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Arabian art of taming and training wild & vicious horses / by P.R. Kincaid. Kincaid, P. R. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b98-53-42679593 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Arabian art of taming and training wild & vicious horses / by P.R. Kincaid. Kincaid, P. R. s.n.], [Cincinnati : 1856 39 p. ; 22 cm. Coleman Cover title. "Printed and sold for the publisher by Henry Watkin"--Cover. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1999. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PA-23166-98) ; SOL MN08554.03 KUK) s1999 gaun a Printing Master B98-53. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Horses. Horses Training. THE ARABIAN ART OF! TAMING AND TRAINING WILD & VICIOUS HORS ES. T. GILBERT. BRI. RAMSEY & CO. PRINTED AND SOLD FOR THE P"rLISHER ]EIRTRN]RY WA-TKI(N j 9 PRWTNER, 225 & 227 WEST FUTH STREET, C190IDATI, Oi B v tio 1866. This page in the original text is blank. INTRODUCTION. The first domestication of the horse, one of the greatest achievements of man in the animal kingdom, was not the work of a day; but like all other great accomplishments, was brought about by a gradual process of discoveries and experiments. He first subdued the more subordinate aiinials, on account of their being easily caught and tamed, and used for many years the mere drudges, the ox, the ass, and the camel, instead of the fleet and elegant horse. This noble animal was the last brought into subjection, owing, perhaps, to man's limited and inaccurate knowledge of his nature, and his consequent inability to control him. This fact alone is sufficient evidence of his superiority over all other animals. Man, in all his inventions and discoveries, has almost invari. ably commenced with some simple principle, and gradually de- veloped it from one degree of perfection to another. The first hint that we have of the use of electricity was Franklin's draw- ing it from the clouds with his kite. Now it is the instrument of conveying thought from mind to mind, with a rapidity that surpasses time. The great propelling power that drives the wheel of the engine over our land, and ploughs the ocean with our steamers, was first discovered escaping from a tea-kettle, And so the powers of the horse, second only to the powers of steam, became known to man only as experiments, and investi- gation revealed them. The horse, according to the best accounts we can gather, has been the constant servant of man for nearly four thousand years, ever rewarding him with his labor and adding to his com- fort in proportion to his skill and manner of using him; but being to those who govern him by brute force, and know noth- ing of the beauty and delight to be gained from the cultivation of his finer nature, a fretful, vicious, and often dangerous ser. vant; whilst to the Arabs, whose horse is the pride of his life, and who governs him by the law of kindness, we find him to be quite a different animal. The manner in which he is treated from a foal gives him an affection and attachment for his master not known in any other country. The Arab and his children, the mare and her foal, inhabit the tent together; and although the foal and the mare's neck are often pillows for the children to roll 2 upon, no accident ever occurs, the mare being as careful of the children as of the colt. Such is the mutual attachment between the horse and his master, that he will leave his companions at his master's call, ever glad to obey his voice. And when the Arab falls from his horse, and is unable to rise again, he will stand by him and neigh for assistance; and -if he lays down to sleep, as fatigue sometimes compels him to do in the midst of the desert, his faithful steed will watch over him, and neigh to arouse him if man or beast approaches. The Arabs frequently teach their horses secret signs or signals, which they make use of on urgent occasions to call forth their utmost exertions. These are more efficient than the barbarous mode of urging them on with the spur and whip, a forcible illustration of which will be found in the following anecdote. A Bedouin, named Jabal, possessed a mare of great celebrity. Hassad Pacha, then Governor of Damascus, wished to buy the animal, and repeatedly made the owner the most liberal offers, which Jabal steadily refused. The Pacha then had recourse to threats, but with no better success. At length, one Gafar, a Bedouin of another tribe, presented himself to the Pacha, and asked what he would give the man- who should make him master of Jabal's mare "I will fill his horse's nose-bag with gold," replied Hassad. The result of this interview having gone abroad; Jabal became more watchful than ever, and always secured his mare at night with an iron chain, one end of which was fastened to her hind fetlock, whilst the other, after passing through the tent cloth, was attached to a picket driven ini the g.'ound under the felt that served himself and wife for a bed. But one midnight, Gafar crept silently into the tent, and suc- ceeded in loosening the chain, Just before starting off with his prize, he caught up Jabal's lance, and poking him with the butt end, cried out: " I am Gafar! I have stolen your noble mare, and will give you notice in time." This warning was in accord- ance with the customs of the Desert; for to rob a hostile tribe is considered an honorable exploit, and the man who accom- plishes it is desirous of all the glory that may flow from the deed. Poor Jabal, when he heard the words, rushed out of the tent and gave the alarm, then mounting his brother's mare, ac- companied by some of his tribe, he pursued the robber for four hours. The brother's mare was of the same stock as Jabal's but was not equal to her; nevertheless, he outstripped those of all the other pursuers, and was even on the point of overtaking the robber, when Jahal shouted to him: " Pinch her right ear and give her a touch of the heel." Gafar did so, and away vent the mare like lightning, speedily rendering further pursuit hopeless. The pi nek in the ear and the touah with the. heel were the secret signs by which Jabal had been used to urge his mare to her utmost speed. Jabal's companions were amazed and in- 3 ligiaYt iAt 'iii 'httaige cbhduLct. "0 thou father of a jackass!" they cried, ' thon hasthelped the thief to rob thee of thy jewel." But he' Silenced their upbraidings by saying: " Ii would rather lose her .thap sully her reputation. Would you have me suffir it to be said 'a'iong'the tribes that another mare had proved fleeter: than triini I have at least this comfort left- me, that l1lafd day sihe never mIet with her match." -ifibrett cdintries lihAve their diflerent modes of horseman- hi'p,:but aniringsk all of them its first practice wawcarried on in bitt a rude and indifferent way,'being hardly a stepping stone to the comfort and delightcgained from the use of the horse at the present day. The polished Geeeks as well as the ruder nations of Northern Africa,' for a long while rode without either saddle or bridle, guiding their horses! with the voice or the hand, or with a light switch with wvhich they touched the animal on the side of the face to make him turn in the opposite direction. They urged him forward by at touch of the heel, and stopped him by catching hirm by the muzzle. Bridles and bits were at length introduced, but many centuries elapsed before anything that could be called a saddle was used. Instead of these, cloths single or padded, and skins of wild beasts,. often richly adorned, were placed beneath the rider, but always without stirrups; and it isgiv ep as an extraordinary fact, that the Romans even in the ti.me when luxury was carried to excess amongst them, never desired: so simple an expedient for assisting the horseman to inount, to lessen his fatigue and aid him in sitting more se- curely in his saddle. Ancient sculptors prove that the horse- nmen of almost every cotintryvwere accustomed to mount their horses from the right side of the animal, that they might the better giasp the mane, which hangs on that side, a-practice uni- versally changed in modern tines. . The ancients generally leaped on their horse's backs, though, they fsometimes carried a spear, with a loop or projection about two feet from the bottom which served them as a step. In Greece and Rome, the local magistracy were boqnd to see that blocks Jjr mounting (what the Scotch call loul-in-on-stanes) were plated along the road at convenient distances. The great, however, thought it more dignified to mount their horses by steppingoon the bent backs of their servants or slaves, and many who could noi cotnmand such costly help used to carry a light ladder about with them. The first distinct notice that we have of the use of the saddle occurs in the edict of the Emperor Theodosius,;(A. 1). 385.) from which we also learn that if was Usual for those who hired post- horses, to provide their own saddle, and that the saddle should not weigh more than sixty pouinds, a cumbrous contrivance, more like the howdahs placed on the backs of elephants than the light and elegant saddle of modern times. Side-saddles for ladies are an invention of comparatively recent date. The first 4 seen in England was made for Anne of Bohemia, wife of Rich- ard the Second, and was probably more like a pillion than the side-saddle of the present day. A pillion is a sort of a very low-backed arm-chair, and was fastened on the horse's croup, behind the saddle, on which a man rode who had all the care of managing the horse, while the lady sat at her ease, support- ing herself by grasping a belt which be wore, or passing her arm around his body, if the gentleman was not too ticlklsh. But the Mexicans manage these things with more gallantry than the ancients did. The "1 pisanna," or country lady, we are told is often seen mounted befbre her " cavalera," who take the more natural position of being seated behind his fair one, supporting her by throwing his arm around her waist, (a very appropriate support if the bent position o' the arm does not cause an occasional contraction of the muscles.) These two positions may justly be considered as the first steps taken by the ladies towards their improved and elegant mode of riding at the present day. At an early period when the diversion of hawking was prev- alent, they dressed themselves in the costume of the knight, and rode astride. Horses were in general use for many cea- turies before anything like a protection for the hoof was thought of, and it was introduced, at first, as a matter of course, on a very simple scale. The first foot defense, it is said, which was given to the horse, was on the same principle as that worn by mars, which was a sort of sandal, made or leather and tied to the horse's foot, by means of straps or strings. And finally plates of metal were fastened to the horse's feet by the same simple means. Here again, as in the case of the sturrupless saddle,when we reflect that men should, fbr nearly a thousand years, have gone on fastening plates of metal undler horses' hoofs t'y the clumsy means ot straps and strings, without its ever occurring to them to try so simple an improvement as nails, we have another remarkable demonstation of the slow steps by which horse- manship has reached its present state. In the forgoing remarks I have talien the liberty of extracr- ting several facts from a valuable little work by Rolla Spring- field. With this short comnient on tne rise and progress of horsemanship, from its commencement up to the present time, I will proceed to give you the principle; of a new theory of tam- Ing wild horses, which is the result of many experiments and4 thorough investigation and trial of the differeunt methods of horsemanship now in use. THE THREE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MY THEBORY Founded on the Leading Characteristics of the Horse. FiRsr.-That he is so constituted by nature that he will not ofr resistance to any demand made of him which he fully com- prehends, if made in a way consistent with the laws of his na- ture. SWOND.-That he has no consciousness of his-strength beyond his experience, and can be handled according to our will, without force. TaIRD --Thattwe can, in compliance with the laws of his nature by which he examines alt things new to him, take any object, however ftighttgi, around over or on him, that does not indict pain, without'causing him lo fear. To take these assertions in order, I will first give you some of the reasons why I think he is naturally obedient, and will not offer resistance to. anything fully comprehended. The horse, though possessed of some faculties superior to man's being deficient in reasoning powers, has no knowledge of right or wrong, of free will and independent government, and knows not of any imposition practiced upon him, however unreason- able these impositions may be. Gon quently, he cannot come to any decision what he should or should not do, because he has not the reasoning faculties of man to argue the justice of the thing demanded of him. If he had, taking into consideration his superior strength, he would be useless to man as a servant. Give him mind in proportion to his strength, and he will de- mand of us the green fields for an inheritance, where he will roam at leisure, denying the right of servitude at all. God has wisely fornmed his nature so that it can be operated upon by the knowledge of man according to the dictates of his will, and he might well be termed an unconscious, submissive servant. This truth we can see verified in every day's experience by the abuses practiced upon him. Any one who chooses to be so cruel, can mount the noble steed and run him 'till he drops with fatigue, or, as is often the case with more spirited, fall dead with the rider. If he had the power to reason, would he not vault and pitch his rider, rather than suffer him to run him to death Or would he condescend to carry at all the vain imposter, who, with but equal intellect, was trying to impose on his equal rights and equally independent spirit But hap- 6 pily for us, he has no conscionsness of imposition, no thought of disobedience except by impulse caused by the violation of the law of nature. Consequently when disobedient it is the fault of man. Then. we can bet come to the conclusion, that if a horse is not taken in a way at variance with the law of his nature, he wil I do anything that be fully comprehends without making any offer of resistance. Second. The fact of the horse being unconscious of the amount of his strength, can be proven to the satisfaction of any one. For instance, such remarks as these are common, ansd perhaps familiar to your recollection. One person says to another, " If that wild horse there was conscious of the amount of his strength, his owner could have no business with him in that vehicle; such light reins and harness, too; if he knew he could snap them asunder in a minute and be as free as the air we breathe ;" and, " that horse yonder that is pawing and fret- ting to follow the company that is fast Leaving hirm, if he knew his strength heFvould not remain" long fastened to that hitching post so much against his will, by a strap that would no more resist his powerful weight and strength, than a cotton thread would bind a strong: man." Yet these facts made common by every day occurrence, are not thought of as anything wonderful. Like the ignorant man who looks at the different phases of the moon, you look at these things as he looks at her different changes, without troubling your mind with the question, "' Why are these things so " What would be the condition of the world if all our minds lay dormant If men (lid not thiak, reason and act, our undisturbed, slumbering intellects would. riot excel the imbecility of the brute; we would live in chaos) hardly aware of ou- existence. And yet with all our activitty of mind, we daily pass by unobserved that which would be wonderful if philosophised and reasoned upon, and with the same inconsistency wonder at that which a little consideration, reason and philosophy would be hut a simple affair. Thirdly. He will allow any object, however frightful inmap- pearence, to come around, over or on him, that does not infliet pain. We know from a natural course of reasoning, that there has never been an effected without a cause, and we, infer from this, that there can he no action. either in animate or inanimate matter, without there firstt being some cause to produce it. And from this sulf-evident fact we know that there is some cause for every imptulse or movement of either mind or matter, and that this law governs every action or movement of the animil king- tomr. Then, according to this theory, there mnut be sorne cause before fear can exist ; ani, if fear exists from the effect of imagination, and not from the infliction of real pain, it can be 7 removed by complying with those laws of nature by which the horse examines an object, and determines upon its innocence or harm. A log or stump by the road-side may be, in the imagination of the horse, some great beast about to pounce upon him; but after you taint him up to it and let him stand by it a little while, and touch it with his nose, and go through his process of examination, he will not care any thirtg more about it. And the same principle and process will have the same effect with any other object, however frightful in appearance, in which there is no harm. Take a boy that has been frightened by a false-face or any other object that he could not comprehend at once; but let him take that face or object in his hands and ex- amine it, and he will not care anything more about it. This is a demonstration qf th4 same principle. With this introluction to the principles of my theory, I shall next attempt to teach you how to put it into practice, and whatever instructions may follow, you can rely on as having been proven practical by my own experiments. And knowing fromn experience just what obstacles I have met with in hand- ling bat] horses, I shall try to anticipate them for you, and assist you in surmounting them, by commencing with the first steps taken with the colt, and acconrpanying you through the whole task of breaking. How to Suacced in Getting the Colt from Pasture. Go to the pasture and walk around the whole herd quietly, and at such a distance as not to cause them to scare and run. Then approach them very slowly, and if they stick up their heads an'd seem to be frightened, hold on until they become quiet, so, as not to make them run before you are . lose enough to drive themn iti the directioli you want to go. And when you begin to drive, (to not flourish your arms or hollow, but gently follow them off leaving the direction free for them that you wish them to take. Thus taking advantage of their iMnorance. you will be alble to get them in the pound as easily as the hun- ter drives the quails into his net. For, if they have always run into the pasture uncared for, (as many horses do in prairie countries and on large )lantatioris,) there is no reason why they should not be as wild as the sportsman's birds and re- quire the satne gentle treatment, if you want to get them with- out trouble ; for the horse in his natural state is as xvild as any of the undomnesticated animals, though more easily tamed than most of thein. 8 How to Stable a Colt without Trouble. The next step will be, to get the horse into a stable or shed. This should be done as quietly as possible, so as not to excite any suspicion in the horse of any danger befalling him. The best way to do this, is to lead a gentle horse into the stable first and hitchhim, then quietly walk around the colt and let him go in of his own accord. It is almost impossible to get men, who have never practiced on this principle, to go slow and considerate enough about it. They do not know that in hand- ling a wild horse, above all other things, is that good old adage true, that " haste makes waste ;" that is, waste of time, for the gain of trouble and perplexity. One wrong move itray fTighten your horse, and make him think it is -necessary to escape at all hazards for the safety of his life, and thus make two hours work of a ten minutes job; and this would be all your own fault, and entirely unnecessary; for he will not run unless you run after him, and that would not be good policy, unless you knew that you could outrun him; or you will have to let him stop of his own accord after all. But he will not-try to break away, unless you attempt to force him into measures. If he does not see the way at once, and is a little fretful about going in, do not undertake to drive him, but give him a little less room outside, by gently closing in around him. Do not raise your arms, but let them hang at your side; for you might as well raise a club. The horse has never stud- ied anatomy, and does not know but they will unhinge them- s6lves and flv at him. It he attempts to turn back, walk before him, but do not run; anrd if he gets past you, encircle him again in the same-quiet manner, and he will soon find that you are not going to hurt him; and you can soon walk so close around him that he will go into the stable for more room, and to get farther from you. As soon as he is in, remove the quiet horse and shut the door. This will be his first notion of confinement -not knowing how to get in such a place, nor how to get out of it. That he may take it as quietly as possible, see that the shed is entirely free from dogs, chickens, or anything that would annoy him; then give him a few ears of corn, and let him re- main alone fifteen or twenty minutes, until he has examined his apartment, and hap become reconciled to his confinement. Time to Reflect. And now, while your horse is eating those few ears of corn, is the proper time to see that your halter is ready and all right, and to reflect on the best mode of operations; for, in the hors-.- 9 breaking, it is highly important that you should be governed by some system. And you should know before you attempt to do aynthing, just what you are going to do, and how you are going to do it. And, if you are experienced in the art of taming wild horses, you ought to be able to tell within a few minutes the length of time it would take you to halter the colt, and learn him to lead. The kiud of Halter. Always use a leather halter, and be sure to have it made so that it will not draw tight around his nose if he pulls on it. It should be of the right size. to fit his head easily and nicely; so that the nose band will not be too tight or too low. Never put a rope halter on an unbroken colt under any circumstances whatever. They have caused more horses to hurt or kill. them- selves, than would pay for twice the cost of all the leather halters that have ever been needed for the purpose of haltering colts. It is almost impossible to break a colt that is very wild with a rope halter, without having him pul!, rear and throw himself. and thus endanger his lite; and I will tell you why. It is just as natural for a horse to try to get his head out of anything that hurts it, or leels unpleasant, as it would be for you to try to get your hand out of a fire. The cords of the rope are hard and cutting; this makes him raise his head and draw on it, and as Boon as he pulls, the slip noose (the way rope halters are al- ways made) tightens, and pinches his nose, and then he will struggle for life, until, perchance, he throws himself; and who would have his borse throw himself, and run the risk of break- ing his neck, r'ather than pay the price of a leather halter. But this is not the worst. A horse that has once pulled on his hal- ter, can never be as well broke as one that has never pulled at all. Remarks on the Horse. But before we attempt to do anything more with the colt, I will give you some of the characteristics of his nature, that you may better understand his motions. Every one that has ever paid any attention to the horse, has noticed his natural inclina- tion to snell of everything which to him looks new and frightful. This is their strange mode of examining everything. And, when they are frightened at anything, though they look at it Fharply, they seem to have no confidence in this optical examina- tion alone. but must touch it with the nose before they are er.- tirely satisfied; and, as ooon as this is done, all is right. 1t Experiments with the Robe. If you want to satisfy yourself of this characteristic of the horse, and learn something of importance concerning the pecu- liaritles of his nature, etc., turn him into the barn-yard, or a large stable will do, and then gather up something ttoit vou know will frighten him; a red blanket, buffalo robe, or some- thing of that kind. Hold it up so that he can see it, he will stick up his head and snort. Then throw it down somewhere in the center of the lot or barn, and walk off to one side. Watch his motions, and study his nature. If he is frightened at the object, he vwill not rest until he has tonched it with his nose You will see him begin to walk around the robe and snort, all the time getting a little closer, as if drawn up by some magic spell, until he finally gets within reach of it. He will then very cautiously stretch out his neck as far as he can reach, merely touching it, with his nose, as though he thought it was ready to fly at him. But after he has repeated these touches a few times, for the first (though he has been looking at it all the time) he seems to have an idea what it is. But nowv he has found, by the sense of feeling, that it is nothing that will do him any harm, and he is ready to plovir with it. And if you watch him closely, you will see him take hold of it with his teeth, and raise it up and pull at it. And in a few minutes you can see that he has not that same wild look about his eye, but stands like a horse biting at some familiar stump. Yet the horse is never well satisfied when he is about any thing that has frightened him, as when he is standing with his nose to i. And, in nine cases out of ten, you will see some of that same wild look about him again, as he turns to walk fr 'm it. And you will, probably, see him looking back very suslpi- ciously as he walks away, as though he thought it might come alter him yet. And, in all probability, he will have to go back and make another examination before he is satisfied. But tie will familiarize himself with it, and, it he should run in that lot a tew days, the robe that frightened him so much at first, will be no mnore to him than a familiar stump. Suppositions on the Sense of Smelling. We might very naturally suppose, frrn the fact. of the hor3e's applying his nose to every thingt new to him, that he alwavs does so for the purpose or smnelling, these objects. But I beliuve that it is as much or more for the purpos4e of- feelint ; a; l that hle makes use of his rnose or muzzle. (as it is soenetimes callud,) as we woi;l of our hands; be .ause it is the only organ byv xvi h he aln touch or feel anything with much susceptibility. 11 1,helie;ve, that he invariably nxakes use of the four senses, see- ing, hearingjigmelling and feeling,, in ll 'of hiis examinations, of which the sense of feeling is, pcrha)s, the most important. And I think that in the experiment with the robe, his gradual approach and final touch with his nose. was as mnuch fhr the put-pose ol feel- ing. as anything else, hi'r sense of smell being- so keen, that it would not be necessary for himn to touch his nose agfain-st arpy- thing i5 arden to get the proper scent; tor it is said that a horse can smell a maln the distan(ce of a ivile. Anfi, it the scent of the robe was all that was necessary, hle could get that several rods off. But, we know from experience, that .f a horse sees and smells a robe a short distance tronm hitn, hie is very much frightened, (unless lie is used to it,) until he toluches or feels it with hiS nose; which ts a positive proof that feeling is the con- trolling sense in vhis caw. Prevailiig Opinion of Horsemen. It is a prevailing opinion amcong horsemen generally, that the sense ofsinell is thegoverning sense (f the horse. And Fauicher, as weJl as vtherrs, have, with that view, got up receipts of strong smelling oils, etc., to tame hlie horse, somnetimes using the ches- nut of his le-g, which thiey dry, grind into powder and blow into his notrils. Sometimes using the oil of 'rhodium, organnurin, etc. tlua nre n-oted for their stong smell. And sometimes they scent tte Hands- wific the swLat from unwder the arm, or blow their breaith into his nostiils, etc., etc. All of which, as far as the scent goes, have no effect whc:,tever in greutting the hf rse, or converinlg any idea to His mind ; thovAh the works that ac- cornlanvyihese-effO;tms-tc4andliftfr hini, touching him abont the nose-aln head, ani patting himl. as thev direct you should, arter administeifltng the articles, may hlnve a very gyreat effect, which they, mistiake to he the (fllect of the inprediants lsedf. And Fawiehcrli in hi; work entitledl, rhe Ar.liian art of taming 11(srses,," pnte 17, tells ui; how to accnstomn a horse to a robe, by admt-iinistowing cortain nrticles to his nose ; and goes on to say', that these articles nist first he applied to the hoi sesr nose before youl attempt to bretak him, in order to operate sucegssthlly. Now, reader , can yu, or iny [ie elase: .ive one single reason how tV-ent can c tnivev anY idea to the horse's mind of' what we want him inodo if nwt,.tlhen oih cotrse strong, seents of nny kind aire oft no account in taingin then unbroken honroe. For every thingnr that we gt hinti to l, of his own accord, wvitlhout force, mnst1 be o0(cor ijl i lbedl by cotmne nutniis of conve itmg onr ideas to ht, li minsd. 1 ;ilv to my hrr ' go' !" nn(l lie goes; ho!" and he stops: because these two Nvordors, (f which he has 12 learned the meaning by the tap of the whip, and the pull of the rein that first accompanied them, convey the two ideas to his mind of go and stop. Faucher, or no one else, can ever learn the horse a single thing by the means of a scent alone. How long do you suppose a horse would have to stand and smell of a bottle of oil before he would learn to bend his knee and make a bow at your bidding "go yonder and bring your bat," or " come here and lay down " Thus you see the absur- dity of trying to break or tame the horse by the means of re- ceipts for articles to smell of, or medicine to give him, of any kind whatever. The only science that has ever existed in the world, relative to the breaking of horses, that has been of any account, is that true method which takes them in their native state, and improves their intelligence. Powel's System of Approaching the C0t. But, before we go further, I will give you Willis J. Pdwel's system of approaching a wild colt, as given by himdin a swork published in Europe, about the year 181 1, on the " Art of tarn- ing wild horses." He says, "n A horse is gentled'-by my secret, in from two to sixteen hours." The time, 1 bhae yaoStua(0- rnonly empLoyed has been from four to six hours. -He goes on to say: " Cause your horse to be put in a small yard, stable, or room. If in a stable or room, it ought to be large in order to give him some exercise with the halter before you lead him out. If the horse belong to that class which appears only to fear man, you must introduce yourself gently into the stable, rooln, or yard, where the horse is. He will naturally run fromn you, and frequently turn his head frorn you; but you must walk nharit extremely slow and softly, so that he can see you whenever hli turns his head towards you, which he never tails to do in a short time, say in a quarter of an hour I never knew one to be much longer without turning towar- me "At the very moment he turns his heal, hold out your left hand towards him, nd stand perfectly still, keeping your eyes upon the horse, wating his motions if he makes any. It the horse does not stir for ten or fifteen minutes., advance i;s Slowly as possible, and withoait making the Least noise, always holdiig out your left hand, without any other iw_,redietit in it thani that what nature put in it." He says, " I have made use or certain ingredients before people, such as the sweat tin ler my artn. etc., to disguise the real secret, and many believed that the dieil.ty 13 to which the horse arrived in so short a time, was owing to these ingredients; but you see from this explanation that they were of no use whatever. The implicit faith placed in these ingre- dients, though innocent of themselves, becomes ' faith without works.' And thus men remained always in doubt concerning this secret. If the horse makes the least motion when you advance toward him, stop, and remain perfectly still until he is quiet. Remain a few moments il this condition, and then advance again in the same slow and imperceptible manner. Take notice: if the horse stirs, stop without changing your position. It is very uncommon for the horse to stir more than once after you begin to advance, yet there are exceptions. He generally keeps his eyes steadfast on you, until you get near enough to touch him on the lorehead. When you are thus near to him, raise slowly, and by degrees,your hand, and let it come in contact with that part just above the nostrils as lightly as possible. If the horse flinches, (as many fill,) repeat with great rapidity these light stokes upon the forehead, going a little farther up towards his ears by degrees, and descending with the same rapidity until lie will let you handle his forehead all over. Now let the strokes be repeated wvith more force over all his forehead, descending by lighter strokes to each side of his head, until you can handle that part with equal facility. Then touch in the same light manner, making your hands and fingers play around the lower part of the horse's ears, coming down now and then to his forehead, which may be looked upon as the helm that governs all the rest. Having succeeded in handling his ears, advance towards the neck, with the same precautions, and in the same mnannner ; ob- serving always to aumirient the force of the strokes vwhenever the horse will permit it. Periorm the same on both sides of the neck, until he lets you take it in your arms without flinching. " Proceed in the samne progressive manner to the sides, and then to the back of the horse. Every time the horse shows any nervousness return immediately to the forehead as the true stand- ard, patting him with your hands, and from thence rapidly to where you had already arrived, always gaining ground a con- siderable distance farther on every time this happens. The head, ears, neck and body being thus gentled, proceed fromn the back to the root of the tail. " This must be managed with dexterity, as a horse is never to be depe-nded on that is skittish about the tail. Let your hand fall lightly and rapidly on that part next to the body a minute or two, and then you will begin to give it a slight pull upwards every quarter of a minute. At the same time you continue this lbandlin r of him, augment the force of the strokes, as well as the raising of the tail, until you can raise it and handle it with the greatest ease, which commonly happens in a quarter of an 14 hour in most horses; in others almost immediately, and in some much longyer. It now remnaini to handle all his legs. From the tail come back again to tire head, handle it well, as likwiske the earm, breast, neck, etc., speaking now and then to the horse. Begin by degrees to descend to the legs, always ascending and descending, gaining ground every time you descend until you get to his feet. "Talk to the horse in Latin, Greek, French, English, or Spanish. or in any other language you please; but let him bear the sound of your voice, which at the beginning of the operation is not quite so necess-ary, but which I have always done in ma- king hint lift up his feet. Hold up your foot--'Livv la pied'- 'Alza el pie '-'Aron lon poda,' etc., at the. same tire lift his foot with vone' hand. He soon becomes familiar with the sounds, and will old1( his foot tip at command. Then proceed to the hind teet and go on in the same manner, and in a short time the horse will let you lift them and even take them up in your arms. "All this operation is no magnatism, no galvanism ; it is merely taking away the fear a horse generally has of a man, and familiarizing the animal with his master; as the horse loubtless experiences a certain pleasure fromn this hian(dling hle will soon become gentle tunder it, and show a very marked attachment to his keeper." Remarks on Powel's Treatment how to govern Horses of Any Kind. These instructions are very good, but not quite suffilcient for horses of all kinds, and for haltering and leading the colt; but I have inserted it here, because it gives some of the true phil- osophy of approaching the horse, and of establishing confidence between mall and horse. He speaks only of the kind that fear man. To those who understand the philosophy of horsemanship these are the easiest trained ; for when we have a horse that 18 wilk and lively, we can train him to our will in a very short time; for they are general y quick to learn, and always ready to obey. But there is another kind that are of a stubborn or vicious disposition, and, although they are not wild, and do not require taming, in the sense tit is generally understood, they arejust as ignorant as a wild horse, if not more so, and need to be learned just as much; and in order to have them obey quick- ly, it is very necessary that they should be made to feiar their masters; for, in order to obtain perfect obedience from any -horse, we must first have him fear us, for our motto is fear love, and obey ; and we must have the kilfilment of' the first two before we can exject the latter, and it is by our philosophy of 15 creating fear, love and confidence, that we govern to our will every kind of a horse whatever. Then, in order to take horses as we tind them, or all kinds, and to train them to our likings, we will alwa\ s take with us, when we go into a stable to train a colt, a long switch whip, (whale-bone buggy whips is the best,) with a good silk cracker, so as to cut keen and make a sharp report, which, if handled with dexterity, and rightly applied, accompanied with a sharp, fierce word, will be sufficient to enliven the spirits of any horse. With this whip in your right hand, wi-h the lash pointing back. ward, enter the stable alone. It is a great disadvantage in train- ing a horse, to have any one in the stable with you; you should be entirely alone, so as not to have nothing but yourself to attract his attention. If he is wild you will soon see him in the oppo- site side of the stable from you; and now is the time to use a little judgement. I would not want for myself, more than half or three-quarters of an hour to handle any kind of a colt, and have him running about in the stable after rle ; though I would ad- vise a new beginner to take more time, and not to be in, too much of a hurry. If you have but one colt to gentle, and are not particular about the length of time you spend, and have not had any experience in handling colts, I would advise vou to take Mr. Powel's method at first, till you gentle him, which he says takes from two to six hours. But. as I want to accomplish the same, and what is much more, learn the horse to lead in less than one hour, I shall give you a much quic4er process of ac- complshing the same end. Accordingly, when you have en- tered the stable, stand still and let your horse look at you a minute or two, and as soon as he is settled in one place, ap- proach him slowly, with both arms stationary, your right hang- ing by your side, holding the whip as directed, and the left bent at the elbow, with your hand projecting. As you approach him, go not too much towards his head or croop, so as not to make him move either forward or backward, thus keeping your horse stationary, if he does move a little forward or backward, step a little to the right or left very cautiously; this Xwill keep him in one place, as you get very near him, draw a little to his shoulder, and stop a few seconds. If you are in his reach he will turn his head and smell at your hand, not that he has any preference for your hand, but because that it is projecting, and is the nearest portion of your body to the horse. This all colts will (l0, and they will smell of your naked hand just as quick as they will of any thing that you can put in it, and with just as good an effect, however much some men have preached the doctrine of taming horses by giving them the scent articles from the hand. I have already proved that to be a mistake. As soon as he touch. es his nose to your hand, caress him as before directed, always using very light, soft hand, merely touching the horse, all l6 ways rubbing the way the hair lays, so that your hand will pass along as smoothly as possible. As you stand by his side you may find it more convenient to rub his neck or the side of is head, which will answer the same purpe, as rubbing his forehead. F&vor every inclination of the horse to smell or touch you with his nose. Always follow each touch or com. munication of this kind with the most tender and affectionate caresses, accompanied with a kind look, and pleasant word of some sort, such as: Ho! my little boy, ho! my little boy, pretty boy, nice lady ! or something of that kind, constantly repeating the same words, with the same kind, steady tone of voice; for the horse soon learns to read the expression of the face and voice, and will know as well when fear; love or anger, prevails as you know your own feelings; two of which,fear and anger, a good horseman should neverfeel. How to Proceed if your Horse is of a Stubborn Disposition. If your horse, instead of being wild, seems to be of a stubborn or mutish disposition; if he lays back his ears as you approach him, or turns his heels to kick yon, he has not that regard or fear of man that he should have, to enable you to handle him quickly and easily; and it might be well to give him a few sharp cnts with the whip, about the legs, pretty close to the body. It will crack keen as it plies around his legs, and the crack of the whip will affect him as much as the stroke; besides one sharp cut about his legs will affect him more than two or three over his back, the skin on the inner part of his legs or about his flank being thinner, more tender than on his back. But do uot whip him much, just enough to scare him, it is not because we want to hurt the horse that we whip him, we only do it to scare that bad disposition out of him. But whatever you do, do quickly, sharply and with a good deal of fire, but always without anger. If you are going to scare him at all you must do it at once. Never go into a pitch battle with your horse, and whip him until he is mad and will fight you; you had better not touch him at all, for you will establish, instead of fear and regard, feelings of resentment, hatred and ill-will. It will do him no good but an injury, to strike a blow, unless you can scare him; but if you succeed in scaring him, you can whip him without makiug him mad; for fear and anger never exist together in the horse, and as soon as one is visible, yon will find that the other has disap- peared. As soon as you have frightened him so that he will stand up straight and pay some attention to you, approach him again and caress him a good deal more than you whipped him, then you will excite the two controlling passions of his nature, 17 love and fear, and then he will fear and love you too, and as soon as he learns what to do will quickly obey. How to Halter and Lead the Colt. As soon as you have gentled the colt a little, take the halter in your left hand and ap1)roach him as before, and on the same side that you have gentled him. If he is very timid about your approaching closely to him, you can get up to him quicker by making the whip a part of your arm, and reaching out very gently with the bilt end of it, rubbing him lightly on the neck, all the time getting a little closer, shortening the whip by taling it up in your hand, until you finally get close cnotugli to )ut your hands on him. It he is inclined to hold his head fromi you, put the end of the halter strap around his neck, drop vour whip, and draw very gently; he will let his neck give, and you can pull his head to you. Then take hold of that part of thel halters which buckles over the top of his head, and pass the long side, or that part which goes into the buckle, under his neck, grasping it on the opposite side with your right hand, letting the first strap loose-the latter will be sufficient to hold his head to vou. Lower the halter a little, just enough to get his nose into that part which goes around it. then raise it son'leuhat, and fasten the 'Lop uuciie- anu vou will nave it ail right. The first time you -alter a coit you siuouiG stand on the ieft side, pretty well back to .s snouitler -wntv taRinur notd ot that part of the halter that oen around nis neck. then with your hands about his neck you -an noia nis neao to vou, and raise the halter on it without ina- fii.g n-uY u'age oy puttng your nands about his iose. You mrouldl have a long rope or strap ready, and as soon as yon have ,ne nailer on, attach this to it. so that x'ou can let himi wallk the enamn ot the siabie without letting go of the strap, or without iatiir nirr puit uon the naiteror it you only let him fieel the Weight v your nana on the halter. ani give him rope when he runs wlom voi, he will never rear, pull, or throw himself. yet you will be holding him all the time, and doing more towards gentling him, than if you had the power to snub him right up, and hold him to one scot; because, he does not know any thing about his strength, and if you don't do any thing to make him pu11,. he will never know that he can. In a few minutes you can begin to control hin) with the halter, then shorten the distance between yourself and tile horse, by taking up the strap in your han(d. As soon as he will allow you to hold him by a tolerably short strap, and step up to him without flying, back, you can begin to give him some idea about leading. But to do this, do not go be- 2 18 fore and attempt to pull him after you. but commence by pulling him very quietly to one side. He has nothing to brace either side of his neck, and wvill soon yield to a steady, gradual puill of the halter; and as soon as you have pulled him a step or two to one side, step up to him 'and caress him, and then pull him again, repeafing this operation until you can pull him around in every direction, and walk about the stable with him, which you can do in a few minutes, for he will soon think when you have made him step to the right or left a few times, that he is compelled to lol- low the pull of the halter, not knowing that he has the power to resist your pulling; besides, you have handled him so gently, that he is not af raid of you, and you always caress him when he comes up to you, and he likes that, and would just as leave follow you a- not. And after he has had a few lessons ot that kind, if you turn him out in a lot he will come up to you every opportu- nity he gets. You should lead him about in the stable some time before you take him out, opening the door, so that he can see out, leading him up to it and back again, and past it. See that there is nothing on the outside to make him jump, when you take him out, and as you go out with him, try to make him go very slowly, catching hold of the halter close to the jaw, with your left hand, while the right is resting on the top of the neck, holding to his mane. After you are out with him a little while, you can lead him about as you please. Don't let any second person come up to you when you first take him out; a stranger taking hold of the halter would frighten him, and make him run. There should not even be any one standing near Tim to attract his attention, or scare him. If you are alone, an' manage him right, it will not require any more force to lead or hold him than it would to manage a broke horse. How to lead a Colt by the side of a broken Horse. If you should want to lead your colt by the side of another horse, as is often the case, I would advise you to take your horse into the'stable, attach a second strap to the colt's halter, and lead your horse up alongside of him. Then get on the broke horse and take one strap around his breast, under his martin- gale, (if he has any on,) holding it in your lelt hand. This will prevent the colt from getting back too far; besides, you will have more power to hold him, with the strap pulling against the horse's breast. The other strap take up in your right hand to prevent him from running ahead; then turn him about a few times in the stable, and if the door is wide enough, ride out with him in that position; if not, take the broke horse out first, 19 and stand his breast up against the door, then lead the colt to the same spot, and take the straps as before directed, one on each side of his neek, then let some one start the colt out, and as he comes out, turn yonr horse to the left, and you will have them all right. This is the best way to lead a colt, you can man- age any kind of a colt in this way, without any trouble; for, it he trites to run ahead. or pnll back, the two straps will bring the horses facing each other, so that you can easily follow up his movements without doing much holding, and as soon as he stops running backward you are right with him, and all ready to go ahead. And if he gets stubborn and does not want to go, you can remove all his stubborness by riding your horse against his neck, thus compelling him to turn to the right, and as soon as you have turned him about a few times, he will be willing to go along. The next thing, after you are through leading him, will be to take him into a stable. and hitch him in such a way as not to have him pull on the halter, and as they are often troublesome to get into a stable the first few times, I will give you some instructions about getting him in. How to lead a Colt into the Stable and hitch Him without having Him pull on the Halter. You should lead the broke horse into the stable first, and get the colt, if you can, to follow in after him. If he refnuses to go, step up to him, taking a little stick or switch in your right hand ; then take hold of the halter close to his head with your left hand, at the same time reaching over his back with your right arm so that you can tap him on the opposite side with your switch; bring him up facing the door, tap him lightly with your switch, reaching as far back with it as you can. This tapping, by being pretty well back, and on the opposite side, will drive him ahead, and keep him close to you, then by giv- ing him the right direction with your left hand you can walk into the stable with him. I have walked colts into the stable this way, in less than a minute, after men had worked at them half an hour, trying to pull them in. If you cannot walk; hini it at once this way, turn him about and walk him round in every direction, until you can get him up to the door without pulling at him. Then let him stand a few minutes, keeping his head in the right direction with the halter, and he will walk in, in less than ten minutes. Never attempt to pull the colt into the stable; that would make him think at once that it was a dangerous place, and if he was not afraid of it before, he would be then. Besides we dcIn't want him to know anything about pulling on the halter. C(olts are often hurt, and sometimes killed, by trying to force them 20 into the stable; and those who attempt to do it in that way, go into an up-hill business, when a plain smooth road is before them. If you want to hitch your colt, put him in a tolerably wide stall which should not be too long, and should be connected by a bar or something ot that kind to the partition behind it ; so that, after the colt is in lie cannot get far enough back to take a straight, backward pull on the halter: then by hitching him in the center of the stall, it would be impossible lor him to pull on the halter, the partition bL hin l preventing him from going back, and the halter in the center checking him every time he turns to the left or right. In a state of this kind vou can break every horse to stand hitched by a light strap, any where, without his ever knowing any thing about ptullin'g. But if you have broke your horse to lead, and have learned him the use of the halter (" hich you shoull always do before you hitch him to any thing), you can hitch him in any kind of a stall, and give himl seine- thing to eat to keep him up to his place tor a few minutes at first and there is not one colt in fifty that will pull on his halter. The kind of Bit and how to accustom a Horse to it. You should use a large, smooth, snaffle bit, so as not to hurt his mouth, with a bar to each side, to prevent the bit from pulling thronuh either way. This you shmuld attach to the head-stall of your bridle and put it on your colt withou: any reins to it, and let him run loose in a large stable or shed], some. timne until he becomes a little used to the bit, ond will bear it without trying to get it out of his month. It w-oold be well, if convenient, to repeat this several times beliwe VOu, do anything rnmure with the iolt ; as soon a he will bear thu i)it, attach a single rein t , it, without any martingale. You slouild al:,o have a halter on your colt, or a bridle mad e after tie fashion of a halter, with a strap to it, so that you can hold or iwad him about without pulling on the bit much. He is now readJy for the saddle. How to Saddle a Colt. Any one man, who has this theory, can put a saddle on the wildest colt that ever grew, without any help, and without scaring him, The first thing will be to tie each stirrup strap into a loose knot to make theme short, and prevent the stirrups from flying about and hitting him. Then double up the skirts and take the saddle under your right arm, so as not to frighten 21 him with it as you approach. When you get to him. rub him gently a few times with your hand, and then raise the saddle very slo"ly until he (an see it, and smell. and feel it with his nose. Then let the skirts loose, and rub it very gently against his neck the way the hair lays, letting him hear the rattle of the skirts as he fee's them against him; e ch time getting a little farther backward, and finally slip it over his shoulders on his back. Shake it a little with your hand, and in less than five minutes you can rattle it about over his back as much as you please, and pull it off and throw it on again, without his paying much attention to it. As soon as you have accustomed him to the saddle, fasten the girth. Be careful how you do this. It often fightens a Colt when be feels the girth hinding him, and making the sad- die fit tight on his back You should bring up the girth very gently, and not draw it too tight at first, just enough to hold the saddle on. Move him a little, and then girth it as tight as you choose, and he wvill not mind it. You should see that the pad of your saddle is all right before you put it on, and that there is nothing to mtake it hurt him, or feel unpleasant to his back. It should not have any loose straps on the back part of it to flap about and scare him. After you have saddled him in this way, take a switch in your right hand to tap him up with, and wvalk about in the stable a few times with your right arm over the saddle, taking hold of the reins on each side of his neck, with your right and left hands. Thus marching him about in the stable until you learn him the use of the bridle, and can turn him about in any direction, and stop him by a gentle pull of the rein. Always caress him, and loose the reins a little every time you stop him, You should always be alone, and have vour colt in some tight stable or shed, the first time you ride himls; the loft should be high so that you can sit on his hack without endangering your head. You can learn him more in two hotirs time in a stable of this kind, than you could in two weeks in the common way of breaking colts, out in an open place. It you follow my course of treatment, you need not run any risk, or have any trouble in riding the worst kind of a horse. You take him a step at a time, until you get up a mutual confidence and trust between yourselt and horse. First learn him to lead and stand hitched, next acquaint him with the saddle, and the use of the bit ; and then all that remains, is to get on him without scaring him, and you can ride him as well as any hotse. How to Xcunt the Colt. First gentle him well on both sides, about the saddle, and all 22 over, until he will stand still without holding, and is not afraid to see you any where about him. As soon as you have him thus gentled, get a small block, about one foot or eighteen inches in height, and set it down by the side of him, about where you want to stand to mount him; step up on this, raising yourself very gently; horses notice, every change of position very closely, and if you were to step up suddenly on the block, it would be very apt to scare him ; bu, by raising yourself gradually on it, he will see you, without being frightened, in a position very near the same as wh you are on his back. As soon as he will bear this without alarm, untie the stirrup strap next to you, and put your left foot into the stirrup, and stand square over it, holding your knee against the horse, and your toe out, so as to touch him under the shoulder with the toe of your boot. Place your right hand on the front of the saddle and on the opposite side of you. Taking hold of a portion of the mane and the reins as they hang loosely over his neck with your left hand; then gradually bear your weight on the stirrup, and on your right hand, until the horse fieels your whole weight on the saddle; repeat this several times, each time raising yourself a little higher from the block, until he will allow you to raise your leg over his croop, and place yourself in the sad- dle. There are three great advantages in having a block to mount from. First, a sudden change of position is very apt to frighten a young horse that has never been handled; he will allow you to walk up to him, and stand by his side without scaring at you, because you have gentled him to that position, blut if you get down on your hands and knees and crawl towardss hi n, lie will be very much frightened, and upon the same principle, he woull frighten at your new position if you had the power to hold yourself over his back without touching himi. Then the first great advantage of the block is to gradually gentle him to that new position in which he will see you when you ride himn. Secondly, by the process of leaning your weight in the stir. rups, and on your hand, you can gradually accustom him to your weight, so as not to frighten him by having him feel itall at once. And in the third place the block elevates you so that you will not have to make a spring in ord rr to get on to the horse's back, but from it you can gradually raise yourself into the saddle. When you take these pirecaution-, there is no horse so wild, but what you (an mount hiil without miking him jump. I have tried it on th worst horses that could he found, and have never failed in any case. When mounting, your horse should alwavs stand wvithout being hfkld. A hor.e is inever well broke when he has to he held vithi a tight reinr while inount- ing; and a colt is never so safe to mount, as when you see that 23 assurance of confidence, and absence of fear, which causes him to stand without holding. How to Ride the Colt. When you want him to start do not touch him on the side with your heel or do anything to frighten him and make him jump. But speak to him kindly, aniif he does not start pull him a little to the left until he starts, and then let him walk off slowly with the reins loose. Walk him around in the stable a few times until he gets used to the bit, and you can turn him about in every direction and stop him as you please. It would be well to get on and off a good many times until he gets per- fectly used to it belore you take him out of the stable. After you have trained him in this way, which should not take you more than one or two hours, you can ride him any where you choose without ever having him jump or make any effort to throw you. When you first take him out of the stable be very gentle with him, as he will feel a little more at liberty to jump or run, and be a little easier frightened than he was while in the stable. But after handling him so much in the stable he will be pretty well broke, and you will be able to manage him without trouble or danger. When you first mount him take alittle the shortest hold on the left rein, so that if any thing frightens him you can prevent him jumping by pulling his head around to you. This opera- tion or pulling a horse's head around against his side will pre- vent any horse from jumping ahead, rearing up, or running away. If he is stubborn and will not go you can make him move by pulling his head around to one side, when whipping would have no effect. And turning him around a few times will make him dizzy, and then by letting him have his head straight, and giving him a little touch with the whip, he will go along without any trouble. Never use martingales on a colt when you first ride him; every movement of the hand should go right to the bit in the direction in which it is applied to the reins, without a martin- gale to change the direce;;s. of the force applied. You tan guide the colt much better witaxx:: :_.:.. and learn him the use of the bit in much less time. Besides, martingales would pre- vent you from pulling his head around if he should try to jumnp. After your colt has been rode until he is gertle and well ac- customed to the bit, you may find it an advantage if he carries 8 head too high, or his nose too far out, to put maitingales on 24 You should be careful not to ride your colt so far at first as to heat, worry or tire him. Get otias soon as you see he is a little fitigued ; gentle hirn and let him rest, this will make rim kind to you and prevent hirn frorn getting stubborn or mad. The proper way to Bit a Colt. Farmers often put bitting harness on a colt the first thing they do to him, buckling up the bitting as tight as they can draw it to make him carry his head high, and then turn him out in a lot to run a half day at a time. This is one of the worst punishments that they could inflict on the colt, and very injurious to a young horse that has been used to running in pasture with his head down. I have seen colts so injured in this way that they never got over it. A horse should be well accustomed to the bit before you put on the bitting harness, and when you first bit him you should only rein his head up to that point where he naturally holds it, let that be high or low; he will soon learn that he cannot lower his head, and that raising it a little will loosen the bit in his mouth. This will give him the idea of raising his head to loosen the bit, and then you can draw the bitting a little tighter every time you ut it on, ard he will still raise his head to loosen it; by this means you will gradually get his head and neck in the position you want him to carry it, and give him a nice and graceful car- riage without hurting him, making him mad, or causing his mouth to get sore. It you put the bitting on very tight the first time, he cannot raise his head enough to loosen it, but wiil bear on it all the timne, and paw, sweat and throw himself. Many horses have been killed by falling backward with the bitting on, their heads being drawn up, strike the ground with the whole weight of the body. Horses that have their heads drawn up tightly should not have the bitting on more than fifteen or twenty minutes at a time. How to drive a Horse that is very wild, and has any viciou3 habit Take up one fore foot and bend his knee till his hoof is bottom upwards, and merely touching his bod!, then slip a loop over his knee, and ulp until it comes above the )asttlre joint to keep it up, bein.- careful to draw the loop together between the hoof and pasture joint with a second strap of some kind, to prevent the loop from slipping down and coming off. This will leave the horse standing on three legs; you can now handle him as you 25 wish, for it is utterly impossible for him to kick in this position. There is something in this operation of taking up one foot that conquers a horse quicker and better than any thing else you can do to hirn. There is no process in the world equal to it to I reak a kicking horse, for several reasons. First, there is a principle of this kind in the nature of the horse; that by conqueririg one member you conquer to a great extent the is hole horse. You have perhaps seen men operate upon this principle by sewing a horse's ears together to prevent him from kicking. I once saw a plan given in a newspaper to make a bad horse stand to be shodJ, which was to fasten down one ear. There were no reasons given why you should do so; but I tried it several times, and thought it had a good effect-though I would not recommend its use, especially stitching his ears together. The only benefit arising from this process is, that by disarranging his ears we draw his attention to them, and he is not -o apt to resist the shoeingr. By tyingy- up one foot we operate on the same principle to a imuch better cffct. When you firstt fasten up a horse's loot he will s(me- times get very mad, and strike with bis knee, anti try every possible way to get it down; but he cannot (lo that, and will soon give it up. This will conquer him better than anything you could (lo, and without any possible danger of hurting himself or you either, for you can tie up his foot and sit down and look at him unlil he gives up. hlien you find that lie is conquered, go to hiim let down his foot, rub his leg with your band, caress him and let him rest a little, then .put it up again. Repeat this a few times, always putting up the same foot, and lie will soon learn to travel on three legs so that you can drive him some distance. As soon as he gets a little used to this way of traveling, put on your harness and hitch him to a sulky. Ift he is the worst kicking horse that ever raised a foot you need not be fearful (of his doing any danmage while lie has one foot up, for he cannot-kick. neither can lie run fast enough to do any harmn. And if he is the wild- est horse that ever had harness on, and has run away every time he has been hitched, you can now hitch him in a silky and drive him as you please. And it ne wants to run you can let him have the lines, and the whip too, with perfret salety, for he can- not go but a slow gait on three legs, and will soon be tired and willing to stop; only hold him enough to guide him in the right direction, and he will soon be tired and willing to stop at the word-. Thus you will effectnally cure him at once of any further notion of running off. Kicking horses have always been the dread of every body; you always hear men say, when they speak about a bad horse, " I don't care what lie does, so lie don't kick." This new method is an eflectual cure for this wo-st of all habits. There are plenty of ways by which you can hitch a 26 kicking lorse and force him to go, though he kicks all the time; but this don't have any good effect towards breaking him, for we know that horses kick because thev are afraid of what is behind them, and when they kick against it and it hurts them they will only kick the harder, and this will hurt them still more and make them remember the scrape much loniger, and make it still more difficult to persuade them to have any confidence in any thing dragging behind them ever after. But by this new method you can hitch them to a rattling sulky, plow, wagon, or anything else in its worst shape. They may be frightened at first, but cannot kick or do any thing to hurt them- selves, and will soon find that von do not intends to hurt them, and then they will not care any thing more about it. You can then let down the leg and drive along gently without any farther trouble. By this new process a bad kicking horse can be learned to go gentle in harness in a few hours' time. On Balking. Horses know nothing about balking, only as they are brought into it by improper management, anIl when a horse balks in har- ness it is generally fr.rrm some mismanagement, excitement, contusion, or from not knowing how to purl, but seldom fromany unwillingness to perform all that he nnder.tands.. High spirited, free going horses are the mot subject to balking,. and onlv so because drivers do not properly uin ler..tand how to manage this kind. A free horse in a team may he so anxious to go that when he hears the word lie will start with a jump, which will not move the load, bitt give him suich a severe jerk on the shoulders that he will fly back anwl stop the other hoise; the teamster will continue his driving without any cessation, and by the time he has the slow horse started again he will find that the free horse has made another jump, and again flew back, and now he has them both badly balked, and so confused that neither of them knows what is the matter, or how to start the load. Next will come the slashing and crack- ing of the whip, and hallooing of the driver, till something is broken or he is through with his course of treatment. But what a imist;ike thie dr-iver comyriiis by whipping his horse for this act. Reason anid common sense shouldl teach him that the horse was willing, and anxiou-s to go, out (lid not know how to start tile loal. And should he whip him for that If so, he sniuld whip him a'iain ibr not knowing how to talk. A man that w to act with ;lany .u,-itv or reason should not fly int-) a pa si ,n,but should alwaysthink . t . ,thestrikes. Ittakesa 27 steady pressure against the collar to move a load, and you cannot expect him to act with a steady, determined purpose while you are whipping him. There is hardly one balking horse in five hun- dred that will pull true from whipping; it is only adding fuel to fire, and will make them more liable to balk another time. You always see horses that have been balked a few times, turn their heads and look back, as soon as they are a little frus- trated. This is because they have been whipped and are afraid of what is behind them. This is an invariable rule with balked horses, just as much as it is for them to look around at their sides when they have the bots; in either case they are deserving of the same sympathy and the same kind, rational treatment. When your horse balks, or is a little excited, if he wants to start quickly, or looks around and don't want to go, there is something wrong. and needs kind he treatment immediately. Ca- ress him, kindly, and if lie don't understand at once what you want him to do he will not be so much excited as to jump and break things, and do everything wrong through fear. As long as you are calm and can keep down the excitement of the horse, there are ten chances to have him understand you, where there would not be one under harsh treatment, and thetn the littleflare up would not carry with it any unlavorable recollections, and he would soon forget all about it, and learn to pull true. Almost every wrong act the horse commits is from mismanagement. fear or excitement; one harsh word will so excite a nervous horse as to increase his paille ten beats ins minute. When we remenber that we are dealing with dumb brutes, andl reflect how dfficult it m:-,t be for them to. understand our motions, signs and language, we should never get out of patience with them because they don X understand us, or wonder at their doing things wrong. With ail our intellect, if we were placed in the horse's situation, it would be difflcult for us to understand the drivin!Z of some foreigner, of foreign ways and- foreign lan- guage. We should always recollect that our ways and language are justas foreicrn and unknown to the horse as anv language in the world is to us, and should try to practice what we could un- derstand, were we the horse, endeavoring by some simple means to work on his understanding rather than on the different parts of his body. All balked horses can be started true and steady in a few minutes time; thev are all willing to pull as soon as they know how, and I never yet found a balked horse that I could not teach him to start bis load in fifteen, and often less than three miautes time. Almost any team, when first balked, will start kindly, if you let them. stand five or ten minutes, as though t,-ere was noihing wrong, and then speak to them with a steady voice, and turn them a little to the right or left, so as to get them both in motion before 28 they feel the pinch of the load. But if you want to start a team that you are not driving yourself, that has been balked, fooled and whipped for some time, go to them and hang the lines on their hames, or fasten them to the wagon, so that they will be perfectly loose; make the driver and spectators (if there is any) stand off some distance to one side, so as not to attract the attention of the horses; unloose their checkreins, so that they can get their heads down, if they choose; let them stand a few minutes in this con- dition, until you can see that they are a little composed. While they are standing you should be about their heads, gentling them; it will make them a little more kind, and the spectators will think that you are doing something that they do not understand, and will not learn the secret. When you have them ready to start, stand before them, and as you seldom have but one balky horse in a team, (ret as near in front of him as you can, and it he is too fast for the other horse, let his nose come against your breast; this will keep him steady, for he will go slow rather than run on you; turn them gently to the right, without letting them pull on the traces, as tar as the tongue will let them go; stop them with a kind word, gentle them a little, and then turn them back to the left, by the scome process. You will have them under your control by this time, and as you turn them again to the right, steady them in the collar, and you can take them where you please. There is a quicker process that will generally start a balky horse, but not so sure. tStand him a little ahead, so that his shoulders will be against the collar, and then take up one of his fore feet in your hand, and let the driver start them, and when the weight comes against his shoulders, he will try to step ; then let him have his foot, and he will go right along. If you want to break a horse from balking that has long been in that habit, you ought to set apart a half day for that purpose. Put him bv the side of some steady horse; have check lines on themn tie tip) all the traces and straps, so that there will be nothing to excite them ; do not rein them up, but let them have their heads loose. WValk them about together for some time as slowly and lazily as possible; stop otft'n, and go up to your balky horse and gentle him. Do not take any whip about him, or (lo any thing to excite him, but keep him just as qitiet as you can. lie will soon learn to start off at the word, and stop whenever you tell him. As soon as he performs right, hitch him in an empty wagfon; have it stand in a ftvorable position for staiting. It would be well to shorten the stav chain behind the steady horse, so that if it is necessary he can take the weight of the wagon the first time you start them. Do not drive but a few rods at first watch your balky ho7se closely, and if you see that he is getting lim before he stops of his own accord, caress himn 29 a little, and start again. As soon as they go well, drive them over a small hill a few times, and then over a large one, occa- sionally adding a little load. This process will make any horse true to pull. To Break a Horse to Harness. Take him in a tight stable, as you did to ride him; take the harness and go through the same process 'hat sou did wit:, the saddle, until you get him familiar with them, so that you can put them on him and rattle them about without his caring for them. As soon as he will bear this, put on the lines, caress him as you draw them over him, and drive him about in the stable till lie will bear them over his hips. The lines arc a great ag- gravation to some colts, and often frighten them as much as if you were to raise a whip over them. As soon as he is familiar with the harness and line, take him out and put him by the side ol a gentle horse, and go through the same process that you did with the balking horse. Always lse a bridle without blinds when you are breaking a horse to harness. How to hitch a Horse in a Sulky. Lead him to and around it; let him look at it, touch it with his nose, and stand by it till he does not care for it; then pull the shafts a little to the left, and stand by your horse in front of the off wheel. Let some one stand on tle right side of the horse, and hold him by the bit, while you stand on the left side, facing the sulky. This will keep him straight. Run your left hand back and let it rest on his hip, and lay hold of the shafts with your right, bringing them up very gently to the left hand, which still remains stationary. Do net let anything but your arm touch his back, and as soon as you have the shasts square over him, let the person on the opposite side take holdI of one of them and lower them very gently &n the shalt bearers. Be very slow and deliberate about hitching; the longer time you take, the better, as a general thing. When you have the shafts piaced, shake them slightly, so that he will feel them against each sihe. As soon as he will bear them without scaring, fasteu your braces, etc., and start him along very slowly. Let one man lead the horse to keep him gentle, while the other gradually works back with the lines till he can get behind and drive him. After you have driven him in this way a short distance, you can get into 30 the sulky, and all will go right. It is very important lo have your hore go gently, when you first hitch him. After you have walked him awhile, there is not half so much danger of his scaring. Men do very wrong to jump up behind a horse to drive him as soon as they have him hitched. There are too many things for him to comprehend all at once. The shafts, the lines, the harness, and the rattling of the sulky, all tend to scare him, and he must be made familiar with them by degrees. If your horse is verv wild, I would advise you to put up one foot the first time you drive him. How to Make a Hore Lie Down. Every thing that we want to learn the horse must be com- menced in some way to give him an idea of what you want him to do, and then be repeated till he learns it perfectly. To make a horse lie down, bend his left fore leg, and slip a loop over it, so that he cannot get it down. Then put a circin le around his body, and fasten one end of a long strap around the other fore leg, just above the hoof. Place the other end under the circingle, so as to keep the strap in the right hand; stand on the left side of the horse, g'asp the bit in your left hand, pull steadily on the strap with your right; bear against his shoulder till you cause him to move. As soon as he lifts his weight, your pulling will raise the other foot, and he will have to come on his knees. Keep the strap tight in your hand, so that he cannot straighten his leg if he raises up. Hold him in his position, and turn his bead toward you; bear against his side with your shoulder, not hard, but with a steady equal pressure, and in about ten minutes he will lie down. As soon as he lies down he will be completely conquered, and you can handle him as you please. Take off the straps, and straighten out his legs; rub him lightly about the face and neck with your hand the way the hair lays; handle all his legs, and after he has lain ten or twenty min;utes, let him get up again. Af- ter resting him a short time, make him lie down as before. Repeat the operation three or four times, which will be suffi- cient for one lesson. Give him two lessons a day, and when you have given him four lessons, be will lie down by taking hold of one foot. As soon as he is well broken to lie down in this way, tap him on the opposite leg with a stick when you take hold of his foot, and in a few days he will lie down from the inere motion of the stick. 31 How to make a Horse follow you. Turn him into a large stable or shed, where there is no chance to get out, with a halter or bridle on. Go to him and gentle him a little, take hold of his halter and turn him towards you, at the same time touching him lightly over the hips with a long whip. Lead him the length of the stable, rubbing him on the neck, saving in a steady tone o1 voice as you lead him, COME ALONG BOY! or use his name instead of boy, if you choose. Every time you turn, touch him slightly with the whip, to make him step up close to you, and then caress him with your hand. He will soon learn to hurry up to escape the whip and be ca- ressed, and you can make him follow you around without taking hold of the halter. If he should stop and turn from you, give him a few cuts about the hind legs, and he will soon turn his head toward you, when you must always caress him. A few les. sons of this kind will Slake him run after you, when he sees the motion of the whip-in twenty or thirty minutes he will follow you about the stable. After you have given him two or three lessons in the stable, take him out into a small lot and train him; and from thence you can take him into the road and make him follow you anywhere, and run after you. How to make a Horse stand without Holding. After you have him well broken to follow you, stand him in the center of the stable-begin at his head to caress him, gradu- ally working backward. If he move, give him a cut with the whip and put him back in the same spot from which he started. If he stands, caress him as before, and continue gentling him in this way until you can get round him without making him move. Keep walking around him, increasing your pace, and only touch him occasionally. Enlarge your circle as you walk around and if he then moves, give him another cut with the whip and put him back to his place. If he stands, go to him frequently and caress him, and then walk around him again. Do not keep him in one position too long at a time, but make him come to you occasionally and follow you round in the stable. Then stand him in another place, and proceed as before. You should not train your horse more than half an hour at a time. This page in the original text is blank. TIHE HORSEMAN'S GUIDE AND FARRIER. By JOHN J. STUTZMAN, West Rushville, Fairfield County, Obio. I will here insert soine of the most efficient cures of diseases to which the horse is subject. I have practised them for many years with unparalleled success. I have cured horses with the following remedies, which, (in many cases,) have been given up in despair, and I never had a case in which I did not effect a cure. Cure for Colic. Take 1 gill of turpentine, 1 gill of opium dissolved in whisky; I quart of water, milk warm. Drench the horse and move him about slowly. It' there is no relief in fifteen minutes, take a piece of chalk, about the size of an egg, powder it, and put it into a pint ot cider vinegar, which should be blood warm, give that, and then move him as before. ANOTHER.-Take 1 ounce laudanum, 1 ounce of ether, I ounce of tincture of assafoetida, 2 ounces tincture of pepper- mint, half pint of whisky; put all in a quart bottle, shake it well and drench the horse. Cure for the Bots. Take la pint of fresh milk, (just from the cow,) 1 pint of mo lasses. Drench the horse and bleed him in the mouth; then give him 1 pint of linseed oil to remove them. For Distemper. Take mustard seed ground fine, tar and rye chop, make pills about the size of a hen's egg. Give him six pills every six hours, until they physic him; then give him one table spoonful of the horse powder mentioned before, once a day, until cured. Keep him from cold water for six hours after using the powder. Lung Fever. In the first place bleed the horse severely. Give him spirits 3 34 of nitre, in water which should not be too cold, for it would chill him. Keep him well covered with blankets, and rub his legs and body well; blister him around the chest with mustard seed, and be sure to give him no cold water, unless there is spirits of nitre in it. Rheumatic Liniment. Take croton oil, aqua ammonia, f.ff; oil of cajuput, oil of ori- ganum, in equal parts. Rub well. It is good for spial diseases and weak back. Cats and Wounds of all kinds. One pint of alcohol, half ounce of gum of myrrh, half ounce aloes, wash once a day. Sprains and Swellings. Take 1P ounces of harts-horn, 1 ounce camphor, 2 ounces spirits of turpentine, 4 ounces sweet oil, 8 ounces alcohol. An- noint twice a day. For Glanders. Take of burnt buck's horn a table spoonful, every three days for nine days. If there isnoreliefinthattime,continuethepow- der until there is relief. Saddle or Collar Liniment. One ounce of spirits of turpentine, half ounce of oil of spike, half ounce essence of wormwood, half ounce castile soap, half ounce gum camphor, half ounce sulphuric ether, half pint alco- hol, and wash freely. Liniment to set the stife Joint on a Hors. One ounce oil of spike, half ounce oigaLnum, half ounce oil amber. Shake it well and rub the joints twice a day until cured, which will be in two or three days. Eye Water. I have tried the following and found it an efficient remedy. I have tried it on my own eyes and those of others. Take bolus muna 1 ounce, white vitrol I ounce, alum half ounce, with one pint clear rain water: shake it well before using. If too strongp weaken it with rain water. Liniment for Wlndgalls, Strains and growth of Lumps on Xan or Horse. One ounce oil of spike, half once origanun, half ounce amber, aqua fortis and sal amoniac 1 drachm, spirits of salts 1 drachm oil of sassafras half ounce, harts-horn half ounce. Bathe once or twice a day. Horse Powder This powder will cure more diseases than any other medicine known; such as Distemper, Fersey, Hidebound, Colds, and all lingering diseases which may arise from impurity of the blood or lungs.-Take 1 lb. comfrey root, half lb. antimony, half lb. sulphur, 3 oz. of saltpetre, half lb. laurel berries, half lb. juniper berries, half lb. angetice seed, half lb. rosin, 3 oz. alum, half lb. copperas, half lb. master wvort, half lb. gun powder. Mix all to a powder and give in the most cases, one table spoonful in mash feed once a day till cured. Keep the horse dry, and keep him from the cold water six hours after using it. For Cuts or Wounds on Horse or Man. Take fisbworms mashed up with old bacon oil, and tie on the wound, which is the surest and safest cure. Oil for Collars. This oil s 21 also cure bruises, sores, swellings, strains or galls. Take fishwo- -nd put them in a crock or other vessel 24 hours, till they be, , clean; then put them in a bottle and throw plenty of salt upon them, place them near a stove and they will turn to oil; rub the parts affected freely. 1 have cured knee-sprung horses with this oil frequenly. Sore and Scummed Eyes on Horses. Take fresh butter or rabbit's fat, honey, and the white of three eggs, well stirred up with salt, and black pepper ground to a fine powder; mix it well and apply to the eye with a feather. Also rub above the eye (in the hollow,) with the salve. Washfreely with cold spring water. For a Bruised Eye. Take rabbit's fat, and use as above directed. Bathe freely with fresh spring water. I have cured many bloodshot eyes with this simple remedy. Poll-evil or Fistula. Take of spanish flies I oz., gum euphorbium 3 draehms, tar- ,, ;L eetic 1 oz., rosin 3 oz;; mix and pulverize, and then mix them with a half lb. of lard. Annoint every three days for three weeks; grease the parts affected with lard every four days. Wash with soap and water before using the salve. In poll-evil, if open, pulverize black bottle glass, put as much in each ear as will lay on a dime. The above is recommended in outside cal- lous, such as spavin, ringbone, curbs, windgalls, etc. etc. For the Fersey. Take 1 quart of sassafras root bark, 1 quart burdock root, spice wood broke fine, 1 pint rattle weed root. Boil in 1 gal- lons of water; scald bran; when cool give it to the horse once a day for 3 or 4 days. Then bleed him in the neck and give him the horse powder as directed. In extreme cases, I also rowel in the breast and hind legs, to extract the corruption and remove the swelling. This is also an efficient remedy for blood diseases, etc., etc. To Make the Hair Grow on Nan or Beast. Take milk of sulphur A drachm, sugar of lead d drachm, rose water i gill, mix and bathe well twice a day for ten days. Cholera or Diarrhea Tincture. 1 oz. of laudanum, 1 oz. of spirits of camphor, 1 oz. spirits of nitre, i oz. essence of peppermint, 20 drops of chloroform; put all in a bottle, shake well, and take A teaspooufiul in cold water once every six, twelve and twenty-four hours, according o the nature of the case. Care for the Heaves. Give 30 grains of tartar emetic every week until cured. Process of causing a Horse to lay down. Approach him gently upon the left side. fasten a strap around the ancle of his fore-foot; then raise the foot gently, so as to bring the knee against the breast and the foot against the belly. The leg bein- in this position, fasten the strap around his arm, which will effectually prevent him from putting that foot to the ground again. Then fasten a strap around the opposite leg, and bring it over his shoulder, on the left side, so that you can catch hold of it; then push theqe gently, and when he goes to fall, pull the strap, which will bring him on his knees. Now commence patting him under the belly; by contin-:ing your gentle strokes upon the belly, you wvill, in a few minutes, bring him to his knees behind. Continue the process, and he 37 will lie entirely down, and submit himself wholly to your treat. ment. By thus proceeding gently, you may handle 1his feet and legs in any way you choose. However wild and fractious a horse may be naturally, after practicing this process a few times, you will find him perfectly gentle and submissive, and even disposed to follow you any- where, and unwilling to leave you on any occasion. Unless the horse be wild, the first treatment will be all sufficient; but should he be too fractious to be approached in a manner neces. sary to perform the first named operation, this you will find effectual, and you may then train your horse to harness or any- thing else with the utmost ease. In breaking horses for harness, after giving the powders, put the harness on gently, without startling him, and pat him gently, then fasten the chain to a log, which he will draw for an in- definite length of time. When you find him sufficiently gentle, place him to a wagon or other vehicle. NOTE.-Be extremely careful in catching a horse, not to af- fright him. Alter he is caught, and the powders given, rub him gently on the head, neck, back and legs, and on each side of the eyes, the way the hair lies, but be very careful not to whip, for a young horse is equally passionate with yourself; and this per- nicious practice has ruined many fine and valuable horses. When you are riding a colt (or even an old horse), do not whip him if he scares, but draw the bridle, so that his eye may rest upon the object which has affrighted him, and pat him upon the neck as you approach it; by this means you will pacify him, and render him less liable to start in future. Xeans of learning a Horse to pace. Buckle a four pound weight around the ancles of his hind legs, (lead is preferable) ride your horse briskly with those weights upon his ancles, at the same time, twitching each rein of the bridle alternately, by this means you will immediately throw him into a pace. After you have trained him in this way to some extent, change your leaded weightskfor something lighter; lea- ther padding, or something equal to it, will answer the purpose; let hitu wear these light weights until he is perfectly trained. This process will make a smooth and easy pacer of any horse. Horsemanship. The rider should, in the first place, let the horse know that he is not afraid of him. Before mounting a horse, take the rein into the left hand, draw it tightly, put the left foot in the stirrup, and raise quickly. When you are seated press your knees to the saddle, let your leg, from the knee, stand out; turn your toe in and heel ont; sit upright in your saddle, throw your weight forward-one third of it in the stirrups-and hold your rein tight. Should your horse scare, you are braced in your saddle, and he cannot throw you. Indication of a Horse's Disposition. A long thin neck indicates a good disposition, contrariwise, if it be short and thick. A broad forehead, high between the ears, indicates a very vicious disposition. Cures, &c. Cure for the Founder.-Let 1 gallons of blood from the neck vein, make frequent applications of hot water to his fore- legs; after which, bathe them in wet cloths, then give one quart Linseed Oil. The horse will be ready for service the next day. Botts.-Mix one pint honey with one quart sweet milk, give as a drench, one hour after, dissolve I oz. pulverized Coperas in a pint of water. use likewise, then give one quart of Linseed Oil. Cure eflectual. Colic.-After bleeding copiously in the mouth, take a half pound of raw cotton, wrap it around a coal of fire in such a way as to exclude the air; when it begins to smoke, hold it under the horse's nose until he becomes easy. Cure certain in ten minutes. Distemper.-Take 1 gallons blood from the neck vein, then give a dose of Sassafras Oil, I-li ounces is sufficient. Cure speedy and certain. Fistula.-When it makes its appearance, rowel both sides of the shoulder; if it should break, take one ounce of virdigris. 1 ounce oil rosin, 1 ounce copperas, pulverize and mix together. Use it as a salve. Receipt for Bone Spavin or Ring-Bone. Take a table-spoonful of corrosive sublimate; quicksilver about the size of a bean; 3 or 4 drops of muriatic acid; iodine about the size of a pea, and lard enough to form a paste; grind the iodine and sublimate fine as flour, and put altogether in a cup, mix well, then shear the hair all off the size you want; wash clean with soap-suds, rub dry, then apply the medicine. Let it stay on five days; if it does not take effect, take it off, mix it over with a little more lard, and add some fresh medicine. When the lump comes out, wash it clean in soap-suds, then apply a poultice of cow dung, leave it on twelve hours, then apply healing medicine. Temperance Beverage. One quart of water, three pounds of sugar, one tea-spoonful 39 of lemon oil, one table-spoonful of flour, with the white of four eggs, well beat up. Mix the above well together, then divide the syrup, and add four ounces of carbonic soda in one-half, and three ounces of tartaric acid in the other half; then bottle for use. p Syrup. One ounce Sarsaparilla, two pounds brown sugar, ten drops wintergreen, and half pint of water. This page in the original text is blank. "The most Wonderful Book ever Written. ESOTERIIC ANTHROPOLOGY Interior Science of Ian A Czmprhensive and COefidntia l Treaies an the Strmctre au( Puntens, PaiOWal attractios and Prresions; Trie ad False Physical and Social Conditions, and the most intimate relations of men and omen. By T. L. Nichoh, X. D. 482 pages, 1 engraving, eloth. Tips BOOK IS ALI MA ITS gTIm IiDwcATgs.-It treas .q of the generation, formation, birth, infancy youth, manhood, old ag-., and death of anof alth aijd diowase, marriage and celibacy, virtue 3nml vice, hapinc-s annl misery; of education, development, and the laws of a true life. It Is ini, tended to an. wer all qustions, and to give the fullest and most r.li;.ble information on every subject of a physiulogicti or medicAl natur-to be k-faithful friend in health and disease, nnd in all th" conditions of lite, especially to the young of both sexts, and tmose who are about to enter upon new relations. It contains the highest and deepes trutha. in Human Physiology, with their individmil and social application; the true nature and hi4den causes ox diwease; the condition of health, phyiical and pas- o4onAl; all that inftrmnati.,n which ev.sty human being needs, which few dare to ask for, or knovt how toolbtain, but whichl, amnid Ute diaes& lances of civilization, is of priceless value. The portion of di.' w.ork on the geneistive systei. is written with entire frankness and fully illus- roteand is unqueitionably the most minarkalylk vxrxp-imion of thie physical, spiritual, and passional latu.e oi lofan i vir written-o remarmiqlile nWCeCA, thlat it h1s seemed to many peerso=ii to be the re- sult of d.r,'ct i .t;in.tiot. The whople sw4j.;tc of thb& relaniotns of the sexes, or love, marriage, an.' putztriiiiy; I.t iia open, as it never lias kx-,un "Iy any other author. A ioiseelialleous chafjter, fnrninnv anl alIpenlaix to this portion of the work, is als) of a vcrv remnarkakl character. It ha.s been tr said " There con .careely be any important question, whiah any man or woman can ever ineed to A a phy-ician, to which tl;is Iook does not contain an answer." The diseases of the generative sys- tem, phyic.dl and passional, ar- treated of with great ft mness. .. Jreds of viduntitry tetinuoninIs to the extraterwdnauv character and merits of this book lhavt bLen received from persuas eminently q ualitied to judge, Among which are clergymen, physicians lawyers,eollege ljroiessors, etc. We select the following: 0I look upou it," says Ds. rpruasp, of tForest Cits, dev,'op. and ennoble the minndsiof tbe.people.' . Y.. a the al.st w.'mlderful book ever written. It 1 D r. FASIRA, of Portland, Me.. says, - Poterie Au maio a imew era in lmteratuee and lit." i thropolgy is vital ineverypart.refrelsingavery man's "What a pit," 'ays Wr. 'iCUuLL, of ld., - tbat a a-d wolan's soul that reads it with a most gratefu, COpy cGanot be found in every faanily iu time bbole vel," oI Its truth and importance. I know ofo wqao wori ! ' EI the wOTl'l lIke it. or comparable with if." 'lb iabook.,'says Dr. Doves. of Owego. 11 Y."- cn - I- I ha .r read ' EIOTYhTIC .-ANTfiHOPOLOGY taftls more that is wsi,,hty il f4ct, -od sound ii. p1x.o'- idb a I I.e. .e 1' arne-tn sa and a hsi- inic interer sophy; ore that is udefui in miedisaI scimiace andi willt wi.t. h I i-tve!ver pei;-.ed the mo.'L wAnlllant r efiectivo in niedical art; more thatia purilative aid miniance. It hi-s sired nobler eemiotiois.i and deepri elevative of man than any one workis volumes few pletarsne. ' Trulh' is more atiractive than I fiction. or many that has ever graced le 141RARISm M3cAL. oft The wn k, 1 btlieve to be eninently- true to nature-to civilization." . I her us.erring laws; I liestate. not, therefore, to prio- It contains," ways Pr. Rassx. of RaIlne, Wi.. jufst miounce it a noble work. It will be' great blessing to uch kneowiedge" awuerimg world seaia,toetligbten. bamanity."-Ptor. ALLEN. 01 Anti.ch College. Theenthusiastie lect res ecting it, received, would fill a volume, larger than hook itself. Sac- rificing every personal consideration, and changing his first intention, iwhich wnaf to keep it as strictly privatn aud profeesounl work, a physiological mi'sttW as its title indicates-the autho offers ESQWENIC A'muaors'ouoy to tue whole public of readlrs; satisfied that no permanent evil as result to any human being from the knowledge of the deepest truths, and most sacred mvsteries o the science of life. t XACK TlfI.-Nearly every oiet work on this subiect directs the realder to apply to its authoi fora plresription in ease of sickness, accompanied by a fee; while thiis, although its author is ractissing plysician, contains not a lin"n of this kind; its whole tendency being, to place ever rader, whether male or female, entirely above the need of a physician. SENT FREE BY MAIL FOR ONE DOLLAR. WATrKIN & NICUOLSON, Publisbers No. 225 Fift - Street, nati, 0. The attention co Lecture d Book Agents is especially called to this work at being like,'y to give more asatiactim to th tho gh//ul and inqUsirin 'eader than almost and odier tVey could introduce.