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Book about the L & N (Louisville & Nashville R.R.) / Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b98-59-43710168 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Book about the L & N (Louisville & Nashville R.R.) / Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company. The Company, [Louisville Ky. : 1923] 54 p. : ill., facsims., maps, ports. ; 23 cm. Coleman Caption title. Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 2000. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PA-23166-98) ; SOL MN08693.01 KUK) s2000 gaun a Printing Master B98-59. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company History. kg 385 L93bo A Book about the L & N (Louis HE2791.L878 B66 1923 Copyright 1923, by Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company J i-.4 ord from the President On March 5, 1850, the Governor of Kentucky affixed his signature to the charter which made the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company a going concern. It is needless to recite the revolutionary changes which have transpired in all realms of human endeavor, and not among the least in railroading, since the L. & N. corporation was created 73 years ago. Rather, with pride, may I call attention to the " imponderables "- those principles of honesty, reliability, service-which, among the policies of the L. & N., have remained stable and unchanged. The population has greatly increased; the country has developed; great wars have been fought and philosophies discredited; but moral principles are unconquerable, and the enterprise conducted on such principles is both deserving and assured of successful continuation. Again may I say that these principles, upon which the L. & N. was founded, remain unaltered and have become more firmly established through the passing years. The ideals which influenced the acts of its officers and managers have always been of the high- est. For upwards of 70 years, through good times and bad, the L. & N. has never failed to pay every dollar due its workers, its creditors,its bondholders; and, a ma- jority of years, it has paid dividends to its stockholders. This manifestation of honesty has earned for the L. & N. the confidence of the public, but such attainment could not have been accomplished on any railroad with- out the co-operation of the men who do the work- the man who handles the engine, the conductor who collects the tickets, the trackman who drives the spikes, and so on from the highest to the lowest. The L. & N. has been able to serve the public successfully only through the faithfulness and loyalty of its thousands of employees, to whom this publication is respectfully dedicated. While living up to the record of service and success which is behind us, may we strive in the future to make even a better and bigger railroad and to render the most efficient service possible. Let our goal be perfec- tion, wholly conscious that though we fail we shall be better than if we had not tried. Your continued co-operation to this end is solicited. aisville, Kentucky June 15, 1923. A W. L. M APOTHER, I President II j/1 = =_' I Loi - I - --- I I .nm IT I1 It Takes Team-Work to Get Results "It ain't the guns and armaments Nor the army as a whole, But the everlasting team-work Of every blooming soul." ---Kipling. I N RAILROADING, every man is a link in the chain of co- ordinated service. Every man is a soldier in the army of transportation. If the units of this army do not function properly or if they do not work together, the service rendered will be poor. It takes team-work to win. A man may be the brightest, cleverest person in the world, but he cannot accom- plish a thing unless he has the help of others. It is a fact that in any organization it is better to have a well-knit, close-work- ing force of less individual power or ability than an aggregation of more powerful and able men who do not work together. It is better to sacrifice individual ability in order to get the "pull- together" spirit of the whole crowd. It is better to have a team of oxen, or a team of mules, of moderate size and average weight that pull together than to have a team of more powerful oxen or mules that do not pull together. Last year, the Giants beat the Yanks because they worked to- gether almost perfectly. The Yanks had a million-dollar star, but the team-work of the Giants won the pennant. Now, a railroad is not so small an organization as a baseball team, but the same general principles apply. Every worker in every office, freight yard or labor squad should pull together with every one of his co-workers; then every squad, or depart- ment, should pull together with every other squad or depart- ment. In other words, every employee of the L. & N. should vie with every other employee to secure the best team-work for the Company and to provide the best service for the public. This little book of facts about the L. & N. Railroad has been written for the purpose of telling you something about the busi- ness which is your life work. A study of its con- tents will make you proud of the Company yott are working for and will enable you to talk more intelligently about it to any of your I By - 1 k friends, or to anyone else with whom you may come in contact.  I ') Importance of Transportation The first advance from barbarism was due to Trade. Trade is dependent upon transportation, ' and therefore it might truly be said that the civili- zation of to-day has been brought about by transportation. The earliest form of transportation was that of the human carrier. This is the method still used by savages whenever they have anything to trans- port, and in many parts of the East to-day the backs of porters are ladened with merchandise. The Egyptian Pyramids were built with slave labor. The huge stones used in their construction were dragged and hauled for hundreds of miles by human beings. Probably rollers of some sort were used, but human energy moved the stones from the quarries to their resting places. As soon as a country developed to a certain point, more adventurous spirits turned to the sea. These were traders in search of new fields to conquer. Again transportation was necessary. They were obliged to use boats. The Phoenicians built up the great trading cities of Tyre and Sidon. They founded Carthage and trad- ed with all the Mediterranean ports, even ventur- k 2 p ing out into the Atlantic as far north as Britain, '/ i 1. The successful cities, of the centers of civilization _j were always the trading cities. They were always j near rivers or by the sea. Trade could never have developed except for transportation. Another means of transportation was by camels, the "ships of the desert." The Asiatic cities of Bagdad, Damascus, Cairo, and so on, were the crossing points of the land routes and so became great trading centers. Coming down to more modern times, Venice and Genoa became great cities because their ships sailed all the seas. In every case, accessibility to easy transportation made a great city, and often a great civilization.  I I plsr _V Ad [ 8 s of ''I 7 The "De Witt Clinton"--- LU- first locomotive anod pas- senger train ever run in New York. This locemo- tiue was built in America. Many and varied have been the meth- ods of transportation--in the desert countries the camel, in India the elephant, in Arabia, and after- wards in most of the civilized countries, the ox and the horse. In pioneer countries, as for instance early America, the "prairie schooner" carried thousands of people to the far Western states. Then came the railroads. Truly, then, it might be said that transportation, more than any other single factor, has civilized the world. No country can live unto itself and progress. China is one of the backward na- tions of the world because for thousands of years she did not come in contact with any other peoples. She did not trade with other nations. As a matter of fact, the civilization of the world develop- ed comparatively slowly until transportation and a quick means of communication were available to all. Practically all of the con- veniences and comforts of modern life are due to quick and cheap transportation. Transportation is one of the basic necessities of life to-day. It is just as important as bread to eat, or clothes to wear. Millions of people living in large centers would starve to death in a few days' time if transportation were not available to supply them with foodstuffs. Transportation brings an article or product from where it is made or produced to where it is most wanted. For almost a hundred years now the railroads have been the quickest means of transportation on land. Importance of Railroads to America The railroads have developed America. It is true that there were millions of people in this country before there was a rail- road, but it is also true that since the first railroad started in 1830, the population has increased over nine fold. In less than a hundred years, the country has gone from twelve millions in 1830, to one hundred and five millions in 1920. Doubtless the wonderful natural resources of this country would have been developed to some extent without railroads, and millions of people would have come over from Europe to the new land of opportunity; but certainly the United States would not be the country it is to-day were it not for the railroads. Never before in the history of the world were there such great inland cities as Chicago, St. Louis, Omaha, Cleveland, Cincinnati, etc. The p-, railroads made them trading centers. The railroads ventured into sparsely-settled lands, and within a few years thereafter cities grew up, wealth accumulated, and millions of acres of un- worked lands were producing foodstuffs and other necessities for the nation. In many states the coming of the railroads meant the making of those states. The Pacific Coast, now one of the most thickly settled, most prosperous sections of the whole world, owes its development to the trans-continental systems. The United States has the finest system of railroads in the world. Covering over 250,000 miles, the shining steel rails must look like a giant spider web to the observer on Mars. In equip- ment and service, the railroads of this country are the envy of all other countries. Their management is a marvel of efficiency. History of Railroading in America All great institutions are developments. All great practical inventions have usually been perfected from a crude model, through a period of years. This is so true that the origin of a great many of our most important inventions is unknown. No- body knows who discovered gunpowder; no one knows positively who invented printing; no one knows who invented the compass. We do know who invented the telephone and the electric light bulb; but "it is a far cry" from the crude product of the inventor to the product in use to-day. Even in the case of the telephone, Elisha Gray disputed with Alexander Bell the invention of this wonderful instrument. So it is with the railroad. While it is admitted that Stephenson ran the first successful locomotive engine, on the Manchester & Liverpool Railroad, in September 1830, yet there were railroads before his time, and there were locomotive engines in America before that date. The first railroad ever built in America is claimed by the state of Massachusetts. It was built in 1826 and called the Quincy Railway. Properly speaking, however, it was not a railroad but a tramway, and it really did not become a railroad until 1871. This road was built for the purpose of hauling stone from a quarry to build the Bunker Hill Monument. It was three miles long and cost 34,000. _ An 'Old-Timer"  Peter Cooper's locomotive "Tom Thumb"--18.30, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. e -;-. t -- -- At the quarry, there was a steep incline, and the cars were moved up and down by a stationary engine. At the foot of the incline, the road sloped gently off to the river. The tracks were five feet apart and laid on stone cross-ties eight feet apart. On this stone sub-structure wooden rails were laid, and on these, other rails or strap iron. Upon this road, two horses could draw a load of forty tons. This is supposed to have been the first rail- road in America and is still referred to as marking the epoch of the beginning of railroading in this country. It was operated by horses until 1871. It is believed, however, that the South Carolina railroad was the first one built in any country with the idea of operating it by steam power. On the 15th of January, 1831, the year after the road was built, the "Best Friend" made a run over the tracks from Charleston to Hamburg. This was one of the oddest loco- motives ever built, in that it looked like a bottle. It had a vertical boiler with the furnace at the bottom. The "Best Friend" made several trips in 1830, running at the rate of sixteen or twenty miles an hour, and on the anniversary of the building of the railroad this engine pulled two coaches and carried one hundred people. This curious locomotive soon came to grief, due to the ignorance of the negro fireman. While the engineer was away, the escape of the steam from the safety valve an- noyed the fireman and he fastened down the valve lever and then sat on it to hold it down. The explosion that followed deprived the fireman of a job and the engineer of a fireman. On August 28, 1830, over what is now the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the Peter Cooper engine was given a trial. This en- gine was one-horsepower and weighed only a ton. It was not much larger than the hand cars now in common use. It had The "Best Friend of Charles- ton"--- firs! locomotive built in the United States for actual service on a railroad. [81 tubular boilers, but it did not have the other principle of Stephenson's engine, that of the waste steam blast, and conse- quently was not a success. This engine of Peter Cooper's, called the "Tom Thumb," made a trip from Baltimore to Ellicott's Mills and back, a distance of twenty-six miles, seventeen days before Stephenson's famous engine made the run over the Manchester & Liverpool Railroad. Peter Cooper is believed to have built the first steam engine in this country, and the "Tom Thumb" is now in the museum in Washington as the earliest locomotive made in this country. Massachusetts built a railroad in 1826; Pennsylvania, in 1827; Maryland, in 1828, and also South Carolina. In 1825 the New York Central was chartered, and the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad began operations on July 24, 1828. A famous trip of one of the early trains was that of the "De Witt Clinton," which made its first run on the 9th of August, 1831, over the Mohawk Valley Road from Albany to Schenectady, in less than an hour, running part of the way, thirty miles an hour. The success of the Stephenson locomotive in England soon brought a demand for them in America, and the first "powerful Stephenson locomotive" as it was called, cost 4,869.59. It weigh- ed only seven tons, but was too heavy for the rails upon which it was to run. - In the following five or ten years, railroads were opened up in various parts of the United States, and the development of locomotive building was rapid. The first trans-continental rail- road, the Union Pacific, was built in 1859. The attached table shows, by decades, the mileage of railroads built from 1830 to the present time. 1835 1,098 miles C 1840 2,818 " 1850 9,021 " 1860 30,635 " I 1870 52,922 " 1880 93,671 " ' 1890 159,271 i- 1900 192,940 1910 238,609 1920 253,090 Read on later pages of the remarkable growth of the L. & N., from a section of 185 miles to a system of 5039 miles, traversing Beak in the Seeln thirteen states. [9J History of the L. & N. Few people know that one of the oldest railroads in America is the Pontchartrain Railroad which runs from New Orleans to Lake Pontchartrain, now a part of the L.&N. System. It received its charter January 3, 1830. The Lexing- ton & Ohio Railroad, likewise a part of the L. & N. System, received its charteri January 7, 1830. Thus, two of the earliest railroads in the United States were built i in Kentucky and Louisiana, showing that the States of the Middle West and far South were just as enterprising and up- to-date as those of the East. These two railroads first used horse power. In the construction of the Lexington & Ohio road longitudinal limestone sills and iron strips for rails were used so that it would be solid and thus endure forever. Unfortunately, the heavy winter frosts This old stone sill, which played havoc with the stone sills. An old forned a port of the founda- book of that time states that many curves Ohio track, was unearthed at were put in the track by the construction Lexington, Ky. engineers so that the conductor could see the end of his train -now and then and be sure that all the coaches were there. 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The first payment on the stock subscription was 58.00, of which 22.55 was paid out for advertising. The re- mainder was placed in the treasury. The Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company began its career with 35.45. The first president of the road was Mr. L. L. Shreve. The first depot was at Tenth and Maple Sts. in Louisville. The first offices of the Company were at Bullitt and Main Sts., in the Louisville Gas Company building. 10(' The L. & N. Railroad started off with an authorized capitaliza- tion of three million dollars, for which the city of Louisville subscribed one million, and several counties, three hundred thousand, one hundred thousand, etc. This stock was afterwards bought back from the cities and counties that subscribed for it and they received over four dollars for every dollar put into it. The early promoters of the L. & N. probably did not have in mind run- ning their road farther from Louis- ville than to Nashville. However they later conceived the idea of going South to some point on the Mississippi River. The first sleep-I M ing cars from Louisville to New Or- leans operated over the L. & N. via Humboldt, the Mobile & Ohiol the Mississippi Central, and the New Former L. & N. Office Building, Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern. Second & Main Sts. Louisville, Ky. Of course, trains had been run to intermediate points before the operation of the through train to Nashville. In 1860, the road was 269 miles long. In 1871, the L. & N. Railroad leased the Nashville & Decatur Railroad and acquired the Memphis, Clarksville & Louisville Railroad. In 1872, the L. & N. acquired the Memphis & Ohio Railroad and commenced operating the South and North Alabama Railroad. From 1879 to 1882, the L. & N. acquired the Mobile & Montgomery, the New Orleans, Mobile & Texas, the Pensacola Railroad, and the Pensacola & Selma; and built the Pensacola & Atlantic. To the North, it ec- quired the Louisville, Cincinnati & Lexington and the Owens- boro & Nashville; it acquired the Kentucky Central, the Evans- ville, Henderson & Nashville and leased the Southeast & St. Louis; it bought controlling interest in the Nashville, Chatta- nooga & St. Louis Railway; and leased the Georgia Railroad joint- ly with theAtlantic Coast Lines. Subsequently it constructed the Birmingham Mineral and the line to Norton, Va., and acquired the Alabama Mineral, the Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern and the Lexington & Eastern, extending the latter 100 miles into the coal fields. Former L. & N. Passenger Station, 9th. and Broadway, Louisville, Kentucky, Cosrce,1856. [1'1] Territory Developed and Served by the L. & N. It may be said that the Louisville & Nashville Railroad operates over the heart of the United States. Its territory is approximately the geographical center of the country, and the population center of the United States is reached by its lines. The L. & N. enters thirteen states, and it taps the principal cities and main arteries of trade of ten of them. The L. & N., therefore, serves approximately 20,000,000 people, or 19 per cent of the entire population of the United States. All of the cities shown on the opposite page and the territory surrounding them have seen their greatest development since the building of this railroad. KENTUCKY The L. & N.- a huge network of steel covering almost the entire face of Kentucky-has been of incalculable value in developing and carrying to the markets her vast deposits of coal and other valuable resources. Its principal offices are located at Louisville, and nearby its principal shops employ great forces in the construction and repair of a large portion of its equipment. Approximate number of employees in the state of Kentucky-- - - 22,216 Approximate yearly payroll - 38,600.452 Annual state, county and city taxes 1,244,000 Approximate number of passenger fig flu trains operated daily in this state - 244 X -2 v Approximate number of freight - -trains operated daily in this state - 341 OHIO While the Louisville & Nashville Railroad operates but two miles of track in the state of Ohio, it employs approximately 500 people and pays annually in wages and taxes about three a I quarters of a million dollars. 0 0 It operates daily to and from Cincinnati 24 local and through-passenger trains and an aver- age of 62 freight trains. The L. tributes business VIRGINIA & N. operates 85 miles of track in Virginia; and con- substantially to the resources and transportation of tnis state. Approximate number of employees in the state of Virginia -224 Approximate yearly payroll -321,000 Annual state, county and city taxes - 68,700 Approximate number of passenger trains operated daily in this state- 4 Approximate number of freight trains operated daily in this state -10 [121 I I '_1 I I--- I, A j _" - -, C' N I - - - CINCINNATI ST. LOUIS LOUISVILLE HVILLE ATLANTA OMERY MOBIL ENSACOLA THE OLD RELIABLE NEW ORLEANS LLE ALABAMA The L. & N. Railroad reaches practically every city and town of importance in this great State. More than one-fourth of the L. & N. mileage operated is in Alabama, and 25 of the total rail- road mileage of the State belongs to the L. & N. Four great shops are maintained, at Decatur, Boyles, Montgomery and Mobile. In wages and taxes, the L. & N. disbursements in Alabama are second only to those in Kentucky where its general offices are located. . Approximate number of employees in the state of Alabama -_--_ --___--_----9,263 Approximate yearly payroll - - 15,461,415 !A -AeMA Annual state, county and city taxes - - 770,500 Approximate number of passenger trains opera- ted daily in this state -104 !-. Approximate number of freight trains operated daily in this state -74 MISSISSIPPI Every year the Louisville & Nashville Railroad invests large sums of money in newspaper, poster and booklet advertising to induce tourists to visit the Mississippi Gulf Coast. The Indus- trial and Immigration Department of the L. & N. has done effec- tive work in exploiting the agricultural advantages of this state. Approximate number of employees in the state of Mississippi -481 Approximate yearly payroll -744,030 Annual state, county and city taxes -154,000 , l Approximate number of passenger trains operated daily in this state -18--._._.- Approximate number of freight trains operated daily in this state - 18 GEORGIA Direct, through-passenger service is afforded the people of Georgia to principal population centers of the Central West; Louisville, Chicago, Cincinnati, and through the latter point to the East. Also through Montgomery to the Gulf Coast points and New Orleans; and, via Nashville, to St. Louis and the West. Approximate number of employees in the state of Georgia -553 Approximate yearly payroll - - 925,554 So't a Annual state, county and city taxes --------75,400 \ Approximate number of passenger K gG trains operated daily in this state -14 i Approximate number of freight ,_____ A,' trains operated daily in this state ----------20 F141 L. & N. Station Evansville, Ind. i L. & N. Station and Skyscrapers Birmingham, Ala. / e 11 /2 Henderson Bridge ver the Ohio River on the L. & N., near Evansville, Ind. 7q I ,' kF I I-- FLORIDA The L. & N. does not traverse the whole of Florida, but direct passenger service is afforded its people to New Orleans and the Southwest by this Railroad. It also offers direct service to the principal cities of the South and Central West. Approximate number of employees in the state of Florida -1,340 Approximate yearly payroll -2,123,166 Annual state, county and city taxes - 177,500 Approximate number of passenger trains operated daily in this state -18 Approximate number of freight trains operated daily in this state -32 MISSOURI While the L. & N. Railroad operates but three miles of track in the state of Missouri, it gives employment to more than 540 people and pays to residents of that state, annually in wages, approximately a million dollars. The State of Missouri and the St. Louis ter- ritory are benefited principally by the excel- I lent freight and passenger service to the South and Southeast afforded by the Louisville & Nashville Railroad; the L. & N. operating 10 i 0through-passenger trains daily from St. Louis, - and averaging 18 freight trains. The L. & N. is the only strictly Southeastern road with c freight house and terminals of its own on the St. Louis side of the river, situated near Broadway, the main ave- nue of traffic in this city. This section, which is convenient to the wholesale district and within two blocks of the retail and jobbing fruit and produce district, also provides a market place on L. & N. tracks for the wholesale distribution of fruits and vegetables in car-load lots. The L. & N. anticipated the needs of St. Louis shippers thirty- two years ago when it built a freight house in St. Louis, Mo., proper. LOUISIANA The L. & N. mileage in Louisiana is small, yet in this state is the Southern terminus of the railroad. To New Orleans, the largest city in the South, and the second port of the United States, the L. & N. brings the products of the valley to be shipped out to the whole world. Appro:dmate number of employees in the --- state of Louisiana 819 Approximate yearly payroll 1,394,747 Annual state, county and city taxes 134,000 Approximate number of passenger trains operated daily in this state- 20 Approximate number of freight trains operated daily in this state -16 r[ ,] Union Station Louisville. Ky. 7f. Union Station Nashville, Tenn. A:OfAd : Union Station Lexington, Ky. I f:00 I NORTH CAROLINA While the L. & N. operates only 13 miles of track in North Carolina, it affords the people of this state direct passenger and freight service to Atlanta, Louisville and Cincinnati and is an important factor in Approximate number of employees the state's affairs. in the state of North Carolina -- 40 A - O CAROLIN A e . , Approximate yearly payroll -45,810 Annual, state, county and city taxes 6,200 Approximate number of passenger trains operated daily in this state- 2 Approximate number of freight trains operated daily in this state- 2 ILLINOIS The L. & N. operates 180 miles of track in Illinois and gives direct passenger and freight service to St. Louis, Evansville, Nashville, Birmingham and New Orleans. It is a valuable asset to the state. - Approximate number of employees in the state of Illinois .-.--- - ---- - 909 Approximate yearly payroll - - - 1,559,167 Annual state, county and city taxes--- 196,200 Approximate number of passenger trains operated in this state- - -14 Approximate number of freight trains operated in this state- - -24 Hi----- I v1 INDIANA Although the Louisville & Nashville Railroad operates less than 1 of its total mileage in the state of Indiana, its annual disbursements for wages and taxes in Indiana amount to more than 3 of its total all-over-the-system figures for these items. 1 I, ! T ! I v ! i 2 I Approxcimate number of employees in the state of Indiana -1,623 Approximate yearly payroll -2,823,864 Annual state, county and city taxes -16,100 Approximate number of passenger trains oper- ated daily in this state -14 Approximate number of freight trains operated daily in this state -48 TENNESSEE As shown by the map, the Louisville & Nashville Railroad affords excellent freight and passenger service to all parts of the state of Tennessee; operating more than 1,000 miles of track or something over 25 of Approximate number of employees the entire railroad in the state of Tennessee- 6,818 mileage in the state. Approximate yearly payroll - 11,625,039 Annual state, county and city taxes - 623,000 - - brig,- S -E- -7 Approximate number of passenger trains operated daily in this state -118 , .1/ tbun ; ,- Approximate number of freight trains iYTL ___ A' operated daily in this state -187  L. & N. Station Tuscaloosa, Ala. 4I Fla. Union Statio Memphis, Tenn. Montgomery, 1) L. & N. Service After all, the business of a railroad is to serve the people. It supplies that essential commodity known as Transportation. It takes people and things from places where they are to places where they want to be. It must supply this transportation c quickly and economically, and T RAY E L I N G" pleasantly. The L. & N. Rail- ON TIHE road realizes its obligation to 3Lexingtorr anb QObio raiut lkoab serve, and every employee, from the President on down, TIlE FIR;T sIX MILE-S OF TIHE ROAD BEING, I ol- strives constantly to carry out PLETED A Pv-IAl.Nl (FiA \(:iI I)\ji. Llo.\\E Tilli. 1.A)\R MARK 5 Xh ll 1LL the motto of a famous prince: FOR TIHE END OF THE' HIll'T Ich Dien " - I serve. This )IVI'IO:)N AT 9': O'CLOCK A. M. ideal of service is reflected in AND 2: OCLOCK P. M. the attitude of thousands of L. RETUIRNING WILL LEAVE TIHE END OF TlIE & N. employees. Uniform DIVISION FOlt LEXINGTON AT 10) OClOCt-K courtesyis shown to the public, A. M1. AND 3' O'CLOCK 1'. MI. and every endeavor is made to ClIMPANIFS 'IF !P OIR. 1CN BE bring passenger trains in on 1THi A PRI\ AJL IAR B. (I 'GN LE It' It time and to move goods to Office L.& 0. Rail Road Company their destination promptly. JANIA 5, rhe L. & N. Railroad is con- The First Advertisement of The Lexington tinually spending millions of and Ohio Railroad, January, 1833 dollars to maintain and improve its equipment, to have the best tracks, to furnish the best cars and the most powerful locomo- tives. Thousands of its employees who have been with the com- pany for years take pride in their work and in their railroad, and instill in the minds of the newer workers the theory upon which the L. & N. Railroad has made a success - that of reli- able service to the public. [ 201 CINCINNATI\ theL&N I speak as one with age and strength to the I 1 w people of a great country, rich and wonderful 17'f in years. Seventy-two years ago, men and Id 1 Bs ff women of the South, I was born among you. A/Ij/1J For seventy-two years I have been constantly with you-with you every minute without an instant's lapse of time. For seventy years I have labored with you, arm in arm, to bring prosperity to the Southland. Seventy years ago we were young together, the South and I, but we have grown apace; each sharing the weal and woe of a common fate. For seventy years my interests have been wedded to the destiny of a vast country. And those years have fructified my aim. Today, fair Southland, you have an to serve each other. I believe in your enviable place in the nation, rich and country-have believed in it for over palpitant with life and happiness and seventy years. I feel sure of your plenty. Today, I am a Pioneer of the future. That is why I have invested liuthland, a substantial, reliable rail- over three hundred and thirty million road, complete and up-to-date, that dollar in your fair land. winds its ribbons of steel across 5,000 miles of your territory, and every in- I believe in the people of the South; stant stands ready to give you, people believe in their honesty, fair-minded- of the South, unexcelled transportation ness, and I request that they continue service to both local and distant pointe. to join me, as they have for over seventy We have served each other in a corm- years, an co-workers in the great cause mon interest. And we shall continueof the Southland. 23 ne THE OLD RELIABLE Of Our Newspaper Advertisements ffl I R MED M-2-R11 W-Ll I Taking the Public Into Our Confidence The Louisville & Nashville Railroad is conducting an adver- tising campaign which has for its purpose the education of the public to the appreciation of railroads and what they mean to the country. A series of large and striking advertisements has been run- ning for quite a number of months in the leading daily news- papers throughout the territory served by the L. & N. Railroad. These advertisements are frank and direct in their statement of facts, and they have won for the Road and its employees a most favorable attitude from the public. Below and on the opposite page and elsewhere are shown several advertisements, reduced, which give some idea of this important publicity. An Advertisement which appeared in NA the week beginning This type of an rorn sTheg e Gulf Co t nadvertisement fs a ro m t h ulCosI) ness builder for or_ as i _us__ 0:00 0 an 0 ttTheOldReliable"  - New Rigolets Bridge eNow Uder Construction. A- Spending Money on Improvements The American railroads have planned to spend, during 1923, a total of more than 1,100,000,000 designed to improve and render more efficient their transportation plants. New cars, both passenger and freight-- now badly needed; additional mo- tive power of heavier type and improved design, and various road-way structures, all will be added. This huge sum repre- sents an expenditure of approximately 6,300 per mile. In line with other roads, the L. & N. has, through the past twelve months, authorized and expended a total of more than 52,000,000, equivalent to an average of 10,400 per mile. The more important items are as follows: Cars -27,974,750 Locomotives-- 5,011,600 Double tracks, additional lines, etc.___ 8,768,400 Bridges, trestles, etc. -4,404,500 Terminal and mechanical facilities 1,973,400 New and heavier rails -2,095,000 Miscellaneous improvements- 2,448,300 More than 43,000,000 of this represents improvements which are now in the active process of construction and will be com- pleted at the earliest practicable moment. In addition, other projects involving large expenditures are now under contem- plation which, coupled with the above, evidence the determin- ation of the L. & N. R. R. to provide for the public the Freight Engine No. 1480. Mikado type. very finest possible trans- - portation service. This fur- ther demonstrates its belief in the splendid possibilities of the country adjacent to the 5,000 miles of tracks in _ the territory which it serves. - -4] i-11110-- L. & N. Office Building, 9th. and Broadway, Louisville, Ky. MILTON HANNIBAL SMITH 1866-1921 "'An Institution is the Lengthened Shadow of a Man" These words of Emerson might have been written of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad and Mr. Smith, they are so sin- gularly appropriate. While it is, of course, realized that in build- ing the L. & N. System the ever-willing, never-failing co-oper- ation of the officers and employees was an indispensable factor, nevertheless, when full credit is given them-and it is an epic of loyalty and devotion-it remains to be said that the "grand old man" who for almost forty years devoted his mind and heart and all his sterling qualities of leadership to this love- of-his-life, was the dominant, paramount, vital force that made the L. & N. the great and lasting institution of the South. Truly, the entire system is the lengthened shadow of one man -Milton H. Smith. Much has been said; much more could be well said of Mr. Smith's faithfulness to his trust, which he held sacred, but no words can tell of his stewardship better or more feelingly than is told in the following tribute unanimously paid by the stock- holders at the time of his death: [261 The Stockholders of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company desire in this way to record their profound sorrow at the death of Milton H. Smith, the President, which occurred at his home in Louisville, Ky., on February 22, 1921, in his eighty-fifth year, and to extend their sincere sympathy to his family in their great bereavement. Mr. Smith gave fifty years of his life to whole-hearted, loyal service of this Company, and for nearly forty years was its chief executive officer. During his administration, and due to his rare native ability and remark- able foresight, industry and courageous initiative, the small fragmentary lines that formed the beginnings of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad were wrought into one great homogeneous whole, which was in turn so en- larged and extended as to become one of the most important and valuable transportation systems of the country. To the people of the South, among whom he, a stranger, had cast his lot in early life, and to the owners of the great property for whom he al- ways regarded himself as holding the sacred position of trustee, his great abilities were unceasingly and unstintingly devoted. The South can never estimate the value of the service he rendered in bringing about its uplift from the depression following the Civil War and in causing the economic development of its vast territory into a wealth greater today than that of the entire Union in 1861. Equally impossible is it for the Stockholders of this Company to ad- equately measure their obligations to him for the preservation and en- hancement of their investments committed to his keeping. He was one of America's great men, and as a railroad executive, in the true and broadest sense, he will ever rank as one of the few great leaders. It has been well said that his genius sprang from an incompar- able combination of rugged integrity, love of truth, and extraordinary breadth of vision; and that its proof is written in letters of steel in every county through which the rails of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad pass. It is gratifying to his friends that he was privileged to live long enough himself to learn the estimate of his fellow men, and to see the im- aginative visions of his early days converted by his efforts into glowing realities. He also saw, it is true, great and unwelcome changes in admin- istrative methods come with the increase of Governmental regulation, but he did not permit himself to become embittered; he met them as all other conditions, squarely, sanely and successfully. The personality of such a man as Mr. Smith is necessarily striking and attractive. In his case it was also paradoxical. Though a giant in wisdom and strength, modesty as to his own attainments was perhaps his outstanding characteristic. Relentless as he was in combat, he fought in the open, never knowingly did an injustice to any man, and in victory was considerate and generous. Subjugating and sacrificing self, he was the em- bodiment of tenderness and devotion to those he loved. Truly a master mind with a master heart. Though his death creates a void that must remain unfilled, the world is better for his endeavors; the example of his life must always remain an inspiration to those who knew him, and the record of his greatness will en- dure for all time. Mr. Smith first entered the L. & N. service in August, 1866, as Local Freight Agent at Louisville; he was made General Freight Agent in June, 1869. He resigned in October 1878, to accept service elsewhere, but on January 1, 1882, returned to the service of the Company as Third Vice-President and Traffic Manager. On July 6, 1882, he was made Chief Executive Officer, the duties of which position he performed, as President or Vice-President, until March 9, 1891, and thereafter as Pres- ident, continuously until his death.  Shelby Bryant. W. W. Porterfield. 1. C. & L. Division A. M Division Frank H. Sanderson Nashville Terminals Janies Cody. Louisville Terminal Patrick MeCue. St. LAuis Division Chas. R. Kelly. C. H. Price. G. P. Dept. L. C. & L. Diision Brent Arnold. T. H. Hobart. Supt. Cin.innatiTerm S. &. N. A. Division Martin Shaughnessy. Louisville Terminal Jas. G. Barry. Louisville Division Martin Lawless. Louisville Terminal Jas. Ward, Louisville Division I : f II ffi L. Jerry Sullivan. S. & N. A. Division Wm. D. Norvell. Louisville Terminal William K. Jameson. Louisville Division John C. West. P. P. Huston. Nashville Division Former Pureh'g Agt C. R. Brent. Gen. Freight Dept. Henry Copley. M:& M. Division H'..I rnie F. lnram, John I. Fer-u-ion. W. A. Ashley. Abner Key. LI & L. D:4;.. Wemphi, Wiviqi' Niempili Division Memphis Division Memphis Division .1. St -' , i I.ihn Nathaln Watkin- -erge Schumpp. Ezekiel M. MeGruder. Martin P. Hall. S.& NA liv'" L,,ujs-iIIe T-mni- lo-isill, Termin.l Louisville Terminal Louisville Terminal The L. & N. Diamond-Button Men In recognition of continu- ous, active service over a Thos. Barrett. Anton Geistlieh. John Swift. Sr. period of years, this Com- Louisville Terminal Louisville Terminal Louisville Terminal pany has adopted a poic of awarding to employees service buttons, (pins for the women) indicative of the number of years of such service. For fifteen years of service, a Bronze Button; for twenty-five years, a Sil- ver Button; for thirty-five years, Silver with Colored G. W. Thompson, J. J. Monohan. John Seott. Enamel; for forty-five years, Nashville Divisio Nashville Division Nashville Division Gold with Colored Enamel; for fifty years, Gold with Diamonds. The photographs of the Diamond-Button Men, who have served continuously in the L & N. organization for fifty years or more, are here- with reproduced. On ac- couint of the large number, J. A. Boyd. Chas. Marshall, J. A. Cassell. it is inpractical to show G. P. Dept. Retired Supt. G. 1 P. LDept. photographs of those in the other service grades. Ben Johnson,(Coloredl John Roberts(ColoredJ Link 'Iurner (Coloredi _______________________ N. 0. & M. Divisioii N. 0. & M. DivisionNashville Terminal Magnitude of the Transportation Industry It has long since become axiomatic that transportation is the most essential single factor in the physical development and progress of any country or people. It is equally true that the railroad is the most highly-developed and efficient medium of land transportation so far devised. In a little less than a cen- tury our roads, through the combination of indomitable courage and concentrated effort on the part of their builders, have achieved a position that ranks them with the greatest and most efficient transportation systems in existence, and they, in turn, unquestionably, have been the chief influences in making this country the richest and most influential nation in the world. The ramifications of the railroad enterprise are endless and its complexities and magnitude are utterly beyond the grasp of the human mind. In de- scribing their immen- sity we are obliged to Engine No. 8, Purchased by the L. & N. talk in terms of com- Before the Civil War monplace comparison. The railroads in the United States have a value of approxi- mately twenty billion dollars; and are owned by more than seven hundred and fifty thou sand stockholders and many thou- sands more of bondholders, in all walks of life. This huge system is composed of nearly 380,000 miles of tracks of all kinds; or a sufficient mileage to encircle the world more than fifteen times. Over this huge web of steel are transported annually more than 1,700,000,000 tons of freight which are carried an average of 140 miles each, and over 1,000,000,000 revenue pas- sengers whose average journey is approximately 37 miles. For this transportation there are required 65,000 locomotives and 2,500,000 freight and passenger cars which, linked together in a solid train, would reach nearly 20,000 miles. These cars run approximately 24,000,000,000 miles per year. In handling this traffic it is necessary to burn 125,000,000 tons of coal, cost- ing over 500,000,000; approximately 25 per cent of the coal out- put of the country. These railroads also require about 25 per cent of the lumber and 40 per cent of the iron and steel produc- tion of the whole country. They pay taxes amounting to more than 300,000,000 per year. These railroads have in their service 1,660,000 employees who are directly supported by their payrolls, amounting to practi- cally 3,000,000,000. Many millions more are dependent upon the mines, foundries, and various other industries which supply [301 the railroads with the necessary materials, fuel and other arti- cles of consumption. It can safely be stated, therefore, that there is hardly a person in this country whose individual daily livelihood is not affected in the most immediate and real sense by the degree of success or failure with which these railroads perform their daily duties. These considerations alone make the welfare of the railroads of this country a matter of overshadowing national importance. The railroads realize their vital position in this matter and are __________________________________ _ _ sensible of the great responsibility which it carries and they are earnestly striv- i ng, individually and collectively, to pro- vide efficient freight f0 ;land passenger ser- F F vice at the least cost 0;commensurate with L. 4 S ESX2Ei 0 fair play to their em- ployees and to the View of a Portion of One of the Machine Shop stockholders and the Buildings of the L. & N., South Louisville, Ky. bondholders. The magnitude of Cie L. & N. Railroad is succinctly shown by the following approximate figures for the year 1922: Number of Stockholders --- 6,000 Passenger Miles - 670,000,000 Mileage Operated 5,039 Average Journey Value of its Property 350,000,000 Per Passenger (miles) -52 Locomotives Owned- 1,300 Number of Employees Freight Cars Owned - 54,600 (March, 1923) - 50,895 Passenger Cars Owned - 860 Compensation Tons Carried -49,000,000 (Year 1922) -68,400,000 Ton-Miles -9,800,000,000 Coal Consumed (tons) - 3,300,000 Average Haul (miles) -301 Taxes Paid -4,710,000 Passengers Carried - 13,000,000 Number of States Traversed - 13 Pension Policy of the L. & N. Railroad The L. & N. Railroad has no special pension fund. It does not guarantee that any employee will be provided for in his old age. But it is a fact that the L. & N. Railroad does take care of its employees when the retirement age is reached. The Road pays for this out of its own pocket without any assessment of any kind; and throughout its entire history no employee of the L. & N. who has given his best years to the service of the Com- pany has been neglected or forgotten when he was incapacitated for work. Since the inauguration of this pension plan, the L. & N. has paid out to pensioners a total of 716,493.92. [311 The L. & N. Railroad employee has his job for life, so long as he does his duty, and he will be taken care of when he is too old to work. Safety Record of the L. & N. The safety record of the L. & N. will compare favorably with that of any other railroad in the United States. The manage- ment adopts every practical device that will add to the safety of its employees and passengers. Of the hundreds of thousands who have worked for it, and of the hundreds of millions who have used its lines as passengers, only an infinitesimal number, comparatively speaking, have been killed or injured. During the last five years 78,000,000 passengers were carried, without a single fatality in a train accident, and during the same period there was a decrease of fifty-one per cent in the number of fatal- injury cases among employees. However, safety in railroad operation is not altogether a ques- tion of safeguarding, but of sensible caution constantly exercised. Of course, no one will say that safety appliances do not prevent injuries. They do prevent a goodly number, and their use should be encouraged and extended. But, in themselves, they do not go far enough, and the ultimate object of the safety movement is to develop in each employee a sense of individual responsi- bility not only for his own protection, but for the protection of his fellow-employees as well. In the Safety Movement it has been found that every pre- ventable accident is due to one of three causes or a combination of those causes: 1. Defective or improper conditions of way, structures, equipment, machinery, tools or appliances. 2. Improper methods of work or operation. 3. Failure of one or more people to use necessary care and diligence. In other words, every preventable accident is found to be due to some failure or insufficiency of material, method or people. The employee is not responsible for the first two causes men- tioned, but he is responsible for the third. Material and method are subjects for careful consideration by officers; but man, the human element, is almost wholly within the control of the em- ployee. The vital problem of safety, therefore, depends for its complete and final solution upon both officer and employee. It cannot be solved by one without the other. It can be solved if both v;ill work hand in hand, as they should, because their r321 duties and obligations are mutual and reciprocal. They are, or ought to be, swayed by the same humanitarian impulses and actuated by the same motives of self-interest. A mere statement of the causes implies the remedies therefor: 1. Improve and make safe defective or improper conditions of way, structure, equipment, machinery, tools and appliances. 2. Correct improper methods of work or operation. 3. Educate and instruct employees, in all branches of the service, to use necessary care in the discharge of their duties. These three remedies pursued intelligently and persistently cannot fail to result in a material decrease in the number of preventable accidents. And this is about all there is to the Safety Movement that has been inaugurated by the railroads and carried on intensively. The lesson to be learned is that prevention of accidents, to any considerable extent, depends upon a most earnest, systematic and persistent campaign of co-operation between railroad officers and employees. Before unsafe conditions and defective equipment, appliances, tools and machinery can be corrected or repaired, the defects must be discovered. Employees, naturally, have the best opportunity to make this discovery, and, whenever it is made, it is their duty to report it to the proper person in order that the neces- sary remedy may be applied. The management of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Com- pany stands back of the Safety Movement. It has issued bulle- tins calling the attention of its employees to that movement and to the appointment of safety committees, These safety committees provide a channel through which all employees are not only invited, but urged, to present suggestions and recom- mendations for greater safety and improvement in conditions and method of work. Since, as has been stated, the human ele- ment is almost entirely within the control of the employees themselves, they should see that they not only walk warily themselves, but also that the men with whom they work do likewise. The Louisville Roundhouse, South Louisville, Kentucky 46:l 1 '1111 _"' 01 , I I 1, k I 'AW lz .00 vlm_ The Spirit of the L. & N. Service G. E. EVANS, Vice-President-Operation. The L. & N. has been in oper- the war; but I believe it has been ation now for sixty-seven years. revived, and I hope those unhappy It has carried on without a break, conditions are behind us forever. through various disturbances-the Loyalty has been our pride and dangers of pestilence, the havoc strength in the past, and it can of storms and floods, the strain be no less in the future. of wars, the derangement of the I have said that loyalty is tradi- established order and standards tional on the L. & N.-that is, of industrial life which have ac- handed down-first by the action companied and followed wars; of the Company itself, and, in and through the depression of turn, by the seniors to the juniors financial panics. It has continu- in the service. By the same token, ously performed its service to the the responsibility for perpetuating public and fulfilled its financial this spirit rests largely with our obligations. It is known as the officers, of extensive or of small "Old Reliable." jurisdiction. They have been I am convinced that this ac- made officers because of their complishment has been possible comparatively wider vision and only through the spirit which has larger grasp of meaning; unless actuated and governed the Com- they impart and encourage this pany-the sense of responsibility, spirit of loyalty, others may fall both legal and moral, and its short of realizing its significance. fidelity to purpose. It is for them, by word and exam- This spirit of loyalty to its un- ple, to lead those under them in dertakings which has actuated and this spirit-to explain to them that governed the L. & N. as a body as loyalty to purpose and under- corporate, and its obvious accom- takings is the foundation of the plishments, have long since de- Company's success, so loyalty to veloped throughout the personnel the Company is the foundation of of the Company's service a corres- individual success in its service. ponding loyalty to the Company, Every one in the Company's ser- which, lending strength to the vice is a part of the Company; his guiding spirit of the Company, has success is dependent upon the been a powerful factor in the L. Company's; and being loyal to the & N.'s growth and success. Doubt- Company is being true to himself; less, much of the success of any the individual interest of each is large organization is due to esprit promoted, and the normal and de corps, "the common spirit" (as healthy ambition to do something the dictionary defines it) "pervad- worth while is attained by all of ing the members of a body or as- us together in maintaining a ser- sociation of persons, implying vice in which we can take pride. sympathy, enthusiasm, devotion, Pride of service refers prima- and jealous regard for the honor rily to our attitude to theCompany of the body as a whole." Loyalty that provides us our livelihood; in is all of that, and more than that; a larger sense it refers to our atti- it includes faithfulness and relia- tude toward the whole public, be- bility. Loyalty is the term we use cause transportation, the work of for the spirit of the L. & N.; it is railroads, is a pubic necessity- a familiar word on the L. & N. and the public evinces an active It has become traditional, as shown interest in it. Interest on the part by the number of fifty-years-ser- of the public is proper, inasmuch vice men, the diamond-button em- as the Company has assumed the ployees, mentioned elsewhere in obligations of a common carrier this "Book About the L. & N." It and the public is its patron; it will is a tradition of honor, and one to be a helpful, sympathetic interest be cherished. Much of the old if we maintain a service of which feeling was lost during the World we can be proud, for without War and its aftermath, through doubt, if we maintain such a ser- the general disruption and the vice, the public will reflect our universal restiveness incident to pride in it. [341 Traffic Future of the L. & N. Railroad A. R. SMrnH, Vice-President-Traffic. If we may judge from what has been accomplished in the past, it is easy to prophesy a great traffic future for the Company. All of us-especially those who have had the satisfaction of long service- may take a pardonable pride in the results, so far, of years of ef- fort, and confidently feel that even a greater relative volume of traf- fic and patronage is to fall to the lot of our old Company. While none of us can go so far back as the year 1860, we may view the records showing the ex- pansion since that time. Contrast the gross freight earnings per mile of line, of 1,368.00 in that year with 17,990.00 in 1922. More than twelve times as much! Our passen- ger business, while not showing so wonderful a growth, nevertheless grew from 1,637.00 to 4,524.00 per mile of line in the same time. Coming down to 1900-a period easily recalled by many of us-we find our gross freight earnings jumped from a little over 20 mil- lions to over 90 millions of dollars, or from 6,638.00 per mile of line to the figure mentioned above; an increase of 171. And, in the same time, gross passenger earn- ings from five and a quarter mil- lions to twenty-two and three-quar- ter millions; or from 1,725.00 to 4,524.44 or 162 per mile of line. When we discuss the future of our railroad (or of all railroads for that matter) in terms of dol- lars, we run the risk of later ap- pearing as poor prophets; even now, certain gentlemen in public life are planning to greatly cut down railroad revenues through the very simple process of reduc- ing rates. So, we had better found the forecast on comparative traf- fic volume. Traffic volume or density is, ordinarily, measured in terms of "tons (or passengers) carried one mile per mile of line." Under these measures, the freight traffic grew from the unit of 860,991 in 1900 to 1,951,458 in 1922, or 126 per cent; the passenger traffic, from 74,421 to 132,829, or 78/2 per cent. While each passing year shows "ups and downs" in these measures (1920 was our greatest passenger year), the trend has been upwards. And it is the rising trend, the knowledge of the in- evitable commercial and produc- tive expansion of the L. & N. ter- ritory and the faith all have in the loyal co-operation and effort of the rank and file of the L. & N. family that warrants the belief of a wonderful future growth. The "Southland" is a wonderful country, being blessed with many advantages over other sections of the United States. Its natural re- sources are relatively greater, in the aggregate, than elsewhere and, aside from forest products, have been only partially developed. The creation of hydro-electric power is only beginning. Available farm lands are but partly used, and on these lands can be grown nearly everything that is produced else- where, and some things, such as cotton, in but few outside sections. Then, there is the wealth in the native stock of people, desirous of success. The growth in the past few years in the South (and espe- cially in that part lying east of the Mississippi River) has been such as to warrant the belief that the increase in manufacturing and commerce has been, relatively speaking, as great or greater than in the East and North and West, and with a promise of great things. The lines of the L. & N. Railroad, and of its dependent lines and al- lies, radiate through this "land of promise" and are in a position to profit from the expected expansion as much as any of its competitors and more than some. Those officers who are specially charged with procuring traffic have learned to rely for success as much on those in other depart- ments as on their own efforts. They well know that good service is what counts most; that this ser- vice is not merely prompt trans- portation, but in the courteous, painstaking attention given a ship- per by the hard-working local agent and his men; by the switch- ing crew, and by yard forces. [351 The passenger man knows he may induce someone planning a trip to r'ide on an L. & N. train, but he knows that the second trip is made because of the solicitous care taken of him by the conductor and his crew and of the attention in the dining car. In brief. men of all departments realize that their work does not end in carrying through merely the day's routine, hut, in co-operation with others, in giving the patron that service which he expects and which counts more than anything else. As I say, we of the Traffic De- partment rely upon, and boast of this service; and, depending upon it, having confidence in the South's prosperity and feeling that we merit a helpful attitude on the part of the public at large, en- couraging the Management to pro- vide the facilities, I predict that in twelve years the relative volume of freight traffic will have doub- led, and that the passenger traf- fic will have kept an even pace with the freight business. The Law Department EDWARD S. JouErr, Vice-President and General Counsel. Any commercial corporation conducting a business in thirteen states, with property worth several hundred million dollars, and an annual gross income of 120,000,- 000.00, manifestly needs the ser- vices of lawyers, for from a busi- ness of such magnitude there must inevitably arise controversies in- volving much important litigation. And this litigation will be very ma- terially increased if such concern is a railroad company operating as does the Louisville and Nashville, more than 5,000 miles of road; for railroad companies have countless troubles of a litigious nature which are unknown to other busi- ness enterprises. Notable among these are numer- ous damage suits for injuries to person and property, which, in the case of this company, average about 1,100 continuously on the docket; but, thanks to its well- known liberal policy in handling employee personal-injury claims, in very few of these are employees plaintiffs. Then, there are those controver- sies exclusively peculiar to rail- road companies, growing out of the many and varied regulatory statutes of the different states and of the United States. Thus, this Company is subject in the matter of rates to the orders of the Interstate Commerce Commis- sion as to interstate traffic, and of the thirteen State Commissions as to intrastate traffic; in the mat- ter of wages and working condi- tions, to the orders of the Rail- way Labor Board; and in taxes, to the orders of all sorts of mu- nicipal, state and federal Tax Commissions. And nearly every order of importance is the out- come of a hearing which necessi- tates careful preparation and pre- sentation of the law and facts, in order that the Company's interest may be properly protected. Furthermore, the Interstate Commerce Commission was given by the Transportation Act of 1920 plenary authority over the issuance of stocks, bonds and oth- er securities, and over the con- struction of extensions and the acquisition of new lines; so that now whenever any one of these acts is to be done there is in- volved a formal application, vol- uminous proof, public hearings, and a final trial before the Com- mission itself. There is also the matter of ad- vice and counsel upon legal ques- tions, many of them novel, which are constantly arising in the other departments; and the preparation of the papers in bond issues, equip- ment trusts, and other important transactions. In addition, this department has jurisdiction over all claims-per- sonal injury, fire, stock, other property, and loss and damage freight shipments. Its Claim Di- vision has charge of the investi- gation, settlement, or turning over to lawyers, of claims which aggre- gated 2,741,071.00 in 1922. The executive head of the Law Department is the Vice-President and General Counsel, who exer- cises a general supervision over all  divisions of the department, ad- vises the President and heads of departments, and personally at- tends to litigation in the Supreme Court and to financial matters before the Interstate Commerce Commission. He has an assistant, who is his right arm in investigat- ing questions of law and fact. While the other officials also do general law work, they specialize as follows: The General Solicitor, with the assistance of three Commerce At- torneys, has direct charge of the subject of rates, wages and work- ing conditions before the Inter- state Commerce Commission and the various State Commission-,. The General Attorney devotes his time principally to contracts, tax and real estate matters, and to the important subject of valu- ation now pending before the In- terstate Commerce Commission. The General Claims Attorney, with his assistant, supervises the Claim Division as well as all liti- gation growing out of claims of the various kinds mentioned above. Under him are the General Claim Agent (who directs the activities of a force of 154 claim agents, in- vestigators and other claim em- ployees) and the Supervisor of Safety, who is in charge of the Company's organized safety work. In each state there is a District Attorney, who has immediate ju- risdiction over Local Attorneys, of whom there is one or more in each county through which the hine passes. The Treasury and A( E. L. SMITHERS, Vice-President, in The success of any institution is measured by its progress and re- sults. In a business enterprise, by reason of its nature and pur- pose, this must ultimately be re- flected by its financial showing- the concrete, practical outcome of its policy and operation. In the work of the department in which we are engaged, it has been our pleasure to thus observe and real- ize the steady and stable progress attained by our company through the years. Receiving and dis- bursing, as we do, the Company's The personnel of the department comprises 10 lawyers in the Louis- ville office building and 379 Dis- trict Attorneys and Local Attor- neys scattered throughout the System. The position of the Law Depart- ment is unique in this, that while it is subject to the call of any de- partment at any time, it also has the right of way in its requests for data, evidence or other assist- ance from any department. The re- sult is a spirit of friendly and interested co-operation, which ma- terially enhances efficiency and makes the work most agreeable. This condition, added to the zeal, loyalty and esprit de corps of the department's own members, is largely responsible for its worthy record. In view of their accomplishment before the time of the present ad- ministration, it may not be amiss to add a word about the outstand- ing achievements of this depart- ment in the past, and especially following the creation of the In- terstate Commerce Commission. They are tersely told in the pub- lic statement of a distinguished lawyer, general counsel of another system, made in the hearing of the writer to a New York gathering of railroad counsel. He said that an examination of the decisions of state and federal appellate courts showed that the L. & N. had been responsible for making more help- ful and constructive railroad law than any other five railway sys- tems in the country. :counting Department Charge of Finance and Accounting. funds, and in maintaining the rec- ords incident thereto, it has been gratifying to note the healthy growth of the Louisville & Nash- ville, the enlargement of its fa- cilities, the ever wider spreading of its activities and interests. It would be nigh an endless task to detail just how the Company's funds come in. For, while it is the particular duty of certain employees-the agents and con- ductors, for example-to collect and handle the actual cash, yet either directly or indirectly every [371 officer and employee has some part in its acquirement. Each con- tributes his share toward the whole, and we of the Treasury and Accounting Department are in an advantageous position to appre- ciate the value of co-operation all through the personnel. In a general way, I shall at- tempt an outline of the organiza- tion and activities of this depart- ment, believing that it will be of interest and tend to a wider ac- quaintance on the part of many employees along the road and else- where. The Treasurer of the com- pany is located at Louisville. He has charge of its receipts and dis- bursements, particularly of those relating to the operations of the road, and including the greater part of the expenditures made on account of additions and improve- ments to the property. He is cus- todian of the company's securities in Louisville. His principal aids are an Assistant Treasurer and a Cashier. There is also an Assistant Treas- urer located in New York. He has direct supervision over the miscellaneous collections which are made there; also over practi- cally all of the company's dis- bursements of interest on its bonds and on account of maturing obligations, etc., as well as all div- idends on its stock. He is custo- dian of the Company's securities in New York. Although the New York office, where the Chairman of the Board of Directors is also located, has been maintained for many years, there are probably a large number of employees in the service who are unfamiliar with the work perform- ed there. Therefore, a few words about it might be well placed. All regular meetings of the Board of Directors of the Com- pany are held at the New York office. I entered the service of the Company in 1887, and having been Secretary of the Board for many years, it has been my privi- lege and pleasure to meet its mem- bers. Of the thirteen Directors serving at that time, only one is now living-Mr. August Belmont, a director for more than 36 years. Most of the transfers of the Company's stock and registration of its bonds are made in the New York office. In 1887, there were about 800 stockholders; today there are more than 6,000. The capital stock wasthen30,000,000; it is now 117,000,000. In 1922, there was paid to the thousands of bondholders, scattered through many parts of the world, 9,500,- 000 for interest due them. Matur- ing obligations usually amount to many millions of dollars each year. The New York office comes in personal contact with many of the company's bondholders and stock- holders, and sometimes enjoy in- teresting incidents. One day, a lady was presenting some coupons many years past due. She was asked why she did not cut off and collect her coupons due up to date; and her reply was that she only collected them as she needed the money and felt safer in leaving the rest with the L. & N. than if she collected the money and put it in a bank. We are asked at times to pay lost coupons or to replace checks, and queer reasons are sometimes given. In one instance, the cause of loss of coupons was that "a dog had swallowed them." One man who applied for a lost divi- dend check stated that the original had no doubt been received, but that he opened the letter in a hurry, thought it was a bill and tore it up, as he usually did with his bills. There are many bond and stock holders of thirty or forty years standing. One of the stockholders recently remarked that L. & N. stock had been owned in his fam- ily for three generations. The Accounting Department offices are in Louisville, and it is there that the revenues and ex- penditures are audited and the general books and records kept. As indicating the growth of this work, it might be stated that when the present accounting organiza- tion was perfected in 1885 the annual revenues were 13,900,000; operating expenses, 8,100,000; taxes 380,000. For the calendar year, 1922, the revenues were  121,100,000; operating expenses, 99,600,000; taxes, 4,700,000. The Comptroller has general supervision over the work of the Accounting Department. He is aided by two Assistant Comp- trollers, and six Auditors; these being in charge, respectively, of Receipts, Disbursements, Freight Accounts, Passenger Accounts, Station Accounts, and Overcharge Claims; and there is also an As- sitant Auditor of Disbursements. In a description of the work of the Accounting Department, as well as the Treasurer's office at Louisville, we must begin with the agents, conductors and others who collect money on the com- pany's account. Needless to say, these must be men of integrity, courtesy, sense; they must have some knowledge of banking prac- tices and be able to safeguard the funds in their possession. They remit, daily, to the bank desig- nated as the depository to receive their collections, all money and other forms of bankable funds which have come in. The depository banks of the Company, of which there are twen- ty-five, exclusive of those in New York, are located in the principal cities along the railroad, at the most accessible points for the em- ployees on the various divisions to make their remittances. Into these depositories are gathered each day the revenues of the Com- pany, where they are promptly and accurately verified; and where checks and drafts included in de- posits drawn on all parts of the country, through an intricate banking system, are speedily col- lected and converted into available funds. It should be said of our deposi- tories that they form a very im- portant portion of the chain which makes up our transportation sys- tem. They are all representative banks with directorates composed of eminent business men, and the scope of their influence is favor- able to the Company in other ways than merely financial. They have received and disbursed millions for the Company's account in a most satisfactory and commendable manner, and the relations between them and the Company have al- ways been of the most cordial nature. Concerning disbursements, our Company has, through many years established an enviable reputa- tion for the prompt payment of its bills, and this has contributed in no small measure to the high standard of credit which it enjoys. It has been a source of much satisfaction, especially during times of financial stress when money was scarce and collections slow, and when other roads were unfortunately backward in their payments, to hear words of com- mendation from many sources for the L. & N. and of the faith and dependence placed in it. It is stated that some lines of business, which sell to the L. & N. in large amounts, arrange for their notes and commercial paper to mature at their banks on dates when L. & N. accounts are due; others de- pend for payments from us to meet their payrolls and fix their pay days accordingly, in full con- fidence that they will not be disap- pointed. It has been the aim of the Treasury Department in pay- ing bills to show no preference or discrimination among creditors. Those to whom money is due first, have first consideration. Some idea of the large sums handled may be gleaned from the amount of revenues and operating ex- penses heretofore stated, although that does not take in all. Another pleasure which falls to the lot of these departments is the work incident to the pay- ment of the compensation accru- ing to the large army of workers which go to make up the railroad. The average per month for wages during 1922 was 5,250,000. This was distributed to approximately 50,000 employees in semi-monthly payments, making about 100,000 payments per month. The growth of this feature too is well evidenc- ed by the fact that in January, 1885,the payrolls totaled 500,000 in round figures; in January, 1923, they aggregated 7,070,000. The keeping of the time, preparation of payrolls, issuing of pay checks,  the payment and accounting for the wages of this great army must be done in a thoroughly system- atic and accurate manner, and it requires the employment of large clerical forces and the preparation and retention of voluminous records. In the handling of the work there are used the latest im- proved mechanical devices, tabu- lating and calculating machines, check writers, signagraphs, etc. During many years, through the payment of wages or salaries, the opportunity has been pleasingly presented and grasped for the Treasury Department to become acquainted and maintain a friend- ship with a majority of the em- ployees and the officials. Of the bright spots in the business life of this department, none surpasses in satisfaction that derived from the preparation for and arrival of the day naturally looked forward to with eagerness by all-the ever recurrent pay day-the time for re-filled purses, for the realization of plans and hopes, for good-na- tured banter among friends, for appreciation that we work for a Company whose pay days are un- failing. As I believe is generally true in all departments of the Company's service, in the Treasury and Ac- counting Department, without exception, all of the officials be- gan in minor positions. It is true of this Company, and commenda- ble, that when a person enters the service, he may do so feeling that there is nothing extrinsic to restrict his advancement, but that it depends entirely upon his char- acter and abilities. Many nota- ble examples could be cited of the rise of men who started life in minor positions in the Accounting Department of the L. & N. It is the purpose of the officials to engender in every possible way a spirit of helpfulness, co-opera- tion, square-dealing, and a chance to every man. Loyalty, efficiency, courtesy, combined with work- these do the rest and by their meed is determined what each in- dividual will accomplish for his Company and himself as well. Office of the Secretary J. C. MICHAEL, Secretary In any institution as large as the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company, especially with its di- versified operations touching so many fields of human endeavor, there is need for a department in which are maintained, in contract or written form, a complete rec- ord of all its activities. Such are the duties of the Secretary of the L. & -N. Railroad Company. Readers of this book may be interested in learning of the enor- mous amount of detail that is re- quired to keep the wheels of man- agement running smoothly, to facilitate the work of all depart- ments-Operating, Traffic, Legal etc. "Put it down in black and white" is an old copy book motto that governs the operation of all railroads today, and in order that no important point in any agree- ment mav be left to memory or individual opinion, this department has on file approximately 25,000 contracts, composed of from one to two hundred parts each. These contracts will average not less than five sections each; so it may be said that we have approxi- mately 125,000 contract docu- ments dealing with the operations of the Company. We have approximately 14,000 deeds (averaging five parts each) which establish the Road's owner- ship to real estate and other phys- ical properties, and these im- portant documents must be care- fully filed and indexed so as to be readily available when needed. An item of possibly more vi- tal interest to the average em- ployee is that something more than 100,000 cancelled pay checks pass through this department each month. Disbursement vouchers to the total of 16,000 a month are an item of detail, as are the keep- ing of all records of stock trans- fers, minutes of Board meetings stockholder's and general meetings and the sending out of notices of  From the above the reader will observe that the Secretary and his assistants perform a duty not only to the owners and manage- ment of the L. & N. R. R. Co., but to every individual employee, by safeguarding the Company's finan- cial interests and thereby insur- ing the stability and welfare of its employees. In closing, I would like to pay my respects to the late Mr. J. H, Ellis, who died on April 21, last. His total services with the Com- pany aggregated more than forty- two years. Mr. Ellis was elected Secretary in June, 1887, and per- formed the duties of the office in a most faithful and efficient man- ner for thirty-one years. Mr. Ellis' sterling personal character en- deared him to all with whom he came in contact, both in business and social life. His passing was received with profound sorrow. Some Reminiscences of the Late Milton H. Smith By E. S. LOCKE, Treasurer Every normal boy and youth has his hero. Mr. Smith was mine. Having worked under him and served as his secretary for about 25 years and with the quite intimate acquaintance with the man which I thus enjoyed, the space permitted here will not suf- fice for justice to my subject and this rather hasty sketch must be my tribute. I recall him, in conversation with old friends, often speaking of his youthful years, and telling me, too, sometimes, of the early days. Milton H. Smith was born in Greene County,New York, in 1836. While still small, his father mi- grated with his family from the Catskills to the plains of Illinois. They settled near Elgin, and it was there on the farm that the fu- ture railroad builder grew to man- hood. That was pioneer land in those days, with the hardships and inconveniences which the real makers of this country underwent so willingly and bravely as to make that period a real epic of our his- tory. Each family made its own clothing. What are now scarcely thought of as conveniences, would then have been considered the ma- terialized luxuries of a dream. Matches were unknown; and if one's fire went out, the least laborious way to rekindle the hearth was to fetch a burning brand from the nearest neighbor. Mr. Smith's first years of man- hood were occupied in farm work, and I have heard him say that it was his ambition at that time to become a successful farmer. He would have been, too, had he not left the ox team which he then drove to take up work in connection with a much more advanced method of transporta- tion, which change ultimately led to the driver of the ox team be- coming the head and real soul of a railroad of the premier class. In the time and place where Mr. Smith spent his early days, opportunities for education were scarce indeed; but, with the spirit which was his, he sought for and readily availed himself of what was obtainable. He eventually progressed far enough to teach a country school for awhile. His own schooling, though, must have been very meager. Once, on the witness stand, after answering the usual opening questions, he was asked: "Where were you edu- cated " His reply was that he "wasn't educated." Many in later years were ac- quainted with Mr. Smith's fondness for the opera, but few knew that in his youth he both sang and played the violin well. His start in railroad service was in the ranks. While still a young man he went South, locat- ing in Mississippi. He had studied telegraphy, and the position he secured was with the Mississippi Central Railroad as operator and clerk. He was expected to and did perform the repairs and main- tenance of the single telegraph line in his vicinity, even to the ex- tent of climbing the poles when necessary. His railroad career, [411 thus begun, attained such length and abundant success that his name became known more than country-wide. While Mr. Smith was known to many thousands and acquired busi- ness acquaintances and friends in many parts of the world, it was the privilege of only a few to know both sides of his nature. In his business dealings he was di- rect and straightforward often to bluntness, leading many to think him exceptionally stern, we might say "hard-boiled" in the current vernacular. But beneath that cast-iron exterior, we who knew him best could discern a heart possessed with more than the or- dinary tenderness and sympathy. I do not know of his refusing aid to anyone in need whom he thought worthy. He was always ready and willing to listen to the troubles of those who had worked with him in his early railroad life, but who had not been fortunate or capable enough to rise very high. Particularly in later years did he have frequent calls from these old comrades, and I am aware of no case where they met with disappointment. I recall one such instance clearly: Ten or twelve years ago an aged man by the name of McClafferty came into Mr. Smith's office and re- lated his woes. He said he had been employed as a watchman. was now reported for being drunk, and he feared the immediate dis- charge, which, of course, this meant. He vehemently denied the charge, and asked Mr. Smith's as- sistance in retaining his position. Mr. Smith listened attentively, but his only reply was: "Well, I don't know that I can do anything, but I'll try." The old fellow remarked: "That's all I want you to say," and left the office. The door was scarcely closed when Mr. Smith whirled in his chair and, in his well-known vigorous manner, said to me: "Write Evans-McClafferty worked on the platform when I was local agent. Please see that he gets something to do On the other hand, he never forgot a man who abused his con- fidence after having been be- friended. W here he knew that such action was wilful, it was use- less for that man to approach him again. He was loyal and expected loyalty. It is difficult to describe Mr. Smith's wonderful personality and sterling characteristics. Fearless, tireless, relentless, at times seem- ingly merciless in fighting the bat- tles of the road he loved so well, the road he had rescued from ap- parent failure, and had nurtured and developed to that enviable po- sition which we know it occupies among the transportation systems of the country. Personally, he pre- ferred to keep in the background, modest and self-effacing. When anyone sought to commend or compliment him on some success- ful achievement, he endeavored to offset it by relating some instance of miscarriage or error in his plans. These were few, but one that I have heard him relate many times was the building of a branch road to what was thought to be a large deposit of brown ore. When the road had been built and the outlook was rosy, suddenly the ore failed and there was no traffic for that branch. Never again was he prevailed upon to risk his Com- pany's resources in the develop- ment of a brown ore deposit. One illustration of his personal modesty occurred at the Union Station in Louisville. On that day an exceptionally large crowd was being handled. Mr. Smith was standing on the steps looking to- ward the train shed, when a watchman unacquainted with the president of his road told him, in a rather gruff and ungracious manner, to move on, which Mr. Smith did without a word or indi- cation of annoyance. The occur- rence furnished older employees who witnessed it much bantering fun at the watchman's expense. An old saying has it that "no man meets approval in the eyes of his valet." Mr. Smith is one of the exceptions which proves the rule, and those who really knew him will appreciate the expres- sion, which is authentic, made by Gasaway White, his porter and faithful servant for nearly 30 years: "When God made Mr. Smith, He broke the mold." r42] What the L. & N. Has Done in Its Industrial and Immigration Department For years the L. & N. has maintained a department which has made a systematic effort to induce farmers and colonists to settle in the desirable communities of the South where they could grow better crops, , raise better cattle, have : 0 better orchards, etc., i _ id X 0 00 0 -if0 n 0 7-- withthesame financial t - investment and with the W _-R-U hste fi same effort. rkl-- f--E n -I - I f . a: 7 t;: :: :: ssSti-= . 7 D _el3 ::00000000000000 t:: ::: :i;t i:00 0 : - :: i: In: Ti i/:: :3-v : i: ::ss : Is Desirable land is cheap- er in the South than it is in some of the more thick- ly settled communities of the Middle West. The fol- lowing Government fig- ures show the improve- ment in the South in the last decade: 1 i fs In 1910, the average value per acre for farm lands throughout the United States was 32.40, and in 1920 it was 57.45 per acre. This was an increase of 77 for the whole United States. In the seven states shown on the shaded portion of the map the territory served by the L. & N. Railroad-one finds that in 1910 the average value of an acre of farm land was 15.93, but in 1920 it was 36.74 per acre, showing an increase of 130.6 in the value of farm lands in this territory. This was almost double the increase shown by the whole United States. L. & N. Passenger Train on the Green River Bridge, 1859. oWg. = . Td.: o.................. 0 f;........ ;,,-; The L. & N. Railroad does not take credit for all of this en- hancement of value in the territory reached by it, but the L. & N. has actually induced thousands of progressive farmers, agriculturists, stock raisers, fruit growers, and so on, to locate in many parts of the South. Whole commu- nities have been built up in the last few years, and some- times whole counties; and many large industries are the result of these settle- rLgine .o. 242, Purchased in P1rbr. ments. The L. & N. is never interested in any real estate proposition and has nothing to gain from bringing settlers to communities along its lines, except that it will be able to sell them its freight and passenger service. This, however, sometimes comes only in years after. The L. & N. builds for the future. The Industrial and Immigration Department, which has been in existence for years, is a splendid example of this, and the road is now begin- ning to reap the benefits of this department. Future years will show even greater results. Needless to say, constructive develop- ment of this kind, aided by superior transportation facilities of a great railroad, is the best thing that could happen to any community. The L. & N. Railroad, through its Industrial and Immigration Department, is showing its faith in the South and its belief in greater possibilities for the future. About Railroad Rates You hear a great deal of talk about railroad rates. Many people complain that the rates are high or that they are unfair, and so on. The problem of rates is one that has engaged the attention of the greatest thinkers in economic and transporta- tion problems. It used to be the theory that railroad rates should be determined by the law of economics, as is the price of wheat or of cotton that is, by free competition. However, it is now realized that railroads cannot run in competition with each other and at the same time give service. Passenger Engine No. 261 Transportation is a necessity and railroads are semi-public in their nature; consequently, if they are run at a loss they can- not get the money with which to operate and, therefore, can- not transport passengers and freight. Railroads, then, must get rates that will allow them to pay expenses. "The laborer is worthy of his hire." The subject of rates is a highly complicated one. Few people under- stand the principle of the long haul and the short haul. It is evident that a great part of the cost of transporting freight is in the loading, unloading and termi- Portion of L. & N. Shops, Near 1 Oth and Broadway nal expenses. There- Louisville, Ky., Constructed in 1868. fore, every package of freight, or every con- signment of freight, must pay its share of these initial expenses regardless of the length of the haul. There are many other things that enter into the making of a rate. For instance, practically one-half of the expense of a railroad is not connected with the cost of moving traffic, of handling it at stations, but with the cost of maintaining the railroad's property as a whole. There are some articles that are so cheap they cannot stand a very high freight rate, and yet if the railroads did not haul them at all they would lose a large amount of business. There are other commodities which are valuable and which are more difficult to handle; consequently the tariff sheet of a railroad is a complicated affair. These tariff sheets are made up by trans- portation experts and are based on the railroad's experience of years in the handling of all kinds of commodities. It is a mistake to think that Government Ownership of rail- roads would lower the rates materially. The Government would have the same problem confronting it as the private owner of railroads, and its rate-making difficulties would be no less. Railroad rates are check- ed and double checked, L. & N. Depot at Birmingham, not only by the experts Alabama, in 1873. who make them up, but by various commissions, and the public should un- derstand that most rail road rates at present are fair and equitable. [451 Read What These Prominent Americans Say About the Railroads DR. FRANK (RANE. "It is about time that 'we, the people,' realize that the rail- roads of the country are our rail- roads. "They do not belong to some- body else with whom we are mak- ing a bargain. They are an in- tegral part of every man's busi- ness. "There is not a mouthful you eat, a bit of clothes you wear, or any tools you may employ, that are not directly or indirectly af- fected by the railroads. "Transportation is the very life blood of modern civilization. Not only the comforts we enjoy, but the degree of culture to which we have attained is entirely de- pendent upon the swift and smooth transfer of both goods and peo- ple from one section to another. "We do not want railroads to own the country, and we do not want great wealth units to use railroads to oppress the country. But neither do we want, in order to strike at some man or groups of men we suspect, to cripple or hinder the great business of trans- portation, upon which the pros- perity of the whole nation de- pends." HERBERT HOOVER, Secretary of The Departmenzt of Com- vierce of the United States, in his ann nal report for 1922. "Our transportation facilities have lagged far behind the neces- sities of the country. Progress has been made during the past in their restoration from the demor- alization of war, but our rolling stock, our trackage, and many of our terminals are unequal to our needs. Some increases in equip- ment have been made during the past year; yet they are entirely in- sufficient as the result of long- continued financial starvation. "Railway cars are the red blood corpuscles of commerce, and we suffer from commercial anaemia every year, because they are starved. The losses through short transportation are a tax upon the community greater than the cost of our Government, because such a shortage not only stifles the progress of production and in- troduces speculation into distri- bution, but it also seriously affects price levels. "We must have increased trans- portation, if we are to maintain our growing productivity. W e must therefore find a way out of the cycle of systematic starvation of a large part of our mileage and the denudation of our railway managers of their responsibilities and initiative." F. L. ('1IAP-MAN, Editor, Better Farmi)nbg. "Therefore, I prefer to pay the present rates on traffic. I pre- fer that to a big increase in my taxes, especially so since freight rates may again come down, as they have done twice for the farm- er in eighteen months, but taxes come down Never in your life- time nor mine. "What I want most of all is service and I don't see how any railroad can give it unless it has a good safe track and sufficient cars and an ample power to pull them, and that means enough money to buy them." GEORGE E. ROBERTS, Vice-Presidenet, The Nationlal City Bankl of XNcw York. "Here we have the farmer suf- fering from conditions for which he is himself in some degree re- sponsible. He fights the railroads for lower freight rates without consideration of the fact that the railroads are unable to reduce their operating costs and that their earnings are inadequate to pay fair returns upon the capital in- vestment. The popular view of the railroads is that they are own- ed by a few rich bankers who can put their hands in their pockets for any funds that may be needed to enlarge the facilities from time to time. The truth is that the [461 i ( l i I 0! artee ownership is widely distributed and the only way new capital can be raised for railroads is by offer- ing their securities on the public market. Moreover, the earnings are so low and the menace to the investment is so great, from the employee organizations on the one side and the farmers' organiza- tions on the other, that it is in- creasingly difficult to raise money for the railroads in the public mar- ket. " SYDNEY ANDERSON, 311cm ther of ,ongr ess. "Fundamentally, the freight rate problem of the farmer is one of the geographical relationships between agricultural production and industrial production and pop- ulation. Fifty per cent of the population of the United States lives in the section of the country east of the Mississippi River and north of the Mason and Dixon Line, comprising fifteen per cent of the area of the United States. In this section of the country 70 per cent of the manufactures and only 28 per cent of the agricul- tural commodities originate. To turn the statement around, 72 per cent of the agricultural com- modities and only 30 per cent of the manufactures are produced in the 85 per cent of the area of the United States outside of this district. "A glance at the map of the United States, with these figures in mind, will very definitely dem- onstrate that the farmer's freight rate problem is therefore one of distance from market. The farm- er's net return is primarily de- termined by two factors. First, the cost of production; second, the cost of getting his products to market. " JAMEFS C. D_)vis, Director Gcneral of Railroads. "The carriers of the United States, if given a fair chance, un- der normal conditions, can and will give efficient and adequate service, at reasonable rates, lower than those that are to be found in any other country in the world. Natural laws must have an oppor- tunity to restore order out of the chaos of war. Miracles cannot be performed by legislation. You cannot make bricks without straw. The devastating effects of the greatest calamity in the history of civilization cannot be restored over night. The painful and la- borious struggle back to normal times and conditions calls for patience, patriotism, forbearance and an abiding courage. Remem- ber that, while the railroad is the dray-horse of the nation, you can- not beat and starve your horse and have him haul the load." ARTHtUR T. HADLEY, Pre-sident Emeritus of Yale University, and Chai)iran Railroad Secuxrities Cwompan)y, 1910-11.-Yale Rc riciv, M1arich 1923. "Every business man knows that rates and wages must move hand in hand and the first step out is to put the oversight of both rates and wages into the hands of one board, which can be held respon- sible for results. "With crystallized regulation, we may hope to secure adequate facilities, continuous service and reasonable rates; without it, we are bound to pursue each one by turns, to the neglect or sacrifice of the others, and to make the railroads the less fitted to serve the public, the more we try to regulate them." HALEY FISKE President, The Metropolitan Life I- surance Co., at Atlanta, Georgia, Con rentiont, March .5, 1923. " Now, take the rail- roads. It has been the fashion now for a number of years that legislation should be directed against railroads, that rates should be cut down and that the expenses of running be put up, that they should be curtailed in operation by restrictions, until now the Of- ficers of Railroads have very lit- tle to say about how they shall be run. There is a constant effort to cramp, subdue, and make the great railroads subjects or vassals of the State, on the theory that they are owned in Wall Street-that [481 the great capitalists have the rail- roads, but they have not. They sold them. The people who own the railroads are the people of this country, and largely the small investors, and I have told you we have 266,000,000 that are owned by the people of the Metro- politan, and the Savings Banks are very largely holders of the securities. And now, what I want you to teach our people is that they should, in some way, get it into the heads of legislators that when they are attacking railroad property, diminishing the value of the bonds, scaring people from in- vestment for the promotion of railroads, for their extension, for their proper equipment-what they are doing is to take money out of the hands and out of the pockets of the working people of the United States. They are not hitting capitalists. They are not hitting plutocrats. They are hit- ting the common working people." SAMUEL VAUCLAIN, Presidenit of the Baldwin Locomotive Works. To the Members' Coun- cil of the Association of Commerce at New Orleans. "All this talk about rates-it's bunk. People are interested in getting service, not in the rate. Take the railroads for instance. They have more tonnage to haul than they have capacity to handle it. That is why so many shipments are delayed. And before the year is gone, they are going to have much more. Suppose they can't develop and expand and increase their facilities. You would be in a "heluva fix," wouldn't you You are not worried about the rates, at heart; you have just been told to be concerned about rates by some demagogue politician." NEW YORK TiMIES, "Literally billions would be spent on railway facilities if the railways could get the money. They could easily get it if they could show that they were earn- ing profits. Progress is making in that direction." NEW YORK EVENING SUN "Railroads' Time To Speak." "New plans of railroad legis- lation might oftener with public gain take the line of efforts to put the railroad business in such good order as to increase its util- ity. Too often they still take the line of efforts to win from the railroads a new advantage for some special group of voters. Against attempts of the latter sort the public has increasing cause for making a stand, now that it begins to realize how re- cent juggling 'robs Peter to pay Paul.' " A. C. BEDFORD, Chairman of Board of Directors of Standard Oil Compaany of New Jer- sey. To Petroleum Institute. "For years traffic earnings have been so limited by Government management and control that there has been practically no capi- tal available for expansion of ter- minal facilities, for new trackage and equipment, or even for ade- quate maintenance. In its hour of greatest promise, the commerce of the nation finds itself shackled by the mistakes of those who im- posed upon the railroads all the disabilities of undue Government regulation and control." REPORT OF JOINT COMIMIISSION OF AGRICULTURAL INQUIRY, UNITED STATES CONGRESS. "The transportation systems must be continually improved to keep pace with industrial progress. It is possible to cheapen transpor- tation through intensive develop- ment, such as electrification, im- provement of rolling stock and other equipment, and the use of the most modern methods in the loading of trains. This country has enjoyed railroad trainsporta- tion on a cheaper basis than prac- tically any other civilized country in the world, but cannot continue to do so by restricting initiative or by undue limitation of railroad profits earned under uniform and reasonable rates." r491 Say a Good Word for the Railroads A great many people criticise the railroads without just cause. Almost ever since the beginning of the railroads they have been hampered in their work of development by envious and mali- cious meddling, in most cases by those who did not understand. Elbert Hubbard said that when a man is not up on a thing, he is down on it. Naturally, when people do not understand the highly complicated business of railroading, they are apt to be against railroads rather than for them. Everything about a railroad is complex. Railroading is a highly-specialized business. From the financing and managing down through the construction and the actual operation of the road, great skill and long training are required. The engineer who drives a train through the night at fifty miles an hour is an expert, and becomes so only after years of training and ex- perience. The safety of trains often depends upon the thorough- ness of the inspection given by the track-walker. It might seem that anyone could be a track-walker, but those who have this job know that it is quite an art and that it requires care, close observation and thoroughness. In other words, railroads are run by organizations of highly-trained specialists. They are, in a way, the last word in efficiency. The railroads, in their efforts to give service to the public, have been handicapped by the attitude of the public. This is shown by the numerous laws and ordinances that are passed, all with the intent of regulating the railroads. The United States Government, every state, every county and every city is continually passing laws affecting the railroads. Out of all this regulation and legislation, together with the hostility of some of the public and the apathy of others, the railroads are having a hard time to give that same public the service it needs. Many people have an idea that railroads are a monopoly; that they are a trust; that they are some great destructive force; and like the goblins--"They will git you if you don't watch out." They forget that the railroads are owned by stockholders throughout the country, many of whom are widows and or- phans; that their securities are held by life insurance compa- Engine No. 2.3. Built in 1870---Still going. nies which repre- X sent these same widows and or- phans; that there is no great schem- ing, powerful in- dividual who is trying to get the I v1 United States in his grasp; that railroads are a necessity just as highways are; and that if the public wants to get its freight hauled quickly, it must allow the railroads to build good road- beds, have good equipment and manage themselves wisely. The railroads cannot furnish transportation at a loss. A rail- road is different from a store, or a manufacturer. The store or manufacturer can operate at a loss and go out of business, but a railroad cannot go out of business; it is a public utility and must operate. Anyone who tries to get railroad rates below cost, or get transportation service at a loss, is simply using up capital and cutting off the sources of supply. It is like getting out on a limb and then sawing the limb off the tree. Trans- portation is absolutely necessary to modern civilization, and you cannot run great transportation systems at a loss any more than you can run any other business at a loss and keep it going. If you are in the railroad business, it is probably your life work. Your interests are involved when you hear people criti- cise railroads unjustly and urge radical legislation that will do them harm. It is suggested that you keep well posted on the railroad situation, and when you hear someone make state- ments about railroads that are not true, in a nice, polite way answer his arguments and show him where he is wrong. Often at meetings when you have occasion to make talks, it would be to the advantage of the business in which you are interested and which you are making your life work, to say a kind word for the railroads. Isn't it a fine thing to say "I believe" Come right out and tell people why you believe in your own railroad, and in all railroads. It is not urged that you go out of your way to start argu- ments on the railroad question; but there are millions of rail- road workers in the United States, and if every one of them would make it a point to say a good word among his friends for the railroads, there would be less opposition to them and the country would be better off. Portion of South Louisville Shops  JAMAICA Why I Like to Work for the L. & N. When request was made of the employees for a statement under this heading it was realized that, because of the limita- tions of this booklet, all could not be published. Many excellent letters denoting a fine spirit of loyalty and love for " The Old Reliable" were received, but some were too lengthy, and others were interspersed with biographical matter which would hardly be of general interest. It was necessary, therefore, to limit the statements to those from employees in the service 35 years or more, and also to confine these to employees representative as nearly as practicable of a particular class of service or of a par- ticular department of the company. BOOSTERS CLUB. Our Creed. "You know I think that Loyalty, next to love of God, Family, and Country, is the finest thing in life. And our Com- pany, 'THE OLD RELIABLE,' the best in the United States, is deserving of the very best that is in us and is entitled to our loyalty and devotion. It has never been gripped by the tentacles of frenzied finance; not once has it de- faulted; never has it been reorganized; for more than fifty years-when pay- day rolls around-the Treasurer is wait- ing for us; if we are entitled to salary increases, wve get them if conditions are such that salary increases are possible; if vacancies exist, they are filled, not by outsiders, but from our own ranks; the SERVICE our patrons receive is top- notch, or nearer that than the SERVICE of our competitors in normal times our roadbed is as good as the best; and our equipment will compare favorably with that of any other railroad in the country. In short, we are employees of a fir.4-class, A-1 railroad, officered by red-blooded Americans who, having come up from the ranks, can appreciate the point of view of employees, and manned by men who know their business, who are the peers of any in the United States, some of whom will, in the future, be master mechanics, trainmasters, si- perintendents, etc. I am sure you will agree with me when I say I have not overdrawn the picture. It accurately depicts what I feel about this Company of ours, and expresses your sentiments too, I believe. If I am not mistaken in this regard, if I do voice your sentiments, don't keep these sentiments hidden. Broadcast them. If you will do this, who can say that others will not emulate your example, and that soon, from Cincinnati to New Orleans, and from St. Louis to Nashville, there will not be an army of L. & N. employees boosting the Company, referring to it as 'our Company,' proclaiming its virtues, advertising its SERVICE, and determined to keep it in the position it occupies today-the premier transportation sys- tem of the United States." (Extract from "Service" published by the L. & N. Clerical Organization.) When I entered the service of the L. & N. as a messenger nearly 40 years ago I was told that faithfulness to duty, ambition and ability would be duly rewarded as opportunities for pro- motion presented. During the inter- vening years I have found that state- ment to be absolutely true. I can cite many instances where employees have risen from obscure places to positions of importance and responsibility, some having gone to the very forefront, not only in the L. & N. organization but in the railroad world generally, and in other walks of life. From the beginning of my connection with the L. & N. I was impressed with the spirit of loyalty and co-operation among its employees and the willingness on the part of those in higher positions to help the new fellow make good. That feeling grew with each succeeding year and gave me a desire to enlist for life with this Company. During the vicissi- tudes of all these years the pay car has never failed to roll around. When one is employed in such an at- mosphere, even though he may not be- come a President or a General Counsel, his work becomes a pleasure and not a task. That has been my experience. G. W. B. OLMSTEAD, Statistical Clerk, Law Department. Because of Pride in being associated with a Corporation the name of which is synonymous with Integrity and Success as a result of the application in practice of the highest business ideals in all of its dealings. Because of Gratitude for educational opportunity afforded in my line of rail- road work, as, operating as it does to all sections-all territories-the varied requirements in the different sections have been acquired and I am rendered more efficient, in a general way, than would otherwise be the case. Because of Appreciation in that it has provided, for an extended period, contin- uous employment in a congenial, pleasant, and interesting business activity. Because there has developed in my more than forty-three years of service a genuine, sincere, sensible, sentimental regard-something akin to what I feel for my home and family-a feeling that r52] I am part of the L. & N. and that as a member of its army of employees, its uniform humanizing treatment of all has caused me to become so; and to feel the pride, gratitude, appreciation, and affection, which I give as my reasons for liking to work for it. C. D. CLARKE, Chief Rate Clerk, Passenger Department, Louisville, Ky. The writer has been a continuous of- ficial of this grand old L. & N. R. R. for over two score years-and has never had occasion to doubt the integrity and wisdom of its management. He has seen the property extend its rails, and its continual development of territory it was serving, and making to bloom like a beautiful garden of flowers; and he has always remained proud that he has been considered worthy to be one of the many modest factors that has contributed his best to help make the L. & N. R. R. what it is well known to represent among the very prominent and indispensable railroad properties of the Commonwealth. I could write a volume on this subject, but feel I have answered, in a nutshell, "Why I like to Work for the L. & N. Railroad." HUGH G. BARCLAY, General Agent, Mobile, Ala. First-Because it is, in my opinion, the best railroad in the country. Second-During my many years of ser- vice I have always found all of our Ex- eciative Officers, as well as their subor- dinates, most considerate of all the employees in every department; in fact, I have never known of a single instance where a conscientious, honest, faithful, and loyal employee was treated badly, or unfairly by his superiors. Third-Because "Our Road"-"The Old Reliable"-today stands so well with the public and has been so successful is largely due to the fine spirit of co-opera- tion existing amongst the men in the various branches of the service. Fourth-It has been a source of great pride, through my long period of service, commencing in September, 1887, to, at all times, let it be known, to the public at large, that I was connected with such a splendid corporation, and it is my hope that I may be fortunate enough to con- tinue as a part of this grand old road for many years to come. J. H. SETTLE, Division Passenger Agent, Birmingham, Ala. I have been in this Company's service for 46 years, and the principal reason, I think, is the fascination that railroading has for me. It is doubtful, though, if this fascination would have taken hold in the manner in which it did if it had not been for the fairness and impartiality with which the L. & N. treats all of its employees. Another reason-There is on the L. & N. a certain feeling of comradeship among us railroaders and work becomes a pleasure rather than a task. There Is still another reason. There is a closer relationship between the offi- cials and the employees on the L. & N. than exists in other large corporations; in fact, every one works for the one end-the perfection of L. & N. Service. J. A. GREEN, Agent, Bay St. Louis, Miss. I have been in the service of the L. & N. for thirty-eight years. The reason I like to work for the L. & N. is that I find they are absolutely fair with their employees and the public. My superior officers, whom I have come in contact with, are men of the vexry highest type. I consider the L. & N. one big congenial family. J. R. EARLE, Agent, Falmouth, Ky. I went to work for the L. & N. R. R. in 1877, and have been with them con- tinuously ever since, having never miss- ed a pay day. I was first employed by Master Me- chanic Steele as grease wiper. I con- tinued working until I got to be a fire- man in the fall of 1877, and in 1889 I became an engineer. I ran a freight engine about five years, and have been on a passenger engine the balance of the time. I have never hurt a passenger, or had a law- suit on account of hurting one. It seems like I have been with the company so long that I am a cog in the wheels of this gigantic railroad. I have reared a family and bought a home with the earnings from the L. & N., and for this reason, too, I love the Company. I hope that I will continue in its em- ploy for several years yet, and when I am too old to pull the throttle, I am sure that they will provide for me and not let me suffer. JOHN H. COX, Engineer, Boyles, Ala. I am writing this letter to you to have published in the L. & N. R. R. Mag- azine. I am an "old nigger" now, and have grown old working at the best job I could want. I began working for the L. & N. Railroad when I was only a boy. The work was hard at first, but I liked it. I had a good boss, and I was the happiest negro to be found when the pay car would come through and leave me with a big roll of money. If I had been a "lazy, trifling nigger," I might not have stayed with the com- pany until my head turned gray, but as I said before I just naturally loved the work, and I always loved my bosses. I have worked with lots of section bosses and all of them have always treated me right. I have had lots of good jobs offered me, but they ain't none of them been good enough for me to leave the L. & N. road for. I am kinder attached to the company, you might say, and until I die I would like to keep shoveling for the L. & N. Railroad. "UNCLE PHIL" JOHNSON, Section Laborer, Perdido, Ala.  I began work for the L. & N. as la- borer on the track in 1885, and have worked continuously ever since from one end of the line to the other with Section and Extra gangs. I like to work for the L. & N. because they have always treated me right and paid better wages than I could have gotten anywhere else, and I expect to continue working for the L. & N. until I get too old to work, and then I feel that the L. & N. will see that I am provided for in my old age. HARRISON CALDWELL, Trackwalker, College Grove, Tenn. Having been in the service of the L. & N. Railroad forty-five years. I have Feen it develop from a small line into the greatest trunkline in the South and equal to any other line in the United States; having been ably handled and financed by men of unquestionable abil- ity. capable of handling large properties; the equipment and power of which are the finest; officials are fair and courteous to employees and patrons alike. I am favored to work with them. N. W. DUVALL, Engineer, L. C. & L. Division. Louisville, Ky. I have been an employee of the L. & N. for over forty-five years, and during all those years I have been treated by the Management of the road in such a courteous and considerate way as to cause me to have a real affection for it and its future welfare. I like to work for the L. & N. because it recognizes the Merit System, and compensates a man well for his ser- vices. I like to work for the L. & N. for the further reason that in the evening-time of a man's life, when his years of use- fulness are behind him, the L. & N. not unmindful of those many years of faith- ftil service, rewards the good and faith- ful employee by granting him a bounty to maintain, aid and comfort him until the train starts on the last long jour- ney, from which there is no return ticket. DAN DAILEY, Crossing Watchman, Paris, Ky. First-Because you can depend upon the L. & N. at all times and under any circumstances to give you a square deal. Second-The L. & N. has been both father and mother to me for nearly 50 years, furnishing me food and raiment. Third-All of my superior officers are gentlemen of the very highest type, who will make any man who wants to do right himself very proud to work for the Grand L. & N. Fourth-Because the Grand L. & N. rules through the best country on earth, known as the "Dimple of the Universe" I only hope that I may be permitted to work for the L. & N. the rest of my allotted time. A. H. SHIELDS, Freight Agent, Columbia, Tenn. I entered the service of the L. & N. R. R. in April, 174-49 years ago-with no definite purpose in view, certainly with no intention of engaging perma- nently in the Railroad business, as I had entertained the idea that at some future time I would enter the commercial world. This idea, however, was dissi- pated soon after entering the Comp- troller's office, from which the Auditor of Disbursements department was or- ganized, and in which I am at present engaged, and where I have found condi- tions most agreeable officially and other- wise. This prompted my determination to remain with the Company, notwith- standing several good opportunities of- fered from the outside, and right here I might say I have never regretted the decision. I have watched with deep interest the road's wonderful development from prac- tically its infancy to a magnitude equaled by few like organizations, and naturally I take great pride in having spent practically a life-time aiding in my humble way to place good old L. & N. on the pinnacle she occupies today. F. H. CLERGET, Voucher Clerk, Auditor of Disbursements Office. First-The impartial consideration giv- en to merit and promotion of employees. Second-The kind and considerate treatment accorded to employees by the management. Third-The friendship and kindly feel- ing of the higher officials for the em- ployees of every class in every depart- ment of the service. Fourth-The disposition on the part of the officials to afford an employee op- portunity to come back if he makes a mistake and then proves himself worthy of further confidence and trust; just and fair consideration of all questions of the rights and privileges due to em- ployees. I am in my forty-second year nf con- tinuous service with the L. & N. and notwithstanding I have had offers from other roads, I am still with the "Old Reliable" which I think is conclusive evidence that I do "Like to work for the L. & N." After so many years there is one question I am unable to solve. That is: Do I belong to the L. & N. or does the L. & N. belong to me. J. W. GATEWOOD, Agent, Humboldt, Tenn. The reason I remained in the employ of the L. & N. for forty years is just this: I consider this Company the most just, according its employees the best treatment of any railroad in the country. Whenever they render any decision on any subject that might come up, you can rest assured that it will be right, when you come to look at it from all angles. Also I consider it the most progressive railroad in the country, al- ways keeping abreast of the times or a little better. JNO. A. BAVIS, Foreman, Paint Shop, Covington, Ky. [541 Scenes Along 1The L. & N.