if fathers are too careless or too busy making money, will not the moth- ers of our boys write to their Congressmen and their State Representatives to insist on the passage of National and State Laws that will compel the weekly examination MOTHERS SAVE YOUNG DAUGHTERS 131 of prostitutes, and the issuing of health certificates, under the severest penalties, and thus remove the danger to themselves and to the unborn This is the only way to prevent the decay of our Nation; and anyone with an atom of common sense must know it. Will not the mothers of daughters, who are to marry our young men, do the same and save their dab -hters from a fate that as surely as death awaits them Such cases should be locked up and treated by the state until they are well and harmless. It should be a most serious crim- inal offense for such a leper to have con- nection with an innocent person. Prompt and effective measures are now being taken by communities and the states to combat epidemics of Infantile Paralysis, Measles, Scarlet Fever, Typhoid, Cholera, Small Pox and other diseases; but Syphilis, the ever-present, ever-spreading scourge of our civilization, which is doing a dam- age a thousand-fold more than these epi- demic diseases, is spoken of only in whis- pers. And why It is because it is so 132 THIE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN widely spread among our best families, and is called a social evil, as well as a disease. Our smug-faced neighbors, with cant and hypocrisy, deny the presence of Syphilis in any of its many varied forms, for the reason that the disease may affect the indi- vidual victim, even to the death, but the taint once infused into the family blood, takes in every root and branch. If a single member, diseased and syphilized, drops from the family tree it is one thing, but if the root and the trunk bear even the suspicion of decay it is quite another. Hence come dissemination and concealment. Syphilis can be cured, if prompt scientific skill is employed. Here patience becomes a virtue. NEEDED LAWS. Checks to bar syphilitics and measures to control the spread of Syphilis have gen- erally been advocated by men. They speak of women, not men, as the spreaders of the disease and always advocate the isolation and care of women. This is neither good sense nor good judgment. I say, save the unborn generations and lock up syphilitics, SOME NEEDED LAWS males and females alike, until cured or until they cease to be a menace to society. If our Congressmen are patriotic and want to save our nation from decay, let them at once pass such laws. Congress has passed Pure Food Acts and Pure Seed Laws and laws forbidding the landing on our shores of any person with weak eyes. What are weak eyes compared with a dis- eased body that putrefies everything it touches, and breeds misery Weak eyes can be easily cured, but it takes generations to breed out hereditary ills. In most of the large cities, laws are being passed that every man or woman who handles breadstuffs must be weekly exam- ined to see that he or she has no venereal disease. To prevent the spread of such dis- eases, how much more important it is to pass a law that every doctor must make a public record of every case of venereal dis- ease, so each person so affected may have an official examination and certificate, if cured, before he or she is allowed to touch or come in contact with other people. 133 134 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN THINGS TO AVOID. Let young ladies, who are looking around to get married, use their brains, the one thing the Almighty has given humans that other animals do not possess. Let them be educated to allow their hearts to he guided by their heads in the choice of a life-partner and if they come across a young man with rheumatism or locomotor ataxia, or bald spots on his head, or white patches in his hair or scarlet spots on his body or who has no business, and says his father has advised him to keep in the open air, it is best to reject him, for you can put it down pretty safely that in nine cases out of ten there is a cause. Notice how many well educated young men from the middle classes have become chauffeurs. When I see a pure and healthy well bred girl marry a syphilitic man; when I watch her agony as she consigns to the grave her diseased first-born; and when I see in the face of her only child, the lines of the father's disease, what shall I do Shall I tell her that, one day when studying to find out why our oldest and best families had MILLIONS FOR HOGS died out, I secured a book of the medical histories and bill books of the late Dr. "T." and there found the history of this child's father some thirty years before; and that is why he never went into business Shall I tell her to take her daughter to the best spe- cialists in syphilis, so that with two years careful treatment she will be well and cured; or, shall I let her remain in ignor, ance and allow her remaining child to die THE IMPORTANCE OF THE HEALTH OF THE AMERICAN HOG. We have machinery instituted by laws to touch every activity of our industries. Did I live in Wichita, Kansas, and telegraph the United States Department of Health that my children were threatened by an epidemic of scarlet fever that was killing my neigh- bors' children by the hundred, they would refer me to my local or State health officers. But, should I telegraph the Department that my hogs were threatened by a new epi- demic of cholera or foot and mouth disease, they would at once telegraph back that they were sending a carload of experts to stamp M 136 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN out the danger. Our Government spends annually at least 3,500,000 to protect the hog from disease. Millions to save the hog; nothing to save the child! Bad as the above illustration may seem, it is not the worst result from the "black plague." There is thrown into the system of a syphilitic man a toxin or poison from the small protozoa, which causes the dis- ease. This little animal organism feeds on, breeds, and secretes into the circulatory blood system of its victim. The toxic effect is caused from such excreta, and it pene- trates every organ bathed and nourished by the blood. The germ plasm receives the poison from the blood; the germ cells re- ceive the poison from the plasm. The poison does not always destroy the repro- ductive cells. In some cases, the effect upon them is to lessen their vitality so that the development of the embryo in the mother's womb is abnormal. The abnormality may be some physical deformity or weakness, or some erratic mental or nervous trouble. There is no way by which one can predict what injury, if any, will come to the child from a syphilitic father or mother. ALCOHOL AMERICA'S CURSE ALCOHOL AMERICA'S CURSE; ITS EFFECTS ON THE UNBORN. Alcohol so injures and weakens the reproductive glands that defective cells are formed. The germ cells injured by alcohol do not develop into normal beings; they are found defective and deformed in animals and in humans. There are many evils resulting from the excessive use of alcohol. It may, and often does, produce sterility. The injury may take on the form of a body weakness, or the poison inay manifest itself in a nervous disorder, or it may appear in the offspring, producing various forms of defectives. Anyone, who has studied eugenics, can discover if a child comes from a parent or parents addicted to drink, just as well as from parents that lhave syphilis. Alcohol stands today in America as the greatest barrier to man's continued evolu- tion. Like the scorpion which devours the mother that gives him birth, so alcohol smothers the germs from which it springs, and then destroys the life and damns the soul of the man it cheers. Could men look 137 138 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN into the subtle poison of the sparkling glass, they would see the Scylla and Charybdis that beckons and lures them on to their own destruction and weakens and ruins their own lives and those of their offspring and their posterity, as bad tend- encies multiply as they breed on in a greater proportion than good tendencies. Its poison not only can stop evolution, but it can also destroy advancement al- ready made. It is possible for young men to keep their bodies so soaked in alcohol that their children and grand-children will be distinctly inferior to themselves in brain force. Physical weakness is an- other curse which children may receive at the hands of alcoholic fathers. Children from such parentage are generally of weak constitutions, have depraved taste, and die early. Many inherit the liquor habit. Where normals pay 100 Life In- surance premiums, those addicted to alcohol pay 174o. Our Government reports show that each year we spend 3,200,000,000 for alcoholic drinks and tobacco to undermine our health EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON PWIGS and our constitutions and to ruin the vital- ity and potency of our men and wonmen; and that we give our children 452,000,000 to spend on candy and soft-drinks to sour their stomachs, retard their growth, and make them unfit; and when free scientific advice is offered that will benefit both themselves and their offspring they turn a deaf ear. Within twenty years, the people of this country will have had their eyes opened and most stringent laws will be passed by Con- gress as to health certificates and restrict- ing the manufacture and sale of all alco- holic beverages. The Kaiser, the Czar and now the King of Italy in the present European war, realize that to have effec- tive armies, the drinking of alcoholic bev- erages must be stopped. Dr. C. R. Stockard, in the November, 1913, "American Naturalist," gives an account of experiments of an extensive nature with guinea pigs. These animals -were kept in an intoxicated condition by forcing them to inhale the fumes of alco- col. Where controlled animals, under 139 140 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN usual conditions, would produce 100 nor- inal offspring, the alcoholic ones produced only about 30. The next generation, or the grand-children of intoxicated pigs, pro- duced the same number of defective young, running as high as 70 defective. It must be understood that the parents of the defective grand-children had not be- come addicted to intoxication. No, they inherited from alcoholic parents the poison, which rendered 70 of their young worth- less. I recently visited the experimental station and saw for myself these effects; also the cyclops guinea pig and a speci- men of human cyclop from alcoholic ances- tors. The Prohibition Party once despised will some day prevail-and that day is not far off-just as eugenics is bound soon to do, when the public is aroused to the danger that confronts them and their ehil- dren by not following the Laws of Nature and Hygiene. In 1860 the average per capita consumption of alcohol was 6.4 gal- lons. Today it is 19.S gallons per capita. We are fast becoming a nation of drunks, The stupendous amount of liquor con- DISTILLERY MASH AND CATTLE 1 sumed in America is the greatest possible menace to the generations to come. Every drink taken by young people is a menace to the nation. Children conceived of par- ents, who, at the moment of conception, are under the effect of liquor, often are stupid or brainless and inherit the taste for liquor. If there were an organization of young married people pledged to destroy half their children, the world would be shocked. All legal machinery available would be called upon to prevent it. Yet, it would be less cruel to dispose of children at birth than to allow the indiscriminate use of liquor by men and women who are to be- come parents. The time ought to be at hand when the consumer of alcohol should be quarantined, as a smallpox victim is segregated. Smallpox cannot produce im- beciles, neuropathic, deformed children; but alcohol can and will. DISTILLERY MASH AND CATTLE. Yesterday, I visited one of the largest distilleries, where famous whiskey is made. 141 142 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN I saw a sign at a side gate,-"No Admis- sion" so I drove in and went back of the distillery, and there, in a barren filthy lot, with a big high fence around it, were seven hundred steers, receiving their final fatten- ing from the mash of the distillery before being slaughtered. The cattlemen raise the cattle and give them a healthy constitution; then send 'hem to the distillery for a few weeks' fattening. The cattlemen and the distillery divide be- tween them the value of the extra amount of weight which the cattle take on from the distillery refuse. An attendant tells me that some steers die refusing to eat the mash, but when once they get the taste, they are ravenous and crazy for it. About 98 of these steers were lying around dosing, in a drunken stupor. 2 were staggering around in filth. Anyone who saw them in their pitiable condition would be loath to eat their flesh. I learn that 50 of all the Kentucky high-grade cattle that come to our city and export markets, go through the distillery fattening process. ALCOHOL'S EFFECT ON HEREDITY 143 At certain hours during the day, big wooden troughs are filled with this hot mash, which contains a certain amount of alcohol; and which the cattle soon grow to love. Formerly, this refuse was run into the streams, but it killed the fish. The most valuable possession of any family is its inheritance of health and strength, brain, physical and moral force. Alcohol can, in one generation, disrupt and destroy the precious heritage of many ages. It may turn back the beneficial effect of generations of good heredity and give to the world, in the guise of a man, a thing neither man nor beast, a thing without in- tellect, without moral fiber, and without will. There was a day, before whiskey and tobacco became its staple products, when Kentucky supplied more great men for its numbers than any other state. The people of Kentucky realized what was causing its degeneracy and at the last local option election 100 out of 120 counties went dry, and as soon as every county goes dry, 144 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN it will be found that Kentucky once more is on the road to prominence, as of old. If the race is to be improved by heredity, and this is the only way it can be improved, and by adding pure blood to pure blood, each addition of value must be protected against the ravages of intoxication and the social diseases. This generation is the re- cipient of all the good of the countless gen- erations gone before. Life actually is per- petuated and passes without a break from one generation to another, except as the blood of intermediate generations becomes contaminated. No one has better ocular proof of this than a horse breeder, for he sees the results in three years. Our most sacred duty is to preserve it unsullied and hand it on. Why cannot our young men see that theft, falsehood and murder are mild faults compared to the crime of debasing and brutalizing the bit of immortality of which he is the guardian Shall I call this priceless inheritance a "bit of im- mortality" It is that, and so much more that words fail to express its worth. To produce my share of immortality, two MOTHERLY INSTINCTS streams met and mingled. Stretching back- ward from me in two everwidening chan- nels is the precious heritage all concentrat- ed in me. By this means, I am a part of the thousands of generations that have gone before. Their achievements, their self- sacrifices, the selective agencies of society and nature, which lifted them to positions of influence and worth, are mine by heri- tage. I am not only a product of the count- less multitude which has gone before, but I am the guardian of a share of immortal plasm, a plasm ladened and vitalized by the evolution of my race. This plasm endows me with a creative power which even the gods do not possess. This inestimable pow- er is mine because of the hereditary strains which created me. It is my duty to keep it untarnished, and to pass it along to com- ing generations, improved and benefited by each generation. MOTHERLY INSTINCTS. Especially among the literary, we find refined and sensitive women to whom sex- ual intercourse is repugnant, but, deep :145 140 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN down in their hearts, is a longing to be a mother. To such persons I say that over thirty per cent. of all my colts at the Patchen Wilkes Stock Farm are from impregnation and such colts are among the best. All that the sensitive woman abhors is ab- solutely unnecessary, for any woman can fertilize herself. Life germs will live four hours, if kept warm; sun light has no effect as popularly supposed. 1 know this; and have at my farm made exhaustive experi- ments which a well known scientist will soon tell the world in print. Follow me for a moment: A stallion serves the mare in the usual way, or the stallion is provided with a rubber "breed- ing bag" that catches the life germs, or these germs are stripped from the stallion or taken from a mare that has been served by a platinum or nickel impregnator prop- erly heated. Having collected the germs, they are placed in the wombs of the mares to be fertilized. A drop is all that is needed. Or, these life germs are put into little sterilized gelatine capsules, carried ANIMAL AND HUMAN IMPREGNATION 147 for miles in heated sterilized cotton and in- serted in the mouth of the womb-and nature does the rest. Years ago, when I first proved by the sud- den advent of a large number of colts at my farm from one stallion that I had put impregnation on a commercial basis and was saving the strength and potency of my good stallion, I was called down from New York to Lexington by the editor of a stock journal, who threatened to expose me to the world and ruin my business, and there informed that lie was backed by eight Kentucky horse breeders. I left New York at once with my attorney to meet the charges, which, when I arrived, were dropped. Today, every one of these eight Kentucky horse breeders is using im- pregnators. One can thus extend the use- fulness of a stallion of "Combination I" whose semen has been tested microscop- ically and whose colts prove him to be a sire of intelligence, speed, health and early maturity. Today this system is being practiced among humans. The healthiest and grandest specimens of 148 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN young men of all nations have been killed or maimed in the present European war, and only the defectives and weaklings are left from whom to breed. At least, Germany has her scientists right here to- day, studying animal and human impreg- nation. She is a nation of scientists, and she knows they have to impregnate, or, they, as a nation, are lost. Or polygamy must be legalized as it was once after the 30 years war, for when the pres- ent European war is over, there will be 12,000,000 more young marriageable women than men. Thus spoke the German doctor: "The farmer only plants his best seed. The horse-breeder only breeds his mares to his best stallions. The dairyman only breeds his milk cows to the best bull. Then why should humans be compelled to have children by dwarfs and defectives- the lame and the halt In Germany, after the war, we propose to breed from only the best." There is absolutely no difference between children and colts produced this way and BREEDING WORTH-WHILE OFFSPRING 149 those produced the usual way. We have proved here that what is true of the horse is equally true of the human. When the women of this country become educated in eugenics, they will not risk their lives nor their health to marry or have children by an ill-bred, diseased, or booze- loving husband. They also will realize the crime they will be committing to the un- born. They will be warned beforehand of the punishment they and their children will receive, if they take such a foolish step. 'Then, what an incentive it will be for our young men and women to endeavor to insure in every way to their children well- balanced ancestral pedigrees, free from hereditary ills and bad inclinations,-and when the young are educated, the 3,200,- 000,000 now yearly spent in the United States on alcohol and tobacco, and the ad- ditional sums yearly spent on carousing, will all be spent on breeding offspring- worth-while. The day will not be far off when the boy of twelve years of age will have the 150 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN maturity, the mental and physical devel- opment of the young man of twenty. We have shown what a saving this early development has been to the breeders of chickens, hogs, horses and cattle, to the dairymen and poultrymen. The same sav- ing will be to the parents and to the state, for, with humans, you have a mind to work with and assist you, so that the development will be the more grand in every respect. Cannot the world see this and see it now I RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF THE SEXES. I like to think of sexual reproduction as it might be expressed figuratively. The fe- male may be said to represent Mother Earth. To feed the world, the Earth re- quires unlimited care. Only after exten- sive preparation is it ready to receive the husbandman's seed and to transform it into a harvest of a hundred fold. The same cultivation to prepare the field for the seed is necessary to precede motherhood. Soil, at its best, gives the maximum return. Pros- pective motherhood should be at its best ABUSED EARTH YIELDS POOR CROPS 151 before the seed of an immortal being is in- trusted to it for development. Why should not women look forward to this great cre- ative experience and prepare themselves for it,-abstain, abstain, and live a normal life Remember how the Spartan mother gloried in the health, intellect and strength of her sons! Should not man have pride in himself, pride in his children, and be willing for their sake to abstain, himself, from excesses! "Whatever seed ye sow, so shall ye reap." We declare that the social diseases, dissi- pation and over-indulgence, unfit men for fatherhood. I inquire why the highballs, drinks of alcoholic origin, cigarettes and kindred indulgences, do not, equally, unfit women for the office of motherhood The abused earth yields an inferior crop, no matter how good the seed, and you see it in the face and form of the child. Mothers, stop and think! Will you knowingly injure your own offspring Drinking, cigarette smoking and fast liv- ing are depriving children of their natural birthright. If men and women will drink, 152 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN they should postpone such indulgence until after the reproductive period has passed. On the other hand, the syphilitic should be isolated and ostracized as unfit, not only for parentage, but as a menace to upright men and women. No man, who has honest in- tentions toward the woman he desires to marry, should hesitate to instantly show his intended, or her advisor, his ancestral pedi- gree, and submit himself to a physical ex- amination. Otherwise, he is undesirable and has something to hide. LAWS OF HEREDITY THE SAME IN MAN, PLANT OR BEAST. The immutable law of heredity is not comprehended when men are under consid- eration. When I say I only can produce worthy horses, as I marshal the forces of heredity in the right way, I am believed. When the dog fancier declares that his blue- ribbon dogs are entirely due to the right kind of breeding, no one doubts him. The dairyman would be considered irrespons- ible, did he claim that record butter cows THE INJUSTICE OF LAW could be made by stable, feed and care, regardless of their ancestry. While this is true, so far as domestic animals are concerned, intelligent men re- fuse to believe that their own children are subject to the same force of heredity. Let me here emphasize the fact that the laws of heredity apply to man with as much accuracy as they do to plant or beast and every scientist acknowledges such to be the case. As man is infinitely more complex than are animals, so the force of heredity will manifest itself in more varied ways. It must be kept in mind that talents and ten- dencies are all due to the power of heredity. An interesting fact is that once a trait gets into a family strain, it may persist for gen- erations. This is altogether desirable should that trait be some valuable talent. Not always is it valuable, when marriage takes place between families having the same bad trait, for it establishes it to the detriment of their posterity. It doubles up the tendency and makes it more difficult to eradicate. Go for a few mornings to the New York City Criminal Court House and 15,3 154 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN examine the odd shaped heads and the faces of the young men in the pen and the most skeptical will be compelled to acknowledge that criminality is hereditary in most cases, and the questions will come home to you: Should we hold these young men wholly responsible for their acts Should not their parents or their ancestors share some of the blame On reflection you will be compelled to admit that it would have been better for themselves and the world had they never been born. MY DUTY. My duty: How should this hereditary material be conserved Can the man be held blameless who poisons it Is there a crime so base as the injury of that vital substance from which spring the men and women of the future I Yes, a bit of immor- tality, a creative force, a power not our- selves, ours not to abuse, but to conserve as our most sacred trust, and to hand on unsullied to our children-and that is the object of these words from one who loves his country and plainly sees she is on NEEDED NATIONAL LAWS 155 the road to decay, unless thinking people realize the situation and pass laws that will prevent it. I call upon our Congressmen, if for Patriotism alone, to give heed to my words. Our country demands more stringent im- migration laws and their rigid enforce- ment,-a National Act for the education of our young men in hygiene and their duties to the State; also, with it, at least six or eight months' practical training in Army or Navy requirements, as our young men show a lack of discipline; a National Prohibition Act, a National Social Dis- ease Act, and one that will register syphil- itic or diseased persons; laws forbidding marriages between persons who are of dif- ferent races or who have hereditary ail- ments, such as the deaf, blind, insane, etc., and persons who have diseases they can transmit to their offspring. Our National Government alone, through its officials, should issue all marriage certificates, and, before they are issued, the ancestral his- tory and the health of both parties should be inquired into, and such other restric- 156 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN tions be imposed that will insure to the unborn his or her rights. An act to per- mit only native born Americans to have the right to vote and only such men or women as have acquired sufficient land to be paying land taxes on, of at least, 2,000 tax valuation; a National Birth Registra- tion Act; a more stringent National Drug Act. Consider the number of foreigners who secured our American Citizenship papers in the present war, who, at heart, were enemies to our country and who used these papers and their citizenship, in the past two years, to bring us several times to the verge of war. Taxation without representation is ty- ranny, and it is unjust in a "Land of the Free." Every American born woman and man, who owns property or pays taxes, to a certain amount, should have a right to vote and only these. It will put an end to Public Stealing, for every voter will be a partner in our land, and every voter and his familv will be loyal defenders of their own. It has taken 100 years or more of the most careful study for scientists to dis- GREIAT MEN DUE TO INHERITANCE 157 cover how to advise skilled horse and hog breeders, poultrymen, dairymen, etc-, etc., how to mate animals, but when it comes to humans,-young in experience,- males and females settle for themselves the most important question of their own lives, their offspring, and the future of the State, on the spur of the moment. Is it any won- der that our country is flooded with un- healthy, dissipated, good-for-nothing 10 cent boys and girls, and that our own Gov- ernment recently, officially, rejected 75o of her sons This sacred institution of marriage has become a sacrilege. Will the Church not come to the rescue of our Na- tion if our politicians will not How then, it may be asked, can the race be lifted to a higher level How may a larger and still larger per cent. of men "worth-while" be produced Great horses are due to inherent qualities, not because of feed and care. Many thousands get as good feed and care, but fall far short of great achievement, because of the lack of inherent greatness. Great men, likewise, are great because of inherited worth. No 158 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN amount of food, care, or education can make the average man eminent. No amount of food, care, education, or anything else you like added, would make a child of Hottentot origin compare in any way with the chil- dren of white men. In much less than a century, trotting horse breeders have evolved from horses of slow speed a two-minute trotting horse. Now, the test has been the win-race. It is true, the foundation of the trotting breed is the English thoroughbred horse, which dates back for 2930 years in the English Stud Book, with 700 years of actual racing and selected breeding before the time of records. From this horse, bred to run, American trotting--lorse breeders built up a breed to trot, aLJ to trot fast, and to pace and to pace fast. They have done it by mating the winning-mare to the winning stallion, if he had the right ancestry. Re- lentlessly has the breeder eliminated the unfit. It has been the world's best example of worth mated to worth. The human race can be improved the same way. Eminence mated to eminence, genius plus genius, abil- WIZARD OF THOROUGHBRED TURF 159 ity added to ability will make better the generations as we move on. It is just as necessary, on the other hand, to restrain the worthless and the unfit from reproduc- ing themselves as it is to mate worth with its kind. The methods adopted by the breeders of thoroughbred and trotting horses have, to my mind, shown the methods to be followed for the improvement of the human family. Families of worth and ability must con- serve their greatness by marrying into families of genius and strength. The ob- ject of marriage should be the production of worth-while children, children superior, if possible, in mental and physical qualities to their parents, and, some day, we will breed the Super-man. Patience, Persever- ance and Scientific Knowledge are all that is needed. These 10-cent boys and 10-cent girls in our land each cost, among the higher classes, 10,000 to raise to maturity. They need more brains, and, when given even the rudiments of education that boys and girls get that are above par, they fail and 160 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN cannot go further. The pleasure, conveni- ence and even happiness of married people are subordinate to the production of fit children. The evolution of the race de- pends not on the pleasurable and selfish ends of marriage, but on the birth of fit children. THE WIZARD OF THE THOROUGH- BRED TURF. My neighbor, John E. Madden, the Wiz- ard of the Thoroughbred Turf, owns, in ad- dition to the finest thoroughbred stallions in America, some 250 brood-mares, each selected by him, not only for their race win- ning qualities, but for their blood lines and ancestral qualities to strengthen the weak points and increase the good points of the stallions to which these mares are to be bred, so as to get the best results. Mr. Mad- den goes back to the tap roots of each fam- ily. These pedigrees are studied by him, especially on the sire side, most assidu- ously, day and night, before a purchase is made. He thinks out how this or that cross will :n 0 ,. z C.) 0 This page in the original text is blank. BAD MALTINGS RODUCE POOR HORSES 101 eliminate this or that weak point and strengthen this or that good point. He knows that to get money, he must have with the blood strong healthy pedigrees. Sprinters are bred one way, and long dis- tance runners another. The lungs, the bone, the construction of the body, joints, etc., of each family are most carefully con- sidered; so, is it any wonder that the Mas- ter of Pedigrees produces the best thor- oughbred race colts in the worldI My good horses have all come from fit matings. Not always, when I make what I consider a promising mating by uniting blood lines of distinction, do I get a horse of real value. The best blood lines some- times fail to produce offspring of distinc- tion. This we breeders expect. It takes time to breed out some latent family fail- ing in the horse family, just as it does in the human. In breeding horses, the thing we can count on with absolute certainty is that, while all good matings may fail to produce good horses, bad mating never produces a good horse. We count absolutely on the unfit 162 TllE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN matings always producing an ordinary horse. Should there be any one who reads these lines who has not confidence in what I have said regarding regulating one's posterity, and he soon is to be the father of an unborn child, let him send the color of his and his wife's eyes and hair, together with those of his and his wife's ancestors, to the Eu- genic Bureau at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, and, if they are not too busy, they will tell the color of the eyes and hair of the little one expected, and its possible brain power, if further ancestral data is provided. HOW TO ESTABLISH A FAMILY. If there be any millionaire who wishes to establish a family that will last through the ages, and his ancestral history shows good health and talent, and he has a brainy son of good health, one who is willing to listen to common sense and follow reason, I will put this millionaire in the way to establish a family that will live for at least two hundred years and have brains and UNFIT PRODUCE UNFIT vigor. A vast fortune will not establish a family; it takes blood with a healthy an- cestry behind it; and it takes parents who are willing to make sacrifices and live a proper life for the good of their offspring. As an example of this, the family of Croesus died out long ago. I would rather be a child, born under Combination I., with the right kind of an- cestral healthy vigorous blood running in my veins, and with the knowledge within me that, if properly mated, I could found a great family to carry down with glory my ancestral name, a family that would be use- ful to mankind, than be the only son of the richest man in the world. In this country, where families rise sud- denly and die out, there is now a wonderful opportunity to establish a great family- and there is no chance like the present. Such statements as the above are mere truisms to all horse breeders. The laws of heredity are just as inexorable when ap- plied to man as when applied to the im- provement of animals. The law of human heredity that should 1)e well known is: The 163 164 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN unfit produce the unfit; the men of worth come from parentage of worth. Many women claim that if they have had one child, or, at most, two, they have done their duty to uphold the family name. The wise men of India realized that if their Nation were to be great, they must breed only from the strongest, mentally and physically, of its members; and that the idea handed down for ages that the eldest son shall found the family, was all wrong; so they directed the Brahma Priests to instruct the mothers to throw their first- born into the Ganges, to be eaten by the crocodiles. Sir Anthony Mitchell, in the "Edinburgh Medical Journal" of 1886, found that 31 per cent. of all the idiots in England were first-born children. Everyone knows that in breeding a stallion or young mare the first colts do not generally amount to much. Often, this year, I have had the remark made to me by breeders: "Peter Volo" is one of the grandest horses ever produced and he may be the greatest sire in the world, but I do not care YOUNGER SONS THE GREATEST SIRES 165 to breed to him until he has been a year in the stud. I will breed to him next year." This same remark has been constantly made to me by experienced colored brood- mare men in the state. Eight years ago, I published a prediction that "Peter the Great" would be the great sire he is today; and now with more and surer scientific knowledge, I make a like prediction as to "Peter Volo. " Among milk cow breeders, the first calf is seldom raised. Poultry- men never use the first year's eggs of a hen or duck-to set. It is always the mature bird of 2 or 3 years of age that produces the eggs from which the best young stock is hatched. ENGLAND'S STRENGTH WAS BUILT UP BY YOUNGER SONS. Sir Francis Galton, in his writings and in his book "Hereditary Genius," calls the at- tention of the English nation to the folly of pinning their faith in handing down the family name and the family estate through the oldest son; and claims that, eventually, the English nobility will peter out if it keeps 16 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN up this practice. He proves this by tables and, among other things, states that, al- though the oldest son gets the best show, only seventeen per cent. of the English judges came from oldest sons, eleven per cent. from only sons; thirty-eight per cent. fr om second sons; and twenty-two per cent. from third sons, showving that the greater preponderance of mental acumen and brains comes from the offspring of the ma- turer life and from the more experienced fathers; that the only excuse he could find for the oldest son getting the larger share of his father's properties was to make up for the lack of mental and physical ability he had inherited. For this reason, the eld- est son's needs were greater, as he usually made ducks and drakes of whatever he inherited. The Almighty, seeing all this, established the American, and other Republics, so that every son might have a fair chance to prove his own worth. Havelock Ellis, in his "A Study of Brit- ish Genius," page 120, made a very signifi- cant analysis of 299 fathers who had pro- AMERICAN INDIAN DOESN'T IMPROVE 1G7 duced sons of genius. Of these fathers, two were under twenty; nine between twenty and twenty-four; and two hundred and ninety-two were born of parents between the ages of twenty-five and sixty-five. The greatest of our horses come from stallions of mature vears and experience. What is true of the horse is true of the human. SOME RACES POSSESS NO ELE- MENTS OF IMPROVEMENT. One other interesting fact comes to light from horse breeding. There is in Japan a small pony-built, ill-bred, horse. He is low of stature, compact of body, sturdy of limb; lie has a head as long as that of a jackass. He eats anything, and thrives on it. Years ago the Japanese Government negotiated with me for a lot of stock-studs to improve the native pony. It came out in the trans- action that the first cross on the native horse by a pure bred American horse had little effect. The big head and knotty body would come invariably. These ugly, unde- sirable features would persist into the sec- '1I" THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN ond, third and even fourth generations. It would be better, I thought, to substitute new blood than to try to improve the old. This would have been done had it not been found that there was something in the na- tive feed or climate that affected the health of the imported horse. Certain families of men are like the Jap- anese horse.-they have no elements capa- ble of great improvement. The North American Indian has had the advantage of civilization for three hundred years. He will not civilize. The pure blood has made no improvement. In talent, the Indian of today is no better than when Columbus vis- ited this country. The African, lifted bodily from his native habitat and set in civilized surroundings, has made in elements of worth no improve- ment. Without the infusion of talented blood, he has stood still. The puire-blooded negro in America has in him no elements that will ever lift him above his present condition, the same mental and moral con- dition in which he has been from the dawn of history. CROSSING OF DIFFERENXT RACES From the many crosses of the negro and white race, there have come some strains of mixed breeds, which are an improvement over the negro. Other strains have resulted from the cross which gives society reason for deep concern. Reference is made to the half-breed, who exhibits in his disposition the baser qualities of both races. When the horse and the ass are crossed, the hybrid is stronger, tougher and meaner than either breed of his parentage. The mule is the pack or work animal of civilization, just because of his toughness and of his base- ness. The white race and the negro are as far apart as the ass and the horse. We do not understand why the mule is so tough and so mean, neither can we understand how the hybrid man is so apt to have con- centrated in him the worst of the two races which produce him. Knowing the evils of the cross, society has done nothing to pre- vent it outside the bonds of wedlock. Any- one who has studied the two races knows that if you want a very reliable servant you want one that is either all black or all white. 100' 170 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN CROSSING OF DISTINCTLY DIFFER- ENT RACES DANGEROUS. The crossing of widely separated races is most undesirable for the reason above set forth and can be illustrated in the cross of the North American Indian with the white man. A eugenic worker has shown that a whole tribe of degenerate men and women came from one ancestry and resulted from a cross of the white man and an Indian Prin- cess. Hundreds of the descendants of this couple have been inmates of jails, asylums, penitentiaries and poorhouses. Eighty- eight per cent. of the females and 90 per cent. of the males were habitual drunkards. Any racial crosses are dangerous and to be discouraged in the interest of eugenics. Too many misfits result, even when the marriages are between the same races, and no more should be added by unions of dif- ferent breeds. It may elevate inferior races to be crossed with the white men of the world, but it works a serious injury to the white blood thus turned into an inferior channel. It is well to bring together dis- tinguished families of different branches of SCIENTIFIC BREEDING GETS RESULTS 171 the same race, rather than to continue mar- riage in one line. We call this an out-cross in horse breeding. When the sire's seed is vigorous, keep in the high-breeds; when the sire's seed is weak, go to a strong com- moner blood or to a different family of the same blood. The decendants of "Happy Medium" find a congenial out-cross in the George Wilkes' family. Why cannot we be as careful in conserving the worth of humans, so no marriages of racial violence will be permitted! We can breed horses to trot. We can breed them to trot slowly or to trot fast. We can breed them so they will be passing gaited or line gaited. We can breed them to pace and to be so strong in the pacing tendency that they cannot trot. We can produce them so they go a mixed-gait, trot with the front feet and run witi the hi-nd feet. We breed them to run. We breed the high-stepping horse. We can breed the horse which will go the single foot gait, so necessary in the saddle type. WVe are also breeding safe ponies for children, draft horses for farmers, and jumpers for hunt- 172 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN ers, with distinct inclinations to do the things we desire. Some years ago, while riding in Central Park with The Honor- able Michael Bowerman of Kentucky, he would tell the families and even the sires of the teams ahead of us by the way the horses lifted and put down their feet. Several of these conjectures I investigated and confirmed. Careful scientific breeding produces such results-so that it is all un mistakable to an expert horseman. Like physical and mental traits and character- istics in families of humans can be bred if clever expert advice is taken. You can produce a healthy family of speakers, of thinkers, of boys with analytical minds- in fact, anything you want. How is this very great variety of horses bred so distinctly and separately The answer is, by selecting the thing we want to reproduce and holding our breeding strict- ly to these lines. To get in horses a gait, we must select individuals and breed for a series of generations to the same kind of individuals with the gait wanted. All who do not hive the gait desired must be re- ABRAHAM WORLDS CHAMPION SIRE 173 jected. Rejection! Rejection! Years ago, here in Kentucky, defective colts were de- stroyed, and, if a mare produced more than one defective colt, her registration papers were destroyed and she was sold out of the state. Today, you seldom see a defective colt or a bad one, and so it is that Kentucky horses are at a premium. That is the way it is done in the horse world. I ask, can it be done any other way in the human family I In Kentucky, the breeding of animals is discussed as freely as we in the North talk about dresses and hats. SELECTIVE BREEDING AMONG THE JEWS. We may talk all we like about exceptional and potent sires among animals, but there is one sire among humans who stands out head and shoulders above any exceptional potent sire among animals or humans-- and that great man is Abraham, who lived 4,100 years ago. Every Jew or Jewess of today in the world has stamped on his or her face the hereditary features of Abraham and in his 174 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN or her heart and mind Abraham's charac- teristics and traits are deeply imbedded, so that, no matter where they wander on the face of the earth, the descendants of Abra- ham are unmistakable. The translation of the word Abraham, means "Father of Multitudes." Our oldest historical and biblical records, and the recent discoveries in the British Museum, state that it was prophesied that Abraham's seed and that of his male de- scendants should possess the magic force of potency and vigor and that his descend- ants should increase indefinitely. The Bible also says, in substance, that the Jew shall inherit the earth. From present indi- cations, before many years will have passed, the fulfillment of that prophecy will be realized. He was the fourth son of Tereh, who died when he was 205 years old; and Abraham was born when Tereh was 130 years old. Abraham, at the age of 100, the Bible states, became the father of Isaac; and he died at the age of 175 years. It is well known that the Jews are a thrif- INTERMARRIAGE AND ITS EFFECTS 175 ty people. They are known for their ability to accumulate money. A thoroughbred horse has no greater tendency to run than has a Jew to succeed in the business of accumulating money. This thrifty tendency has been perpetuated among this admir- able race of people by breeding in a defin- ite way for hundreds of years with money- getting and money-keeping in view. The sons and daughters of successful Jews will not marry into worthless Jewish families. They must marry only the successful of their own race. Put 100 thrifty Jews in a town of 10,000 inhabitants, and, in 50 years, the Jews will have all the money of the 10,000 Christians, because they are bred to get it. Have you ever noticed the respect for ancestry that exists among members of the Jewish race They will even do more than this. Young people, closely related, like first and sec- ond cousins, inter-marry; and even uncles and nieces have been known to marry. Such intermarriages not only tend to preserve the character of the race, but, especially, the money-getting qualities, and serve the 176 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN purpose of keeping it in the family. This magnifies family traits. It is true, close relatives often marry to keep a fortune or a business in one family, as, for example, the Rothschilds. This results in the children from such unions receiving a double heri- tage of a family tendency. Thrift, being a racial and family trait, is doubly accentu- ated by marriages of near relatives. When people of the same race marry, their children carry the characteristics of that race and the special characteristics of their ancestors. Imported "Messenger" was a thorough- bred horse. His get in America all showed a tendency to trot. Both the sire and dam of "Rysdyk's Hamiltonian" were de- scended from Imported "Messenger." That is why the get of "Hamiltonian" all had the trotting gait. To improve the speed of the trotting horse, there were matings of relatives, which correspond to the mar- riages of cousins in the Jewish race. As a horse-breeder, I must call attention to the danger of too much inbreeding, as it will double, if present in a family strain, a INTERBREEDING INHERITED-TRAITS 177 weakness, as well as a good quality. Cousin marriages add to the thrift of the Jews, but it often means, also, men of low stature and a lack of physical vigor, and, if prac- ticed to a great extent, produces deafness. It is claimed by some that if this method is practiced for generations, one in every ten will have cancer. INBREEDING AND INHERITED TALENTS. I attribute much of my success, as a horse-breeder, to the fact that I early found out the danger of injudicious inbreeding. The George Wilkes' family dominated the trotting industry for many years. This became an inbred family. I believed that the Wilkes' family needed an out-cross, and my breeding with success an out-cross like "Peter the Great" to the George Wilkes' mare proved thiis. The horse world knows the wonderful re- sults which have come from such matings and, in this -way, we conserved all the great- ness of George Wilkes' progeny and added to it qualities which enhanced its value. 178 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN I believe that in improving the human race, inbreeding has its place, but an out-cross is often necessary to preserve vigor and other valuable racial qualities. In making the out-cross, among humans, care must be exercised so that no antagonistic qualities are brought in and augmented and, where such inbreeding is considered, the advice of an expert should be sought to warn both parties that this or that union will pro- duce sub-normal children, or defective chil- dren, or children with tendencies to this or that disease. The family of the Mikado of Japan maintains its strength by taking a female out-cross from the best in physi- cal, mental and ancestral history in the Flowery Kingdom at stated intervals. We all know that too much inbreeding pro- duced the crazy Bavarian Kings and caused the death of Rudolph of Austria. If a musician from a musical family marries a musician, the children all will have a talent for music. Should a musician marry a woman who only loves music, but has not devoted time to it, the children will all probably have a talent for music. Let LONGEVITY IS HEREDITARY the musician, however, marry a woman en- tirely devoid of the talent and not even a lover of the art, and an antagonistic ele- ment is present to destroy the heritage of the musician. The mathematician's power comes from his ancestry. The sculptor inherits his geni- us from his parentage. Size of stature, strength of body, love of art, business tal- ent, literary power, engineering and inven- tive faculties, and mechanical ability, all can be strengthened and improved by prop- er marriage selection, and longevity can be increased. There is no reason why the life of humans cannot be materially lengthened by proper breeding. You will find the value to you of hereditary health and longevity if you go to a Life Insurance Company to get a policy. The first question they will ask you is, at what age your father or your ancestors died, and from what they died. Your answer will, other things being equal, establish the rate you will be charged, un- less you are addicted to alcohol. Then thev will add 74; and if you are a syphilitic 88 will be added. 1S0 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN These insurance men know the most per- tinent questions at issue. Their experts can tell what kind of a life the applicant lives and has lived. There is no reason why people of today should not live to be 500 years of age, barring accidents, and re- tain their vigor and potency, and be free from mental and physical infirmities, weak hearts, etc. With the unnatural lives we live, these hereditary weaknesses become more and more apparent. "MAan shall live by the sweat of his brow," but we live lives of luxury and we violate all the laws of nature and hygiene, and indulge in num- I)erless excesses. In early history, man lived to be 500 years and older; by breeding and care this again can be accomplished. If you have any doubt of this, go to Rus- sia and Siberia. There I have daily seen more old men over one hundred years of age, than I have seen in all my life. Some say it is because of their rough food and the almost total abstinence from eating meat. There may be something in this, but I am satisfied the principal reason is that they have inherited healthier lungs and UNBORN MUST HOLD FIRST PLACE 181 healthier kidneys, etc., than most people, and their ancestors did not have the time nor the opportunity to ruin them by indul- gences. This brings me, finally, to consider the practical aspect of eugenics. I believe, and I am sure that scientific men of eminence like Dr. Graham Bell, Dr. David Starr Jor- dan, Dr. C. B. Davenport, Dr. C. L. Reed, Dr. Robert T. Morris, Dr. W. S. Anderson, and a host of research workers believe, that the human race must be improved by selective breeding, or more fit marriages. The inherent improvement of the race can only come by obedience to the laws of nature and heredity, not by education, san- itation, or industrial revolution. The solu- tion depends on having young people of merit make the right kind of selection be- fore marriage, so as to strengthen the good tendencies and eliminate the weak. Once get these ideas instilled in the minds of the young, and see what a change there will be in the morals of our young men. For this end I strongly recommend two things. The first thing is a campaign of 182 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN education, the object of which is to teach young people that marriage should mean healthy, vigorous, talented children. I know it is a difficult task. So many things influence marriage that much time will be necessary to change the viewpoint of the world. Second, to give the unborn child its rightful place in the hearts and minds of Potential parents. I believe it can be done, and I am sure it will be done in the next ten or twenty years, monumental as the task now appears. RECORD OFFICE AND RESEARCH FOUNDATION. Mrs. Russell Sage is devoting the for- tune of her distinguished husband to better social conditions. Through the agency of the Sage Foundation, exhaustive studies ,re being made of our so-called submerged classes. Through the desire to contribute something to the permanent improvement of the race, Mrs. E. H. Harriman is direct- ing funds for investigations, which already throw much light on human inheritance. The Carnegie Institute for Research, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research RECORD OFFICE; RESEARCH FOUNDATION 193 and the Rockefeller Foundation, will all finally throw great light upon racial im- provement and be a blessing to the world. The findings of these research institutions to help the future generations must in some way be placed in the hands of marriageable men and women. It will do no good for grey-haired scientists and aged maiden la- dies to meet and discuss the laws of eu- genics, unless this information gets into the hands of young people before their own marriages take place. Parents are too pru- dish, or they lack knowledge. Schools should take up the study of eugenics. A campaign of enlightenment is necessary. It is growing in influence every day. Every large university in the United States will some day have a chair of " Social Welfare" or "Eugenics," or "Genetics." We have been fighting our way, paving the road, for the past twenty years, and we now see suc- cess ahead of us. The good work started at Cold Spring Harbor in the East by one horseman, and in the West by another horseman, will eventually interest the whole country. We started a few years ago 184 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN with simply a handful of thinking people and, today, we number tens of thousands, and the good work is spreading. The other matter, which to me is impera- tive, is a "Bureau of Records and Infor- mation," a place that can give the specific ancestral information needed by young men and young women to enable them to properly marry. After a campaign of edu- cation has taught them to see the need of selection, it is necessary that there be an Institute of Records to give specific in- formation as to the pedigree of every family and its past history, as to the cause of death and disease in each family, and some trusty expert scientist to exam- ine the pedigrees and to tell them how to eliminate this and that defect or to strengthen this or that good tendency by proper selection. I am glad that such an institution has been founded. Some ten years ago I looked in on its beginning, and found the records collected stood in a three by four foot safe. The safe immediately gave way to a concrete fireproof vault. So rapidly has the material grown that a .PREISENT SYSTEM OF ' MARRIAGES WRONG( 185 splendid two-story fireproof building now houses the most valuable material in exist- ence for the guidance of those seeking in- formation concerning family histories. I refer to the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor, New York. In building up this institution, Mrs. E. H. JHarriman is enabling the genius, C. B. Davenport, its Director, to collect and preserve the records that will, in a few years, be one of our most valuable possessions. Already, much of this accumulated material has been tabulated, studied and conclusions bearing on eugenics published. The day will come when the good this noble woman is doing for our country by establishing the Eugenic Record Office will be appreciated and a monument will be raised to a woman who has saved a nation. PRESENT SYSTEM OF MARRIAGE WRONG IN THEORY AND PRACTICE. I cannot conceive of the continuance of present-day social customs governing the institution of marriage. Today the inno- cent woman, her father or her mother, have 186 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN no way of knowing about the hereditary or physical fitness of a young man for mar- riage. Through investigation of medi- cal records, I have been forced to know of a great many marriages too awful for words, where young married women have left their happy homes for a life of misery and suffering and died in ignorance of the cause of their troubles. I believe the time is very near when adequate relief will be given to parents and to daughters, by mak- ing a medical examination and a family history a prerequisite for the marriage license for a young man. The world is be- ginning to realize that it is just as bad for a man to murder his wife by infecting her with a foul, loathsome and usually fatal dis- ease as to murder her with knife, or axe, or gun, or drug. Laws soon will be enacted which will allow the medical examiner to protect women and their unborn children. I look forward to the time when the law will require the physician to make a public record of the names of all men victims of syphilis. When this is done, the end of the "black plague" is in sight. Publicity NATIONAL CERTIFICATE OF HEALTH of victims will act as a guarantee agency, which will eradicate the diseases by making young men more careful. In France, a doctor is compelled to register every case of syphilis in the town in which his patient was born in the official hall of records, where they are kept for public inspection. The same is true in Germany, and, if the doctor fails to so record each case of syph- ilis, he is subject to a heavy penalty. Something more, however, is necessary than a clean bill of health to make marriage a success. The young people want to know their own ancestral history, and the ances- tral history of the families into which they are expected to marry, what the strong points of their family are, as well as the failings, and from what their ancestors died, so as not to double up family fail- ings or inclinations to such diseases-as for instance, when under certain condi- tions both families have hereditary kidney trouble, insanity, etc. This is the only way to spare suffering to the unborn. I know predictions are hazardous, but I venture to say that in fifty years from now 187 188 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN the Eugenic Record Office, with its branches, will be consulted by every pros- pective intelligent bride and groom. Fathers and mothers will consult their owin family records and those of the possibl1 families into which iheir children ma+ marry. Certificates of Registration will h1' issued, just as all well-bred animals are today registered, and we will know the good points and the bad points of each family. Unless this is done we, as a Nation, are doomed. I have noticed that when people of the same race marry, their children carry the characteristics of that race, and where there are two different races, they gener- ally carry the characteristics of each race, but the characteristics of the older and more established race, especially if the sire of that race is inbred, will certainly prevail. As tan illustration of this, I was once walk- ing through a park in a foreign city, where I heard my name called. I turned and met a lady of rare grace and refinement, once one of the handsomest well-bred girls in America. We had not seen each other for MIXING OF THE BREEDS years. She had married an ill-bred foreign- er of immense wealth of an old established family. I said, "What are you doing here " She replied, "Playing with my children," and there were five, all around her, and such curious specimens of human- ity I never saw; more like monkeys,-such curious little heads, such wiry little bodies, skinny legs and little black eyes, not one had a feature of their beautiful mother. That girl, if properly advised by an ex- pert, would never have placed herself in such a position. THE MIXING OF THE BREEDS. Among horse breeders, runners are called hot-blooded and draft-horses cold- blooded. If a cold-blooded Percheron Stal- lion be bred to a hot-blooded Thoroughbred Mare, the life germs of the male offspring will contain all the elements of both breeds. They will be of unequal size and of irregu- lar shapes-some quick of movement, others sluggish. Some of the life germs will carry the beautiful head and neck of the Thoroughbred and the clumsy heavy 185) 190 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN body of the Percheron, and the light legs of the Thoroughbred and big hoofs of the Percherons. Other life germs will carry the light body of the Thoroughbred and the coarse large head of the draft-horse- or the thick legs of the Percheron and small hoofs of the Thoroughbred, etc. The life germs of the hybrid are made up of a mixture of the elements 'liat compose the two breeds. The result is an unbalanced nondescript. In the same way, the female hybrid of this combination will show like characteristics. When two of these hI- brids are mated, you do not get a Thor- oughbred or a Percheron, but, instead, yor get an ill-formed ugly monstrosity, carry- ing the bad points of both-neither fitted for pulling great weights nor for running fast. Such crosses are an outrage on both breeds. It is a half-way thing which be- longs to neither draft nor running horse. Should I cross a St. Bernard dog on a Greyhound-bitch, the breeding world and the intelligent public would censure me most severely. But just such misalliances are daily occurring among humans, and PLEBEIAN MARKS1 the world only smiles, and their helpless hybrid offspring pay the penalty. Such hybrid young men and young wo- men could be seen thirty years ago at the social functions of Chicago 's smart set. That was the time when the hog and cattle industry furnished the money for Chi- cago's social functions. The coarse bred frontiersmen and cattle rangers, becoming rich, had secured for their wives refined well-bred women from the East and South, whose families had lost their money. The horse breeder of today can readily understand why the new City on the Lake then made such enormous demands for ladies' shoes of the larger sizes. In hu- mans, a mixture of the coarse and gross with the refined and delicate always re- sults in too big a foot, or too thick an ankle, or some other physical irregularity. The ladies of the smart set of Chicago became worried over their children's feet, and finally consulted experts on breeding, and, among others, those at the Chicago University, endowed by John D. Rocke- feller, the horseman. They explained to 191 192 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN them the cause of their children's large feet and their other plebeian marks. Having acquired sufficient money to be in- dependent, they excluded the cold-blooded of such rich and mated their children with the high-bred blood of the East and South, so that, today, the large-sized shoes are no longer needed in Chicago, but are shipped direct to New York and Newport-for these places have become the Meccas of the newly rich. As we walk, today, on Fifth Avenue in New York, or on the Cliffs of Newport, Rhode Island, one can see nurses and gov- ernesses caring for these children and try- ing to teach them how to conduct them- selves and how to use their feet without interfering. Just note how these children are marked by physical irregularities, big stomachs, skinny legs with large feet, and pumpkin shaped heads, or small feet, sup- porting beefy calves or delicate heads, above a body like that of a matronly wash- erwoman. These unfortunate children are from a mixture of hot and cold blood. Aristocrats, linking their blood with the SHAPELY FEET NOW IN CHICAGO 193 newly rich of the draft-horse classes, can only produce hybrids. Some of the well- bred families of New York and Boston, who have met with misfortune, have al- lowed their daughters to marry sons of the rich of Rhine Wine names. Such alliances restore lost money but breed an unholy hu- man mixture, just as they did in Chicago. The ladies' shoe and slipper factories of Haverhill and Lynn are now driven to their wits' end to design shoes and slippers to hide the large and ugly shaped feet of such offspring, until their parents can find eligi- bles to marry them. If the young lady is short and has big feet, the heels are raised by a wedge inserted in the shoe and she is compelled to walk like a toe-dancer. It is somewhat painful, but it shortens the foot and is rather artistic; or, if she be tall and has long feet, the heel is placed in the middle of the sole and gracefully curved towards the toes; and, when the owner is thus shod for a social function, the real heel extends back and is bigger than that of a corn-field lady of Senegam- bian ancestry. No longer do you see our 194 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN young men wearing shapely, straight, high- instep shoes, like Slater, Young and others used to make; but, to meet the needs of these male nondescripts, flat shoes, cres- cent-shaped on the outside, are required. They remind one of a flattened Bologny, burst on the outside. The Chicago and Western ladies, who studied and practiced eugenics, soon bred shapely daughters, and have lately intro- duced the custom of short skirts-and the exposure of the legs to the knee, and some- times further. To meet these new condi- tions, our New York and Newport newly- rich are securing from French Madams on Fifth Avenue, shapely "fats" or " symmet- ricals" for their skinny-legged daughters; or stockings with stripes up and down for those of the piano-legged formation. When Mrs. "Newly-Rich" explains to her husband that their daughter Mary's slippers and shoes, on account of the ad- vance in leather, along with other war mu- nitions, now cost fifty to a hundred dollars a pair, you may be sure that ninety-nine times out of a hundred Mary gets her SOCIAL ERRORS MUST BE EXPOSED 195 shoes of one of the Italian shoe artists now located on Fifth Avenue, who transfers, by his skill, a flat, wide, flabby foot of a young miss into an apparently shapely, high-bred, high-arched aristocratic thing of beauty. These slippers and shoes in public Mary has to wear until Pa's mil- lions so daze her suitors that they do not see her feet. Is all this fair to Mary Is all this just to the unborn, to be allowed to come into the world, unfit to take their positions either in the working classes, to which one parent was bred and born, or a position in the social world, to which the other parent was bred and born The pro- duction of such offspring is certainly a dis- grace to the state; and do you not think it would be better if they never were born Should an observer go West today, he will find a lively interest in eugenics. He will be convinced that wisdom no longer comes from Boston, where we used to get the best and latest brand of knowledge, but from such Western cities as Seattle, Los Angeles, or Salt Lake City, which know the difference between brains and boodle. 196 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN Thence is likely to come an enlightened popular system of human breeding that will correct these social errors and show the people of the East and South the need of teaching the young, before marriage, the value of eugenics and the fatal unhappy results these unhallowed crosses produce. To illustrate the laws of nature, in, per- haps, a clearer way, in Honolulu, there has been an almost indiscriminate mixing of such races as the Japanese, Germans, Chinese, Scotch, American, English and other nations. The awful result of the mixing of opposite and antagonistic racial qualities is that there is no certainty as to the character or looks of the children. For instance, a man and his wife, both giving indication of being pure Anglo-Saxon, will produce one child that favors a Chinaman, another like a German, another like a na- tive Honoluluian, and still another that re- sembles a Japanese. The Eugenic Record Office had a study made of the results from mulatto mar- riages, in certain of the Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, where there is no -race THE WAGES OF SIN prejudice; and their investigator discov- ered that when pure mulattoes marry there is no certainty about the color of the chil- dren. The color and features vary from that of the pure black negro to the pure white Caucasian. One child out of every sixteen is jet black and one is pure white and the other fourteen range in shade from black to white; the physical features and brain powers vary in the same manner. Our Government must have at least a Colored Registry, or our grandchildren will be mar- rying mulattoes. An English subject, a graduate of one of her most important universities, met and married the beautiful daughter of a promi- nent American. Their wedding was quite a social affair. They afterwards sailed from Boston to visit his family, who owned a plantation on a West Indies Island. They were met at the dock by his par- ents. One look was enough! She had mar- ried into a negro family. She fell in a faint; but silently, she accepted the situa- tion. Her first born was jet black with straight black hair. 197 198 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN A rich United States Senator had a girl baby by his mulatto mistress. When two years old, the Senator, and the mother act- ing as nurse, carried her to Chicago. There she was placed in a well-known Catholic in- stitution, with the statement that her mother was a South-American, who had died in childbirth. The Senator and nurse frequently visited her. The child grew up with the nuns and became exceedingly beautiful and was very popular with her associates. She became the idol of the Senator, and visited in the homes of Chi- cago's most exclusive set. School over, va- .ation on, her associates gone, the Senator had arranged to sail the next week with her and her nurse to London, where she was to be presented at Court; to settle a fortune on her and to leave her with a wise Lon- don lady, who was to see she was well married. She had been forbidden ever to visit her old nurse only to write. The call of the wild was too great! Getting a railroad time table, and seeing she could leave Chi- cago in the morning and arrive at the home FAMILY SUPERIOR TO INDIVIDUAL 199 of her nurse by dusk, she decided to take the trip the next morning. Arriving at the station and finding the place was in a hamlet three miles away, she took a cab and, on descending, found her nurse in the road among a crowd of negroes, one of whom exclaimed,-"Why, that is Martha's child for sure!" A faint was followed by a confession from the nurse. Within three weeks, this beautiful highly educated girl, refusing to listen to the entreaties of the Senator, married the blackest man in the county. In a large city like New York, where all races live, there is an indiscriminate mix- ture of bloods. Is it any wonder, while thoughtless marriages are daily occurring, that we are breeding a vast army of de- fectives, nondescripts, hybrids and such 7 I claim that it is unjust to the living child; and it is denying to the unborn the sacred right to be well-born; and each child has a right to come into the world unhandicapped by physical and mental defects. Some twenty years ago, the late Ward McAllister told the Social World that there 200 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN were only four hundred in the social sets of New York that were fitted by birth, educa- tion and refinement to enter its highest so- ciety, called the "Patriarch's Ball Set." The newspapers of the day took exception -but facts, now proven, show that Ward McAllister was a prophet ahead of his time. The pedigree of a horse is all important in predicting the character of his offspring. At the auction sales today, you will see colts a few months old sold at fabulous prices on their pedigree. The family is superior to the individual. The individual may look good, may show good character- istics, but that is no guarantee what the offspring will be. The pedigree of men and women is most important if valuable children are to result from their union. So firmly do I believe in the value of human pedigrees and achievements for the future of the race, that, were I young and without obligations, I would devote my life to the upbuilding of such institutions as the Eugenic Record Office. A priceless opportunity is now open to PASSING OF OLD N. Y. FAMILIES young men and women at the Eugenic Rec- ord Office, Cold Spring Harbor, Long Isl- and, where they can attend eugenic classes and get useful information, which will benie- fit themselves and the nation, and some day be to their great pecuniary profit. OUR OLD NEW YORK FAMILIES HAVE BRED) OUT. It would make one sad at lieart to nxame over the great aind good families who made the history of New York and this wonder- ful city what it is to-day, l)ut who have ''petered out" in tle last few yetrs. Their family names are no longer heard, aind their proud owners are (lead, gone forevor, for want of exl)ert advice in breeding. They failed to observe the lawvs of health and hygiene, with fatal results. Tbhe exp)ert scientists of to(lay, with their present knowledge, could hlave shlown tlhem how to have preserved their vigor and their fam- ily names. One ob)ject of this b0ook is to call the attention of the present generation to this and devise some well laid plans to prevent its recurrence. 2101 202 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN IN OLID NEW YORK. As a small boy, it was my wont to ride around with my mother on her social calls; and many were the old Dutch, English and Scotch families, in addition to the Puritan and Quaker families that we used to visit. I remember them all well, their peculiari- ties and much of their family histories. In- sanity and consumption were much more prevalent in the old families of New York in those days than they are today. My mother was a Puritan. Her ances- tors were English, but had lived in 'Delft, Holland, before coming with the Hartford Colony in America. In the homes of these old proud Dutch families, she was exceptionally welcome. They always had something mysterious to talk about, and I was generally banished to the yard to climb the grape-arbor or to play with the dog. Here the black man would bring me cookies and sweetmeats out of a blue jar. All these respected family names have disappeared. How well I remember these visits. The ladies were all very old and distinguished looking. They dressed in black with white OLD LONDON"S SOCIAL SET lace collars, and often wore lace half gloves and always talked about the dead. Some used plumpers in their cheeks. Seldom were there any children around for me to play with; but a black man always brought in a tray of liquor or bottle of Orak and for my mother a pot of Ceylon tea, for her family never touched liquor. My grandfather had started the New York Temperance Society, the object of which, as I remember, was to abolish the use of liquor at funerals, and from this the National Temperance Society sprang of which my uncle was the Presi- dent. There were few marriageable men, and of these many remained bachelors and some old medical records and correspond- ence I procured indicate that the majority were blanks. Their seed lacked fertility. An analogous state of affairs occurred in London, England, between the years 1600 and 1700. It was such a shock when it sud- denly dawned on London's smart set-their commercial social set-that an investiga- tion was made. It was discovered that almost all of the old families of London had died out; while the families of the Court 203 204 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN society, with its Royalty and the Peerage, still existed, and, in fact, had increased. Here were two English social sets who ate the same food, drank the same drinks, enjoyed the same climate and whose so- cial dissipations were not dissimilar. The Peerage, then called "The Quality," did not entertain or associate with the people of the London social set, except in trans- acting business. They were called "City Folks." Both sets, however, were afflicted, about equally, with the Black Plague. The London set consisted almost entirely of suc- cessful bankers, merchants and profession- al men, who worked hard during the day and, when night came, their wives and fam- ilies compelled them to devote their time to social obligations and entertainments, which were then most engrossing. These were times of great business up- heavals and financial crashes, and the peo- ple of the London set no longer had the time for outdoor exercise in the pure coun- try air. As their business became more complicated and exacting, they were con- fined more than ever in the foul air of their offices and kept in the City, with the accu- THEIR LIFE GERMS WERE WEAK W5 mulation of worries and trouble. But they did not give up their life of ease, luxury and high living and, when the pressure came, they had not the strength to stand up and lost their nerve. They did not have the ancestral breeding to back up their weakened constitutions. As a result, they partook more and more copiously of stim- ulants to enable them to withstand the added strains and, with their acquired afflictions, their constitutions gave way and their life germs grew weaker with each gen- eration. THE OLD LONDON SOCIAL SET BRED ITSELF OUT. The Loindon social set apparently did not go outside of London to marry but married within their own social circle. This was a case of weak kidneys added to weak kid- neys; weak livers and weak tendencies add- ed to weak tendencies and, of course, their offspring inherited all their weaknesses in a greater proportion. As any breeder of today knows, these families were breeding out. They had to die; their fate was in- evitable. They had, as it were, dug their 206 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN own graves. When they did have offspring, most of such children did not have the strength and stamina to grow to maturity. They died in uterus, or at birth, or early in life, and the life germs of those that did live were sadly wanting. The only members of this old London set who did not die out were the temperate and those who left England for the Colon- ies, or went into outdoor life. And the ma- jority of those who survived were the women who were the more temperate. They married out of their social circle and thus changed their names; and so the old Lon- don family names passed awayv. There are firms in London, today, where there has not been a man of that name for one hun- dred years. The Court Set, on the other hand, had only royal functions to attend. They lived in their castles in the country and enter- tained there. They lived so much an out- door life that it aided them in throwing off the ill effects of the Black Plague and other hereditary ills. Besides that, they came from an ancestry of men and women OUR ONLY AMERICAN PEERAGE who had an established breeding for cen- turies, with outdoor exercise to strengthen it. They had more stamina, better con- stitutions to stand the ravages of disease and the dissipations than the younger City social set. They only came to London to attend the Court balls and functions and, when they were over, back to their country places and castles they went, to their rid- ing, hunting and open air life. They had time; they were not busy; they had no worries like the City set. They trav- eled on the Continent, and often inter- married with the foreign royalty and, from the best of the foreign Court sets, they se- lected the well-bred, richest and healthiest. These out-crosses were mostly of the right nature. It was the great Thackeray who once exclaimed that the English Peerage would have been wiped out if some one in the line of succession had not once in a while eloped with the butler's daughter. These are the reasons why the Court set of London exists today, and there are, to- day, so few descendants of the London so- cial set of from 1(00 to 1700. 207 208 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN Now let us go back to our old New York sturdy Dutch families, and those New Year's Day customs of calling. They were the aristocracy and as such were very proud. The Van Rensselaers of Albany were their "Patroons" and their landed es- tates covered many hundreds of square miles; their tenants were numbered by the thousands. The haughty imperious man- ners of the then ruling "Patroon" brought about the loss of these great entailed es- tates and thus closed out forever the only American Peerage. They took little or no exercise. They lived well and drank to ex- cess, gin, Suydam Schnapps, imported by Schuchard & Gebhard, and hot toddies; and the ladies, Madeira. Consequently, they had poor kidneys. It was among these old Dutch settlers that the term " Two-Bot- tle-Men" originated. They could walk home without showing the effect of alcohol but it was a death blow to their descend- ants. My aunt's sister married one of the last of the descendants of Peter Stuy- vesant, and her husband was always be- THE BLACK PLAGUE AFFECTED ALL 2: moaning fate because the name of Stuy- vesant must die out. There were then some very aristocratic Jews in New York's most exclusive circles, the Tobiases, Lazaruses, Judahs, etc. Their women were noted for their beauty. The old English and Scotch families were fond of outdoor exercise at first, but, as time wore on, their Curling Clubs and their Cricket Clubs were mostly given up. They drank brandy, port and ales and, after- wards, whiskey, to excess, and the ladies, sherry and port. The faces of all were flushed and the blood veins in their counte- nances were dilated. They, too, had weak kidnevs. The war of 1812, the financial crisis that followed and the Civil War were troubles and worries that struck the death blow to those old families. They did not have suf- ficient stamina and were too slow to com- pete with new methods. From the records of the old doctors, the Black Plague affected the Dutch, English and Scotch families of New York about the same. The Dutch families intermarried, 210 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN principally among themselves and, here again, it was a case of weak kidneys, added to weak kidneys, and the same weak ten- dencies added to the same weak tendencies. When the English and Scotch families intermarried, it was again a case of more weak kidneys and more weak tendencies. When the Dutch intermarried with the English or Scotch, which was infrequent, it was another case of four weak kidneys, and the same two weak tendencies added; and they both had, more or less, hereditary fail- ings, which the doctors of that day were unable to cure. The men died off young of dissipation and overwork affected them, be- cause their sires did not have in their seed healthy, strong and active life germs. The daughters then began to marry outside their set, and thus the family names were lost, but every now and then, when I go to California, Indiana, or Illinois, someone will ask me if I ever heard of the Van D's, the Van der W's, the Van S's, or the Van Sin's of New York and, when I say, "Yes, of course, I have," they say, "Why, they were my grandparents." These old fami- GIRLS OUTDRINK AND OUTSMOKE MEN 211 lies perished because they denied to their children the right to be well born. From the fate of the distinguished old families of New York City and London, I want to save our present generation. I am unwilling to see, without a word of protest, our best blood continue to rush to extinc- tion. As I have pointed out, two things brought the old families to the point of ruin. One was over-indulgence in the use of alco- hol. This poison will render sterile any family who will excessively use it. It is all the more deadly when it has as allies the social diseases. The other thing which led to oblivion so many distinguished names of the past was the intermarriage of families rendered weak by the same indulgences and vices. In their marriages, they violated the most fundamental law of biology. They added weakness to weakness. They brought an alcoholic soaked body to one de- vitalized by the social diseases. The result was that nature's law thus outraged des- troyed the breed. This fate is sure to overtake our present day families of worth and distinction, un- 212 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN less they avoid the mistakes of those whose fate has been recited. It is well known that the young people of our best families in- dulge in the use of alcohol, cigarettes and cigars at their social functions. At most every luncheon and dinner, there is set be- fore both men and women cocktails, liquors, cigarettes and cigars. Young women, as well as young men, drink liquors and strong wines and smoke cigarettes to excess; and the young girls often outdrink the men. Whatever of worth, of brainpower, of physical vigor they have received from their parents is being slowly polluted. They are thus rendering themselves unfit to produce vigorous children. They will see when too late sons come into their homes utterly unfit to carry on the family name. The excuse book is closed forever. The laws of heredity are positive and unchange- able. I do not believe that young men and young women would live the lives of dissi- pation which they do today did they know that over-indulgence meant weak children, or no children at all. I believe that if they BREEDING FOR BRIGHT'S DISEASE 213 knew the truth they would leave off the vices, poisonous alcohol, cigarettes and ci- gars. Filial love will carry the day for the cause of the unborn, when fathers and mothers are well satisfied of these truths. For what father or mother could have the heart, knowingly, to bring into the world defective diseased offspring; how could they, with a fear of God, look into the trust- ing eyes of their innocent children, who give them all the love of their hearts in return for a miserable heritage I have noticed that children afflicted with heredi- tary ills are more loving and devoted to these very parents-as if, by extra kind- nesses, to heap coals of fire on their heads, -Retribution. So now I hang out the dan- ger signals that all who read may know be- fore it is too late. PLAIN FACTS. It is to place before them the plain facts that I write. It is well-known that certain constitutional diseases are increasing at a most alarming rate. Modern medicine is 214 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN unable to cope with them. To mention but one will suffice to illustrate my meaning. Bright's Disease is not only increasing in the number of its victims, but it is becom- ing more deadly in its ravages. Our great physicians are unable to ward it off or to stay its course when it begins its deadly work. They tell us no one knows what pro- duces Bright's Disease, but any horse breeder could answer that question. On every hand, the question is asked: Why this increase in Bright's Disease What can I do to escape its deadly grasp Its great prevalence is due to one reason and one reason only. For generations, we have been breeding, or, as the horseman would say, we have bred for Bright's Dis. ease, and now we have that for which we have been breeding. It is true, we have been propagating it unconsciously, but none the less surely. Bright's Disease is a manifestation of weak kidneys. By our ignorant thoughtless marriages, we have been doubling up this weakness. By our social indulgences, we have been adding too great a burden to the kidneys, and AMERICA A NATION OF DRUG FIENDS 215 when worries, troubles and misfortunes overtake us, our kidneys give way; the result is early death from Bright's Dis- ease. I ask my intelligent young readers to think about these things. These are only a few examples. I could add others and others. You of our Smart Set of New York City of today are just the same as the commer- cial social set of London and if you do not give up your liquors, your cigarettes and your indulgences and devote yourselves to your health and obey the laws of Social Hy- giene, your family name, which your father and your grandfather nearly killed them- selves to preserve, will die forever. The French have a saying that "In the commer- cial social sets, it takes just three genera- tions from the shirt sleeve to the shirt sleeve." That means your children will be weaklings. They will not have the brains and stamina to compete with the rising com- mon blood that has gradually purified itself by open-air work, from lack of time and funds to indulge in high life and by mar- 216 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN riages with better blood. Your children will either die out or drop to the laboring class. That is why the country plow-boy, in life's contests and races, always outstrips in the end the city boy with his greater ad- vantages. He has the stomach, the kidneys, the brain and the stamina to stand up under the struggle of every-day life. The country boy from shirt-sleeved an- cestry is free from hereditary Cancer, Bright's Disease an(1 the social vices; so make farmers of some of our boys. Take them away from city life. No society can long endure the ravages of these diseases. The alarming increase of Cancer is due to a doubling up of a bodily weakness sus- ceptible to it. In 1915, we consumed 75,000,- 000 pounds of drugs, in addition to patent medicines. Weakened constitutions have forced America to become a nation of Drug Fiends. RECORDS OF DEATH. As a Director of a Cemetery Corpora- ation, I have watched with an eager eye, for twenty years, our Interment Books, THE KNIFE FOR THE 1 MEN. where the real causes of death are re- corded. I have seen by the records five cases of Consumption and two of Cancer were the average per page twenty years ago. Today, it is five of Cancer and two of Consumption. The reason is the cause and treatment of the White Plague are bet- ter known today than they were twenty years ago. Cancer is one of the fruits of the Black Plague and it is only lately that we began to learn its cure; and, in fifty years, Cancer will begin to die out if the world will follow the advices of the ad- vanced scientists. Cemetery records show that what New York City needs most is a hospital devoted solely to kidney and kin- dred troubles. Dr. C. L. Reed says: "Would I put marriage on a mechanical basis and leave the affections out of the question Not at all. I would have knowl- edge come before love. I would guard and shield the creative force of love before the sentiment is aroused. I would make it pos- sible for noble women to really fulfill their desires,-to have a happy home, and to 217 218 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN have sons and daughters of worth. No, I would have young men and young women of splendid lineage be proud of their an- cestry and willing to conserve its worth at any cost to themselves." I want to see the one dollar men elimin- ated, even if society must do as has been done in Indiana and in other states, render them sterile by the use of the knife. It is better for the men themselves and better for society. They only breed ten-cent boys and ten-cent girls. MODERN METHODS OF BREEDING ARE SCIENTIFIC. Every morning, at the Patchen Wilkes Stock Farm, at the beginning of and through the breeding season, the semen of its stallions is examined under the micro- scope as to the number of germ cells, their uniform size, activity and vigor. The mo- ment the microscope indicates that any stallion shows a falling off in sexual strength, he receives attention. If the num- ber of germ cells falls below the normal amount; if half formed ones appear, or if N 0 x4 0 This page in the original text is blank. PETER VOLO HAS SIRE QUALITIES the energy of the sperms is lessened, it is to us a danger signal. When this happens at a stud where stallion fees are from 100 to 1000, it becomes a serious matter. Whenever you see the colts of an aged stallion coming smaller than usual or with parrot mouths, it is a signal that your stal- lion's seed is weakening and to breed him only to young vigorous mares. For ex- ample, the microscopic examination of the semen of "Peter the Great" tells why he is a great sire. His germ cells are even, full and well-formed; there are no defectives in them; they are large, vigor- ous and abundant. By a similar micro- scopic examination of his son, " Peter Volo, " I knew he, too, must be a great sire. As soon as the racing career of " Peter Volo, " the champion trotting stallion of one year, of two years, of three years and of four years, was ended in the fall of 1915, I began to prepare and train him for his stud career. Repeated examinations of his life germs convince me that this champion of the turf -will also be a champion in the stud. Why other breeders have not done 219 220 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN the same is more than I can conceive. The palmist says the life of man is written in the palm of the hand; scientists might add -what his descendants will be can be de- termined by his life germs. There are many reasons why stud duty endangers a stallion's fertility. He may be overworked by making more than one ser- vice a day. Some stallions can stand only one mating a day; some nine per week; a few, two a day. Too frequent mating greatly lessens the number, uniform size, virility and vigor of the germ cells and af- fects the offspring. Diseased mares may carry to a stallion bacteria which will cause him serious trouble, while any disorder of the bodily functions interferes with his sexual force, and, so every mare at my farm, before being bred, is examined by means of a speculum and treated with a simple bacteria exterminator. The higher bred the mare, the more bacteria; what is true of the horse is true of the human. The necessity of such examinations, as I have mentioned, may be seen when I state GRADE MEN BY THEIR LIFE GERMS 221 that I once had a stallion go through an en- tire season without fertilizing a single mare. My men could not tell that there was anything wrong with him by watching him during the breeding season. One ex- amination with the microscope told the story. He had no germ cells of the proper formation and was retired from the stud. At another time, a great mare had been barren for five years. A simple treatment of boracic acid and milk of magnesia-and the mare was in foal. What is true of the horse is true of the human. This microscopic b-anch of science has in very recent years come to the aid of the practical breeder. Wte do not have to wait until a year has elapsed to know if my horses are fertile. I find out each day or week, as the breeding season goes on. Sterility in hogs, bulls, jacks and rams can thus be determined, if breeders will take the trouble, by the use of the micro- scope in the hands of a trained man. The time will soon be at hand when breeders of all animals will understand our methods and the sale of a male animal for breeding 222 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN purposes will have to be made on condition that a microscopic examination of his semen be made. We will soon grade stal- lions according to the size, number, activity and vigor of their germ cells, as well as by their pedigrees and their blood. GRADING OF MEN WHO ARE CANDI- DATES FOR MARRIAGE. In Europe and the Orient, whenever you are introduced to a man, his associates and friends will tell you of his ancestry and their achievements-not one word about money-1hut in America, the money of a man or that of his relatives is the ogIy thing discussed. Such a priceless heritage as a good ancestry is all forgotten. This worship ot the Golden Calf must end soon. The world already has her envious eyes on us. We have in our midst some of the most patriotic, liberal, broad-minded, gener- ous, noble men and women the world has ever known who, if the rights of the unborn are squarely put to them, will give their all to help establish in this beautiful land of ours a Nation of healthy, brainy, progres- MAN'S QUALIFICATIONS TO BE A SIRE 223 sive people, and it is to each of these I now appeal. I ask, why should not men be thus exam- ined and graded Are humans of less ac- count than beasts Our young women to- day are to a great extent graded by the size of their fortunes. Under the table of one of our richest families, after dinner, there was picked from the floor a card of a well- known society man and on the back of it was the name of each girl at the table, with her value, in dollars. The young man needed the money and won his prize and the young lady lost her name and her hap- piness. Now, it is only fair to the young women that young men who are candidates for matrimony should he able to furnish a certificate from a Record Office that their pedigrees are free from hereditary ail- ment; and, from an expert, that they are sound, normal, and have the number and kind of germ cells which are necessary to produce intelligent, healthy and talented children, and they be graded, accordingly, in what class each stands-according to his worth as a sire in the A, B. C, D, E, 224 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN or F class. F represents a "blank," a male only in name. There are many fine looking fellows in the F class. It is the sire that marks the child as to its health, vigor, men- tal and physical qualities. And, why should not a wife, each spring, before she mates with her husband, have hirm microscopically examined, just as we examine a stallion: If this were done, we would have healthier longer-lived men, stronger and happier children. The Wasserman blood tests tell 999 times out of a 1,000 if a man has the germs of syphilis in his blood. As a suitor for my daughter's hand, an intelligent, en- terprising, active, healthy young man of good character without a dollar, but with good habits, good education, good ancestral pedigree and certificate that he is in Class A would stand higher in my estimation than a man with many millions and a shaky pedi- gree even if he had a certificate of health and good character. Recently, as handsome and fine a speci- men of physical humanity as you want to look at, one in one hundred thousand, came to tell me that he was about to marry. I UNDERTAKER NEVER DECEIVED immediately sent him to a chemist, who years before had helped save his life from the dread disease, syphilis, and, to his and my amazement, a few deadly germs were found in his blood. After a short treat- ment, he was well-the test showed that he was cured. Just pause and think of the amount of agony and sorrow saved! Another man, whom I know well, lay sick -and the idea occurred to him that, per- haps, there might be left in him some germs of gonorrhcea, of which lie had supposed himself cured thirty years before. He sent for a most distinguished genito-urinary specialist, and right in the urethra was found a hard cyst, and, when cut open and put under a microscope, in its center were gonococci. A germ, like the seed in the mummy, three thousand years ago, never dies, for it propagates its progeny and its family is immortal. Some years ago, three eminent surgeons were examining me, the object in view being an operation for a blow over the kid- neys, which had burst a blood vessel and left a large blood clot. They told me that if 225 226 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN I ever had contracted or inherited syphilis I would die from the effects of the opera- tion. I stated that I never had contracted nor had I inherited the disease. Later, I discovered them examining my blood, and said to them, " Why did you not believe me " They laughed and said, "You have no idea of the large percentage of people who either have syphilis by inheritance or from lack of care. We never take anyone's word on that point." I replied, "Yes; I know you do not for our cemetery buries thousands, yearly, for whom you doctors give certificates of death from heart failure and the like, but you never deceive the un- dertaker. " Marriage is for the purpose of founding a home and family. When a woman ar- rives at that state in her career, and Is ready to agree to a partnership with a horn and family in view, it is due her that she should know all about the man whom she is about to marry. Science is now able to give the exact information and to tell her what kind of children she will produce if Ho YOUNG MEN OF TODAY LACK BREEDING 227 mated, instead of the traditional "leap in the dark." Should I sell a mortgaged house and lot, asserting to the purchaser that the prop- erty is free and clear, I would go to the penitentiary; but if a young man encum- bered with disease today marries a trust- ing young woman, knowing, as he must, that he is sending her to a life of misery and shame, this scoundrel gets off with con- gratulations front his boon companions; and the question is,-"what are you going to do about it" Did young men know that, at certain ages, they must submit to examination and be graded as to physical and sexual vigor, and the results of those examinations be made available for the use of the public, and the report made an official -record, there would be a wonderful change in the amount of wild oats sow-n and a, great les- sening of the harvest of social diseases. "Safety First" would be their motto. GOVERNMENT RECORDS PROVE THAT 75o OF OUR YOUNG MEN ARE SO INFERIOR IN BREEDING THAT 228 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN THEY CANNOT PASS THE SIMPLEST ARMY AND NAVY MENTAL AND PHYSICAL TESTS. That some attention should be given to the future of the American boy is brought out by the Government Report on an exam- ination of the recruits accepted by the United States Army during May, 1916. There were 14,020 applicants for admis- sion to the army. Of this number, 11,081, or over 77A, were rejected, because of their physical or mental unfitness; and, as I before stated, only defects were con- sidered which prevented applicants from active service. The rejections in certain New York City recruiting offices were 80 of those making application. A few of these cases come under the head, "due to inability to speak and write English," but the rejections for the most part are due to physical defects, the main physical de- fects being the ears, eyes, lungs and feet. The use of alcohol and cigarettes causes some to be rejected. The chest and muscu- lar development of the country boy exceeds that of the city boy; but the city boy, after EXAMINATION BEFORE MARRIAGE 229 having a year's training, acquires about the same chest development as the country boy. The German Army records show that army training lengthens the country boy's life as much, often, as five years, and adds more to the life of the city boy. This is due to the conditions under which the boys of to- day are being born and reared. It shows a steady tendency to physical degeneracy. Where will it all end It appears that rejections for the Navy run as high as 8712L,, for they are more rigid in their requirements than the Army. Not all rejections, by any means, are due to hereditary defects, but a large per cent. are due to hereditary causes. A nation, in its defense end in its commercial and busi- ness enterprises, can rise no higher than its manhood. It seems to me, the time has come when we must consider a method of securing better mentally and physically fit men; and, to do this, we must, at once, edu- cate our citizens to realize that to have its men and women free from hereditary phy- sical and mental defects is of greater value 230 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN to our nation than the means of acquiring wealth, for such wealth is temporary. In a certain recruiting office in New York City, 90 of those who applied were re- jected; in Kentucky, 65. In the Navy Re- serve applications in Illinois, 76 were re- jected. The recruiting officers of our Army and of our Navy must reject men because they are too small and lack cliest expansion, be- cause they have defective vision, hearing and lung expansion, because, in short,-oi defective bodies. To sum it up, they are physical weaklings. IF OUR ARMY AND NAVY COM- PEL EXAMINATIONS OF MEN WHO ARE TO BE FOOD FOR CANNONS AND SUBMARINES, OUR GOVERN- MENT MUST PASS LAWS REQUiR- ING THE SAME KIND OF EXAMIINA- TIONS BEFORE MARRIAGE OF OUR YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN, IF THEIR OFFSPRING ARE TO BE OUR FU- TURE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS. If the United States Government will, to- day, only accept for the Army and Navy AMERICAN NATION ON THE DECLINE 231 young men, who are the healthiest and best, physically and mentally, for food for the cannon, is it not equally, if not more, im- portant that laws should be passed that will insure the breeding of such individ- uals And to insure this before marriage licenses are issued, equally as rigid exam- inations as the Government makes today for the soldier or sailor must be made of the young men who are candidates for marriage, for they are to be the sires of our future citizens, our future soldiers and sailors. If such a large percentage of our young men are rejected today, why, fifty years hence, we will have no young men who will pass the present Government examination; for there are three infallible laws in breed- ing, viz.: First: Like produces like or a likeness of a former ancestor. Second: The inferior of any animal is the more prolific. Third: Defectives produce offspring in- ferior to themselves. 2.2 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN With such proofs before us, is it not evi- dent that the American Nation is on the decline And, is it not time for patriotic Americans to inquire what is best to be done to avert this inevitable crisis. I recently had a talk with a high official of our navy. I remarked that I was glad our Government is building so many valuable additions to our navy. His reply was: "I don't know where we are going to get sufficient competent officers to command them. We are having trouble now to properly command the ships we have. What we need for a Secretary of the Navy is an energetic able man of business ability, who has spent a good part of his life in the navy and knows its needs, and is skilled in naval affairs. The position should not be a political plum, a reward for getting presidential votes. Wthy, if our Naval Academy at Annapolis and our Mil- itary Academy at West Point were filled today to overflowing, they could not supply enough officers for our ships or our army. The ships we have in the navy today are not properly commanded by competent of- THE AMERICAN BABY ficers. That is why we have lost so many ships. As for sailors and marines, you have no idea of the number of mentally and physically unfit who apply and are re- jected. What we need are young men of superior brains and good health for our naval and military academies, but they are not to be found." We have no use for a weak horse. We breed them so they will have vigor, stamina and endurance. Men who can successfully carry on the industries of our country and defend the nation against her foes must be men of vigor, stamina and strength. In a word, they must have good constitutions and the right ancestry. There is but one way to secure such men and that is to breed them, just as we breed horses or cattle, to meet and fill every condition and purpose for which their station in life intended them. It will be sure to produce more con- tentment and happiness, but the all-import- ant thing is to see that our children come into the world free from physical and men- tal defects and that they are superior in every respect to their parents; and when 233 234 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN parents are not actuated by such desires and motives they lack filial affection and patriotism. We now breed horses to go, at the age of three years three, four and five or more mile heats, in longidrawn-out grilling races, at a gait of less than 2 :08 for all the heats. We do it by selection for gait, for speed, for stamina, for intelligence, for soundness, and for toughness. There is nothing to prevent the 80 per cent. of rejected men reproducing their kind. We seem to think more of a horse, or a cow, or a hog, than of a man. Years ago, I used to write, occasionally, for a little sheet, called the "American Baby." Dr. David Starr Jordan was a regular contributor. It finally lost its pa- tronage and failed, because it exposed to the world the weaklings our American mothers were producing. Mothers were not inclined to take a practical view of the situation and did not care to educate their sons and daughters so as to avoid their par- ents' mistake in mating but were inclined to tell others in confidence how each had UNBORN NEED ABLE CHAMPIONS 235 made unfortunate selections in their hus- bands. AMERICA NEEDS ABLE CHAMPIONS OF HER UNBORN BABES. What we need in this country, more than anything else to-day, are patriotic states- men of great brains and power of expres- sion, educated as to the needs of our nation in these respects, who will look into these subjects from a scientific standpoint and will then champion the cause of the "American Baby." The German Kaise2 is the only great man who has had the as- tuteness to Zsolve these problems and the power to direct the passing of laws to even- tually eradicate from Germany these so- cial diseases and their effect on his sub- jects' descendants. The Japanese are fast attaining importance as they look into these subjects, and where will we, as a nation, be in 100 years, if our great men and our great teachers of science do not come to America 's rescue and show our young people, before it is too late, the im- 236 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN portance of these matters to themselves and to their children The time is near at hand when the United States Government must, for six months at least, take every boy between the ages of fifteen and sixteen to a Military camp or on the Naval Reserve and give him a train- ing in the rudiments of protection, and edu- cate him and instruct him as to his duties to the State and to himself in sex hygiene. If this were done, the country would be safe from foreign invasion and we would have healthier, more loyal, and longer-lived citi- zens. Society would heartily endorse such a propaganda could it be known how great is the agony of the thousands of good women who, in marriage, have drawn blanks, in- stead of men. The story of the divorce court reveals something of what these splendid women have had to endure and there are more of such cases than the world generally knows. I would call in the aid of science in the way of preliminary examina- tions for the purpose of making the disap- pointment and the agony of such divorces WASTED LIFE REFLECTED IN CHILD 237,7 unnecessary. One further step, perhaps, is necessary to guard the life and health of the wife, as well as the unborn child. The penalty for a husband knowingly to carryt the social disease into his home should be more severe than for the crime of cold- blooded murder. Such examinations as I am advocating would prevent a condition to pregnant women which often is seen in the incubation of eggs. The life germ of the egg, due to a union of a germ cell from the male and female, will show various degrees of vigor. Some die before development starts; some germs live 3, 5, 10, 15 or 18 days. Anyone who has operated an incubator has seen the little black spots in the egg appear and knows the germ is dead. Others are too weak to break away from the shell, while a certain per cent. have only vitality enough to carry them for a few days after hatch- ing. If you examine such chicks, you will discover that many are defective; club feet, twited necks or backs, or are otherwise physically and mentally irregular; and if you examine the dead chicks in the shells, :,Is THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN you will generally find they are physically defective. The lack of life force in the developing chick is due to the sexual weakness of the male bird. One of his defective life g9ermm centers at the time of mating has floated over and joined one of the centers of the female, thus producing a defective chick. Prospective healthy mothers find themselves often trying to bring to the hour of birth a new life too weak for the ravages of this old world, because the father of the child had wasted his vigor in riotous living and his seed was diseased or too weak or there were hereditary defects in his life germs which produced offspring that were physically and mentally irregu- lar. Would a girl marry a used up man, or one whose germs of life to her mating were likely to produce club-footed, crooked- spined, lop-sided or mentally defective off- spring if her eyes were opened to the mis- ery sure to follow A lady who had given birth to five children, four of whom were either club-footed, crooked-spined or had other physical or mental imperfections at WHY THEY CRY BIRTH CONTROL! 2 '` last gave birth to a perfect specimen of a child and, in her joy, exclaimed to her friends,-"My doctor told me my husband and I were perfectly formed; that there was no known reason for our defective children, so I just kept on having children and now I am happy!" Was this fair to the unborn, or to the children who were born If, instead of consulting a doctor, she had consulted a scientific poultry breeder, he could have explained the cause. Just such examples as these have pro- duced the present hysteria and the cry about "Birth Control." Get to the cause! If men and women would only lead normal natural lives, give up liquor, cigarettes and drugs, be themselves free from disease and hereditary defects, they would not give birth to defective children and no woman would have any fear of giving birth to children. We need far more stringent immigra- tion laws, laws compelling the social dis- eases of men and women to be made a sub- ject of public record, that men be ster- ilized who are so diseased and defective 240 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN that they can only produce defective off- spring; laws should be passed, as I have suggested, forbidding the marriage of per- sons whose defects are hereditary. THE VALUE OF REGISTRY ASSO- CIATIONS. The first object the eye meets in the stud- barn hanging on the wall of any breeding farm is the framed State Veterinary Cer- tificate of the horse, jack, bull, etc., setting forth that on such and such a day of that year, this stallion, bull, jack, etc., whose number is so and so in the Registry of the Association in which he is classed, and which Association is recognized by the United States Department of Agriculture. has been inspected by the State Official and he has been found to be free from disease, hereditary and physical imperfections and that the State will allow him to stand for public service. Next hangs the pedigree of the stallion. It will tell the class to which he belongs in trotting, running, draft, etc., etc., and will be certified to by the Board of Reg- SPENDING MILLIONS ON CATTLE 241 istry of that Association. It also will cer- tify that they have examined the ancestral pedigrees of that stallion. Likewise it will show the tap roots from which the ancestors of this or that family came, going back, say fifty to one hundred years or more. The official number of each male ancestor will be given and the names of the most illustrious offspring of each ancestor, with their achievements and their records, with refer- ences to the official registry book. What is true of the stallion is true of the bull, the boar, the ram, the jack, the dog, etc.; so, by a glance at the pedigree, any intelligent breeder, who brings his mare, cow, sow or ewe to be bred, will have a general knowledge of the kind of colt, calf, pig, sheep, etc., the mating will produce, and be able to judge in a general way about what their value and future achievements will be. That is why a breeder pays one dollar for the service fee of one stallion or one thousand dollars for another. The people of this country have no idea of the millions and millions of dollars that 242 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN are today invested in these ancestral pedi- gree associations of our domestic animals and barnyard fowl. The Am. Jersey Cattle Club owns a 200,- 000 fireproof building in West 23d Street, New York City, in which are kept their records. Today, there are on their books, 520,000 cows and bulls registered, worth, perhaps, 150,000,000. They employ a small regiment of examiners to insure that the blood of their breed is not mixed or polluted by outside blood. The American Guernsey Cattle Club has its registry at Peterboro, Neew Hampshire. The Holstein-Freisian Association has its club house at Brattleboro, Vermont. It has eight thousand members and its regis- try covers, perhaps, 150,000,000 worth of cattle. These and other clubs all act in connection with Continental clubs, etc., etc., but not one dollar is spent by our United States Government or by any state or by any association to see that the blood of the "American Baby" is protected from the imported, unhealthy mixed blood from HUMANS NEGLECT BREEDING OWN GET 243 Ghettos or the cellars of Europe or the Orient filled with filth centuries old. In the Department of Agriculture, at Washington, D. C., there is a sub-depart- ment, "The Bureau of Animal Industry." Every one of the departments of the Ani- mal Industry in the various State Colleges of Agriculture in every state; and every one of these Register Associations of Domestic Animals and Barnyard Fowl and Kennel Associations, file, yearly, their reports here; but we have no Registry that has for its object the up-breeding of pure blooded American babies. Every man, woman and child in every town or city in France, Switzerland and Germany, has a record of his or her birth, life and death kept in the Town Hall, a real Human Registry, but we have nothing of that nature here. Each of our Custom House Officials has a book, telling only what foreign Registry Association of Domestic Animals, Poultry, etc., they are allowed to accept. But, where have we a Human Registry that will give the pedigree of each immigrant and his achievements when he comes into our coun- 244 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN try Oh, no, for, if there were, in ninety- nine cases out of a hundred those life his- tories would shock us. None but the ignorant or fools deny that recognized laws of animal breeding apply to humans, as well, but custom, the tyran- ical master of men and women, founded on centuries of senseless sentiment and false pruderies, has prevented the prac- tical application of these laws to the breed- ing of a great race of men and women. Men and women devote their best energies to improve animals; and the same men and women, experienced in animal breeding, close their eyes as to their owen get. When it comes to the human family and the future of our offspring, we, who pride ourselves on our cleverness, fail to open our eyes to see what is to be seen and close our ears to hear what is to be heard-and all this in the 20th Century, ,while our boasted civilization is sweeping along the path that leads to social decay and oblivion, when a little care and attention would turn the tide the other way. MUST RECORD SOCIAL DISEASES 245 MEDICAL MEN MUST MAKE A RECORD OF ALL CASES OF SYPHILIS. To cover up and conceal the hereditary and social ills of man, laws have been passed to close the lips of the medical pro- fession about the family failings, diseases and achievements. We do not improve the breed of a horse, or any animal, by concealing his ancestral history and fail- ings. Then, why conceal human failings; why not let the life of man be as an open book Let the medical profession make man's life record a public record, just as we record the building of a grand struc- ture or the incumbrances and easements on property in our Halls of Record. It will do more to breed a healthy nation and to save our daughters from disease and mis- ery. An innocent girl married into one of the oldest families of New York to find that no one outside of their distinguished family doctor knew it was tainted with hereditary insanity; that some one of his family was constantly in a sanatorium with fits of tem- porary insanity; and that in other branches 246 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN of the family, the same phenomenon was occurring and had occurred for generations back. France saw the danger of this years ago and passed laws making the concealment of such life histories quite impossible. To- day, we all see how like a Phoenix she has arisen from her ashes. Her soldiers today have not a superior in the world for cour- age, stamina and intelligence. Germany did the same, and we all know with what energy, courage and stamina her soldiers have fought; how their brainy Kaiser has rushed them from the East Frontier to the West Frontier, or to the South Frontier. THE GERMAN KAISER'S CONTRI- BUTION TO BENEFICIAL SCIENCES. The German Kaiser was once the great- est Ruler that ever sat on any throne. He saw that syphilis would soon undermine the German nation, so he called to his aid Pro- fessors Erlich and Harta, and gave them full power to go ahead, at any cost of dis- GOVERNMENT WELCOMES HUMAN CURS 247 eased life or expense, and make a discovery that would eradicate syphilis. When they sent out to the world "606" and then Sal- varsan, they gave to the world the greatest boon since the Christian era. They made it possible to eradicate diseased blood and to advance the breeding of healthy men. It is a crime for diseased men or women to marry. The German Kaiser is, unquestionably, the ablest, brainiest and most energetic sovereign that ever sat on any throne since the world began; he has made Germany what she is today. But, before this dread- ful uncalled-for war is over, it will be found that this great man is a victim of heredi- tary insanity, which, with his ambitions for Germany's advancement, has worked upon his mind and warped his judgment. It is not my province to discuss this sub- ject, but to give credit where credit is due; for, under the Kaiser's guiding hand and mind, the greatest and most marvelous sci- entific discoveries of late years have come out of Germany; and there is not a thinking intelligent man in the whole world, but must take off his hat to his genius. 248 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN OUR GOVERNMENT EXCLUDES ILL- BRED OR UNSEXED ANIMALS, EXCEPT UNDER A PEN- ALTY, BUT WELCOMES HUMAN CURS. The United States Government will not let you import into this country, except under a heavy penalty, dogs, pigs, cows, horses, rams, chickens, etc., unless there are attached to the shipping papers the health certificates and breeding certificates of the Registry of the Association to which the animals belong; and this association must be recognized by our Government and certi- fied to by the Government of the country from which the importation is made. This registration certificate sets forth the animal's number in the Registry; and, if it be a stallion or mare, its color, marks, age, etc., are given with a certification that its ancestry are all of pure blood-no mix- ture and every animal must be entire- no gelding, no blank. Otherwise, it cannot pass the United States Custom House ex- cept under a penalty. With some animals, even the foreign health certificate carries EXAMINE EMIGRANTS MICROSCOPICALLY 249 no weight; and straight to the Government Quarantine Yards they go to be watched and inspected by our Government veterin- aries. If our Government passes laws to insure. only pure blooded dogs coming into this country, why do they open the gates wide and invite in all the human curs of Europe, the Orient, and the rest of the world, to pollute and disease the standardized blood of the Plymouth Rock Colony Some years ago, one morning, we found the Jersey Coast strewn with thousands of bundles of grapevines, perfectly packed and in fine condition, washed ashore, as we thought, from a shipwreck. I took pains to investigate, and found that some recog- nized Grape Growers' Association had dis- covered that some microbic disease had broken out in the vineyards of France or Italy, from which these young vines were coming, and had communicated with the De- partment of Agriculture. The United States Government had sent to all Custom Houses a contraband order on all ships importing such grape vines; the con- 250 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN signees in New York, having received a copy of the ship's manifest by fast mail, discovering that they had on board these contraband grape vines, had sent a tug down the Bay to intercept the freight steamer and to notify its Captain that if a single one of these grape vines was found by the Custom House on his ship, the whole cargo would be condemned; so, before en- tering port, overboard went every grape vine. Neither our Government nor these steamship companies, who bring diseased, feeble-minded, ill-bred specimens of human- ity to our shore, have a medical examiner with a microscope to select out and throw overboard those humans that they find in- fected with microbes -which cause infantile paralysis and other diseases of which we, until lately, never heard. Oh, no; for the steamship companies get five dollars, eight dollars or ten dollars per head, and, in many cases, they get a bonus from foreign coun- tries for removing their rotten human de- bris, just as we pay the garbage men for DENIED CHILDREN-G I XEN PUPS 251 calling at our kitchen door and removing our garbage. Unfortunately, our dear beautiful coun- try is looked upon by these foreigners as the proper place to dump their diseased human wrecks. Our Government protects the grape growers from germs that infect only vines; but they do not protect the American baby from the germs bred in Ghettos and dark cellars of the Orient. The "Pothouse" politicians are delighted to receive these foreigners and instruct their Congressmen not to interfere with their landing. Their votes are valuable to District Leaders "in blocks of 5,"-more grist to their mill. Any intelligent importer of old masters will tell you, that we have no beauty of face or form today, that compares with what existed 400 years ago. The portraits also indicate, that the physical and mental quali- ties of our highest types of today fall far short of those of even the medium of by- gone days; the cause is lack of breeding. 252 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN CONCLUSION. The Eugenic Bureau at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, is today being pri- vately consulted by various people in the East, and the time is not far distant when every great city in the United States will have its Eugenic Bureau; when laws will be passed that doctors will have to enter in the Bureaus of Public Record the dis- eases, ailments, mental and physical defects that are hereditary, of every family, just as they do in Germany and France. We know the good and defective charac- teristics in the horse, dairy, poultry, pig and other families of domestic animals. We have seen what such information has done to improve these breeds. Then, why should not like information be recorded as to the human family, so that the present and fu- ture generations may take advantage of it, fo make our human family the best bred instead of the worst We employ paid legal and medical ad- visers, paid consulting and mining engi- neers, in fact, no intelligent man, nowadays, undertakes any great step in life without MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HERITAGE 253 securing the paid services of some expert in that particular line. Then, why not pay for the services of an expert scientist to look up genealogies and give advice on the all vital questions of life, namely, what shall my children be I Shall they have health, brains, refinement, with good inclinations and good habits, good tendencies; or, shall they be born un- healthy, brainless, ill-mannered, with bad inclinations and vicious habits Most peo- ple, even when they purchase a horse or a bull, consult a specialist in that line. This is the question that must come home to each and every young man and young woman who contemplates marriage. With the advance of science today, all can be foretold; and any young man or young woman who fails to take advantage of this opportunity before marriage should there- after hold his or her peace. Their remorse will, perhaps, lead them to see that their children do not make the same mistake. The purpose of courts is to secure justice to all. There are courts for the living, the criminal and the civil; courts for the 254 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN dead, to settle their estate after their death, the surrogate and the administrator's courts; and, to look out for the interests of orphans, we have orphans' courts. There are courts for juveniles, courts for the ir- responsible, where all may have justice meted out to them, but where is the court for the unborn Who guarantees to the un- born child its right of a decent heritage The most fundamental, the most inalienable of all rights is the right to be well born; to have perfect health, and physical and men- tal force, capable of development. The child deserves to come into the world sound in body, sound in brain and sound in morals with good tendencies. How can these things be guaranteed to children when besotted, or soaked in al- cohol, or syphilitic men and women, or men- tally defective men and women are allowed by our laws to marry and bring into the world offspring with unhealthy bodies, per- verted intellects and handicapped with the worst of earth's ills Is society doing its duty to the next generation when it allows this to happen Let every man ask him- A BABY'S PRAYER self, am I honest and square to my own name, to my offspring, to my wife and to the State When these things are well understood, common sense will win the day for the cause of eugenics. There are enough subnormal babies pro- duced by accident of development and of birth, where every possible care is taken by fit parents. It is an absolute defiance of nature's laws to expect the unfit to endow their progeny with a good heritage. Our duty to the next generation will not be discharged when we turn over to them our rich soil, great cities, national highways, efficient manufacturing plants, multitudes of colleges and universities, churches and schools. There is need of a court to guar- antee justice to the unborn, to guarantee to every child the heritage of a sound physical body, the heritage of a strong brain and nerve force, and the heritage of good morals and good tendencies. To sell my colts, their heritage must be above reproach, and they must be regis- tered by a Board that guarantees their an- cestors, that gives their achievements, good 255 256 THE RIGHT TO BE WELL BORN or bad. Is man not worth more than a horse 7 The only way I can get horses "worth while" is by mating the healthiest and most distinguished individuals of the breed. The myriads of unborn babies stretch out their tiny hands to us from the mystic future and plead in baby voices, as before an august Court of Justice, for the right of decent, healthy and normal parentage, for the right of cultured, healthy, well- bred parentage, for the right of talented parentage. Out of the insistent demands of these shadowy babies the most impor- tunate of all to my ear is the one which declares: "Refuse to give me birth, or else let me be well-born. " Will not this generation grant this sacred request "Blood will tell."