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Dissertation on the medical properties and injurious effects of the habitual use of tobacco : read, according to appointment, before the Medical society of the county of Oneida, at their semi-annual meeting, January 5, 1830 / by A. McAllister.r.
Dissertation on the medical properties and injurious effects of the habitual use of tobacco : read, according to appointment, before the Medical society of the county of Oneida, at their semi-annual meeting, January 5, 1830 / by A. McAllister.r. McAllister, A. (Alvan) 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b98-53-42679626 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Dissertation on the medical properties and injurious effects of the habitual use of tobacco : read, according to appointment, before the Medical society of the county of Oneida, at their semi-annual meeting, January 5, 1830 / by A. McAllister.r. McAllister, A. (Alvan) Peirce & Parker ; H.C. Sleight, Boston : New York : 1832. viii, 36 p. ; 17 cm. Coleman Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 1999. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PA-23166-98) ; SOL MN08554.05 KUK) s1999 gaun a Printing Master B98-53. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Tobacco habit. A DISSERTATION Cex TiHE MEDICAL PROPERTIES AND INJURIOUS EFFECTS OF 19 q aA Q Q 3 Qln BY A. UcALLISTER, M. D. Improved and e nlarged, vwiih an Introductory Preface, BY MOSES STUAI..T, Asso. Prof. of Sac. Lit. in Anfdorer Iust. I I I Jl IIi I I I I I i I I I I 4,. r + I i I i i I il1; I i i Ii I: I1 i i I' il II 1; I i I I el Qq' This page in the original text is blank. A DISSERTATION ON THE MEDICAL PROPERTIES AND INJURIOUS EFFECTS OF THE HABITUAL USE OF TOBACCO: READ, ACCORDING TO APPOINTMENT, BEFORE THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE COUNTY OF ONEIDA, AT THEIR SEMI-ANNUAL MEETING, JANUARY 5, 1830. BY A. McALLISTER, M. D. .icconb -bittfon. Improved and enlarged, with an Introductory Preface, BY MOSES STUART, Associate Professor of Sac. Lit. in the Theol. Inst. at Andover. BOSTON: PUBLISHED BY PEIRCE & PARKER, No. 9. Cornhill. NEW YORK:-H. C. SLEIGHT, Clinton Hall. 1832. Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by PEIRCI & PARKER, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts. PRESS OF PEIRCE AND PARKER, No. 9, Cormibill. INTRODUCTION. The first edition of Dr. McAllister'a Essay, was printed without any Appendix. Having myself been in the habit of using tobacco very moderately (usually but once in a day) from early life, i read the Es- say as first printed with great interest. It appeared to me a sober, judicious, rational appeal to the understanding and judgment of the public, with respect to the subject of which it treats. A highly re- spected friend of mine desired me to give hirn my opinion of-the Es- ay in writing. I consented to do this ; and when I had done it, he judged it expedicet to publish that opinion; to which I gave my con- secnt. It was published in the Journal of Humanity; and for sub- stance it was made up of an abridgement of Dr. McAllister's views, and some strictures on his style and method of treating the subject. In particular, a desire clois exipressed that Dr. McA. would discuss more fully some of tho arguments employed in defence of using to- bacco. This critique was sent to the author of the Essay; who in consequence of it expressed a willingness to revise his work, and make such additions as had been suggested. Sonne weeks since he transmitted Lo me a copy of the original edition, with a manuscript containing the Appendix to the present edition. At the same time he reque.ted me to make any alterations in either part, which I might deemn expedient. I have used this liberty so far as to change a few technical words for popular and intelligible ones. In some of these cases, I have detracted from the specific accuracy of the writer, as a medical man, for the sake of makin r his expressions more intelligible to the mass oft readers. IV hat lie will thus lose, in his reputatiomn for scientifieal accuracy, he will gain by becoming more useful, A few other slight alterations and modifications have been made; but only such as 1 judfred tIle womthy author would at once cheerfully admit. I have kept within the b unds oif the liberty which lie gave me ; and I trust lie will not be dissatisfied with what I have done. I corn i1iemid the serious perusal of the following Essay and Appen- dix to every msan, who wishes to become well informed respecting the properties of tobacco. Whoever uses this substance as a luxury, is bound by a due regard to his own physical welfare to make himself acquainted vithi its propeitics and their inflenice. If any man can soberly peruse the following lrages, without conviction that he is "playing with edge-tools," while he is indulging in the use of tobac- co, I mist confess his mind to be of a composition different from nmne. One word as to brcakinz off the habit. The difficulty, I fully be- lieve, is not intmch less tiai the breakinigr off fro.m ardent spirits. But as to any danger to health ir. breaking off the fear is idle; excepting iV in case of delicate habits, where small changes produce great effects; or in case of advanced years and inveterate habit, where the course of those fluids which are so much affected by tobacco, if suddenly and entirely changed, may give rise to serious inconvenience. My belief, however, is, that there no case in which a judicious and proper course may not efect an entire weaning from the use of tobacco. Most persons in good health, and all in younger life, may break off at once, without the least danger. Two or three days will overcome all difficulty. Those whom slight changes in regi- men affect very much, may break off more gradually; and so of persons advanced in life. A good way of accomplishing this, is to procure some of the most detestable tobacco which can be found, and when appetite will not forego the use of it without an evil great- er than to use it, then take it in such a quantity as will be sure to nauseate and prostrate. This will put the next dose farther off; and two or three doses thus administered, will so blunt the appetite, that quitting the practice will appear to be quite a moderate degree of self- denial. Those who never felt the appetite may laugh at such direc- tions as these; but those who know its power, will at least think them worth some consideration. I do not place the use of tobacco in the same scale with that of ar- dent spirits. It does not make men maniacs and demons. But that it does undermine the health of thousands ; that it creates a nervous irritability, and thus operates on the temper and moral character of men; that it often creates a thirst for spirituous liquors ; that it al- lures to clubs, and grog-shops, and taverns, and thus helps to make idlers and spendthrifts; and finally, that it is a very serious and need- less expense; are things which cannot be denied by any observing and considerate person. And if all this be true, how can the habitual use of tobacco, as a mere luxury, be defended by any one who wishes well to his fellow-men, or has a proper regard to his own usefulness I have been in the use of it for thirty-five years; but I confess my- self unable, on any ground, to defend or to excuse the practice. The wants which are altogether artificial, are such as duty calls us to avoid. The indulgence of them can in no way promote our good or our real comfort. I commend, therefore, the following sheets to the public; hoping that all, and especially the young, ill read and well consider the suggestions they offer. __ M. STUART. ANOVERx, JAN-. 10, 1832. To THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE COUNTY OF ONEIDA. Gis I LE3 FN, We have accidentally seen the manuscript copy of an address pronoun- ced lately belore your soc!ety, by Dr. McAllister. 'Ihe research on which it is founded, and its perspicuity and arrangement, entitle it to a lorm more perma- itent titan mariubcrilt. ilut if the results are true, which it attempts to sub- stantiate, they prevent imperious considerations for the publication of the address. We are not disposed to (contract the circle of enjoyment; but if mischief crouches uider tile covert of atly pleasure, propriety requires a notification co the unwary. Even should experience warrant the conclusion that habit ena- bles us to use tobacco withs physical imputtity, (a cnoClLsiolt which Dr. McAl- lister powerfully controverts,) s1c must coltcede, that its use is disgusting to persons not intected with the habit. Civilization is composed of innumerable acts of self-denial; while the grati- fication of appetites, regardless of others, is the strongest feature of barbarism. Wc see then, eveit as a dictate of regnetinent, that tho use of tobacco should be abandoned, and it has been abandoned by all the polite circles of Europe. But tobacco possesses that strong characteristic of a bad habit; it seldom leaves its votaries the 1I)ertv of abandonment. All which the address can ef- fect, is alt adinotition to youth, over whomi tobacen has not yet acquired its bad supremacy. As parents, then, anxious to see our children uncontaminat- ed by disgustful piactices; as citizens, eatulous that our country shall not be surpassed in refittemettt by the nations of Europe, we are solicitous that the address of L)r. McAllister should be published, and in a pamphlet form, under the authority of your society. We are aware that this request involves a departure from your general dis- position of the periodical addresses of your members, but we beg to suggest that the general interest of the present prodttction renders a departure from your usual course toot itvitlious, but a duty which we humbly think you owe to philanthropy. In support of our opinion, we take the liberty of enclositig you a letter from a distitiguished fellow-citizen ils Albany, who also accidentally saw the address: and we are, Gentlemen, With very great respect, your ob't serv'ts, A. B. JOHNSON, EDM'D A. WETMORE, 1). C.( LANSING, WILLIAM WILLIAMS, HIRAM D)ENIO, SAM'L D. DAKIN. R. R. LANSING, UTICA, FEB. 27, 1830. LyYnus STREET. ALBANY, Friday Evening, January 22d, 1830. DEAR SIR, I have just completed an attentive perusal of the manuscript discourse on tobacco, which 3ou hassded to me this afternoon; and I really feel obliged to the author for tihe interest and instruction which it has afforded me. I am sin- cerely of opinirn that the respectable society before whom it was delivered, owe it to themselves, to the public, and to the author, (if they have not already done so,) to request its publication. And, favorably as it leads me to think of the author's intellectual and professional endowments, he must be still more distinguished for his modesty, if he declines a compliance with such a request. He has treated a highly important subject, in a clear, forcible, and striking maaner; and the public are deeply concenied in knowing what he has said of it. I will only add, that in point of literary execution, it is, in my judgment, most decidedly respectable, and would in that respect reflect tio discredit upon any medical gentleman in this state. Very respectfully and truly yours, &c. &c. A. CONKLING. R. R. LANsING, Esq. At a meeting of the Medical Society of the County of Oneida, on the 5th of March, 830, a communication was received, signed by a number of highly respectable gentlemen from this atid other counties of this state, on the sub- ject of a dissertation delivered before this society, at their late semi-anntual meeting, by )r. McAllister, "oft the properties and effects of tobacco." The communication was referred to a committee. The committee reported, "That although dissertations so delivered became the property of the society, yet believing as we do, that the subject is one of great importance, and the dissertation highly meritorious, and as we have not Funds to defray the expense of publication, we will cheerfully relinqnfish our claim thereto in favor of our correspondents, and cordially unite vithl them in the desire which they have expressed to us, 'that the dissertation be published in a pamphlet form,' for their gratification and the benefit of the public." RESOLVED, That the above report be accepted, and that a copy of the pro- ceedings be delivered to the gentlemen who presented the comniurucation. C. B. COVENTRY, Sec'y pro. tem. PREFACE. In consenting to the publication of the following pages, the author yielded to the request of gentlemen whose opinions he did not feel at liberty to disregard; he therefore hopes to avoid the imputation of vanity, with which he might have been charg- ed, had he obtruded himself on the attention of the public, un- solicited. That the habitual use of tobacco is a wide spread, and spreading evil, will be acknowledged by all. This has been felt for years by the most enlightened members of the Faculty. That it causes many diseases, particularly visceral obstruc- tions, and renders many btthers exceedingly difficult to cure, is demonstrated in the daily experience of every practitioner. The conviction that this habit was constantly extending by the advice and example of physicians, first induced the author to undertake the discussion of this subject before the respectable Society to which he has the honor to belong. Whether the attempt has been successful, the public will judge. That it is imperfect, will not be denied; but it is believed to have claims as a candid statement of facts. To literary distinction the author makes no pretentions; he therefore craves the indulgence of the learned, as they can best appreciate the labor of writing well. He has chosen a free, popular style, believing that the best calculated to do good; and to render it still more familiar, at the suggestion of some friends, the technical terms have been mostly expunged. Aware that affectation consists no less in studiously avoiding, than in unnecessarily using technical language, the author submitted to this, in the hope of being better understood by persons out of the Profession. His medical brethren will, therefore, know how to excuse him, for attempting to make this essay more plain, though it should be at the expense of technical accuracy. viii Should the prevalence of the practice, be a fair index to pub- lie sentiment, the author is aware that he wars against a fearful odds. But many who use this noxious weed, without hesita- tion acknowledge its deleterious effects, and urge in extenua- tion the inveteracy of habit. One consideration had considerable influence to induce the author to consent to the publication of this paper-the hope that it might aid in putting away the evil of intemperance, by pointing out one grand source of that desolating scourge. When public attention shall be fully awakened to this subject, innumerable instances will be found, where drunkenness has followed as the legitimate consequence of using tobacco. Should that hope be fulfilled-should it be found that the labor of the author has exerted any salutary influence, in re- straining young men from falling into those habits which are inevitably followed by much physical suffering, if not by abso- lute ruin, such a result would be to him an ample compensa- tion. UTICA, MAY, 1830. DISSERTATION. MR. PRESIDENT AND GENTrLEMEN: The confidence of an enlightened community has assign- ed to you, as guardians of the dearest interests of society, an elevated and highly responsible rank among those who la- bor to promote the great cause of human happiness. Your influence in the medical councils of this great and flourish- ing State, gives a lasting effect to your deliberations, and stamps a value on those productions which you are pleased to approve. While the opinions of other men are often ex- hibited and forgotten with the occasicni which gave them birth, those of the physician continue not unfreqiuently to affect at least the physical wvelfare of the world, after his "dust has returned to the earth as it was, and his spirit has gone to God who gave it." In view of this momentous truth, an humble attempt will now be made, in discharge of the duty assigned me, to examine the cause of some of the " ills wvhich flesh is heir to." I regard this principle as an axiom, that whatever con- duces to augmtent the sum of human happiness, mtist be an object of solicitude to the conscientious atid intelligent phy- sician. lie will be anxious that his fellow citizens should be sober, peaceable, and virtuous; that they should be in- dustrious, frugal, and prosperous. Whatever will produce such results should receive the decided approbation of every benevolent member of the Faculty. It tiolows, of course, that whatever has an opposite tendency should meet his frown. Pursuing this principle, you have condemned the use of ardent spirits, unless sickness demands their appli- cation as a medicine. The physical evils resulting from intemperance were elo- quently exhibited in the address, presented by your com. mittee, during the last year. That address, with its accom- DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. panying resolutions, now exerts a beneficial influencethrough a widely extended community. We are cheered by the kind wishes and prayers of the friends of good order, in our efforts to destroy that vice which has not only " walked" through our country " in darkness," but " wasted at noon- day." But while we exult in the triumph of correct prin- ciples on thi.s subject, do not other vicious indulgences de- mand our attention Should we slumber over the mischiefs resulting from such indulgences, while the public look to us as pioneers who should trace out the pathway to health and happiness, and demand from us both precepts and ex- amples of sobriety and virtue Unfortunately, in ail our attempts to abolish practices prejudicial to the best interests of man, we are compelled, in the outset, to encounter our own inveterate habits-habits which rise up in mutiny against reformation, and with clamorous note forbid us to proceed. Are we so fortunate as to be free from their in- fluence ourselves, we look around and see our friends bound in chains, from which we should rejoice to deliver thein ; but we fear, perhaps, to make an experiment which may rouse their passions, rather than convince their under- standings. Who can count the multitudes yearly consigned to the tomb, by the indulgrence of a fastidious and unnatural ap- petite I Headaches, flatulencies, ci.lics, dysl)epsias, pal- sies, apoplexies, and death, pursue the Epicurean train, as ravens follow the march of an armed host, to prey on those who fall in the " battle of the warrior, with their garments rolled in blood." The truth of this statement wvill not be questioned. Yet where is the physician, possessing suffi- cient moral courage to raise his voice against the system of modern cookery Should it be thought, that, as medical men have given no more encouragement to that system than any other class in society, they are not bound to use any ex- traordinary exertions to produce a chance; still a wide field is left ol)en tL benevolent action in reference to those things, the influence of which is injurious to mankind. Gentlemen-there is a baneful habit, diffused, like the at- mosphere, through all classes, and affecting all the ramifi- cations of society. And this habit owes much of its preva- lence to the advice and example of respectable physicians. We indulge the hope, from the great increase of medical knowledge, that the time will soon arrive, when persons disposed to vicious indulgence will be unable to entrench 10 DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. themselves behind our professional advice. I am aware that I tread on dangerous ground, in attempting to investi- gate the propriety of a practice which has been introduced and approved by a large portion of the members of this res- pectable Society. You may start at the suggestion, and re- gard it as unworthy of your notice. Let me hope, however, that you will suspend your opinions,,while I endeavor to present the natural history, chemical composition, and med- ical properties of one of our most deadly narcotics-the Tabaci Folia, orNicotiana Tabacumn, i. e. tobacco. If in the prosecution of this inquiry, we shall be able to discover the great and injurious effects which the use of this poisonous plant produces on the constitution, I shall be excused, if I urge this subject on your consideration with more than or- dinary importunity. I. NATURAL HISTORY. "This plant was unknown in Europe until after the dis- covery of America by the Spaniards, and was first carried to England by Sir Francis Drake, A. D. 1560. The na- tives of this conti nent call it petun; those of the islands, yo- li. The Spaniards, who gave it the name of tobacco, took that name from 'I'Ahaco, a province in Yucatan, where they first found it, and first learned its use. Some contend that it derives its name from 'I'obago, one of the Caribbee Is- lands, discovered by Columbus, in 1498." It received the name tobacro from Ilernandez de Toledo, who first sent it to Spain and Portugal. The botanic (lescription of this plant may be found in most works on the science of botany: and therefore I shall not detain you wit!i it at this time. The plant, while grow- ing exhibits a very bewitifuil appearance, but is so-extreme- ly nauseous, that ill all the variety of insects, only one is found to feed upofnl it. This is a worm " sui generis," the mode ot its prorag-ition being entirely unknown; and from its being the only living creature (man excepted) that will devout this plimut,; it is called " tobacco worm." It. SENSIBLE QUALITIES. It is of a yellowvish green color; it has a strong, narcotic, and feotid odor, with a bitter and extremely acrid taste. I1I See Rees' f'P++e ia. t INC-tionary of Arts and Sciences. DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. III. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION. "Mucilage, albumen, or gluten. extractive, a bitter prin- ciple, an essential oil, nitrate of potass, which occasions its deflagrration, muriate of potass, and a peculiar proximate principle, upon which the virtues of the plant are supposed to depend, and which has therefore been named Nicotin. This peculiar principle is considered by some, as approach- ing the essential oil in its properties. It is colorless, has an acrid taste, and the peculiar smell of tobacco; and occa- sions violent sneezing. With alcohol and water it forms a colorless solution, from which it is precipitated by a tincture of galls. Tobacco yield its active matter to water and proof spirit, but most perfectly to the latter; long boiling weakens its powers. A most powerful oil may be obtained by distil- lation, and separating it from the surface of the water on which it floats." IV. MEDICAL PROPERTIES. These are considered to be those of a powerful narcotic, antispasmodic, emetic, cathartic, sudorjfic, and diuretic. " As a narcotic, it is endued with the most energetic, poisonous properties, producing, when administered even in small doses, severe nausea and vomiting, cold sweats, universal tremors, with extreme muscular debility." From its exerting a peculiar action on the nervous system, as as- certained bV the well directed experiments of Mr. Brodie, it powerfully controls the action of the heart and arteries, producing invariably a weak, tremulous pulse, with all the apparent symptoms of approaching death. And so differ- ent is its operation from that of other narcotics, that it ac- tually operates with more destructive efficacy, when used by way of injection, than when applied either to the skin, or when taken into the stomach. From what has been said of its narcotic powers, you, Gentlemen, "ill readily infer its virtue as an article of medi- cine. If we wish, at any time, to prostrate the powers of life in the most sudden and awful manner, we have but to administer a dose of tobacco, and our object is accomplish- ed. Hence its use in obstinate constipation, in cholic, in the iliac passion, and in stranguary. As it is conceded that its efficacy as an antispasmodic 12 DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. depends upon its power to prostrate every vestige of tone and elasticity in the muscular fibre, prudence would dictate that it should be used with the utmost circumspection, when the system had been previously exhausted by the disease, or by the antecedent method of cure. Melancholy instan- ces are on record, of the fatal effects of this medicine when administered without this caution, both as an internal remedy, and as an external application in cutaneous dis- eases. Two instances will suffice. " A medical practitioner," says Paris, " after repeated trials to reduce a strangulated hernia, injected an infusion of tobacco, and -shortly after sent tihe patient in a carriage to the Westminster Hospital, for the purpose of undergoing the operation; hut the unfortunate man arrived only a few minutes before he expired." " I knew a woman," says the same learned author, " who applied to the heads of three of her children, afflicted with scald-head, an ointment composed of snuff and butter; but what was the poor woman's surprise, to find them immedi- ately seized with vertigo, violent vomiting, fainting, and conv ilsim is." W'e next come to its effects as an emetic. " As such," says Professor Chapman, " tobacco claims our attention." " Cullen and many others opposed its use, on account of the harshness of its operation. Certainly it exceeds all oth- ers in the promptness, violence, and permanence of its im- pressions. But these very qualities, unpleasant as they are, enhance its value in many cases." "Tobacco seems especially to be adapted to the evac- uation of some poisons; and it has this advantage, that it acts with equal certainty and expedition, when applied to the region of the stomach in the form of a poultice, as when in- ternally administered." Professor Barton says, he had re- course to an application of the moistened leaves of this plant to the region of the stomach, with complete success, to ex- pel an inordinate quantity of laudanum, in a case where the most active emetics, ini the largest doses, were resorted to in vain. But most poisons, particularly the corrosive, are attended with so much exhaustion, that it woild seem per- ilous to administer tobacco, lest by its own depressing ef- fects, the powers of vitality might be irrecoverably extin- guished. In many instances, however, it appears that it 2 13 DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. may be administered in small doses with safety and advan- tage. We are informed by a respectable writer, that while at the Cape of Good Hope, he had a number of Hottentots, with intermittent fever, under his care. Having few medi- cines, he resorted to tobacco, and fomud six grains of snuff as effectual in exciting vomiting, as two of'fartat emetic. By many it is preferred in minute doses, as a nauseating medicine. rT'htis administered, it has succeeded in subdu- ing sonic of the mos.t violent symptoms of the most fuirious cases of mania; and wheme it cannot be given by the mouth, from the obstinacy of the patient, it may with equal benefit be applied ill the form of a poultice. As a cathartic, tobacco is entitled to notice. "Some physicians have been in the habit of prescribing this pow- erfiil substance not only for the more dangerous cases of incarcerated hernia, but in all cases of obstinate constipa- tion, from whatever cause produced. To relieve these painful diseases, it has been usually given in the form of a clyster, regulatina the dose to the age, circumstances, and strength of the patient; and it is affirined to have proved, in many instances, very effectual, and to possess the confidence of practitioners." I was informed by a learned and ingenious friend, that, having an obstinate case of ascaris lumnbricoi les in his own family, after repeated unsuccessful efforts to dislodge the worms, he at last had recourse to this potent remedy, a poultice of which he applied to the region of the stomach. The worms were almost instantaneously expelled, but with very alarming symptoms, and a complete prostration of the patient. From these circumstances, we should be led to conclude, that its efficacy as a vermifuge depends either up- on its narcotic properties, or upon its sudden and powerful effect as a cathartic. Its effects as a sternutatory, i. e. as exciting to sneeze, are known to all. If applied to the nostrils, in the form of a powder or snuff, it produces violent and repeated sneezing, with a slight degree of vertigo. The violent agitation pro- duced in this way, together with a copious discharge from the nostrils, often relieves catarrh, headache, arid incipient opthalmnia or inflammation of the eyes. But habit soon blunts the sensibility of the organs, and much positive in- jury follows the habitual use of snuff. It has been a pop- 14 DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. 15 ular remedy in many places for the cure of scald-head, psora, and most other cutaneous eruptions. It has also been ap- plied for cleansing ulcers, and for the removal of in(lolent tumors. But the dreadful effects produced iry it when ab- sorbed into the system, have induced most medical men to abandon it altogether, and prescribe a more safe application. Though it is said, by Dr. Brailsford, to be a sudorifif of considerable efficacy, I am in possessilon of no facts whioh go to support such a conclusion, unless indeed it be the filct, that it in an eminent degree brings on that cold perspiration of which we have spoken, and which is, in niaviy instances, the imiiied iate precursor of death. But of all others, its diuretic properties have been the most landed. Dr. Fowler was the first to bring them ex- tensively into notice. In dropsy, dysiry, gravel, and ne- phritis calculosa or inflammation of the kidneys, the infusion and tincture were given by him with astonimiisivg success. In spasmod ic asthma,t!4e same (listinlguished physician found it to afflord relief. Mr. Earle, a stirgeon of some eminence, has more recent- ly treated several inveterate cases of retention of urine on the same lpI:Xn and with similar effects, andl adds his tesstimo- ny to its efficacy in tetanms, trisimnus, and other spasmtodic affections. 01 its power to relieve spasm thete cat) he no doubt. What has been related of its sedative qualities, is abundantly sufficient to estiblish that fict. C'ramips, con- vulsions, and even the vital priniciple itself, give wly before the exhilition of this deadly narcotic. Hence, to its power of p)rostrating the muscuilar energy, it owes its efficdcy in preventing retention of urine We have now gone through with an examination of the medicinal properties of tobacco. anmd have arrived at the fbl- lowing conclusion, viz. that few substances are capable of exerting effects so sudden anda destrnictive, as this poisolnous plant. Prick the skin of mouse with a needle, the poinit of which has been dipped in its essential oil, and immediately it swells and dies. Introduce a piece of comnion " twist," as large as a kidney bean, into the mouth of a robust man, unaccustomed to this weed, and sooni he is affected with fainting, vertigro, nausea, vomiting, and loss of vision. At length the surface becomes deadly pale, the cold sweat gathers thick upoin his brow, the pulse flutters or ceases to beat, a universal tremor conmes.on, with slight spasms and other symptomsof dissolution. As an emetic, few articles DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. can compare with it for the promptness and efficiency of its operation; at the same time thero are none which produce such universal debility. As a cathartic, it produces imme- diate and copious evacuations,. with great prostration of strength; but its dose can with difficulty be regulated. If such be a fair statement of its effects on the human system; if it requires all the skill of the most experienced practitioner to guard against those sudden depressions tw hich uniformly follow its use, when administered with the utmost circumspection ; anti if, with all this caution, its operation is still followed by the most alarming, and even fatal conse- quences-what shall we say of those who habitually subject their constitutions to the destructive influence of this worse than " Bohan Upas " To an individual unacquainted with the fact, it would seem incredible that a weed, possessed of properties so poi- sonous. should ever have been songht as an article of lux- ury. Yet it has not only been sought, but even credulity startles at the extent to which it has been used. " Like opium, it calms the agitations of our corporeal frame, and soothes the anxieties and distresses of the mnind." Its pow- ers are felt and its fascinations acknowledged, by all the intermediate grades of society, from the sot who wallows in the mire of your streets, to the clergyman who stands f)rth a pattern of moral excellence, and who ministers at the al- tar of God. For it the Arab will traverse, unwearied, his burning deserts; and the Icelander risk his life amidst per- petual snows. Its charms are experienced alike, by the savage who roanis the wilds of an American finest, ant] the courtier who rolls in blxury and prescribes rules of refine- ment to the civilized world ; by the miscreant who wrings from the cold hanid of charity the pittance that sustains his life, and the monarch wl o sways his sceptre over half the globe; by him who is bent with wvoes arid years, and him whose cheek is covered yet with boyhood's down. Ilence we might conc'ude it capable of giving strength to the weary, vivacity to the stupid, and wisdom to men void of understanding; capable of soothing the sorrows of the aft flicted, of healing the wounds of the spirit, and assuaging the anguish of a broken heart. But how it fnlfils these desirable indications, will be our next business to in, quire. Tobacco, as a lixury, has been used for the two last cen, turies over all the civilized, and the greater portion of the 16 DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. uncivilized world. The modes have been snzfling, smok- ing, and chewivnr. Its effects, when habitually used in each of these modes, will now be examined. As far as my observations extend, few, if any, of all the devotees to this stupifying substance, ever resort to its use without some supposed necessity; and often, alas too qften, by the advice of physicians. The benefit to be derived from the exhibition of a medi- cine in the cure of disease, should not alone induce us to prescribe it, without due regard to the injury which may result to the constitution. I-lad this rule been observed rel- ative to the subject under consideration, I apprehend the use of this baneful drug would have been less extensive. Snuff has been prescribed for a variety of complaints, amona which are headache, catarrh, and some species of opthalnia, and no doubt sometimes with very good effect as I have, in a very few instances, witnessed. But the fact seems to have been overlooked, that its only power to relieve these complaints arises from the copious discharge of mucus from the nostrils, dining the violent paroxysm of sneezing which invariably attends its first application; and that its salutary influience ceases, whenever these peculiar effe ts cease to accompany its exhibition. Hence in all cases where it is continiilud an indefinite time, or until the schneiderian membrane loses its sensibility, it not only fails of its medi- cinal effect, but actually becomes pernicious; aggravating the very disease it was intended to cure. It not only does this, but goes on committing great ravages on the whole nervous system, superinducing hypocondria, tremors, and premature decay of all the intellectual powers. A thickenin!4 of the voice, is also the unavoidable result of ha- bitual snuff-taking. This disagreeble consequence is pro- duced, either by partially filling up the nasal avenues, or by destroying the sensibility of the parts. Be that as it may, we would say of the change, in the forcible language of Cowper: "0! it is fulsome, and offends me more than the nasal twang, heard at conventicle from the pent nostril, spectacle bestrid." It also occasions loss of appetite, frequent sickness at the stomach, with many other disagreeable symptoms. A case in point, is related by Dr. Cullen, of a woman who had been in the habit for twenty years. At length she found on tak- ing a pinch before dinner, she had no appetite. This hav- 17 DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. ing frequently occurred, she was induced to postpone her pinch till after dinner, when she ate her meal with her ac- customed relish, and went on snuff-taking in the afternoon without inconvenience. Another instance is related by the same author, of the in- jurious effects of this habit. A lady, who had been accus- tomed to take snuff freely, was seized with a severe pain in her stomach, which continued unabated notwithstanding many remedies were applied until accidentally her snuff was omitted for a few days, when the pain was found to sub- side, and did not return until she again had recourse to her snuff. Then, to her utter astonishment, it immediately came with all its former severity, and would yield to no treat- merit without a relinqujishment of the snuff-box, which (strange to tell) the woman laid aside, and recovered her health. Most persons in the constant habit of taking snuff, are led on insensibly, until they consume enormous quantities. But as they are accustomed both to its stimulant and nar- cotic effects, they are not aware of the pernicious conse- quences. In the midst of interesting conversation, they fre- quently transcend the bounds assigned them by habit, and the consequence is, sickness, faintness, and tremblin'a, with some vertigo and confusion of head. During this paroxysm of snuffing, particles of the powdered tobacco are carried back into the fauces, and thence into the stomach; which occasions not only sickness at the time, but is long after fol- lowed with dyspepsia and other symptoms of disordered ab- dominal viscera. The second mode of habitually using this drug, is smok- ing. This, too, has been prescribed by reputable members of the faculty. And for what purpose has this disgusting practice been recommended " For weakness of the sto- mach," to be sure. Persons who have a craving appetite, and consume more food, particularly at dinner, than their stomach will readily digest, experience considerable uneas- iness for some time after eating. The mouth and fauces sympathize with the overloaded organ, and an increased quantity of fluid is poured from the mucous follicles and salivary glands, to aid in the process of digestion. Under these accumulating difficulties, the man calls on the "Doctor," who very wisely imagines these symptoms are sufficient evidence that he has a "' weak and watery sto- DISSE:ITATION ON TOBACCO. mach," and the pipe and cigar are recommended to carry off the superabundant humors, which still are unable to as- similate the enormous load with which, from time to time, the stomach is crowded. But as the application of the burnt oil of tobacco to the mouth and fances, from its stimulant and narcotic qualities, benumbs the senses and renders the individaal less conscious of his distress, lie takes it for grant- ed that he is materially relieved, and knows not, poor man, that it is all delusicn. Thus, instead of taking the only ra- tional method, that of adapting the quantity of food to the porers of digestion, he pursues a course which continues to weaken the organs of digestion and assimilation, arnd at length plunges him into all the accumulated horrors of dys- pepsia, with a complete prostration of the nervous system. But it has been said, that smoking will cure the tooth- ache; and we should have recourse to any mcans for the removal of so painf;al a disease. That it will, as a powerful sedative, lessen the pain, and sometimes even altogether re- move tooth-ache, is probably true; but why continue the practice after the occasion has ceased Opium and calo- mel, judiciously admiinistered, will relieve cholera morbus ; but whoever thought of making them an article of diet, be- cause from their application he had experienced relief in that dangerous complaint' Or whoever drea med of using them constantly, lest he might again be attacked with it Would not prudence dictate to lay them aside, that they might not lose their influence on the system, and conse- quently their medicinal virtues But smoking sometimes diminishes the secretions of the mouth, producing dryness and thirst, instead of moisture; still it is used with the same perseverance as in the former case, and to obviate the same difficulty, an overburdened stomach. And such is the united influence of its stimulant and narcotic qualities, that the thirst it occasions is not to be allayed by ordinary drinks, but wine; ale, and brandy must be taken, to satisfy this unnatural demand. Hence, smoking has, in many instances, been the sad precursor to the whiskey-jug and brandy-bottle, which together have plunged their unfortunate victims into the lowest depths of wretchedness and woe. I am well acquainted with a man in a neighboring coun- ty, whose intellectual endowments would do honor to any station, and who has accumulated a handsome estate; but whose habits, of late, give unerring premonition to his 19 so bSSER'tATIOM ON TODACb. friends of a mournful result. This man informed me that it was the fatal thirst occasioned by smoking his cigar, in fashionable society, that had brought him into his present wretched and miserable condition. Without any desire for ardent spirit, he first sipped a little gin and water, to allay the disagareeable sensations brought on by smoking, as water was altogether too insipid to answer the purpose. Thus he went on from year to year, increasing his stimulus from one degree to anot ier, until he lost all control over himself; and now he stands as a beacon, warning others to avoid the same road to destruction. Smoking, has been prescribed for spasmodic asthma,, and undoubtedly with some success; and the mannier in which it affords relief in this distressing disease has been pointed out, when speakingt of the narcotic and antispasrnodic effects of this driug. But suppose it capable of relieving the pa- roxysm, when administered to a person unaccustomed to its deadly stimiulus, it will by no means be followed by the same happy effect, when once its use becomes habitual. But smoking has been the grand resort to secure the sys- tem from the influence of contagion ; and perhaps no power ascribed to it, has ever been so universally acknowledged. But upon what series of experiments are these pretensions founded From all the attention which I have bestowed on this investigaiion, I have been unable to discover any evidence of its utility in this respect, except what arose from the prejudices of the ignorant, or the obstinacy of those who are slaves to the practice of it. The bare assertiou of Deimerbroek, " that it kept off the plague," without a sin- gle corroborative fact, would hardly be sufficient authority on which to establish a conclusion so important; especially when we have the united experience of Rivernus, Chemot, and Cullen, to prove the opposite of this position. Hence we conclude, that its properties in keeping off contagion, depend on its sedative powers, which it possesses in com- mon with other narcotics, wine, brandy, and opium. As these lessen sensibility, and sometimes allay anxiety of the mind, it is not impossible that in a very few instances they may have prevented the exciting causes of disease from tak- ing effect. But what are these few, when compared with the multitudes whose nervous systems have been destroyed by this pernicious habit, and thus exposed to all the horrors of malignant disease. DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. Smoking also assuages the tedium of life. here is the grand secret. Man fears to be alone; and when left to his own solitary reflections, he dreads the result of self-exanui- nation. lie flies for relief to his pipe, his cigar, his quid, or his bottle, with the vain hope of escaping from himself. To accomplish an object so desirable, he hesitates not to stupefy those noble faculties which lhe cannot hope to ex- tinguish, and with which he has been endowed by the God of nature, for wise and b'nevolent purposes. And will you, gentlemen, by precept and example, longer sanction stick a course of conduct,-conduct so degrading to us as intelli- gent beings, and- as conservators of the public health 'The third mode of habitually using tobacco, is chewing. In this inariner all its deadlY powers are speedily niantifest, in the comminencetrient of the practice, as has been already shown. In this mode, too, its nauseous taste and stimulant property excite and] keep up a profuse discharge from the mucous follicles and salivary glands. Probably to this cir- cumstance alone, is owing the superior efficacy of this mode of using this drus in the cure of tooth-ache. But whether this enormous waste of the secretions of the niouth and fau- ces can be borne bvy the constitution with impunily, you, Gentlemen, are abundantly competent to judge. Pht siolo- gists agree that these secretions are intended to assist in preparing the aliltenis for deglutition, by rendering them sufficiently fluid, andl afterwards, by their peculiar proper- ties, t.) promote digestion and assimilation. The great in- crease of these juist before and after eating, and the large quantities swallowed about that time, are unequivocal evi- dence of their importance to the digestive economy. Then what must be the state of that man's digestion, who, uintil seated at table, keeps his quid in his mnouth, and immedi- ately returns it thither, after rising from his meal And when we reflect, that large quantities of saliva sironily im- pregnated with this poison, and even particles of the sub- stance itself, are frequently swallowed, what, again I ask, is the probable condition of such a person's digestive or- gans I know it may be said in reply, that such persons often consume large quantities of food, without experiencing any perceptible inconvenience; and I also know that they are often emaciated, notwithstanding the enormous portion of aliment they daily consume. Under these circumstances 21 DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. the emaciation arises, either from the profuse discharge of saliva, or an imperfect digestion, or the combined influence of both. Hence, when a man of a corpulent habit, with a keen appetite, who is unwilling to forego his wine and to use moderation in his toast beef, applies for professional advice to prevent corpuleice, medical men very naturally and philo- sophtically direct him, if he persists in his excess, to the use of tobacco, as a temporary relief, against the direful effects of his glttony and intemperance. A ciergynildri of high standiitr informed me, that he ac- quired the habit of using tobacco in college, and had con- tinued the practice lor a numbe r of years; but he found, by experience, his health materially impaired, being often af- fected with sickness, lassitude, and faintness. Ifis muscles also became flabby and lost their tone, and his speaking was seriously interrupted by ;iau elongation of the uvula. His brother, an izatelligoant physician, advised the discontin- uance of his tobicco. He laid it aside. Nature. freed from its depressing hafluence, soon gave signs of returning vigor. His stomach resumed its wonted tone, his muscles acquired their former elasticity, and his speaking was no inore an- noyed by a relhxation of them. A respectable man or my acquaintance, about forty years of age, whc, commenced chewing tobacco at the age of eighteen, was for a longicr time annoyed by depression of spirits, which increased until it became a settled nmelancho- ly, with great emaciation, and the usual syrnm)toms of that miserable disease. All attempis to relieve him proved un- availing, until he was persuaded to dispense with his quid. Immediately his spirits revived, his countenance lest its de- jection, his flesh increased, and he soon regained his health. Another man, who used tobacco very sparingly, became af- fected with lo.ss of appetite, sickness at stomach, emaciation, and melancholy. From a conviction that even the small quantity he chewed was the source of his trouble, he entire- ly left it off, and very soon recovered. I was once acquainted with a learned, respectable, and intelligent physician, who informed me, that from his youth he had been accustomed to the use of this baneful plant, both by smoking and chewing.- At length, after using it very freely wfiile indisposed, he was suddenly seized with an alarming vertigo, which, without doubt, was the result of this destructive habit. This afflicting complaint was pre- as DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. ceded by the usual symptoms which accompany a disorder- ed stomach, and a relaxation of nerves, with which, Gentle- men, yotu are too familiar to need a description here. After the application of a variety of remedies to little or no pur- pose, he quit the deleterious practice, and though his vertigo continued long and obstinate, lie has nearly or quite recov- ered his former health. And he has never doubted but that the use of tobacco was the cause of all his suffering in this disagreeable disease. Many more cases might be cited, but sufficient has been said to establish the doctrine here laid down. Having gone through with an examination of the physi- cal influence of tobacco, let us now, for a few momnents, attend to its pottickel and moral influence. 1. It is a costly practice. The whole adult population in the United States is estimated at six millions, one half of which are males. Allowing but one half of these to use to- bacco in some form, wve shall have one and a half' millions to be taxed with this consumption. If we take into the ac- count all who are in its use before they arrive at the period of adult age, it would swell the amount to two millions. Lest we should be accused of exaggeration, we will estimate the whole number of devotees at one million, who pay their daily homage at the shrine of this stupifyiiig idol. The ex- pense to the consumers of this drug varies, according to the quantity and mode of using. Those who are in the habit of smoking freely, and use none but the best Spanish cigars, pay a tax, I ant informed by good judges, of not less than fifty dollars a year. While the moderate consumer of Scotch snuff pays from one to two dollars. Somewhere between these wide extremes, may be found the fair estimate of an average cost. If one fifth of the whole number of consum- ers should pay the hitghest estimate, it would amount to ten millions annually. Then if three-fifths pay but ten dollars apiece, it will aumount to six millions; and if the remaining And here I am haippy in having permission to give tlhe opinion of one of the ablest phriciains in Massachusetts. as to the use of tobacco. " The chew- ing of tobacco," says lie, " is not necessary or useful in any case that I know of: and I have abuia'lant evidence to satisfy me that its use may be discon- ttnued without peritiecinis colissquences. The common belief, that it is ben- eficial to the teeth, is, t apprehenmmd, entirely erroneous. On the Contrary by poiscning and relaxing the vessels ,t the gums, it may impair the healthy con- dition of the vessels I- elomngiiig to the membranes of the socket, with the con- dition of which, the Ltate af the tooth is closely connected." 23 24 DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. one-fifth pay but one dollar each, we shall have two hundred thousand dollars more. These added together will make an aggregate of sizteen millions two hundred thousand dol- lars. it this estimate nothing has been said of another class of consumers, which delicacy forbids me to mention, (and I hope I shall receive their forgiveness for my neg- lect ;) nor of the time wasted in procuring and devouring this precious morsel. But lest even this very moderate cal- culatwon should be. considered extravagant, which is by many comlPetent judges believed to be far too low, we will reckon the consumers at one million, and the average cost at ten dollars each a year, for the whole; and then we have the enormous tax of three millions of dollars, to be annually paid in these United States for the useless consumption of this loathsome drug. 2. 'I'his practice paves the tray to drunkenness. A few reasons have already been given, why smokiilg tends strong- ly to favor the introduction of ardent spirits. The dryness of mouth induced in some, is not the only case where a thirst for strong drink is produced. The great waste of sa- liva, occasioned 1)oth by smoking and chewing, has the same dangerous tendency. The fact that few of all the consumers of this plant are fond of those simple beverages so grateful to the unvitiated taste, and that most are inordi- nately attached to ale, wine, an(l brandy, is sufficient evi- dence of the dreadful truth, that it is the faithful pioneer to intemnperanee. What though there are some few and hon- orable exceptions; and what though there are many, who for a hontr time have used the poisonous plant, anid have es- caped the yawning gulf; still, a sufficient number have been swallowed up, to warrant the general conclusion. The few specifications already made above, might easily be increas- ed a hundred fold. Thouah every lover of tobacco is not a slave to rtim, yet almosf every drunkard is a slave to tobacco; and this is in- direct evidence that the habits are in a manner associated, or have a sort of natural affinity. If such he its tendency, what moral responsibility rests upon the man who shall re. commend it, either by professional advice, or by his own example! What an infinitude of moral evil must follow in its train, if drunkenness be its legitimate effect ! What woes, what sorrows, what wounds without cause, may spring into existence at your bidding, when you prescribe the ha- DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. bitual use of this baneful plant! By such a prescription you incautiously open a fountain from which may issue streams, disturbing the peace of private families, pouring the waters of contention into peaceful and harmonious neighborhoods, embittering every condition of liMe, and poisoning every department of human society. 3. It as an indecent practice. To say nothing of the dis- agreeable contortions of countenance assumed by the great variety of snuffers, smokers,, and chewers; to say nothing of the pollution, inseparable from these habits, to the mouth, breath, and apparel, to the house and its furniture, (all which are too familiar to require description ;) I ask, where is the man making any pretensions to refinement, who would not blush to offend the delicate sensibilities of the fair, by smoking his pipe or cigar in their presence True politeness would seem to require, moreover, that even the feelings of gentlemen should be respected. But all sense of propriety seems to have fled before the indulgence of this foolish habit. To such an extent has it obtained, that we meet it in the kitchen, in the dining-room, and in the par- lor; in every gathering of men of business; in every party of pleasure; in our halls of legislation ; in our courts of justice; and even the sanctuary of God is sometimes pollut- ed by this loathsome practice. It is impossible to walk the street without being constantly assailed by this noxious va- por, as it is breathed from the mouths of all classes in com- munity, from the sooty chimniey-sweep, to the parson in his sacerdotal robe. You can scarce!v meet a man ill the street, with whom you have business, but he pours a stream of smoke into your face, exceedingly disgusting. And this he does too, without imagining that he transgresses the rules of politeness, or gives you any cause of offence. In these habits we resemn.ble the Aborigines of our coun- try. They load their huge pipes with the dried leaves of this plant, and when lighted, they breathe the dark cloud of smoke from their mouth and nostrils, and as it curls around their head, ascending towards heaven, they present it as an offering to appease the anger of the Great Spirit. A nmutu- al influence has resulted from our intercourse with the In- dian. We have taught him how to debase hiimself below An eminent writer in favor of Temperance, bas given it as his opinion, that at least one tenth of all the drunkards were made such by the use of To. bacco. 3 25 26 DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO. the brute, and destroy the quiet of savage life by the use of our whiskey; and he, in return, has taught us to destroy our constitutions, and interrupt the harmony of civilized so- ciety, by the habitual use of his deadly narcotic. Gentlemen, I have done. The subject, with a slight ex- amination, is before you. I have plainly and fearlessly ex- pressed my opinion, without intending to wound the feelings of a single individual. If your sentiments correspond with mine, you will assist in bringing this odious practice to the bar of public opinion. There let it be subjected to a severe, but dispassionate trial; and if on a cool and deliberate in- vestigation, its pernicious tendency shall fully appear, then let the American people rise up, and with united voice pro- nounce its sentence of final condemnation. The counsel given by the Journal of Health, is, therefore, in perfect ac- cordance with the principles of medical philosophy. " Our advice is, to desist, immediately and entirev, from the use of tobacco in everv form, and in any quantity, however small.;'-"A reform of this, like of all evil habits, whether of smoking, chewing, drinking, ar.d other vicious indulgencies, to be efficacious, must be enti'e, and complete, from the very moment when the person is con- vinced, either by his fears or his reason, of its pernicious tendency and opera- tion." APPENDIX, CONTAINING AN ANSWER TO SEVERAL QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE USE OF TOBACCO. "But," says the lover of tobacco, " how can it be so deleterious when multitudes, who apparently enjoy good health, use it daily I" In this objection twvo things are assumed, viz. 1. The existence of a perfect standard of health. 2. That this standard is not depreciated by the habitual use of tobacco. If we examine these positions in the light of truth, we shall find them both detective. " The varieties in point of health," says an eminent physiologist, "are numerous and considerable. '[here is, indeed, a certain state of health, which may be said to be peculiar to each individual. Such persons as we suppose to be in the enjoyment of the rmost perfect health, differ surprisingly, not only froyn each other, but from their own condition at other times, as well in consequence of a difference in the constitution of the blood, as a diversity of tone and other vital energies." One state may be said to be healthy compared with anoth- er ; and the same may be affirmed of persons. One may enjoy health when compared with an invalid. In all these cases it will be seen that health is only comparative. But to sustain this part of the objection it would be necessary to prove, what I presume will not he attempt- ed, " that the thousands who daily use tobacco, are enjoying the maximum of health and strength ;" i. e. that every function of the system is performed to absolute perfection. For if it be admitted that any function is deranged, it would he difficult. I apprehend, to prove, that that derangeuiment was not orcastioned by the use of tobacco. That men accustomed to hard labor will endure more fatigue, than those of sedentary or enervated habits, needs no argument to prove. That the arm of the blacksmith acquires strength beyond the arm of the literary recluse, is altogether obvious. The laborer will consume more fuod; consequently his frame will ac- quire a proportionate degree of strength, and, all other things being equal, it will be able to resist the influence of extraneous causes, toa much greater extent than that of the voluptuary. 28 APPENDIX. Let now the blacksmith use tobacco, and although there may be no perceptible diminution of vigor, (since you have no perfect slan- dard to try it by,) because he still exceeds in strength persons possess- ing constitutions naturally less vigorous, or constitutions less hardened by toil; yet. whether the same hardy son of Vulcan can endure more hardship, while using tobacco, than he could have done had he never used the baneful plant, i; the question That many persons apparently enjoy good health, and yet use to- bacco, cannot be denied And the same may be affirmed with equal propriety of opium and alcohol. I once knew a man who, from his vouth till be had reached his sixty-ninth year, became intoxicated, whenever he could procure sufficient liquor to produce this effect; and during that time he was never so ill as to require medical advice. Ihave known others to be literally steeped in ardent spirit, who were seldom sick; and yet few, I apprehend, will affirm, that alcohol used to such excess is not injurious. The Turks, who, for auiht to the contrary that appears in their history, enjoy as good health as the people of the United 6tates, and are said to attain a longevity as great, use opium for the pm-pose of intoxication, much in the same manner in which the latter employ alcol.o! and wine, these being forbidden to the former by their creed. Yet, after all, the man who could adduce these facts to prove the harmlessness of the substances under consideration, must be destitute of that physiological knowledge which is necessary to understand the natural operations of the human system. There is a principle in the animal economy, which powerfully re- sists morbid impressions, and tends to expel whatever is noxious. This principle, called by some " the medical power of nature," is roused to action by the application of an offending agent to any part of the human system. On the first intimation of the assault, this vig- ilant sentinel rallies her forces, and flies to the point of attack. If she succeed iii expelling the invader befiore any serious mischief has been done, the system again reposes in quiet; but if not, a more general tumult arises, and the assistance of al t is often required to sec- ond her ineffectual efforts. These phenomena are exhibittcd in the first use of tobacco, in all its forms. Apply snuff to the nostrils of one unaccustomed to it; and a violent sneezing, with a copious secretion of mucus will follow. Put tobacco into the mouth,and it immediately produces a profuse discharge of sali- va; and it this proves unsuccessful in expelling the unwelcome intru- der, severe nauseaand voiniting ensue. Stnoking also produces sitnilar effects. Apply the moistened leaves of tobacco to atiy part of the surface of the body, and its deadly effects are soon perceived in an en. tire prostration of strength, accompanied with ghastly paleness and vominting. If it were not in a high degree poisonous, no such results would fol- low its first application to the living fibre; for they do not follow the first application of those substances which were, by our wise and boun- tiful Creator, designed far the use of man. Though the effects above described are less violent, when the nerves (the media through wvlich it operates) become accustmnied to the stim- ulus of the noxious substance; yet it by no means proves, even in these circumstances, that it does no injury to the systerm, any nmore than the fact that some men drink a quart of proof spirit daily without APPENDIX. producing death, proves that that amount does them no harm, when half the quantity taken by a beginner would prove fatal. In the course of twelve years' observation on the effects of narcotics upon the human system, I became acquainted with a delicate female, who, for thirty years, had taken a sufficient quantity of opium daily to kill the hardiest son of New-England, provided he had been unaccus- tomed to its pernicious influence. She, nevertheless, lived to an ad- vanced age, and was eighty four years old when I last saw her, though she, at that time, took every day two scruples of solid opium. I had the unpleasant task to attend this lady in a fit of sickness. And with the exception of a few cases, in which similar results have followed the excessive use of alcohol, it was, without exaggeration, the most troublesome case that has ever fallen under my care. All the frightful symptons of delirium tremens waited around and haunted her imagination through the day; while shrieks, and groans, and all the signs of woe attended her nirhtlv couch, to add a gloomy horror to her unrefreshing and broken slumbers. And so far as my observations extend, the most inveterate derangements of the nervous system are either produced or aggravated by the habitual use of nar- cotics. The inherent power of the constitution to sustain itselfamid the ever- varying changes to which it is exposed, has been learned by common observation, as well by the peasant as by the man of erudition. The fact, that man, " made of one blood, can dwell" in all the varieties of climate, " on the face of the whole earth," and can sustain himself, without any change of organization, at one period on the burning sands of-a Numidian desert, at another among the ice-bergs of a Green- land winter-exhibits in the most convifling light the extent of this wonderful power. A curious field of speculation, on this sanative power in the phys. ical constitution of man, lies open to our view, had we time to pur- sue it, in contemplating the habits,customs, and manners of the North American Indian. Guided'by the simple dictates of nature, he grat- ifies his appetite with such food as comes most readily within hisreach, and slakes his thirst at the first mountain brook. Sometimes, for days, he lies sleeping in his smoky wigwam without the means of ap- peasing hunger; then rises and follows his game with the fierceness of a tiger, unti the object of his pursuit is overtaken; after which, with the voracity of a dog, he loads his stomach with fhood sufficient to satisfy the cravings of nature, for as many days as he had previous- lY fasted, and again betakes himself to sleep and inactivity. With all this irregularity, he is a total stranger to lingering complaints, and to that numerous as well as fashionable class of diseases denominated "Nervous." That formidable ailment, Dyspepsia, which, like a fiend, has, for the last few years pervaded the whole land, is unknown to the Indian; having its origin in the abuses introduced by civilization and refinement. But to return: Suppose, for the sake of argument, that a man who daily uses to- bacco, enjoys equal health with one who uses none, and is no more li- able to disease; let him once be attacked by disease, and then it will be far more difficult to remove it, than to do so iii one free from such habit. This will appear from the following considerations Remedial agents ordinarily act on the system, by exciting the liv- ing power through the medium of the nerves; hence when these have long been deadened by the habitual use of any narcotic, rommon sense, aside from the lights of science and philosophy, would teach us the difficulty of making an impression on a system whose nerves had thus been previously paralyzed. Perhaps the man, who daily drinks ardent spirit, may, from the greater insensibility of his system, in some cases escape sickness as ong as the most temperate, (though this is by no means a common fact); yet, let disease once commence, and then we learn, Iy painful experience, the disadv; ntage of having broken down the nervous sys- tem by needless and vicions excess. Tobacco is acknowledged to be one of the most deadly of the vege- table narcotics: yet experience proves that the nerves, by habit, be- come so accustomed to its stimilus, that it in a great measure loses its power. How then can we hopX with ordinary rerlmedlies to inake an impression, when even this powerful agent has itself lost its proper and natural effect The unparalleled mortality of the great epidemic of 1812 and 1813, was in a good measure owing to the immense quantities of ardent spirit consumed by the victims of that fatal malady. In the town in which I then resided, about forty adults died in Ihe course of the winter and spring ; and most of these were in the habit of using ardent spirit freely. And thruggh numbers of temperate persons were attacked, yet many of these recovered; while every instance within my knowledge, where an intemperate person was attacked with this formidable disease, it proved fatal. The ravages of the cholera in India and Persia, since 1816: and in the North of Europe, for the last eighteen months; settle tIe point in question beyond reasonable doubt. In one hundred cases where the cholera proved fatal, ninety of them had been in the liberal use of ardent spirit. And this fact should be carefully noted, when this for- midable disease has reached Great Britian, and threat ens us with its visitation. If then the habitual use of alcohol, by exhausting the nervous ener- gy, predisposes the system to disease, and at the slame time renders the disease, when it has commence d, so much more intractable what shall be said of the comnmmon use of tobacco, which is allowed by all to be a still more deadly poison, and of course niust exhaust the power of the nerves in a proportionate degree A ferimale, aged 27 years, was attacked in December 829 with a sore mouth, accompanied with diarrhmea and profuse salivatiomn. These complaints continued to increase, notwithstanding the application of a variety of remedies, prescribed by her medical attendait. until the 5th of March following, when I was called to take charge hi the patient. She was much emaciated. The discharge from the bowl ]s continued unabated, and was often attended with severe pain and great prostra- tion of strength. The salivation was accompanied with a burning or scalding sensation in the mouth and stomach, which prrved exces- sively irritating to the patient, as well as perplexing to mIe. On ex- amining her case, I found the nervous system entirely deranged and mucb broken by the habit of smoking, which she had practiced to great excess from the age of eleven years. I learned, to iny surprise and regret, that she commenced this habit, which after wai cis cost her 30 APPENDIXrS APPENDIX 31 so much suffering, by the advice of some wise member of the Faculty, who had prescribed it for soine slight darangement ofthe st.mach. My first efforts were directed to repair the injuries inflicted by the tobacco-pipe ; and though the difficulties to be overcome were miany and obstinate, by patience and perseverence they were all surnount- ed, and the woman was at length restored. The confliet which this poor woman endured, in overcoming a hab- it that not only injured her health, but nearly destroyed her life, was dreadful beyond descriptioin. When hex pain and distress were great, she would complain mnore of this privation, than of all her other suf- ferings ; and so strong was the desire for smoking, that she, several times during her lecovery, contrary to my orders, indulged in it a few minutes, and each time with mnanufest injury; so that she finally was induced to abandon it altogether, and thus recovered her health. In- deed, she now enjoys better health than she has done for years. Any one acquainted with the ordinary effects of this foolish indul- gence in the free use of narcotics, (in the nervous system of its victims, will be convinced by a few years close observation, that such persons especially, if they are of sedentary habits, are more subject to fits of despondency, and- to a far greater degree, than persons of the same general health and of the same emnployinent, but who have escaped contamination. I shall here introduce the fonlowing extract of a letter, from a re- spectable clergyman to Ihie author, as illustrative of this point. " When I say that the effects of the habitual use of tobacco on the human system, are injuriyus; I speak from years of painful experience. I commenced the use of tobacco when young, like many others, with- out any definite object, but experienced no very injurious consequen- ces from it until I renteied the ministry. Then mny system began to feel its dreadful effects Mly voice, appetite, and strength soon failed; and I become affected with sickness at tfie stomach, irsdigestion, emna- ciation, and melancholy, wvith a prostration of the whole nervous sys- tern. For years my health has been so mnuch impaired as to render me almost useless in the ministry, and all this I attribute to the perni- cious habit of smoking and chewing tobacco. And had I continued the practice, I doubt not but that it would have brought me to an un- timely grave. I was often advised to leave it off, aind made several unsuccessful attempts. At length I became filly convinced that I must quit tobacco or die. I summoned all my resolution for the fearful exigency, and after a long and desperate struggle I obtained the victory. I soon began to experience the beneficial results of my conquest. My appetite has returned; my voice grows stronger, and I am in a measure freed from that mental dejection to which I onco was subject. Mly general h -,alth is much improved, and I feel that I am gradually recovering-; though it is not to be expected I shall ever regain what I have lost by this needless and vicious indulgence. I am satisfied that the cormnmon use of tobacco is injurious to most people, especially those of .edentary habits. On them it operates with ten- fold energy. I ani acquainted with many in the ministry, who are travelling this road to the grave. I uniformly say to t'einn: " Lay aside your pipes and tobacco, or you are undone-your labors in the ministry will soon be at an end." Another Clergyman writes as follows. " I thank God, and I thank you for your advice to abandon smoking. Aly sIrength has doubled since I quitted this abominable practice." 32 APPENDIX. A mere hint at these evils would seem to be sufficient to awaken inquiry, among the votaries of the plant in question. I shall there- fore leave it to their candid deci4ion, after a full and free investigation enables them to arrive at a just conclusion. The great increase of dyspepsia within the last twenty years, with the dark and lengthened catalogue of nervous complaints that follow in its train, is, I have no doubt, in part owing io the universal preva- lence of practices, the propriety of which we are calling in question. The misery to which the consumers of this drug are subject, when from any cause they are temporarily deprived of it, would go far to deter a reflecting man from voluntarily binding himself to thls most ignominious servitude. I have known a hard laboring farmer, who would have resented the name of slave. as much as did the Jews, arise from his bed in the middle of the night and travel half a mile to procure a quid of tobacco, because his Uneasiness was such, that he could neither sleep nor rest without it. This uneasiness is more dis- tressing than- bodily pain, and has in some instances produced an agi- tation of mind bordering upon distraction. Col. Burr informed Dr. Rush, that the greatest complaints of dissat- isfaction and suffering, that he heard among the soldiers who accompa- nied General Arnold in his march from Boston through the wilderness to Quebec, in the year 1775, arose from the want of tobacco. This was the inure remarkable, as they were so destitute of provisions as to be obliged to kill and eat their dogs. The Persians. we are informed, often expatriate themselves, when they are prohibited the use of tobacco, in order to enjoy unmiolested this luxury in a foreign country. Nor are these facts incredible to those, who are familiar with the laws that regulate the animal econo- my. Long and obstinate is the conflict with nature, before the taste or smell of such disgusting things as alcohol, opium, and tobacco can be endured. But when she, worn out by repeated and continued assaults, abandons her post, and gives up the dominion to the artificial appetite, the order of things is reversed, and we at last find, to our sorrow, that this unnatural appetite is vastly more ungovernable than the one im- planted by our Creator for things originally pleasant and agreeable. Add to all these considerations the well attested fact, that no sensible man, wlh. has himself used the baneful weed, ever advised his neio'h- bor or child to follow his example, but often the contrary; and its inu- tility is sufficiently proved. Having thus far endeavored to shew the futility of the objection raised against our doctrine, by the consumers of this drug; let us now, in our turn, call on them to give a good reasou why so much money should be expended, and so touch titne wasted, as are annually squandered in the various departments of raising, preparing, and con- suming this plant; and to point out, if they can, in what manner a poison so deadly acts on the healthy system without producing evil consequences. To make out the case, it will be necessary for its advocates to prove one of the following positions; either, 1. That it pioduces no effect at all, and is therefore harmless; or, 2. That it produces a good effect, and is indispensable to the en- joyment of perfect health. As this part of the enquiry is somewhat important, and since it re- APPEN DIX. 33 gards the success of our principles. we will examine these positions a little in detail, to see how they are sustained by fact and experience. If it produces no effect at all, why that universal uneasiness, amounting as we have seen in some instances almost to distraction, uniformly manifested by the consumers of this plant, when by acci- dent they are temporarily deprived of the means of indulgence If tobacco .produces no effect, why fly to it as a solace for every woe, as a refuge froi, affliction and trouble, and as a hiding-place from the tempests of omisfortine It will not. it cannot be doubted, that, in its power to allay the stormy agitations of mind to which we are exposed in our voyage over the tempestuous sea of life, consists the latent excellence, the summum bonum, of the virtues of tobacco. Th a sedative power will not the questioned, by those who have ever witnessed its peculiar effects. The medicinal effects of tobacco, as applied for the removal of corporeal disorders, are nearly or quite destroyed by habitual use; but with what succeta it is constantly resot ted to, to allay anxiety of mind, let its votaries answer. A medical gentleman of high standing, in an adjoining county, who has recently abandoned the common use of tobacco, inflrimed Iue, that on a certain occasion his muscular and vital energies were so over- come, by chewing, that ill attempting to put his horse into the stable, he was obliged to lie down until he had so far recovered his strength as to enable him to proceed to his house Alany other ins ances were related by the eaine gentleriman, of its injurious effecto which he had observed, both on hiimself and others: particularly in producing watchfulness, which it was almost impossible for the greatcst degree of weariness and fatigue to overcome. Many others have frequently mentioned this fact to me, since I be gan to investigate this subject. Now if tobacco produces no effect, why are such results witnessed by its consumers, and why d. the candid among thein acknowledge that these evils arise from its use The health of the medical gentleman above named was materially improved after laying aside tobacco; and those to whomi he recommended a similar course, have expeitenced a like favorable result. The second position is equally unsupported either by experience or sound reasoning; and is contrary not only to all medical authority on this subject, but against the investigations of other scientific men who have chemically examined the constituent principles of tob icco, and who have experimienlted largely to ascertain with precision its natural operation on the living fibre. The lower order of animals have been selected for these experiments. Given in substance to them, it has uniformly proved fatal, even in verv minute doses. When its expressed juice or essential oil has been introduced under the skin of pigermns, kittens, or rabbits, it produced violent convulsions and often instantaneous death. Does any one doubt tile correctness of these experii.ients lie can easily satisfy hiinseltiof their accuara- ey, by obtaining the oil of tobacco, and applying eight or ten drops to the root of a kitten's tongue. Time same deadly effects, as we have seen, uniformly attend its first application to the human system, if taken to anv considerable extent. This is well understood by it.; con- sumers, who are very cauticus for many weeks, and even months, how they deal with the poisonous drug. 34 APrENDJX. By what transformation is a plant, so deadly in its effects when first applied to the human systerm, afterward converted into a harmless arti- cle of diet or luxury No substance which God has made for the common use of man, produces similar results; and'if such be the fact in relation to the article in question, in this instance at least the order of nature is reversed, so that what in its nature is poisonous, becomes by habit nutritious and salutary. If this be correct reasoning-fare- well tim the success of temperance efforts! For Ruin, after all, may be convenient if not necessary, because its effects are not in every in- stance immediately fatal; and because some,. by dint of habit, can sustain with slight Spparent injury, what to others unaccustomed to it would produce instantaneous death. The stale excuse, so often repeated by the lovers of tobacco, that they have been advised to use it by physicians, for the mitigation or removal of some b Bdily infirmity, may be urged with equal force and propriety by the tippler and the sot; for many. very rmany, have been advised by members of the Faculty, to drink the deadly draught, in some form or other. either to ease the pains of dvspepsia, to allay the horrors of tedium rdis, or to drown the anguish of a guilty conscience. And may not many of these patients say to those of the Ficulty, who grive advice for the use of either these stimulants: Physician, heal thyself." Alas! when will the profession be without any who use ardent spirit or Tobacco. In concluasing, permit me to address a word to professors of religion on this supject. In whatever concerns the cause of virtue and morality, you have a deep and an abidinag interest. When Intemperance sp'reaids abroad his murky "' winrs with dreadful shade contiguous," and fills the land with tears of bloord-you lI..k over this frightfmal areldmam, and mourn at the souzl-cicling spectacle. When infidelity and licentiousness ex- hale their pestiferous breath, to poison the moral atmosphere and de- stroy the rising hope of our country, by undermining the virtute of our youth ; the Christian's heart is pained, and every effort is put forth to stay the march of desolation. In short, whatever tends to increase the prevalence of vice, must be witnessed by real Christians with un- feigned regret. " Manners," says a celebrated writer, " have an influence on morals. They are the outposts of virtue." Whoever knew a rude man com- pletely and umformly moral The use of tobacco, especially smok- ing, is offel'isive to those who do not practice it. The habit of offending the senses of our friends or even strangers, by smoking in their presence, produces a want of respect for their persons; and this disposes, however remotely, to unkind treatment towards them. Hence the NMethodists interdicted the common use of tobacco with that of ardent spirit, in the infancy of their society; thereby evincing a just sense of the self-denial, decency, and univer- sal civility required by the gospel, It is painful to witness among Christians the utter disregard of each others feelings and the rules of propriety, which have obtained in re- gard to these habits. They _o into a friend's house, and after enjoy- ing the hospitality of his board, sit down to smoke their pipe or cigar in his dininZ-room or parlor with the greatest composure ; and that too, without even condescending to enquire whether it is offensive; supposing either that the appetites and senses of others are equally depraved with their own, or that politeness will prevent their raising any objection to a practice which has become nearly universal. When the enquiry is made, it is understood to be nothing more than an apol- ogy for unrestrained indulgence; and the host who should intimate that it might be offensive to some, would be looked upon as having transgressed not only the rules of modern politeness, but ail the laws of hospitality. Notwithstanding the extent to which smoking prevails, there are some in almrost every family, who are affected with giddiness in the head and sickness at stomach, whenever they inhale the fumes of the pipe or cigar, particularly at or near meal time. Yet all this suffering must be endured, and the fine feelings of the family disregarded. And for what Merely to give a Christian, and perhaps a physician or a minister of the gospel, an opportunity to gratify a vicious appetite which does him no good, and which, philosophically considered, would disgrace any man who pretends to be a gentleman. " What reception," says Dr. Rush, "1 may we suppose the apostles would have met with, had they carried into the cities and houses whither they were sent, snuff-boxes, pipes, cigars, and bundles of cut, or rolls of hog or pigtail, tobacco Such a costly and offensive appa- ratus for gratifying their depraved appetites would have furnished solid objections to their persons and doctrines, and would have been a just cause for the clamnors and contumely, with which they were every where assailed." And vet this very disgusting practice is considered, in these days of gospel light and civil refinement, almost as an indispensable prerequi- site to fit a minister of Christ to prosecute successfully the work of a missionary in evangelizing the world. Kindly exposlulate with such Christians, physicians and ministers of the gospel on the propriety of their coneuct, and they meet you with a multitude of the most frivolous excuses. One uses tobacco, as the tippler does his rum, as an antidote against a damp atmosphere Another, to prevent the accumulation of water or bile in his stomach: and a third, as a security against the encroach- ment of contagious diseases. But Howard the philanthropist assures us, that it had efficacy nei- ther in preventing the hospital fever, near in warding off the deadly plague. Dr. Ruesi ways, that at Philadelphia it was equally ineffectu- al, in preserving its votaries from influenza and vellow fever. Ex- cuse ourselves as we may, it is at best a disgusting habit, persisted in against the convictions of our understanding and the dictates of true politeness, and adapted only to gratify a vitiated and unnatural appe- tite. It is, indeed, agreeable to observe, that the superior refinement and regard to good manners, in some parts of the old world, have at length awakened public sentiment on this subject. We are informed by travellers, that smoking is disallowed in tav- erns and coffee-houses in Enigland, and that taking snuff is becoming unfashionable and vulgar in France. How much is it to be lamnente , that, while the use of tobacco is thus declining in two of the most en- lightened countries in Europe, it is daily becoming more general in America! " In no one view," says Dr. Rush, "' is it possible to con- template the creature man in a more absurd and ridiculous light, than in his foolish and disgusting attachment to the poisonous weed, tobac- co." Who then can witness groups of boys ten or twelve years old 36 APPENDIX. 36 Dni. WARREN'S LETTER. in our streets, snmokinm cigars, without anticipating such a deprecia- tion in o. poste rity with respect to health and character, as can scarcely be contemplated without pain and horror After ihe fore-uiitt was in type, it was ftibmitleu to I)octor Warren, of this Ci vii a rI quo'et that he wotild cxamiue lhe . ole, carettillv. andl give his 0itiiit ot it. lie lha, kiidll) returned tlhe followvitg S tong11 test rilo nial ii. favor of the Diis, rttion. A hic h caittot buit seti e it -a wide circulation, and tlic al- tentive lsrtiseil ofevery nman lio values healthl. DE'All SIR- In cotpliance wvithi vour request, I have read over the pamplblet of hr. Nlc llister on the tise of 'Thlo cco. 'riTough my prtscijt occu pations have preventted tn v (ooi tg it so careful- ]y, as to n Ittitle ltte toC sragrest any alterati otn or iniproe ement. T'ie greneral tCti(leticy of the ptaijpllt-t is excellenit: and I most cordially grite my opinion iii its favor: for I have often h1,1 Occasinti to observe the perIniciotis effec-s of tlhe free iise of tohmltcco. Alainy iotmtayces of dlspep-ia have come tinderr ritv inotice, tite origini of v hlcli was traced to the practice of rchr"tin-; and(] on thre abtrindonmieit of the habit, the patients were restored to health. I hate seen a number of cases of,r injiry to the voice, from the ititrird uction of sniff into the ficiufa sinuses. As to sinokinr-, I ant well satisfied thiat it is calculated to catise a feverish state of the body ; andi in certain constittitiots it weakevs thie rnem- branes wh!rich line the nostrils, throat, and liungs, prodtices a susceptihilit bto colds, and even more scrious affections of these parts, when it has been much enmplhited. From wvhat I have seen, I hate ibeent le(d to believe that this article is not necessary nor useful for tile preservation of health ; anjd that it is oftetn a cau-c of weak ness and sick- ness. I ain, with great respect, Your ob't serv't, Boston, J(Jn. 25, 1832. JOHN C. WARREN. NOTF.-Many persons have the opinion that the use of tobacco is a preventive of contarrimuis diseases: because it ilas heen asserted that tobacconists and ot hers living in then midst of the flltjvia; of this article, are exempt!d ftmn the attacks of sutih dtsorders. The prac- tices above allutdcd to. have in my opinion, a contrary effect. Those who live constantly in the region of tolacci,, bv tile effect of habit cease tobe stimuulateu atid over excited by the diffusion of it., lihjter particles in the air they breathe. But those wvhoi) etiploy it, "ccasion- ally, whether in sinrking, chewing or snwiffin . mider-o an excite- ment, miore or less considealahle; whicit is infallibly fehlHwed by a pro- portionate debility, in which state, they wvould be slubject to the at- tacks of a disease they might otherwise have escaped. J. C. I.