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Astley's system of equestrian education, exhibiting the beauties and defects of the horse : with serious and important observations on his general excellence, preserving him in health, grooming, &c. Astley, Philip, 1742-1814. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b98-51-42632153 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Astley's system of equestrian education, exhibiting the beauties and defects of the horse : with serious and important observations on his general excellence, preserving him in health, grooming, &c. Astley, Philip, 1742-1814. T. Burton, London :  xvi, 197 p. : ill., port., plates ; 23 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1999. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PA-23166-98) ; SOL MN08549.02 KUK) s1999 gaun a Printing Master B98-51. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Horsemanship. Horses. I I I I i ;j, I 11 I I I i Ii -PHILJP AS TLJEY. Bomn Jan2' 8y1742 fTwax Aere the -PaizkrzJ Task to taa' But temarre JemlZiwze of hi,- Fare, 7zeLPortmaft of whwoe AfadLmnre bue lo.')/ ov Wr pcext h, ilit I . i i i ASTLEY's SYSTEM OF V D1TBESTRIAN ED'UCATIDNI, EX1IJ31T]N3 THE BEAUTIES AND DEFECTS OF THE HO R S E; WITH SERIOUS AND IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS ON H115 GENERAL EXCELLENCE, FRESERVING HIM IN HEALTH, GROOMING, &c. NW I T H1 PLATES. bce fourth eEition. " 'I ppevnts Jccident 'S Jbetter thIui lo COre." ,hr.ed by T. BURTON, Litte Fiddeen-freet, Lilncoiln's-nn FelJ. 5OLD BY S. CREED, AGENT AND PUBLISHER, NO. 2, NFAn THE AMPgr. TIIf,,TIR! OF ARTS, VrSTNI-INSTi.l-BlRIDGE-ROAD, LAMBET11, AND THE PlIINClIIAL '39OKSLLLiRS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GIREAT Bi11TAi1 A.,JJ IhLLNAD. Price lO,. td. [E tcrud 71 Sta/latiC' RIal 3 This page in the original text is blank. DFADEDICATION. TO THEIR ROYAL HIGTINESSES GEORGE PRINCE OF WALES, &C. &C. &C. AND FIELD MARSHAL FREDERICK DUKE OF YORK, &C. &C. &C. IN prefulning to dedicate thlil work to your ROYAL HIGHNESSES, the Author has the honour to acknowledge that he is prompted to it by a TWO-FOLD AMOTIVE--- firfi, a thorough conviiion that the, A 2 DEDICATION. the elevated rank, you hold in thne army (by which rou are lb defervedly belo-v-ed, for the fedulous care youl take of its deareft interefts) pr-emcminently points you out as thpe NATURAL Patrons of a publication, which has for its avowed object the lE ASE and SAFETY of His Miajefty's Subjects, whofe LIVES are but too freque-ntly endanglered by the wanltt of experience in Horfe- maninip; an experience which can only be ATTAINED by an acquaintance with EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION, founded on SCIENTI- Fic principles---hanpy is he to learn, that it is the -wife inten- tion iv DEDICATION. tion of Government immediately to eftablifh national MILITARY SEMTINARIES for this falutary J)urp-fe ! The Author's feconci induce- ment, in laying this humble tri'bute of his relpect at the feet of your ROYAL HIGHNESSES, pro- ceCids from a high fenfe of fa- vours munificently conferred on his eftabliflhiment near JfVeftimin- fier-Bridoge. Under the Zlufpices of your ROYAL HIGHNESSES, it has thriven, and is thriving, and fuch benefits, he conceives, call alou(l for public acknowledge- ment ! Witih thefe fentiments, the A 3) DEDICATION-. the Author has the honour to fubfcribe himfelf, with profound Refpect and Gratitude, Your ROYAL HIGHNESSES' Moft dutiful and Devoted humble Servant, Philip A/ley. CO-ND VI CONTENTS. CHAP. I, THE Author's Syftem of reducing Horfes to Obecdicncc CHAP. II. Dialogue on Equcftrian Education CHAP. III. Serious Advice to Ladies and Gentlemen , - _ 27 - 77 CHAIP. IV. XNeceffary Precautions in purchafing Horfes 89 CHAP. V. Of the Bridle, Saddle, and Stirrup 93 CHAP. VI. Training I-Iorfes to Leap - - - 95 CHAP. VII Obfervations on the Walk, Trot, and Gallop 98 CHAP. I . . ft . . 0 A 4 Ciii CONTENTS. CHAP. VIII. Draught-Horfes; and how to render them quiet in Harnefs - - 103 CHAP. IX. Feeding, Grooming, &c. - - - - - - 10o CHAP. X. Dialogue between the Author and a Travel- ler, on the Health and Indifpafition of the Horfe - - - - - - - - - - - 114 CHAP. XI. Difeafes to which Horfes are liable, Cure, &c. aifo a Dialogue between Sir Richard Jebb and the Author-his Opinion, &c. - - - - - - - - - - 120-160 CHAP. XII. Difcourfe on the Manege d'Equitalioni, with Plates, &c. -174 PRE- ..i. PRE FACE. IWERE men in general to confider how much a little good management would add to the beauty and perfcItion of the borfe, I flatter myf lf, no gen- tleman would think his time fUl-fpent, in promoting the due cultivation of fuch a noble, ufeful, and fagacious animal. It is generally undeltood, that horfes of a middlig, fIiz havt thr moilt fpirit and agility. Indeed, I am extr-clmfly fond of this kind of horfe, if good tempered, if the eyes be at once bright, lively, refolute, and impudent: by the eye may be discovered his inclination, paflion, inalice, health, and indifpofition. Althouh, for a feries of years, the management of the horfe has been my chief, my peculiar ftudy, it may be fLippofcd my fvfrcmn will experience SOME oppofition. Many perfons, too wife to be taught, will exclaim-what.unbounded ignorance in in the author! how ridiculous and abfurd, to teach what every body knows !-But the many fatal ac- cidents, which daily occur, fufficiently prove the neceffity of acquiring SOME knowledge of eqluef- trian elucationl, of which a pliability and command of the body, on horfeback, certainly forms a moft effential part. It is a known fad that many gentlemen have purchafed commiffions in the cavalry, merely be- caufe they could ride a fox-chafe, or a horfe-race; but a little adual DASHING SERVICE in the field of honour foon convinced them of the neceflity of being taught to ride on pure fcientific principles, and under able profeffors. Certainly this precau- nion is the more requifite in a country fo much ad- mired by all Europe for its breed of excellent horfes; but if we negle & to improve the affion of this animal, its great qualifications become but a piere fhadow. I crave permifijon to remark, that this generoum and ferviceable creature poffeffes the courage of the lion, the fleetnefs of the deer, the firength of the ox, with the. docility of the fpaniel: by his aid, PREFACE. :; PREFACE. Xl aid, men become more acquainted with each other; he not only bears us through foreign climes, but likewife labours in the culture of our foil; draws our burdens and ourfelves; carries us for our amufement and our exercife; and both in the fports of the field and on the turf, exerts himfelf with an emulation, that evinces how eagerly am- bitious he is to pleafe and to gratify the defires of his mailer. lie is both our flave and our guardian; he gives profit to the poor, and pleafure to the rich; in our health he forwards our concerns, and in our fick- ncfs lends his willing aflifiance for our recovery. This fine, this fpirited animal participates with nan the toils of the campaign, and the glory of conqueft; penetrating and undaunted as his maf- ter, he views dangers, and braves them; accuf. tomed to the din of arms, he loves it with cnthu- fiafrn, feeks it with ardour, and feems to vie with his mailer in his animated efforts to meet the foe with intrepidity, and to conquer every thing that oppofes itfelf to his matchlefs courage, In In tournaments and Equefirian Exercifes, his fire and his courage arc irrefiftible. Amid his boldeft exertions, he is equally collected and trac- table; not obeying his own impetuofity, all his efforts and his aalions are guided folely by his rider. Indeed, fuch is the greatnefs of his obedi- ence, that he appears to confult nothing but how he fhall beft pleafe, and, if poflible, anticipate what his maier wifhes and requires; every im- preffion, he receives, produces refponfive and im- plicit obedience; he darts forward, checks his ardour, he flops at command; the pleasures, at- tendant on his own exiflence, he renounces, or rather centres them in the pleafure and fatisfac- tion of man. Nothing can be more wonderful than the preci- fion with which he performs every thing that is required of him; refigned without any referve to our fervice, he refufes nothing, however dangerous or difficult to execute. He fenres with all his flrcngtb, and in his flrenuous efforts to pleafe, oft-times out-does his nature, and even dies in order the better to obey! Iin X11 PREFACE. PREFACE. In a word, wife Nature has beffowed upon him a difpofition both of love and fear for the human race; fhe has endowed him alfo with that percep- tion, which yields him the knowledge of every fervice we can, and ought to render him. Such, indeed, are the acute and generous feelings of this aninal, that he is lefs affliEted with his own bond- age, than with the want of our proteEtion ! Pleafed in an unceafing round of labour for our health, plcafure, profit, and protceaion, he feels no diffrefs but what is caufed by our own CRUELTY, Ouf INGRATITUDE ! All he demands firom us, there- fore, for a life of uninterrupted fatigue, is f/ihp'pcrt, and a reciprocity of good oices; his chief gratifi- cation arifing from the fenfe of our bein- pleafcd and fatisfied with his unwearied cladCuavours to ferve us. If fuch, therefore, be the qualities of this noble creature, furely he, who has devoted his life to the fiudy of his difpofitions, has SOME finall claim to the protetiton of his country, and hus opinion fhould have SOME weight in a Treatife of this kind It ). i PREFACE. It is by an unwearied application in obferving the temper and EXTRAORDINARY SAGACITY of this generous animal, that I have attained the knowledge of rendering him more pleafing and ufe- ful to his rider than he would otherwife prove; and I flatter myfelf this work wvill be found to contain fuch information and improvement, in the art of in- flru-ting the horfe, as were never, till now, pre- fented to the public. I truft, it is no prefumption to fuppofe from my continual application to this fcience, (which has been upwards of 40 years,) that what is here offered, will contain fuch mate- rial discoveries, relative to the difpofition and ma- nagement of the horfe, as to render it a work of the greateil public utility. I beg leave to recommend particularly to the atten.tion of the reader, that, from my having fo long devoted my ltudy to the temper of the horfe, 1 have been able to improve the art of horfe- I'l.,ip, thereby furnifling a greater variety or ';BI C A.M U S.E M N T. of hig'her entertain- menL and gratification to the public, together -vith much more fecurity to the Equeftrian Per- former xiv PREFACE. E former in general. " Certaintly lie that pre- vents accident, does more than he that cures ;" and I cannot but think, from the great encou- ragement I have received while exhibiting EQU ES- TRIAN AMUSEMENTS in my native, and in fo- reign countries, that PUBLIC DISCRIMINATION has noticed the reafitude and JUST FOUNDA- TION of my intentions ill this NECESSARY POINT, as well as in the NUMBER of PUPILS inftruEted by me in the art of EQu1ISTRIAN PUBLIC PERFORMANCE, and who have alfo, in return, experienced the MOST LIBERAL ENCOURAGEMENT il1 Cvcry country. I could wifh this SPECIES OF ANMUSEMENT, if poll- ble, to become a part of our EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION :-Firfl, becaufe a greatcr command and pliability of body is neceflary when the ftc- are placed on the faddle, than w-henm wve arc eated in it.-SecondlY, the pra'tice of fuch exercifes not only informs the mind, but is CONDUCIVE TO HEALTH, I conceive, more than the pratice of the Manege fyftem, fo much neglcaed in this country, but for what rea- fon I know not, unlefs it be concluded, that BOTH xV BOTH exercifes form too laborious a talk for our purfuit. How amufmg is it to the pure and perfeEt lorfeman, to fee in Hyde Park, for infiance, fo many untutored Equeftrrans, evho, not kDowing how to adapt tiernfelves to the maotions of the horfe, experience fhocks in the faddle, which excite laughter in the bye-flarader ;-and yet they miflake their 'lrained and diftorted attitudes for grace and for elegance! The lnfi.6 Jd-(-hafe air on Eafier Monday is flill vifibie; they are ftal'N.- ing caricatures, fit objefs for the wit and inge- nuity of MLIr. Bunbury! ASTLE Y's xvi PREFACE. ASTLEY's IERITESTRIAN EDUCAT[ON. CHAP. 14 M14r. ASTLEY 'sSyeRem of BACICING andBREAKING COLTS, 'or ungovernable Horfes; teachLing them to bear the glittering of Small Arms, tofjand the Explohfon qf Ordnance, the Sound of Trumpets, Drums, Wavinga of Flags, Mlotions of Soldiers, and Objects of every Kind, that may alarm their Sight or Ilearing. JUDGEMENT, TEMPERANCE, and PERSEVE- RANCE, are indifpenfably neceffary to bring the brute creation to a proper fenfe of duty. Many gentlemen too fatally experience the bad effet of Horfes being intrufled to ignorant perfons, whofe B knowledge 2 ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. knowledge of feeding, riding, training, breaking, and exercfing, may have been obtained from prac- titioners of mnuch lefs fagacity than the very bealls configned to their care and direffion. No man can render tthe horfe obedient, unlefs he has hacl fuch exnerience in the art and execu- tion, as to have acquired a thorough knowledge of what the creature is capable of performing, with the moff ready, perfeq, and eafy fubmiflion; and it i roo nifite to have much penetration to know every jurZ.cuJar, in point of execution; as alfo the tern-er of the horfe you are defirous of train- ing and irnftrudting for fervice, amufement, &c. Without fuch great depth of difcernment y ou may conlirm, inftlead of correfi-ng, a bad DISPOSITION, or change the moA GENEROUS to the molt on- STINATE and REFRACTORY. NO mall, therefore, I repeat, fliould attempt to reduce the horfe ta obedilence, without being perfea mafter of the praftical part of Equeitrian Elducation. In Germanv, France, &-c. &c. many of the nobility and gentry obtain the moft fage and experienced maflers that can be procured, and thefe are required conflantly to attend their riding- houfes, to preferve their horfes in health, difcipiine, and exercife. This 1 1.3 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. This country (inferior to none in Europe for the Deauty of form, excellence of quality, and perfec- tion of lbredo, in every fpecies of the horfe, whe- tHlr for batt'le, the mzanlege, for drawing, or the road1, &c.) has too much and too long negkcacd th1is nml(r effential point. Thc utility of being- iore (ircuinfi)ect in the choice of al)l-, informed, and cxpcricnccd pcrfons, is appare'it-, from the grcat numiber of horfes that are fpoiled by the indifcre- tion of their owners, and the inability of their trainers and keepers. If the natural motion, attitude, and demeanour, of the humnan fpecies be improvable by the art of dancing, and by military tuition, furely the natural motions of the horfe may be fo improved, as to render his pace in pure cadence ;t eafy to himfelf Alan,e. Place where faddle horfes are exercifed, and where they are drefled in the various airs; alfo every thing ap- pertaining to the horfe ii' the art of war. In a figurative fenfe- Certain fine manners, with grace, addrefs, and clegance, joined to a perfea knowledge of the tife, perfeftions, and imperfections, (difcipline and combats) of the horfe, and the purity of its aCtion, &c. and it would be of fome benefit to the iifing generation, if alfo were added-a knowlIedge of equeflirian exercife, fo far as appertains to pL!blic amafement of its utility the Author is moil Iefioufly convinced. 1' Cadence means the agreeable equnaily of the walk, the trof, Ie ,illop ; as alf1 thc various artificial paces of the horfe. I D 2 conceilve M a 4 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. himfelf and pleafant to his rider, uniting grace and elegance. Thus improved, we receive ex- quifite pleafure in beholding utility and beauty combined; and it certainly becomes an objecl, which yields the highefi fatisfaaion to an obferver, endowed with tafte and discernment. conceive the rider may be faid to be in cadence, when his feat on horfeback is firic1ly agreeable to the eye: every correfpond- in, aclion of the riders body, as well as the horfe, may, if re- gular and conformable to the pure art d'equifa/ion, be called in cadence, iimilar to fuch meafure regulated in dancing, &-c. Au- fical exprefflon, or found, certainly belongs to the tuition of the horfe, wlaich I confider as an index to dire6l his moft willing obedience; more particularly where the animal is tutored to take up your hat, whip, or handkerchief, and the like. Hence it becomes neceffary, in fome degree, that the profeflor or rider have a quick eye, as weji as a good mnfical ear, in order to his acquiring fome idea of what is underflood to be neceffary on the firfl point, with regard to regulating his aation; and, on the lafi, to his attaining an idea of foothing and careffing immediately on the leafi compliance on the part of the horfe to the will of his Ticer. Cadence alfo, in my firm opinion, is the very effence of regulating not only the horfe's natural paces, but alfo his artificial airs: in fhort, every thing in which perfe6lion and u1ill are ne- cefthry. But from the word cadence being fo fuperficially men- tioned in literary works, as well as in the riding-fchool, one would think that the practical part of the art of cadence, to far as it relates to equeRrian education, was a mere Ihadow. ' But I am firicdly and firmly of opinion, having derived the greaten benefit from it in the courfe of my praffice, that it ought to be confidered as the ne plus ultra of equefirian execution, and generally accepted as fuch by all profeffors of the equefirian art.' It ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. It is well known that recruits, taken from the plouglh, are, under experienced difciplinarians, rendered the beft of foldiers; but fhould you have to improve or perfdct a recruit, who has been be- fore undcr bad tuition (fuch I have found by cx- perience, when in the l5th Light D)ragoons), you will find it fcarce poffible to corre6l the bad habits be contradled, or to remove the prejudices he im- bibed, in favour of thofe erroncjus principles. Thus it is with a horfe that has been under the tuition of an expericnced maftcr: it becomes in the extreme difficult to correEt his falfe habits.- Nothing in faa but the moff inceffant application and confummate knowledge will prove capable of effeffing his amendment; the perfeverance, how- e-ver, of an able horfeman will no doubt corred, in time, his faults, fo as to render him as fervice- able and accompliflhed, as his nature is capable of being made. The prefent mode of training and breaking horfes is highly reprehenfible, anad injurious to the charadter of a country fo diflinguifhed, as this is, for the breed of horfes. There is not a fcientific riding-fchool in this kingdom, nor any regular profeffor of Equejirian Education : neither are there any authors who have written on the fubjeMt, nor that have, as yet, recommended in any of their X 3 publi- 5 8 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN- EDUCATION. publications an effeEtual method of teaching horfes to ftand fire ! So that one of the moll ufeful and neceffary points, which has reference to the art of war, is at once fhlamefully and unaccountably ne- gleEled, and that too in a land where military vir- tue is the natural produce of the foil! We have a Vete-iru.r- College eIabtiifhment, which I conceive to be cf the utmoft importance to this country; one would fiuppore an Equeftrian inflitution would prove of equal benefit. But to return to the fraults and errors of horfes, which I apprehend monft frequently occur in the firfi ifage of training them; for horfes poffefs fuch an ex- traordinary degree of remembrTnce, as always to retain a flrong fenfe of cruel or of tender ufage; and from this firong faculty of discrimination they frequently become docile or ungovernable. Thus it is neceffary that their tutor or infltrufor Thould poffefs found judgement; becaufe thofe who treat them with feverity, they obey with the greateft reluatance; while, on the contrary, all who treat them with tendernefs, will affuredly be repaid with the utmoft gratitude and mouf implicit obedience, It has been known that cruel inflruEtors have abfolutely been feized, in the height of their vengeancc, ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. vengeance, and killed ! This furely is fufficient to dcmonfirate the neceflity of ufing them with JUDGEMENT, JUSTICE, and MERCY. But the grand error, and of which I bave had occular proof in the courfe of my praaice in teaching Horfes, is, the defiring and eagerly ex. pedling too much from them at one time ; be it well underftood, that they fhould be completely perfeEted in one leffon, before you attempt ano- ther; this point, l am convinced, is the foundation of the whole art; becauCc, if yotu are over anxious in teaching them too mnuch on one and the fame dav, you fatigue their attention, you damp their fpiit ; thus are they rendered fo dull, as to be in- capable of perceiving what you are defirous they fhould learn ; and this ftupidity being miflaken for obftinacy and perverfenefs, the infiruEtor has re- courfe to untimely chaflifement, which alienates the affections of the creature, and renders him fo indifferent in obeying whatever you defire, that he executes it with vifiblc rclulancc: but by teaching him one and the fame ledibn at fliort intervals, and rewarding his obedience, givring him time to im- bibe what your intentions are, before you burthen his faculties with another leifon, he will learn with cafe to himfelf, and, I Pni- confident, with the higheft fatisfaffion to you. For it is the fame with a horfe as with Ii human 'pupil, never opprefs his talents with more than they are calculated to bear. B 4, Su1cl 7 8 ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. Such precautions, I have found, have very much ailifted me, during the tuition of my pupils, whom I have inftruaed to perform VARIOUS NEW EQUESTRIAN PUBLIC AMVSEMENTS; fuch I may, without vanity, fay, as have given the highell fatif- faaion, not only in Great Britain, but alfo in France, Germany, and on the continent of America. All of which have immediately fprung from the adherence to MY SYSTEM. Having given thefe general hints, I proceed now to the particular inftruaions, neceffary to complete the fubjeEt of this chapter. The horfe intended to be broken, or, in other words, brought to his duty, Ihould be carefully led That equefirian exercifes have been long ftudied, and even, in fome degree, carried into execution, though loft again for Co long a period as to the year 1765, when I firfl exhibited in public, the following beautiful lines from Homer, will illufirate more than a volume written upon the fubjeai. See the Iliad, by Mr. Pope, vol. iv. book xv. page 182. So when a horfeman from the wat'ry mead, (Skill'd in the manage of the bounding fleed) Drives four fair courfers praais'd to obey, To fome great city through the public way; Safe in his art, as fide by fide they run, He lhifts his feat, and vaults from one to one; " And now to this, and now to that he flies, Admiring numbers follow with their eyes! to ASTLEY'S EQUE6TRIAN EDTCATIO.N. to the place of excrcife, which i f.ppofed to be a circle of from eight to ten yards diameter; care is to be taken at the fame time, that his ftomach be rnot too much loadcd with food or water, Your chief endeavours mutt be direcled, with eafy and deliberate approaches, to convince hilmn, that neither you, nor your afliflant is his enemy; to do tlis effcElually, you are to encourage him by kind words, fuch as, Jb, Jb ! fo, Jb ! fo, ho ! en- dcavouring always to imitate the fame TONE OF VOICE, which he will verv foon comprehend in a MOST EXTRAORDINARY MANNER; more particu- larly if you do not CHANGE THE SOUND; alfo rubbing him, and wip)ing his cyes and nolirils with your handkerchief, giving him to eat a fmall piece of carrot, or a flice of a good fwvect apple, and o]ther fimilar inducements, by WAY PF REWARD. I-Icre I have only to hint, that i11 point of fmelling, tafting, fecing, and hearing, I conceive the horfe to have the fuperiority over, and, in point of faga- city, n1o inferiority to any of the brute creation ; that is to faV if fuch fagacity be directed by ul)erP j udgcmcnt. But in all thefe endeavours, vou mnuft be careful at firft (until your quick cyc (hall have difcovered h s real difpofition,) not to be too familiar with him before you have got fome dominion ovcr hinm, left he filould firike you with his fect ; hjhich, conceive, 9 10 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION-. conceive, the above rewvards will, in feoin meafure, prevent ;-but more of this hereafter. The apparatus neceffary Ior this bulInefs, con- fills, fir.f, of a mouthling bridle or fnaffle; fecond, a leather firong pad furcingle with three flrong, buckles on each fide; twvo of which four inches apart, nearly in a line with the horfe's withers, the other four, at the fame difLance on each fide below; alfo betwveen the two firfl, and exaetly in a line with the horfe's withers, a firong buckle and billet, for the purpofe of recciving the fnaffle rein; to this furcingle a large ring nvilt be placed, to receive a ftrong crupper, with a large dock; third, a cavet/bn; fourth, two firong cavqgb/z/ firaps, buckle and billet at one end, at the other, holes; fifth, two ditto finaffle or bridle firaps, with buckle and billets at one end, and holes at the other; fixth, one hand or cavejjbn line of fix or feven yards long ; with a firong buckle and billet at one end; the rope about three quarters of an inch diameter, and three rings faftened to it, but fo as. to play. Firft ring-, three fcet from the buckle and billet; fecond, five feet; thi.rd, feven feet; alfo a fmall bridle or fnaffle line, with a fmall buckle and billet at the end ; this hiu e runs througl '.lef fadl!er- .rc qualified 'o comp!etc this bufuiAefs, but Ihoudl they not horoughly compreherd the defcription, the ell gravir.g, a, the e!.d of the book, wi!l more particularly explain it. tbz ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION., the rings of the caveq//bn cord, and buckles to the fnaffle, or mouthing bit; lafTlv, a chambriere, (or whip,) and a fpur-flick of about two yards long, the rowel bilunt. Suppofe You put on the caz,9 bn, as above de- fcribed, alfo the furcingle, with or without the crupper, as your judghment ILhil direEt you; like- wife caug7bn and bridle ftraps, furthermore the c1tn'et/bj and bridle line. Bear up his head a little with the bridle or mouthing bit rein, to the bucklec and billet of the furcingle; the rein of the bridle fhould have a buckle, in order to fihorten it at pleafuire ; the 'whole of the bridle and care/bn firaps muft, at the fame time, be fomewhat tightened; that is to fay, three holes fhorter to the hand you intend to work him to; and as he foreflhortens, and raifes his head at the time of aftion, your judgement mudt direct you; namely, how much his head ought to be raifed in point of elegance, as well-as his neck bent, fo as not to impede his aCtion; the greateit precaution is neceffary to be taken, that neither the one nor the other give him the leaft uneafinefs, the firil or fecond day. Caufe him to be led by your aflifant round the circle; fay, in order to your Laving greater dominion over him, to the left; con- Sce the end of the book. tinue 1 1 12 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. tinue the aation of a good bold walk for three or four minutes, if he pleafes you in the walk, put him in the aEfion of the trot, continuing it five or fix minutes. Your affillant having a drum near you, flrike it, as a fignal for him to halt from his SUPPOSED LABOUR; if he difobey it from fright, or not underfianding the intention of the fignal, caufe him to trQt round the tircle again, in the fame manner as before, for a few minutes; and thus repeat the fignal, BUT NOT SO LOUD, and exercife him until he learns to halt in obedience to it; yourfelf aflifting him in this bufinefs, with all your judgement. Should he cxprefs much fear at the found, endeavour all you can, by your careffes and encouragement, to convince him that it is not meant to hurt or to terrify him, but as a kind of language by which he is to LTNDERST.ND YOUR DESIRES. In order to imprefs him the deeper and fooner with the meaning of this language, let it always be ufed as a fignal for the END OF HIS LABOUR OR EXERCISE. The grand fecret is, invariably to ufe a foothing tone of voice, as before direaed, and the reward of an APPLE or CARROT, when he fhcws obe- dience. The ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. The found, or mufical expreflion, the horfe mofl readily becomes acquainted with, and the correc- tion being in a much fronger and different tone of voice, fuch. as A! HA! HA! WONDERFUL TO SAY, the horfe readily obeys the one through a HOPE OF REWARD, and the other THROUGH A SENSE OF FEAR. Somewhat iil like manner, we find the cart and waggon horfe obey the found. The London carmen and the provincial waggoners direEt their horfes to move riight and left, &c. with tile DIFFERENCE OF SOUNDS MERELY; now let the Londoner take the countryman's horfes, and the countryman the Londoner's; or an Englifhman the horfe of a Frenchman, or vice verJa, this point will clearly elucidate my argu- ment. Hence arifes the great neceflity of every horfe- man being thoroughly acquainted with the difpofi- tion of his horfe, more particularly when he is YOUNG or REFRACTORY. Moreover, I have contidered fignals of this kind, as the very founda- tion or ground-work of infirliaing horfes to PAW WITH THEIR FEET THE EXACT HOUR AND MINUTE OF THE WATCH; nod as an AFFIRMA- TIVE, and fliake the head as a NEGATIVE, to any QUESTION PROPOSED. Furthermore, it is the very effence of educating them, to take up from the ground a handkerchief, hat, 1 3 14 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. hat, whip, fpur, fword, piftol, or any thing within the compafs of their abilities, which the fancv of the inlirudor may conceive eithcr for utility, or thle amufement of fpectators. Havin,, taught him, by repeated trials, the full extent of this leffon, which I call, from its being the firft, letter A. We proceed to teach him the next, which may be called, by way of illuftration of the argument, letter B. That is, to exercife him to the right, precifeliv in the fame way and manner as you did to the left; ufing the fame fignal, reward, and gentle punilfnment. Care muft be taken to make his neck bend agreeablv ;-likewife, that his head be neither fixed too high nor too low; if the former, place the firaps to the lower buckles; if the latter, place them to the upper buckles of the furcingle; but in all this EXPERIENCE and JUDGEMENT mull be your guides; for if he carry his head too low, and you do not, on the firel day, correak this capital fault, it will give you the GREATEST TROUBLE toraife it hereafter; in my opinion, a horfe cannot carry his head too high, if PURE OBEDILNCE and good aaion accompany it. To the military man this may be called a defence to the body, againf SMALL SHOT, or the point of the SWORD: it certainly, in SINGLE COMBAT, gives the horfeman a SUPERIORITY over his OPPONENT above all calculation; if the head be too high, it is very eafy to lower it, for the moment you ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. --ou come to mount him, if you have the leafi Ikill, you will corre&t this point very eafily. In the leffon to left and right, I give them as follows: three quarters of an hour-gentle exercife to the right, and half an hour to the left ; that is to fay, fihort leffons of five minutes given each time both ways, and an interval of reward two or three minutes between each. HIaving, thus fettled the management of his head, and PURE ACTION ill the WALK and TROT, itriafly obferving the general rule, never to let his CROUP INCLINE '10 THE INSIDE OF THE CIR- CLE, on the contrary, every caution mult be ufed to prevent it; care, I repeat, muft be taken, not to impede his aclion, nor to corrupt his cadence, either in the walk or trot ; and if your circle be lefs than eight or ten yards diameter, the more judgment is requifite to prevent it. Thus exercifed, the horfe begins to have fome little knowledg(e of what you air defirous he fhoulld learn; he wvorks with more eafe, gives greater fatisfaaion, and you find him improve fafier, in proportion as he becomes acquainted with you and his duty-; more particularly, if you do not difguft him with too much SEVERITY. When is I6 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. When you have exercifed him to be familiar with the drum, and to follow it, you then, carefiixig and rewarding him, proceed precifely in the fame way and manner (that is to fay, walk and trot, for I could wifh no galloping to be reforted to during this particnlar leffon) to inflruAt him to ftand the explofion of a pifol-making ufe of a very fmall chatge -and firing of it, at firfl, rather behind you, and on the ground, unpetceived by the horfe; if he obey, be careful to aflift his incli- nations when inclinable to halt, by pulling the carepyonm and bridle-line, and bring him to the centre of the circle: carefs and reward as before in the leffon with the drum, increafing the explo- fion by degrees to a good charge, in like manner as you increafe the blow an the drum-head. Thus your care and judgement will teach him to bear the glittering of fmall arms, found of trumpets. waving of flags, and every thing that may alarm his SIGHT or HEARING. By perfifting in the foregoing leffons, four or fix times a day, for a week or ten days, you will re- duce him to obedience, however ftubborn he may be; more particularly, if your rewards overbalance the punithment, and the latter be infliaed in PRO- PER TIME, and WITH JUDGEMENT. Some I ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 17 Some horfes, it mufl be confeffed, require a confiderable time to convince them, amid all thefe alarms, that you mean nothing inimical or unfriendly to them. But fill, by perfeverance, you will dif- fipate all their apprehenfions, and render them fubfervient to every thing you can poffibly require, more particularly when great temperance is ufed; and nothing promotes the learning and acquiefcence of the horfe more (I again and again repeat it), than affording him time to reflea on what you require from him; and on the difference of being treated with kindnefs, when he obeys wiflingly, and a little feverity, when he refuifeswith obftinacy and pcrverfenefs; he will then make his eleffion, and choofe rather to perform what he knows will not only pleafe, lout RECEIVE THE ENCOURAGE- EINT OF HIS TMASTER. Exercifing him in the circle, he prefently finds is a SPECIES OF PUNISHMENT: and the beating of the drumn, firing the piftol, &C. A KIND OF RE- LEASE: time flould therefore be given him to dif- criminate between the GOOD and the tVIL, which is thus prefented for his choice ; or how can you expeiSt he will be able to know which he fhould REFUSE or which ACCEPT When the horfe comprehends the difference, he wsill gradually flop, even on a fmart gallop, the moment he hears any of the above fignals moft cordially, at your plea- fure ; hor will either halt, diinnilb his action, oc e. approach 18 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. approach with the greateft readinefs the very objeCt, that was before fcy much his terror. Your horfe being fo far advanced in this leffon B, and the walk and trot being completed, pro- ceed, as before, to teach him to gallop right and left, obferving his cadence', and attending to the fIric't unifon of the action of his legs, as well as the graceful pofition of his head and neck: this done, proceed with the fame punishment, that is to fay, the galloping round the circle every way properly, obferving the fignal to relieve him from fuch pu- niahment, and the reward IMMEDIATELY OF THE CARROT OR APPLE. I prefs its being given INSTANTANEOUSLY, becaufe the LEAST DELAY IMPEDES AND TOTALLY DESTROYS THE EFFECT INTENDED to be produced by fuch REWVARD. Firfl, becaufe the horfe's eye is fixed upon you; and, fecondly, it is your pleafure that ought to guide him in his obedience: therefore, you ought to be before him in DISCERNMENT, which, if not properly applied, may tend to give you fome trouble. Care muff be taken, during your exercifing him, that he be not fweated too much, and that he he n -vet brought out for a fecond leffon till thoroughly dry; nor that more than a pint of water be given him at a timf, and- very little hay; inflead of which, two or three handfuls of corn, at the end of ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 19 of cach leffun, wiT greatly affifi you. I-ILre it is indifpmnfably neceffhiy to obferve, that, in all this exercife, you muff give hiln time fufficient in the intervals to recover his wind; he flould not be exercifed again, until you perceive his lungs have recovered the proper tone of refpiration; for if you force him to r peat his leffon whilft he is panting for breath, you wIll XNEVITABLY TEACIT HIMNI THE MOST VICIOUS AND PERVERSE HABITS, and DESTROY HIS EMULATION: being exhaufted in flrength and fpirits, without having tim-e allowed him to recruit himfelf, cannot fail of caufing his exertions to be fo languid, as to render it impoffi- ble he (hould perfedl himfelf in any leffon you wifh him to be taught. The bad habits thus acquired, you will find exceedingly difficult to correEt afterwards; the greater care fhould confequently be ufed to przvent this inconvenience, which can only be done by particularly obferving the caution above mentioned during the firft eight days. The next leffon the horfe is to be taught is, to carry the faddle with or without a crupper; but I would recommend the crupper and buckle fur- cingle to be put over the faddle; then place a bag containing a bulffel of fand on the faddie, half at each end; but ihould the horfe be too refraEtory to have either the faddle or the fand-bag laid acrofs his back, tic up his near foot with a cord, ufing every friendly means, as before recommended, to C 0- quiet 20 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. quiet his apprehenfions, until he has permitted you to place properly all that you defire on him; you muff be careful not to ufe any VIOLENCE in this part of the leffon. When all is thus placed, untie his foot, which is only drawn up to prevent his having the power of kicking you or your affiflant; exercife him cach way, that is, right and left, in the walk, trot, and gallop, fill observing the fignals, rewards, and punishments, as before direEted. Hlaving given him a tolerable leffon with the find-bag, take it off, in order to let your rough- rider or any other perfon mount, and exercife him as before; during which you muft hold the cavern rein, and by every friendly means endeavour to wvvin his confidence and obedience. Let him, in this part of the leffon, be only walked the firft and fecond morning; but fhould he not willingly fuffer your rough-fider to mount, or, when mounted, not carry him as he or you defire, then place the fand-bag on him again, and gallop him feverely, to convince him of what he makes himfelf fuffer from his disobedience. When you have brought him, by thefe means, to let you or your aflullant mount him, let him be ridden by your rough-rider every two hours, ob- ferving that, if he prove refra&torv, you firfl exer- cife ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 21 cife him with the fand-bag; this will make him the more defirous of being ridden gently, than of carrying this weight, under which he finds himfelf, as I before obferved, fo uncomfortable. I would particularly recommend all quarrels to lbe avoided between the jinitrufor and his horfe, during his teaching him there leffons; but yet, I would not advife you to fland inative with the whip in your hand ; the horfe may confider this kind of indulgence as arifing more from fear than from humanity: and if he fliould once think you are really afraid of him, you will find he will ex- ercife every means to convince you, that he con- liders himfelf YOUR MASTER, INSTEAD OF AC- KNOWLEDGING, by IMPLICIT OBEDIENCE, that YOU ARE HIS. However, in teaching him where the fuperiority lies (I cannot defift from repeating), be fure to ufe your power of discipline with JUSTICE and with MERCY. The horfe can refled ;-he can difcrimi- nate betwreen deferved chafiifenient and unpro- voked feverity; and if you find it neceffary to punifh him for his disobedience with the whip, fpur, &c. it muft be on the moft urgent occafions, and with the greateft moderation. The horfe being infirudled in this third ftage of the bufinefs, next proceed to teach him the fourth. c 3 Tlis 22 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION, This confiffs in making him thoroughly obedient to the bridle-hand ; and the various preffures of the leg, &c. And in order to arijuft his nat iral paces; THIE WALK, TROT, and GALLOP, ip a juft and ele- gant manner; alfo the teaching him to rein back, turn to the right and right about; turn to the lefr, and left about, on his own ground; and to leap, ftanding or flying, without which, no effential fer- vices can be expeEled from him: but to accom- p;ifli thefe points the horfeman muff have a perfeEt pliability and command of his own body, other- Bridle-hand, Ahc. Comprehending its numerous requifites, namely, the elegant and delicate afpui; the necceliary aids, &c.; for, I confider the nppui a kind of talegrapri-comniunica- tion between the bridle-hand and the horfes mouth that .s to fay, if the horfe's mouth be delicaLC, frelh, kcnfibie, and obe- dient to the bridle hand; but on the contrary, if the mouth be hard, callous, and the horfe dilobedient, the appui is totally loff, and of cc urfe cannot operate; thus, fromn the lafi caufe, no(linig but defiruclion flares the rider in the face; particul irly in SINGLE COMBAT, &c. in the field of honour, and in the SERVICE of his COUNTRY. The neceffary aids I coiriider fuch, as turning to the RIGHT, to the lEFT, &c. The latter, perfons of moderate capacity eafily attain, but my great experience in the Equefirian Art thoroughly convinces me, the complete knowledge of the appui can only be acquired with confiderable difficulty: and fur- thermore, I am of opinion, that this highly neceffary part of EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION can only be attained in the lanqe, by great practice, under judicious, experienced, and able pro- feffors. wife ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 23 wife he wvill never be able to adjuft and regulate the different paces which are required of him. Perfift in the before-mentioned exercifes until he is thoroughly fearlefs of all objeas that before ufed to be his terror; for the teaching him to be familiar Ws Lh drums, trumpets, flags, fire-arms, &c. pre- vents his ftartling at any unufual noife, or uncom- mon objeEts on the road.-The more frequently he is thus exercifed, the fooner will he attain per- fe6tion in his duty. Moft men, however, are liable to be fo much miftaken in the proper method of correffing a horfe, which ftartles at any objet on the road, that they fpur and whip the intimidated animal up to whatever has thus frightened him.-By this means, they not only rifk fpoiling, or breaking the fpirit of the horfe, but they hazard their own fafety, It was by this improper and injudicious mode, that Mr. ASTLEY, furgeon, at Putney, loft his life. Lis horfe flartled at a broad-wheel waggon on the road, Mr. A. adopted the ufual method of fpurring his horfe, until he made himr approach the waggomn; which he no fooner did, than the wvind gathering under the tilt, raifed it in fuch a manner, that it alarmed the horfe fo much, as to cauf hlim tQ throw his rider iliflantly under the wheels, -hiuh C 4 paffed 24 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. paffed over and killed him on the fpot. The danger of this method is fufliciently evinced by this, and a thoufand fimilar examples. By obliging the horfe in this hafty manner to approach what terri- fies him, you increafe his fears, in the proportion of his proximity to the objecl, and when he is driven clofe to it, if he have any fpirit, you will find that he will fo fuddenly fly from it, as to render it almofi impoflible for the beft of horfemen to keep their feats. What renders it fo difficult is, that the ridcr having accomplifhed his defire of forcing his horfe clofe to the objef, thinks himfeif no longer in danger; and thus is fo cafy and carelefs in his feat, that when the horfe flartles in this unexpected manner, it is more furprizing that he flould not be thrown, than that he fhould. Having fhewn the danger of this imprudent method, it is proper I fhould give fuch direffions as may cure the horfe of this vice, without en- dangering the life or limbs of the rider. When he flartles at any object, inftead of increafing his fear, by forcing him to what he is thus endeavouring to lhun, or rilking yourfelf being thrown over a bridge, under a carriage, into-a pit, &c. you fhould chaftife him at a PROPER DISTANCE FROM THE SAID OBJECT, until his fear fo much abates, that you perceive him rather inclined to approach of him- felf. ASTLEY'S tQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 25 felf. Then you may dire&t him gently to it; and, as he goes nearer and nearer, encourage his confi- dence with the mofI gentle words and endearing careffes. In this imanncr, you wvill find, when he has gone intirely up to the objec&, his fpirits will be fo calmed, thwat you will not be in the leaft danger of flying from it, in a more violent and dangerous manner than he did whcin it firft caught his fight or hearing: but flhould this firft trial prove unfuccefsful, IT MUST BE RRPEATED, UNTIL YOU HAVE OBTAINED YOUR DESIRE. In this you muft be fure to obferve never to force him to the objcct, until you find his fears have fubfided, and that his confidence has returned. To fhew the value of having horfes properly trained and disciplined, it may not be improper here to obferve that I have, feveral times, bought, at different repolitories, horfes, for a very incon- fiderable fum, in confequence of their not being completely corrected of thofe vices, which they derive from their natural fhynefs and untamed fpirits: for, when they have been found to flartle at any objecl they meet, and are undifciplined, lit- tle ufe, profit, or convenience will they afford to their owncrs, who are thus happy in availing themselves of the firft opportunity of felling them for what they can poffibly get offered. lhus 26 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. Thus have I bought the bell horfes, and for a few guineas ! The danger of riding horfes of this defcription is fo great, as to render them, indeed, fcarcely worth keeping by any, except by the moft experienced horfeman. It is only by fuch, that they can be governed or .nounL1 d with fafety, and with any profpecL of having them corrT&ed of their vicious habits; and as there ar- very few riders, who have any claim to the title of horfe- men, the difficulty of rendering fuch horfes ufeful is lill the greater, and con f'quently tends to re- duce the price in proportion. Horfes of this denomination I have never bought, unlefs I difcovered they had good form, great ac- tivity, and much fl.:rit; for without thefe quaiifi- cations, all the difcipline and iniftrudfion, the bell mafter can give them, will prove of no poffible avail. CHAP. ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. CHAP. II. Dialoguie on Equejirian Education. INTRODUCTION. IT is but too true that the icience of the Manege d'Equilaionz is confiderably in arrears, with refpedt to the execution and pure cadence, to be obferved, not only in regulating the natural aftion, but alfo the artificial paces of the horfe. I have ever evinced a zeal to convince the rifing, generation of the great benefits naturally to be expeEted from the gentle treatment of the brute creation in general, and of well and deliberately conflderirng their temper and difpofition; f1riftly having an eye to the grand outwork-cadence; an effei.tial point which few perfons trouble them- elves about, notwithflanding the great advantage that may be derived from its praaice. The M - - 27 28 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. The late Earl of Pembroke, in the year 1759, placed me on horseback in the Uanege, at Wilton; my worthy friend, the late Sir Sidney Meadows, who laboured late and early in promoting the fcicntific part of Equeftrian Education, fecinsg the minuet danced by two horfes, mounted by myfeif and fon, expreffed hirnfelf to me as follows : " I fee, Affley, your horfe is fenfible of the aids to a very great degree of perfeation; and you are alfo truly fenfible of the encouragement neceffary to gain his acquiefcence ; continue, Afiley, to confult his inclination, and the horfe will take a pride to obey." It is underftood by profeffors that if the expe- rienced horfeman but touch the intelligence of the theory of this honorable and ufeful fcience, the end will be anfwered. My late general, George Augulfus Elliot, (Lord Heathfield,) as well as his fon, the prefent gallant ILord, alfo the prefent gallant Earl of Pembroke, and the brave General Floyd were with me in the old Equefirian School; and I know well thefe heroic noble charaEters moi anxioufly wifh for fejentific fchools, in order to promote a more ex- tenfive knowledge of Equeftrian Education; and I am convinced they would afford every afliftance to profeffors of this art. Prejudices ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 29 Prejudices and ill-grounded opinions, ignorant oppofition, and crofs-tempered difficulties, have, I conceive, in fome degree tended to obftrut a knowledge fo ufeful, and fo highly neceffary to the fafety of the horfeman. The late Lord Chancellor Clarendon, in his excellent dialoguc on education, among his tradts, page 525, frrongly reco mmends the cftablifhing of riding-fchools, both at Oxford and Cambridge. He obferves that fuch eftabli(hmnents are worthy of ROYAL B O U NTY: I thinkB .is Words ougrhlt to have been prin'ted in golden charafIers.-I hope it will not be long before fuch inftitutions will be formed, not only in Oxford aind Cambridge, but alfo in every great town throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland, in like manner as they are in Gcrmanay, France, &c. In my travels, taking Bruffeils, Vienna, &c. in mny road to Belgrade, in 1732, I had the honour to be introduc;d, (by fending my namne to the Profeffor) into every prin- cipal iantzeg,-e in thofe countri2es. Sir Robert Murray Keith, then minifler plenipotentiary at the court of Vienna, did me the honour of introducing me to the Ermperor. His Majefty expreffed him- felf very defirous of feeing me on horfeback; I immediately complied, and obferved to his Mla- jefly, "' Thihat I fhould be highly obliged to his Majefly, if he would permit me to amount an old horfe i SO ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDU-ATIONI. horfe; for, added I, being a voiung horfomany two who are both unexperienced, might not afford his Maje&" v much pleafure." Accordingly an aged Mfane!.e horfe was brought me, equipped with a half peak faddle; on my taking a view of the whole, I found (in their hurry) they had not placed either faddle or bridle properly; I therefore ad- jufted them myfelf, ufing every precaution as I would with a young colt; on which one of the affdiants told me, I had no occafion to be afraid of the horfe;-I very politely uncovered and thanked him-repeating thefe words: " The horfe never having feen me before, may fhew fome figns of his fagacity; and that I always made it a point, till the animal was convinced of my difpofition to- wards him, to aat with precaution, that I con- ceived there was more merit in preventing an ac- cident, than in curing one." The Emperor re- plied in French, (conceiving I did not fpeak that language,) as follows, turning himfelf to the af- ffant: " You fee, fir, the gentleman is rigbht, and I wibh this meafure of prudence was generally adopted." Stirrups and every thing being adjuflcd, I mounted, kceping in view the pure Equeltrian fyftem, uncover ,, &c. to hi -Iajefty; I recovc red my whip, and walked the l.fc right and left up the middle ot the Mlanege; made feveral finall circles both ways; finding my horf, thorourhly Cu'''' ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 31 obedient to my hand and heel, his head lofty, and that, by the ufual aid, I could forefhorten him at plcafurc I difpenfed with the trot, .-nd encou- ragea him to the pqffii;e; increafing each way to quick aafion, terre-a -teire in various figures, in- clining by my aids to the pirotette; knowing, that the greateft Will was neceffary to accomplifih this artificial pace, the execution of which I con- fider as the ne plus ultra of pure cadence; the- horfe readily obeyed , after a moment I caufed him to walk, advancing him in this natural pace till I came between the pi!lars ; I raifed lhis head, preffcd his iides, and pun him into the piaffe; tincovering, I thankcd Iis Majefty for conde- fccnding to honour me with his approbation which his Majefly was pleafbd to return, paying me the higheft complimnent.-I flopped the horfe, difmounted, and wiped his face with my handker- chicf, 1Ihook the fnaffle, (for be it underifood, it was with the running fnaffle I rode him,) and gave hini a couple of APPLES TO EAT, which being obferved by his Majefty, he afk(d me which of the two wvas better for horfes, CARROTS or AP- PLES I infformed his Majefly, that CARROTS were excellent, but I conceived that AN APPLE greatly afflfed in refreflfing the mouth, and that it was one of the rewards I ma(le ufe of to gain their affcftions.-His Imperial 'Majefiy fmilcd, and re- qtucited me to walk into the )aiace. DIALOG UE 32 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. DIALOGUE between tle AUTHOR, a PROFESSOR of the Mlanege D'Equitation, and a young CAVALRY OFFICER. OFFICER. HAVING a long time entertained a defire to learn the art of training the borfe, I am anxious to know what are the qualifications nc- eeffary for attaining the knowledge of a fcience, which, from its importance, claims at once the patronage of the fovcreign, and the particular attention of the fubjedt. PROFESSOR. Your intention to acquire the knowledge of an art, the moft noble, and of exer- cifes the moft ufeful, redounds greatly to your cre- dit; infomuchN as thev amufe the mind, while they give grace to the body. The information neceffary to be acquiredc for perfeEling you in this fcience, Mr. Afiley is amply qualified to commu- nicate. OFFICES . Of- hi;, ability, lentertain nottthe finall- ef doubt; I have feen, with pleafure, his equeftrian amufemients, both at home and abroad; he has obtained great reputation in that art.-M\r. Aftley, I beg therefore, in the firil place, to be informed, w-hat arc the preper means to obtain a knowledge of the cavalrv-oxercife In the next, I will thank you to explain the af-ertion of thel Profeffor, name- ly, ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 33 ly, that this exercife is not only neceffary to the body, but to the mind MR. ASTLEY. I am happy to hear that you feel yourfelf inclined to acquire a perfeat know- ledge of the fcience .of Equeftrian Education. To fatisfy this laudable curiofity, it may be remarked, that all fciences and arts, acquired, as it were, by reafon, are obtained amidft repofe, uninterrupted by any torment, agitation, or uneafy apprehen- fion; thus affording the fcbolar an opportunity, as well in the abfence as prefence of the mailer, of profiting by the leffons, which he has received- but in the cavalry exercife it is widely different, for that cannot be obtained without mounting the horfe.-Here the pupil has to encounter all the extravagances belonging to a powerful, and per- haps a vitious animal ; and the perils which arife from his fury and floth, joined to the apprew henfions which may refult from them. Thefe can only be fllunned by obtaining a knowledge of the fcience, and poffeflig a good difpofition and found judgement; without which, he will not difcover, (and which is neceffary to be known,) that, in order to fucceed with the horfe, it is abfolutely requifite to be acquainted with his difpofition, and with his vices; and with the fame readinefs and prompti. tude that a fcholar enters into the fpirit of an author, whom he is anxious to underfiand. Hence vou may difcoVer, hownfar this fcicnce is ufeful to P the 34 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. the mind; fince it inilrudfs and accufloms it to execute, in the mofl perfeEt order, all its funffions, furrounded with the bufle, agitation, and conti- pual fear of danger; the only method of fitting a horfeman to the performance of the like operations in the field, amid the many hazards which there furround him. Relative. to, the advantages, which the body derives from a frequent ufe of this exercife, it is to be remarked, that it gives a pliability to its mem- bers, and improves the conflitution; but it is ne- ceffary to live foberly and regularly, free from de- bauchery, and, indeed from every excefs: for if the constitution be at all impaired, fuccefs in horfe- manfihip is utterly unattainable. PROFESSOR. I am perfeftly fatisfied with the remarks of Mr. Afiley, who is affuredly in poffef- fion of every requifite for the attaining a perfeAt knowledge of that moft ufeful art; fuch as relates to the cavalry and to the fafety of the individual in attack and defence ;-and I am convinced that, fo far as an acquaintance with the theory can aflull the young horfeman, the fyftem of Mr. Aftley is the only one to which he can turn his atten- tion. OFFICER. I believe I underfland the points on which we have treated, and I with to know how, ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 35 how, in the firft inflance, Mr. Aftley infiruEts his fcholar MR. ASTLEY. The major part of mankind are, generally fpeaking, endowed with the capacity of performing in fome degree, in the different exer- cifes invented for their amusement; fome, how- ever, more expertly than others, efpecially thofe to whom nature has given a good underftanding, limbs fupple, and a body well proportioned; every way defirable for obtaining the pure knowkedgc. requifite for the equeifrian art diftinitly. OFFICE.R. What fized perfon do you confider as the bell adapted to this exercife MR. ASTLET. I give the preference to the middle fize, provided he be fteady, light, and of fuitable vivacity; he being the beft adapted to afford pleafure to the horfe; the larger fized man is, in general, not fo firm, and from being too corpulent, deprives the horfe of that pleafure, which he would receive, if under the infiruStion of one of the former clafs; hence arifes the max- im, that " TO PERFORM \VELL AND WITH A GOOD GRACE, THE HORSE, AS WELL AS THE HORSEMAN, SHOULD AND MUST TAKE MU- TUAL PLEASURE IN THE EXERCISE.' But al- though men of fhort ftature are the moft firm on horfeback, that is the fole advantage thev poffefs; D 2 for 36 ASTLEY S EQU'ESTRIAN EDUCATION. for not having, generally fpeaking, fufficient power, they cannot enforce obedience on all oc- cafions; and this the horfe foon difcovers, by his wonderful fagacity, and refuies to obey, from a knowlege that he cannot receive the chaftifement due to his difobedience, If, however, as is fomc- times the cafe, the neceffary qualifications be found united in a perfon of the middle fize, he cannot fail to infure fuccefs to the greatefi extent of his wifhes, whether his views be direaed to the pur- fuit of glory in the field of battle, or to the more homely anmufernents of the chafe. OFFICER. In what manner fhould a horfeman be habited MIR ASTLEY. ft is far from being my defire to reflrain any perfon from drefling according to his fancy; perfuaded, that men of found judgement, will always frudy utility, and adopt that beft fuited to the occafion; but, fince long experience has taught me to avoid that which incommodes the body in the execution of its funElions, I fhall briefly flate, that the fafhions of the day are to be avoided, when found to operate to the difadvan- tage of the horfeman; I prefer thofe only, which do not deprive the rider of the free ufe of his limbs, nor obflruct the horfe while under tuition. OFFICE R. ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 37 OFFICER. What are the firft things to be re- quired of the fcholar Mr. ASTLEY. Nothing can be more unpleafant than to fee a man on horseback in an ungraceful pofition; and too much care cannot be taken in the manner of fitting, to avoid bad habits, which, once eftablifhed, are not eafily removed. To con- ftitute the pure horfeman, the fcholar muft acquire, by praffice and observation, the methods of dreffing and exercifing all kinds of horfes in the various departments of the manege, and under able pro- feffors; he muft become acquainted with their ftrength, inclinations, habits, perfeEtions, and im- perfefflons, as alfo with their nature in the ftriateft fenfe of the expreffion. Arrived at this knowledge, he will foon dif- cover the powers and capacity of a young horfe, and train it accordingly, whether for B URTHEN, DRAUGHT. the RPOAD, or F I E L D: in the execu.. tion of which, it is proper to remark, that patience and refolution, gentlenefs and force, (when re- quired) are to govern his conduat. OFFICER. Pray explain how a pure horfeman ought to place himfelf on horseback AIR. ASTLEY. Having taken his feat, he holds the bridle in his left hand ; the thumb above, and D 3 the 38 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. the little finger underneath, in order to feparate it; at the fame time adjufting it with the right hand, to form it into a proper length ; he muft then grafp and fix it to its place, which is about three fingers above the pommel of the faddle: on the faddle he fhould fit upright, touching it, as it were, only in the centre; and gaiety fhould mark every move- ment. His Ihoulders fhould be kept down; his breaft forward; his elbows at a fhort, but equal, eafy diftance from his body; his right hand within four or five fingers from his left; holding in the former his whip, pointed upwards, but inclining a little towards the left ear of the horfe; his thigh advanced, and his feet firm, but unconfirained, in the ftirrups, with the heels turned rather out, fo as to expofr the feams of his boots : two things ne- ceffary tC he remarked, in order to their BrINGr AVOIDED, are, the bringing the fhoulder too for- ward, and the turning out the hecl, to keep the rowel of the fpur fiom the belly of the horfe, leff, by a fudden effort of the animal, he might prick himfelf, and increafe his ftiry: thefe notions, as they are wrong, ought to be reprobated; fince byr fhunning fuch praftices, a pliantnefs of body, and its due equilibrium on the faddle, are, alone, to be acquired. Such is the pofition in which I wifl to place my fcholar, as the only one calculated to give him that grace, without which he cannot be fivled A FlNE- IICUVRE ON HORSEBACK; nor ac- qnuire that power over the borfe. fo ieceffary on call ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 39 all occafions; of the truth of this affertion, the following remark is a fufficient. proof :-In turning to the right, the rider turns the wrift of the bridle- hand, with the nails upward, letting fall the whip on the neck, and this without raifing the elbow, left it flould be found neceffary to check the horfe for lazinefs; which is done by firiking him upon the left fhoulder, thereby caufing him to take a firmer pofition on his haunches, and to raife himfelf forward: or if the rider wifh to bring his head to the left, he muff obferve the contrary: in either cafe, care muft be taken neither to incommode the horfeman, nor the horfe, fo as to make either quit that graceful pofition, which it is neceffary mutually to preferve. OFFICER. I clearly underfhand you-but I wifh to learn more diflindtly the rules, which you ob- ferve, to give that grace, you and your pupil pof- fefs; and thofe, alfo neceffary, to train (with that facility for which you are fo much efteemed,) the different horfes intrufted to your care SIR. ASTLEY. It is Impoflible to inftrut a man -and a horfe at one and the fame time; for the very plain reafon, becaufe they are both ignorant.-I prefer, however, to inftruEt the rider firfl, and for this obvious reafon:-The fcience of horfemanfhip, as far as it relates to EQUESTRIAN AMUSEMENT, never arrived at that perfeEtion, which it has D 4 at 40 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. at prefent attained. In early times, when the art was in its infancy, the horfe weas only inftruled in the three paces of WALK, 'rROT, and GALLOP; in after ages, experience taught our brave ancef- tors that the terre-d-terre, courbettes, balotades, croupades, cabrioles, &c. were neceffary for felf- defence, in fingle combat, as wnell as to acquire a greater command of body. But, in commencing with a young fcholar, I inftruat him in the different movements of the horfe, in its various natural paces; in the true ufe of the bridle-hand; in the delicacy of aids (as they are termed); how and when they are to be ap- plied; and when chaffifement is to be infliEted: this I do by placing him on a well-trained horfc, the better to explain the different movements, which one, not judicioufly dreffed, would attempt to oppofe, to the certain injury of both. Hence arifes the reafon for which I prefer, in the firft inrfance, to inflrul the man, that he may avoid the dangers to be encountered by his being feated on a young, and perhaps, a reflive horfe, and alfo to prevent him from contrasting any bad habits under an unexperienced rider. OFFICER. I approve very much of the reafons, you have affigned for inftructng the man firtf; iance it appears that the horfe, being well trained, afford himn that aiflance and confidence not to be deriv-ed ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCArION. 41 derived from one of the oppofite defcription:-but to avoid giving you the trouble of a farther relation of tbh method you employ to inftruEi the pupil on fneh a horfe, I will thank you to ftate the plan you purfue, when a perfon, fufficiently qualified to perform the various exercifes in your prefence, takes one to break for the purpofes before de- fcribed. PROFESSOR. Much, I have often remarked, depends upon the inclination, the fpirit, the ca- pacity of the fcholar, and equally as much may be Advanced with regard to the horfe. MR. ASTLEY. Exadtly fo; and in order to dif- cover his temper, the eyes muft be minutely in- fpetted, with a view to find out his force, and his vices, if he have any -His moles of defence muft be afcertained, together with the aaion, which he employs when inclined to difobedience; and his afion, when his paffion has fubfided. Until this information can be obtained, the man and horfe cannot be faid to have eftablifhed their friendihip, and patience, with a fund of refolution, on the part of the performer, are the only means to effed it. I again repeat-patience to difcover and cor- reEt the trifling faults of a horfe, and refolution, when neceffary, to punifh them.-But it is worthy of remark, that there is as great an impropriety in chaftifing 42 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. chaflifing him, when not really guilty of an error, as there is in withholding correffion, when through ignorance, inattention, or paffion, he refufes to obey. OFFICER. I am perfeafly fatisfied with thefe reafons, the more fo, as they are given previoufly to our coming cz the practical part; but I believe, it would lust be improper to ftate here, the method you adopt in feleffing your horfes for the different ufes to which they are applied. MR. ASTLEY. Italy, once famous for horfes, furniffied a great many to the neighbouring na- tions --the Spanilh breed, too, was ever in high eftimation ;-Turkey always had, and Hill has, ex- cellent cattle; very few, however, are allowed to be exported;-Germany, and the Low Countries, poffefs a hardy race ;-and fome (though not many) there are in France, that defervedly have their ad- mirers alfo.-The Barb, from its many excellent qualities, has been introduced into moft countries; and it is from this horfe that the prefent Englifl race may be faid to have derived that Superiority 0o peculiar to themfelves: provided, however, a horfe be well made, with handfome legs and feet, fufficiently firong and affive, according to the duty required of it, and (what is highly necclary,) of a rood difpofition, I care little, if at all, from what country it comes.-I mult, nevertbelefs, acknow- ledg', ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 43 ledge, that the more it partakes of the breed of the Barb, the more it is to be efteemed. PROFESSOR. Mr. Afiley has wifely chofen the Barb; but I have difcovered that this horfe, ge- nerally fpeaking, has a very tender mouth-: for this, however, he will tell you there is a remedy fince a good riding-maIler is in poffeffion of means to affift it in this point, by making ufe of certain artificial bits, invented to prepare the mouth for the reception of the real ones: with refpea to their utility, I can declare that the Barb has in a fhorter time than any other horfe acquired a perfea knowledge of the movements and maneuvres re- quired of him, and which he has executed with a grace, of which no defcription can poflibly convey an adequate idea. OFFICER. The rare qualities which youdefcribe this horfe to potTefs, make me particularly defirous of knowing how one of this defcription is treated in the aftion of drefling it. MR. ASTLEY. I do not call a horfe trained, nritil it be perfelly obedient to the hand and heel, quietly fuffering itfelf to be directed in its various movements, according to its force and vigour, at the will of the rider; for a horfe muft be paffive and have no volition. The mind of a horfe may be compared to the bloom on fruit, once corrupted it is 44 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. is deftroyed for ever; and that gentlenefs of difpo- tion which it before poffeffed gives wray to vice, which the horfe cheriflhes to his own deftruEtion, and oftentimes to the very material injury of that infiruaor, who has the temerity to attempt again the reducing him to obedience. Having found by experience that it is with no finall degree of difficulty the horfe is infiruEted in the good voltes, as well as in the terre-a-terre (in doing which much depends on the eye and knowledge of the rider, and in the choice of the ground), I firil teach him thofe exercifes in the circle and on the fquare ; bringing him, by little and little, to endure the bit, by placing a fmall rope in his mouth, and ufing a cave./jon made of cord.-In thefe exercifes I employ two men, one to hold a long line ufed on the occafion, the other a chamb7riere; the latter, walking by his fide, caufes him to approach the 'pot determined by the length of the line, and, ar- rived there, he turns with the croup out of the circle, the head facing the centrc, to which his eye is naturally direEled.-Thus he is accustomed to a very good habit, that of obferving his track in per- feEft cadence, right or left, whether the croup be direted toward the centre or the head. PROFESSOR. Mr. Afiley is perfectly right in noticing the great difficulty there is in turning the herfe, and direEaing his eyes, which is the founda- tion of the volfes; for very frequently I have known him ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 45 him to avoid the hand, when taking a pofition on his haunches he has formed a quarter or a half voite with fuch a line, but never the intire tour. Sometimes, indeed, I have feen him, as if for amufe. ment fake, make two or three courbettes, cabrioles, or balotades.-But moft horfes have a particular kind of gift, and in nothing more do they differ than in their difpofitions; yet it is remarked that the movement of turning is the moft difficult. MR. ASTLE Y. That which my friend has ob- ferved refpeEting the reafon for my commencing with the moft difficult part of the exercife, ftyled, changing in the voltes, is ftritlv juft; and it is very effcntial to pay the greateft attention to the choice of the ground, fo far as relates to a true circle, or fquare of fuch line as the horfe is re- quired to work on in perfeEtion. Having, in part, fucceeded in this movement, I take him to the pillar (or a round table as a fubftitute), and there exercife him right and left in the walk, two or three days, without inflidfing any punifhment with the whip): in the next place, I employ him ten or twelve at the trot, and it is at this period that he fhews his nature, force, inclination, and docility; by which I difcover (and the better without a rider on his back) the particular fervice for which he is adapted; I fay, the better without a rider, as he is then more mailer of himfelf, and has the greater power and inclination to oppofe the horfeman. When 46 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION, When in the trot Or gallop he muff not be preffed too hard, nor kept too long at it at one time, left the foot of one leg Thould Tirike the other, and by caufing pain induce him to fet up a defence, and refufe to obey.-When he goes freely in the walk and trot (which is eafily obferved by his cadence and gaiety), he may be put into the gallop, and occafionally into the terre-d-terre.-But too much attention cannot be direEded to the circumftance of keeping the horfe in GOOD WIND, fince an oppo- fition to refpiration wvill induce him to REBFL; he will be infenfible to the tongue, whip, and fpur, and totally unfit for any vigorous exercifes on that day; indeed I have known more horfes forced to disobedience, by the inattention of their tutors to this very particular, than to any real dif- pofition of their own. In working a horfe in the circle, it is generally to the left, and the reafon is, that on that lide the inflruc'tor has the moff DOMINION OVER HIM: this I allow; but I never lofe fight of working him alfo OCCASIONALLY TO THIE RIGHT; and this I do with a view to break him, in fome degree, of the natural inclination of turning to the left; from the following caufes he is accuflomed always to De mounted, and to have his caparifons put on, from the left, and very often (though improperly) to receive his corn and water on the fame fide. Again, when a horfe goes to reff, he lies down on 6 the ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 47 the right fide, which obliges him to turn his head and neck the contrary way.-Thefe reafons incon- teftibly prove the inclination of the horfe to keep his head towards the left, which warrants the improved praaice of leading him always with the RIGHT SIDE REIN, and of working him occafion- ally to that lide in the above leffon. OFFICER. I perfealy well underftand the rea- fon for your inrftruEling the horfe in the right-hand Vol/es, and am aware of the difficulty in effecting it. With refpeLt to the circumrfance of not allow,- ing the horfe to be beaten in the commenccmeit, you imagine, I prefume, that all horfes are dif- pofed to obey without having recourfe to harfh means; but if, as there are horfes of different tempc-s, bad as well as good, one of the formcr description fhould fall into your lhands, how would you treat him MR. ASTLEY. I have faid that care muft bc- taken not to beat the horfe in the commencement. if poffibly it can be avoided; and I now go farther. and declare, that if all chaftifement can be dif- penfed with, even during the whole of the time employed in training, I prefer it; firmly perfuaded that gentlenefs, on the part of the tutor, will effea more than all the beating that can be infliEaed; and the reafon will appear obvious, when it is proved that mild means are alone capable of creating 48 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCAT109( creating a defire in the horfe to learn his exercifes; which is difcovered by the grace he difplays while under tuition.-Force has the contrary effed, and often occafions accidents both to MAN and HORSE; infomuch as the former runs the rifk of being maimed, if judgement do not accompany chaftife- ment, and the latter, in addition to the like rifk, receives a check in his gentlenefs, and his legs and feet are rendered, perhaps, incapable of per- forming their neceffary funffions. The better to elucidate this paffage, I will give a fhort account of the nature and capacity of horfes. In Italy, where the praaice of training the horfe is much encouraged, every one is rejeEted that may be found not immediately to poffefs the neceffary qualities, whatever may be his form; there, the furious, the wicked, and the lazy, are invariably fent to the coach or the cart. In this, and in moft other countries, however, I obferve the natives are not fo particular in this refpeEt as the Italians; a cir- cumfiance which accounts for the greater patience neceflary in the teacher, and for the improvement made in the fcience.-In the method I have adop- ted, I have, as before obferved, paid particular attention to brevity, from a diflike to perplex either the man or the horfe. When this animal refufes to obey, a prudent horfeman will confider the caufe. If the horfe be impatient, furious, or mifchievous (or whatever be the ASTLEY S ;EQUESTRIAN EDUcATIoN 49 the oppofition he may feem inclined to make), he Nvill only THREATEN to beat him, fhortening the cord: this is fufficient chaflifernent, and better, by far, than any to be inflidfed with the bridle or fpur, if he be mounted; fince the reins, the legs, and the cav(,on, from being rendered uneafy to him, give hi in an opportunity to avoid punifh- ment, by doing that, which he foon underfiands, he is required to accomplifl : but if, through the ill confirufion of the cave//bn, he fhould have re- courfe to other means of defence, whether in re- treating or running againnft the poft, a ftroke or two with the chanzbriere will bring him up and compel him to advance.-Here let the inftruEtor give him to underfiand that obedience will invariably pro- duce careffes: by purfuing this method, the horfe clifcovers the neceflity, and cherirnes the inclina- ticn, to execute every manceuvre required. When a horfe flews a difpofition to be lazy, or to perform in a flovenly manner, and when thefe faults (and great ones they are) incline him to dif- obedience, the chanzb7riere muffl be ufed, and vi- goroufly, but not frequently; JUDGEMENT, JUS- 'I ICE, and MERCY, being points which the horfe- man mufl ever keep in view: however, this is con- fidered as the laft refource, and to be applied only in extreme cafes. If he difcover a hard or a dry mouth, his defence will be forward, forcing the hand; but for this lie S1ould not be beaten, but E thrown 50 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION, thrown upon his haunches, and exercifed gently in the trot and gallop until he perform his leffbo with freedom and eafe; and an apple or carrot frequently given will refrelh his mouth, and affifb the appzui. On the other hand, if the horfe be heavy, and fuch weight prevent him from doing his duty, it muft be rendered lighter by a conti- nuation of the leffon; but if he difcover any figns of malice, care muff be taken, unaffifted by force, or it is very likely his own weight will bring him to the ground. OFFICER. You have given excellent reafons for commencing with the moft difficult parts of tfie exercises, and have explained the means em- ployed in reducing the moft violent tempers. MR. ASTLEY. When I difcover that a horfe obeys me freely in the walk, trot, and gallop, and that he has fome notion of the terre-h-terre, I en- deavour, by degrees, to acquaint myfelf with the power of his memory; for, after the leffon round the ONE PILLAR, I fix him between the TWO, and, with the whip-hand, teach him to avoid the firokes, caufing him to proceed flowly on different fides. As the horfe finds himfelf much conflrained by the cave/Jbn, he cannot, here, be exercised in too gentle a manner, which is the only way to break him of his faults; and to this he fubmits, as it were, voluntarily, perceiving that he cannot efcape ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 51 efcape by advancing, retreating, or turning to the right or left ; but if, which is very rarely the cafe after application of the above means, he fhould refufe to obey, he may again be taken to the ONE PILLAR, and the cord of the cave/Joz fhortened, fo as to bring his head clofe to it; and there, with the whip, thrown on his haunches: thus the horfe fees the neceffityT of complying, in the firft inftance, where he is at liberty to aft, and which generally he prefers ever after. OFFICER. I am of opinion that this leffon, well given, is fure to produce the defired effedts. MR. ASTLEY. Doubtlefs: before this time too the horfeman has afcertaincd the powers and ca- pacity of the horfe, and the particular fervice for which he appears defigned; he teaches him to fhun the chaznbriiere in his exercife round ONE PILLAR, and then ties him between the TWO: he inftructs him, by means of that fear which is caufed in the horfc, to go fiom the walk to the trot, from the trot to the gallop, thence to the ter7e-d-terre, and to inflidt on himfelf that punif- ment with the car(f/obn not to bc given by man. From a continuation of thise leflir, three Good effe6ts refult: -firf, the horfe never has a bad mouth ; - fecondly, he is not reftive ; - and, thirdly, he is no ways obstinate, having no delire E2 to: E 2 to 52 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. to turn to either fide: faults often obferved in young and unexperienced horfes. OFFICER. How is it pofiible that a horfe with naturally a bad mouth, having an inclination to be relive, or polfeffing various v-ices, is taught to avoid them MR. ASTBLEY. By turning hie is compelled to go forward, and when fhewn the chanmbriere, he is alfo compelled to flop fhort at the will of the in- ftruaor. OFFICER. It appears to me that you find the ONE PILLAR fO ufeful, that you commnence, con- tinue, and complete, by its means! Ma. ASTLEY. It is true, that thofe who work the horfe with judgement, adhering to the leffons contained in this treatife, for their guidance, may inftruEa him in the due carriage of his head, and ufe of his limbs, in every part of the exercife. OFFICER. How long is it before 3you place a man on horfeback MR. ASTLEY. Before I place a man on horfe- back, I requeft him to execute, and that with fa- cility, the leffons with the bridle and faddle; which may occupy his attention nearly five days (provided the ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION, 53 the inffruftor be a good one) : but it fometimes happens that, for want of fuch knowledge in the fcholar, and fuch caution or ability in the mafter, the horfe is fpoiled, and the rider expofed to dan- grer: indeed, if the latter be at all deficient in this part of his profeffion, he cannot fee the inuti- lity of beating, or not beating, the horfe, or be a fufficient judge when punifhment ought, or ought not, to be inflifted. OFFICER, What is the reafon that you have the flirrups hanging when no perfon is on horfe- back MR. ASTLEY. I do this for two reafons, par- ticularly when I meet with horfes poffeffed of more fenfibility than the generality of them have; in the firft place, I do it to accuftom them to the motion of the ftirrup againft the belly; and in the fecond, as it gives the horfe a firm tail (a circum- flance which requires attention) nothing, having a worfe appearance, than to fee a horfe whifk it about while under the management of the tutor. When accuftomed to the ffirrup, and the movements required of him, without offering any refiftance, I place a light fcholar on his back, that the horfe may be as littlc interrupted as poffible; and, by giving the rider a good feat, I enable him JE 3 tQ 54 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. to oppofe the animal, in cafe he ihould refufe to obey the rein. At the firfi time of mounting he fhould not wear fpurs, but fit fill, and not move the bridle ; permitting the horfe to carry him, as it were, vo- luntarily. This leffon ihould be continued two or three days, in the prefence of the inflruaor, ufing the chambriere; when the horfe will difrover that be received no injury from his rider, he will allow hinm afterwards to approach and mount with the greateR facility. OFFICER. I clearly perceive the means you employ, with a vicwN to avoid the dangers, that may prefent themfelves; and you have plainly de- monftrated the implibility of a young fcholar's training a horfe. NMR. ASTLEY. It affords me pleafure to find that you are fatisfied with the reafons adduced for the PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS; the firl being the moll dangerous leffons, both for the rider and the borfe, the intention of which is to bring the former animal from one extreme to the other; namely, from a ftate of uncontrolled liberty to that of abfolute obedience, to bear the faddle and the man, to which all horfes make objeftion, in fome way or other, according to their nature and their ttrength. ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 55 firengtb. No doubt, however, remains that if the horfe obey in the firfl movements, he will ever after, (while his flrength Iball prove fufficient,) be equally fubmiffive and docile. OFFICER. I now fee the man motionlefs on the horfe, and am anxious to know what you in- tend to do with him MR. ASTLEY. When I find a horfe taught to carry and obey the rider, I put him into the hands of a more perfeEt cholar, one who underftands the ufe of the hand and heel, as well as the ne- ceffary appiui; carefully commencing, by Ihorten- ing the reins gradually that he may be accuffomed to the former; thus he will foon become traElable, and obedient to the hand. Tlhis leffon muft be repeated until the inftruaor fucceed in his point. But it is to be obferved, it mult be given with discretion and without incommoding him with the bridle, fixing the hand conformably to the pofition of the horfe; then according to the obedience, which he difplays, while working round the ON- E PILLAR, he is, fooner or later, taken to the T-WO, where he muft go through his movements on the different fides, without ufing the fpurs, at leaft, while he fubmits to the bridle, and the chanibriere, leit he fhould be driven reftive. OFFICER. E 4 36 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION, OFFICER. I perceive that this leffon is to give a proof of the affertion which you have adsanced, viz. That the horfe is perfeffly well dreffed, when obe- dient to the hand and heel, and when he permit; himfelf to be ditezhed at the will of the rider; but tell me, if you pleafe, why you ufe him firft to rhe hand and not to the fpur MR. ASTLEY. I do it for the very plain reafon, before affigned, that turning the horfe is attended with much difficulty, and alfo, that it is with great reluEtance that he receives the bridic into the mouth; fooner far will he bear the rider than the bridle. On this account, I begin with thofe parts of the exercife, in which the inftrulEor receives the moi oppofition: again, it is with the bridle that the horfe fuffers himfelf to be guided, and without which he would be of little or of no fer- vice to map. Hence arifes the neceffity of making him, in the firfl inftance, obey the hand; for as the horfe is naturally inclined to go forward, flop, or turn, without grace, there are no means of compelling him to do this, in any fort of order, without the aflifrancc of the bridle. OFFICER. I am fatisfied with this information - therefore, fir, proceed. MR. ASTLEY. When the horfe becomes fuffi- ciently traffable, the rider muft fix himfelf fome- w-hat ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 57 what firongly in the ifirrups, and induce him, by certain movements, accompanied by a good appiti, to entertain a fort of defire to further his progrefs in the improvement of his paces; in the profecu- nion of which, the rider mutt keep his body up- ri-lit, his feet firm in the ftirrups, but rather plia- ble; obferving a proper balance and command of body. If thefe, with the addition of the voice, be found infiflicient to enforce obedience, the perfon holding, the c/hnmbriere, may threaten to punifh himi, the rider, at the fame moment, ftriking his boot with his whip) girving the horfe to under- htand, that lie expects to be obeyed. This he foon learns jointly from the rider and the perfon on foot, and when le has given proofs of a little obedience (and not before) he may be led back to the ltable, and there fed, as an encouragement for his future fubmiflion. As foon as he has re- ceived proper rcfrcfhment, . he may be worked with temperance in any of the preceding leffons, conformably to the fancy of the rider, who is by n1o means to quarrel with the horfe, if it can be avoided: for, from a little corredfion much good miay refult, but from great oppofition nothing is to be expeted. O F F I C E R. By this leffon, if I underlland rightly, the horre finds himfelf induced, as well to obey his rider, as the perfon charged with the c/hambriere. But 58 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. But why do you ufe the whip in preference to the heel, fince you apply both to one and the fame place MR. ASTLEY. For the rafon that I do not like to have recourfe to the heel, except in extreme cafes; and this, from a conmiffion of the impropriety of applying the fpur ; perfuaded that there can be no pleafure in reducing the horfe to obedience by force alone. No grace can poffibly be acquired by the rider, who is continually obliged to beat and fpur his horfe; and no horfe can afford any pleafure in the manege, unlefs he exprefs fatisfafion while under tuition.-It is for this reafon that I ufe the whip, to convey an idea of the fpur, which the horfe obferving, by the movement of the arm, is obliged to obey, fearful of being chaftifed by it: and each time that it may be neceffary to touch him with this, prepares him to receive the fpur. OFFICER. When is it that you accuftom the horfc to the fpur; and how do you proceed in it MR. ASTLEY. When I find the walk, the trot, and the gallop, alfo the Ierre-d-terre round the ONE PILLAR, readily performed by the affiflance of the appui, &c. and in pure cadence, I then, and not till then, allow the rider to prefs him with the leg and fpur, affifting with his voice, and exhi- biting ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 59 biting the whip.-But 1 obferve, that no other horfes are working in the manege, left fuch aid might animate the-m at an improper moment, Should this new movement induce him to oppofe refiftance, the application of the fpur muft not be repeated, but recourfe had to the whip; which done, and the horfe having recovered his wind, the following plan muft be purfued:-The rider muft prefs his fides with the calves of his legs, and pinch him again, by which, in a very fhort time, the horfe will be brought to obey the fpur, until, at laft, the preffing of the legs only will anfwer the end; unlefs the beaft be a very dull one indeed: fliould, however, this fail, (though far from being likely,) the perfon with the cha7n- briere mu3 quit the pillar, that the horfe, lofing fight of him, may be invited to conform through pleafure, inflead of fear; when, in fhewing him the whip, he muft apply the fpur gently, and in- deed both, if required. PROFESSOR. I plainly perceive the probability of fucceeding by a ftrind attention to this mode ; but what means are proper to be employed to bring the horfe2 to the performance of a good terre-d-terre, fince fome hefitate to comply M R. AST L E Y. The queftion is certainly well put; there are horfes which obey the hand and the fpur, perform well in the walk, the trot, and the gallop, and 60 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. and yet cannot execute the te7rre-d-tere, in cadence. The method I purfue with fuch horfes, (thofe I mean of a more violent turn,) is by a firiEt atten- tion to patience, induftry, and a proper refolution; without which they cannot be inllruted in any aaion, in which cadence is required. If, as it is termed, he be difunited, the rider will return to the leffon at the ONE PILLAR, the better to fupple his thoulders, and to fit him for the acion of croffing his legs; then to the T W O P I L L A R S, and there fomewhat encourage him in the cour-bette. Here, if the horfe Thould not obey, it muff be afcertained, whether his refufal proceeds from paffion or from flupidity, as he muff be correEted accordingly: For example, when the faults arifQ from the former caufe, he mufa be chaflifed for the refufal; when, from the other, by objeEting to raife himnfelf high from the ground, or to bend his knees, (one of the fineft graces of a horfe, while exercifing in the courbeltes,) he muff receive a firoke from the whip on one of his hindermoll legs. If the horfe poffefs the leafn fenfibility, he will foon obferve the neceffity of raifing the legs, the whip being in fight. Admitting that thefe efforts of the horfenman (hould prove ineffeaual, and he fhould flill refufe to raife himfelf, a large flick, about fix feet irq length, muft be procured; then, taking one of the cords of the careffon, caufe him to leap over it, obferving ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 61 ubfcrving that, juft before he is in the aftion of iling, the rider muff affift him with the voice, and apply the whip on one of his fhoulders. By fuch means, the horfe will certainly learn to per- form a cotbelie, provided the horfeman be careful to aid and carefs him, at all times, when obedient: for horfes, I repeat, can only be inftruded by careffing them with the voice, or hand, or by giving them fomething to eat, as herbs, fruits, &c. And, when in the wrong, every effort muff be made to punifh them with the voice, the whip, and the fpur, but with moderation. Every fault muff have its particular punifliment, which mu1ft NOT be altered. The horfeman will, neverthelefs, be fparing of his blows, and prodigal of his careffes; for, as I have already ftated, the horfe is alwa)s to be brought to his duty by gentle, but NEvER by rough means. OFFICER. To poffefs the method which you do, of rifing him before, as the means of enabling him to perform well a cou-rbette, it is requifite that the inftruafor fhould narrowly infpe&t his movements, as well for the fafety of the rider, as for that or the horfe ; governing himrfelf, in the choice of the modes he may employ, by the ability of the animal under his tuition. MIR. ASTLEY. Although one good courbelle be no very great recornmendatiozi, the horfe that can perform 62 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. perform one well, may be confidered as far advanced in this leffon; for when he can execute this, he will foon be enabled to arrive at the fecond and third; of which, being maiter, he will certainly increafe the number, fo long, at leafl, as his wind fhall lall; but here discretion is required on the part of the inllruEtor. A good courbette is underflood to be that which is performed freely, afifted only by the voice, and that only when found expedient. If a horfe refufe to rife himfeif forward, and that refufal be attended with the rifk of thro,-w-ing himfelf down, it is confidered as an imprudent aa, on the part of the inftruEtor, to oppose it by a con- tinuation of the like means: on the contrary, fuch a horfe fhould be conveyed to the TWO PILLARS, and there employed in acquiring a better cadence, in order to induce him to forget the circumilance of his refufal; when, if he refill the fpur, or be- come relive, it is not confidered advifable to rife him; unlefs he f1ould carry himfelf too near the ground, and, even then, he mufl not be fore- Ihortened, under the idea of rendering him light, until he be perfea in the aEtion of going forward, and truly obedient in the above leffons. The wife and prudent horfeman will weigh every circumitance, among the multiplicity, which oc- See the engraving at the end of the boolk cur ASTLEY 'S EQt7ESTRIAN EDUCATION. 63 cur in the courfe of the exercife, the better to prevent accidents, and particularly the injury, to which the legs and reins of the horfe are the molt liable; he endeavours alfo to exercife and divert his mind, and afIft his memory, in whatever manner appears beft calculated to infure fuccefs; and too much application and art cannot be em- ployed. OFFICER. I conceive that man requires much diligence and attention to complete him in this fcience. Explain, if you pleafe, what you expeEt farther of the horfe after he has learned to perform three or four good courbettes MR. ASTLEY. When the horfe freely fubmits to the above leffons, and is able to perform three or four good courbeties, between the TWO PILLARS, without fuflaining himfelf by the cords of the cavejon, I remove them to a given diftance, that he may become obedient to the hand; and when I find that he takes a firm pofition on the reins, and not on the cavefon, I throw him on his haunches on one fide, touching him with the fpur, Sometimes with the left, at others with the right; then, repeating the leffons in the courbettes, two or three times, at difcretion, I invite him, by ca- reffes, to go to the other fide, aided by the appli- cation of the heels, fupported by the hand, and fecured 64 ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATIGY. fecured by the whip, left he Should not rife him- felf fufficiently either before or behind. OFFICER. But if, in fuch leffons, he ifould re- fufe compliance, what is to be done AIR. ASTLEY. If he refufe to obey, the caufe muft be ascertained; for if he be light and vigo- rous, and go forward leaping, inflead of perform- ing courbettes, but is, neverthelefs, eafy in his movements; if, I repeat, the horfe only offer this defence, when the rider is about to rife him, lie muff rIo be checked, but indulged and perfeated in the cadence, which he thus adopts, whether croupade, balotade, or cabriole; for, be it remark- ed, that the horfe is naturally endowed with airs; and it is held advifable not to oppofe thofe movements in which he mofily excels, and to which he appears principally inclined: for this rea- fon, the horfe fhould not be chaftifed for having recourfe to other airs, whether willingly, or by way of defence. Certain alfo it is, that wNhen a houfe has not fufficient force to continue in croupades, balotades, or cabrioles, he will, naturally, and cafily return to coirnbelles, and he who would attempt to aEt otherwife, by oppofing the horfe, when vi- gorous and full of fire, may occafion a thoufand accidents to both. OFFICER. ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 65 OF F I CE R. I thank you for this explanation; but, if you pleafe, we will return to the horfe between the T WO PILLARS, now able to make four or five courbetles in one place. WVhen thus infiru6ted, I wifh to know, what next you require of him; for it feems that the horfe, fo far perfeated, has re- gularly gone through the leffons which you have defcribed; commencing, continuing, and ending at the O N E P I L L A R, and between the T W O. MR. ASTLEY. You are perfedlly right.-I have found, by the adoption of there means, that the horfe is brought to comply in all that may be re- quired of him, without tormenting the body, legs, or feet, the mind being the ebjet to which I prin- cipally diredt my attention; for while, in his exercife round the ONE PILLAR, the horfe takes a firm po- fition on his haunches, and obeys the fpur, in like manner between the TWO PILLARS, he will go better in cadence. I continue and conclude gene- rally between the TWO PILLARS. For my own part, I conceive that the moft excellent parts of the leffon are, to fix the head of the horfe loftv, fo as to make him obedient to the hand, to give him breath in the courbettes, which is done, by ndt permitting him to draw from the cavedbn. In this leffon, I fatten him between the TWVO PILLARS, with the halter in his mouth, infitead of a bridle, and there work him without a faddle ; for he will F chaftife 66 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. challife himfelf, in cafe he fliould rife his head tod high, or lean too niuch, or not enough on the fide; thus he finds it neceffary to work on his haunches, in a juft pofition, fearful of the chanmbriere, fhewn to him from behind, and with which he may be touched flightly, if judged expedient.-I caufe him to rife himfeif before, driving him forward, which is half terre-a'-terre, and half courbette, thereby pre- paring him for the volte. OFFICER. It appears that you have employed every poffible means to oblige the horfe to rife himfelf forward for the making courbettes; and it is obferved, that the higheft are the moft hand- fome: at prefent you infIruEt him in half courbettes, and half terre-d-terre; but are you not apprehen- five that, by fo doing, the horfe will acquire a ba4 habit MR. ASTLEY. Far from giving the horfe a bad habit, it enables him to perform whole courbettes with greater facility, for, by this leffon, properly ufed, he is made firm on his haunches, pure in his cadence, and enabled to receive, freely, the AIDS of the hand, of the fpur, and of the whip. The leffons for the inftruEtion of half cowrbettes, and half terre-d-terre, are highly requifite at times: namely, when a horfe is wanting in resolution, faultering in his whole courbetles, if not obedient to the AIDS, ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 67 AIDS. I never met with a horfe, however perfedt he might be, that received an injury from its ap- plication: a circumftance that warrants me in its adoption, particularly in the cafes before flated. When the leaft affiftance of the hand caufes him to obey, (for it is known that a fteady hand in- clines the horfe alfo to be fReady), he may eafily be brought to exercife in the courbettes, or cabri- oles, and from thefe to the good voltes: and I continue to work him round the PILLAR, until I am fatisfied of his ability in this performance, in pure cadence, and of his attention to the AIDS of the heels. OFFICER. What am I to underfiand by the term obedient to the heel MR. ASTLEY. The horfe is obedient to the heel, when, by preffing with both, he flies for- ward, or by touching with one he turns to that fide on which it is the intention of the rider to dire6t him; or, when in other refpeEts difobedient, he allows himfelf to be brought to a due fenfe of his duty, by pinching him with one or both of the fpurs. OFFICER. I nowperfeEtly comprehend you; but what method do you purfue to make the horfe fen- fiblc and obedient to the fpur Ad erMR. 68 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. MR. ASTLEY. Many horfes there are that pay no attention to the fpur, and with fuch I ufe other means. I fhall omit, at prefent, treating of them, but return to horfes more fenfible to the touch of the heel; by commenting with its application, be- ing well affured of its perfeEtion in the cowrbette. I generally make the horfe begin this leffon at the 0 E PILLAR, and there, putting him into the voltes, touch him with one of the heels once or twice only; if he hilow this, quick careffes., on the part of the rider, fhould neccffarily follow, if not, the AID muft be withheld, Obferving that the horfe does not kindly admit of being pinched, I tie him between the TWO PILLARSR, fSiortening the cords; when, on rifling him, I caufe him to be preffed very foftly: if he fhould alter his mea- fure, he mull be ftruck on the CROUP with the whip, at the time of AIDING him.-This is prac- tifed to give the rider an opportunity of continuing the preffurle, by which the horfe is taught to re- mark, that he is required to anfwer to the AID of the heel, as well as to the whip; to effEt this, however, the rider and the perfon with the cham- briere, mull aEt in concert, and the horfie is foon induced to underfland and obey. OFFICER. But provided the horfe be fo impa- tient, or fenfible, as not to admit of the touch of the heels, in the manner before defcribed, buL becomes ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 69 becomes furious, even to a degree of madnefs, is it advifable to make him fuffer From your former obfervation, " that horfes fhould not be beaten," I am induced to put this queftion; as alfo, what you mean by the term pinching MR. ASTLEY. To pinch the horfe, while in the afion of working in the courbettes, or, indeed, in any other movement, is to prefs gently its fides with both fpurs, or with one only, as neceffity may require; fo that, being accuflomed to this AID, he may rife himfelf behind, little or much, according to th: force applied by the horfeman ; a circum- fiance which requires particular care and attention; for, without a complete acquaintance with this part of the fcience, the horfe cannot acquire any true grace. The furious horfe, that will not bear the fpur, I faften to the P I L L A R, fhortening the cords: I then fix two balls, (fuch as boys ufe at play) to the rowels, and work the horfe gently to the fide, caufing him to feel the balls, by which he under- fiands that the injury is not great. The next leffon is given between the l wo PILLARS, when the heels are applied with the fpur, and without ex- ercifing it, but, at fuch times, I approach the horfe, who foon fubmits to the fpur, armed as be- fore flated, with two balls. Thefe balls, it may F 3 here 70 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. here be remarked, may be difpenfed with, by omitting the fpurs intirely, and ufing the heels; but the preference is certainly to be given to the former mode; the reafon of which is, that the heel, not being fufficientiy long, cannot touch the belly without preffing too much with the calf of the leg at the fame moment. When the horfe ad- mits the touch with the balls, without fhewing an inclination to oppofition, I ufe fpurs. that do not prick, and continue the fame leffons until, at laft, I have recourfc to the real ones, (horizontal rowel fpurs I have ever given the preference to,) ufing them gently, or with fuch force as may be required. Hlence you may infer that all horfes are rendered obedient to the fpur. If a horfeman, furrounded with dangers in the field of wvar, cannot dirc't and caufe his horfe to obey him, but, on the contrary, that he become reffive, a valuable life is loft! At fuch a time, the animal that is wvell trained will not feel himfelf infulted, or be induced to rebel, although the rider may prefs an additional exertion of his powers; and hence arifes the neceflity of bringing a horfe to obey, AT ALL TIMES, both the hand and the fpur. OFFICER. Your ideas agree with mine:_I now fee the point diflinaly, and how you contrive by ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 71 by flow degrees (which you prefer) to inftruEt the horfc. I am anxious to hear the remainder of your difcourfe, particularly how you treat him when trained in the manner before related. MR, ASTLEY. After having fucceeded, by the leffons before ftated, I commence round the ONE rILLAR, and with the voltes, the better to coni- plete him in the obedience of the hand ; then tying him between the TW o with the cords a little longer, I make him work gently to the fides. As the horfe becomes acquainted with this alte- ration of movement, I oblige him, if poffible, to return to that to which he appears mofl inclined. This he learns in a few days, from the circumflance of being worked to the left and right. OFFICER. Why arc you defirous that your horfei fhould know how to work to the fide, and that he fhould change from one to the other by the appli- cation of the fpur MR. ASTLEY. Becaufe the horfe that cannot work fideways, cannot perform good voltes; but if, in going into the voltes, he fhould enlarge him- feif too much, the fpur on the other fide will cor- rec' him ; and if, working to the right, he fhould incline obliquely to either fidc, the fpur will adjuff F 4 his 7 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. his pofition: - this is the chief reafon why I exer- cife the horfe fideways; others I could affign, were they requifite or defired. Sometimes I take a horfe from the TWO PIL- LARS to the ONE, and there work him, to divert his attention, whieh having been previoufly accuf- tomed to, he will appear to take much delight in; and that may be eafily discovered by observing the juit pofition of his head turned againft the pillar, and his ready obedience to the fpur when applied, for the purpofe of foreffiortening him. OFFICER. What advantage has this leffon over that between the TWO PILLARS, fince it only in- ftruas the horne to work to the fides MR. ASTLEY. I difcover too-firfi, that the horfe, not being made faft on both fides, has little apprehenfion of receiving any check at the ONE; PILLAR; confequently, independent of his obe- dience to the hand, he permits himfelf to be con- duaed with the head againif it. Secondly, that he becomes likewife traelable 'to the fpurs, and particularly obedient to the perfon holding the chJambrieme; convincing proofs that the horfe is far advanced in his education. OFFICER. I believe you have alferted, there are horfes fo void of fenfibility, that they are not irritated ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN- EDUCATION. irritated by the fpur; with fuch, ether treatment is neceffary: and I with to be informed what method, in fuch cafes, you purfue MIR. ASTLEY. There are horfes fo ftupid and timid, fo weak in their reins, feet, and legs, as only to he capable of travelling thirty miles in a day; fuch. are alone fuited to the cart, and necef- farily rejected in the manege : but there are others, of tolerable good ftrength, with handfome feet and legs, but wanting in fpirit; much art and cunning are therefore requifite in roufing them: when I meet with horfes of this kind I ufe them tenderly in the firft intlancc ; then (if in good health and condition) I place them in the flable into which no light can enter, and there let them remain two or three weeks, taking efpccial care that they have plenty of food: IF THIS ANIMATE THENT, MY END IS ANSWVERED.-ShOUld this remedy, how- ever, fail, it is out of the power of man to do any thing farther waith fuch a horfe ! PROFESSOR. From what you have heard, it is clear that Mlr. Afley's method is the moft certain, concifh, profitable, and the leaft dangerous, of any extant. For my part, I can affert that, as far as I have travelled, and the many horfes I have feen, I never met with an) fo well dreffed as in the Amphitheatre of Arts, Wefiminfler-Bridge.- I can go 73 74. ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. go farther, and declare, that I never knew him to infitrueA any man (properly qualified for the fcience of equeftrian public amufernent) who did not make a -wonderful progrefs under his tuition; and that more men and horfes have been in- fitruEled by him than by any other profeffor in the kingdom.-I have not for gotten the minuet danced by two ot his horfes, (one mounted by his fon, and the other b)y himfelf;)-it wlas the nzc phls ultra of the neuwge,-e, in fliort, the adm-niration of every profeffor. OFFICER. Exactly fo:-but as Mr. Afllcy has not fpoken much on this head, I will put the queftion; perhaps it may alflft me in difcovering Something more of the appui, the aids, the ftop, &c. the knowledge of which I am very defirous to ob- tain from him.-Mr. AfIley, will you then have the goodnefs.to explain the ground-work of your celebrated minuet, danced by two horfes MR. ASTLEY. Willingly:-In the firfi place, my horfes were educated to piafe loftily, with grace, with elegance, and with agility, (Haydn's minuet regulated the aEtion of the piafe during the falute) as alfo the terre - d - tei-re, which brought us to appofite corners.-The ac2fion of the demi-voltes, to approach each other for the purpofe of giving our hands forefhortened our horfes to great ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 73 Great animation by a correfponding appzti and aid of the leg; in the affion of the piafe we caine nearer each other, head and croup, continuing the piafe on our centre, an intire round ; prior to which we gave our hands, and then let them gracefully defcend to their original pofition, both horfes, at: this inatant, being put in the aftion of the te7re-4. terre, gained a given ground from the centre: my fon's horfe made a demni-volte, my own a pirouette i this brought us vis-a&-vis, and after a fliort filop or paufe (ftridtly in cadence), each horfe paffed in the aElion of terre-d-terre, head to head, defcribing the exa fi6gure of the minuct: mny fon, having but little ground to go, immodiately paffaged in his flation; myfelf, being at the oppofite corner, at a much greater diflance, obtaincd fmich ground, by the aaion of terre-al-terre, at cne and the fange time. Here both our horfes fronted the fpcEtators, and (precifely on the fame ground we occupied at the commencement of the minuet) each, by a graceful appiti and corresponding aids, forefliort- ened and threw himfelf well upon his haunches (nearly to a balance), we encouraging them into a brilliant and lofty piafe.-At the laft part of Haydn's minuet we both uncovered; my fon, being on my left, caufed his horfe to piafe to the right, mnyfelf piafing to the left, which brought us 1 1 head '76 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. head to head at a given diktance, After a cadence with a flop, we each made a piafe back to the fame ground, my fon to the left and myfelf to the right, and, continuing the piafe, concluded the minuet with the mufic: after which, each of us preffed his horfe's fide with fharp horizontal fpurs, animated him to the higheft affion of the piafe in quick time, to a fprightly air, which con- cluded the performance; our horfes retrogading out of the Amphitheatre by oppofite doors, croup ioremnof, amidft the higheft applaufe of the fpeaqators. CHAP. ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 77 CHAP. III, Serious Advice to LADIES and GENTLEMEN, teaching them the mojftafe, approved, gnd grace- ful Seat; by whicl they nmayl attain the greatefl Pe7f'ction in Riding, with Eqft and Pleafire to ihemfelves and liorfes: wit/s a LDfciciption 9f the Side-&Sddlc. 10 complete ladies, and indeed gentlemen, in the management of a horfe, I would defirc they fhould firft attain a juft and adequate idea and knowledge of the bridle-hand; and even then I would only defire to place them on horfes perfeEtly obedient and of eafy afiion.-I never allow a learner to mount a horfe, which I have not previ- oufly experienced to be the molt fafe, gentle. and tradable; it is placing them indifcriminately on horfes, not fufficiently docile, which frequently ter- rifies young ladies fo much, as to prevent their having that confidence and pliability of body, which is fo indifpenfably neceffary for them to attend to 10 and ,X ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. and adopt.-I-low, in eifed, is it poffible for a man, Under an impreffion of fear, to fit with that freedom and confidence, which conduce fo much to his fafety and to the gracefulnefs of his feat But if he have a horfe which he is ccrtain poffeffes no vicious difpofition, he is then free from any terror; his form and acion are unembarraffed, and his mind is perfeffly at liberty to adapt himfelfand his ad-ions to the various movements of the horfe. With regard to teaching a lady to attain a fafe, eafy, and graceful feat, it is firnt proper to give fome inliructions refpeEling the fide-faddle; for if this be not judicioufly made, it will be impoffible for the female learner to perfedt herfelf in this net ceffary part of the art. Firfl, I condemn the ufe of all cantlets to fide- faddles. Cantlets are ridges which are at the back part of the faddle, and were invented as a means, though very injudicioufly imagined, of affifting ladies to fit with more fafety than it was fuppofed, they polfibly could without them. Their incon- vcnience is, that when ladies are feated, they are frequently, by the motion of the horfe, thrown upon the ridge itfelf. This being uneafy, to avoid it, the rider fits fo forward, as to lofe the purchafe which the right HA.M flould have of the fhort head o0 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDITCATION. 79f or pomel part of the faddIlc.-HIer feat is, thereby rendered unfixed, and fhe is out of that part of her fituation, which wouild give her the necefiTary equi- libriurn, agreeable equality, and requifite attention to the horfe's motion.-By this flhe not only rides uncafy, but is in danger of being thrown; for it is impoffible to fit with cafe and in lhfety, unlefs your feat be on that part of the horfe's back, which gives the proper poife between the motion of his fore and hilndt legs. Tlie fame cafe Gf motion is obtained from fitting in a proper medium on the back of the horfe, as there is in placiing yourfelf mlidway between the head and fitrn of a veflI under fail ; for in both you will find vourfelf lefs fenfible of their refpeclivc motions. Another fault of the prefent fidc-faddle is itS convex form. This rotundity is liable to occa- lion the rider's iliding off, either on the one fide or the other, and to make the feat very Uln- pleafant, while it galls and wrings the horfe at the fame time: could he fpeak, the oppreffed animal, I am certain, would perfuade you to caCe the pref- fure by fitting more in the centre, To defcribe in what manner I flould recommend a fide-faddec to he formcd in this particular, I muft quote the complaints I have heard of niew chairs: A fingular lady, wh-onm I inftrudled in ridinlg, ufed to fay, " -New chairs were the moft uncomfortable furniture 80 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. furniture in a houfe; for when a perfon wilfhed to reft on them, they always gave more pain than refreffiment, their convexity was fo exceedingly troublefome, and therefore fle always gave her fervants the fAil feats in her houfe, until they had preffed them into a concavity ; and mhe was con- vinced that nmy advice, refpedinpg fide-faddles, in this particular, was equally proper, and perfeEtly agreeable to her idea of chairs :" for, when they are thus hollow in the feat, the rider fits certainly with more cafe and fafety than when they are convex, and, by enabling the rider to keep her centre, fhe attains her jhif equilibrium. It may be thought by many rathcr prefumptuous in a horfeman to trefpafs thus on the province of the faddler; but this accufation will be found unjufi, when it is confidered that a horfeman only, who has, from the nature of his avocation, experience of the different cffects of faddles, both with refped to the rider and to the horfe, is capable of properly deciding upon this point.-Saddlers cannot be com- petent judges of their particular utility or difadvan- tage; their time being engaged in learning to make them, to appearance, worth the attention of the purchafer, from the goodnefi of the materials, and the elegance of the form and the workmanflip;- not at all confidering the cafe and convenience of the rider, nor the prefervation of the horfe from pain and injury. Tlus ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 81 Thus it is that I have feen, in the courre of my praEtice and experience, that the moft colfly faddles have been oft times the worft, both for the horfe and the rider. A fhoemaker can make a fhoe, but it is only the wearer who can tell you where it pinches ! this is an old adage-than which nothing can more illustrate what I would here enforce. I wifh, at the fame time, not to be underftood to mean this as an illiberal refleafion, or aimed againft all faddlers and tree-makers; on the contrary, there are many who are excellent in their profeffion. Before I difmifs this fubjeEt, I would advife, that the pommel, feat, and panne], be all fluffed with horfe-hair: the advantages of this fort of fluffing, are, fill, it imbibes not the fweat of the horfe as the flock does; and, confequently, it is always foft, and free from thofe clottings, which too frequently gall the horfe's back, and caufe him to travel in great pain ; his carriage is thus rendered very unpleafant to the rider. The next convenience is, that from the foftnefs and elallicity of the horfe-hair, whatever is ftuffed with it exaafly conforms itfelf to the furface it is meant to bear, prefs, or cover; and another conveniency is, the durability of this fpecies of fluffing; for it requires only to be taken out and beaten, and you will find it as good, after feven years wear, as it was when it was firfl ufed. With refpe6l to faddles for ladies bsving caiitlets, I muft here again condernn them. c In 82 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. In the army they have their ufe, by enabling the foldier to fix and keep his cloak-bag more fafe and fleady, than he would otherwise have the power to do; bcfides, as men take up fo much lefs room in the feat than women, the inconvenience which the female rider fuffers from the cantlet, they do not experience; for the nature of a lady's fitting on horfeback, is fuch, as to require more room than can be left in the fpace between the fhort head, or pommel, and the cantlet. Prefumrirg this hint is too obvious to require any farther explanation, I will not trouble my readers with any thing more on this fubjedf. As a general rule for what the length of fide- faddles fhouil be in proportion to ladies of different heights, I offer this obfervation ; that a young lady of five feet high, I1ould have her faddle-tree as long as feventeen inches ;-one of five feet two, eighteen inches;-of five feet four, nineteen inches ;-of five feet fix, nineteen and a half inches ;-of five feet eight, twenty inches ; of five feet ten, twenty and a half inches; and of fix feet, twenty-one inchCs. With regard to ftirrups, I pretend to give no inriructions, as they are of no great confequence in their difference of bar, clogy, or flipper, provided they Et the ladies' foot eafly: and as to their fa- ihion, ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 83 fhion, that is to be direaed entirely by the tafte of the rider. But were I to recommend anv one fin preference, it would be the flipper-ifirrup, from the fafetv arifinm in confequence of the impoflibility of a lady's foot going through it, by which fhe might be dragged in cafe of a fall, along the road. This is an accident, which has too fatally attended men in their riding, and is, therefore, more particularly to be guarded againft when a lady takes this exercife. TIHE SEAT OF THE LADY. As foon as fhe is on the horfe, flie fliould im- mediately place herfelf in fuch a manner, as to look dir Xrly between his ears. She fhould not fit with her elbows to the head and tail; if fhe does, fbe will be liable to fall backwards or forwards, ac- cording to the fide of the horfe on which Ihe mofl- preponderates. Her right hand mhould hold the whip in an eafy graceful manner, with the lafh flanting and bearing gently on the flanks of the horfe. In the left hand fle fliould bold the bridle, with her wrift turned fo that her thumb do point acrofs the horfe ; and this hand, which I call the bridle-hand, liould be cqui- difiant from her body and the pommel. a, 2 Her 84 ASTLEY'S EQUEStRIAN EDUCATION. Her feat thould be fuch, as not to prefs particu- larly on the Ihoulder, nor back parts of the horfe; if fhe prefs forward, the may caufe the horfe to fall under her; for nothing will occafion a horfe ito foon to fall, as his fhoulders being embarraffed by either the faddle being too forward, or the rider fitting in this awkward, uneafy, and dangerous pofition. The body fhould be eafy and fupple, otherwife fhe can never conform herfelf to the motions of the horfe. Ladies and gentlemen are too apt to forget the pliability of body; fuch inattention deftroys their gracefulnefs of attitude, renders them a great bur- then to their horfes, and prevents their attaining that eafe and command, which thould always par- take of the horfe's motion in all his different paces. It is fuperfluous to inform my readers, that eafe of action on horfeback diflinguifhes both the lady and the gentleman; it becomes, therefore, unne- ceffary to recommend its adoption any farther. ITe next obfervation I have to make, refpeCting a lady's pofition on horfeback, is, that her body fhould not incline towards either fide, forward or backward; but if there is to be a tendency to either, I would recommend it to be back ; this will draw in the Shoulders, and give the body an appearance of confidence, which thould always charaElerize every rider; it will likewife prevent 1 her ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 86 her being liable to prefs too forward, fo as to lofe the hold or purchafe (he fhould always have with her HAM., of the fhort head, or pommel of the fad- dle; and alfo her preffing with her weight too much on the fihoulders of the horfe. The diretion of the bridle Thould be governed by paffing the hand acrofs the body, when you want to turn to the right, and the contrary way when you would turn the horfe to the left. You ihould pratife turning him to the former, more than to the latter, in order to attain a familiarity in what you will find the moil difficult of the two idireffions: for every horfe is more eafily turned to the left, than to the right, from their always re- ceiving their food on the left fide, and their rider being obliged to pafs the bridle-haiid acrofs the neck to turn him to the right. In puliing the bri- die, if the lady pull more, than at the rate of a pound weight, flie may be faid to carry her horfe, and not the horfe her. THE LENGTH OF THE STIRRUP. Having given the above direffions, refpetling- the pofition of the body on the fide-faddle, it is neceffary to fay a few words on what fhould be the length of the ftirrup. I fhould not recom- c 3 mend 86 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. mend it to be fhort; if it be, it wtill force the lady too much towards the cf. fide; and fliould it be too long, fhe will find herfelf too much on the near fide: Either of thefe will deflroy that equili- briumn, which I can never too mulh enforce.-But of the two faults, I would rather the ifirrups fhould be too long than too fSiort; for the rider is fo far tending more towards the left than the right fide. The pofition of the leg, and that of the foot in the 1tirrup, fhould be as cafy as poffible; if it be forced out in an awkward manner. the lady will find her whole form rendered ungraceful, and the leg itfelf, if not cramped fromn the extreme tenfion of the mufcles, will be greatly pained and fatigued .-B ut whilft I thus condemn its beimg extended fo far from the horfe's fide, I would not defire it fliould prefs the horfe; it fliould preferve that eafy pofi- tion which it would have, were the lady to fit up- right in her chair, without preffing the legs of it, or extending her leg in a flanting manner from it: Nor let the rider too much fupport herfelf by the flirrup; for this will only increafe the fatigue of her riding, in confequence of her weight depending more on her feet and legs preffing on the flirrup, than on the horfe, by which he fhould alone be carried. In avoiding this error, however, care Thould be taken not to negleEl totally that mode- rate fupport, which the ftirrup is meant to afford the body. The foot fhould prefs the flirrup juft enough to prevent the whole weight of the body from ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. &7 from lying in too heavy and fluggifh a manner on the horfe, and to have its affflance, whenever the body requires its fupport, in cafe of a fudden re- Mroval from its equilibrium, fo as to re-inftate itfelf in its lou feat. THE DRESS OF THE LADIES. Before I end this fubjed, I have one caution to give refpeating the ladies' drefs.-This is relative to the hair and hat being in fuch a ftate, as not to be liable either of them to be fo materially difiurbed by the motion of the wind or the horfe, as to en- gage too much attention. This is an inconvenience which may be attended with very fatal confe- quences. A lady, who is embarraffed by the fall- ing, down of her hair, and the flapping of her hat, may lofe fo much her proper feat and the guidance of her horfe, as either to be in danger of falling, or being expofed to meet carriages, w.hich fle is not prepared to avoid in time, to prevent her- felf and her horfe from being hurt from fuch a ren- contre. To remedy this, I mott refpeEffully recommend to all ladies, who ride, to have their hair very firmly and clofely dreffed, and their hats pinned, fo as to prevent their being moved by the motion G 4 of 88 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. of the wind or the horfe, or the brims flapping over their eyes; for either of thefe not only greatly embarrafs the rider, but prevents her feeing how to guide her horfe, as obferved above, from car- riages and horfes which may be paffing on the road. To conclude this chapter, I would finally advife every lady to be particularly cautious in riding fuch horfes, which they are not certain have carried ladies before. Such are very apt to be frightened at the flapping of the coats of a lady's drefs againft their fides; and very frequently have been known to run away with a lady the inflant fhe has been mounted. To avoid this danger, let a groom put on a petticoat, and firft ride on a fide-faddle as a lady does; if the horfe be fleady, docile, and obe- dient, without ifewing any figns of fear, the lady herfelf may tben venture to ride him with fafety, CHAP. ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 98 CHAP. IV. Accefzry Precautions in purchafigi, a Ilorfe. A PPROACH the flable very quietly, and by no means difturb the horfe, that you may find out his imperfeftions; fuffer no one to go near him, until you have thoroughly obferved his pofition, while flanding quietly in the fiable: horfes with tender feet, or otherwise lame, generally favour themfelves in the part affcEted, while in this ftate. Being thoroughly fatisficd with his appearance, order him out; but fuffer no whip or fpur to be applied to him, as correfion, if he be a little lame or tender-footed, will make him forget it for a moment. Let him be taken to a convenient place, between light and dark, that you may thoroughly examine his eyes; for all eyes, in the fun, appear much better than they really are, and it 90 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. it requires much fkill to difcover their degree of goodnefs. Two things are to be particularly confidered in the eye: firfl, the cryftal; fecondly, the bottom, or ground of the eye. Let your obfervytion be rather oblique: if the eye appear good, not funk in the head, and the light free from fpots, they are favourable figns ; for if you expea to be carried fafe, the eyes, as well as the legs, ihould be firidtly attended to. His age is known by his teeth: horfes for the road or field (hould not be under five years old; though, in faa, the country-dealers, by cutting the gums, make them appear older than they really are; a pradice which ought to be entirely abolished. I have obferved horfes at eighlt and nine years old with a black fpeck in their teeth, much re- fembling the true mark, but then it was not hol- low; for, at that age, the lower teeth are all even, when the upper are absolutely not fo until the horfe is twelve years old, (cribbiters excepted); at thirteen the horfe's upper and lower teeth ap- pezr nearly all even; at fourteen the teeth over- hang, and get long: if any gentleman fhould dif- pute the fad, let him carefully examine horfes at various ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 91 various ages, and he will find the above to be in- difputable affertions. View his withers, back, and CROUP ; obferve that his fore legs be not inclined to bend forward, and that he have no fcars on the knees, or fix inches below or above ; the hair on the above place fhould lie equally as fleck, as on any part of the body; if otherwife, you may expeEt he has tumbled down; then, at all events, rejeE& him. The next point that comes under corifideration, is, the walk, the trot, and gallop, in perfeEt ca- dience (being natural paces). If any pavement is near, let him be mounted and ridden on it; even then fuffer him not to be fpurred, whipped, nor otherwife ill treated. Obferve that the wvalk be bold, that he neither cut nor interfere before nor behind: fcars on the infidc Of the legs, denote a borfe not going well on them ; but I mull frai-ikly confefs, that the farrier is as often to blame as the horfe. Hlis trot fLould be free, fleady, and performned with great agiiity; two legs up in the air, and two down on the ground: if he appear found in the trot, and pleafe you in his different acitions, order hini to gallop.-Florfes, gallopping flniri L t forward, may lead with the right or left leg before; but then the hind leg of thc fam-ie fide mult il nime- mcdlaaelv 92 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. diatuly follow, otherwife they gallop difunited; a certain fign of not being properly infiruEted.- Horfes, broken by able mailers, commonly gallop with their right leg foremoff, efpecially when turning a corner to the right hand; and if they turn to the left, will immediately change and take the left leg. Being fatisfied with the walk, trot, and gallop, and that the horfe is found and temperate in all his affions, as alfo thoroughly obedient to the bridle-hand, I pronounce him valuable; for I have found by experience, that a horfe well bro- ken makes a man a tolerable good horfeman, and nothing, that I know of, contributes fo much to the attaining this defirable end, as the prudent and ftady aEaon of the rider. CHAP. ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 93 CHAP. V. Of the Bridle, Saddle, and Stir; Ups. WE come now properly to equip the horfe; and, indeed, many gentlemen have various ways in doing this.-I recommend the fnaffle for hunt- ing; and, in bitting a horfe, to give him fuch a bit as may readily gain his acquiefeence in the affions you may require of him; and if your horfe has been properly bitted, care Ciould be taken that he is not fpoiled by bad management.- Nothing fhould be more attended to than bitting a horfe; every movement of the bridle with the bit-rein, fhould be light and eafy; if the rider has not a tolerable command of the body, he fhould never attempt much with the bit-rein, as well as fome knowledge of the appui. Changing bits makes a horfe difobedient; and I have obferved feveral accidents proceeding from a fpirited horfe not being properly curbed: the moft quiet horfe may bring his rider into great danger, fhould the curb hurt him ; if, in fixing the curb, you turn the chain to 94- ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. to the right, the links will unfold properly; put on the chain to range rather loofe, that the bit may have liberty to move in the horfe's mouth; and before you attempt to ri.!e your horfe in a new bit, let it be put in his mouth three or four morn- ings, previous to your mounting him, and juft let the bit-rein be brought up, that the horfe may feel the effc- of the curb. The faddle fhould fit the horfe with great eafe, and be placed on his back in fuch a manner as not in the leaft to prcefs on one part more than on another. The ftirrups fhould be of an equal length; nothing is fo bad as to fee a gentleman ride with unequal ftirrups, nor with fuch can a proper feat be obtained in time of danger. I recommend the ffirrup-irmns to be jagged, in the manner of a baker's rafp, which will greatly affif the rider in wet or frofty weather, as wcll in mounting as dif- mounting, in flying or ftanding leaps, and, infhort, upon all occasions. MofA Saddlers, as I have already obferved, confider nothing more than the appearance of a Caddle: thffe which I ufe have little or no cantlet; fhich are befi calculated to enable the indMf- fereut rider to keep his body back, and maintain his feat with equal proportion of weight oin e ch quarter of the horfc. CHIAP. ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 95 C HAP. VI. AST L EY 'S SyJemn of training IHorfts to Lcap. IN order to exercife the horfe in leaping with your weight, I would rccommend you to ufe a bag, filled with fand, weighing from four to eight fIone, increafing evcry morning half a flone, till it arrives at your own weight. Placc this acrofs his back, and faften it ; then begn to accufm-on him to leap about a foot high ; continuing to incrcafe tlhc heiglht of the leap in proportion to the additional weight cn his baack every morning, until he l.as learned to clear the height of five fect and a half, w-ith fuch a weight as you may judge proper.-Ob- ferve to exercife him in this manner, until he 'CPa effect this leap with great eafe and agility. The horfe being thoroughlv enabled to leap the above-mentioned height by pralifing him al the bar, let him next be exercifed to leap over a ditch; for I have feen many good hunters leap a bar or hedg , 96 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. hedge, with great agility and readinefs, that were thy, awkward, and embarraffed, when required to go over a ditch. In order, therefore, to ren- der BOTH eafy and familiar to him, he fhould be exercifed equally at the bar and ditch; ob- ferving to feed him with a little corn, &c. by way of reward, as recommended in the preceding difcourfe. Your horfe being properly trained to leap with an equivalent weight to your own, namely, the fand-bag of fiuch, or more weight, you may then difcontinue the bag and mount him yourfelf; for the fand-bag is onlv ufed as a fubftitute for the rider, in order to prevent accidents. Having mounted him, leap him over the bar, obferving to be-in with SMALL HEIGHTS, not only for your own fecurity, but for your improvement. Having acquired a competent knowledge for taking a Banding or flying leap over a bar, gate, or hedge, next exercife him over a ditch, as vou did before with the fand-bag. In this exercif, I have feen manv an excellent horfe fpoiled, from the eager and imprudent man- ner Of forcing him over heights he had refufed. Should he decline to leap any defired height, do not chaftlife him, but accommodate the bar to his abilitv and inclination, by placing it lower. Having ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 97 Having leaped him over the height, adapted to his prefent temper, and given him a little corn in a fieve, taking off the burthen, you may then, by railing the bar from hole to hole, infenfiblv train him to leap the height, which he before refufcl, and you defired. By this means, you precferve the temper of the horfe-reward his exercife by fuch an indulgence, and prevent, very frequentlv, his fore or hind quarters from being hurt, by firikiLng againft the bar, in confequence of his relutance to take a leap, to which he has not been patiently and gradually trained. XL CHARH. 1-1 93 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. CHAP. VII. NATURAL PACES. The W, alk, the Troi, and the Gallop. S U P P O 5E yourfelf mounted, with your bridlc-rwins adjufted in either one or both hands; the pofition of your fwitch or whip corrcfponding ; then put xour horfe into a walk; in direting him, you ihould be careful to avoid ufing the fpur. The ,reateft judgement is neceffarv for inducing him to execute his natural paces well, for I confider a good walk, as the foundation of his other paces. The action of the walk is four diffinft beats, in perfect running cadence; namely- the off fore-foot leading firft, marks one ; the near hind-foot, two ; the near force-foot, three i and thc off hind-foot, four; encouragring, the hcrfe to a bold action by the excellence of the bridle-hand, and its correfponding appuit.-Both united to what is term- ed a good bridle-hand, cannot but affift in bringing up his hind, in frira unifon w-ith his fore quar- ters. Here I rnuft remark, and ende avour to imprcfs ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 9i nmprefs on the reader's mind my former observation, viz. the neceffity of poffeffing a good mufical capa- city, without which, the walk may be corrupted, and the horfe's aaion rendered difagreeable to the eye, as well as uneafy to the horfeman. Pliability in the rider is alfo requifite as well as in the horfe perfea and abfolute reciprocity is here neceffary. OF THE TROT. The excellence of this acaion depends much on the degree of perfction in the walk; for I have found that when a horfe wvalks well, with fhoulders pliant, lofty head, &c. he is feldom deficient in any of his other natural paces. The trot is two legs in the air, and two on the ground, at one and the fame time, in the form of a St. Andrew's crofs, viz. The off fore-foot, and the near hind-foot-and the near fore-foot and the off hind-foot-fo that the affion of the trot is 2-2 equal, inflead of 1, 2, 3, 4, as in the walk; both adfions muft be in perfect cadence, without which, the horfe cannot arrive at the degree of excellence or perfeclion neceffary. H THE K 12 100 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. THE GALLOP. The gallop I confider under three diftinat heads, namely-That of the Racer, on the courfe at New- market; the Hunter, under moderate animation on the plain; -and the lady's or pleafure hoTfe, on the road. Each of there adlions has its peculiar excel- lence; but the laft I conceive to be the moff difli- cult to accomplifh, it requiring the fkill of an able profeffor to foreffiorten and throw the horfe on his haunches, fufficiently to complete this afion. Laftly, due care muff be taken, that the horfe does not gallop difunited: be it here underftood that, in g'allopino, ftraight forward, the horfe may lead with which fore leg he pleafes; but with whatever fore- leg he leads, the hind leg of the fame fide muff follow, otherwife, I term it, falfe adtion, or being disunited; but in da(hing forward, and turning to right or left, it is neceffary that the fore-foot, neareft the centre, fhould take the lead; if otherwife, you may bring your horfe to the ground. I cannot conclude without noticing the AMBLE, which may be confidered as a natural pace of the horfe; becaufe, moft foals following their dams amble more or lefs to keep up with them: the difference between the walk and the amble, is, that two 'legs of a fide are raifed in the latter at one and the fame inftant, and fo on vice veifa. 12 But ASTLEY 'S EQUESTrIAN EDUCATION. 101 But to return to the bridle-hand, and the advan- tages to be derived from a due knowledge of it. To arrive at the thbrough knowledge of the bridle-hand mull be a work of time; and I am flriffly of opinion that no one can ever attain the appellation of a good bridle-hand, without much praftice, pliability, and great command of body on horfeback. If I be allowed the parity, I am fure there are as many no/es appertaining to the bridle- hand, as to the gamue for any infirument. By the knowledge of the bridle-hand, you ob- tain dominion over, and out-maneuvre every cun- ning of the horfe ; from the bridle-hand you refrefh the horfe's mouth ; in fhort, every thing that is defirable is acquired by it.-Thus regulating each aetion of the horfe to what bell fuits your feat; for, in faEt, it may be faid, that the fafety of the horfe- man depends upon a good bridle-hand; fuppofing that he has a fufficient knowledge of the force and ttility of the fnaffle, or bit, as well as holding the bridle-reins; which all the theory of the moft able profeffors, cannot complete you in, and can never be acquired without much pradice and expe- rience. My method is to ride with a fnaffle and running rein-bridle; indeed I ufe it for my chaife and coach horfes, having fome averfion to the long branch-bit. This 102 ASTLEI FS EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. This fpecies of bridle greatly affiffs me in raifing the horfe's head, when riding, driving, and more- particularly in the manege. There is pofitively no doing without it; but the ufe of this kind of bridle I confider as fimilar to poifon in the hands of an ignorant phylician, for without a proper know- ledge of its tendencies, nothing but deftrufion will enfue ! Moreover, a good bridle-hand makes a fleady horfe, chiefly, if the jufI appiti be obferved.- Horfes receive fome punishment from the mouth- piece of the bridle, where the applie is corrupted , or, if I may be allowed the expreffion, difor- ganized.-The former, in every fenfe of the word, operates as a kind of infenfible communication be- tween the hand and the mouth, direaing the horfe in his pure cadence; when the latter may produce untimely punifliment, and fuch punifhment, nothing but imperfea or correated cadence, and a total deftrufion of the horfe's affion. TIle reader will find, under Chap. I. and II. other remarks on this head, and to which the young praaitioner is moft refpeEafully recommended, by the Author, to pay particular attention, he having, in the courfe of long praatice, been much benefited by the prefcribed method. CHAP. AS'rLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. CHAP. VIII. Of Draught Ilorfes. I AvE found by experience that mofi horfes fubmit to draw, when they have refuted to carry quietly; or, in other words, have been fpoiled by unfkilful jockies. With regard to teaching horfes to draw, I would not recommend them to be put into harnefs before their flioulders are fuppled, and they have learned to trot the circle with great ad- drefs and agility. After the horfe has been thus properly -vorked, accuflomed to back, and will fuffcr a bit to be put in his mouth, let him be harnaffed and worked in hand. In teaching him to draw, you mhould firft fix one man to the traces; when he has learned to draw hiim quietly, fix another, and thus continue increafing the number of men. By this gradual method you will find he is infen- fibly taught to draw, when, perhaps, had you fixed ti 4 him 103 104 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. him at firfl to the carriage, he would have been fo frightened and prejudiced, that you would never have been able to have taught him afterwards. Obferve that the traces be of fuflicient length, fo as to fuffer the man or men he draws to be out of his reach of kicking; if he backs, let the man or men fixcd to the traces abflain from pulling againif him; but if he draws willingly, be fure not to continue his exercife fo as to fatigue or prejudice him againfi the leffon he is learning; rather let liIII refit very frequently, and in thofe intervals ufe every means of careffes, feeding him with a little corn, in fine,holding out to him everv poflible encouragement, fuch as I have fo much recommended in the former lefffons:-for he deferves your kindnefs, when he fhews you the leafi difpofition to obey, and you have obtained a great deal of him when you find he is willing to draw even the weighlt of a fingle rnan.-This mode is particularly to be adopted in preference to harnefling the horif at firfi to the carriage ; for in this latter injurious, injudicious, and dangerous method, the horfe, in his fright, and relutitance to draw, frequently ruins himfelf iiltirely. Such an accident as this I witneffed near Weft- minfler-bridge:-fome butchers had hired a cart, with an intention of trying a horfe which one of them had bought; the confequence was, that the horfe, proving reflive, fet off in full fpeed with the cart ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 105 cart and three men in it, bore every thing down in his way, broke one of the party's leg, diflocated the floulder of another, and totally ruined him- feIf. This leffon is particularly dircEled to all who delight in draught horfes; for nothing can be more ufeful to the community in general, than to know how to teach them with fafety to draw anv carriage. In exercifing the horfe, it muff be obferved that You make him form a path reprefenting the figure of eight, which being two circles joined, you may then exercife him round each feparately, firft to the right, then to the left, alternately;-he confe- quently will be fuppled each way: but when you put him to the carriage, avoid quarrelling with him for the three firfl days, otherwife you may, per- haps, render him as refraltory as he was when you firif began to teach him to draw. Should he then refufe, infread of corrccing, take him from the carriage and repeat his exercife with men in the traces, as you did at firil, and continue fo until you make him obedient to your purpofe. Before I conclude this chapter, I would parti- cularly advife that the horfe be not oppreffed with the pinching of the bit, the tightnefs of the har- nefs, nor the too great weight of the carriage; for all 106 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN tDUCATION. all thefe circumftances irritate his temper and ren- der him unwilling to perform what you expect from him. If you have two horfes to your car- riage, be fure to choofe them of equal firength and fpirit, otherwife the more vigorous one will be liable to be fpoiled, from his having the greater fhare of the labour in drawing, arifing from his fuperiority of fpirit :-and in your journies, parti- cularly remember to go Rfages of no more than eight miles, at which fecd them with a little ha' and corn at a time; be fure) Ji.-ewife, to give them a little water, not exceeding two quarts, at every flage. Another great article in travelling to be obferved, is, to have the wheels of your car- riage greafed, whilif you are on the road, at leaft once a-day; for I deetn greafing the wheels to be aalually increafing the flrength of your horfes, at leaft, if it be not literally fo, it conduccs to that effe6E And, finally, obferve, when you arrive at the inn where you mean to lie, to have their feet picked, oiled, and fluffed; and, before you leave it in the morning, let them have no hay in their racks for at leaft two hours previous to vour depar- ture, and inftead of it give them a.feed of corn. Obferve, when you fet off, not to begin your flage fo fail, as to fatigue your horfes before they have fcarcely warmed themfelves; and when you are approaching the end of your Rage, not to heat them ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 107 them in fuch a manner as to endanger their taking cold; to which accident the beft horfes are liable, fromh being driven in a great perfpiration into the fiables, and there left to ftand on the cold ftones. .If accident or circumfiances fhould oblige you to heat them too much, when they arrive, be careful to have forne litter immediately placed under their feet, and to have them rubbed as dry as they pof- fibly can be by the hofillcrs. As foon as they ar- rive, give them a pint of water, which you will find will refrefh themn, and ferve as a flinulus to the food you intend for them. The flables Whould neither be too clofe, nor too much expofed to the cold, neither fhould they be too public; for if they are, the noife your horfes will hear muft undoubt- edly prevent them from going to reft, which is the moft neceffary fpecies of refrefhment that animal requires, to enable him to bear the fatigues of the road.-Obferve, finally, that the halters have logs, and be of fufficient length to admit your horfes to lie down without any reflrainf ; for want of this requifite, trifling as it may appear, I have known horfes prevented from taking any refi, and even lving down lswith eafe the whole night, CHAP, 108 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. CHAP. IN. Feedigo, Watering Drebgliag annd anaging Iorfes) either at Rel, or on a Journey. PREVENTIN4G difeafes in horfes is as defirable, as the curing them; many diforders with which they are affliaed being caufed by improper treatment, Wit'h regard to the feeding, and the managing them in every other refpeSE, I would firil be cau- tious to prevent evils, before I fay any thing relative to the cure; for I am certain moft of the difeafes, incident to horfes, are to be avoided by proper at- tention and management; thofe, which are not to be prevented, I ain equally certain, may be effeiu- ally cured without fending for a farrier to bleed or rowel them; or to the chymifi to drench, purge, or fweeten them. With refpedt to the prevention of diforders, be fure your horfes are firif provided with good hay, oats, and ftraw; in feeding them, be careful not to ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 109 to give them too much hay, which occafions horfes more disorders than can be imagined too much hay, or of a bad quality, occafions flatulencies, difficulty in breathing, indigeflions, flownefs of circulation of blood, and foul humours, which frequently fettle on their lungs, and caufe that diforder, to which horE-s are fo liable, namely, greafy heels. All their maladies are chiefly caufed by giving them more hay, than, perhaps, their age or their labour requires A horfo, not more than feven years old, re- quil-es not fo much nourifhment as one of ten, unlefs he have more labour to tundergo: if he have, then his food fhould be, in the fame degree, increafed.-A young riding horfe, not exceeding feven years old, thould not have more than eigh- teen pounds weight of hay per day, the fame quantity of wheat-flraw, and two feeds of corn. From that age, to twelve years, he may have as much, as twenty pounds weight, and a preparer and firawv; but in no inftance whatever fhould any horfe have more than twenty-four pounds weight pcr day. I have been convinced of the bad effeas of giving horfes more thlan in this fpecified proportion. Greafy heels may only be attributed to the great quantity of bad hay they eat, unqualified with a proper ouantity of corn; had they more corn, the bad effits of eating fo much hay, would be, in forne degree, correced; but, 110 ASrLEY'S EQVTESTRIANN EDU'CATION'. but, as they are chiefly fed on hay of a bad quality, they are always afflictded with the above difeafe.-A little good wheat-ftraw, laid in the manger, with the hay, whether good or bad, is very wholefoine. In the above direEtions, refpedfing the quantity to be given to riding horfes, I forgot to mention that draught horfes fhould have in the proportion of fourpounds weight more per day; obferve alfo, never to water your horfes until they are entirely cold; and if you are travelling, be careful to have their feet examined before you leave the inn, at every fiage; by this means, you tvill fee if any ilones or gravel are in their hoofs, or between the fhoes and the hoof; you will likewifc know if their fhoes be bad, or requires removing; fliould they wanit fhoeing, or to have their floes removed, let it be done two davs at leaft before you begin your journey, in order to afford time fufficient for them to fcttk and conformn to the feet. Coin- mence your ourney if poflible, with fhort flages; never check or prevent your horfc fromn fialiln, for this caufes many accidents, fuclh as the flone, the gravel, the dropfy, anid the firanguary.-Trhw firfl pure and wholefuone water you pafs, on the road, after feven in the morning, in fummer, andj nine in the winter, let themn drink a little ; but the f-after You intend to travel, the lefs water you need give them I if you be not in particular fpeed, ride ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 1ll ride or drive your horfes for fix minutes before you arive at your inn, rather leifurely: this will enable them to recover their wind, and when unbridled, they wvill, with greater avidity and appetite, take whatever feeding you think proper to give them, provided it be fuch, and in the quantities, I have before recommended; fhould your bufinefs require you to travel with more hafitc, order them, if it be warm weather, to be walked about the ftable-yard, or inn-door, in a man's hand; by this method they will cool by degrees, and, confequently, not be fo liable, as they otherwife would be, to chill in the lable; but fhould the weather happen to be cold, let them be covered with proper clothing, and then order the groom or hoftier to walk them in fome ride or place, that is covered and feltered from the wind and weather; fiould there be no fucl covered place, let them be taken into the table, and their whole body rubbed down with fiefh firaw, until they be perfeatly dry and clean.- Thefe are all the rules, that I think requifite to give, refpefting the nmanagement of your horfes. before you feed them. With regard to their food, and farther care in the table, it may be proper to obferve, that Ihould your horfes be dry, in confequence of your not having given themn any water on the road, let the oats You order them be waffled in good mild 11 ale. 112 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN ED'UCATION. ale.-Dufl, fand, and quick refpiration, fometimes dry the mouth and tongue of a horfe, fo as intirely to deflroy his appetite; to reftore this, give him fome bran moiftened with water, which will likewife greatly cool and refrefh him; fhould you have ridden him exceflively hard, order him to be unsaddled immediately, have his fweat fcraped off, and defire the hofiler to take a little vinegar in his mouth, and fpirt it into that of the horfe ; then let his head, his chefi, between his fore legs, his belly, between his hind legs, and, indeed, all his body be rubbed with clean firaw, until he be as dry as he poffibly can be made; fuffer him not to drink until he is entirely cool, and has eaten a little hay 9r a few oats ; for many horfes, by being permitted to drink too foon after they are taken into the liable, have been ruined.-This carelefs and precipitate method is the caufe frequently of ftaggers and of furfeit in horfes;-to dry the pannel of the faddle, from the moiflure it imbibed from the perfpiration of the horfe, order it to be placed in the fun or before a fire. Should you have come a long journey in the day, examine, at night, your horfe's back, in order to fee if it be galled, pinched, or fwelled from the too great preffure of the faddle.-You may, perhaps, not difcover it immediately on your arrival at the inn, as the tumour or fwvelling frequently ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 119 frequently does not form itfelf until fome time after the faddle is taken off; in this cafe, I would advife your examining the back again after fupper, when, if it be wrung, you will certainly perceive it, and the place.-Whenever you find fuch an accident, you can apply nothing better to cleanfe and heal it, than good brandy, mixed with the white of an egg, and fhould the horfe gall between either its fore or hind legs, ufe the fame remedy; but if you be careful to have the hoftler rub the horfe well between the legs, he will feldom gall in thofe parts. Having given thefe direffions for feeding and managing horfes, at night, on a journey, I think it proper here to conclude with repeating, what is indifpenfably neceffary, namely-to have your horfe's feet well wafhed, after which to be ex- amined, in order to have all the fand and gravel, lodged between the foles of their feet, picked out, and their fhoes, fhould it prove nreceffary, well put on, Let their feet be fluffed with cow-dung, which will greatly cool, eafe, and refreth them, from the wearinefs of the pafi day's journey; and consequently prepare them better ta fuftain the fatigue of the Succeeding day.-The reader will find more on this head in the following chap- ter. CUAvP. I 114 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION, CHAP. X. Dialogue between A'. Afiley and a Traveller. TRAVELLER. IT gives me great pleafure, Mr. Afiley, to have had an opportunity of dining with you this day, and I fhall confider myfelf highly favoured, if you will afford me half an hour's converfation on the indifpofition of my horfe, which has given me much trouble and concern. MR. ASTLEY. Moft willingly, Sir, it always affords me the greateft pleafure to adminifter every affiftance, in my power, to the brute creation, and efpecially to fo valuable a part of it.-You will, therefore, pleafe to inform me, what you have obferved with reg-ard to your horfe's indif- pofition. TRAVELLER. When I left London, a fortnight fince, my horfe, apparently, was in good health; I have ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 115 have travelled about forty miles a daay, ufing the precaution of topping every ten miles to give him a little water and hay, prior to my offering him corn: both of which (for I clofely examined them) have been of the beft quality, neither have I ridden him at the rate of more than five miles and a half an hour. Mr. ASTLEY. I difcover, Sir, that you know the neceffary point for preferving the horfe in health on a journey; namely, itriEtly attending to his being fed with the very beft hay, and alfo the beft corn; which certainly is one of our firit duties. Pray Sir, how did you difcover that your horfe was indifpofed TRAVELLER. From his refufing, in part, his allowance of corn and hay; in fa&t, his lofs of appetite daily encreafed. Mr. ASTLEY. How did you proceed, thus circumftanced TRAVELLER. I fent for a farrier, in order to deliberate what was beft to be done ; he advifed the taking a little blood from him, but I fear he took too much. I 2 MR. 116 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION MR. ASTLEY. If the horfe had any figns of fever, or his pulfe was very high, I think he was juftified. TRAVELLER. I believe he had no fever. AIR. ASTLEY. In that cafe he did wrong; for, as the flomach is influenced by health and difeafe, and as that alone was affected, I could have wifhed a ftomachic had been applied, inftcad of the bleed- ing. TR AV E L L E R. Pray, Sir, what is the beft under the prefent circumfiances MR. ASTLEY. There are many; but firfl, 1 would-ddvife you to find out a fubftitutc for the bay, and another for the corn; in Piort, a proper regimen of diet, which may afford fome relief, and, in time, effeEt a total cure -Of fuch fubffi- tutes, being timely adminiflered, I have many times experienced the efficacy, and furthermore, I know they at leaft enabled the horfe daily to travel Ihort journies, when be had no other weight, except that of the rider, TRAVELLER. Sir I admire your ideas; pray lofe no time, but inform me what are thefe fub. flitutes and are they really conducive to the prefervation of horfes in health, gn a journey MR. ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 117 MR. ASTLEY. Unqueftionably fo, Sir; for in the thousands of miles that I have travelled, and the number of years experience which I have had, fuch have been their ufe to me, more parti- cularly in hot weather, that, in fome cafes, fimilar to the difeafe under which your horfe labours, I could never have got to the end of my journey with- out them; and I have found that the horfes'of five years old, unaccuflomed to travel, have been more fubjeEt to fuch difeafe, than horfes much older. TRAVELLER. From your obfervations I may infer, as my horfe is only rifing four years old, that that circumfiance might, in part, be the caufe of his being not altogether equal to the journey, and, of courfe, though not ridden over hard, it might affe& his appetite; but pray, Sir,-proceed with your fubilitutes. MR. ASTLE-Y. Half a pound of honey, nhghtly, diffolved in a quart of boiling water, and imme- diately thrown over half a peck of malt, (in a pail) incorporated well together, and given to the horfe, a handful at a time, a little warm, I have found to be an excellent fubflitute for oats, for the night and morning feeding, or an increafe of the quan- tity, according to art.-Honey I have found by experience to be excellent for horfes on a jour- ney; its balfamic, diuretic, and diaphoretic qua- lities, &c. I have no occafion to fpeak of, being I, 3 fufficiently 118 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. fufficiently known. I have alfo given, with great fuccefs, a quarter of an ounce of fulphur, incor- porated with the malt-mafli for a week together; and where honey could not be obtained, I have made ufe of treacle.-As a fubftitute for hay in difeafes of horfes, or to keep them in health, fliced carrots, parfnips, apples, and pears, I have found to be excellent in the winter months; and a little grafs with the malt-maflh, highly neceffary in the furmmer months, in addition to the carrots, &c. TRAVELLER. I moft heartily thank you for your hints, and I hope 1 hall profit by your advice; I moft certainly will adopt your prefcription; but pray, Sir, have you noticed, during your long ex- perience, what have been the chief caufes of the lofs of appetite MR. ASTLEY. Great fatigue, bad food, travel- ling in cold and rain; carrying greater wseight than the horfe's ftrength is equal to; puflting him fmart up hills, while he had water in his flomach, and keeping him long on the road, when the lofs of appetite firi appeared; fuch circumstances cer- tainly tend to bring on and to encreafe this difeafe, more particularly with young and fpirited horfes; I may add, from being too heavily flhod, or having too r-mch iron put in the fhoes, wh ich fatigues a horfe beyond all calculation, fuch I mean, as are for a confiderable time on thie road-a Drecaution to' the contrary muft tend to prevent the complaint. TRAVELLER. ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDhUCATION. 119 TRAVELLER. I have ever had my eye on this point, confidering that an ounce of iron, placed at the extremity of the horfe's foot, may be confidered as equal to three pounds on his back. MR. ASTLEY. Sir, you are before-hand with me -you have anticipated my remark, and it is cer- tainly well founded. TRAVELLER. Now, Sir, as we have got to the horfe's feet, will you have the geodnefs to inform mc of the beft mode of preserving them on a journey MR. ASTLEY. WMy pradlice has been to take twTto pennyworth of each of the following: linfced oil and turpentine oil, fhook well in a bottle, and when the horfe's hoof is dry, I caufe it to be rubbed well round the coronet, as alfo the whole hoof, fole, &c: this to be applied ever.v fecond night, in hot weather, and every third nig-ht, when the weather is damp or cold ; I have found it to be excellent, eafily to be obtained, and every way equal to the purpofe. In the intervening nights, I make tfe of a little warm hog's lard, and fluff the feet u:J with a little tow; firft dipping it in the hog's lard, and placing very little flicks, croffway-s, under the hoe', in order to keep the tow in its place. CHAP. I 4 120 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. CHAP. XI. The many Difeafes to which Horfes are liable, their Regimen, and AMethod of Cure. I Do not mean here to give a long and elaborate lift of all the disorders with which horfes are affliEt- ed, but only fuch as are the mofi frequent and dan- gerous, with particular direffions to be obferved in the management and regimen, as well as the bzRf and moft ready phyfical means of preventing and curing them.-So that whatever rules I take the liberty of fuggefling, will not be di6tated by dogmatical theory, but by the unerring proofs of my own long experience. Young horfes, of fpirit and vigour, I have al- ways found the moft liable to disorders, and thofe too of the moft dangerous nature-their animation and natural heat of blood, caufe them frequently to exhauft even their great portion of ftrength, in fuch a manner, as to leave them, when under unikilful management, ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 121 management, a prey to langour and to lofs of appetite.-Their too violent exertions often inflame their blood to fuch a degree, as to bring on them the moll alarming fevers.-Other diforders to which they are liable, from great and extraordinary efforts to ferve you, are colds, obftruEted circulation of the blood, and furfeit -But all thefe, as I have hinted, may be caufed by carelefs and ignorant treatment; leaving them to uninformed, unexpe- rienced, and indolent grooms, occafions them more affliftions than any other circumfiance what- ever. The horfe, indeed, could he fpeak, would reiterate in your ears the following golden advice: " BE WATCHFUL THAT I AM TREATED WVITH PROPER CARE, AND FED WITH WHOLESOME. FOOD, AS A REWARD FOR MY SERVICES, AND FOR THE ENABLING ME TO CONTINUE THEIM. Over-working horfes is not only the mofi cruel, but moft impolitic conduEt you can obferve in the management of them.-Many, to gratify a few minutes vanit-, in flewing that their horfes are better than any they pafs, or travel in company with, wvill ride them in fuch a mad, inhuman, and imprudent manner, as intirely to ruin the bell of creatures.-Others will, to arrive, perhaps, an hour fooner at the end of their journey, ride or drive their horfes as fall up hill and down dale as pof- fible,-Hence originate all thofe evils attendant on fprains, on diflocations, and confumptions: I can- 3 not, 122 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. not, therefore, too much recommend the greateft care and moderation in riding or driving them; for the diforder, firli occafioned by this indifcreet management, if not cured immediately, brings upon them a hoft of other disorders, which com- bined, baffle all the united powers of Will and medicine. As moft of their difeafes are chymical, and have their origin in their blood being vitiated by too much heat, cold, or improper food, every pre- caution fhould be ufed in riding and in feeding them. A number of grooms erroneoufly imagine that a horfe cannot retain his health and vigour, without their conftantly bleeding, purging, fweating, rowel- ling, &c. What ignorance and flupidity! From this falfe opinion and conduEt, many horfes are bled and phyficked out of their ftrength and exift- cnce. Could a remedy be found thoroughly to cure the effeas of idlenefs in the fable, to prevent hoftilers, drivers, and grooms, from leaving their horfes, after violent exercife, at a public houfe, or the door of a gin-fhop, many diteafes might, in- deed, be prevented; not that I mean to fix a ge- neral fligma on all grooms, for I know there are fome perfealy qualified to be intrufted with what- evcr horfes may be committed to their care.-It is almnof a certainty if you fihd a groom careful of his own ASTLEY 's EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 123 own money, he will take particular care of your horfe ! The moment your horfe is attacked with any indifpofition, he fhould be turned loofe into a large open iable; but fbould the weather be warm, he fhould be at liberty out of doors: for leave nature to her own unerring operations, and fhe will per- form more wonders than all the lift of medicines colledled in one general mafs ! I have feen horfes killed by ignorant perfons adminiftering firong purges ;-a proof that the habit of body or the difeafe of the horfe rendered them improper.-But although I condemn the general adminifiration of medicines, whenever a horfe has the leaft illnefs, yet I acknowledge there are fome acute difeafes, which abfolutciy require the immediate affiflance of phylic, whilft others require very little or no attention. LOSS OF APPETITE. As the ftomach is the principal feat of this difeafe, the greater attention ought to be paid to it. Young horfes are moft fubjeft to this diforder, from being liable to contraa colds, coughs, fevers, at. in confequence of being over-worked: when a horfe 124 A5TLnY'S EQUESTkIAN EDUCATION. horfe is affliEted with this difeafe, and it fliould proceed from the above caufe, and be attended with a little fever, take away from him immediate ly, one pint of blood, and one pint a day for four mornings after; but if the fever increafe, go od with one pint a day for feven mornings, give him the fever powders (fee index, at word fever) whenever the fever appears, but not otherwife- then take half a pound of honey, and diffolve it in a quart of boiling water; pour this to half a peck of malt or bran, and after you have blended it well, give the borfe three or four handfuls every hour; continue this regimen for fcrme days, at the fame time, let him be perfeatly at refit; and if it be in the fummer feafon, cut a little grafs for him, which, as it is his natural food, will greatly refrefh and nourifh him-but fhould he refufe to eat the above, give him fome water-gruel, fweetened with honey, to the quantity of three pints a day, in equal proportions.-You may add to the gruel, a quarter of a pint of diftilled annifeed water, which may be had at any inn, or public-houfe on the road. But fbould he not take cordially any of the above preparations, turn him immediately from the rack, and tie to his bit a quarter of an ounce of afa foetida, put in a rag.-Let him champ on this for a few hours, which will greatly tend to recover his [pirits, and refiore his appetite. Should ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION 125 Should he have a purging at the fame time, which frequently happens, give him a pound of treacle, diffolved in a quart of water, by the afift- ance of a horn or a bottle.,You will find this an excellent remedy to cie2"Ev the bowels of all thofe corrofive particles, which fie in his fiomach, pro- ceeding from unwholefome feeds and weeds, that often are found in hay, and are the caufe of his being thus purged.-If he have this additional difeafe, you will find him wafie in flrength, fpirits, and flefh, fo falt, as to render him irrecoverable, it you lofe a moment in, pplying the remedy I have here advifed, Should his lofs of appetite proceed from a vio- lent cough, and very high fever, let two quarts of blood A Fever is known by every groom or farrier. who has the leadf knowledge of what is the regular circulation of a horfe's blood, for by the ilowne's or quicknefi of the polfe: the gate of the animal is to be afccrtainec. A violent quick puife will always denote either the f-mptom or the pa- roxyfm of a moft raging fever. This is likewife to be known by other figns, luch as extreme languor pf fpirits, chillnefs in the extremities of the body and limbs, intenfe heat in the mouth, torpor of the faculties, drowfirie's of the fences, and a total ina6tion in the whole frame and animal fyfiem. When thefe rymptoms appear, ihe horfe fhould be immediately bled as di- refed; if not, the animal is in danger of dYing in the cotrte of a few days; for this is generally his fate, in a violent fever. Many hundreds of horfes have I known to be thus rapidly carnid out of exiaence, for want of the immediate care, which I have 126 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. blood be immediately taken from him, and give him fmall dofes of fever-powders, frequently repeated, with walking exercife, if poffible. Ob- ferve, at the fame time, to keep him clothed with feveral rugs, and n'-ad of placing them over his back, as the feAt of his diforder lies in his bowels, let them be placed, fo as to cover his belly entirely, and only meet on the back. Put a cloth over them and the body roller, which bind together with the furcingle. Honey is excellent for horfes afflited with great difficulty of breathing, violent coughs, colds, and obflruEaions, indeed I have never found any thing more effeulual.-Nothing is more eafy in its operation.-From the experience I have had of its qualities. 1 have taken myfelf, for thefe laft twenty years, a large table fpoonful of it every morning in water gruel, which is my conftant breakfaft in winter.-In fummer I take milk, which, I confider, has then all the qualities of honey, from the cows feeding upon the herbage and flowers, whence the bees extra6f this divine fubfiance.-That honey fiould be falutary in the highefi degree to horfes, is not in the leaft furprifing, as it is the effence of their natural food, and therefore, mufi be congenial to their conftitution and their nature. I have recommended-but when they have been bled, as I have preferibed, and had the fever powders (Jae index, zeordfivers) I have know n as many to be fayed, WShen 2 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 127 When the diforder is at its crifis I would advife the following drink; Take one quart of thin water-gruel, fweeteried with honey; of linfeed, annifeed, and carraway feeds, each half an ounce ; two cloves of garlick; the latter beaten in a mortar, are to be put in the gruel, give of this preparation, night and morning, one quart each time.-Repeat this medicine until the cold is intirely cured, and the appetite of the horfe reflored. During this, let him have no water but what is rendered luke warm, by the addition of boiling water. Ufe moderate exercife, which will tend to caufe the medicine to be more effeCtual in its operation ;-by obferving this with proper care and perfeverance you will find your horfe very foon recover fiom his indifpofition-but you muff be careful, whilfi you are adminiftering the above drink, to have him rubbed down with fCraw, and clothed carefully, agreeably to the urgency of the feafon. To aid the above remedies in their operations, if the horfe be of a coftive habit of bQdy, admi- 'fiter the following clyfter: Take five pints of whey, three ounces of fenna, halt a pound of common fu gar, half a pint of fweet oil, 128 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. oil, and a handful of falt; boil thefe ingredients all together, and give a fuflicient quantity as a clyfter, tolerably warm, to the horfe.-Repeat this for three days facceffively; fuffer him to eat bran- mafhes, give him a good bed of Cfraw to indulge his inclination for lying down; and if his flable be paved with flones or bricks, to prevent the cold from chilling his bowels, cover his belly and loins with proper clothing, as a defence againit this danger. STRANGLES. They generally commence with a tumour or fwelling under the throat, and many times in other parts of the body. REMEDY. Be careful the horfe has not any cold water given him, feed him as recommended in the other diforders, keep him moderately warm, and exer- cife him gently until the tumour difcharges itfelf of the colleated matter-then anoint the fwelling, which may remain, with warm linfeed oil, and keep it from the-inclemency of the air; for I am convinced, fhould you attempt to difperfe the fwelling by mercurials, you would only drive the infeEtious matter through the whole franme, and thus ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATrIoN. 129 thus vitiate his intire mafs of blood, which, by an effort of nature, was thus purifying itfelf, by form- ing in the tumour a colleEtion of that foulnefs, it might have contradted from furfeit, contagion, or fudden tranfitions from heat to cold, and from cold to hcat.-Thus, by not permitting nature to end her own work, you prevent her all-wife in- tentions, her beneficent defigns. During forty years praE'ice, I have had a great number of young horfes, that have been moft vio- lently afflidted with this diforder.-Others very fnightly, but I have not had a fingle horfe dies in confequence of this diftemper. Bc-fore I difinifs this fubjeSq, I wifh to obferve that, fhould the tumour be difficult in admitting of a felf difcharge, it would not be improper to aflift nature by lancing it in two places, and then in the orifices placingtwo or three twiftedhorfe-hairs, tying their ends together in the form of a ring; this will keep the tumour open until all the matter be difcharged.-Anoint the place afflided at the fame time with ointment of elder, until it is intirely healed; alfo give the veterinary powders, recom- mended for the ftrangles, &c. (See index, atword ItrangIcs.) THE 130 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATIOT. THE VIES Appear fomewbat like the ftrangles, but are more virulent, numerous, and dangerous.-They gather in finall fwellings on each fide of the throat, caufe the horfe a confiderable degree of pain, deprive him of his appetite, and are exceed- ingly difficult to cure. THEIR REMEDY Is the fame as for the firangles, excepting, that fhould the attendant inflammation be very great, you are to bleed the horfe proportionably, and pre- ferve his thioat from the cold by proper bandages, which may not irritate the parts affliled: give tlhb horfe the veterinary powders, as for the firangles. GLANDERS. Their figns are a violent emiflion of white, yel- low, and green faetid matter; it is frequently fireaked with blood; it flows from one or both nof- trils; they are likewife attended with kernels un- derneath the jaw-bones.-Both young and old horfes are fubjea1 to this difeafe.-The caufe is mofily to be attributed to long and continual colds, which impoverifh the blood and juices, and fuch as have not ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 131 not been properly and effeElually cured.-The na- ture of this difeafe is fuch, that, in its laft flage, it may be compared to a man in a confumption, and is equally difficult to remove. The experience which I have had, in the ca- valry in Germany, has clearly demonftrated to me the truth of this.-I have known horfes, after Handing two campaigns, to have been ihot, under the prejudiced fuppofition (from their being afflic- ted with this diforder), that they were incurable, and would infedt the reft of the horfes. But as I have knowvn horfes fliot on the right and on the left of them for this difirder, while others that were intermediate efcaped its effeEts, nothing can be a greater proof to nme that this difeafe is not contagious by the medium of the air.-Should a healthy horfe imbibe or tafie any of the faliva of one, which is affeaed, I will not fay but that, in fuch cafe, the diforder might be caught. With regard to its being incurable, from the many I have reffored, I can, with the greateft con- fidence, conclude fuch affertion to be equally founded in error. When the running of this fktid matter has been fo great, as I have witneffed, it has defied all the powers of medicine, and the fill of the moft ex- K 2 perrienced 132 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. perienced farrier.-The difordcr thus continued daily to increafe, wi-thout the leaft hopes or prof- pea of its being diminiflied.-The horfe's firengt2h thus decreafing very rapidlv, and his whole f-fterm debilitating, he was at length found to be totally irrecoverable, and was under the neceffity of being ihot. Some horfes, though they ftood in the fame Ftable with thofe afflided with this diforder, ef- caped from even the cafi fynmptom of it. But I have known others that have been expofed to the inclemency of the weather, very much affliaed with it. It appears, therefore, to be more the cffeat of cold than of contagion ;-it proceeds likewife from hard riding in winter, bad food, extremes of heat and of cold, and from not having that care taken of them, which they require after a long, a fevere, and a violent exercifing. If this difeafe be in its firil frtage, it is curable, but if in the laff, it is very difficult, indeed, to re- cover the horfe fo afflided ;-yet I would not recommend either too much confidence, nor too much defpondency in prejudging the poflibility or impofiibility of curing any difeafe; for I have feen horfes moft violently afflided with this diforder, and even in its work flage, reftored to their for- mer health and vigour. CURE. ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 133 CURE. In the firft flage of the glanders, bleed, and keep the horfe warm ; give him bran-mafhes fwveetencd with honey, and infufe into them a hand- ful of linfecd, and one ounce of brimflone; let him drink nothing but warm water, in which plenty of honey has been diffolved. Ground-ivy, cut very finall, and mixed with his corn or bran-mafhes, I have found inofIt excel- lent in the cure of old coughs, colds, and the firft flage of the glanders ;-it is likewife moft effelual in difperfing the tumours under the throat of the horfe.-In adminiftering thefe remedies, ftriEt care (hould be taken, that the horfe have very mode- rate exercife every day, that he be then rubbed dry with clean ftraw, be in a warm flable, and well clothed. As a flill more effetual means of furthering the cure, you may inje6l every morning a little warm vinegar up his nofirils. In the laff flage of the glanders, the greateft care mua be taken in adminiftering the remedy hereafter prefcribed; left the difeafe fhould fo much increafe, as to make the cure afterwards too K 3 diflicult 134 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. difficult to be effeated by your fkill and endeavours. Thus rendering ufelefs and of no avail all your former care and your medical applications. Having given the medicines already prescribed for the firfi flage, for about a fortnight, arnd find- ing the difeafe rather increafe, than diminiih, adopt the following external remedy :-Cut out the kernels under the throat, and drefs the wounds well with the Author's veterinary arquebufade (fee index, at word arquebufade,) and keep the wound open with a fniall tent for a month or fix weeks; let the tent itfelf be dipped in the following fiLnple, but excellent ointment: take half a pound of hog's lard, half an ounce of virgin-wax, a quarter of an ounce of Venice turpentine, and the yolks of four cggs, beat up wish fweet oil; melt the three firfi ingredients in a pipkin or ladle; then pour in the mixture of eggs and oil, and ftir them until they be cold. Should the ointment be found too hard for ufe, you may foften it with f(veet oil. Continue giving the horfe varm water fweets ened with honey, during the adminiftering of thefe remedies -If the glanders be curable, you will find the following effeEtiilIly to anfwer your en. deavours to reftore hinm to his former health. If the cure be praticable, you will fee it effedted in about a month, or fix weeks; but fbould your re- medies, during this tine of application, prove fo ilneffctua 1, ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 135 incffEaual, as not to have afforded your horfe the leaft relief, there remains then little or no hopes at all of his recovery. THE LAST REMEDY. Take half a pound of guiacum-rafpings, three ounces of liquorice, one ounce of tar, 4 ounces of Peruvian bark, and fix drachms of balfam of Tolu. Boil thefe in eight quarts of river water, until you reduce it to ix quarts; firain it off as foon as pof- fible, and give a quart of it milk-warm every day, for three weeks. During the above, take aloes in powder, two drachms; flowers of benjamin, half a drachm; iA:thiops mineral, thirty grains; infufe the whole in warm ale, and give it to the horfe every morning for ten days, keeping him moderately warm, DISEASES OF THE EYES. If any accident happen to the eye or eyes of a horfe, from a blow or contufion, he ihould be bled plentifully, and kept upon moderate diet.- Should there appear a whitifl film over the ball or fight, blow into it with a quill, a fmall quantity of lapis caliminaris in powder, night and morning: as 4 but 136 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. but lhould neither bleeding, nor this outward application prove effeEtual, take a quarter of a drachm of white vitriol, and mix it with a drachm of lapis caliminaris; reduce thefe into a powder, and blow a very fmall quantity of it on the film, every morning, which, in about five or fix days, will intirely remove it. Should the diflenper proceed from a cqld, or a natural defeEt in the eye, caufed by hard riding, grofs feeding, or want of exercife, and it fhould appear fwelled, clofed, and fCreaked with blood, bleed very frequently, which will remove the in- flammation, and, without any other affiflance, bring about an entire cure. If the horfe's eye be naturally defelive, and the fight or chryftal have fpots in it, you may deem it incurable; but there are fome horfes, which bave loft their fight, and yet preferve their ap- pearance in fo perfea a manner, as to render it almoft impoffible for the greateft flill and expe- rience to difcover the blemiih;-no wonder, there- fore, that it ifould be found fo difficult to afcertain the goodnefs or badnefs oL a horfe's eyes in general! To prevent, as much as poflible, this accident of bad eyes happening to horfes, I would advife them not to be fed above the due proportion to their work. Corn, frequently given in large quan- 7 tities, ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 137 tities, is the caufe of horfes lofing their fight; as a preservative they fhould be bled one quart at leafi, once a inouth; unlefs their exercifes be fufficient for the evacuation of thofe humours by perfpiration.-I have known none fubjeEt to this evil, that have been fed with a proper quantity of ftraw.-Such are the virtues of firaw mixed with the horfes food, that it not only cleanfes, but invigorates the body ;-by occafional firaw-diet, horfes are adapted for war, by hay and corn, given in greater proportions, than is, neceffary, they are only fit for their own dunghills! CHOLIC AND GRIPES. SYMPTOMS. A borfe affliEted with this diforder is known by his frequently lying down, and rolling inceffantly, from the acutenefs and violence of the pain, he fuffers; he breathes fhort, which is perceived by the great heaving of his flank.-Cart and coach- horfes are moftly fubjea to thefe diforders, from their being more expofed to fland in the weather, by which they are often feized with the moft dan- gerous coughs and colds, and thefe are generally attended with the bowels being more or lefs affefted. THE 138 ASTLE1Y'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. THE CURE. With regard to the method of curing either the cholic or gripes generally adopted, I cannot, from what I have practifed and experienced, give it my recommendation. But clyflers may be given with fafety and efficiency. Bleeding and purging, is the common method, are fure to debilitate the horfe, without affording him any relief; for the diforder of the bowels, not arifing from any dif- temper the blood has contrated, it is contrary to reafon, to fuppofe any means ufed for its purifica- tion can avail in removing what has a different caufe, and a different feat in the body.-So ex- cellent are clvelers in all complaintst arifing from indigeflion or indiflpofition of the vifcera, that al- moft in every internal malady of this nature they will be found, if given at proper intervals, moft falutary. Many perfons have reforted for a cure of thefe diforders, to riding or driving their horfes in a violent manner; but the confideration of a mo- ment would inform them that fuch a mode muft agitate, and therefore, inflame their bowels, which are but too much fo already. Others will rub the belly of the horfe with a flick, which is equally pernicious and ineffeaual, as riding thcm violently; -bv this means, the bowels are frequently bruifed inflcad ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 139 inftead of being relieved; it is true that gentle friEtion will give the animal temporary relief; that is if you have his belly rubbed gently with firaw, you will find it afford him a little eafe; but then this is not a radical cure, which nothing will fo foon effeat as clyfters, given opportunely and re- peatedly. It is neceffary here to obferve that, from the horizontal pofition of the horfe, thefe com- plaints have not thofe means of natural relief, which they have in man, arifing from his erecl pofition; confequently thefe difeafes are, in general, more fevere and difficult to cure in horfes, than in human beings; fo that greater care, patience, and tendernefs are requifite towards them for their re- covery from thefe terrible diforders. REMEDY. Take a quarter of a pint of thin water-gruel Aweetened with honey, into which put a quarter of a pint of annifeed, which you may get at any inn or public houfe, and add five or fix cloves of pepper; give half a pint of this preparation, milk- warm, every three hours to the horfe, until you perceive the difeafe is fomewhat abated, give him likewife bran-mafles tolerably warm, as recom- mended in fome of the diforders before-mentioned. Let hip thep have as Coon as poffible the follow- ing CLYSTER. 140 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. CLYSTER. Take two quarts of water in which tripe has been boiled;-four ounces of olive oil and frefh butter; a handful of camomile flowers; half an ounce of fenna; two ounces of common fugar or honey; boil all thofe together, and then firain the compofition through a fine fieve, or coarfe cloth; and give from half to three quarters of a pint tole- rably warm.-Repeat this clyfler every three hours, until you find the horfe relieved from his pain.- Let him be kept, during this indifpofition, in a large liable, well littered with clean ftraw; be fure to keep him warm, and take off his halter, in order to let him range at full liberty. GIDDINESS. Sometimes a horfe will be feized with fuch a gid- dinefs as to fall down the moment he comes out of the ltable into the air. This is chiefly caufed by a phletoric habit, groffnefs of the blood, and humours, occafioned by over feeding, want of proper exercife, and being confined too long in a clofe flable.-The fpirits and circulation being thus rendered torpid and inaafive, when they are roufed by the action of frefh air, the brain is not able ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 141 able to endure the impetuofity, which caufes that fwimming in the head, you will always find at- tended with a failure of the limbs 5-as children when playing wvill frequently turn round fo many times as to caufe them to be incapable of pre- ferving themfelves from falling, unlefs they lean or fupport themfelves by a chair, table, or any other thing which prefents itfelf for their aflifiance; fo are the effeEts of this ,iddinefs fliewn when a horfe is feized with it. This diforder is rather to be prevented than cured, by giving the horfe moderate food, gentle exercife, and at intervals a clyfter, or purgatives (fee index, at word aloes). SHAKES OR WRENCHES IN THE SHOULDERS. Young horfes are mofly liable to fIrains, and notwithflanding the greatefi care, they fill may happen to the beft of horfes; when they do, they are mofily beyond the reach of medicinc.-How- ever, the following remedies mav be ufed, as they have been known frequently to cffea a cure, when the fitrain or wrench has not been exceffively great. I. 142 ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. Let him be bled in the plate-vein, and put in his cheft a rowel, well ifeeped in the tinEture of can- tharides; then turn him into a large open flable, if it be winter, or to grafs, if in fumner: fliould the diforder be not defperately bad, you may try the following ointment, which has proved wonder- fully efficacious in fome difeafes of the above na- ture. Take of bees-wax, pitch, and common turpen- tine, each half a pound; of olive-oil one pound; of mutton-fuet half a pound; of oils of turpentine and linfeed, each, four ounces: melt thefe ingre- dients in an iron ladle feparately; then put them into an earthen pot, in order to incorporate them well together by means of a gentle fire.-Rub the ointment well over the part affeated, and, in order to make it penetrate the fkin, hold a hot fire-fhovel before it: repeat this application every two days for a fortnight. STRAINS, WRENCHES, AND WINDGALLS. FROM THE KNEE TO THE HOOF, Occajioned by hard Biding, Kc. CURE. The following fimple and cheap embrocation will be found ferviceable in curing thefe casualties. Take ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 143 Take of oil of turpentine, double-diftilled vine- gar, and fpirits of wvine, each a gill; but obferve to mix firft with the turpentine, alone, the whites of two eggs, in order the better to diffolve them; blend the whole together, and rub the part affeaed with it, night and morning, ufing a flannel wrap- per to keep it warm; fo eflicacious is this medi- cine, that there is fcarcely a Tirain, or bruife, but it will cure, if the bone be not injure6; but fhould the bone be hurt, it is neceffary then to foment the part with fuch common herbs as are ufed on fuch occafions: this muft be done before you embrocate the part.-Thc beft manner is to take a piece of double canvafs ufing a flick to each end; then'fteep a piece of flannel in the fomentation-and having wrung it rather dry, by the aid of the canvafs and fticks, apply it as hct to the firain, &c. as the horfe can poflibly bear it, covering it with a horfe-cloth. -Having repeated this application feveral tines, let the part be rubbed entirely dry, and then bathed with the embrocation twice every day, for three days together: then once a dav;-and thus. difcontinue it, in proportion as the difeafe difp- pears.-The fomentation may be uf d as frequent- ly, as you think proper, in all cafes where tihe bone has received any injury; but where the ti- news, mufcles, and nerves are only firained, the embrocation may be found fufficient;-care inull be taken that you do not ufe it more than fix times fucceffively, lcft it ihould bring off foine of the hair, 144 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. hair, to prevent which, apply the opodeldoc till the horfe is cured. (&Se index, at waord opo- deldoc. SADDLE-GALL, AND GALLING BETWEEN THE FORE LEGS. Thefe complaints arife from not being circum- fpea in keeping the horfe rubbed dry from fweat, and clean from dirt, which he contraEts between the fore legs: thefe negligences caufe the horfe to chafe in thofe parts. CURE. Should the gall in either the back-, or the fore legs be recent, nothing will be found better than the whitc of an egg, fpread on white-brown paper, and then laid on the fore, after it is wvell cleanfed with brandy and water; but fhould you be on a journey, and not be able to apply this remedy, you muft, in fuch cafe, bathe it with brandy and fweet-oil, till you arrive where the horfe can have reft, then ufe the green ointment, made as I Ihall hereafter prefcribe. THE GREENT OINTMENT. Take of bees-wax, one ounce; of mutton-fuet, two ounces; and of verdigreafe in powder, a quar- ter ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 145 ter of an ounce: melt thefe together, and keep flirring them until they are cold: foften the whole with fweet-oil. THE AUTHOR's SPERMACETI LINIMENT, FOR CRACKED HEELS, &c. Take of fpermaceti, four ounces; of yellow wax, one ounce; of Venice turpentine, half an ounce; ot verdigreafe, in fine powder, a quarter of an ounce; of Euphorbium, in fine powder, half an ounce; linfeed-oil, one ounce; (let the wax and fpermaceti be melted) lafily, put in the linfeed-oil, turpentine, verdigreafe, and the Euphorbium, and, when the veffel is taken off the fire, fair it till the whole be cold. This liniment, applied to cracked heels, fores, ulcers, or the like, will prove exceedingly fervice- able. MANGE, BLOOD-RUNNING ITCH, &c. CURE. The cure is as fimple as the caufe, and is effeEted by ufing the following recipe: Put three ounces of crude mercury into two quarts of boiling water in a flone bottle, then put L a blad- 146 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATI0CJ -bladder on your hand, in order to defend it from the effea of the mercury: thus guarded, rub with a fponge.- dipped in this mixture, all over thofe parts of the body of the horfe, on which the mange or itch appears.-Obferve to let the mercury fub- fule, before you attempt to ufe thzs water: two or three fuch rubbings generally effeat a cure; but Mhould they be found infufficient, a fourth may be reforted to with.'fafety.-Give, at the fame time, phyfic, as prefcribed, internally, which will greatsy accelerate the cure, by cleanfing the body. You may likewife give the horfe a table fpoonful of brimftone, in a bran-mafh, night and morning; but he mutt not be rubbed more than -once a day, and care muft be had not -to touch his eyes, his privities, or any other part, too tender for the cor- rofive properties of this medicine.-To prevent his imbibing any of the mercury, by licking it off his body, led his head be tied to the manger, in fuch a manner, as to prevent his having the power of making his mouth fore.-Having ufcd the liquid three days with fuccefs, mix together fix drachms of aloes, the fame quantity of rhubarb, and half a drachm of ginger, all in powder, with firup of buckthorn, and liquorice-powder: form the whole into two balls, which confiitutc a dofc.-Give him a fecond ca the third morning after, and another on the fixth -The firft dofe may not purge him, but the fecond and third moil certainly will: let his water be luke-warm. It ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 147 It would be proper before you begin the appli- cation of rubbing him with the mercurial water, to caufe him to perfpire, by riding half a mile or a mile, on a pace fufficient to make him fweat. The ftcvnd Remedy. Take gunpowder, diffolved in vinegar, and rub the horfe every morning all over his body, parti- cularly his mane and tail; repeat the fame for a week, giving him three tinies a dam a warm malt- inafh, with a finall table fpoonful of fulphur, well mixed with the mafn, for feven days; at the end of which omit both, and wafn off the powder with itrong warni lees of tobacco-w-ater, viz. three pounds boiled in three gallons of water, till half the water is confumred; repeat this three days, after which, drefs the horfe as ufual.-This remedy, for the mange in dogs, is the beft I ever knew, provided plenty of boiled milk and bread be given to them during its application. A third Remedy. (Generally made ufe of in France, (nd wit/h great Succefs ) Take equal proportions-fay three half pints of turpentine, and three half pints of- beer, put them Into a bottle, and fhake them well together; put two halters on the horfe, and faften him to a pofr or tree, with a quantity of dung fpread round it, to prevent him from hurting himfelf. Shake the bottle, and with a man or, each fide, rub him well L 2 all 148 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. all over, and quick, particularly if the difeafe be very bad; but in three quarters of an hour the pain totally abates, and you may untie the borfe with fafety.-A malt-mafh fhould be prepared for him, observing he is not to be curried or dreffed for feveral days; after which, wafh the horfe all over with a flrong decoffion of tobacco-water, as in the SECOND REMEDY, three fucceffive morn- ings, and he will be effefually cured. The French objeAk to this remedy for dogs, but apply it to their homed cattle. N. B. During the cure, give the veterinary powders for the mange. (See index, at word mange.) BROKEN LEGS. It is unneceflary to engage the reader's time with detailing a cure for fuch accidents; for it is almoft a phenomenon to effeat that of a broken bone in a horfe, fo as to render him again fit for fervice.-It is true, I have known a horfe cured, byhaving been flung for three months, and his leg fplintered and properly bandaged during the whole time; but when the-great hazard of his ever being rellored, fo as to be fit for fervice, and the great expenfe of keeping him ufelefs, during all this time, are confidered, it will furely appear fcarcely worth ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 149 worth any perfon's while to keep a horfe fo long an unneceffary viffim of torture. I would, there- fore, advife him to be fhot immediately on his meeting with fuch a cafualty. Should it be a mare, from which you would wifh to breed, you may then ufe your own discretion, by en- deavouring to have the bone fet in the beft man- ner poffible. A LOCKED-JAW. The Author, in the courfe of forty years public exercifes, has lof, by this dreadful difeafe, four of his moft valuable horfes; the firft was in the year 1780, in the city of Vienna, by the horfe treading on a piece of a broken bottle, with the off fore-foot. The fecond was in the year 1788, in the city of Paris, by the horfe running againft a bar of fmall fquare iron (that entered his flank), which a cart was conveying through the ftreets, The third in the year 1792, in Dublin, by the horfe, in the courfe of his Equeifrian Exercifes, treading upon a rufty twenty-penny nail, which entered the centre of his near fore-foot, about one inch and a half deep. The fourth was in London, by the horfe treading with his off hind-foot on fome edged tool, fuppofed a chifel; the wound about three quarters of an inch in depth. The L 3 150 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. The Author, not fatisfied with his own judge- ment, in the above cafes, called in the affifiance of feveral profeflional men, to deliberate with him on the poffibility of effeafing a cure, but was unr ficcefsful, for within nine days they all died. It will here, perhaps, not be improper to mention the different modes recurred to in the dif- ferent places. In Vienna, the foot was carefully opened, and the warmeft vulncraries applied, with the frequent adminifiration of clyflers, but to no purpofe. In Paris, the wound was dreffed by the profeffors of the Veterinary College, and with the warmeft balfamics of every fort, that human wif- dom could devife; but the horfe had a very high fever; in consequence of which, manna, firup of rofes, fal mirabile, &c. were adminiftered in fmall dofes, but to no effeEt. The third, the horfe's foot.was opened, entirely round the wound, by myfelf, and burnt alum, vitriol, &c. poured in; after which, a plentiful ufe of digeftives was reforted to, alfo without fuccefs, for the horfe died within eight days. The fourth, the part round the wound was laid open, with the greaten care, and a fmall hot iron preffed to the bottom of the wound; after which, the beft digestives were carefully applied, and the horfe was immediately given a firong dofe of NEthiop's mineral: this method failed; he died within nine days. I fhould ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 15H I fhould think myfeif highly indebted to any gentleman, who would have the goodnefs to furnifh me with an effcElual cure for this dreadful, this fatal, difeafe in the horfe, as the numbers, which I have known to have died of the locked-jaw, in the army, &c. are beyond my calculation. A CLYSTER FOR AN ACUTE FEVER. In a common emollient decodion, made with an ounce and a half of polychreft, mixed with herbs, to which you will add fennel-feed, pounded and boiled with them, and two handfuls of whole barley; after having ftrained the whole, you are to add, of the oil of rofes and of violets, each four ounces, and two ounces of benediEte, or three of caffia; thus prepared, the clyfler will deterge the bowels, while it comforts them; it would not be arnifs to rub a horfe that has a fever against Mhe grain, for the purpofe of more effetually opening the pores, and expelling the fulilinous, fmoky vapours, that exift under the fkin, thus promoting perfiration; give alfo the fever-powders. (See index, zvord feve7r.) I have known this medicine prove of inifinite utility to fome horfes-; to others, it was not given with equal fuccefs: but when I find a horfe con- tinue to have a violent fever, from four to fix days, L 4 without 152 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. without intermiffion, I give myfelf no farther trou- ble about him, judging him to be incurable.; for I have not known any to recover, after having been fo long affliaed with a fever, which ends, I repeat, by totally confuming the liver. GOLDEN SULPHUR OF ANTIMONY. Boil the regulus of antimony, with crude ditto, two pounds; of tartar one pound; and of fine nitre half a pound; for the purpofe of procuring the fcoria. The regulus is found to be of great utility in medicine, but in this particular inflance it is reforted to, merely to obtain the fcoria, in which the golden fulphur, which we are fearching after, is contained. You are, therefore, to feparate the fcoria, and put it into boiling water; fir it frequently-it will diffolve-take it off the fire, let it fettle, and pour the cleareft part off at pleafure. Bo'l, in other water, tartar in powder; fir it often, and make it diffolve; take the water you poured off firfl, and throw the latter into it by flow degrees; you will find it to emit a disagreeable, fcrtid finell, and a brownith powder will be found at the bottom, which powder is the golden Jlplwur of antimony; let it dry on brown paper, and keep it for ufe: the dofe is be from half an ounce to an ounce, mixed with double the quantity of very fine ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 153 fine wheaten flour; diffolve the whole well in a pint of wine; let it infufe a whole night, and give it to the horfe every morning, taking care to keep him bridled two hours before, and three after, and continue fo doing fifteen or twenty days; thus, with- out any other remedy, the animal will foon recover. I have blended the flour with the golden ful- phur, that the latter flhould not precipitate to the bottom of the veffel, and that it fhould adhere to the wine, in order to be the more eafily fwallowed. This remedy is not a purgative fir horfes, it is called the PANACEA, and is well worthy of the name, by the frequent occasions, on which I have witneffed its efficacy, when adminiftered to the human fpecies. It operates on horfes by perfpi- ration, purifies the blood, cools the bowels; dii- fipates noxious waters and obflruCtions; opens the paffages, and increases, to a wonderful degree, the natural heat of the animal; it alfo cures the farcy, the mange, and the cough; it prevents cattle from being broken-winded, nor is it lefs falutary for men, than for horfes: on trial, you will find it well deferves to be confidered as a CATHOLICON, or, univerfal remedy. This medicine is too coffly to be given to horfes of inferior quality, but it would be greatly criminal to negleEt even thefe, FOR 154. ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. - FOR A HORSE GREATLY FATIGUED. Bleed your horfic in the neck, half a pint; the next day give him a clyfler, with an ounce and a half of polychrefl; and the day following give him half a pound of olive-oil, in a quart of milk, keeping him bridled two hours -before and two hours after; in four days, Ithe day he took the oil included) give hima the following POTION. Take, of eleEtuarv catholicon, one ounce; two drachms of treacle; of liquid conferve of red roaes, one ounce; of caffia, one ounce; of liquorice juice, half an ounce; of fEnna in powder, half an ounce; two drachms of fcammony, prepared with fulphur; of annifeed and cummin, each a drachm: mix the whole with a pint of white wine, and give it to the horfe, who is to be kept bridled two hours before, and four after the remedy has been ap- plied; if the animal has not been much purged, continue the clyfiers. Give him wet bran, good hay, and half a pound of honey, diffolved in hot water, after which mix it with the water he drinks night and morning, for his common bevc- rage.-This done, allow him feme refi, in order to fee the effeats of the medicine; if you perceive no great amendment, you muff refort to tie golden fuiphur of antimony, and to clyfters once more; keeping ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 155 keeping the horfe warm by an extra rug, in order to promote perfpiration, giving him as much reft as poflible; but, on no account, keep him in a fmall ilable, air being neceffary in this complaint. 0 VETERIN.ARY POWDERS FOR ACUTE FEVERS. Take of antimony, finely powdered, and of flavings of hartihorn, half a pound; incorpo- rate them well together; put them in a crucible, and place it in the centre of a firong fire (melting heat) until the whole is red hot-take it from the fire and let it cool-after which, break the cru- cible, and powder the medicine very fine. The dofe for horfes, in acute fevers, is twenty-five grains every fix hours, given in half a pint of water-gruel; ten dofes are fuffikient within fixty hours, and if the fymptoms fhould not abate, in- creafe the dofe to thirty grains every four hours, to the extent of ten dofes; allow an interval of one day, and if the pulfe be moderate, continue the powders, night and morning, twenty-five grains, until the horfe is well.-Give him, for his com- mon beverage, water, fweetened with honey, or treacle; fhould the horfe purge very much, take ten grains from each dofe of the powders.-If the fever is violent, bleed thrice, one pint, every fix hours. 156 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. hours.-If it continues fo for five days, give your- felf no more trouble about him; in this time, his liver will be confumed, and he will be only fit for the dunghill. VETERINARY POWDERS, EXCEEDINGLY SERVICEABLE IN THE FARCY, STRAN- GLES, VIES, MANGE, AND ALL IMPU- RITIES. Take 1Ethiop's mineral, made without fire, half a pound; of crude antimony, one pound, and mix them into a fine powder. Give the horfe two drachms, night and morning, in half a pint of wa- ter-gruel, fweetened with honey, until the cure is completed. While the horfe is taking the me- dicine, linfeed mixed with the oats will be found exceedingly Serviceable in moft of thofe difeafes. VETERINARY EGYPTIAN OINTMENT. Take of verdigreafe four ounces; of double dif- tilled vinegar, fix ounces; of honey, one pound; put them into a pipkin, that will fRand the fire, and let them boil gently to a dufky colour; add, to- wards the latter end, roche-alum, and fal ammo- niac, ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 157 niac, in fine powder, of each half an ounce, and make them into an ointment according to art. VETERINARY TAR OINTMENT. Take ten ounces of tar, and four ounces of yel- low wax, cut fmall; put them into a glazed pip. kin, that will fland the fire, and let them incorpo- rate over a gentle heat. SWELLED LEGS, CRACKED HEELS, OR WHAT IS COMMONLY CALLED, THE GREASE. Thefe diforders may be attributed to violent and frequent exercife, improper management in grom- ing, feeding, &c. Nothing is more injurious than waffling horfcs feet and legs, particularly in cold weather, and leaving them wet.-Wcre grooms to let their hands dry without wiping them, after being washed, they would foon be convinced of the abfolute neceflity of rubbing their horfes legs dry at all times; the more fo, if the lead appearance of inflammation, cracks, &c. fhould be per- ceptible. I have to remark on this Cubjea, that, in the courre of forty years praafice, I have known more difieafes in the legs proceed from an unpardonable negle&t of this nature, than even from the bad habit (f body of the animal. With 158 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. With regard to the mode of cure, I am of opi- nion, that all external remedies, poultices, oint- ments, wafhings, &c. are ineffedtual; and that rno- thing will fo fpeedily relieve this diftcmper and prevent its recurrence, as alteratives, and a proper regard to diet during their being adminiffered, keeping the wound clean, &c. Poultices, though they may give the horfe temporary eafe, increafe the diforder, by drawing down what humours are in the body to the parts affectcd. The mofi effeaual remedy, that I know of, for this diforder, is as follows: put your horfe to feed on the bell hay poflible, about fourteen pounds per day, and as much good wheaten firaw as hle can moderately eat: give him half a peck of bran, three times a day, moiffened with water-add two tea fpoonfuls of fulphur, each time, to the quan- tity. During this regimen of diet, take three drachms of aloes, two ditto of rhubarb; a quarter of ditto of ginger, all in fine powder; diffolve the whole in a pint of hot table-beer, or ale; give this mixture, when cool, every morning, with the affi4f- ance of a horn, or bottle, keeping the horfe half an hour without eating before and after the dofe.- Repeat the fame until he purges moderately; fuppofe, four, or fix days; then omit the draught until the purging is diminiihed, for one or two days; (at the fame time not negleffing the fulphur and mafh, as described) after which, repeat the draught ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 159 draught fix or eight days more, or until he again purges.-You will then omit the draught for three or four days, as before, and proceed in this man- ner until an alteration for the better be difcovered: thenr, in fuch cafe, give the draught only every third, fifth, or feventh, until he is completely cured: fihould the heels be very bad, and fores deep, apply the Egyptian ointment one day, and the tar ointment the other: (See inder, at word Egyp- ticn and ar oatme7zts, &c.) bathing the fore with a little arquebufade water; a little tow and a roller of' canvas will aflilf in keeping the drcffing proper. During the cure, gentle exercife, attentive grooming, and hand-rubbing the fwelled legs, will greatly affift in promoting his recovery. You may, on the horfe's convalefcence, give a few oats, with carrots fliced among them ; the water, in order the more to haften the cure, may be made moderately fweet with honey, or treacle, namely, half a pound diffolved in a quart of boiling. water; after which pour it into a pail of cold water, and give it every night and morning, by way of diet-drink.-I have known fome horfes to be entirely free from this difeafe, ftrially following, the above remedy, in the courfe of twelve days-others in a month: if the horfe is turned into a large fiable, or flail, well lit- tered, it may induce him to lie down, confequently, will expedite the cure, as will alfo a little grafs, if in the fummer months. I have 160 ASTLEY'S EQUESIRIAN EDUCATIONv. I have here to notice that aloes will have a better effeEt when adminiftered in finall quantities, than in the ufual way: giving it, thus, it will ftrengthen while it cleanfes the inteflines, it will purge the brain, and refift the corruption of hu- mours; this is the reafon why it is fo much ufed in pills, namely, the beft fuccotrine: for my part, I know no better purgative, nor one fo friendly to the nature of horfes. The following Dialogue, between the late Sir Richar-d Jebb and lIfyflf, will illzflrate tlis Fact. SIR RICHARD JEBB. Pray Mr. AfIley, what do you conceive to be the beft purge for a horfe, and what has been your praEtice. MR. ASTLEY. Onaccountof the horizontal po- fition of the horfe's body, Sir Richard, I have been always careful to moderate fuch purgatives, as I con- ceived would produce little or no inflammation in the intellines; and having myfelf, for a feries of years, taken eight grains, occafionally, of Ruffs pills, (a preparation of aloes, myrth, and faffron) much to my fatisfaaion, I turned my thoughts that way, and tried various experiments to af- certain their true quantity and effe6l, and Ifound that aloes for horfes was invaluable, if given 4 under ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 161 under four drachms and repeatedly until the de- tired effecd was produced, and this inrfead of eight drachms or upwards, which quantity, ad- miniflered within four days, has been found for fume horfes to be too powerful. To correct the aloes, and as a (ubflitute for the myrrh and faffron, I have made ufe of rhubarb, with a fmall quan- tity of ginger, which I found completely an- fwvered my purpofe ; for, from being convinced of the efficacy of the aloes upon myfelf, and the good flate of health I enjoy, notwithftanding the moft violent exercife, which my profeffion naturally caufed, I was fatisfied that I was fufficiently autho- rized to try the fame on my horfe. SIR RICHARD. You are perfeffly right: it did not firike me fo forcibly, as it has done you, with regard to the horizontal pofition of the horfe: pray, in what difeafes do you generally givc the aloes MR. ASTLEY, Whenever my horfes have been taken from grars, and more particularly from the firaw-yard, I have been in the habit of giving the aloes in fmall dofes of three drachrms, every other day, for eight days, or a fortnight, according to the age and conflitution: I have likewife given the fame for all eruptions of the blood, difeafes of the eyes, &c. and, more particularly for botts and worms, to horfes that have been M hard-worked 162 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. hard-worked and kept upon bad hay, and for the difeafe, commonly called the greafe, Iknow of nothing better.-As I kept myfelf in health and good appetite by taking Ruff's pills, when I found myfelf heavy and loaded, fo I kept my horfes in health, by giving the aloes in fmall dofes, once or twice a month, or whenever I found occafion. SIR RICHARD. I believe you are right; but what fluids did you give while you were admini- flering the aloes in fmall dofes MR. ASTLEY. I am a great admirer of honey, having taken it in gruel for a number of years, and fo convinced am I of its excellence, that I fhall continue it.-I, therefore, Sir Richard, when I adminifter the aloes to my horfes, give them half a pound of honey, diffolved in a quart of hot water, which is then thrown into a pail of water for their ordinary drink; but when honey could not be obtained, I have fubftituted treacle, and I have found the higheft benefits from both, when travel- ling long journeys, fuch as to Paris, Dublin, &c. particularly in cold weather. I would now be happy if you would give me your opinion on the propriety or impropriety of my conduat. SIR RICHARD. Indeed, Mr. Aftley, your obfervations on this point are, in every way, fo congenial ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 163 congenial with my own ideas, as to render my opinion unneceffary, being convinced that you have aEted both judiciously and cautioufly.-Great fkill and dexterity are required in the management of aloes to caufe it to operate, as an alterative; but if I mufl give advice to the veterinary furgeon, it is, never to lofe fight of moderation.-Will you name the difeafes for which you have given aloes with fuccefs MR.ASTLEY. I adminifter it in all fcorbutic cafes; in the blood-running itch; in the mange; in the farcy; for old fores, ulcers, and the like; cracked heels; ifrangles; in the mad flaggers; and, laftly, in the glanders, with the addition of AEthiop's mineral, (vide glanders). Indeed, Sir Richard, I am partial to aloes, viz. the moft tranf- parent poffible, from its being the leaft affive in quality, and I know of no chronical difeafe, to which horfes are liable, in which aloes, given in fmall dofes, can be injurious. SIR RICHARD. I approve much of your method; long prafice and experience are fufficient au- thority. .m 2 Sac 164 ASTLtY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATI014. The following are three Receipts, pe hap)s the mo/i valuable, that ever appeared in any Publication of this Nature: FIRST, A VETERINARY GENERAL RE- STORATIVE POWDER FOR HORSES, THAT HAVE BEEN RIDDEN HARD, ARE SUBJECT TO A COUGH, &c. Take of linfeed in fine powder, eight ounces; of carraway-feed, cummin-feed, annifeed, fenugreek, carthamus, and coltsfoot, in ditto, three ounces each; of liquorice-root, in ditto, eight ounces y of flowers of benjamin, one ounce; flowers of fulphur, one ounce; mix the whole well together. Give the horfe two ounces of this powder, in a quarter of a peck of good malt, made into a mafh; and this, exclufive of his ufual quantity of corn, twice a day, for a fortnight, or three weeks toge- ther. This is, perhaps, one of the bell refforatives for horfes, after a violent day's hunting, that the ingenuity of man can devife-it removes all ob- flruaions of the bowels, increafes refpiration, and adds vigour and flrength to the whole frame, cures chronic difeafes, arifing from over-heated blood, fuch as colds, coughs, inward decays, and, in fhort, prevents all fuch difeafes. SECOND, ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 16i SECOND, A VETERINARY OPODELDOC, FOR Strained Shioulders, UWrenchtes in the Haunches, every kind of Bruife, Swelling, Contufion, and the like; gtzethewrfom Falls, Blows, o7 flimilar Ac- cidents; for ref7'i //zing anzd fortifying the Legs of a Iloife, whin fatigued by lono Journeys, or when Ilfo7js are fubject to Rheumatic and Para- lytic Complaints; aind I am here free to confefs, t/hat, in, tCe extenl/ive Gouife of my Pi actice, I have nevrcr found a more cfficacious, nor a more general Mlediciznefor the above-mentioned Accidents, Dif- eafes, Kc. not only as proper to be zyfrd for a Ioife, but (is being of /floni/hing, Virtue when aptly admin&2ered to the human Species of all Ages, and both Sexes, where Nature ad rds 77Q )ou7riJh7zmzen1l to the Part ajilicted. When horfes have been firained in the fhoulder, and neglcEted, from the duration of fuch complaint, and through extreme pain the part becomes wi- thered, almoll void of feeling, an(d, in a great meafure, motionlefs fo that it may, with much propriety, be faid to be a dead member, attache4 to a living body; and, unleis a powerful ALKALI be adminiftered, for the purpofe of extinguifliing this unnatural heat, the part affe6ted will be for ever incapable w 3 166 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. incapable of refuming its primitive and original funEtions-thishappens to horfes that have received a hurt in the foot, which prevents them from fetting it to the ground for a month or two. If the hurt be be- fore, it is the flhoulder, if behind, it is the haunch, which is thus withered and confumed, and this, on account of its having been too long deprived of nutriment, and debarred from its due exercife, fo infinitely conducive to natural warmth. People may conceive that I err againft the firli principles, by attempting to reflore animation to a part fo dreadfully affeEted-but in fa&t, it is other- wife, and it will be found that the affeEted mem- ber fill retains fufficient heat, when aided by fome powerful alkali, to recover that which was loft, and to reftore it to its former energy and vigour; and whoever infpets this method with a fcientific eye will immediately difcover that it refis on the broad bafis of philofophy, RECIPE FOR MAKING THE VETERINARY OPODELDOC OINTMENT. Take of dried roots of marfhmallows, comfrey, gentian, long birthwort, angelica, of each one ounce and a half; of ladies' mantle, moufe-ear, adder's tongue, fage, lavender, ground-ivy, a hand- ful; of juniper-berries, cummin, caftor, camphire and ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION, 167 and garden muflard-feed, of each one ounce, reduced into powder; put the whole into a glafs veffel and pour thereon one quart of fpirits of wine; cover it with the top of an alembeck, that has no aperture to it: this veffel is admirably cal- culated to make the ingredients blend properly together. To prove your fpirits of wine, put a fmall quantity of gun-powder into a fpoon, filled with the faid fpirits, fet fire to the liquor, which, if genuine, will caufe an explofion of the powder irifiantaneoufly to take place, In order to make up the medicine, if you have no glafs-veffel, make ufe of a thin retort with a long neck, the two-thirds of which muft be empty when all the ingredients are in; in the mouth of the retort, place another fmall one with the bottom upwards-this is called a meeting veffel, that thus the ingredients may mix together in the moft perfeEl manner; cover the joints of the retort with thick paper, which rub over with the white of an egg; confine the whole with a thread, and let the rnaterials undergo the procefs of fire, as follows: place your retort in the exaEt centre of a boiler, fufpended, and fo fixed as not to move backwards nor forwards ; put fome firaw between the bottom of the retort and the boiler, for the pur- pofe of keeping them about two fingers breadth afunder; this part of the procefs is to laft ten bours, during eight of which the water is to be fo M 4 warm, 168 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. warm, as fcarcely to allow you to keep your finger in it; and during the two remaining hours the heat mufi be increased. but not fo as to caufe it to boil: by this method the ingredients, contained in the retort, will difrolve, blend together, and com- pletely unite; the fpirits of wine will attradt and affume the tinture of the various fimples, in which their fanative qualities are principally con, tained. The fpiritg of wine having thus attraded the tinEture of the roots, of the ponders, and of the vulnerarv herbs, let the whole cool, ftrain it well through a linen cloth, put back the fpirits into the retort, as before, add thereto a pound of mottled caftile foap, cut into thin flices, and put the retort again into the boiler, till the foap fhall be fo incorporated with the fpirits of wine, that the whole may form an ointment: you muft then take your retort out of the boiler, and let its con- tents cool: it is in this foap that the alkali, which I have mentioned, is contained; it is this alkali that is to coifume and defiroy, in faEt, a real fire, which is devouring the Shoulder, &C. If you have minutely attended to the mode I have prefcribed for making this falutary ointment) you will find it neither too thick nor too thin; and the better to afcertain whether you have per- feffly fucceeded in the procefs, rub a little of it on ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 169 on your hand; if it leave behind it a GREENISH hue, though the natural colour of the ointment be BROWN', then, and only then, you may be fureyou have abled agreeably to mny inflrudfions. To apply this valuable and intrinficallyexcellent medicine with effet, the injured part mul firft be well chafed, by rubbing it prqperly with flannel; after which the ointment is to be put on and rub- bed into the fkin; repeat the application feven or eight timcs, not omitting, at each time, to rub in the ointment with good fpirits of wine, which is to be applied gradually and rubbed in by regular dc- grecs, that the ointment may penetrate thoroughly -a gill of fpirits of wine to be confumed at each apIplication; if it fhould raife a lather while the ointment is rubbing in, you are not to discontinue till you have entirely clx.aufled the quantity of fpi- rits abovc-mentioncd. The opodeldoc is to be ufed cold, and it is of a nature fo extremely penetrative that, in one ap- plication, the whole of the ointment, compofed agreeably to my method, might be exhaufted; but infinite care is to be taken to employ it with be- coming, moderation, each time, that it may affift the natural heat in vivifying the affeted member, and in reftorina it to its wonted tone and native vigoLr. The 1.O ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. The opodeldoc, as has been already flated, has been found of almoff general utility, when ad- miniltered to the human fpecies. I have particularly experienced its excellent effe6ls on a horfe of mine, to which, during a very long excurfion, I allowed no very extraordinary repofe; it is true, he was led by one of my people, but it is equally fo that, in a fhort time, by the aid of this ointment ALONE, he recovered his ac- cuflomed ftrength and vivacity. Should you find it neceffary to apply the opodeldoc to very flefhy parts; for inflance, to the fhoulder, &c. before the part is dry, and before the application can have produced the wifhed-for effea, you are to repeat it: indeed, it would not be amifs to anoint it one day, and the next, to be careful in rubbing the ointment in well with the fpirits of wine, as I have already direaled; and fo on in uninterrupted fucceflion for fixteen or eigh- teen days. There are thoufands of people ready to vouch for the efficacy of this medicine: feveral coach and faddle horfes, (whofe Shoulders were entirely de- cayed and dried up, in consequence of having been negleEted, after having received an injury of the kind before fpecified,) who were as lame, as can poffibly be conceived, were radically cured by it, ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 11 it, proved ufeful to their owners, and never after experienced the fmalleft inconvenience from the former complaint ;-but you are to take particular care that, for a month, or more, the horIf be not worked at all ; and after that fpace of time, that he be only walked about for a quarter of an hour, the firfl day; then, by degrees, to take more ex- ercife, in order that the injured part may be more effectually reflored. People, who incautioufly work their cattle too foon, not only renew the complaint, but render all further attempts to effeEt a cure impoffible. The ointment will not injure a hair on the decayed fhoulder, &c.-it is of infinite efficacy in fprained legs, in flrengthening the limbs of horfes, to thofe that are apt to flumble ; I have witneffed fuch aflonifbing cures by the application of the opodeldoc-ointment, that I do not hefitate to recommend it moff firenuoufly to thofe, who are fond of horfes-and even for the phyfical fyflem of man, I advife it, having, in various inflances, found the greateft benefit from its effeas, as well as from the following Veterinary Arquebufade. VETE- 172 ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. VETERINARY ARQUEBUSADE For horfes that have received wounds, whether from mufkets, fwords, or fharper inftruments, of whatever kind, or that are flaked in leaping, torn in any dire,-ion, broken in the knees, &c.; alfo for fwellings, bruifes, and contufions of the legs, or body; cuts in any direfion, depth, width, or extcnt, even when the members are divided, par, licularly during a campaign, or accidents when excercifing-nothing will be found more effeEtual, in fuch cafes, than the arquebufade, as follows. Th7e Author-'s Manner- of Making, his Veterinary Arqueb/fade. Take leaves of the greater and leffer comfre, cut funall, of each two handfuls; birthwort, foapwort, and galangal, of each three drachms; zedoary, cut fmall, half an ounce: pound the whole, but not too fine; crabs-eyes, four ounces, alfo powdered fine; put the whole into a new pot, to which, add four pints of the cleareft and befi white wine; cover the pot with the utmoft care, and let it infufe two days in a fand-heat; after which, place it on a moderate fire for one day; then boil it for half an hour-firain it off, accor- ding ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 173 dling to art; and, when cool, draw off the clpar part and Cdrk it up in a bottle for ufe. 'ihis ex- icellent medicine cures wounds in general. If the horfe be inclined to fever, or his pulfe beat quick, adminifter a clyfler (fte index, at word lyfter) every four or fix hours; till it operates; but be careful not to give him any arquebufade to drink, for, being compofed of warm fimples, it would add very confiderably to the heat; but again, it occurs not unfrequently that a horfe, though very feverely wounded, has no fever ; in fuch cafe, the arquebufade may be given, a gill every day, with the affiftance of a horn or bottle. Among the natives Of Germany, Switzerland, and France, a much inferior medicine is in great and general repute ; the fuperior arquebufade, tnade and recommended by the Author, is afto- niflingly efficacious in all cafes above-mentioned and when fymptoms of fever appear, he earneftly recommcnds bran-mafhes, and water-gruel, fweet- ened with honey, having found the higheft benefit from them. EqueJyliian 174 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATITO. EQUElSTRIAN EDUCATION. THE fcience of horfemanihip, as it relates to war-manaeuvrcs, is of infinite utility in the field of honour: this is a fad every General Officer will allow. It is an exercife highly conducive to health, and has fuch a variety of advantages attached to it, that princes have deigned to make it their Iludy in all ages, and almoft in every clime. Different countries have their peculiar fyftems, but that fquadron, though inferior in number, which has adopted the befl, has the fairefi profpeat in the field: often it has happened, and many can teftify the fame, that a battle has been won by the fuperior difcipline of the cavalry, or lolt where it has failed. To difcover the capacity of the MANEGE horfe, naturally a friend to man, and to employ that capacity in the way the moft advantageous, is the chief end the Author has in view; but to arrive at perfeaion in any art or fcience at once is contrary to the nature of things; happy, how- ever, will he feel himfeW, if he can contribute to the ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 175 the completion of a fyflem of fuch national utility, fo noble and manly in its nature, and fo peculiarly beneficial in its effeEts. The intention of adding the following Iketches (of various airs) is to convey a farther idea of what the horfe may be inftruted to perform in the manweg-e; proving the powers and fagacity of that animal, and the ability of the Equeflrian Pro- feffor, &c. DEFINITION OF THE WORD, AIR.-The rider teaches his horfe a variety of affions, either for pleafure or for felf-de- fence, &c. Thefe are the pefade, the croupade, the balotade, the cabricic, the courbe/te, the terre-a-terre, the pirouetle, and the piafe; fCme low and Come more lofty flights; all thefe ACTIONS, are called AIRs-derived, from the adt of rifing off the ground into the air, when horfes perform any of the above-mentioned aftions. In the execution of this part of Equefirian Education, promptitude, and quicknefs of thought are requifites worthy the attention of KINGS, PRINCES, and NOBLES; but above all, of foldiers in aCtion: of this firong affertion I have witnessed the mofl incontrovertible proofs, as well with refpe6t to the OLD as to the NEW fchool, amongft the former I beg leave to mention the following perfonages:-Prince Ferdinand-the Duke of Brunfwick-Lord Granby-Lord Frederick,.Cavendifhi-Lord Cornwallis-Sir Frederick Evylin-Sir George Howvard-Gene- ral Conway-Colonel Beckwith-Colonel Harvey-Colonel Frazer-Colonel Gun-General Ainflie-General Sir William Erikine-and my ever to be lamented and worthy friend, the Hero of Aboukir, General Sir Ralph Abercromby-General Luckner-General Fritag, &c. &c. (The names of the illufirious charatlers of the modern ichool, and thofe omitted in the old, flhall appear in the fecond volume.) PESADE. 176 ASTLETYS EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. PESADE. To prepare the horfe for this action, his Shoulders mull be fuppled both ways; he muff be thrown on his haunches, and acquire a lofty head (as for tingle combat); all this mull be done in the circle. The pefade is the movement performed when a horfe rifes his forc-fect, and immediately bends them up towards his body, without moving thofe behind: the profeffor has to throw all the weight of the horfe on his haunches, in order that it may be raifed more or lefs in perfeat cadence. The pelade is the firft leffon: indeed, I confider it as the ground-work of the following airs; but great precaution it necelfry to render the horfe thoroughly obedient to the hand, the oppili, and the heel. Light leffons, in the be- ginning; moderation and rewards in the circle; while exer- citing round the SINGLE PILLAR; againfi the wall; and betwveen the TWO PILLARS, will effiec wonders. CROUPADE. o/Ace /w'7 gKC/. & ag, lo fore t /7- AIze&, o fi r z la1X ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EbLUCAION. 177 CROUPADE. The horfe leaps into the air with all his feet off the ground at one and the fame time, and without firetching out thofe behind: by an attention to this action, much good might refult to the cavalry: and here I will relate ;a manceuvre, to which I often had recourfe in 1716 1, and at other periods of the feven years war. I infiru6ted my horfe to lTrike an obje&, or objeffs, at the will of the rider, within a given diftance, before, behind, or together; and neceffity furnifhed me with the idea. In patroling, a foldier Sometimes wants a guide, and gentle means often prove ineffe6tual to induce a pea- fant to quit his bed, at the dead of the night, for the accommodation of others-to difmount for the purpofe of procuring admittance into a houfe, at fuch a time, barred and bolted within, and perhaps in an enemy's country, would be dangerous. I knew my duty, and, ere this, my horfe knew his. On approaching the door, I caufed him to firike it with his fore-feet; and if this did not anfwer my purpofe, (for it would forietimes fail,)-I faced him about, when with his croup he would break the door in pieces: this he would accomplilh in a few rmoments, to the furprife and terror of the inhabitants; on the other handA, when upon the defenfive, no perfon could approach me without danger; and when on the offenfive, and animated at my pleafure, to the higheft pitch, he would firike in every diredfion, and clear his wavy rALOTADE. A; 178 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. BALOTADE. This action, which requires much attention and kill in thle profeffor, may be confidercd as a key to the cabriole. Thc horfe bing now forcfliortened, well on his haunches, and every way obedient, is infirudted to rife forward fome- what higher than in the croupade; and, at the moment he has drawn up his fore-feet, (as in the al of leaping,) a ftroke from the chanmbriere, or a touch of the fpur-flick, at his croup, caufes him to Trike with his hindermoft feet, fufficiently only to fhew his Ihoes. This a&ion may be flyled a half-cabr-iole. The general pratlice is to teach the balotade in hand, or between the TWO PILLARS, and when advanced in this lefon, a light wveight is placed on his back: but to perform balotades wvcll, the horfe muff be accuflomed to the rider, and the rider to the horfe. Thc appaz muff be fure, and the aids be delicate. CABRIOLE. 0 To prove the u:llry of well-dreffied hordes to the array, it mat not be improper to mention the following circumftancc:-In the year 176z, when the z5th Light Dragoons were in Weftphalia, a grvat number of recruits, and young horfes, were attached to the regimcnt, both werc wanted for f(pcial fervice; and an experiment was tried to mount the young men on the old borfes, and the old men on the young horfes; feveral field days took place in confequence, and anfwered tolerably well; but the regiment being called upon to attack an out-pofl of French infantry, who giving their fire, the young horfes inftantly turned tail, nor could they be brought back to the charge. The young men, though mounted on the old horfes, being irnorant of the fword-exercife, and of the rroper ufe of the bridle-hand, could not force the enemy's line; of courfe the old men regained their harfes. This may do very well for numbers on a hill, but for atual fervice it will not anfwser. Norres to /arc 7)a 11!9-1-114 rl"lie /c Afy cU'cctcA y( zi r 3Xzz,/g ve atCa,7ot ASTLEY 'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. 179 CABRIOLF. Prom the balotade is drawn the cabriole, confidered as one of the moft difficult a6tions to be performed by the horfe, he being, for a time, fufpended, as it were, in the air: great ikill is requifite in the profeffor, as well as in the choice of horfes, adapted to fuch performance, which mufl be lively, adtive, and of a proportionate firength: by means of the cabrzole, perfons engaged in fingle combat, often obtain a great fuperiority over their opponents, not acquainted with this excellent manceuvre, and with the neceffary aids. Horfes every way complete fbr war exercifes are in value beyond cal- culation. I have known fome of the old and experienced Generals purchafe fuch well-dreffed horkes at any price. Furthermore, I have witnefsed in the (even years war, while a fcarcity of acconpliibed military Jorfes prevailed, frequent application to be made by Prince Ferdinand, Lord Granby, my old and intimate acquaintance General Luckner, &c. to the QGarter and Riding- Mailers of the Britiih Army, then in Weflphalla, in order to purchafe T H EI R horfes; one in particular, the beft war horfe I ever mounted, was the property of Quarter-Mailer Henry Richards, of the a 5th Light Di agoons, and, I believe, the oldeft foldier in the army. My worthy friend, Richards, had purchased the horfe of a farmer at Salifbury, for twenty-five guineas, prior to the regiment going to Germany, and he fold him to General Luckner, for four hundred ducats, two years after. I was also prefent when Lord Granby offered the General fix hundred ducats for him. The veteran chief, however, was not to be caught by gbld, knowing that, in a great meafure, his life depended on the excellence of his horde. I further recolledt, that Lord Brome, now MA RQUIS COENWALLIS, (then Aid-dc-Camp to the Marquis of Granby,) had as good horfes as any in the Briciih Army; but, I fuppofe, like General Luckner, he kncw their value. 142 THE V 2 180 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATION. THE COURBE7ITE. A horfe that can pefade and croupade well may be placed between the TWO PILLARs; there (till more thrown on his haunches, and raifed before, rather higher than in the two foregoing airs; which is effe&ed thus-the profefor aids him forward xith two finall wthips, while an affifiant, with the chambriere at his croup, encourages him to bring his hindermoft legs well under, and to fupport his body in the aftion of, what the Author terms, foreshortening. Many horfemen conceive, that there is not much difficulty in infiruding the horfe in this AIR; but pra&lice will con- vince them to the contrary. The horfe, capable of per- forming a good courbette, may be considered as far ad- vanced in terre-d-terre, dern i-voltes, and pirouette; but it is neceffary that he fhould become very expert, and his atioraeafy in the cocurbette, between the PILLARS, before he is mounted. THE rx 0 1 Mr boAe ,aye 44r'/, c//Zr - , "An 9-ctn d-,rr"" ASSTY 'S EQUXSTRIAN EDUCATION. 181 THE TERRE-A-TERRE. Previous to any attempt being made to bring a horle to ierr-0dgerre, he hould be perfeaed in the pefade, erou- pade, and courbeflei, and not unacquainted with the wltes. Hie Should be well fuppled in the circle, but with judgement; for his croup, at no time, tnuft gain upon the centre or given ground, you with to obtain.-In every air the horfe fhoutd be well together, particularly in thofe in which his fhoul. ders 1hould have a pofition more forward than his croup, in the proportion of about two-fevenths. Profeffiors have wifely obferved that, in terre-d-terre, the horfe cannot, in reafon, be too much forelhortened-this a&ion may be performed in a circle, right or left.-in a Square, right or left-and on as many ground lines as the proferor may fancy, either with head or croup to fuch lines. It is a land of compreffed gallop, in an oblique direffion, with the fhoulders more advanced than the croup, as before ex- prefed. A good profeffor, mounted on a well-drefed horde, can, however, terre-d-terre with one-fifth of the lhoulder forward; but it mudt be a perfon completely matter of the Equeltrian Art, who can perform on equal lines, lofing fight of dHe oblique-dire&ion altogether.-Laftly, the poll- tion of the rider's body fhould be firm, his Soot rather light in the ftirrup, on the fide approaching, the other giving the aid; which is done without moving the body. The horfe muft be well raifed, lofty in head, and, to give him freedom, his haunches muft be kept in a juft pofition; the apput, ra- ther ftrong on the oppofite fide, namely, if you ierre--terre to the right; fuch appui and aid are to the left, and vice verfa . THE 182 ASTLEY'S EQUESTRIAN EDUCATIOfl. THE PIROUETTE Is the afdion of a horfe galloping entirely round, either right or left, on a centre, with one leg, as it were, on the ground.-To complete the horfe in this difficult air, much fkill and patience are required; but he fhould not, by any means, be exercifed in it, till he is perfeEtly fuppled in all direttions, namely, in the terre-d-terre in a circle of twenty yards diameter; in a large fquare, and by the fide of a -wall, keeping the head, fhoulder, and croup, to the centre in every oblique pofition; he fhould alfo be well inifrudled in the lemn i-voltes, or what verv properly may be termed half- pir-ozuettes; for example, fuppofe the pir ouette is intended to the right, the horfe, in fuch cafes, raifes his fore-fect and the left hindertnoft, fupporting himfelf on the right, while turning, and vice veifa; if to the left, the aids are the outfide rein to the turn, railfed fnmewhat higher than the in- tide, firft throwing him well on his hanches-firmpofition and command of body, appltz rather ftrong, and the body of the rider and horfe towards the turn ; at the fame time, if the horfe's head be not fufficiently high and obedient to the bridle-hand, the profeffor will experience much interruption in the execution of this a6tion, which may be confidered as the SUBLIME of cadence. It is a known fa&, that the horfeman in battle, who has the beft dreffed horfe in this aftion, has a wonderful advan- tage over his opponent-nothing can bring fuch a dragoon to the ground, but a ball. TilE & /eo , Ar J/ "o- s/i , 6A tA- AGYC , /,,,-/o, /4/' /, ; / ASTLEY 'E EQUESTRIAN FDUCATfON. 183 THE PIAFE Is a graceful air of parade in the ation of the trot; the irft leffon is given between the two pillars; the profeffor in the rear, with the -whip and chambrier-e, encouraging him to move to the right, to the left, and fornetimes forward, until he is forefhortened and well on his haunches; for the snore he is fo, the more graceful Nwill be his aftion: this is effeted by fhort leffuns, long intervals, and frequent caref- fes-care muff be had to make him draw from the pillar- rope, and by no means from the bridle, till far advanced, preferving, however, throughout, a lofty head. AMuch judgement is, now, required to aid the horfe, particularly when mounted; whether advancing, retreating, or return- ing to either fide; for it is at fuch time, that the horfeman is obliged to call in the more tender aids of the heel and fpur, together with the neceffary affiflance of the bridle-hand, and its delicate aj)ppzi: this, it may be remarked, was the ac- tion made ufe of in the famous Equefrian minuet, forming part of the amusements at Wefbninfier-bridge, firfi invented and attempted by the Author, who cauifd his horfc to mark his name on the ground of the Amphitheatre. The few rules, diretions, and observations, herein gjven, I prefent moft refpetfully to my country, as the refult of my experience, during a practice of forty years in the fervice of the public; to whom I beg to exprefs my moft grateful ac- The pillar-rope (or collar) (hould be very firong, the nofe-part lined, and two inches broad, to prevent irs chafing; the pillars fhould be firm in the ground, (evtn inches in diameter, and round ; fix feet four inches clear in height, and about five and a half fees in diflance i fluffcd and lined on the infide. N 4 knowledgments 184 ASTLEY S EQUESTRIAN EIJUCATIOSN. knowledgments for the long and liberal patronzge, with which my efforts, as well as thofe of my fon, have been fo diftinguifhedly honoured. Convinced that it is not in mortals TO COMMAND succEss," I havealwaysendeavoured " TO DESERVE IT ;" and I truft, my patrons have been well affurcd of every ex- ertion, on my part, to render myfelf worthy of that libera. lity, which has ever been the pride of my heart to obtain. Having faid thus much in behalf of the encouragemeni beflowed on my individual public labours, (which it is mj ambition to fy, have been honoured with the ORDER OF MERIT, during my refidence in France,) and having refigned, for the term of feven years, the ROYAL AMPHITHEATRE OF ARTS,Weftminfler-bridge, with that in DueLIN, in favour of my fon, (referving to myfelf the AMNPHITHEATRE in PARIS,) I now leave Him to the protclion of that generous, difcerning public, of whom I am, With becoming gratitude and refpe2t, The moft obedient, and The mcf devoted hurmil' fcrvanut, fiercer, te- Hall LaP-b4. l A London, i (tot Phflio;stley, Pro fl' ,- of '-ha A: of Ridint. !EXPLA- - This page in the original text is blank. ( 185 ) EXPLANATION OF THE General A4pparates i' tize adj'ining Pae A-Caveffon and cord. B-Snaffle-reins, intended to adjufi the given point, or exact pofition of the horfe's head. C. D-The bread-plate, belonging to the buckle-furcingle, bearing-rein, crupper, &c. and intended to keep the whole fecure. I-Profeffor in the aS of working the horfe; circle to the left. 2-His affiflant, in each hand a piflol, wvaiting for the fig- nal from the Profeffor. 3-The pofition of the horfe's head. 4-The caveffon cord; two finall rings thereon. 5-A fmall band-line, (plaffed through two finall rings to keep it fleady,) occafionally ufed to refrefi the horfe's mouth, and to render it fenfible to thle motion of the hand, when the profeffor judges proper to cafe him and reward his labour. 6-The leather buckle-furcingle, communicating with the bread-plate, crupper, bridle-reins, bearing-reins, &c. 7I-The chambriere. 8-A baiket, containing (the fupj'offci) rewards, viz. corn, carrots, apples, pears, &c. 9-A EXPLANATION, &C. 9-A drum, for the familiarizing a horfe to it, when wanted. 10-A flag, ufed for the like purpofe. lI -A trumpet, to found on fimilar occafions. 12-Fire-works of different explofions, intended to be let off at the will and pleafure of the profeffor, either by the affillance of a rope-match, lighted, or by the leader of fuch firc-works being conduted to the pan of a piuol, primed only-for the like purpofe-the piftol being previoufly made fall to the pillar, &c.-according to art. 13-Sketch of a bag to be filled with any given weight of fand, the more effeually to habituate the horfe to bear his rider; and which the author buckles round the horfe for fuch purpofe.. 14-Sketch of a fpur-ftick, fix feet long, ufed on various oc- calions; alfo to accuftom the horfe to the ufe of the fpur, previoufly to his being mounted. .!_-The afliflant's dog, which he occasionally caufes to bark, at the pleafure of the profeffor. 16-A fmall hand-whip, hung on the pillar, for the ufe of the prof"effor. N. B. The various pages in the body of the work, and which refer to this &etcb, will fully explain, and dire& the young practitioncr to the knowledge and utility of the whole of fuch apparatus, &c. INDEX 1 8 ry IND EX. A. ABERCROMBY, 6Cencral . 7J Accidents, how prevented 23, 24, 25, 77, 95 Ad;.ice, ferious, to ladies and gentlemen 77 to 88 Aids . 21, 22, 74, 75, 76 Air, definition of . 175 Am4fziement, equzclrian, conducive to health xv Antimony, golden, fidphur of . 152, 153 Annifeed . . 139 ,Apparatus, equefirian, engraving andfJkelck of . . . 10, 11, 185 Apipetite loft, after hard riding, co7idered 112, 118, 123 Apputi-telegraphic communication, the Author's idea of it . . 22 Apples, excellentfor horfes 9, 12, 31 Attack and defence . 14, 34, 40 Arquebufade, veterinary, the Author's prepa- atioin and ufe of it . 172 Arms, finall, glittering of . 16 Art and cunning, when necq/ary . . 73 Arts andjciences, how acquired . . 53 Aloes Aloes . . 158, 161, 162, 163, Age of a ho7fe, hoow to know it - 165, 168 90, 91 B. Back, fore, from f/ie pre/iere of thle faddle . 112 Backing and breaking colts . . 1 Bag, Jand, for what purpofe . 19 Ballotade, action andyketch of . . 184 Body, command of . . 84, 93 pliability cf . . 84 Bounty, royal . . . . 29 Bridle, changing ef, ctnfddered daingerous . 93 Bridle-hand, direction of 21, 40, 77, 85, 101, 102 Bridie, riding, driving, &c. deftription of . . 56, 93, 94, 101 Bruifes . . 163, 173 Ba/fun, Tolu . . .138 C. Cadenec, definzition iof Cabriole, actiom andfJetchl of Care.Yes, quick, wthen znecegay Cave/fni, cord of-line of Cambridge, Unive7jily ridinfg-JfIool Cantlets, con demuzned Carrots, excellentfor /oifes C(hamnbriere, when nec/fai-y Changing dragoon. horfies, the pract demned Clarendon, Lord Chancellor, his op 2 . 3, 4 . 185 12, 18, 68 10 ! 29 78 9, 12 5 1, 55 'cc of, con- 184, 184 'ifliol . 29 Ciholic 18 IN'D EX . Cholic and gripes,fjymptoms of, and cure 137, 138 Collge, veterin ary . 6 Contzjyon 165, 172 Courbette, action andfJketch of 180 Conflitution, how improved; how impaired, 54, 35 Cornwallis, Aiarquis . 186 Comm2nions i;n the army . viii Croupade, action and Jketch of 1,7 Cough . 164 Cracked heels, lc. . . 157, 158, 159 D. DoAhingforrward, danger . 10'3 Dialogue between th/e author and a young ca- zalry officer 2.. . 2 -- with a traveller on prefervilng horfes on a journey . . 114 -- - vwit/ih t/e la/e Sir Richard Jebb; vete- rinary medicines, S&c. . 160, 163 Diet, regimfeln of, in lofs of appetite; .fetrs, S'c. . . . 123, 128 Difeafes, to wih icet horfes are liable, comfdered 120, 144 Difobedience in the ILo7fe preuented 49, 50 DipJofition, furious . . . 70 Dragoons, Liaht, 1 ith 178 Drels, ladies, coniy'dered; nzeceflity of groonms familiarizing ho7jes to fuch . . 88 Drum, found of . 12, 16 Dublin, locked-jaw, erperinent ineffectual, 149, 184 Ear, 189 INDEX, 9NDEX. E. Ear, miqcat . 4, 12 Education, equefrian , 27, to 7 6 Elegance . vi Equitation, manege d' . . 171 Errors-in lhorfeinza7pdp . . . 7 Exercifes, equeJirian; Pope's Ihomer 8, 41 Exercire, fword 14, 178 Execution, equejirian . . 2 Eyes, difeafes of . . 135, 136 Eye, horfe's, knowledge derived therefro m . go Ethiop's mineral 135 Euphorbium . 145 F. Fajq/ions of the day difadvantageous to a horfernan . 36 Feeding, properly, diJorders prevented by, 108, 113 Feet, preferving of, on a journey 113, 119 Fever, acute, clyfler . 151 Flags, waving of . 16 Floyd, General . 28 Force, its inmpropriety . . 48, 49, 58 France 2, 29, 147, 173, 184 G. Gallop, confidered Gall, between the fore legs; cure 89 to 102 . 144 Generals, 190 I UDEX. Generals, modern and oldfchool, Giddinefs, remedy Glanders, de/cription and remedy Cler Good or evil, choice of Gracefulnefi Granzby, Lord Gr eaqe, deficription of; preventive and cure Gripes, fymptoms of, and cure Groomiag, p7ioperly, in faimmer and after a day's journey Gruel, water . Ground izy . Gunpowder Germa7ny 191 28, 175, 179 . 140 130, 135 . 151 1 17 xvi . 175 157, 137, winter, 108, 162 138 113 124. 133, 166 . 147 . 22( H. Habits, bad 37, 40 Hay and corn, jlubJlitutes for, in loft of ap- petite . . 117, 118 Head, lofty, necef7ty of, infJingle combat 14, 182 Iearing, in the borfie . . 9 h1eel, obedience to it - . 67 hleathfield, Lord . . 28 Honey and treacle, excellent for ho7fes 124, 126, 162 Honor, field of, danger, Slc. 34, 70, 71 HIorfe, defcription and utility ix, to xiV - .youn - bl 13, 40 draugktfatal acciden ted 103 to 108 12 zlorfe, Horfe, refractory 13 - dominion over 101 - necefJary precautions in purchqfOfing . 8 - - indifcriminately mounting, practice condemned 77 teaching to draw; the Author'sfyJflem of 103, 104 Hyde-Park . . xvi I. and J. Jaw, locked, experiments thereon ineffectual, 149, 150 Impeifections of hoifes 37 infanttry, French 178 Introduction ; thc Auth or's, to the Emperor of Germany, by Sir Robert Mlurray K- eith, at Vienna, in I782 29, 30, 3 1 Judgement and jullice, th/e Author's idea of 21 K. Keith, Sir Robert Murray; JMang-c (it Vienna '29, 30, 3 Killed, agroooz, by a horfe 6 L. Life, faber and regular 34 London, carnicen of 13 Luckner, General 175 Lard, hog's 119 Legs, broken 148 AlMang e, 192 1I9DEX.; INDEX. Mange, &Kc. geneal cure . . I '1- Mlfanege hoift, capacity , . 174 MJanege, defcription of . . 3 4llcrit, order of, given to the Autlwr and Son, by Lewis XVI. at Verfailles . 181 Mleadows, Sir Sidney 28 Minld, Eqzwefrian Exercife uffifl to . 33 M;inuet; deficriotion of that, canced at the Amphitheatre of Arts, Wcftrninfter- Bridge 74, 75, 76 Mouth of the hofe', rfyrej/iig of ..9 Merciuy 1 4.I46 NUI"C', ifl . . 1447 Mlil/i . , . ibdI. N. Aowlf, tnnfiutl, familiariziga /orfies lhereto . SR Aovri//nment, part ta/ectcd . . J j Aatitralpaces oft/ie hO7' . . 98 to 1U2 A'CCLfta:y precauztion1s in purllC/itigi:, a le ofe . . . 89 to 92 YVecqJilly i l morratozn to ofities 3 1 to 7 6 0. Ointmcnt, grene, for clr(C/eCl Ihiels, Sc . 144 .-v tertCjinaiy, ELg.ypltian, pr epara- (ioZC&'.. ' . 156 veteI'4llnary (ar';, pr'eparation, &Sc. . 157 Opo. .vc 193 Opodeldoc, reterina'y , the Author's prepara- tion and method of i1/in2 it 165, 170 Orford, uni'verJity of, 7ecJIy ofidiZn-fchools 29 Object, danger coijlidered . . 23, 24 -, fecurity ditto . . . 25 Oil, linfjed. 145 turpentine . . . ibid. P. Paces, natural and art ficial, coiy/dered 98 to PefadeJ2etclh of Pears, or apples, bY way of reward, &c. . Pemibroke, Earl of Patroling, Author's mode of obtaining a guide Pe7fections . Pife, jX-etch of Pinch the IhoJfe Pircuettejelteh of Pillar or pillars.; ditto rope and collar 65, 68, 69, 176, 178, 180, Pi/lol, explrfion of Powders, veteriflaty, preparation of for acute ferers, Jirangles, vies, mange, impuri- ties, &c. . 155, Powders, the Author's general reftoraliv e Practitioners, youn-g . 41 Punhtnzment . .7 Prodigality , 102 176 9, 12 28 37 183 69 182 1 8 3 1G 156 164 , 54 ', 60 61 lun 194 IN D E X. 2itarr e 3 INDEX. Q. ''Marrellin-, wit/h hoifes, reprobated 2], 2Q 2etjlionzs and anzfieers, relating to o ifes, by fignal, found, &c. I 3 .QIick-tey, &c' ... . 9, 183 R. JRecruits, cavalry . .S Befohltion, wheit neceJlary 41, 42 Rnewards . . 9, 12, 13, 30 Riding-fchools, fcienti/ic 5, 6 Rein, rightfide, for what purpoft in leading hoifes 47 Rccommzendation 62 RLJo/JiCC , , . . 64 S. Saddle, fide, gracful feat . . 77 deferiptionl of mzake andlJ/ape of i'addle gall, curefor Shakes inwoielder, remedy AScience, Eqzte/Irian, public anifenments, &c. Shoeing, confidered Sounds, nece1dry to direct the hlife in obe- dience Sovereign, hispatronage Strains to 88 ibid. 80 144 9 142 74 118 9, 13 29 142 Ingles, 195- Sir( ,o 2 INDEX. Stanles, dcfrriptfloi tf and remned 128, 129 Spill, 46, 49, 59, 61, 70, 71 Seat, Ladies' . 83, 8-4 Seat . 38, 39, 40 Signals 13 Stirrup, its length,. 85, 86 Smelling. 9 AS3Jlem Of Equejirian Educallon, peculiar to the Author . 174 Stupidity . 60 Surcingle 10, 14 Superiority . 14 Submijfion 57 Succes. 63 Science . 33 Stirrups . . 83 Saddle, length of . 82, 83 S)permaceti liniment 145 T. Tail, f/ir Temperance, -nece/7iry Terre-d-terre, action and 1etch. of Tournaments Tongu1e Training to leap, beJ7 method Travelling, the Author's mode of Treatment, cruel . Trot - 9 53 1 181 I0 9 95, 97 112, 113 6, 48, 49, 64 99 Terder 196 INDEX. .Ttezder ufage of the Horfe Tractable 1 obacco-tuater U. and V. Ungovernable Iforfes Untutored Equeftrians V"erdigreafe Yoice, found of View, general, of th engraving, Kc. Vies, powdersfor Vinegar WValk of a Florfe coifzdered Watering, properhiy, difeafes thereby Wind-galls, cure for Wrenches, Kc. JVaggon, perfons killed by Y. Young, ho fes Young, practitioners 1, 2, 3 xvi 156 9, 12 e Author's apparalss, 185, 186 155 133, 156 98 prevented 108 142 ibid. 23 41, 124, 144, 178 a 41 z. Zedoawy 172 END OF THE FIRST VOLUME. T. SURTON, fhinter, LUlle 9ueen-CreM. 12 16 147 191 This page in the original text is blank. T,,' . s Day is PubtiJh ed, Price Three Crown , ASTLEY's New, Improved aind Correa FOUR-SHEET MAP (CARTE GLOGRAPHIQUE Ou VOYAGEUR ET COURIER GENERAL) OF THE EMPIRE OF GE R MAN Y, Holland, the NVetherlands, lFr-ance, Suwitzerland, tIhe GrC/ijbs, and the Northern Parts of Italy, &c. ContAining explanatory References in the ENr LSHG G . R .MAN,and FRENC Fl languages; alfo the Pofts, half and quarter Pofts, between the Cities arid Towvns-the computed Number of HoufLs in, and adjoining to, the principal Places-the dircl: Courfc of the RiversSituations of the Lakes, &c. [Noticel-To rRF VENT ST3IOUR F ETSTAKFS, the Purcharers of the above Map of Germany are rcfpeatully informed that it bears the Author's Name, and Place of Abodc.-To the Traveller anid Native it is unnecefiary to f.Ly a word on its Superiority; but, to Perfons who have not vifited that ex- renfive Emrpire, it is highly important to refer them to tl;e ropograph:cal Part of the Work in general-the Numher of Houics-3nd the principal, di- recl, and brft Roads for the Accommodation of thie Public. The Nobility, Gentry, &-c. who intend vifiting the Continent, either on huflnefs or pleafure, are particularly recommended to purchafe t!aef( MAPS: tiieir ufe and convenirnce pointing thern out as the beft hjrherto pjblifhed. Alo, this Day is Publilhed, Price bs. A NEW TWO-SHEET MAP OF FRANCE; Improved and Corrcdled from the bell Authorities, BY THE S-41IE AUTHOR: COMPRISING THE CITIES, TOWNS, ROADS, ISLANDS, COASTS, XC. SC. Thefe MAPS may be confidered as A KEY TO Newfpatpers, Mlagazines, &c. In whatever Language they may be printed. Are fold by S. CR E ED, Agent and Publiflter, No. 2, Surry-fide of Weflmin. tar-bridge, where Orders tor both Mlaps will be carefully attended to. A'fo, in London, by Egerton, Whitchali; Chapple, Pall-Mall; Miller, Bond- ffret; Fores, Piccad.lly; Smith, Stand; RPichardfan, Royal Exchange; Wilkinfon, Cornhill; Lackington, Fin fbury-fquare; and Burilcm, Black- friars-road. And in thre Country, by Hazard, Bath; Bull, ditto; Bulgin ard Co. Briflo!; Brown, ditto; Swinrcy, Birmingham; Blick, ditto; Simmons, Blandford Irgram, Bury St. Edmund's; Corbes, Cowesi Rollafon, Coventry; Poole, Chefler; Simmons andi Co. Canterbury; Keymer, Colcheller; Mlergy and Co. C'klmsford; Long, Deal; Horn, Dover ; Drury, Derby P nnirgror., Durham; Truman and Son, Exeter; John Eldar, Edinburgh; Smrth, ditto; -Gordon, Cofpcrt ; Cole, Greenwich; M'Donald, Clafgow; Pcck, Fu!l; Browvr, ditto; Braithwaitc, Kendal; Billinge, Liverpooli Core, ditto; Merrit and Co. ditto; B;nns, Leeds; Wa;meby, Lancafler; Lee, Lcwvs; iHopper and Co. Iiancheftr; ELurterwvorth, Newport; Ste- vcrL:-., Norwiclh ; Wsikcr, Newcafll:-upon.Tyne; Richards, Plymouth; i-icyxai., i'l.mouth-Doc; i Motley, P'ortfmouth; Smart and Co. Read- irg; hcflis, Ronmfty; CoVins, Sali:bury; Skelton, Southampton; Baker, 6itto; Braadrick, ScalIo: ough; Edw ards, Woolwieh; Knight, Wirdfor; Tymbs, Wo:creier; Bu.dfn, Winchefler; Robins, dittoi Wood, Wey- routt i Ttffyman, York ; and Dow.vnes, Yarmouth. And to be had of all the pr-ncipa2l Map and Bo3okf:crs in the united Kingdom of Grcat Britaic and lztnd. Et.ruaRcN, tier, Lituc tcmn-Arcc.3