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Trotting and the pacing horse in America / by Hamilton Busbey. Busbey, Hamilton, 1840-1924. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2002 b98-59-43710255 Electronic reproduction. 2002. (Beyond the shelf, serving historic Kentuckiana through virtual access (IMLS LG-03-02-0012-02) ; These pages may be freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Trotting and the pacing horse in America / by Hamilton Busbey. Busbey, Hamilton, 1840-1924. Macmillan Company ; Macmillan & Co., ltd., New York : London : 1904. x, 369 p.,  leaves of plates : ill. ; 21 cm. Coleman The American sportsman's library, ed. by C. Whitney Microfilm. Atlanta, Ga. : SOLINET, 2000. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. (SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative Microfilming Project (NEH PA-23166-98) ; SOL MN08693.02 KUK) s2000 gaun a Printing Master B98-59. IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Horses. Horse racing United States. LICE AMERICAN SPORTSMAN'S LIBRARY EDITED BY CASPAR WHITENEY THE TROTTING AND THE PACING HORSE IN AMERICA -, V- el -kko. This page in the original text is blank. This page in the original text is blank. This page in the original text is blank. THE TROTTING AND THE PACING HORSE IN AMERICA BY HAMILTON BUSBEY NEW Lorh THE MACMILLAN COMPANY LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., LTD. 1904 All rights reserved This page in the original text is blank. COPYRIGHT, 1904, BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Set up and electrotyped. Published July, 1904. Norwood Press 9f. S. Cushing & Co. -Berwick & Smith Co. Norwood, Mass., U.S.S. PREFACE FOR thirty-eight consecutive years I was a visitor at breeding farms and a close observer of horses at speed on the trotting tracks of the country, and in this way I gained knowledge of the subject discussed in this volume. I was an unwavering advocate of movements which estab- lished system where chaos had reigned, and it would be mock modesty for me to pretend that my acquaintance with facts is distant. The evo- lution of the trotter took place during the active period of my life. The fortunate owner of a good library on the horse counts his books by the hundred. Whole volumes have been sur- rendered to one family or tribe. It was no easy task to condense, from thousands of letters and printed pages, the facts which I present. I have tried to give a bird's-eye view of the situation, and have not spun yarns in which a pound of fancy paralyzes one little grain of truth. It has been my aim to give a compact history of development. V vi Preface Some who idly turn these pages may think that, if I have erred, it is in conciseness of state- ment; but people of inquiring minds who refer to the book for information, having faith that fiction has been subordinated to fact, wvill thank me for an error of this kind. HAMILTON BUSBEY. NE w YORK, June, 3904. CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGS I. The Introduction of the Horse and the Gradual Increase of Speed. . . . . . I II. From 2.IO to Two Minutes and Better. Tracks, Vehicles, and Wind-shields. . . . II III. The Two-minute Horses of 1903. . . . 25 IV. Primordial Streams of Speed . . . . 36 V. The Lady Suffolk Era . . . . . . 40 VI. Flora Temple, 2.I94, and Dexter, 2.174 . . 46 VII. Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler . . . . 51 VIII. From the 2.134 of Rarus to the 2.031 of TheAbbot 65 IX. Cresceus: Reduction of Stallion Record and Double Harness Rivalry . . . . . . 78 X. The Foundation Horses, Imported Messenger and Justin Morgan. . . . . . . 86 XI. Three Energetic Sons of Justin Morgan, Bulrush, Woodbury, and Sherman Morgan . . . 96 XII. The Morrill Tribe and Other Descendants of Justin Morgan . . . . . . . . 105 XIII. Mambrino Chief and his Descendants . . I13 XIV. The Pilot Family . . . . . . . 129 XV. Messenger and the Tribe of Hambletonian . . 135 XVI. Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian, including George W ilkes . . . . . . . . 152 XVII. The Family of Electioneer . . . . .173 vii viii Coiltents CHAPTER PA(;E XVIII. Volunteer, Aberdeen, Happy Medium, Dictator, Harold, and Strathmore. . . . .184 XIX. Cuyler, Egbert, Jay Gould, Edward Everett, and Other Members of the Hambletonian Tribe . 199 XX. The Star Family . . . . . . . 210 XXI. The Clay Family . . . . . . . 216 XXII. The Blue Bull, Royal George, and Other Subsidiary Families. . . . . . . . 225 XXIII. Great Producing Mares: Green Mountain Maid, Miss Russell, and Beautiful Bells . . . 233 XXIV. Other Great Producing Mlares, including Clara, Alma Mater, and Dame Winnie . . . 249 XXV. The Era of High Prices . . . . . 270 XXVI. The Dawn of Systematic Breeding: Track Gov- ernment . . . . . . . . 275 XXVII. The Growth of Discipline: Horse Shows . . 285 XXVIII. Road-riding Movements . . . . . 296 XXIX. Amateur Driving Clubs . . . . . 301 XXX. The Pacing Horse . . . . . . 303 XXXI. The Multiplication of the Pacer. . . . 3i6 XXXII. Breeding and Breeding Establishments . . 324 INX . . 335 IN DEX ILLUSTRATIONS Lou Dillon . . . Frontispiece FACING PAGE E. E. Smathers, driving Major Delmar . . . . C. K. G. Billings, driving the Champion Trotter, Lou Dillon 14 Pace-maker with Wind-shield . . . . 24 Wind-shield and Dirt-shield . 24 Major Delmar . . . . 30 Dan Patch . . . 34 Prince Alert. . . . . 35 E. T. Bedford, driving York Boy and Bemay. . . 35 Flora Temple . . . . 46 Beautiful Bells . . . 46 Dexter . . . . . . . . 48 Goldsmith Maid . . . . . . 50 Nancy Hanks . . . . 50 Maud S. . . . 68 Sunol . . . 72 Alix . . . . . 76 The Abbot . 76 Cresceus . . . 78 Kremlin . . 78 Palo Alto 1.. . . . . 24 Directum 1.. . 24 Rysclyk's Hambletonian. . . . . . . 144 Mambrino Chief . . . . . . . . . 144 ix Ill/s/h al1ols George Wilkes Electioneer AMiss Russell . Green Mountain Maid Axtell Arion P. P. Johnston William Russell Allen WV. P. Ijams . J. Malcolm Forbes. John E. Thayer Lawrence Kip Robert Bonner William H. Vanderbilt Mambrino Patclhen Baron Wilkes Star Pointer . John R. Gentry Joe Patchen Brown Hal Charles Backman . Benjamin F. Tracy William C. Whitney C. J. Hamlin . Leland Stanford FACING PAGE . 156 . 156 . 232 . 232 270 . 270 . 286 . 286 . 286 . 290 . 290 . 290 . 296 . 296 . 306 . 306 . 312 . 312 . 320 . 320 . .324 324 . 324 . 326 . 326 x THE TROTTING AND THE PACING HORSE IN AMERICA This page in the original text is blank. THE TROTTING AND THE PACING HORSE IN AMERICA CHAPTER I THE INTRODUCTION OF THE HORSE AND THE GRADUAL INCREASE OF SPEED ACCORDING to Nesbit, horse-races were made a feature of public festivities as early as the Patri- archs' time. The fever spread from Eastern coun- tries to other countries. Horses first drew burdens, but after the invention of saddles carried them on their backs. In the days of Augustus sport- loving Romans rode in different colors, usually green, red, white, and sea-color. In the reign of Henry II of England races took place at Epsom, and the breeding of horses was encouraged by Henry VIII. The horse, as shown by fossil remains, existed in America prior to its discovery by Columbus, but the first importation across the Atlantic was made in 1493. These horses were taken to B I 2 Tbe Trolling and the Pacing Horse the West India Islands by Columbus, and from there the stock spread to Florida in I527. De Soto was attended by cavalry in the expedition in which he discovered the Mississippi River. In i604 horses were taken from France to Nova Scotia, and in i6o8 the French introduced horses into Canada. In i609 English ships landed horses at Jamestown, and Bancroft informs us that in i656 the horse had multiplied in Virginia and through favorable legislation had improved. Speed was especially valued. Horses were landed in Massa- chusetts in i629, and in the same year were im- ported into New York from Holland. In Virginia and the Carolinas particular attention was paid to the breeding of horses for the running track, while in Pennsylvania, New York, and the New England States the horse of general utility was cultivated. The easy motion of the Narragansett pacer made him desirable for the saddle when road-building was in its primitive stage, and the first speed com- petitions between horses were on level stretches of the country. These saddle contests were far from orderly, but were keenly relished by the little communities weighed down by monotony and craving excitement. All kinds of sharp practices were resorted to for the purpose of beating a rival, LIfrodulction of the Horse and there is more fable than actual truth in some of the reports handed down to us from those days. Time could not be accurately taken on these straight stretches of road, and this afforded boast- ers plenty of latitude for exaggeration. The time reported for flights of speed in straightaway ice races and speedway exhibitions is always open to question, and is not officially recognized. It belongs to the realm of irresponsible talk. The early tracks were poorly constructed, and seconds slower than those of to-day. The trainer had to ride as well as drive in contests, a large per cent of the recorded races being open to horses under saddle. The observation stands were roughly constructed, and the entire surroundings were crude. On a half-mile track at Harlem, New York, in June, i8o6, a horse called Yankee is re- puted to have trotted a mile in 2.59. The per- formance of Boston Blue, at Jamaica, New York, in i8i8, a mile in three minutes, is authentic. In I827 Rattler trotted two miles under saddle in 5.24; in I828 Screwdriver trotted three miles under saddle in 8.02; and in i829 Topgallant trotted three miles in harness in 8.ii. The dif- ference between saddle and harness for three miles is nine seconds, but the difference in the 3 4 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse capacity of the two horses is not accurately known. In i834 Edwin Forrest, a black gelding, trotted a mile under saddle in 2.3II, and in the same year a bay mare called Sally Miller trotted a mile in harness in 2.37. The Lady Suffolk era began in i845, when she trotted in harness in 2.29k-. The same year Moscow, a bay gelding of unknown blood, trotted in 2.30. In I849 Lady Sutton, by Morgan Eagle, trotted in 2.30, and Pelham, a bay gelding of untraced breeding, trotted in 2.28. In the appended table I give championship records, designating those made with wind or dirt shield with the letter s, and those made on kite tracks with the letter k - One mile, Lou Dillon, chestnut mare, I903 . . I.58-- s Two miles, Robert McGregor, chestnut horse, i902 4.17 Three miles, Nightingale, chestnut mare, 1893 . 6.5 5 Four miles, Senator L., chestnut horse, 1893 . . 10.12 Five miles, Zambra, brown gelding, I902 . . 12.24 Ten miles, John Stewart, bay gelding, 1867 . . 28.024 Thirty miles, General Taylor, gray horse, i885 . 1.47-59 One hundred miles, Conqueror, bay gelding, 1853 . 8.55.05 Twenty, fifty, and one hundred mile perform- ances are no longer in vogue. They served no good purpose, and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals interfered. Inlroduclioit of /be Horse The best high-wheel records at one mile are: - Maud S., chestnut mare, i885. . . . 2.o81 Sunol, bay mare, I89I. . . . . . 2.o8J k Palo Alto, bay horse, I89I. . . . . 2.084 k Jay-eye-see, black gelding, I 884 . . . . 2.10 Mr. Bonner, who owned both Maud S. and Sunol, estimated that the high-wheel record of Maud S. on the oval track at Cleveland was a second better than that of Sunol on the kite track at Stockton. The kite was but a passing fancy and is no longer in use. The first one was built at Independence, Iowa, in i890, and the one long turn gave it an advantage in point of speed over the regulation track with its two turns, especially when high wheels were in gen- eral use. After the introduction of the bicycle sulky in i892, this advantage was not so appar- ent; and as the public objected to kite races on account of the horses going so far from the grand stand, the tracks of this design ceased to exist. The important question is how much Lou Dillon was assisted by the horse immediately in front of her with a dirt-shield. Maud S. trotted without artificial aids. Mr. J. Malcolm Forbes 5 6 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse estimated the difference between the high-wheel record and the bicycle sulky at five seconds. Only through careful experiment can we deter- mine the difference between shield records and other records. The best records made under saddle are: - One mile, Great Eastern, bay gelding, i877 . . 2.15 Two miles, George -I. Patchen, bay horse, i863 . 4.56 Three miles, Dutchman, bay gelding, i839 . . 32 Four miles, Dutchman, bay gelding, I836 . . . 10.5I The harness record of Great Eastern is 2.I8, and, taking his two performances as a guide, we fix the saddle as 3 seconds faster than the sulky. Horses are not alike, and some will show a greater difference than this between saddle and harness. Trotting with running mate has also gone out of fashion. It was no proof of merit, because the runner not only relieved the trotter of weight but pulled him forward. The records are: - One mile (against time), Ayres P., chestnut gelding, i893, 2.031 One mile (in a race), Frank, bay gelding, I883 . . 2.o81 The team records for one mile are: The Monk, brown gelding, by Chimes, and Equity, black gelding, by Heir at Law, 1903 . . . 2.o8 Introduction of the Horse I7 I Rose Leaf, black mare, by Gold Leaf, and Sally Simmons, bay mare, by Simmons (in a race), i894 The three-abreast record of one mile was made in i89I by Belle Hamlin, Globe, and Justina, all by Hamlin's Almont Jr., and it is The four-in-hand record, one mile, was made in i896 by Damania, Bellnut, Maud V., and Nutspra, all by Nutwood, and it is The fastest record at one mile over a half-mile track is that of Cresceus, in 1903 2.I51 2.I4 2.30 2.08 The best undisputed record of Cresceus on a mile track is 2.02-, which would fix the difference between the two tracks at 5.3 seconds. The fastest half-mile record on a mile track is that of Major Delmar, made in i902 I.Oij The records to wagon are: - One mile, Lou Dillon, 1903. . . . . 2.00 S One mile, Major Delmar, 1903 . . . . 2.031 S Two miles, Dexter, i865 . . . . . 4-56k Three miles, Prince, 1857. . . . . 7.532 Five miles, Fillmore, I863. . . . . I3.I6 Ten miles, Julia Aldrich, i858. . . . 29.0412 Twenty miles, Controller, I878. . . . 585 7 The wagons of to-day are but mere feathers as compared to those of i865, and this fact should be taken into consideration in estimating the difference between performances. 8 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse The best trot of a pair to wagon on a half-mile track was that of York Boy and Bemay at Parkway, in in 1o92 . . . . . . . . 2.121 The best trot in single harness to wagon on a half-mile track was that of Cresceus, in i9oi . . . 2.12 It is not possible in the space to which I am limited to give all meritorious performances, but the reader will gain a clear idea of progression in breeding and development from the chapters which treat of epoch-making horses. Nevertheless, at the risk of being charged with repetition, I introduce a compilation which will enable the reader to see at a glance the progress of development. It took years to increase har- ness speed from three minutes to two minutes. Boston Blue, black gelding . . I8I8 3.00 Bull Calf, bay gelding. . . . 1830 2.47T Edwin Forrest, black gelding. . . i838 2.361 Dutchman, bay gelding . . . . x839 2.32 Lady Suffolk, gray mare 1. . . I845 2.291 Pelham (converted pacer), bay gelding . 1849 2.28 Highland Maid (converted pacer), bay mare i853 2.27 Flora Temple, bay mare. . . . i856 2.241 Flora Temple, bay mare. . . . 1859 2.I93 Dexter, brown gelding . . . . i867 2.17T Goldsmith Maid, bay mare . . . i871 2.17 Goldsmith Maid, bay mare. . . . I874 2.14 Rarus, bay gelding . . . . I878 2.I31 St. Julien, bay gelding. . . . 1879 2.124 It/roduc/ioit of the Horse Maud S., chestnut mare Maud S., chestnut mare Jay-eye-see, black gelding Maud S., chestnut mare MNauid S., chestnut mare Sunol, bay mare Nancy Hanks, brown mare Alix, bay mare . The Abbot, bay gelding Cresceus, chestnut horse Lou Dillon, chestnut mare . i.88o . . i881 . . I884 . . I 884 . I885 .i. i89i i892 . . i894 . 1900 . I901 . 1903 The bicycle sulky came into use in I892, and Nancy Hanks and all subsequent record-breakers had the advantage of it. The i.58- of Lou Dillon was made with a pace-maker and dirt- shield in front of her. The first record up to the present standard was made in i845 by Lady Suffolk. Now there are over thirty thousand trotters and pacers of stand- ard speed rank. The steady advancement of the light-harness horse was not due to chance. It was the result of earnest thought and per- sistent effort. The man who was able to show a higher rate of speed than his neighbor in a brush on a country road felt a thrill of elation, and the desire grew in him to breed a still faster animal. His neighbor was ambitious to excel, to lead instead of follow, and he also turned his 9 2.IO1 2.0-1 2.10 2.091 2.083 2.08-1 2.04 2 .03 I 2.021 s-581 s 10 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse thoughts to breeding and development. Year after year a greater number of mares were bred, and who can tell of the anxious days of anticipa- tion After the safe delivery of the colt hope began to expand, and every change of form from babyhood to maturity was followed with deepest interest. The disappointments outnumbered the successes, but they stimulated the breeder to try again. He was determined to rise above failure. If he sold a promising young horse, he did not lose interest in it. He kept in touch with it through reports in journals which chroni- cled events of the track, and each victory brought a glow of pleasure to his face. Thousands of foals pressed with tiny hoofs the clover blossoms of spring and summer, which never trotted or paced a mile in 2.30, but the motto was to per- severe, and the dream was nursed of finally producing championship form. The long road from three minutes to two minutes ran through shadow as well as sunshine, but the accomplish- ment was worth millions of heart-beats, because the light-harness horse is recognized the world over as one of the greatest triumphs of the industrial life of America. CHAPTER II FROM 2.IO TO TWO MINUTES AND BETTER. TRACKS, VEHICLES, AND WIND-SHIELDS FOR years after the trotting record had been carried down to 2.Io by Jay-eye-see, August I, I884, there were discussions as to the ultimate speed of the trotter. Pages were written to prove that the two-minute horse was an impossi- bility. The early arguments were based upon the assumption that there would be no improve- ment in tracks and vehicles. Five years after Maud S. had trotted to a record of 2.084 at Cleveland the kite track came into use, and on it Sunol beat the record by half a second. It was September 28, i89i, that Sunol trotted to a record of 2.081. Seven years after the 2.o84- of Maud S. at Cleveland the ball-bearing bicycle sulky was introduced, and it enabled Nancy Hanks in September of that year to trot to a record of 2.04. Nancy Hanks tried to equal 2.o84 to high-wheel sulky and failed, 11 I2 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse as did Alix, who in 1894 trottedl to a record of 2.033. These are impressive facts to every thoughtful man of experience. The advantage of the 28-inch wheel with pneumatic tire is that it reduces friction, especially around the turns, and enables the horse not only more fully to extend himself, but to carry the speed over a longer dis- tance. Year after year the regulation track has improved, particular attention being given to angles, grades, and elasticity of road-bed; and the sulky and wagon builder has turned out vehicles of lighter and better design. A special aim has been to overcome as far as possible atmospheric resistance. In 1900 The Abbot reduced the world's record to 2.031, and in 190i Cresceus car- ried it down to 2.02-. Here it stood until 1903, when another striking innovation was introduced. Vehicles and tracks had continued to improve, and a shield was brought into use. After Lou Dillon had trotted at Readville, Massachusetts, in two minutes, Mr. Albert C. Hall addressed a letter to me at Colorado Springs, where I was engaged upon this work, in which he said: - "I was pleased to hear from the lips of MIr. Billings how well the mare finished the From 2.10 to Two Minutes anzd Belter I3 mile, going the last quarter in 29 seconds, and the last eighth in 14 seconds. He told me that she went without check, with 4-2-ounce shoes forward and 24-ounce shoes behind, and with very few boots. Now that the trotting horse has reached the two-minute mark and within one second of the pacing record, what does Mr. Busbey think will be the limit of speed for a mile " The shield innovation looked so dangerous to me that under date of September 22, I903, I addressed a formal letter to William Russell Allen, President of the American Trotting Register Association: - " Previous to the conference between the National Trotting Association, the American Trotting Association, and the American Trot- ting Register Association, which led to the pres- ent rules governing performance against time, the validity of many so-called time records was questioned. There were heated controversies in the public prints over trials against the watch, and but little faith was reposed in some of the stated efforts. As the official head of the Ameri- can Trotting Register Association, and as a member of the Board of Appeals of the National 14 The Trot/lg and the Pacing Horse Trotting Association, you were in a position to bring about a much-needed change; but if my recollection is good, no suggestion was made by you that a horse in going against the watch should be more favored than a horse competing against a hostile field. The desire was to remove a prejudice against time records, and to place them on an absolute equality with race records. In actual races no artificial aids are allowed, and the logical presumption is that this is true of performances against time. In a race where every heat must be contested by every horse in the race, and every horse must be driven to the finish, there is no room for a foreign factor like an automobile or a wind-breaking runner, and I should like to be informed what position the Register Association is likely to take on this question. Each year your Association rejects records for one cause or another, and if you could favor me with your views on the reported wind-shield time performances of Dan Patch, Prince Alert, Cresceus, Major Delmar, and Lou Dillon, I would esteem it a favor. It was by slow stages that sneering allusions to 'tin-cup records' were silenced, and I take it that it is not conducive to the best interests of breeding E. E. SMATHERS, DRIVING MAJOR DELMAR, 1.5934 C. K. G. BILLINGS. DRIVING THE CHAMPION TROTTER. LOU DILLON, 1.58 This page in the original text is blank. FIvmn 2.10 to Two Minuutes and Better I5 and the Register Association to encourage de- parture from the rigid rules which have placed all records on a footing of equality." September 27 President Allen wrote in reply: "' There is no rule against using a pace-maker in trials against time. Rule 58, Section i, allows any other horse to 'accompany' the performer. You will note the rule says may 'accompany.' As the rule allows a horse, it is presumable that it was not intended to allow an automobile to 'accompany,' or it would have been so worded. Does the word 'accompany' mean that the any other horse may precede the performer .A horse alone, immediately preceding a per- former, would act as a wind-shield to a certain degree. A horse with a man in a cart would act in the same way in a greater degree. No horse not actually a participant in a race is allowed to precede any horse in a race, but a participant in a race may precede other horses, and other horses may use him as a shield or wind-break at pleas- ure. So that we have or can have in races, pace-makers and wind breaks or shields. I can- not tell you in answer to your question what position the Register Association is likely to take. It is a matter for careful consideration, i6 The Trot/lig and the Pacing Horse and I have no doubt it will come before the Asso- ciation for determination before the next Year Book is published." October I, i903, I replied to President Allen: "It is true that Rule 58 makes it proper for a horse to accompany a contestant against time, but when it declares that this horse shall not in any way be attached to said contestant, the im- plied understanding is that no agent shall be used to overcome natural elements. Atmos- pheric pressure is one of these elements, and the idea of sending a wind-breaker in advance of a competitor was never contemplated by the rule-makers. " In some parts of a race a horse may trail another, and thus be materially aided by the shield; but should his driver persist in these tactics from start to the head of the home-stretch, the judges would fail in the performance of their duty if they did not admonish him. If one horse is permitted to trail, why not another, until we have an absurdly long line of trailers At the head of the home-stretch each horse shall select his position and swerve neither to the right nor the left. Here, at least, there is no place for a wind-breaker. What is called 'helping' is strictly Fromn 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better I7 forbidden in a race. Unless every heat is con- tested by every horse in the race and every horse is driven to a finish, the race degenerates into a farce. The chronic trailer, according to my way of thinking, invites suspension or expulsion. I regard it a mistake to make time records easier of accomplishment than race records. Time is the basis of the standard, and care should be taken not to revive the old prejudice against horses that obtain records in competition against the watch. If the two-minute horse is allowed favors in a contest against time, why not the 2.31 or 2.32 horse And then we may look for shoals of the newcomers, until the speed standard is debased. I am not opposed to progress; I have never proclaimed the impossibility of the two- minute horse; I should rejoice to see the trotter equal the runner, -but we cannot make rules for one performer which do not apply to all performers at the same gait. This fact must be clear to every intelligent mind, and I have asked a few questions of you because you occupy official position and have established a reputation for clearness of thought and terseness of statement." I received an invitation by telegraph to come to the October meeting at Lexington and discuss C Is The Trotting and the Pacing Horse the question with official heads of governing asso- ciations, and took the train from Colorado for Kentucky. At Lexington I met President John- ston of the National Trotting Association, Presi- dent Allen of the American Trotting Register Association, and Secretary WV. H. Knight of the American Trotting Association, and views were exchanged. I was in the judges' stand with Presi- dents Johnston and Allen, when it was directed that all trials with shields should be so entered in the official record book of the meeting. The object of this was to bring the question squarely before the governing associations. The letter which the late J. Malcolm Forbes wrote me on the shield question is given elsewhere. I agree with him that a distinction should be made between wind-shields and dirt-shields. Under date of December II, I903, the sons of Robert Bonner addressed a letter to William H. Knight, Secretary of the American Trotting Reg- ister Association, protesting against the accept- ance of the 2.05 of Lou Dillon at Cleveland, September I2, I903. The reasons given were that the announcement was made that Lou Dillon would trot to high-wheel sulky to beat the 2.083 of Maud S.; that the performance was invalidated From 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better i9 by the use of a wind-shield, and by resort to ball- bearing axles. When Mr. R. E. Bonner sent the protest to me for an opinion, I, in substance, replied that I did not believe that Mr. Billings was a party to the concealing of the use of ball-bearing axles on the sulky of Lou Dillon; that unreflecting employees of that gentleman should be held responsible for this action; that the major point at issue was not ball-bearing axles, but the use of a dirt-shield and a pace-maker in front. The judges of racing can- not discriminate between high-wheel and low- wheel sulkies. Each manufacturer has his own ideas, and competition is open to all builders. If one high wheel is lighter and less friction-produc- ing than another, you cannot impose a handicap on the man who is shrewd enough to take advan- tage of it. There is a marked difference between the speed-contributing power of an old-fashioned high-wheel sulky and the up-to-date bicycle sulky; but if a man has a horse properly entered in a race and is not so fortunate as to own a ball- bearing bicycle, you cannot refuse him the privi- lege of starting to high wheel, unless you take the ground that the handicap is self-imposed for a fraudulent purpose. Under registration rules 20 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse high-wheel and low-wheel records are treated alike. January 5, I904, a joint committee, composed of three representatives each from the National Trotting Association, the American Trotting Association, and the American Trotting Register Association, met in New York and one of the things discussed was shield performances. The validity of irregular performances against the watch was formally disputed by the American Trotting Association, and this brought the ques- tion before the official board, the three presidents of the governing associations. On January 7 there was a public hearing before the board, coin- posed of Presidents P. P. Johnston, WV. P. Ijams, and WRilliam Russell Allen, and the fact was established that the official announcement at Cleveland was that Lou Dillon would start to beat 2.084 to high-wheel sulky. The report telegraphed over the country that the mare started under the precise conditions that governed the record-breaking performance of Maud S. lacked the important element of truth. The fact was also established through the testimony of Charles Tanner, an employee of Mr. Billings, that the sulky drawn by Lou Dillon was fitted with ball- From 2.IO lo Two Minutes and Better 21 bearing hubs. After a patient hearing the board handed down this decision: - ",,Ve find that the performance of Lou Dillon at Cleveland on September 12, I903, to high- wheel, ball-bearing sulky, with a pace-maker with dirt-shield in front, was not a record, because the mare had previously performed in faster time, which performance was her record and precluded a slower performance being a record. "We also find the performance of Maud S. at Cleveland in i885 was to high-wheel, plain-axle sulky, according to rule; that the time, 2.084, was not only her best time, but the best time ever made up to that date, and was a record. "No record can be made with a wind-shield other than an ordinary dirt-shield and pace-maker in front. A performance with pace-maker in front with dirt-shield shall be recorded with a distinguishing mark referring to a note stating the fact." This decision gives Maud S. the place of honor during the period that the high-wheel sulky was in general use; her 2.084 is the best high-wheel record over regulation track; but no sharp line of distinction, for handicap and registration pur- poses, is drawn between sulkies. 22 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Seven days after the decision Mr. WV. R. Allen, President of the American Trotting Register Association, favored me with his views: " There is no such classification in the Year Book as record to high wheels. No horse holds such an official record. No distinction was made when the bike wheels came in, in 1892, and there is no reason why there should be now. A horse having a record of 2.02 to harness cannot get 4 a record of 2.05 to harness. Maud S. has no official record to high wheel. No horse has. But Maud S. held Sie record to harness for a long time, and it is well known that the performance was to high wheels. Palo Alto also performed to high wheels equally as fast. Sunol performed to high wheels faster. That Lou Dillon can pull the same sulky that Maud S. did in better than 2.0843 on the Cleveland track, no one doubts. Maud S.'s performance was a great one and was conceded to be the best for the period, but many horses have since performed greater feats than she did at the trotting gait." In a letter to me concerning the same matter Mr. R. E. Bonner says: "The decision, when I consider the limited position in which the com- mittee were placed, because they felt that the FwivDl 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better 23 custom, rule, or precedent that a horse having a faster record could not start to obtain a lower record, is satisfactory to me. The inference, however, that in the future no horse having a faster record than 2.083 could start against Maud S.'s performance and obtain a record is not pleas- icg or satisfactory. If the owner of any horse should wish to make a thoroughly honorable and upright comparative test and succeed, both my brother Frederic and myself would gladly ac- knowledge Maud S.'s performance surpassed with- out regard to the fact as to whether or no such a performance was a technical record." From a letter written to the New York Sun, by Hugh E. Mc Laughlin, giving the mathe- matical side of the question, I take the follow- ing: "The two-minute horse on a dead calm day, facing a thirty-mile wind created by himself, meets an opposing force of 2- of 5 pounds per square foot, or 21 pounds; and the section of the cylindrical surfaces in this case being I2 square feet we find by multiplying 12 by 2- a pressure of 30 pounds against the unshielded trotter. " Behind the shield the horse benefits most when close up, but benefits some if within any reasonable distance. The partial vacuum and 24 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse suction, so called, behind the pace-maker cer- tainly withdraw a large part of the 30 pounds' pressure that would otherwise oppose the horse. The dirt-shield pace-maker shields the horse behind in the same way that the Reliance in the windward position effectually blanketed the Shamrock, though the two were more than 20 lengths apart; and yet some horsemen claim that only when the pace-follower is less than one length behind is he assisted to any extent." The truth or falsity of these conclusions can easily be demonstrated in I904 by Lou Dillon, Major Delmar, Dan Patch, and other horses who performed with shields in 1903. PACE-MAKER WITH WIND-SHIELD WIND-SHIELD AND DIRT-SHIELD This page in the original text is blank. CHAPTER III THE TWO-MINUTE HORSES OF I903 SENSATIONAL performances were numerous dur- ing the summer of 1903. The trotter crossed the two-minute line, but in a way not commended by thousands of thoughtful observers. In I 88 I the bay mare Sweetness, record 2.2 IX, by Volunteer by Hambletonian out of Lady Mer- ritt by Edward Everett by Hambletonian, was one of the five mares bred to Santa Claus, son of Strathmore by Hambletonian, and the outcome was Sidney, who paced to a record of 2.193. Octo- ber 29, i889, I was at the Valensin Stock Farm, Pleasanton, California, and from a note-book used on that occasion I copy: " Sidney, bay horse, eight years old; straight hip; plenty of substance and length. Left fore- leg was hurt when he was a colt. Trotted a quarter as a yearling in 37 seconds and then went to pacing. Very quiet in disposition. Good head and neck. Stands I 5.2 1 ; breeds large and is a good feeder." 25 26 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse I also saw the same day a mare whose descrip- tion was hastily jotted down: "Venus, chestnut mare, bloodlike head and neck; in foal by Sidney; hurt in race and left fore leg club-footed; has length and - stands I 5 hands; got by Captain Webster, son of \Williamson's Belmont; dam by Kentucky Hunter. Venus is the dam of Adonis. One of her foals, called John Goldsmith, is in the Sandwich Islands and has trotted in the thirties." The Kentucky Hunter cross is conjectural. Adonis paced to a three-year-old record of 2.141, and as a five-year-old took a record of 2.II2. The trotters out of Venus are Cupid, 2.18, and Lea, 2.i8k. Sidney Dillon, the son of Sidney and Venus, was not well handled in the training stable and failed to obtain a record, although he was pure-gaited as a trotter. He was owned by the Pierce Brothers of the Santa Rosa Farm, California, and one of the results of his first modest season in the stud was Dolly Dillon, who trotted to a record of 2.074. The second season, a mare called Lou Milton by Milton Medium, son of Happy Medium, was bred to him, and the fruit was a dark chestnut filly born in the spring of I898, who grew into a powerfully muscled clean-cut mare of I.5I42 hands, and who won The Two-minute Horses of I903 renown in I903 under the name of Lou Dillon. Milton Medium trotted to a record of 2.251, and he carried through his sire and his dam a double infusion of the blood of Rysdyk's Hambletonian. In I902 as a four-year-old Lou Dillon was taken to Pleasanton, where, April 20, she trotted a mile in 2.24. In the fore part of May she was shipped to Cleveland, and July i her trainer, Millard F. Sanders, drove her a mile in 2.I2. Her owner, Henry Pierce, gave instructions to reserve her for the big events of I903. Sanders carried her through the circuit with the rest of the horses and tried her on other tracks of the country. At Baltimore she trotted a trial in 2.o8, and at Memphis she trotted a half-mile in i.oi. During the winter Mr. Pierce died, and she was sold at public auction at Cleveland in May, I903, to settle the estate. Mr. C. K. G. Bil- lings, a gentleman who has constantly labored to lift trotting into a pure atmosphere, paid I2,500 for her. Princess, the dam of Happy Medium, was at one time owned by the father of Mr. Bil- lings, and sentiment therefore had something to do with the purchase. Although heavily entered in stakes, Lou Dillon, who was without a record, was withdrawn from these and was reserved for 2 7 28 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse struggles against the steady beat of the watch. She was the star of 1903, trotting in 2.024` at Cleveland, July i i; in 2.00 at Readville, August 24; and in I.581 at Memphis, October 24. It is a pity that the rules governing performances against time were not more strictly observed, for then a bitter controversy would have been avoided, and the I.58.1 would not have been entered in the Year Book with a note of ex- planation. A pace-maker in front with a dirt- shield is something not looked upon with favor by those who make and execute the laws of the trotting track. It was a mere coincidence that Sidney and Venus, who were responsible for Sidney Dillon, sire of Lou Dillon, were at one time enrolled among cripples. The infirmities were not so deeply seated as to be transmitted. Fly, the dam of Lou Milton, the dam of Lou Dillon, is down in the books as a mare of un- traced blood. Her appearance, however, was that of a thoroughbred, and it is stated that Lou M1ilton was a fleet runner under the saddle. The nervous disposition of Lou Dillon, coupled with her astonishing bursts of speed, suggests a race- horse strain. She trotted to high-wheel sulky at Cleveland in 2.05, but the performance is not The Two-minute Horses of 1903 officially recognized. At Cleveland, September I, she trotted to wagon in 2.041; and at Lexing- ton, October io, she reduced the wagon record to 2.0 I 43. Previous to her start that afternoon Mr. E. E. Smathers drove his horse, Major Delmar, to a record of 2.034; and the friends of Mr. Billings were apprehensive that he would fail to equal this mark. There was suppressed excitement when Mr. Billings took the word and was at the quarter pole in 3I seconds, and the half-mile post in i.oi. The question now was to sustain the flight of speed. There were cheers from the grand-stand when the watches split on the nose of the chestnut mare at the three-quarter pole in I.304, because it pointed to triumph. Mr. Bil- lings held the great mare together down the home-stretch, and when the official announcement was made that the time of the mile was 2.013, the driver and horse were the recipients of a great ovation. I was sitting with the president of the National Trotting Association and the president of the American Trotting Register Association; and when we three joined the throng around Mr. Billings and offered our sincere congratulations, there was a glow of pleasure on his face that told 29 30 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse of the inward joy of the moment. Lou Dillon went from Lexington to Memphis, where she reduced the harness record, October 24, to i.58-, and the wagon record, October 28, to 2.00. She is a phenomenal trotter, and her future cannot be foretold. The unknown quantity in her comes from the dam of Venus, dam of Sidney Dillon, and Fly, dam of Lou Milton. It is fitting that the champion trotter of the world should carry so much of the blood of Hambletonian, the great progenitor of trotters, who lived and died within the shadow of Sugar Loaf Mountain. Major Delmar The second trotter to cross the two-minute line in 1903 was Major Delmar, and his record of I.593 is relegated by official decision to the special class headed by Lou Dillon. His fastest efforts are questioned because of the use of a pace-maker in front with dirt-shield. Major Delmar is a bay gelding, bred at Suburban Stock Farm, Glens Falls, New York, by WRilliam E. Spier; foaled in I897, and as a three-year-old he trotted to a record of 2.I5. He was not raced as a four-year-old, but having changed owners was prominent as a five-year-old, trotting to a record The Two-milute Horses of I903 3I of 2.05--. In 1903, as a six-year-old, he was the determined rival of Lou Dillon, especially after Mr. E. E. Smathers had paid 40,000 for him. The blood lines of Major Delmar are of approved merit, and the critic who objects to missing links in a pedigree has no fault to find with him. His sire, Del Mar, trotted to a record of 2.i64 , and was descended in the male line from Electioneer and in the female line from the great producing mare, Sontag Dixie by Toronto Sontag, son of To- ronto Chief and Sontag, 2.3i, by Harris's Ilamble- tonian. Expectation, the dam of Major Delmar, was got by Autograph, 2.I6- (son of Alcan- tara and Flaxy by Kentucky Clay), out of Miss Copeland, who obtained a pacing record of 2.252, and who produced the celebrated trotter, Cope- land, 2.09. Miss Copeland was by Almont Star, 2.284 (son of Almont 33 and Blanch Star by American Star 37), dam Copeland Maid by Prophet Jr. by Prophet, a descendant of Justin Morgan. Alcantara was the son of George Wilkes and Alma Mater by Mambrino Patchen, and Flaxy was out of Young Flaxy by Telegraph, a descendant of Justin Morgan. Kentucky Clay, sire of the dam of Autograph, was by Strader's Cassius M. Clay Jr., out of the Rodes mare, dam 32 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse of Lady Thorn and Mambrino Patchen. Expec- tation has no record, but as a three-year-old she trotted a trial in 2.28. Major Delmar carries the blood of the foundation families, Justin Morgan; Messenger, through Hambletonian and his two great prepotent sons, Electioneer and George Wilkes; Clay, through its best source, Green Mountain Maid; Mambrino Chief through Mam- brino Patchen and Almont; and American Star: and all who believe in close adherence to demon- strated trotting lines in breeding point to his achievements with satisfaction. It is to be re- gretted that he was not given an opportunity at Memphis, where he made his shield record of I.594, to see what he could do to establish a record without the aid of a pace-maker in front. I do not believe that he has reached the limit of his speed. Cresceus The third trotter who was reported to have crossed the two-minute line in 1903 is Cresceus, a chestnut horse of powerful build, foaled in i894 and sired by Robert McGregor, 2. I 7', son of Major Edsall, 2.29, by Alexander's Abdallah, the prepotent son of Rysdyk's Hambletonian; dam Mabel by Mambrino Howard by Mambrino -E U In SE a 0 cF a-l ' f:E a E s1 :u i- This page in the original text is blank. The Two-minutle Horses of 1903 Chief; second dam Contention by Allie West, 2.25, by Almont, son of Alexander's Abdallah and Sally Anderson by Mambrino Chief. Fanny, dam of Allie West, was also by Mambrino Chief. Nancy Whitman, dam of Robert McGregor, was by Seely's American Star, and Mabel is the dam of the famous campaign trotter, Nightingale, 2.I101-. Cresceus carries foundation blood, but not so profusely as Major Delmar, and it was on Friday, July 26, i90i, at Cleveland, that he dethroned The Abbot by trotting to a record of 2.023. The stallion was accompanied by a running horse during the first half of his journey and by two runners during the last half. There was no pace- maker in front. At Columbus, August 2, 1901, Cresceus reduced his record to 2.02+1, and he failed to beat this performance in I 902. Octo- ber i9, 1903, the startling report was telegraphed from Wichita, Kansas, that Cresceus had trotted in I.594-. The accuracy of the timing was ques- tioned, and under date of January I4, 1904, the president of the American Trotting Register Association wrote me: "The Cresceus perform- ance at Wichita is held up in the court of the American Trotting Association and will not be decided until May next, consequently the record D 33 34 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse of the stallion in the newv Year Book will be as it was last time, 2.0241" 4. Controversy over the coming of the two-minute trotter, which raged for some years, has not been satisfactorily settled. Those who maintain that a mile in two minutes at a trot is an impossible performance will not surrender their views until the fact is established without the aid of pace- maker and dirt-shield. Dan PatcA The only pacer officially recognized as across the two-minute line in I903 was Dan Patch. He is a brown horse, foaled in i896, and got by the great pacer, Joe Patchen, 2.0I1-, out of Zelica by Wilkesberry by Young Jim by George Wilkes; second dam Abdallah Belle by Pacing Abdallah. As Joe Patchen is by Patchen Wilkes, son of George Wilkes, Dan Patch carries a double infusion of the famous Wilkes blood. Dan Patch is a handsome, substantially built, dark bay horse, and August 29, 1902, he paced at Providence to a record of I.591-. He was busy against the watch in I903, and I was one of the judges at Lexington, October i6, when he paced to a wagon record of i.591. The pace-maker with dirt-shield e 0 z 0a ()5 F- UL 3 O.9 : E C) PRINCE ALERT The Fast Pacer, whose wind-shield performance was rejected. E. T. BEDFORD Driving York Boy and Bemay to a record of 2.1214 on a half-mile track. The Two-minute Horses of I903 was in front of him and close enough to break atmospheric pressure. At Memphis, October 22, he paced in harness, with dirt-shield in front, in i.561, but in one sense this does not displace Star Pointer, whose record of I.59- in 1897 was made in the good old-fashioned way. The Register Association classes shield records lower than those made without its assistance. The I.591 of Dan Patch, made in I 902, is given preference over his I.561 of I903. The wagon record of I.57 at Memphis, October 22, I903, goes into the shield class. Prizce 4Aert The bay gelding, Prince Alert, by Crown Prince, paced in I902 to a record of two minutes, and this is his best credit mark. His I.57, with the shelter of a big wind-shield, at Empire City Park, September 23, I903, has been rejected by the proper authorities. Unless the rules are changed, judges hereafter will refuse to start horses behind wind-shields. 35 CHAPTER IV PRIMORDIAL STREAMS OF SPEED FROM a review of early trotting, written by Walter T. Chester, and published in the Turf, Field, and Farm in i900, I take the following: Ancestry was given scarcely a thought in the very early days of trotting. Prior to 1840 wve have chronicled 77 winners, of which the sires even of only 22 are given. The first performer whose breeding on both sides seems to be known after a fashion, is Topgallant by Coriander, dam by Bishop's Hambletonian. This Cori- ander, who enjoys the distinction of being the first known sire of a winner of a trotting race, was foaled in I796, by imported Messenger, darn by Brown Figure. Bishop's Hambletonian was also a son of Messenger. The next sire that appears is American Commander, a grandson of Messenger; next Chancellor, a grandson of Messenger; next Tippoo Saib, son of Mes- senger. No wonder that it appeared in those early days as if no horse could trot unless he 36 Primordial S/reams of Speed was a descendant from the grand imported horse Messenger. Young Bashaw, in I833, was the first sire to appear not tracing to Messenger in the male line, but he did in the female line. Sir Henry, appearing in I833, had Messenger blood on the dam side. Winthrop Messenger, appearing as a sire in I835, was by imported Messenger, and Almack, same year, was a grand- son of the foundation horse. Harris's Hamble- tonian, very famous in his day, first appeared in I833, as the sire of Modesty, 2.40, and he was a grandson of Messenger. Young Engineer first appears in 1835 as sire of Rolla, 2.413. He was a grandson of Messenger and later sired Lady Suffolk. Not until I837 do we reach a sire destitute of the blood of Messenger, and that is American Boy, thoroughbred son of Awful, 2.40 to wagon. The sire of Red Jacket by Duroc appears in I839; Conqueror in I839; Abdallah shows up first as a sire of Hector, 2.36 and 2.32, in I840, when he was at least four- teen years old; Morgan Chester, by Woodbury Morgan, in i840, and he was the earliest sire of a winner of the Morgan family; Gifford Morgan by Woodbury Morgan in i84I. Mambrino, the prepotent son of Messenger, does not show as a 37 38 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse sire until i844, when his daughter, Betsey Baker, took a record of 2.432- to saddle, and she appears to be the only performer by him. Sherman Mor- gan appears in i844 as sire of Vermont Black Hawk; Pilot, sire of the celebrated Pilot Jr., shows first in connection with Nigger Baby, 2.36, at New Orleans; Morgan Eagle in I847; Sala- din, by Young Bashaw, in i847; Vermont Black Hawk in I848; Quimby Messenger in I848; imported Trustee in I848; Napoleon (Burr's) in I850; Henry Clay in I850; Mambrino Pay- master (sire of Mambrino Chief) in 185i as sire of Goliah, 2.33; Royal George in I852; Burr's Washington in i852; Latourett's Bellfounder in I853; Downing's Bay Messenger in I853; Spaulding's Abdallah in i853; the Drew Horse in I854; Sherman Black Hawk in I854; the Morse Horse in i854; Nottingham's Norman in 1854; Biggart's Rattler in I855; Doble's Black Bashaw in I855; Morrill in i8 5; Camden in I856; Cone's Bacchus in I856; Tom Crowder in I856; Witherell Messenger in 1857; Young Morrill in I 85 7; Cassius M. Clay in I 85 7; Ameri- can Star in i858; Neave's Cassius M. Clay Jr. in I858; Hanley's Hiatoga in I858; Jupiter in i858; Pilot Jr. in i858; Andrus Hambletonian Primordial S/reams of Speed 39 in i858; the Eaton Horse in 1858; General Taylor in i859; Naugatuck in i859; Mambrino Chief in i859; Ole Bull in i859; Hambletonian (Rysdyk's) in i86o as sire of Alexander's Abdal- lalb, 2.42; George M. Patchen in i86o; Strader's Cassius M. Clay Jr. in i86o; the Joslyn Horse in i86o; May Day in i86o." These primordial streams show how compara- tively young is light-harness speed in America. Strong currents have obliterated in a measure some of the little streams, but we must not over- look them when we group elementary facts. CHAPTER V THE LADY SUFFOLK ERA IT was not until after I865 that the evolu- tion of the trotter was hastened by systematic attempts at breeding and development. The haphazard methods of ante-bellum days were followed by order, and great forward strides were made under the scientific propaganda. The first authentic time a horse ever trotted in this country for a stake was in i8i8. William Jones of Long Island and Colonel Bond of Maryland backed the horse to trot in three minutes, and named at the post Boston Blue, a rat-tailed gray gelding of i6 hands, who won, and subsequently was taken to England, where he trotted eight miles in 28 m. 55 5. In I82I Topgallant trotted at Jamaica in 2.463, and he was followed in I825 by Defiance, in I826 by Screwdriver, in I828 by Ephraim Smooth, and in I830 by Bull Calf. Prior to I830 trotting races were usually at long dis- tances, and Screwdriver was regarded as the 40 The Lady Suffolk Era best of his contemporaries. In I829, when twenty-two years old, Topgallant trotted against Whalebone, four heats of four miles each, all under I 2 m. I 5 s. It was more a test of bot- tom than of speed. Boston Blue, Topgallant, Whalebone, Screwdriver, Paul Pry, and old-time performers of their caliber helped to turn the public mind toward trotting, but they contributed very little to the formation of the breed. The speed standard now in force does not recognize them. The first horse to trot a mile in better than 2.30 was Lady Suffolk, a gray mar-e, foaled in I833, and bred by Leonard W. Lawrence of Smithtown, Suffolk County, Long Island. Her sire was Engineer 2d, son of Engineer, the son of imported Messenger, and her dam was by Don Quixote, son of Messenger. She was full of racehorse blood, and her nervous organization was high and her courage beyond question. She stood I5.I, and had legs of iron. Her first public appearance was on a cold day in Feb- ruary, i838, for a purse of i i, and she won it after three heats, the best of which was 3.00. She was then the property of David Bryan, who subsequently campaigned her for 15 consecutive years. At Beacon Course, New 41 42 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse Jersey, June 22, i838, she was fairly launched on her racing career. She defeated Lady Vic- tory, Black Hawk, Cato, and Sarah Puff, two- mile heats, and the best time was 5.15. She trotted at Philadelphia, Boston, Centreville, Balti- more, Providence, Rochester, Buffalo, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and elsewhere during her long career, and defeated such horses as Don Juan, Awful, Oneida Chief, Hector, James K. Polk, Pelham, Lady Moscow, Jack Rossiter, and Dutchman. The latter was a powerful, strong-going horse of I5.3 hands, picked up in a brickyard at Phila- delphia, and after holding his own with such trot- ters as Awful, Rattler, and Lady Suffolk, he made at Beacon Course, August i, 1839, a record of three miles under saddle of 7.32. His rider on that occasion was Hiram Woodruff, the most famous of early trainers and drivers. Dutchman died in i847. Charles J. Foster, who wrote for Hiram Woodruff " The Trotting Horse of Amer- ica," threw plenty of color into the description of a race between Dutchman, Americus, and Lady Suffolk: "XWith the last flicker of day the swift scud began to fly overhead, and the solid-seeming clouds to tower up and come on like moving mountains. It was dark when we got into our, The Laded Suffolk Era sulkies; and soon after the start the storm burst upon us with a f ury that I have never since seen equalled. The wind blew a hurricane, and the pelting rain fell in torrents, as though the sluices of the skies had opened all at once. Nothing could have overpowered the mighty rush of the wind and the furious splash of the rain but the dread, tremendous rattle of the thunder. It seemed to be discharged right over our heads, and only a few yards above us. Nothing could have penetrated the thick, pro- found gloom of that darkness but the painful blue blaze of the forked lightning. I could see in the short intervals between the flashes the faintest trace of the horse before me; and then, in a twinkling of an eye, as though the darkness was torn away by the hand of the Almighty, the whole course, the surrounding country, to the minutest distant thing, would be revealed. The spires of the churches and houses of New- ark, eight miles off, we could see more plainly than in broad daylight; and you noticed that as the horses faced the howling elements their ears lay back flat upon their necks. Between these flashes of piercing, all-pervading light and the succeeding claps of thunder the suspense 43 44 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse and strain upon the mind was terrible. We knew that it was coming so as to shake the very pillars of the earth, but we rode on; and until it rattled over our heads we were silent. Then in the black darkness, as we went side by side, we would exchange cautions." Lady Suffolk had been ruled out for not winning a heat in three, and Spicer, who was driving Americus, gradually drew away from Dutchman, who slipped in the heavy footing. Lady Suffolk started in 138 races and won 88 of them and received forfeit three times. It was at Beacon Course, Hoboken, New Jersey, October 13, I845, that she trotted to a record of 2.291-. She was driven by David Bryan, and the time was made in the second heat of a five- heat race with Moscow. This record was re- duced to 2.28 in the third heat of a race at Centreville, Long Island, July 2, I849. Her saddle record of 2.26 was made at Boston, June I4, I849, in a race with Mac and Gray Trouble. After I853 she was retired to Bridport, Ver- mont, and bred to Black Hawk. The foal was prematurely born. David Bryan died in i85 I, and Lady Suffolk followed him into the un- known March 7, I854. Her skin was stuffed The Lady Suffolk Era and was used for several years as an advertise- ment of a harness store in New York. The stable at Smithtown which she formerly occupied still stands, a time-worn reminder of brilliant achievement. The 2.30 line, which Lady Suffolk was the first to cross, later became the standard gauge. In i870 Nicholas Saltus, a gentleman residing in Brook- lyn, New York, came to the office of the Turf, FzIC, and Farm, with a proposition to compile a table of 2.30 performers in harness. I gave him the assistance of the office force, and in January of I87I the compilation was ready for publica- tion. The trotters having records of better than 2.20 were Dexter, 2.174; Lady Thorn, 2.i8+; American Girl, 2.19; Goldsmith Maid, 2.I91; and Flora Temple, 2.I93. There were I5i ani- nmals in the list, some of which had no right to be there; still, the table attracted much attention. The compilation was added to year after year, and 2.30 at the trot in harness finally became the key-note to admission to registration. 45 CHAPTER VI FLORA TEMPLE, 2. I93, AND DEXTER, 2.I74 THE first 2.20 trotter was Flora Temple. She was a bay mare of I4.2, foaled in i845, in Oneida County, New York, and sired by One Eyed Kentucky Hunter, a chestnut horse with white feet and face, by Kentucky Hunter; dam Madam Temple by a spotted Arabian horse. The stump of her tail was cut off when she was a suckling, and the badge of abbreviation helped to identify her on the turf. She had a quick, nervous gait, but not much value was placed on her. When four years old she was sold for 13. She passed through several hands, getting the rudiments of education in a livery stable. In June, i850, she made her appearance in Dutchess County, New York, and was sold to Wellington Velie for I75. Mr. Velie was a shrewd horseman, and he often pointed out to me the lane in which he tried the speed of Flora Temple before sell- ing her to George E. Perrin of New York City. Her first appearance on the track was at Union 46 Iilow rupIL ty - Irlr .x , FLORA TEMPLE 2.-193 in 1859. BEAUTIFUL BELLS The Celebrated Brood Mare. This page in the original text is blank. Flora Temple and Dexter Course, Long Island, September 9, i850, and she won a small purse in 2.49. She was not in train- ing in I85I, owing to a mishap, but won two races in I852. April 27, I853, she opened the campaign at Philadelphia, and was kept trotting all summer, beating such horses as Highland Maid, Tacony, Lady Vernon, and Rhode Island. Her last victory for the season was December 3, at Louisville, Kentucky. The i854 campaign was begun at New Orleans, January 31. In i856 she defeated Ethan Allen; in I858 Prince and Reindeer; and in 1859 she trotted a series of races with Princess, who had been brought on from California to meet her. October i5, i859, at Kalamazoo, Michigan, she beat Princess and Honest Anse, trotting the second heat in 2.221- and the third heat in 2.I94. This was the first time that a trotter had ever crossed the 2.20 line, and Flora Temple was everywhere hailed as queen of the turf. She was at this time the property of William McDonald, of Baltimore, who paid 8ooo for her in I858. In i86o she trotted a series of races with George M. Patchen, and in i86i met and defeated John Morgan. The Civil War was now on, and as Mr. McDon- ald's sympathies were with the Confederacy she 47 48 The Troltlug and the Pacing Horse passed from his control, and in i864 was pur- chased by Aristides Welch of Philadelphia, who put her to breeding. She produced, in i868, the bay filly Kitty Temple by Rysdyk (son of Rysdyk's Hambletonian and Lady Duke by Lexington). The foal of i869 was Prince Im- perial, a bay colt, by William Welch, son of Rys- dyk's Hambletonian and a daughter of imported Trustee. He was sold to Robert Bonner, for whom he trotted a mile in 2.234-, and he is a sire of speed. The third, and last, foal of Flora Tem- ple was a bay filly ( 87 I), The Queen's Daughter, by imported Leamington (son of Faugh-a- Ballagh), tracing to the Waxy and Blacklock strains, and the sire of such race-horses and sires as Enquirer, Iroquois (the only American-bred horse that ever won the English Derby) and Longfellow, who was the sensational conqueror of Harry Bassett. The Queen's Daughter is a dam of speed. Flora Temple died December 2I, I877, without doing much to perpetuate her line. The last time I was at Erdenheim, when the place was owned by N. WV. Kittson, I stood with uncovered head by the stone slab which marks her grave and that of Leamington. w - w v (N This page in the original text is blank. Flora Temple and Dexter Dexter, 2. I 74 The record of Flora Temple stood for eight y ears. May 4, I864, Dexter, brown gelding, foaled I858, by Rysdyk's Hambletonian, dam Clara by Seely's American Star, made his first appearance in public, at Fashion Course, where he beat Stonewall Jackson and two others, best time 2.33. He trotted a series of races in i865 and showed his heels to such horses as George Wilkes, General Butler, and George M. Patchen Jr., and in i866 he was on a hippodroming tour with George M. Patchen Jr. In i867 he defeated Goldsmith Maid, Lady Thorn, and others. At Buffalo, August I4, he started to beat 2.I94, and won in 2.I71. Budd Doble was the trainer and driver of the paragon, and he has since said to me that were the tracks and sulkies as good as they are to-day, Dexter would not be far behind championship honors. Immediately after the record-breaking performance at Buffalo, Robert Bonner entered the judges' stand and the an- nouncement was made that he had purchased the son of Hambletonian and Clara. After the pur- chase Mr. Bonner telegraphed to a friend in New York: "I saw Niagara Falls this morning for the E 49 50 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse first time, and I came down here this afternoon to see that other great wonder, Dexter, when he trotted in the unprecedented time of 2.I7T. You know I like to own all the best things, and inas- much as I could not ay the Falls, I thought I would do the next best thing and buy Dexter. He will go into my stable on the ioth of next month." General U. S. Grant, prior to his inauguration as President of the United States, rode out with Mr. Bonner behind Dexter, and soon after this the crayon by Ehninger, "Taking the Reins," attracted the attention of the nation. General Grant expressed a desire during the ride to own Dexter. Mr. Bonner favored me with a ride behind the trotting king a few days after General Grant had "taken the reins," and I was surprised at his control over the high-spirited gelding. Circumstances, with positive merit, made Dexter one of the most famous horses that the world has produced. His name was indeed a household word. Dexter died April 2 I, i 888, at the age of 30. ,d pi..or. p by S. 8li r S Sons, GOLDSMITH MAID 2.14 in 1874. NANCY HANKS 2.04 in 1892. This page in the original text is blank. CHAPTER VII GOLDSMITH MAID AND SMUGGLER WHEN Goldsmith Maid, driven by Budd Doble, trotted at Milwaukee, September 6, i87I, to a record of 2.I7, there was quite a stir, and I had the track measured by a competent civil engineer before accepting the performance as authentic. In I872 she trotted in 2. I64, and at Mystic Park, Boston, September 2, i874, she trotted to her best record of 2.I4. As she was born in May, i857, she was 17 years old at the time. She was a mnare of wiry frame and nothing was done with her until she was eight years old. This is one reason why she remained vigorous up to a point where decay sets in with many other horses. She travelled on the cars I30,000 miles during her career, won 325,000, and died September 23, i885, aged 28. The most exciting race in which she was engaged was at Cleveland, July 27, i876. I was the guest of William Edwards, president of the Cleveland Driving Park, and among his other guests at the time were Charles W. Woolley, 5' 52 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse president of the National Trotting Association, and Colonel H. S. Russell, of Boston, the owner of Smuggler. The night before the free-for-all trot, Colonel Russell was nervous and we chaffed him good-naturedly. There was another nervous gentleman in the land, judging from the telegrams to President Edwards, and that was Henry N. Smith in his WVall Street office, who wanted to be assured that Goldsmith Maid would be given a clear field. I wrote an account of the race imme- diately after the decision had been rendered, and as the story has been republished in newspapers, magazines, and books, it is probably worthy of a place in this volume. "XWhen the bell rang for the open-to-all horses to appear, a buzz of expectation was heard on all sides. It was known that Lula would not re- spond to the call, she having made an exhibition the previous day, and besides she was not in the bloom of condition; but Lucille Golddust was there to battle for the Babylon stable, and she was a mare of tried speed and bottom. The knowledge that Lula would not start steadied the quaking nerves of Doble, and he ceased to plead for a special purse and permission to withdraw. He thought that Goldsmith Maid would have a Goldsmith Mlaid and Smuggler comparatively easy time in capturing first money, and his confidence made the old mare the favorite over the field. Smuggler was deemed an uncertain horse, and there was no eagerness to invest in pools on him. But the stallion was cheered almost as warmly as the Maid, when he jogged slowly past the stand. Lucille Golddust, Judge Fullerton, and Bodine were also received with applause. The great drivers of the country were behind the great horses of the country. Budd Doble pulled the lines over Goldsmith Maid; Charley Green steadied Lucille Golddust; Peter Johnson controlled Bodine; Charley Marvin watched over the fortunes of Smuggler; and Dan Mace was up behind Judge Fullerton, having come from New York for the express purpose of driving him in the race. Twice the horses came for the word, and twice they failed to get it. They were then ordered to score with Lucille Golddust, and succeeded in getting off. The Maid had the best of the start, and, quickly taking the pole from Judge Fullerton, gayly carried herself in the lead. It was where she was accus- tomed to be, and so she trotted in the best of spirits. Fullerton did not act well, and he brought up the rear rank the entire length of the course. 53 54 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Along the back-stretch, Smuggler began to close a gap, terrific as the pace was. After passing the half-mile he drew dangerously near the Maid, but it was noticed that he faltered a little. The cause was not then understood, but it was made plain when the patrol judge galloped up to the stand with a shoe in his hand which had been cast from the near fore foot. Around the turn the stallion pressed after the mare, and down the stretch he drove her at the top of her speed, the thousands giving vent to their enthusiasm by cheering and clapping hands. Smuggler had his nose at the Maid's tail when she went under the wire in 2.I51. Bodine was a good third, his time being about 2.17, and Lucille Golddust was fourth, Fullerton just inside the flag. Smuggler's performance was an extraor- dinary one. He trotted for something like three- eighths of a mile with his equilibrium destroyed by the sudden withdrawal from an extreme lever point of a shoe weighing 25 ounces. Only once before had he cast a shoe in rapid work without breaking, and that was in his exercise at Belmont Park. Keen judges are forced to admit that the stallion would have won the first heat in 2.I5 had no accident befallen him. Prior to this Goldsmitb Maid and Smuggler season, Smuggler carried a 32-ounce shoe on each of his fore feet, but now he seems to be steady under the reduced weight. The scoring in the second heat was a little more troublesome than that in the first heat. Smuggler left his feet several times, and it looked as if he was going to disappoint his owner and trainer. On the fourth attempt the horses got away, the Maid in the lead. The stallion made one of his char- acteristic bad breaks around the turn, and all hope of his winning the heat was lost. Bodine and Fullerton also were unsteady. Lucille Gold- dust did good work, and she was second to the Maid when the latter went over the score in 2.1 74. Smuggler finished fifth, Marvin only trying to save his distance. Goldsmith Maid was distressed, but her friends were confident that her speed and steadiness would carry her safely through. It was almost dollars to cents that she would win. The word was given to a good send-off in the third heat. The Maid had the pole, which advantage she did not sur- render, although she went into the air around the turn. She was quickly caught, and Doble drove her carefully along the back-stretch, fol- lowed by Fullerton, who seemed to be content 55 56 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse with the position of body-guard to her queen- ship. After passing the half-mile, Marvin urged Smuggler into a quicker pace, and the stallion was observed to pass Lucille Golddust, then Fullerton, and to swing into the home-stretch hard on the Maid's wheel. Doble used all his art to keep his mare going, but Marvin sat behind a locomotive and could not be shaken off. The stallion got on even terms with the Maid, and then drew ahead of her in the midst of the most tumultuous applause, beating her under the wire three-quarters of a length. The scene which followed is indescribable. An electrical wave swept over the vast assembly, and men swung their hats and shouted them- selves hoarse, while the ladies snapped fans and parasols, and burst their kid gloves, in the en- deavor to get rid of the storm of emotion. The police vainly tried to keep the quarter-stretch clear. The multitude poured through the gates, and Smuggler returned to the stand through a narrow lane of humanity which closed as he advanced. Doble was ashy pale, and the great mare which had scored so many victories stood with trembling flanks and head down. Her attitude seemed to say, I have done my best, Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler but am forced to resign the crown.' The judges hung out the time 2.i64, and got no further in the announcement than that Smuggler had won the heat. The shouts of the thousands of frenzied people drowned all else. " During the intermission the stallion was the object of the closest scrutiny. So great was the press that it was difficult to obtain breathing room. He appeared fresh, and ate eagerly of a small bunch of hay which was presented to him by his trainer after he had cooled out. It was manifest that the fast work had not destroyed his appetite. The betting now changed. It was seen that the Maid was tired and her eager backers of an hour ago were anxious to hedge. In the second score of the fourth heat, the judges ob- served that Smuggler was on his stride, although behind, and so gave the word. In his anxiety to secure the pole Doble forced Goldsmith Maid into a run, and as Lucille Golddust quickly followed her, the stallion found his progress barred unless he pulled out and around them. Marvin decided to trail, and he kept in close pursuit of the two mares even after he had rounded into the home- stretch. Green would not give way with Lucille, and Doble pulled the Maid back just far enough 57 58 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse to keep Marvin from slipping through with the stallion. The pocket was complete, and thought to be secure. A smile of triumph lighted Doble's face, and the crowd settled sullenly down to the belief that the race was over. Marvin was de- nounced as a fool for placing himself at a dis- advantage, and imagination pictured just beyond the wire the crown of Goldsmith Maid with new laurel woven into it. But look! By the ghosts of the departed! Marvin has deter- mined upon a bold experiment. He falls back and to the right, with the intention of getting out and around the pocket. Too late, too late ! is the hoarse whisper. Why, man, you have but 150 yards in which to straighten your horse and head the Maid, whose burst of speed has been held in reserve for just such an oc- casion as this! Her gait is 2.14, and you,- well, you are simply mad! The uncounted thou- sands held their breath. The stallion does not leave his feet although pulled to a 45-angle to the right, and the moment that his head is clear and the path open, he dashes forward with the speed of the stag-hound. It is more like fly- ing than trotting. Doble hurries his mare into a break, but he cannot stop the dark shadow Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler which flits by him. Smuggler goes over the score a winner of the heat by a neck, and the roar which comes from the grand stand and the quarter-stretch is deafening. As Marvin comes back with Smuggler to weigh, the ovation is even greater than that which he received in the preceding heat. Nothing like the burst of speed he had shown had ever before been seen on the track, and it may be that it will never be seen again. Marvin had two reasons for going into the pocket. In the first place he thought that Green would pull out when the pinch came and let him through, and in the second place he erroneously supposed that Doble would push the Mlaid down the stretch and leave him room to get out that way. It was bad judgment to get inito the pocket, since, had the Maid won the heat, the race would have been over; but it must be admitted that Marvin acted not without a show of reason. In riding at the gait he was riding, a man does not have any extra time to mature his plans. The heat was literally won from the fire. It was only the weight of a hair that turned the scales from defeat to victory. Doble was more deeply moved by the unexpected result of the heat than by anything else which happened 59 6o The Trolling and the Pacing Horse in the race. His smile of triumph was turned in one brief instant to an expression of despair. The time of the heat was 2.I93. Smuggler again cooled out well, nibbling eagerly at his bunch of hay, while the crowd massed around him. The Maid was more tired than ever, while Lucille Golddust showed no signs of distress. When the horses responded to the bell for the fifth heat it was evident that a combination had been formed against Smuggler. All worked against him. Lucille Golddust and Bodine worried him by repeated scorings, and when they excited him into a break and he grabbed the unfortunate shoe from the near fore foot, the hope began to rise that the star of the stallion had set. The shoe was put on, the delay giving the Maid time to get her second wind, when the scoring again commenced. Smuggler was repeatedly forced to break, and for the third time in the race he grabbed off the near fore shoe. Misfortunes seemed to be gathering thickly around him, and the partisans of the Maid wore the old jaunty air of confidence. Before replacing the shoe, Colonel Russell had it shortened at the heel. It was a new shoe, and one adopted by Marvin against the judgment of Russell. The shell of Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler the foot was badly splintered by the triple acci- dent, but the stallion was not rendered lame. As much as an hour was wasted by the scoring and the shoeing of Smuggler, which brought all the horses to the post looking fresh. Smuggler had the worst of it, as he was the only one which had not enjoyed an unbroken rest. Finally the word was given for the fifth heat. Fullerton went to the front like a flash of light, trotting without skip to the quarter-pole in 33 seconds. Smuggler overhauled him near the half-mile, and from there home was never headed. The Maid worked up to second position down the home- stretch, the stallion winning the heat in 2.I74. and the hardest-fought race ever seen in the world. The evening shadows had now thick- ened, and as the great crowd had shouted itself weak and hoarse it passed slowly through the gate and drove in a subdued manner home. " It was a race which will live long in memory, one to which thousands will date as the beginning of an epoch in their lives. Think of it. A first heat in 2.I51 and a fifth heat in 2.171, with the stallion record reduced to 2.i64 in the third heat! A week ago no one would have believed it. Now we keep asking ourselves in a dazed sort of way 62 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse if what we saw with our eyes can really be true. Smuggler first saw the light within the limits of the Buckeye State. He journeyed West obscure and looked upon as a menial. To-day his fame is as wide as the world, and he wears the laurel which once wreathed the neck of Goldsmith Maid. Wonder not that the people of Ohio should swell with pride when they point to him and his history. His triumph was in the face of obstacles which were truly formidable. "' How did you enjoy yourself ' queried the president from the judges' stand after the tumult had subsided. The lady, one of Cleveland's fairest daughters, well expressed the general feel- ing in her answer from the grand stand: 'I am so glad and yet so sorry.' Glad that she had hailed the new king and sorry that she had seen the old queen lay down her crown." Smuggler, 2.I51 Colonel Russell first heard of Smuggler through a letter that I sent him, and when he purchased the stallion he came to the office of the Turf, Field, and Farm. Captain W. S. Tough had brought the brown son of Blanco (son of Iron's Cadmus) from Leavenworth, Kansas, to Prospect Goldsmilb Maid and Smuggler Park, Long Island, in search of a purchaser, and it was there that the transfer to Colonel Russell was made. Smuggler was foaled in i866, bred by John M. Morgan, near Columbus, Ohio, and taken, when a colt, to Olathe, Kansas, where he showed great bursts of speed in the hands of Charles Marvin. He was a pacer, out of a pacing mare by Herod's Tuckahoe; but as pacers were not as much in demand then as now, he was heavily weighted forward and thus converted into a trotter. Iron's Cadmus was the sire of the first great pacer, Pocahontas. At Buffalo, August 5, I874, Smuggler started in the purse of io,ooo for free-for-all stallions, and although beaten after winning two heats, made an enviable repu- tation. After this he defeated such horses as Mambrino Gift, Thomas Jefferson, and Great Eastern and carried, August 31, i876, the stallion record down to 2.I541, where it remained for eight years. The last time I saw Smuggler in public was at the big fair held at Minneapolis in the autumn of i878, when he was led in front of the grand stand, preceded by a huge placard, describ- ing him as the champion trotting stallion of the world. W. H. Wilson of Cynthina had charge of him. In the stud Smuggler was not a pro- 63 64 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse nounced success. The fastest of his ten trotters is Nomad, 2.i9. His sons are poor transmitters of speed, but one of his daughters is the dam of Miss Whitney, 2.071. The trouble with Smug- gler was that two gaits constantly fought for the mastery in him and that in conformation he was more of a pacer than a trotter. He is an illustra- tion of a type that sometimes reaches, through performance, championship form without the power to protect its line from extinction. CHAPTER VIII FROM THE 2.I 341 OF RARUS TO THE 2.0311 OF THE ABBOT RARUS succeeded Goldsmith Maid to the crown. He was a bay gelding, foaled in i867; bred by R. B. Conklin, of Greenport, Long Island; by Conklin's Abdallah, a horse of unknown blood, (lam Nancy Awful by Telegraph, son of Smith Burr's Napoleon; second dam Lady Hunter by Vermont Black Hawk. He trotted in 2.421 to saddle as a four-year-old, and in i874 was fairly launched on his turf career. In i875 he beat such horses as Molly Morris, Belle Brasfield, Adelaide, and Kansas Chief, and in I876 beat Smuggler, Judge Fullerton, Great Eastern, and other good horses. In I878 Hopeful was his fastest rival. At Buffalo, August 3, i878, he started against time, and he was at the half-mile pole in I.054 and finished the mile in 2.I34. From an account that I wrote at the time I take the following: " The horse and driver received a perfect ovation when they returned to weigh, and it was with 65 F 66 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse difficulty that Splan could make his way through the crowd and then into the judges' stand. When he reached the steps, he cleared them three at a bound, and after handshaking, was led to the rail and presented with a handsome basket of flowers by President Bush. No words were spoken. It would have been useless to have attempted speech-making in the presence of the crowd that filled the quarter-stretch, and which made the ground shake with its shouts. While Splan was blushing and bowing his acknowledgments to the applauding thousands, Rarus was being unhar- nessed, and he looked on with dazed eye, quiver- ing nostril, and trembling flank. He had made a new mark in the annals of the turf, had wiped out the record of Goldsmith Maid, which had headed the list for so many years; and modesty well be- came him in the hour of his brilliant success. It was a proud day for Buffalo Park, and those who were present will never forget the uproar caused by the beating of 2.14." In the latter part of the summer of 1879 Mr. Robert Bonner, who had long looked for a record-breaker to head his stable, purchased Rarus for 36,ooo. The geld- ing made a record of 2.I5, 2.I33, 2.I33- for three consecutive heats at Hartford, and trotted a mile From Rarus to The Abbot on Mr. Bonner's three-quarter track in 2.1 I' nevertheless he was a very dear horse. His new owner derived but little satisfaction from him. Rarus was a sporadic representative of a dead line. St. Julien, 2.1 II 1 Only a few months after the transfer of Rarus to the Bonner stable, St. Julien took the crown away from him. He was a bay gelding, foaled in I869, by Volunteer, dam Flora by Harry Clay 45, and was purchased in the spring of I875 by James Galway of New York, who started him in the big circuit, and his achievements were astonishing for a green horse. In his fourth race, at Springfield, Massachusetts, August 27, i875, he trotted to a record of 2.221. Early in the winter following he was sold to R. S. Morrow and Orrin A. Hickok, and was taken to Cali- fornia, where his speed was patiently developed. He did not begin to show his form until in September, I879. Ex-President Grant was re- turning from his triumphant tour of the world, and stopped in San Francisco. October 25, i879, St. Julien was started for his entertainment at Oakland Park, to beat the record of Rarus, and the time made was 2.1 21. General Grant 67 68 TLe Trotting and the Pacing Horse was delighted, and he paid a visit to the stall of St. Julien and congratulated his trainer and driver, 0. A. Hickok. As I write these lines the intelligence reaches me that Hickok died at the state hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, Novem- ber Io, I903, from softening of the brain. He was born in Harpersfield, Ohio, in i840, and was one of the shrewdest men that ever sat in a sulky. Those who knew him in his prime, when his brain was wonderfully active, can scarcely realize that decay began with him at the top. I hope that he has entered into refresh- ing sleep. In i88o Hickok came east of the Rocky Mountains with St. Julien, and his suc- cess was the talk of the country. At Rochester, August I2, he divided the floral crown with Maud S., each trotting to a record of 2.I I 3; but at Hartford, August 27, he reduced the record to 2.1 41, and for a brief time was the champion. He caught cold in i88i and was unable to sus- tain his reputation, and died in the fall of i894. He was a better bred horse than Rarus, and his dam, Flora, is in the great brood mare list with three -St. Julien, 2.1I I4, St. Remo, 2.281, and Unalala, 2.224. 0 U U) o CU o This page in the original text is blank. From Rarnts to The Abbot Maud S., 2.083 At Chicago, September i8, i88o, Maud S. regained her laurels. She trotted to a record of 2.I04, and with the single exception of one day remained the trotting queen until i89i. All things considered, I doubt if we have seen her equal. The first time my attention was par- ticularly called to her was at Chester Park, a half-mile track at Cincinnati, in the autumn of I878. Myron P. Bush had a party in his private car bound for Lexington, and a stop was made at Cincinnati. Maud S., then four years old, was driven a mile over the half-mile track in 2.261 and the way in which it was done excited remark. Joseph Harker, a close friend of William H. Vanderbilt, asked for a price on the mare, and the understanding was that he was to pay 20,000 for her should she trot a mile in 2.20. She was shipped to Lexington and waited in vain for a good day to make the effort. After everybody in the special car had gone home except myself, the weather cleared up and Maud S. trotted a mile in 2.I14. This was a sensational perform- ance, and Mr. Vanderbilt, who had taken the Harker option, finally paid 2I,000 for the chest- 69 70 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse nut daughter of Harold and Miss Russell. She was a source of proud gratification to her new owner, who drove her on the road. In i88o she returned to her old trainer, W. W. Bair, and trotted at Chicago in a race with Trinket to a record of 2.I 31, which record she reduced at Rochester to 2.I II, and at Chicago to 2. I0. In I884 her supremacy was threatened by Jay-eye- see, who trotted at Providence to a record of 2.I0. Maud S. started the very next day at Cleveland and lowered her record to 2.094. Mr. Vander- bilt, whose health was not good, and who did not wish to be badgered, offered her through William Turnbull to Mr. Bonner, and the sale was made at 40,000. Other parties stood ready to pay Ioo,ooo for her for hippodroming pur- poses, but Mr. Vanderbilt would not listen to them. I was with Mr. Bonner when Maud S. was delivered to him at his stable in West 56th Street, and drafted the conditions under which she started at Hartford for a cup and failed. She was then shipped to Lexington and started under the same conditions, November i i, i884, and re- duced her record to 2.091. I went to Lexington with Mr. Bonner to witness the effort, and never saw a man more pleased. It was his first record, From Rarus to Tbe Abbot and he scarcely slept that night. No admis- sion was charged to the track and there was no purse or wager. The only thing involved was the Woodburn Farm cup, and it simply com- memorated the achievement. The church people were out in force to honor the stand taken by a leading churchman, and the occasion was one long to be remembered. Maud S. was wintered at Chester Park, Cin- cinnati, and July 30, I885, she made her last start in public at Cleveland and trotted to a record of 2.083. This is still the best mile to high-wheel sulky over an oval track, without artificial aid. No pools were sold on the event, but there were private offers that the mare would fail. I was in the timer's stand and looked at the official watches as the hands marched around the dials. Three of the watches were 2.o83, and when President Edwards leaned over the judges' stand and said, "Ladies and gentlemen, I am pleased to inform you that on a track which the directors do not consider fast, Maud S. has trotted and made a record of 2.o84," there was tremendous applause. Previous to selling the great chestnut Mr. Vanderbilt drove Maud S. and Aldine to top road wagon at Fleetwood 7I 72 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse Park in 2.I5-. It was a remarkable perform- ance, and highly gratifying to the railroad magnate. Mr. Bonner drove her a mile to high-wheel wagon in 2.I341 over his slow three- quarter track. Maud S. was a chestnut mare of 15.3, foaled March 28th, i874, and by Harold out of Miss Russell. She outlived her last owner, and it is a pity that she could not have reproduced her kind. She was bred repeatedly, but did not prove with foal. She died while on a visit to Shultshurst, the home of Axworthy. SUvol, 2.o8j1 Sunol, bay mare, foaled April 14, I886-bred by Leland Stanford, Palo Alto, California; by Electioneer, dam XVaxana by General Benton; second dam Waxy, thoroughbred daughter of Lexington; third dam Peter Swigert mare (dam of Annette, dam of Ansel, 2.20) by Gray Eagle- was the successor of Maud S. She trotted while owned by Robert Bonner to a high-wheel record of 2.08 at Stockton, October 20, 1891. She was driven by Charles Marvin, and wonderful as the performance was, it was not equal to that of Maud S., because it was on a kite track. Al- though Sunol was a highly nervous mare, of the 0' 0 a 0 U). ..J 4)0 0 Z 4)0 Cl) 0 0 This page in the original text is blank. From karats to The Abbot greyhound build, Mr. Bonner was able to drive her in Central Park and on the road. On Thurs- day evening, December 2I, i893, a dinner was given to Mr. Bonner at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York, and a silver statuette of Sunol was presented to her owner. Prominent among breeders who joined in the testimonial were C. J. Hamlin, J. Malcolm Forbes, General Ben- jamin F. Tracy, A. B. Darling, William Russell Allen, Hon. J. C. Sibley, and John H. Shults. Hon. George M. Stearns of Massachusetts was not present, but he wrote: " I had hoped in vain that circumstances might enable me to be present at the dinner and still more important event of the bestowal of a testimonial to Mr. Robert Bon- ner. No man more deserves the tribute than he. He was one of the earliest and most consistent to associate horsemanship with honesty. He has demonstrated conspicuously that a man may be a gentleman, a Christian, and a horseman. His deeds deserve commemoration, for he was a pioneer in that domain." After the death of Mr. Bonner, Sunol was sold by his estate and pur- chased by John H. Shults. She is, at the time I w\rite, a brood mare at Shultshurst, Westchester County, New York. 73 74 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Nancy Hanks, 2.04 When the 28-inch ball-bearing wheel, pneu- matic tire, of the bicycle was applied to the sulky in July, I892, a revolution in harness speed was inaugurated. It reduces friction and is seconds faster than the high-wheel sulky. As there was a violent tumble in prices soon after the bicycle sulky had come into use, the pessimist charged that its influence was cheapening and that it had degraded the speed standard. It, however, was a valuable improvement, in the interest of progress, and it is idle to talk of returning to old methods. Nancy Hanks followed Sunol on the summit. She is a brown mare, foaled in i886, by Happy Medium, dam Nancy Lee by Dictator; second dam Sophie by Edwin Forrest; and she was bred by Hart Boswell of Lexington, Kentucky. August 28, i890, she trotted to a four-year-old record of 2.I4i, and soon thereafter was sold to J. Malcolm Forbes of Boston. Driven by Budd Doble, she trotted at Chicago, August I7, 1892, to a record of 2.07-1, at Independence, Iowa, August 3I, to a record of 2.05j, and at Terre Haute, September 28, I892, to a record of 2.04. The morning that she made her best record I was From Rarus to The Abbot a visitor at Forbes Farm, and Mr. Forbes took the affair very quietly. He was not one of the kind to bubble over with enthusiasm. Forbes Farm was at Blue Hill near Readville, Massa- chusetts, and after her retirement from the track Nancy Hanks enjoyed herself in grazing in the pasture, and in obeying the laws of maternity. Her foals have been by Arion, Bingen, imported Meddler (thoroughbred), and Peter the Great. She has produced a high rate of speed. A4 lX, 2.034 Alix, bay mare, foaled June 7, i 888, - bred by Samuel Hayes, Muscatine, Iowa; by Patronage, dam Atlanta by Attorney,- proved one of the gamest of mares that ever advanced to the throne. She trotted in 2.30 as a two-year-old and in 2.i63 as a three-year-old. Her best time in a race as a four-year-old was 2.I21, and as a five-year-old she won great races and reduced her record to 2.074. In i894, driven by Andy McDowell, her downward sweep was steady. At Terre Haute, August I 7, she won a race in 2.06, 2.06-, 2.054; and September 12, she trotted in 2.04. At Galesburg, Illinois, September i9, she chipped off a fraction, and was placed at the head 75 76 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse of the list with a record of 2.0343. She was sold by her owner, Morris J. Jones, to F. C. Sayles, of Rhode Island, and died at Mariposa Stock Farm after producing to Handspring, son of Prodigal and Annie WVilton. Alix was full of speed-sus- taining blood. Her sire, Patronage, traced through Pancoast to thoroughbred Woodford, and through Beatrice to the four-mile race-horse, Wagner. Her dam, Atlanta, traced through Attorney to a daughter of Robert Bruce, and through Flirt, her dam, to imported Envoy and imported Glencoe. Atlanta, the dam of Alix, outlived her most distinguished daughter. The Abbot, 2.0341 The Abbot was a product of Village Farm, East Aurora, New York, and when he rose to championship honors, the ambition of one of our greatest breeders, C. J. Hamlin, was gratified. The Abbot was a bay gelding, I5.'A hands high; foaled June 20, I893; by Chimes (son of Elec- tioneer and Beautiful Bells), dam Nettie King (who trotted to a four-year-old record of 2.20&1) by Mambrino King, second dam Nettie Murphy by Hamlin Patchen, and third dam by a son of Kentucky Whip. When the celebrated trainer, ALIX 2.033 in 1894. THE ABBOT 2.031 in 1900. This page in the original text is blank. From Rarus to Tbe Abbot E. F. Geers, began to work him, the fall he was three years old, he was a trifle discouraged. The gelding was rough-gaited and inclined to amble. A square-toed shoe on the left front foot and the right hind foot helped to untangle him, and he made a severe campaign in i897 and went into winter quarters with a four-year-old record of 2. I 1 12 As a five-year-old he again was severely cam- paigned and acquired a race record of 2.08. In I899 he defeated all the best horses before the public, including Cresceus and Bingen, and re- duced his record to 2.064. In i900 his fight was against the immortal scythe-bearer, Time, and fraction by fraction he rose to the top - 2.054, 2.04-, 2.04, 2.031. The latter performance was at Terre Haute, Indiana, September 25, I 900. The Abbot was sold at public auction for 26,500, and purchased by John J. Scannell; but he had reached his limit and was a disappointment to his new owner. He died early in 1904. 77 CHAPTER IX CRESCEUS: REDUCTION OF STALLION RECORD AND DOUBLE HARNESS RIVALRY CRESCEUS next appeared upon the scene. He is a powerful chestnut, foaled 1894; bred by George H. Ketcham, Toledo, Ohio; by Robert McGregor, 2.I 7.; dam Mabel (dam of Night- ingale) by Mambrino Howard by Mambrino Chief; second dam Contention by Allie WVest (2.25 at four years old), son of Almont; third daam by Victor by Downing's Bay Messenger; and fourth dam by Crusader, thoroughbred son of Sir Archy. Robert McGregor was a chetnut horse, foaled 187i, by Major Edsall, son of Alexander's Abdallah; dam Nancy Whitman by Seely's American Star; and he was one of our greatest trotters. So resolute were his finishes that he was called the Monarch of the Home-stretch. As a three-year-old Cresceus trotted to a record of 2. II'; as a four-year-old to a record of 2.091; as a five-year-old to a record of 2.074; as a six- year-old to a record of 2.04, and as a seven-year- 78 CRESCEUS The Champion Trotting StallIon, 2.02/' in 1901. i a copyrlgnep- pI.ot)grap)I ry cereiwr & I FlS 'iauci- KREMLIN 2.073n. the Champion Trotting Stallion of 1892. This page in the original text is blank. Cresceus: Reduction of Stallion Record 79 old to a record of 2.021. The latter performance was at Columbus, Ohio, August i, i90i, and it made him not only the champion trotting stallion but the champion trotter of the world. Through sire and dam Cresceus traces directly to the two great foundation sires, Hambletonian and Mam- brino Chief, and he is the vigorous representative of a most vigorous line. The Reduction of the Stallion Record Mambrino Gift was the first stallion to trot to a record of 2.20, and that was at Rochester in 1874. Then came Smuggler, 2.I541, in i876; then Phallas by Dictator, 2.I3-41, in July, I884; then Maxey Cobb by Happy Medium, 2.I34, Sep- tember 30, i884; and then Axtell by William L., dam Lou by Mambrino Boy, who as a three-year- old, October i I, i889, at Terre Haute, cut the record to 2.I2. He was the sensation of the hour and since then has proved his merit in the stud. Nelson carried the stallion record down to 2.I0, September 17, I89I; and September I9, I89I, on the kite track at Independence, Iowa, Allerton trotted to a record of 2.09-. The kite track, by the way, enjoyed but a brief period of popularity. It quietly faded from the face of the earth. 8o The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Allerton, like Axtell, is the representative of a live trotting inheritance. He is by Jay Bird (son of George WVilkes and Lady Frank by Mambrino Star by Mambrino Chief), dam Gussie Wilkes by Mambrino Boy (son of Mambrino Patchen and Roving Nelly by C. M. Clay Jr., she out of a daughter of Berthune); second dam Nora Wilkes by George Wilkes; and third dam by imported Consternation. Here we have a combination of the blood of Hambletonian and Mambrino Chief, through prepotent sons, with Clay and thorough- bred blood; and Allerton made his record to high-wheel sulky and is the sire of I IS in the 2.30 list. Palo Alto, bay horse, foaled in I882, by Elec- tioneer out of Dame Winnie, the thoroughbred daughter of Planet, trotted November I7, i88i, at Stockton, to a high-wheel record of 2.o84 ; then came Kremlin by Lord Russell, dam Eventide by Woodford Mambrino, who trotted at Nashville, November 12, I892, in 2.074-. October I8, I893, at Nashville, Directum by Dictator carried the record down to 2.054. All of these represent live lines in breeding. Cresceits: Reduction of Stallion Record 8 i Two-year-old Champions The first champion two-year-old trotter was Doble, a black horse, by Ericsson, out of Belle by Davy Crockett. He trotted in 2.404 at Lexing- ton, October 19, i872, and it was considered a phenomenal performance. I recall how impor- tant I felt when I was invited to drive Doble around the Price track. Soso by George Wilkes, dam Little Ida by Edwin Forrest, trotted at Lexington, October 12, I877, to a record of 2.31, and she was heralded as another world's wonder. Three years later, the news was flashed from Cali- fornia that Mr. John WV. Mackay's brown filly, Sweetheart by Sultan, dam Minnehaha, had trotted September 25, i88o, at Sacramento to the two-year-old record, 2.261k, and the general im- pulse was to take off hats to her. November 20, i88o, the bay gelding Fred Crocker by Election- eer, dam Melinche by St. Clair, trotted to a record of 2.254-, and her breeder, Governor Leland Stan- ford, was congratulated as if he was at the flood- tide of his career. Wildflower, bay filly, by Electioneer, dam Mayflower by St. Clair, trotted at San Francisco, October 22, i882, to a record of 2.2I, and again was her breeder, Governor G 82 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Stanford, enthusiastically congratulated. We then heard remarkable stories about the vitality of St. Clair, whose origin was shrouded in dark- ness. October 27, i888, Sunol by Electioneer reduced the two-year-old record to 2.i8, and she was followed by another representative of Palo Alto Farm, Arion by Electioneer, dam Manette by Nutwood. In i88i, October 5, Charles Mar- vin drove him to a record of 2.I 5 3; October 2 1, to a record of 2.I4.1; and November io, at Stockton, to a record of 2.io0. This was to high- wheel sulky, and Arion still heads the two-year- old list. His owner, Mr. J. Malcolm Forbes,' in a letter to me, dated October i i, 1903, concerning wind-shields and other matters, expressed views that I endorse: " I have yours of October i, and in case you have not seen a picture of the wind- shield used at Empire City in front of Prince Alert and Major Delmar, I send you one. It would be so unjust to all other records to allow the use of such contrivance that I feel pretty sure that the 1.57 and the two minutes made with its shelter will not be allowed. I have drawn a dotted line across the lower piece of canvas that will show what was used on the sulky of Lou I Mr. Forbes died early in 1904. Cresceits: Reduction of Stallion Record 83 Dillon's pace-maker when she made her two- mninute record. I think such a shield from dust aind dirt might be allowed, but a careful restric- tion as to the size of any shield should be drawn tip for further trials. The mile made by Lou I)illon in a high-wheel sulky in 2.05 and her mile il 2.00 in a bicycle sulky seem to establish the difference between the two rigs as five seconds. If this is a true measure, then Arion's two-year- old record of 2.104 would be equal to 2.054, if he could have had a bicycle sulky in his trial in the year i89i. You will say that he had an oppor- tUnity later in the new rig when a mature horse. I feel that his speed was diminished by letting him be trained the year he was three years old, before lie had got thoroughly acclimated to the Eastern air and food. I have since that time in many cases found that a horse was far from being him- self the first year after coming from California." There are eighteen volumes of the Year Book, and the last one before me contains i i8i closely printed pages. The parent volume of Chester's Trotting and Pacing Record contains iooo pages packed with meat. This statement will explain to every intelligent reader the utter impossibility of giving even a summary of the achievements 84 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse of the trotting track. I have attempted to illus- trate progress in breeding and development by a brief record of epoch-making races. These are the guide-posts in historical review, and I have not wandered far from them. Double Harness Rivalry The double harness to road wagon rivalry aroused widespread interest and helped the breeder. It is difficult to find two horses that you can rely upon to adhere to gait in moments of excitement, because so few are alike in tem- perament and action; and when you do obtain possession of such a pair, the goddess of Good Fortune certainly smiles upon you. In i883 Mr. XWilliam Rockefeller put Cleora and, Indepen- dence together and they were driven to a record of 2.I6l. In I884 Mr. Frank Work reduced the record to 2.A61 with Edward and Dick Swiveller, and the same season Mr. Isador Cohnfield gained a record of 2.I 5-4 with Maxey Cobb and Neta Medium. Mr. W. J. Gordon's best effort with Clingstone and Guy in i885 was 2.17. In i890 Mr. C. J. Hamlin went to the head of the list with Belle Hamlin and Justina, who trotted to a record of 2.13. In 1892 Belle Hamlin and Cresceus: Reduiction of Stallion Record 85 Honest George carried this record down to 2. I 21, which was a fixture until I902, when it was tied, October 25, at Parkway Driving Club, Brooklyn, by Mr. E. T. Bedford's pair, York Boy and BTemay. Mr. C. K. G. Billings, at Cleveland, September I2, 1903, drove The Monk and Equity to a record of 2.094; and at Memphis, October 28, he drove the same pair to a record of 2.08. The Hamlin record was beaten, but by two horses bred and raised by him at Village Farm. One of the greatest miles ever trotted in double harness was at Fleetwood Park, June I4, i883, by Maud S. and Aldine to top road wagon, driven by William H. Vanderbilt, in 2.I51. The track was slower than the tracks of to-day and the iagon had high wheels. Although authentic, the 2.151- is not a technical record. I was at Cleveland July 31, i891, when C. J. Hamlin hooked three abreast of his own breed- ing, Belle Hamlin, Globe, and Justina, and Geers drove them to a record of 2.14. It was a won- derful performance and is not likely ever to be duplicated. Mr. Hamlin had studied the efforts of truck horses, three -abreast, in the streets of Buffalo, and this induced him to see what could be done with three trotters abreast. CHAPTER X THE FOUNDATION HORSES, IMPORTED MESSENGER AND JUSTIN MORGAN THE two stallions, Messenger and Justin Mor- gan, to which we remotely trace so many trotters of the present day, had lived far beyond their prime before the dream of a mile in three min- utes was realized. Messenger died in i8o8, aged 28 years, and Justin Morgan in 182i, aged 32 years. It was in i8i8 that an iron-gray gelding of i6 hands established a record of three minutes at Jamaica, Long Island. The match for Iooo grew out of a discussion at a jockey club dinner that a horse could not be produced to trot a mile in three minutes or less, and Boston Blue was named at the post and won cleverly. He was a horse of unknown blood, and the renown he gained by the performance caused him to be shipped to England. In the early days of the United States the saddle horse was more used than the light- harness horse, on account of the poor condition of the roads. The trotting gait in harness was 86 The Foundation Horses not cultivated to any extent until after bridle paths had been succeeded by passable roads. Messenger was a running horse and was brought to this country for the purpose of improving the running horse, but in temperament and action he was plastic; and his colts developed an inclina- tion to trot. Road-building did the rest. Few horses recorded in the stud book are regarded waith a higher degree of interest or have been the subject of more animated discussion. If we turn to the great table of 2.30 trotters and 2.25 pacers under their sires, which is now the accepted spaeed standard, we shall find neither Messenger nor Justin Morgan, because neither contributed a son or daughter to this list and neither chal- lenged attention as a track performer. Each, sowing seed in different soil, laid the foundation of a trotting structure and added incalculably to the comfort, the pleasure, and the wealth of the New World. I recall the time when the family of Hambletonian, a descendant of Messenger, was growing rapidly and so overshadowing all other families that sneers were levelled at the Justin Morgan tribe, but that day is past and the impartial historian must recognize the potency of both lines. Fable has made free with Justin 87 88 The Trotting aid the Pacing Horse Morgan, because in early days breeding records were not as carefully kept as now. I shall not attempt to carry the reader through thousands of pages of conflicting statements, but will accept the conclusions of Joseph Battell, of Middlebury, Vermont, because he has devoted much time and money to investigation, and has, as I believe, sifted sands of truth from banks of falsehood. Jushes AJIoXraz Justin Morgan was bred by the man whose name he bears, and was foaled in 1789 at West Springfield, Massachusetts. Mr. Morgan kept a small tavern for Connecticut River boatmen at the time, but soon after the colt was weaned moved to Randolph, Orange County, Vermont, taking the equine bud of promise with him. The dam had been sold previous to this change of residence. The sire of the colt was True Briton, otherwise called Beautiful Bay, and owned by Selah Norton of Hartford, Connecticut; and there are romantic stories in print of how the stallion was captured from Colonel James De Lancy, an officer in the British army, in the War of the Revolution. Colonel De Lancy was proud of his saddle horse, an animal of pure The Foundation Horses breeding; and the story runs that a lieutenant, in the army of Washington, sneaked into De Lancy's headquarters at White Plains, New York, mounted the stallion, and rode off with him. The pedigree of True Briton, as traced 1b Mr. Battell, is by Lloyd's Traveller, son of Miorton's imported Traveller and imported Jennie Cameron; dam Betty Leeds, daughter of Babra- bamr by Godolphin Arabian, and out of a mare by Bolton Starling, she out of a mare by Godol- phin Arabian. The dam of Justin Morgan is given as by Diamond by Church's Wildair by imported \Vildair by Cade by Godolphin Ara- bian. This tracing carries us to the desert, where the Arabs created breeds which have sur- viv ed the vicissitudes of time. It is an axiom that purity of blood will breed on with a higher degree of certainty than any other, therefore Oriental strains are always valued in a pedigree. The lines of Justin Morgan, as tabulated by Mr. Battell, will be accepted by some critics with mental reservation; but the forcible manner in which the stallion stamped himself upon his de- scendants makes 'preposterous the suggestion that he was a plebeian of plebeians. While owned by Mr. Morgan the stallion was called Figure, 89 go The Trotting and the Pacing Horse and he was used principally as a riding horse. After the death of Mr. Morgan he fell into hands which imposed heavier tasks upon him. D. C. Linsley, who wrote a history of the Morgan family, published in i857, described Justin Mor- gan as about 14 hands high and weighing 950 pounds. " His color was dark bay with black legs, mane, and tail. He had no white hairs on him. His mane and tail were coarse and heavy, but not so massive as has sometimes been de- scribed; the hair of both was straight and not inclined to curl. His head was good, not extremely small, but lean and bony, the face straight, forehead broad, ears small and fine, but set rather wide apart. His eyes were medium- sized, very dark and prominent, with a spirited but pleasant expression, and showed no white around the edge of the lid. His nostrils were very large, the muzzle small, and the lips close and firm. His back and legs were perhaps his most noticeable points. The former was very short, the shoulder blades and hip bones being very long and oblique, and the loins exceedingly broad and muscular. His body was rather long, round, and deep, close ribbed up; chest deep and wide, with the breast bone projecting a good deal The Foundation Horses in front. His legs were short, close jointed, thin, but very wide, hard, and free from meat, with muscles that were remarkably large for a horse of his size, and this superabundance of muscle exhibited itself at every step. His hair was short, and at almost all seasons soft and glossy. He had a little long hair about the fetlocks, and for two or three inches above the fetlock on the back side of the legs; the rest of the limbs was entirely free from it. His feet were small but well shaped, and he was in every respect perfectly sound and free from any sort of blemish. He was a very fast walker. In trotting his gait was low and smooth, and his step short and nervous; he was not what in these days would be called fast, and we think it doubtful if he could trot a mile much within four minutes, though it is claimed by many that he could trot it in three. " Although he raised h-is feet but little, he never stumbled. His proud, bold, and fearless style of movement and his vigorous, untiring action have, perhaps, never been surpassed. When a rider was on him, he was obedient to the slight- est motion of the rein, would walk backwards rapidly under a gentle pressure of the bit, and moved sideways almost as willingly as he moved 9I 92 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse forward; in short, was perfectly trained to all the paces and evolutions of a parade horse; and when ridden at military reviews (as was fre- quently the case) his bold, imposing style and spirited, nervous action attracted universal atten- tion and admiration. He was perfectly gentle and kind to handle, and loved to be groomed and caressed; but he disliked to have children about him, and had an inveterate hatred for dogs, if loose, always chasing them out of sight the instant he saw them. When taken. out with a halter or bridle he was in constant motion and very playful. He was a fleet runner at short distances." The speed of horses was tested at the run in those days, even in Vermont, and the usual dis- tance was 8o rods. Justin Morgan was quite successful in these races, but it was in harness that he showed at his best. He was full of spirit and a nimble traveller. Pulling bees were common, and he was as successful in them as in running races. Robert Evans, one of his owners, was a poor man with a large family, and he used his stallion in hauling logs and clearing land. This severe work did not affect his legs or vitality, because we are told that a short time The Foundationt Horses previous to his death his constitution was un- broken and his limbs were free from swelling. The stud career of Justin Morgan is thus summarized: I 793, kept by Justin Morgan, at Randolph and Royalton; I 794, by Justin Morgan, at Randolph and Royalton; I 795, by Justin Morgan, at Weston and Hinesburg; 1796, by Jonathan Shepard, at Montpelier, and perhaps earlier in the season by William Rice at Wood- stock; I797, passed to James Hawkins, of Mont- pelier, and it is not known where kept until purchased, probably i8oi, by Robert Evans, of Randolph, who sold him, probably i804, to John Goss, Randolph; i805 and i8o6, kept by David Goss, at St. Johnsbury; I807, by John Goss, a short time at Claremont, and the balance of the season at Randolph; i8o8, I809, and i8io, by David Goss at St. Johnsbury; i8ii, by Samuel Stone in Randolph, Tunbridge, and Royalton; i812 and i8I3, uncertain; i8I4, I815, i8I7, kept by Joel Goss and Joseph Rogers at Clare- mont; i8i6, by William Langmaid at Danville; 18i8 and i8ig, by Samuel Stone at Randolph; afterwards, until his death in i82i, he was owned by Levi Bean of Chelsea. The immediate cause of his death was a kick in the flank from one 93 94 The 7Trolinig and the Pacing Horse of the horses with which he was running in an open yard. He was without shelter, and inflam- nation, which set in, hurried him to the close of his career. A horse of coarse and weak fibre would not have triumphed over the difficulties and the hardships that he was compelled to face. Walter T. Chester, author of the Complete Trotting and Pacing Record, who was long associated with me, but who is now the record- ing secretary of the Vermont Horse Breeders' Association, addressed a letter to me, when he learned that I was to write a history of the trot- ting and pacing horse, in which he said: "It may interest you to know that nearly 5000 stallions and many mares have been registered in the second volume of the Morgan Register. The basis is blood alone, upon which you know I often argued in the columns of the Turf, Fied, and Farm. Are not the Morgans the only dis- tinct breed of trotters now extant Eligibility for registration is based upon the blood of Justin Morgan, and upon that alone. With a certain percentage of the foundation blood an animal is admitted; without it he stays out." I have always conceded the wonderful prepotency of Justin Morgan. The racial characteristics of The Foundation Horses 95 his family are nearly as fixed as those of the Jews; his blood resembles that of the Arab in the way it has established type, but I cannot bring my mind to the thought that the Morgan is the only distinct breed of trotters. The Hambletonian family far surpasses it. CHAPTER XI THREE ENERGETIC SONS OF JUSTIN MORGAN, BUL- RUSH, WOODBURY, AND SHERMAN MORGAN THE three great sons of Justin Morgan were Bulrush Morgan, Woodbury Morgan, and Sher- man Morgan. Each, until io years old, did the ordinary team work of the farm and was hardened by fatigue and exposure. Sherman Morgan was a chestnut, a shade under 14 hands, and weighed 925 pounds. He was foaled about i8o8, and was bred by James Sherman of Lyndon, Vermont. His dam was a chestnut mare of good size, high spirits, and quality, and tradition says that she was of Spanish origin, otherwise was descended from a barb. Sherman Morgan was tested at pulling heavy loads, the same as his sire, and usually was victorious. He also was driven hard on the roads of a mountainous country. He was well patron- ized in the stud, and died January 9, i835, at Lancaster, New Hampshire. His get were early noted for speed, and his descendants figure prom- inently in the trotting pedigrees of to-day. Red 96 Three Eneigetic Sons of Juistin Morgan 97 Jacket, sire of Minna, dam of Kentucky Wilkes, 2.211, the famous stallion owned in the Marsh- land stud by Benjamin F. Tracy, was by Billy Root, a son of Sherman Morgan. The grand- dam of Red Wilkes, one of the greatest of pro- ducing sires, was also by Red Jacket. The Sherman Morgan blood was carried forward by his son, Black Hawk (Vermont or Hills), a black horse foaled in I833, the property of Ezekiel Twoombley, of Greenland, New Hampshire. He stood I5 hands and weighed iooo pounds. His dam was a black mare, a fast trotter, and one version is that she was a half-bred English mare. Black Hawk was a square trotter, and it is claimed that he never made a break on the road. He died the property of David Hill of Bridport, Vermont, in November, I856. He trotted in several long-distance races and covered single miles in 2.42. He was a prolific sire, but only four of his sons and daughters obtained standard records. These were Ethan Allen, 2.2512; Lancet, 2.271; Belle of Saratoga, 2.29; and Young America, 2.23. The latter was a pacer. It was as a foun- dation sire that Black Hawk 5 is entitled to dis- tinguished consideration. Fourteen of his sons are speed producers. The star of the cluster wvas i1 98 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Ethan Allen. He was bred by J. WV. Holcomb of Ticonderoga, New. York, and was foaled June i8, I849. His dam was a gray mare, famous as a roadster, but of unknown ancestry. He was a bay of 15 hands and weighed iooo pounds. He was a long-bodied horse, of rare symmetry and carriage, and his trotting action was regarded as almost perfect. He had remark- able speed for his day and was the idol of the race-going public. Among the horses vanquished by him during his turf career were Rose of Wash- ington, Columbus, Stockbridge Chief, George M. Patchen, Tacony, Princess, Draco, and Hector. After Dexter had beaten everything in sight, he was foolishly matched for a 2500 aside against Ethan Allen and running mate. The race took place at Fashion Course, Long Island, on June 2 1, I867, and Dan Mace drove the pair while Budd Doble sat behind Dexter. The runner not only relieved Ethan Allen of the weight handicap but dragged him forward, and Dexter was beaten in 2.15, 2.I6, 2.I9. The white-faced gelding was privately timed the first heat in 2.17. Ethan Allen had a number of owners, among them J. E. Maynard, Z. E. Simmons, W. P. Balch, and H. S. Russell. Colonel Russell sold him in the Th;ree Enc;e/ic Sons of Justin Moigant 99 autumn of 1870 to Amasa Sprague of Providence, weho sent him to Lawrence, Kansas, where he died September Io, i876. His skeleton is in the Museum of Natural History at Lawrence. One of the mares bred to Ethan Allen was the famous chestnut, Pocahontas by Iron's Cadmus, who paced to a wagon record of 2.I71- at Union Course, I g Island, June 2-, I855. The fruit was the handsome bay mare Pocahontas, foaled in I859, wvho trotted to a record of 2.263 at Boston, 4 July 26, i866. This mare then passed to Robert Bonner, for a consideration of 40,000, and she wvas long a shining light of that world-famous stable. She was a great road mare, and I never rode behind a trotter as fast as I did behind her to wagon on the road with Mr. David BQnner driving. I once told the story of that ride in Ilarjcr's Magoazinze and will not repeat it here. IPocalhontas trotted a mile for Mr. Bonner in 2.17-, and died without issue. This was always regretted by Mr. Bonner and the admirers of the shapely and true-going bay mare. Among the six standard trotters from the loins of Ethan Allen were Billy Barr, 2.234, and Hotspur, 2.24. Twenty- two of his sons are producing sires, and fourteen of his daughters are producing dams. ioo The Trotting and the Pacing Horse The most prepotent of his sons was Daniel Lambert, a chestnut horse foaled in i858; bred by William H. Cook, of Ticonderoga, New York, and dam Fanny Cook, a handsome and highly organized chestnut mare by Abdallah (son of Mam- brino), sire of Rysdyk's Hambletonian; second dam by Stockholm's American Star by Duroc by imported Diomed. Daniel Lambert was a shade under i5.2, and he had elasticity of gait as well as good form and carriage. When four months old he passed to John Porter, and later was owned in succession by R. S. Denny, Benjamin Bates, and David Snow. As a three-year-old Dan Mace drove Daniel Lambert a mile in 2.42, but other- wise the speed of this stallion was not developed. He died June 29, i889. The fastest of the 38 trotters sired by him was Comee, 2.191, winner of 26 races. The two best producing sons of the 35 sires by Daniel Lambert were Ben Franklin out of Black Kate by Addison, son of Vermont Black Hawk, and Aristos, whose blood, like Ben Franklin's, is breeding on. Sixty- two of the daughters of Daniel Lambert are dams of speed. Fanny Cook also produced, in i86o, to Ethan Allen, the bay horse Woodard's Ethan Allen, whose register number is 473, and among Three Energetic Sons of Justin Morgan ioi whose seven trotters is Tuna, 2.I21. His sons and daughters were producers, and he died in Kentucky in i888. He stood i5.i and was once a member of the Fairlawn stud of General WV. T. WVithers. The fact is striking that the best of the get of Ethan Allen was out of a mare once owned by the owner of Rysdyk's Hamble- tonian, and was by the sire of the great progeni- tor whose grave is at Chester. Holobird's Ethan Allen, whose register number is 474, was a bay horse of 15.3, foaled i858, by Ethan Allen, dam a bay mare of i6 hands by the C. F. Chedel Horse by Morgan Tally Ho. He combined size with finish and speed and died in I 889. He contributed four trotters and two pacers to the list, and his daughters produced fast pacers and trotters. Dariel, 2.004, was descended from him. Honest Allen, a chestnut horse of I4.3 by Ethan Allen out of a mare represented as by the Brooks Horse (son of Sherman Morgan), she out of a daughter of Cock of the Rock, was foaled in i855. He passed to William L. Simmons, who in i873 placed him in the stud at Lexington, Kentucky, where he died in i883. July 4, i871, at Boston, Honest Allen trotted in 2.28 to pole. 102 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse He sired four trotters, and one of his five produc- ing sons is Denning Allen, a bay of I5.2, foaled in 1874, and dam Reina by Ward's Flying Cloud. He was taken to Little Rock, Arkansas, where he left ioo colts, one of which is Lord Clinton, 2.o84, the fastest trotter of the Ethan Allen 4, tribe. I saw this gelding in his maiden race at the Alabama State Fair, held at Birming- ham, and he trotted with such apparent ease that I predicted a glowing future for him. I was sur- prised to see a horse come from what was called a brush patch and beat 2.20 without an effort. Lord Clinton was a game race-horse, and il I892 he beat such tried horses as Lobasco, Little Albert, Azote, Magnolia, Cheyenne, and Grattan. He was also a competitor in the stubborn contest for the Columbian Exposition Stake, at Chicago, in September, i893. This race was finally won by Alix, and Lord Clinton was separately timed in it in 2.08. General Knox was a black horse, foaled in June, 1855; bred by David Heustis of Bridport, Ver- mont, and got by Vermont Hero (son of Sherman Black Hawk, 142); dam a large mare by Searcher, son of Barney Henry, the son of Signal and a daughter of Bishop's Hambletonian; second dam Three Energetic Solis of Jus/in Morgan I03 by Sir Charles by Duroc by imported Diomed. The dam of Vermont Hero was by Liberty by Bishop's Hambletonian by imported Messenger. General Knox stood I5.2, weighed I050 pounds, and in i859 passed to T. L. Lang of Vassalboro, Maine, who sold him in i872 to Henry N. Smith, who placed him in the stud at Fashion Stud Farm, New Jersey. He won six races, took a record of 2.3i, and died July 29, i887. The first i6 years of his life were spent in comparative obscurity. Many of the mares which visited him were of unknown pedigree or inheritance, and yet through them he transmitted the light harness gait. It was once said of him that he was to Maine what Hambletonian i0 was to Orange County. At Fashion Stud Farm he was given an excellent opportunity, and one of the nuptials was with Lady Thorn. The fruit was General Wash- ington (sire of I 5 trotters, one of them Poem, 2.II-), who, bred to Goldsmith Maid, produced Stranger, a sire of resolute trotters. Stranger passed from the Parkville Farm of John H. Shults to Europe. Among the I 5 trotters left by General Knox were Lady Maud, 2.i8k; Beulah, 2.I 9-; Camors, 2.I934; and Independence, 2.2Ij-. The latter was driven on the road for 104 Tbe Trolling and the Pacing Horse several years by William Rockefeller. Thirty- two of the sons of General Knox are speed-pro- ducing sires, one of which is Charles Caffrey, with 25 in the list, including Robbie P., 2.103, Twenty-nine of the daughters of General Knox are speed-producing dams. The last time I visited Fashion Stud Farm, and that was before its glory had departed, I was shown a grass- grown mound under the magnolia, marked by a cross, and I removed my hat because it was the grave of General Knox. Jubilee Lambert, a bay of i5..,I foaled in i863, by Daniel Lambert, dam the Harvey Mare, was taken to Abdallah Park, Cynthiana, Kentucky, in September, I879. One of his get was Jubilee de Jarnette, whose dam was a celebrated show mare, Lady de Jarnette, by Indian Chief, by Blood's Black Hawk, who made quite an im- pression upon the trotting stock of Kentucky. The prepotent blood of Justin Morgan is felt in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Wisconsin, and other Western states, and in Kentucky, Tennessee, and the South, as well as in New England. CHAPTER XII THE MORRILL TRIBE AND OTHER DESCENDANTS OF JUSTIN MORGAN THE Jennison Horse, who as a three-year-old sired Old Morrill, foaled in 1841, was a bright bay with star, nearly i6 hands, and weighed 1200 pounds. He was bred by A. Jennison, Walden, Vermont, and his sire was Young Bul- rush, son of Bulrush Morgan. The dam was a strong black mare of i6 hands and a pacer. Jennison was a poor man, and all that he re- ceived for the service that produced Morrill was a pound of tea. James Heath of Baldwin owned an iron-gray mare of about I5 hands, who pos- sessed great nerve power and energy. She was by the Farrington Horse, and broke one of her hind legs above the hock, which gave her a de- cided limp, but she got over the ground well. She was twelve years old when bred to the Jen- nison Horse. Morrill was a black of 15.3, and was sold as a weanling to Urban Perkins, who 105 io6 Tbc Trotting and the Pacing Horse sold him to French Morrill of Danville, Vermont. It was raining when he was born in the pasture, and his life was saved by carrying him to the barn. As a three-year-old Morrill was ungainly, with a dull, sleepy look. It was soon found that he could do more work and draw a bigger load than any other horse in Danville. He could also trot in 2.40, and mares were sent to him. He was shown at several state fairs and took premiums, and was awarded second prize at the National Horse Show, held at Springfield, Massa- chusetts, in 1857. The fastest of his get was Mountain Maid, 2.27-3, but notwithstanding his humble origin he became the head of a trotting tribe. His prepotent son was Young Morrill, a dark bay of I5.3, foaled about I850, and out of a mare by the Lock Goss Horse by Chanti- cleer. Young Morrill passed through several hands to S. R. Perkins of Manchester, New Hampshire, who sent him to Iowa in the autumn of i88o, where he died. From i86I to I867 he trotted in races, and took a record of 2.31. Among the horses sired by him were Draco, 2.28k, and Fearnaught, 2.23. The latter was a chestnut, and he was managed by E. L. Nor- cross at the time he won the ioooO race at Descendants of Justin Mogant0 Buffalo in i868, and obtained his record of 2.234. S. T. Harris was a witness of the race, and he wrote: " He started for the first io,ooo trotting premium ever offered in America. It was a grand occasion. From his pedigree I was aware that he was an inbred Morgan. This fact heightened my amazement at his highly finished form, for he looked like Marion by Lexington out of Miriam by Glencoe. In the sunshine he was a golden chestnut. He stood full i6 hands high, and his body ranged grandly in proportion. His flashing eye was as proudly defiant as Milton pictures Lucifer's. He must have been severely drawn for this eventful contest, for his chest im- pressed me as unusually deep and capacious, his body and limbs exceedingly lengthy, his flanks light and tucked as a greyhound's, and his im- patient eagerness as great as Lancaster's when he made the fastest two-mile run then on record." Among the horses beaten in the Buffalo race were George Palmer and American Girl. Colo- nel H. S. Russell paid 25,000 for Fearnaught and placed him in the stud at Home Farm, Milton, Massachusetts, where he sired Galatea, 2.244; Argonaut, 2.234-; and Fearnaught Jr., 2.26. Five of his sons and four of his daughters are I07 io8 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse speed producers. Fearnaught was not equal to his splendid opportunities.. He died in i873. Royal Fearnaught, chestnut horse of I5.3, foaled in i873, dam Lady Smathers by Draco by Young Morrill, spent the greater part of his life in Michigan, and is the sire of St. Elmo, 2.I61, and nineteen other trotters and five pacers. Two of his sons and ten of his daughters are speed producers. The Morrill tribe, like some of the Indian tribes, is passing with the years from a valley of activity and trumpet-blowing to obliteration. Morgan Eagle was a bay horse with black points, 15.2, foaled about I824, and by Wood- bury Morgan, dam untraced. He sired the brown mare Lady Sutton, who was celebrated on the turf from I847 to I849, and who trotted to a record of 2.30 at Centreville, Long Island, August 3, i849. In her old age Lady Sutton grazed in a Long Island pasture with her once determined opponent, Lady Moscow, and the two were close friends. Lady Moscow died in the afternoon of September 9, i865, and Hiram Woodruff writes: "As we stood there on the green hillside looking at the mare that lay dead Descendants of Justin Morgan before us, it was really touching to see poor old Sutton wandering around her dead companion as if unable to make out what had befallen her. Two other mares were near at hand, but Sutton did not seem to notice them at all, her gaze being fixed on her whose sinews were relaxed and whose hoofs were at last still." Morgan Eagle was also the sire of Henderson's Morgan Eagle, who stood i6 hands and was foaled in I839. From his loins came Magna Charta, a bay horse of 15 hands, foaled May I5, I855. He spent the greater part of his life in Michigan, trotting to a record of 2.3i, and died in December, i886. He sired five trotters, the fastest of which was Hannah D., 2.224, and among his forty-two producing daughters was the dam of Belle F., 2.15415 Gifford Morgan, foaled June 13, i824, was a dark chestnut and got by Woodbury Morgan. He was a favorite parade horse and left, accord- ing to Linsley, some excellent stock. Green Mountain Morgan, a big little horse, a brown of i ioo pounds, and by Gifford Morgan out of an untraced mare, was foaled about 1832. He passed through different hands to Silas Hale of South Royalston, Massachusetts, and died in Ver- log I IO The Trottinig and the Pacing Horse mont in i863. In i853 he was awarded premi- ums at the Kentucky, Ohio, and Michigan fairs; and one of his sons, Morgan Eagle, bred to a daughter of Blythe's Whip by Blackburn's Whip, produced Kentucky Queen, dam of Kentucky Prince, sire of Guy, 2.093. L. L. Dorsey of Louisville, Kentucky, made the GoIddust tribe famous. He was a restless, ambitious man and always had a chip on his shoulder. At one time he flooded me with communications as to what the sons and daugh- ters of Golddust could do. Barnard's Morgan, a bay horse of I5.I12, was foaled in i843; and he was by Gifford's Morgan out of a brown mare of nearly i6 hands, strong-going and an excel- lent roadster. In I857 he was shown, with 26 of his get, at St. Louis and attracted much atten- tion. A light bay mare of I5 hands and marked excellence was bred to him, and the result was Vermont Morgan, a bay of 15 hands, foaled in September, 1846. He was taken to Illinois in I849, and remained there until I864, when he was sold to L. L. Dorsey of Kentucky, who sold him in i86o to go to Alabama. He could trot in three minutes. In I864 Andrew Hoke sent to him a fine-looking mare by Zilcadi (a chestnut Descendants of Justin Morgan Arabian presented to United States Consul Rhind by the Sultan); second dam by imported Bare- foot, a chestnut by Tramp out of Rosamond by Buzzard, and tracing through several sources to the desert. The result of the union was Gold- dust, who was foaled in 1855, and who developed into a horse of beauty and potency. When a weanling, L. L. Dorsey purchased Golddust for 100, and the golden chestnut remained at Eden Stock Farm until he died, in i87I. It was my privilege to see him often, and to admire him every time I saw him. In i86i, when contend- ing armies used Kentucky for a checker-board, Mr. Dorsey made a match with W. Garnett to trot Golddust, mile heats, three in five, against Iron Duke for Io,ooo. The race was over WVoodlawn Course, now a memory, and Iran Duke won the first heat in 2.484 and Golddust the second, third, and fourth heats in 2.471, 2.43, 2.471. The record of Golddust, 2.43, was made in this race. The trotters from the loins of Goiddust are Lucille Golddust, 2.I641; Fleety Golddust, 2.20; Indicator, 2.2341; and Rolla Gold- dust, 2.25. Lucille GoIddust was one of the greatest campaigners of the grand circuit, and in her retirement she produced Sprague Golddust, I I I I I2 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 2.I54; Lucille's Baby, 2.2042t; Wilkes Goiddust, 2.234; and Narka, 2.2741. Among the i8 produc- ing sons of Golddust is Zilcadi Golddust, whose dam, Rosalind, was a daughter of Sally Russell, dam of Miss Russell, dam of Maud S. Zilcadi Golddust is the sire of seven trotters, and one of his daughters is the dam of the celebrated cam- paign mare Rosaline Wilkes, 2.I4 . Roma, who is in the great brood-mare list, was a daughter of Golddust. Reality, a daughter of Roma, is also in the great brood-mare list as the dam of Comanche, 2.193 ; Tuscarora, 2.221 ; and Prin- cess Clara, 2.261 as a yearling in a race. Gold- dust, who according to Mr. Battell traces through Justin Morgan, as well as the Hoke Mare, to the pure blood of Arabia, established a family noted for good looks as well as for speed and endur- ance. CHAPTER XIII MAMBRINO CHIEF AND HIS DESCENDANTS ONE of the greatest foundation sires was Mam- brino Chief, foaled in i844, and bred by Richafd Eldridge of Dutchess County, New York. He was from the loins of Mambrino Paymaster, and his dam was a large and somewhat angular mare of untraced blood. Mambrino Paymaster was by Mlambrino, thoroughbred son of imported Mes- senger, out of a highly formed and courageous daughter of Paymaster, an imported stallion, and he was possessed of more than ordinary action for that day. Mambrino Chief was a natural trotter, and he passed from Richard Eldridge to Warren Williams, who in the spring of i85I sold him to James M. Cockroft and G. T. Williams of New York. In October, i884, while on a visit to Mr. Edwin Thorne of Thorndale, I was permitted to read the correspondence which led to the transfer of Mambrino Chief from the state of New York to the state of Kentucky, where he founded a family second in importance to that of I 13 I I 14 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse Hambletonian. Mr. Thorne, who from boyhood had been a close student of form and breeding, described Mambrino Chief as a horse with a large head, full of character; a good neck, with excel- lent shoulders; legs strong and fluted, but with a large foot subject to quarter crack. In 1853 James B. Clay, a son of Henry Clay, of Ashland, was in New York, and he consulted Mr. Thorne with regard to the purchase of a trotting stallion to take to Kentucky. As Mambrino Chief had size with substance and was showing well at the trot, he was warmly recommended; and in 1854 he was established in a new home in the Blue- grass district of Kentucky. His coming excited a feeling of jealousy in certain quarters, and he was matched against Pilot Jr., at two-mile heats, for Iooo a side. The race did not take place, because Mambrino Chief showed so much speed in his training as to frighten the owner of Pilot Jr. into paying forfeit. General John B. Castle- man of Louisville frequently saw Mambrino Chief at Ashland, and in a paper read before the American Saddle Horse Breeders' Association, in I903, he said of him: "There had rarely been then or since so coarse a stallion in any stud in Kentucky. He was approximately I6 hands Maibrino Cbief and his Descendants II 5 high, dark bay, coarse-headed, coarse-eared, plain- bodied, coarse-legged, and coarse-hoofed. No fine colt was ever sired by Mambrino Chief. He produced speed but not finish." James B. Clay, a son of the former owner of Mambrino Chief, took issue with General Castleman: " I remember this horse well; saw him almost every day while he was at Ashland; he was a dark brown, nearly black; indeed, some would call him black. He was i6 hands high, no white about him; some tan on the nose and in the flank; that is why he was called a brown instead of a black horse. He had a very bony head, but not what would be called an ugly head. His neck was long and beau- tiful, his shoulders very sloping and beautiful; large flat legs, good hocks that were not straight, neither could they be called sickle. His feet were large and flat and not good. He was a large horse, but I never thought him a coarse one." As Mr. Clay's recollection of the horse agrees with the description furnished me by Mr. Thorne in i884, I cannot do otherwise than con- clude that General Castleman's memory is faulty. When mated with mares of finish and carrying thoroughbred blood, the so-called coarseness of Mambrino Chief was not transmitted. The an- ii6 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse gular qualities of the son of Mambrino Paymas- ter, derived from his untraced dam, disappeared under the double infusion of Oriental strains. In i855, one year after Mambrino Chief had left the picturesque hills of Dutchess County for the his- toric groves of Ashland, which gave inspiration to Henry Clay, Levi S. Rodes of Fayette County, Kentucky, bred to him a mare of quality by Gano, a thoroughbred son of the four-mile race-horse American Eclipse, and the fruit was a bay filly, foaled in the spring of I856, purchased by George Dunlap of Lexington, and for a short time driven on the road by him. When three years old this filly became the property of Dr. L. Herr, who trained and started her in public under the name of Maid of Ashland. Subsequently she was sold to C. P. Relf of Pennsylvania, and under the name of Lady Thorn made a reputation which will endure until the obliteration of trotting annals. She was the rival of Dexter on the turf, trotted to a record of 2.i8j- at Providence, Rhode Island, October 8, i869, and met with an accident when being led into a car at Rochester, New York, August 4, i870, which forced her into retirement. Her owner, Henry N. Smith, then made her a brood mare at the Fashion Stud Farm, Trenton, Mamnbrino Cbief and bis Descendanls II 7 New Jersey, where she produced twice to General Knox- February 2 2, I 874, the bay colt General Washington, and in I875 the bay filly Thornetta. She died June 23, i877, and was buried just in- side the mile track on the farm. After her retire- niient Dan Mace, who trained her for Mr. Smith, told weird stories of fast trials, but the sceptics laughed at them. Lady Thorn was a highly strung mare, undoubtedly faster than her record, and it is a pity that her track career was cut short by an accident. Her son, General Washington, was not trained for races and was moderately suc- cessful as a stallion. Thornetta was also reserved for breeding ranks and is in the Year Book as a producer of speed. Lady Thorn, who trotted io6 heats inside of 2.30, drew national attention to Mlambrino Chief, and the reputation of the stallion steadily grew with wider opportunity. Only six of his sons and daughters acquired records of 2.30 and better, but his descendants are as thick as autumn leaves in the valley of standard speed. Mambrino, the grandsire of Mambrino Chief, was by imported Messenger out of a daughter of imported Sour Crout; and American Eclipse, the sire of Gano, the sire of the dam of Lady Thorn, was by Duroc by imported Diomed, i i 8 The Trol/ing and the Pacing Horse whose ancestral roots ran directly to the desert from which came Darley Arabian, Godolphin Arabian, and Leeds' Arabian. Miller's Damsel, the dam of American Eclipse, was by imported Messenger, and I recall the time when trotting- horse breeders, who were classed as " Messenger crazy," were advised to go to the descendants of the distinguished four-mile racer for an infusion of this charmed blood. Sir Archy, the sire of Betsey Richards, dam of Gano, was by imported Diomed, and the blood of these two distinguished race-horse progenitors undoubtedly nicked well with that of Messenger. The Rodes Mare (daughter of Gano) produced in addition to Lady Thorn the great trotting- speed progenitor, Mambrino Patchen. This dis- tinguished son of Mambrino Chief was bred by Dr. L. Herr of Forest Park, Lexington, Ken- tucky, and was foaled in i862. He was such a promising yearling that he was purchased by John K. Alexander and taken to Illinois. The price, I500, was at that time the highest ever paid for a yearling in Kentucky. As a two-year- old Maambrino Patchen was returned to Dr. Herr, who broke him to harness as a three-year-old and used him in the stud. \WVhen seven years old A'lambrino Chief and his Descendants ii9 the fame of his sister added largely to his list of visitors. The Mambrino Patchen family is the most prepotent of the Mambrino Chief tribe. Dr. Herr was a quiet, observing man, but his face always flushed with pride when showing Mam- brino Patchen to appreciative men. He was a horse of i6 hands, of symmetry and lofty carriage. and his well-groomed black coat was brilliant in the sunshine which fell upon the oaks and maples of Kentucky. ILady Stout, a chestnut filly, foaled in i87i, by Mfambrino Patchen out of Puss Prall by Mark Time, was the first three-year-old to trot in 2.29, and she was the sensation of the hour. Columns Nere written about the evils of early development, but Dr. HIerr was not upset by criticism. Lady Stout passed into the stable of Robert Bonner and was used by him as a brood mare. Car- tridge, 2 .I41, was out of her. The best of the 25 trotters sired by Mambrino Patchen were London, 2.20o-; Katie Middleton, 2.23; and Mambrino Kate, 2.24; but nearly three score of his sons obtained recognition as sires of speed, and more than five score of his daughters are dams of trotters. From one of his sons, Mambrino Boy, came the dam of Allerton, 2.094, I 20 The Trotling and the Pacing Horse and the dam of Axtell, 2.12, both sensational trotters and the heads of speedy tribes. From another son, Mambrino King, came track per- formers of the fastest and most resolute type, such as Lord Derby, 2.053; Nightingale, 2.08; Dare Devil, 2.09; Heir at Law, 2.12; and Mocking Bird, 2.I63. We owe to the daughters of Mam- brino King record-breaking trotters like The Ab- bot, 2.0341, and The Monk, 2.053. The symmetry of Mambrino Patchen was transmitted to Mam- brino King, intensified by Belle Thornton (dam of Mambrino King), a daughter of Edwin Forrest and Brown Kitty by Birmingham by Stockholder by Sir Archy. In his prime Mambrino King was pronounced by competent critics the hand- somest horse in the world, and when led into the show ring he never failed to become the focus of admiring eyes. Usually he retired from the arena with the blue rosette, the highest award of honor. His influence upon the trotting horse of America was marked because he demonstrated to the world the advantage of combining beauty and courage with speed. The form of his maternal ancestor, the dam of Goliah and Mambrino Chief, was changed by the submerging currents of Marn- brino, imported Paymaster, American Eclipse, Manbrlno Cbief and his Descendants 121 and Sir Archy; and the advocates of nothing but cold crosses in a trotting pedigree were silenced by the facts. Prominent among daughters of AMambrino Patchen are Alma Mater, dam of eight with records, including the two speed-pro- ducing stallions, Alcantara and Alcyone; Belle Patchen, dam of the renowned sire, Baron Wilkes, 2.i8; Lady Bunker, dam of Guy Wilkes, 2.1514, whose star at one time was one of the brightest in the breeding firmament of California; Mary MIambrino, who gave us Beatrice, dam of Patron, 2.141-, a sire of 2.I0 speed; Patronage, sire of the once resolute trotting queen, Alix, 2.034; and Prodigal, 2.i6, a fertile source of speed. Elvira, the champion four-year-old trotter, dam of Ponce de Leon, 2.13, sire of fast trotters and pacers, was another good daughter of Mary Mambrino. Betty Brown, dam of Wilkes Boy, 2.241-, a sire of high rank, was also by Mambrino Patchen. She was bred to her own sire, Mambrino Patchen, and produced Kitty Patchen, dam of Patchen Wilkes, sire of the rock-ribbed pacer, Joe Patchen, 2.OI1, sire of Dan Patch, I.5614. This close doubling of the blood of Mambrino Patchen was attended by far better results than were anticipated. Mam- brino Patchen was sound until he died, May 6, i885, at the age of 22. 122 The Trotting and the Pacinig Horse In the spring of i862 the brown mare, Wood- bine by Wroodford, thoroughbred son of Kosciusko by Sir Archy, was bred to Mambrino Chief just previous to the death of the stallion, and the fruit was the bay horse, Woodford Mambrino, who was used in the stud at Woodburn until i877, when he was placed in training and trotted a mile in 2.21. In October of that year he was sold to L. B. Dubois of Colorado, who sold him to R. C. Pate of Missouri, who made a remarkable campaign with him the season of I878. The horse was I5 years old and suffered from fistula, but he fought his races with the greatest deter- mination and was the sensation of the grand circuit. He acquired a record of 2.2I'-, -and was so worn when I saw him at Minneapolis late in the autumn that I was not surprised to hear of his death in March, I879. His spirit was not conquered until the flesh wasted under disease and a cruel taskmaster. He left but 86 foals, and yet his rank as a pro- genitor of speed is high. Among his producing sons are Princeps, Mambrino Dudley, and Pan- coast. The latter is the grandsire of Alix, 2.034. The greatest of his producing daughters is Even- tide, the dam of Kremlin, 2.074, the champion Mambrino Cbief and his Descetidants 12 3 trotting stallion of 1892 and a successful sire at Allen Farm. In I871 Woodbine produced \VNedgewood by Belmont, who was out of a daughter of Mambrino Chief; and as he trotted to a record of 2.19, and is noted as a sire of extreme speed, the nick must be regarded as a good one. Dame Wood, the dam of the hand- some and fast pacer, John R. Gentry, 2.00-1, owned by Edward H. Harriman, was a daughter of Wedgewood. Belle Loupe by Brown's Bellfounder, son of imported Bellfounder, gave birth in i857 to a bay filly by Mambrino Chief which at maturity became, under the name of Belle, one of the famous matrons of the stud book. Bred to Alexander's Abdallah, son of the renowned pro- genitor, Rysdyk's Hambletonian, she foaled in 1854 a bay colt, Belmont, who was reserved for procreative tasks at Woodburn. He trotted the half-mile track on the farm in 2.281, and was placed in the stud in i869. He was a horse of I5.3 hands, of quality, fine carriage, and pre- potency, and he is the head of a numerous and powerful tribe. Nutwood, one of his sons, was a prolific sire of speed, and King Rene, who was by Belmont out of Blandina by Mambrino Chief, 124 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse was a horse of the show-ring type and a pro- genitor of trotters. The. daughters of Belmont also were celebrated for speed-producing quali- ties. One of these was Bicara, dam of Pancoast, 2.21 I Belmont died at Woodburn, November 13, I889, and his stud fee had been advanced from 25 to 500. Sally Anderson was another daughter of Mambrino Chief that found a golden nick in Alexander's Abdallah. Almont, her dis- tinguished son, was thus bred, and he transmitted his remarkable action with impressive uniformity. At Edge Hill, the breeding farm of Colonel Richard Wlest, at Georgetown, Kentucky, I was often called upon to admire the frictionless trot of Almont as he swept around his paddock, and a great future was predicted for him. The op- portunity of the stallion was enlarged when he was transferred to Fairlawn, the breeding farm of General WV. T. Withers, and he died leaving scores of producing sons and daughters. Fanny Witherspoon, 2.1 64, was his fastest and gamest daughter, and Piedmont, 2.I 7k1, was his best trotting son. Mag Ferguson, the dam of the latter, was by Mambrino Chief, and he taught the lesson that the blood could be doubled with advantage. Clark Chief, sire of Kentucky Prince PALO ALTO Whose 2.0834 to high-wheel sulky made him the Champion Trotting Stallion of 1 881. DIRECTUM Whose 2.O51/4 made him the Champion Trotting Stallion of 1893. This page in the original text is blank. Mambrino Cbief and his Descendants I25 and of the dam of the once champion trotting stallion, Phallas, 2.1 343, was another prepotent son of Mambrino Chief. Kentucky Prince was at the head of the famous Stony Ford stud of Charles Backman, and the fastest trotter from his loins was Guy, 2.093. Ninety-eight of his daughters are dams of speed. Dolly, a daughter of Mambrino Chief, is in the great brood mare list as the dam of Onward, Director, and Thorndale, all famous speed-pro- dticing stallions. Beuzetta, 2.o64, and Onward Silver, 2.054, are the fastest trotters by Onward; and Directum, 2.05.1, is the best of the get of Director. Dolly was a very plain mare, and the memory of her, as I saw her in the summer of I877 standing on the banks of the Elkhorn, with Director, then a tiny bit of flesh, by her side, is as vivid as if the scene belonged to the canvas of yesterday. How a mare of her severe outline could become such a fountain of speed is one of the problems that frequently confronts the student of breeding. The Mambrino that sired Abdallah, the sire of Rysdyk's Hambletonian, wvas the sire of Mambrino Paymaster, the sire of Mambrino Chief, and when the descendants of Hambletonian and Mambrino Chief were joined, 126 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse kindred strains were reunited with the vigor. imparting influence of the climatic outcross, and trotting conformation was advanced and improved and trotting action intensified. For an illustration, Alix, 2.031; Fantasy, 2.06; Ralph Wilkes, 2.o64; Stamboul, 2.071; Kremlin, 2.074, and Arion, 2.074, are bred this way., Trinket, who was the sensational four-year-old of 1879, was a striking example of how the Mambrino Chief and Hambletonian strains could be inter- woven. Princeps, her sire, was by Woodford Mambrino (son of Mambrino Chief), out of Primrose by Alexander's Abdallah (son of Ham- bletonian), and Ouida, her dam, was by Hamble- tonian. The thoughtful observer always draws a line between inbreeding for desirable qualities and incestuous breeding. Jessie Pepper was a brown mare of i6 hands, foaled i86o, and by Mambrino Chief out of Lena Pepper by Sidi Hamet, a thoroughbred. She was a handsome mare, possessed of speed, and the simple statement that she had i8 foals speaks well for her vitality. Ten of these foals by eight different stallions were producers of speed. Annabel by George Wilkes (son of Hambletonian) was her best daughter, and the Manmbrino Chief and his Descendants I27 best daughter of Annabel was Estabella by Alcantara by George Wilkes. Prince Regent, 2.I61, a great four-year-old, and Heir at Law, 2. I 2 at the trot and 2-0o5, at the pace, were the result of Estabella's union with Mambrino KIing, son of Mambrino Patchen, son of Mam- brino Chief. A glance at the history of this mare and her descendants strengthens the con- viction that excellence is the outcome of the intercrossing of kindred strains of pronounced merit. Sprite, who is in the great brood-mare list, was a chestnut of i6 hands, foaled in I872, and by Belmont out of Waterwitch by Pilot Jr. She is the dam of four with records, three of which are by Electioneer, son of Hambletonian, and two of these, Egotist and Electrite, are abundant speed sires. Emma Arteburn by Mambrino Patchen out of Jennie Johnson, thoroughbred laughter of Sweet Owen, produced to Nutwood the mare Mystic, dam of Fred Kohl, 2.073, and Mystery, 2.I712. She also produced St. Arnaud, sire of Reina, 2.I2-; Judge Keeler, 2.14; and M.Iercedes, dam of Harriet Clay, who, bred to Alcyone (son of George Wilkes and Alma Mater by Mambrino Patchen), gave us Harrietta, 2.0943, 128 The Trotti/g and the Pacing Horse driven in single and double harness by her owner, Mr. H. 0. Havemeyer. Mambrino Pilot, bay horse, foaled in I859 and by Mambrino Chief out of Juliet by Pilot Jr., she out of a daughter of Webster, thoroughbred son of Medoc, trotted in i866 to a saddle record of 2.27- and sired among others Hannis, 2. I73, and Mambrino Gift, whose record of 2.20 was the best for stallions at the time it was made. CHAPTER XIV THE PILOT FAMILY ONE of the foremost of brood-mare sires is Pilot Jr., a gray horse of I5.2, foaled in i844, and bred by Lugerean Gray of Jefferson County, Kentucky. His sire was a black horse called Pilot and his dam was Nancy Pope by Funk's Havoc, second dam Nancy Taylor by Alfred. In I848 the gray horse was sold to D. Heinsohn of Iouisville, Kentucky, and in i858 he passed to R. A. Alexander of Woodburn, who used him in the stud with such discretion as to give him an enduring reputation. The horse died of apo- plexy at Aurora, Illinois, April 14, i865. There has been much controversy over the breeding of Pilot and his son, Pilot Jr., and at this late day the precise facts cannot be established. Joseph Battell, who corresponded freely and travelled much in search of information, records Pilot as a very dark brown, nearly black, horse of about 15 hands, foaled in i853, bred by Louis Dan- sereau of Contrecceur, Province of Quebec, sire K I29 i30 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse unknown; dam Jeanne d'Arc, bred by Louis Dansereau, got by Voyager that was foaled the property of Pierre Fisette of Contrecceur, from a mare that he traded for with a Yankee about i8i i; second dam a black pacer, described as active but not very fleet, that Dansereau traded for at Montreal about I814 with a Yankee team- ster. Pilot was sold when IS months old and taken to Montreal in i839, from which place he was sold for i50 to Elias Lee Rockwell, who took him to Stafford, Connecticut, in the fall of 1829. In August, 1830, Rockwell led the horse behind a peddler's wagon to Norwich, New York, and thence to New Orleans, pacing him in con- tests along the route. In June, 1831, Pilot was sold to Major 0. Dubois of New Orleans, for iooo, and in the early part of I832 he passed to Heinsohn and Poe of Louisville, Kentucky. In 1850 the stallion passed to Robert Bell of Louisville, who sent him to his farm near Hen- derson, Kentucky, where he died about 1853. It is certain that Pilot was taken to New Orleans by a Yankee peddler who sold him to Major Dubois, but there is much conjecture about the rest of the story. The suggestion of Mr. Battell is that the stallion derived his excellence from a The Pilot Family Vermont mare, presumably a descendant of Justin Morgan. C. W. Kennedy, who rode Pilot in his speed exhibitions in Kentucky, is on record as saying that the stallion generally paced, although he trotted finely. Pilot was a horse with quite a temper, and in his races was driven with a breech- ing with pulleys leading to his mouth. Pilot Jr. trotted two races at five years old and won easily, and at six years old he won at two-mile heats and a race at four miles. He was a game horse, a dapple gray, of style, substance, and strength; and one of the longest and most bitter contro- versies in which I ever engaged was over his pedigree. I held that his dam was by a thorough- bred stallion. Six trotters, possessed of standard speed, came from Pilot Jr., among them Pilot Temple, 2.2412, who won 36 races and whose dam, Madame Temple, was the dam of Flora Temple, the first trotter to beat 2.20. The best produc- ing son of Pilot Jr. was Bayard, sire of Kitty Bayard, 2.I24, and eight other trotters and six pacers. When in training he was almost as much of a puller on the bit as his grandsire, black Pilot. The daughters of Pilot Jr. have lifted him above the rank of ordinary stallions. Through them the line has been emphasized as 13 I 132 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse thoroughly alive, and the gates to immortality have been forced open. Sally Russell, thorough. bred daughter of Boston, was bred to Pilot Jr., and produced in i865 the gray filly Miss Russell, who developed into one of the greatest brood mares of the age. The same spring the gray filly Midnight by Pilot Jr. out of Twilight, thoroughbred daughter of Lexington, son of Bos- ton, was born, and she is in the list as the dam of the sensational gelding Jay-eye-see by Dictator, who trotted to a record of 2.10 and paced to a record of 2.o64; of Electricity by Electioneer, who trotted to a record of 2.173, and who is a producing sire; and of Noontide by Harold, who trotted to a record of 2.20;, and is a producing dam. Miss Russell was a mare of unusual vitality and fertility. Seventeen of her i8 foals grew to ma- ture form, and she had seen her thirty-second birthday before her heart ceased to beat. She was for more than a quarter of a century a notable fig- ure in the pastures of Woodburn, refusing to as- sociate intimately with other mares grazing under the same trees, and she was the means of swell- ing, by many thousands of dollars, the revenues of A. J. Alexander. She was as much of a queen The Pilot Family' among brood mares as her daughter, Maud S., was among trotters. Her pedigree at one time was assailed; but it was established to the satis- faction of every reasonable man that her dam, Sally Russell, was the thoroughbred daughter of Boston and that her second dam, Maria Rus- sell, was a celebrated show mare by Thornton's Rattler. \Vaterwitch, bay mare, foaled I859, and by Pilot Jr. out of Fanny by Kinkead's St. Law- rence, second dam Brenda, represented to be thoroughbred, was another prolific mare. She was put to breeding at five years old, and pro- duced i9 foals that lived. Six of these ob- tained records, - Mambrino Gift, 2.20; Scotland, 2.201; Viking, 2.I 9; Waterloo, 2.I91; Wave- let, 2.241-; and Warder, 2.294. Scotland, who was gelded, was by the renowned thoroughbred stallion Bonnie Scotland, imported from Eng- land, and whose dam, Queen Mary, is one of the greatest fountains of speed in the English stud book. This gelding illustrated how speed at one gait can be utilized at another gait. The sons and daughters of Waterwitch rank high as producers of speed. The blood of the old mare is breeding on with striking force. Tackey, Dahlia, Diana, 13 3 134 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse Dixie, Crop, and Minerva are other daughters of Pilot Jr. who are in the list of great brood mares. Pilot Medium, one of our great sires, fromn whose loins came Peter the Great, 2.07-, sire of Sadie Mac, 2. I I4, the winner of the Kentucky Futurity in 1903, was by Happy Medium out of a daughter of Pilot Jr. Tattler, bay horse, foaled in i863, by Pilot Jr., out of Telltale by Telamon, a thoroughbred, inbred to Medoc by American Eclipse, trotted to a record of 2.26 in i868, and produced the twt o noted campaign-trotting stallions, Voltaire, 2.20-, and Indianapolis, 2.21. He passed to Henry N. Smith, who bred from him, at Fashion Stud Farm, the black stallion Rumor, 2.20, a sire of trotters and producers of trotters, and Slander, 2.28, also a sire of speed. Dan Mace once had Tattler in his training stable and liked him, but Mr. Smith was partial to other strains and the horse was neglected and wasted away. CHAPTER XV MESSENGER AND THE TRIBE OF HAMBLETONIAN MESSENGER was a gray horse of I5.3 hands, somewhat heavy for a thoroughbred, foaled in 1780; bred in England by John Pratt and sired by Mambrino son of Engineer by Sampson by Blaze; dam by Turf; second dam, sister to Figu- rante by Regulus; third dam by Starling; fourth dam Snap's dam by Fox; fifth dam Gipsey by Bay Bolton; sixth dam by Duke of Newcastle's Turk; seventh dam by Byerly Turk; eighth dam by Taffolet Barb; ninth dam by Place's White Turk; and tenth dam Natural Barb mare. Through his sire, Mambrino, he traced directly to Flying Childers and to the Godolphin Arabian. The foundations of the successful race-horses of England were his foundations. He was imported to America to improve the running horses of this country, and he landed at Philadelphia in I780. In England he had won 8 out of i3 races, but he never started on this side of the Atlantic. For two seasons he held court near Bristol, Penn- 135 I36 Tbe Trolling and the Pacing Hoaise sylvania, and then was purchased by Henry Astor and taken to' Long Island. Two years later Cornelius WV. Van Ranst obtained control of him, and his days were spent in New York and New Jersey. He died of colic at Oyster Bay, Long Island, January 28, i8oS, aged 28 years, and a volley of musketry was fired over his grave. The most famous daughter left by him was the gray mare Miller's Damsel, foaled in 1802; bred by William Constable of New York; owned by General Nathaniel Coles, Dosoris, Long Island; and dam, an imported English mare by Pot-8-os, son of the renowned English Eclipse. She raced well. Her first foal, 1814, was the chestnut colt American Eclipse by Duroc by imported Diomed by Florizel by Herod. American Eclipse stands out promi- nently in the annals of American racing. The four-mile-heat race for 2o,ooo a side, the North against the South, run at Union Course, Long Island, May 27, i823, was won by American Eclipse from Henry, and the multitude of specta- tors was all night in getting back to their homes. Distinguished among the sons and daughters of American Eclipse were Ariel, Lance, Black Maria, Shark, M\edoc, MIonmouth Eclipse, aid Gano. The Tribe of Hamnbletoniian Potomac, out of the Figure mare, and Bright Phoebus, out of a daughter of Pot-8-os, were two Solis of Messenger that met expectations on the running turf. As attempts were at one time made to cloud the pedigree of Messenger, I have given facts from the English and American stud books for the benefit of the general reader. The legislature of Pennsylvania passed, soon after the arrival of Messenger, a law prohibiting rac- iing with betting, and this reduced the market for thoroughbreds. Probably this was fortunate for Messenger's fame as a progenitor of harness speed. Mares of varying degrees of excellence were mated with him, and the results made clear the fact that he was the controlling factor. The improvement of the roads stimulated driving, and the trotter steadily grew in favor. Bishosp's Hamblelonian The stud book records as foaled in I803 a gray horse by imported Messenger, dam Pheasant by imported Shark. This horse was possessed of bone and substance, stood 15.2, and Herbert states that he raced with varying degrees of suc- cess, and as a stallion was distinguished for the elegance, speed, and endurance of his get, for the 13 7 138 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse saddle, harness, and trotting course. He entered the stud in i8io, and it was in Orange County that he sired W5halebone and Sir Peter (trotters) and the dams of Topgallant and Paul Pry, also One Eye, dam of Charles Kent Mare, dam of Rysdyk's Hambletonian. He was used in har- ness after he was fifteen years old, showing a high rate of speed, for those days, on the road. Isaac Bishop of Granville, New York, bought the stallion in I8i9, and as the Bishop place was near the Vermont line, seasons were made in both states. The inclination to trot was strong in the majority of his foals. Bishop's Hambletonian was fond of being petted, and Mrs. Bishop often fed him bread and cake from the kitchen door. After the death of Isaac Bishop, in I831, the horse was taken charge of by his brother, J. M. Bishop. Age had told upon the stallion, and Allen W. Thomson narrates this pathetic incident: " It was in September, I833, that the gate to his yard was left open and he walked out and started for his old home, it being about two miles. He had to go through the village of Granville, and as he passed the cry was raised, 'There goes old Ham- bletonian,' and the boys gave him a cheer. He The Tribe of Hambletoian '3 knew what it meant, as he had heard it before. He stopped, looked around, and whinnied, and then went on. When he got to his old home he stopped at the door where he had been so often fed. MIrs. Bishop fed him again with bread and cakes. T hen he went for his old stable. The door being shut, he lay down close by. They soon saw that lie was unwell, and in spite of all they could do hle died in six hours. It was believed that the exertion of walking home together with the pleas- ure of getting home caused his death. He was buried eight rods from his stable and a stone placed over his grave." Harris's Hambletonian In I826 Isaac Munson of Wallingford, Ver- mont, took a spotted gray mare, a fine driver, said to be a daughter of Messenger, to Granville and bred her to Bishop's Hambletonian, and the result was a gray colt, foaled in i827, that has passed into history as Harris's Hambletonian; his number in the Register is 2. This gray colt, when two years old, was bred to six mares and then passed through different hands to Russell Harris of Bristol, Vermont. He was sometimes called Bristol Gray and sometimes Harris's horse. I139 140 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse He was a large, powerful horse, of ncarly i6 hands and weighed i200 pounds. He was a light step- per and was difficult to pass on the road. There were no tracks in his neighborhood, and he was not trained. He was a resolute horse and of a kind disposition when justly treated. Charles Backman was a great admirer of the Harris Hambletonian stock, and when he laid the foun- dations of Stony Ford the gray mare Rosa Lee, that he had driven many miles on the road, ap- peared in his first catalogue as a brood mare. She was by the Harris Horse. Gray Rose, dam of Cuyler, also appeared in the catalogue. She stood I5.2 and was a gray daughter of Harris's Hambletonian. The two trotters from Harris's Hambletonian were Green Mountain Maid, 2.28-2 and Lady Shannon, 2.281. His only pacer was Hero, a gray gelding, 2.20. The gray mare Sontag, 2.31, who defeated Flora Temple once, was by Harris's Hambletonian, out of a daughter of Nicholas by Alexander, an Arabian. She was the dam of Toronto Sontag, sire of the great brood mare Sontag Dixie; also sire of Sontag Nellie, dam of the celebrated producing mare Sontag Mohawk. The gray gelding Vermont, two miles 5.09o-, and Gray Trouble, 2.34 to saddle, The Tribe of Hambletonian ' wvere sons of Harris's Hambletonian, who died of an injury in December, 1846. Judson's Hambletonian was a brown horse, foaled in i82i, by Bishop's Hambletonian, dam by Wells's Magnum Bonum. He stood I 5.2, and it is represented that he could trot I 2 miles within an hour. He died in i844, and his mem- ory is preserved by his son, Andrus H amble- tonian, a brown horse foaled about I840 and taken to Muscatine, Iowa, in the winter of i855- I856, and who died there in 1858. He was a bay of nearly I5.3 hands, but was not so much appreciated in Vermont as he should have been. He was the sire of the famous trotting mare Princess, 2.30, the earnest rival of Flora Temple, and who, in her retirement, gave birth, in i863, to the distinguished sire of trotters, Happy Medium. In the latter the wonderfully potent blood of Messenger was reunited through Hambletonian, the sire of Happy Medium. Mambrino, sire of Messenger, was a gray horse of lofty appearance, and he laid in England the foundation of some of the finest coach horses ever raised there. He was bred by John Atkin- son of Scholes near Leeds, England, foaled in I768; by Engineer, dam by Old Cadde; second 14I 142 The Trot/ing and the Pacing Horse dam by the Duke of Bolton's gray horse Little John, son of Old Partner. He passed from Mr. Atkinson to Lord Grosvenor and won his first race at Newmarket in I 773. In another race at Newmarket he beat Florizel by Herod, one of the best' horses of his day. He raced until I 779, the year he fell lame while running in the Craven Stakes, when he was re- tired to the stud. Only two of Mambrino's get were imported to this country. One was Mes- senger and the other was a chestnut mare, Mam- brina, foaled in i875, bred by Lord Grosvenor and imported into South Carolina in 1787. Among her produce was Eliza by imported Bed- ford, who, bred to Sir Archy, produced Bertrand, sire of Gray Eagle, whose blood is a factor in a number of trotters of merit. One of the great races of the period was that at the Washington course, Charleston, South Carolina, February 25, I826. It was three-mile heats, and four heats were required to decide the matter. Bertrand demonstrated his gameness by winning from Aratus and Creeping Kate. In Kentucky Ber- trand stood high as a sire. I draw attention to the racing career of Berirand for the purpose of conveying to the reader an idea of the form of The Tribe of Hamblelonian the descendants of the daughter of Messenger. American Eclipse, the son of Miller's Damsel, was not the only worthy representative of Mes- senger on the running turf. The corner-stones of the English thoroughbred structure are the Byerly Turk, the Godolphin Arabian, and the Darley Arabian. Herod, Matchem, and Eclipse were the live lines descending from these, and the intermingling of the strains has given us the grandest specimens of the equine race. In breeding for harness speed we must keep track of the live lines, just as men of judgment and experience do in breeding for speed under the saddle. Sir Archy, who was called the Godol- phin of America, has made his influence felt in trotting evolution through his sons, Kosciusko, Stockholder, and Timoleon, the latter the sire of Boston, the sire of Lexington. Abdallah Lewis G. Morris bred a mare by imported Sour Crout to Messenger, and the produce in i8o6 was a bay colt who developed into a horse of i6 hands and is known to history as Mam- brino. He was never trained in harness, but was a natural trotter. Betsy Baker, the fastest I4 3 144 The TRoling and the Pacing Horse mare of her day, was sired by him. Amazonia, a snappy chestnut mare of I5.3 hands, showing quality but of untraced blood, and who could trot close to 2.50, was bred to Mambrino, and the outcome was Abdallalf whose registered number is i. He was bred by John Tredwell of Salisbury Place, Long Island, was foaled in I823, and developed into a bay horse of 15.3. As a four-year-old he trotted a mile in 3.i0, but was not kind in harness and was principally used under saddle. He made seasons on Long Island, in New Jersey, and in Orange County, and spent 1840 in the Blue-grass Region of Kentucky. In 1830 he passed to Isaac Snediker, and after many changes of fortune died of starva- tion and neglect on a Long Island beach and was buried in the sand. It is sad to think of a horse through whom was directly transmitted the charmed blood of Messenger ending his days in an atmosphere of cold unappreciation. But such is often the fate of modest merit. The winning performers of Abdallah are Ajax, 2.37-s; Brandywine, 2.36-s; Brooklyn Maid, 2.38; Fourth of July, 2.40; Frank Forrester, 2.30; Lady Ful- ton, 2.594; O'Blennis, 2.30; Selim, 2.321-; and Sir Walter, 2.27. Only three of these trotted in The Tribe of Hanmbletonian 2.30 or better, but prior to i86i a 2.40 horse was regarded as standing high above the average. The Charles Kent Mare was a bay of I 5.3 hands, foaled in i834, with powerful stifles, and as a four-year-old trotted a mile under saddle in 2.41. She was by Bellfounder, a Norfolk trotter of I5 hands, imported from England to Boston, Massachusetts, in I822, by James Boot. Im- ported Bellfounder was foaled in 18i5, and the blood of his sire, Bellfounder, is at the founda- tion of the hackney breed. One Eye, a determined brown mare of 15. i, by Bishop's Hamble- tonian (son of Messenger), out of Silvertail, a hardy brown mare by Messenger, was the dam of the Charles Kent Mare, who found a happy nick in Abdallah. Rysdyk's Hamletonzian The fruit of this union was a bay colt, foaled May 5, 1849, at Sugar Loaf, near Chester, Orange County, New York. This colt, when five weeks old, was purchased from the breeder, Jonas Seely, by a plain farmer with a lean pocket- book. The price named for mare and colt was I25, and the farmer, William M. Rysdyk, sat on the top rail of a fence and pondered for some L 145 146 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse time the vital question. The outlay would em. barrass him if the mare or colt should die. He finally said Yes, and mother and son were taken to Chester. The bay colt, with star and hind ankles white, grew into a powerful horse of 15.2 and was named Hambletonian. His head was large and expressive, his neck rather short, his shoulders and quarters massive, and his legs broad and flat. His triple line to thoroughbred Messenger, over the substance-imparting cross of Bellfounder, gave us the greatest progenitor of harness speed that the world has yet seen. Expe- rience shows that for stock purposes you want a horse with masculine head and neck. After the Civil War I was a frequent visitor to Blue Grass Park, the refined home of A. Keene Richards, near Georgetown, Kentucky, where Arabs direct from the desert and native horses grazed in the pastures, and more than once my attention was called to the strong points of War Dance, then treated with studious neglect by some of the breeders of the country. "i He has not the deli- cate head of the Arab or a tapering neck, but I like him all the better for this. His strong head and lionlike neck and shoulders are suggestive of constitution, and if you live long enough you The Tribe of Hanbletoinian ' will find the descendants of War Dance in great demand." Mr. Richards read the future aright. Lexington, the sire of War Dance, earned the title of Emperor of Stallions, and War Dance him- self, who was out of Reel by imported Glencoe, ranks second to Lexington as a sire of brood mares. His blood is now valued highly in a pedigree. Lexington, like imported Diomed, Sir Archy, Boston, and other renowned thoroughbred stallions, was inbred. He was by Boston, grandson of Sir Archy, by imported Diomed, and his dam, Alice Carneal, was by imported Sarpedon (inbred to Eclipse); second dam Rowena by Sumpter by Sir Archy. The inbreeding of Hambletonian helped him to transmit desirable qualities from generation to generation. As a two-year-old Hambletonian spent nuptial hours with four mares, one of which was Katy Darling, dam of Alexander's Abdallah. In this one case the early wedding was the happiest that could be conceived. Hambletonian was driven on the road as a three-year-old, and David Bonner, who sat behind him, tells me that his stride was lengthy, but not dwelling; head large but good, with splendid eyes; body round and full and he stood somewhat higher behind than forward; I47 I48 The Trolting and the Pacing Horse disposition kind, and a prompt driver; faultless legs and feet and remarkable intelligence and docility. As a three-year-old Hambletonian trotted a mile over Union Course in 2.48-, and MIr. Bonner is firm in the belief that he would have beaten 2.30 with regular training. In the stud Hambletonian gave proof of sterling merit and vitality. The appended table tersely tells the story: YEAR AGE MARES BRED FOALS FEE 185I 2 4 3 o 1852 3 17 13 25 18;3 4 101 78 25 1854 1 5 88 62 35 1855 6 89 64 35 1856 7 87 64 35 1857 8 87 63 35 1858 9 72 54 35 1859 10 95 66 35 I86o I 1o6 72 35 i861 12 98 68 35 1862 13 158 III 35 1863 14 150 92 75 1864 15 217 I48 100 I865 I6 I93 128 300 I866 17 105 75 500 1867 18 72 42 500 1869 20 22 I8 500 I870 21 22 I6 500 1871 22 30 26 5oo 1872 23 30 24 500 Tbe Tribe of Hanibleton ian The addition shows I287 foals by Hamble- tonian and service fees amounting to i85,715. The first time I saw Hambletonian was in i866, at a fair in Orange County. The stallion was in the enjoyment of great fame, and Mr. Rysdyk was pleased to show him to me. Charles L. Sharp- less of Philadelphia soon after this sent me a photograph which he had had taken of Hamble- tonian, with a request to reproduce it in the Turf; Field, and Farm. Knowing Mr. Sharpless to be a friend of Mr. Rysdyk and his stallion, I complied with the request and gave mortal offence to the illiterate farmer. The camera had caught the stallion with his ears thrown back, and this was something that Mr. Rysdyk did not like. The outline of the horse was excellent. Rysdyk complained to his friend, David Bonner, about the picture, and messages were sent back and forth. Two years later I went with Mr. Bonner to Mr. Rysdyk's house, on invitation of the latter, and spent the night and was royally treated. The old gentleman had been made to see the error of his artistic judgment, and the best of the cel- lar was set before us. Rysdyk knew nothing of art, and every one who painted the stallion had to comply, as far as possible, with his direc- 149 i5o Tbe Trotling and the Pacing Horse tions. This is the reason why so many pictures of wooden images dubbed Hambletonian found their way to the market. Dexter by Hambleto- nian, out of Clara by Seely's American Star, began his sensational turf career in May, i864, and as he steadily advanced to the throne, the reputa- tion of his sire grew in proportion. Mr. David Bonner had difficulty in persuading Mr. Rysdyk, in the spring of i863, to advance the fee of the stallion to ioo. After that the spirit of greed grew in the owner, and the fee quickly climbed to 500. Charles Backman, Robert Bonner, and Dexter were mainly responsible for the fever which kept the fee of Hambletonian at 500 up to the day of his death, which occurred March 27, i876. In i868 Hambletonian was in such poor health that he was withdrawn from public service. Mr. Robert Bonner paid a visit to Chester at this time and found the feet of the stallion in bad condition. Under his direction the feet were balanced and vigor was regained. The entire nervous system is deranged when the delicate machinery inside the horny box, as Mr. Bonner called the covering of the foot, is cramped, and impairment of vitality necessarily follows. Mr. Rysdyk, with the wildest dreams of his bar- 7'be Tribe of Hacnbletonian ren youth realized, died before Hambletonian did; but the horse will carry his name far down the walks of time. The 2.174j of Dexter at Buffalo, August I4, i867, was presumed to be the limit of trotting speed, and people ambitious to excel each other on the road and track turned eagerly to the source of that speed. Those who had favored the Morgan type suddenly discovered that this type was physically small and of mod- erate capacity at the trot, and there were whole- sale desertions from the standard. The sons of Hambletonian invaded New England, and thou- sands were taught to undervalue the family founded by Justin Morgan. But time brought the conviction that the Morgan foundation was the foundation for Hambletonian to build upon, and intelligent opinion again does justice to the son of True Briton, born in I789. The forty trotters sired by Rysdyk's Hamble- tonian include Dexter, 2.I 74; Nettie, 2.18; Orange Girl, 2.20; Gazelle, 2.2 I; Jay Gould, 2.2 I 1; George Wilkes, 2.22; Bella, 2.22; Deucalion, 2.22; Mat- tie, 2.22-; Lady Banker, 2.23; and Madeleine, 2.23-. It was not so much the speed of his sons and daughters as their ability to transmit speed which placed Hambletonian on the summit of the mountain. I SI CHAPTER XVI PREPOTENT SONS OF HAMBLETONIAN, INCLUDING GEORGE WILKES A,1xanider's Abdallah THE first of Hambletonian's get, Alexander's Abdallah, registered number I5, was out of a crippled mare, Katy Darling, who had shown speed on the road but whose pedigree was never traced. Lewis J. Sutton, in whose hands Katy Darling fell, and who carried her to Chester and bred her to the two-year-old colt owned by MIr. Rysdyk, wrote me a number of letters concerning her ancestry when the subject was being warmly debated by the horse-loving public years ago, and I accepted his conclusion that her lineage was unknown. August 27, 1852, Alexander's Abdal- lah was foaled, and when I 7 months old the bay colt was sold by Mr. Sutton to E. Hoyt and Seely Edsall of Goshen, New York. The sole ownership of the youngster was soon vested in Mr. Edsall, and he placed him in the stud in 152 Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian i856, and one of his foals of the season was Gold- smith Maid, 2.14. In February, I859, James M1iller and Joel Love paid 3000 for Edsall's Hambletonian and took him to Cynthiana, Ken- tucky. In i862 the horse was purchased by R. A. Alexander of Woodburn Farm, and from that time forward he was known as Alexander's Abdallah. The Federal and Confederate armies wNere then contending for the control of Kentucky, and peaceful industries were heavily handicapped. In February, I865, Alexander's Abdallah was captured by a guerilla band, and ridden so hard that he died of exhaustion. His sire outlived him i i years. The monument over the grave at Chester, a solid block of red Missouri granite, briefly informs the passer-by that Rysdyk's Ham- bletonian died March 27, i876, aged 26 years, i0 months, and 22 days. Alexander's Abdallah stood i5.i and was a compact horse with a long neck. His only race was a match against the .stallion Albion, trotted at Lexington in i86o. Albion was distanced in the first heat, and the time was 2.42. Katy Darling, who died in Iowa, produced one other foal, a chestnut colt by Hector, who was gelded, and who for want of merit or opportunity remained obscure. If the 153 154 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse days of Alexander's Abdallah had been prolonged as were those of his sire, the chances are that his reputation would have been equal to that of any trotting stallion that ever lived. His daughter, Goldsmith Maid, foaled in i857, was a great cam- paign mare. She became queen when she beat the 2.I 7. of Dexter, and for I 2 consecutive years she was the admired of the public. Two other famous trotters from the loins of Alexan- der's Abdallah were Rosalind, 2.2I3, and Thorn- dale, 2.224-. Fourteen of the sons of Alexander's Abdallah are recognized sires of speed. Con- spicuous among these are Almont, Belmont, Wood's Hambletonian, Thorndale, and Major Edsall. The latter sired Robert McGregor, 2.171, the sire of the champion trotting stallion, Cres- ceus. Minnequa Maid, dam of four trotters, including Nightingale, 2.08, was a daughter of Wood's Hambletonian. Twenty-nine of the daughters of Alexander's Abdallah are speed- producing dams. One of these, Maud, is the dam of Attorney, sire of Atlanta, dam of Alix, who by virtue of her 2.0343 supplanted Nancy Hanks as queen of the trotting turf. Favorite, another daughter, is the dam of the two producing sires, Bourbon Wilkes, 96 in the list, and Favorite Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian WVilkes, 31 in the list. Primrose, dam of six trotters, of ten sires of speed, including Princeps and Abdalbrino, and of two producing dams, was one of the greatest daughters of Alexander's Abdallah. The trotting descendants of Primrose are as numerous as the wild flowers of a valley sheltered from cold winds and bathed in sunshine. Lady Abdallah was another celebrated daughter of Alexander's Abdallah. Belmont and A4mont Belmont, bay horse of 15.1, foaled May i8, i864, by Alexander's Abdallah out of Belle by Mlambrino Chief, showed a 2.20 gait at a trot over the Woodburn track, but was reserved for the stud and died November I3, I889, without a record. Fifty-nine of his sons and daughters have standard records; 74 of his sons are sires of speed, and 68 of his daughters are dams of speed. Almont, bay horse of i5.21, foaled in the spring of I864; by Alexander's Abdallah, dam Sally Anderson by Mambrino Chief, was also without a 2.30 record, he having been reserved for the stud. As a four-year-old, he distanced his only competitor in 2.394. He died July 4, i884, and left behind him a powerful family. He has 37 I 55 156 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse in the list, only two of which are pacers, and among his 96 producing sons are Altamont, Hamlin's Almont Jr., and Piedmont. His pro- ducing daughters number 8o. George Wilkes Although George Wilkes was four years younger than Alexander's Abdallah, being foaled in I856, he founded a much more powerful family. His life was longer, and that was greatly to his advantage. Dolly Spanker, a mare possessed of excellent road qualities, was sent in 1855 by her owner, Harry Felter of New York, to Chester and bred to Hambletonian. The result was a brown colt, reared by hand on account of the early death of her mother, and named Robert Fillingham. Z. E. Simmons purchased him as a three-year-old, and he was carried on the books of Simmons Brothers as the property of Will- iam L. Simmons. Although he stood but I 5 hands, he was the embodiment of power, and was raced with great success. He made his first start as a five-year-old, and he defeated in the 21 races won by him such horses as Commodore Vanderbilt, Lady Thorn, General Butler, Confi- dence, Ethan Allen, Fearnaught, Draco Princc, GEORGE WILKES The Chief of a Powerful Tribe. ELECTIONEER The Head of a Great Trotting Family. This page in the original text is blank. Prepotent Sons of Hanibletonian Rhode Island, Lucy, American Girl, and Myron Perry. His record of 2.22 was made at Provi- dence, October I3, i868. As he was small and his hind action was called ducklike, there was no irrepressible desire to breed to him in the East, and in 1873 W. H. Wilson persuaded the Sim- mons Brothers to send him to Kentucky. The mares that visited him in the Blue-grass District nicked well with him, and the boom methods of William L. Simmons did the rest. When the stud reputation of the brown "pony" began to grow, an effort was made to establish the pedigree of Dolly Spanker as by Henry Clay. Reams of paper were spoiled in the discussion, and I was thick in the fight. Mr. Felter, the Messrs. Sim- mons, and others in a position to know insisted that the lines of Dolly Spanker could not be traced, and this was the decision of the American Trotting Register Association. Mr. Simmons often regretted that he had dropped the name of Fillingham for George Wilkes, because the man whom he sought to honor by the change proved an ingrate. Trotters and pacers from George XWilkes followed each other in such rapid succes- sion that all the horse-loving world fixed its eyes upon the modest quarters that the brown stallion I 5 7 i58 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse occupied near Lexington. Thousands sang his praises, and the literature sent out by William L. Simmons fed the excitement. May Bird, 2.2 1, was the first prominent produce of George Wilkes, and she died without issue on the farm of Robert Bonner. Harry Wilkes, who took a record of 2.I31-, was a star performer, but was succeeded by stars of greater magnitude. George Wilkes died at Ashgrove Farm, May 28, i882, and his roll of honor consists of 72 trotters and i i pacers, and sub-families of speed scattered over the entire country. Among the I02 speed-begetting sons of George Wilkes are Baron Wilkes, Alcantara, Alcyone, Bourbon Wilkes, Brown Wilkes, Jay Bird, Kentucky Wilkes, Onward, Patchen Wilkes, Red Wilkes, Simmons, Wilton, Wilkes Boy, Gambetta Wilkes, The King, and Sherman. At one period the ownership of a good stallion by George Wilkes was equivalent to a generous income from government bonds. Ninety-nine of the daughters of George WNilkes are speed-pro- ducing dams. In all directions the blood breeds on, and the family will survive coming genera- tions. After I had begun this history Mr. William L. Simmons, who is now breeding and racing runners instead of trotters, sent me a few notes Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian from Ashgrove Farm, which I reproduce: "After Lady Thorn defeated Dexter, Mr. Relf proposed two matches with George Wilkes saying, 'Sim- mons, let's you and I make a couple of matches. I know you think the brown horse can beat my mare and I think she can beat your horse.' We made one to harness and one to wagon to be trotted a week apart. On the day of the first race McLaughlin, who had trained both the mare and the horse (having softening of the brain, Crooks took Wilkes in charge, and Peg Pfeifer drove the big mare) walked up to us and says: ' Well, old man, you have matched the old mare against the little horse.' 'Yes,' says Mr. Relf. 'What do you think of it, Sam ' ' Think of it,' replied Sam, ' Mr. Relf, if that little horse is any- where near himself, he will make you think the sun has gone down. Mr. Relf, you tie one of them coal cables around the little horse's sulky and the other end around that big mare's neck, and he will choke her to death.' George XWilkes won both races in straight heats, trotting the fastest wagon race up to that time. Wthile a trot was in progress at Fashion track, Long Island, and the people all interested in the contest, we sneaked Wilkes over to the old Centreville track, I159 i6o The Trotting and the Pacing Horse then out of use and somewhat grass-grown, and gave him a repeat, Horace Jones up. He went the first mile comfortably in 2.19k1 and the next in 2.i81-; after walking 12 minutes without being unhooked. After cooling him out we drove back to Fashion Course and got there before the trot was over without our absence being noticed. After the last heat a number of gentlemen ad- joined to the bar on Jackson Avenue. Just as we reached the room Bill Cunningham led Wilkes (then Robert Fillingham) from the highway and around the corner of the house in full view of everybody. Sam McLaughlin shouts, 'You've been trying the little horse. I'll bet I can come within one second of how well he went.' I re- plied, 'Not for a basket,' and he said ' Yes, for a basket,' and fixed 2.33 as the mark. 'You win, Sam. You must have gone to guessing school. Joe, set up the wine.' A few days after we matched him against the then king of turf, Ethan Allen, and the result is now biography - Wilkes won with consummate ease. Ethan was favorite at about IOO to 30 at first, but before the start the brown horse was ioo to 6o. There was a world of money bet. Sam McLaughlin drove George Wilkes two Prepo tent Sons of HamblelonIan miles over Union Course, Long Island, in 4.44 so easily that on dismounting he picked up his fore- foot, spat on the shoe, which was so hot that it sizzled as if at white heat and suddenly dropped into water, declaring that he never moved him and could drive him two miles in 4.36 or 4.37 sure. "George Wilkes worked a half-mile over the Union (Long Island) Course in I.04 to a 120- poundc wagon. "He worked a quarter of a mile from the half to the three-quarter pole in 29 seconds, Mr. Relf, Wesley Bishop, and myself timing him. This wvas done to S5-pound wagon. " He went from the stand on the Union to the drawgate to a wagon (85 pounds) in I.44, when he was pulled up and finished the mile in a w\alk ill 2.18. "All this was 40 years ago, over ground at least io seconds slower than tracks of to-day, waith old methods of training, shoeing, etc., and without the aid of the delusive and deceptive bike. If alive and fit to-day, George Wilkes ws ould defeat every horse in the world easily. Compare ground io seconds, shoeing and train- ing 3 or 4 seconds, and the bike from 4 to 20 seconds, according to the horse, and we must M i6i i62 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse conclude that the equal of George Wilkes in speed has not yet appeared. As a sire he will never be approached." The transfer of George Wilkes from New York to Kentucky gave him the benefit of a climatic outcross, but just how much merit there is in this cross belongs more to the realm of specula- tion than to demonstrated fact. Some breeds of domestic animals have more power to accommo- date themselves to climatic conditions than others, which shows higher plasticity in organism; and when such is the case there is generally an in- crease in size and vitality. Constitution is affected by the change when artificial conditions are not introduced, and food has its influence. The mares sent to Ashgrove from distant states usu- ally ran in woodland pastures and were nourished by blue-grass. George Wilkes himself had the advantage of a large paddock, and his stable was liberally ventilated. The change from training environment evidently added to his vigor, and freedom from artificial restraint improved the mares at his court. I have long believed in the climatic outcross, and yet when reasons are de- manded that will satisfy the sceptical it is diffi- cult to give them. C. J. Hamlin was one of the Prepotent Sons of Hamble/onial 6 men who underrated the ability of George Wilkes. His contention was that the vitality-sapping race campaigns had weakened his power of transmis- sion. He overlooked the fact that change of climate and complete relaxation had restored the vitality used up in the training stable. August Weismann tells us that the most active birds have long lives. The stormy petrel lays only a single egg once a year, because through wonder- ful activity the species can be preserved without resort to large families. Jungle fowls that fly badly lay about 20 eggs each. The track horse certainly leads an active life, and the devel- opment of gait enables him to transmit with a higher degree of uniformity the acquired or in- tensified character. The use of an organ increases and the disuse of it decreases its capacity. While germ cells to a degree limit growth, we obtain size by an increase of nourishment from genera- tion to generation. Haeckel's theory of reproduc- tionl is that it is an overgrowth of an individual -that heredity is simply a continuity of growth. The trotting brain, the trotting instinct, of George Wilkes was certainly duplicated in his progeny, and therefore there was continuity of growth in this direction. i63 164 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Red Wilkes, bay horse, foaled in i874, and by George Wilkes out of Queen Dido by Mambrino Chief, she out of a daughter of Red Jacket by Billy Root by Sherman Morgan, was a large horse and not free from coarseness, although he had a finish-giving cross from Justin Morgan. He was trained comparatively little, and yet he is one of the greatest producing sons of the founder of the Wilkes family. The fastest of his I24 trotters was Ralph Wilkes, who took a record of 2.o6-4- before death claimed him at Maplehurst, the breeding farm of Colonel John E. Thayer; but the sensational campaign horse was Prince Wilkes, 2.I44, who died in South America after George A. Singerly had received 30,000 for him. A sensational young trotter was Phil Thompson, 2.Xi61. Among the 46 pacers by Red Wilkes is Ithuriel, 2.094. Ashland Wilkes, 2.I74, ranks high among the 98 producing sons of Red Wilkes. He is the sire of both trotters and pacers, his fastest pacer being John R. Gentry, 2.004-. Allie Wilkes is another great producing son of Red Wilkes. His fastest trotter is Jupe, 2.071-, and his fastest pacer is Arlington, 2.o64. Of the daughters of Red XWilkes 9i are speed- producing dams. Prepotent Sons of Hambletanian Kentucky Wilkes, by George Wilkes, out of Minna by Red Jacket, a grandson of Sherman Morgan, she out of Undine by Gray Eagle, is the same age as Red Wilkes, but a horse of different pattern. He is a wiry, nervous horse, with the head and neck of an Arab, and legs of steel. He was severely campaigned and retired with a trot- ting record of 2.2I1. With restricted opportuni- ties in the stud, he is the sire of two trotters with records faster than 2.II, -Bravado, 2.IOi-, and Temple Wilkes, 2.io0. The fast pacer, Crafty, 2.012, is also by him. Chain Shot, 2.061, is out of a daughter of Kentucky Wilkes. At this writ- ing Kentucky Wilkes is still living like one done with the exciting problems of life, at Marshland, the breeding farm of ex-Secretary of the Navy Benjamin F. Tracy. Onward was a bay horse, foaled in i875; bred by Richard West of Georgetown, Kentucky, and by George Wilkes out of Dolly by Mambrino Chief. He trotted to a record of 2.251 and was what you might call heavy-handed. I remember when he came into the show ring at the great St. Louis Fair. His action was somewhat strained, and I suggested to my associate judge that we examine his feet. The moment we lifted up the I6 5 i66 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse fore foot we discovered that he was shod to force action. The shoe must have weighed close to three pounds. On another occasion Onward was brought before me, and when the decision was in favor of Jay Gould, a highly formed and well-bal- anced horse with a faster record, Colonel R. P. Pepper, then the owner of the son of Dolly, was bitterly disappointed. An affront to his horse was an affront to him. No horse, during the time he was owned by Colonel Pepper, was ever more pushed than Onward; and yet he proved his greatness. He is the sire of 136 trotters, in- cluding Beuzetta, 2.064, and Onward Silver, 2.051; also of 46 pacers, among them Pearl Onward, 2.o61, Gazette, 2.071, and Colbert, 2.071. One 2'4 hundred and seven sons of Onward are sires of speed, and 8o of his daughters are dams of speed. Alcantara, bay horse, foaled in i876, and his brother Alcyone, one year younger, were out of Alma Mater by Mambrino Patchen, she out of Estella, thoroughbred daughter of imported Aus- tralian, and the blood combination was the reverse of a handicap. Alcantara trotted to a record of 2.23 previous to being taken to the Berkshire Hills, where he was energetically managed, and he is the sire of 104 trotters and 47 pacers, and of Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian 48 producing sons and 35 producing daughters. So many of the get of Alcantara were pacers as to strengthen the belief that the two gaits are interchangeable, especially when the trainer is easy-going and allows the horse to choose his own way of progression. Alcyone was a smaller but better balanced horse than Alcantara and had more speed, although he did not obtain so fast a record. He died young and yet left a great reputation for his chances in the stud. Three of his 50 trotters have records better than 2.10,- Martha Wilkes, 2.08; Bush, 2.091; and Harrietta, 2.094. The fastest of his nine pacers is Alcyo, 2.i0. Among the 48 producing sons of Alcyone are Quartermaster, McKinney, and Dark Night. Twenty-two of his daughters are dams of speed. There was no antagonism between the blood of George Wilkes and that of Alma Mater. When parents bear some resemblance to each other, when kindred influences act in conjunction, potency in transmission is secured. Guy Wilkes, a bay horse, foaled in 1879, dam Lady Bunker, by Mambrino Patchen, was wor- shipped from afar in the palmy days of San Mateo Stock Farm. He had trotted to a record of 2.151 and had sired early speed, and visitors to i67 i68 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse California from the Eastern states caught the fever and proclaimed him the best son of George Wilkes. When William Corbitt closed out his stud and Guy Wilkes found a home east of the Rocky Mountains, enthusiasm over him abated. Among the 71 trotters sired by him are Fred Kohl, 2.073; Huldah, 2.o8l; and Lesa Wilkes, 2.09. The fastest of his eight pacers is Seymour Wilkes, 2.081. The blood of Guy Wilkes is going forward through 30 producing sons and i8 producing daughters. One of the sons, Nutwood Wilkes, is the sire of John A. McKerron, 2.041. The stallions by George Wilkes which were prominent at Ashgrove after the death of their sire were Jay Bird, a roan of i6 hands, dam Lady Frank by Mambrino Star, son of Mambrino Chief; William L., a bay of 15.3, dam Lady Bunker by Mambrino Patchen, second dam Lady Dunn by Seely's American Star; and Young Jim, a handsome bay of 15.31, dam by Lear's Sir Will- iam by Howard's Sir Charles. Jay Bird is the sire of 82 trotters and six pacers, and one of the trotters is Allerton, 2.091, a prolific sire of speed. He is the best of the 27 producing sons of Jay Bird, who has 27 producing dams. William L., the brother of Guy Wilkes, won highest honors Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian as the sire of Axtell, who trotted as a three- year-old to a record of 2.12, and who was sold on the strength of the performance for 105,000. Axtell has contributed shoals of trotters to the list, and his blood is breeding on as forcibly as that of Allerton. Trevillian, 2.084, exported to Europe, is the fastest of the 46 performers by Young Jim. The blood of this horse also shows vigor through his sons and daughters. Gambetta Wilkes by George Wilkes, dam by Gill's Vermont, a direct descendant of Justin Morgan, is the sire of 58 trotters and 59 pacers, a number of which have shown extreme speed. Behind the blood of George Wilkes and Justin Morgan is thoroughbred blood, and experience shows that this race-horse blood gives speed at either gait in harness. The tendency to pace is largely due to conformation. The King, one of the handsomest horses ever seen in a show ring or on the track, was a brother of Gambetta \Vilkes, and he sired more than four times as many trotters as pacers. H. M. Whitehead, owner of The King, was partial to the trotter and insisted that the sons and daughters of his horse should be trained to trot. This probably reduced the pacing average. i69 170 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Wilton and Simmons are two other great pro- ducing sons of George Wilkes, but Baron Wilkes is the greatest living representative of the founder of the powerful family. He was foaled in i882, trotted to a record of 2.18, and on the death of Ralph Wilkes was purchased by Colonel John E. Thayer and transferred from Kentucky to Maple- hurst Farm, Lancaster, Massachusetts. He is the sire of 83 trotters and 21 pacers, and of 30 sires and 26 dams of speed. Three of his trotters and six of his pacers have records of better than 2.10. Making extreme speed the test, Oakland Baron is the greatest producing son of Baron Wilkes. He is owned at Hudson River Stock Farm by Jacob Ruppert, and is the sire of Rhythmic, 2.064; Baron de Shay, 2.o8l ; and Gail Hamilton, 2.111. Wilton, 2.i94, by George Wilkes, out of Alley (dam of Albert France, 2.204, and Alley Rus- sell, 2.234) by Hambletonian, second dam Lady Griswold by Flying Morgan, is strong in founda- tion blood, and among his fast produce are Will Leyburn, 2.074; Vera Capel, 2.071; Bessie Wil- ton, 2.094; Rubber, 2.I0; and Moquette, 2.I0. Doubling the blood of Hambletonian and back- ing it up with the blood of Justin Morgan worked well in the case of Wilton. Prepoteust Sons of Hambletonian Messenger Duroc When Charles Backman started to make Stony Ford the greatest trotting nursery of the country he put more faith in Messenger Duroc than any other stallion on the place. This rangy bay horse stood i6 hands, was foaled in i865 and was by Rysdyk's Hambletonian, dam Satinet by Roe's Abdallah Chief (he by Abdallah son of Mambrino out of a daughter of Philips by Duroc); second dam Catbird by Whistle Jacket (son of Mambrino by Messenger out of a daughter of American Eclipse); third dam Lyon mare by Bertholf Horse by Messenger; and fourth dam by Duroc by im- ported Diomed. It was an attractive pedigree, and Messenger Duroc was of commanding ap- pearance with bold trotting action. One of his weaknesses was gummy legs, and it was trans- mitted. Early speed came from Messenger Duroc, and for a time he was quite the fashion. His admirers even pointed to him as the successor of Hambletonian. But his sons and daughters, on account of leg infirmity, did not stand up to the severe work of long campaigns, and he fell into disfavor. The contribution of Messenger Duroc to the 2.30 list was 22 trotters and one pacer; 17 I 172 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse and Mr. Backman regarded this one pacer as a blemish on the escutcheon of his horse. The best of the 25 producing sons of Messenger Duroc was Antonio, who died comparatively young. As a sire of dams Messenger Duroc stands highest. Fifty of his daughters are pro- ducers. CHAPTER XVII THE FAMILY OF ELECTIONEER UNDER the head of the two-year-old colts there appeared in the first catalogue of Stony Ford stud (I870), " Electioneer, b.c., foaled May 2, i868; got by Rysdyk's Hambletonian; first dam Green Mountain Maid by Harry Clay; second dam by Lexington. Dam of Harry Clay by imported Bellfounder." One night in the famous smoking room of the mansion I explained to Mr. Backman the impossibility of the Lexington cross, and in succeeding catalogues the line descending from the great four-mile race-horse was dropped. The pedigree of Green Mountain Maid was short, and this was one reason why his breeder and owner did not attempt to push him to the front. In 1876 Leland Stanford, ex-Governor of California, visited Stony Ford and after looking the animals over asked the price of Electioneer. The figure named, I2,500, was satisfactory, and the horse, then eight years old, changed owners. Elaine by Messenger Duroc, out of Green Mountain Maid, 173 174 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse was purchased at the same time by Governor Stanford. At Palo Alto Farm, iioo acres in Santa Clara Valley, California, Electioneer had a wonderful career. The horse was never trained for races, but he was a natural trotter; and Charles Marvin informed me, when I was on a visit to Palo Alto, that he had driven Electioneer at better than a 2.20 gait. In his days of vigor Electioneer stood 15.21, had immense quarters, and he combined quality with substance. When treated kindly he was easily controlled, and as Governor Stanford said in one of his announce- ments, he imparted the most desirable qualities, "soundness, high form, uniformly pure gait, ex- cellent disposition, and extreme speed at an early age." He was what is called a line trotter, and the low and direct action fairly consumed space. Mares representing many different families were bred to him, but his potency was so great as to stamp his image on the produce of all. His colts, like himself, were natural trotters; and it was sel- dom that heavy shoes or toe weights were used in their track education. Uniformity of size was also one of the good points of the progeny of Electioneer, differing widely in this particular from the progeny of George Wilkes. Governor The Family of Electioneer Stanford was an advocate of early development. Judicious exercise, as he frequently said to me, was not harmful. On the contrary, it added strength to growth. The trainer was always required to stop the quick exercise before the fatigue point was reached. This kept the colt buoyed up, and he was willing to try the next time. Beautiful Bells was bred to Electioneer, and the result was the brown filly Hinda Rose, foaled February 27, i88o. She was a sensational yearling, trotting to a record of 2.361, and there was great desire to see her when she came east as a two-year-old in the stable of Marvin. She trotted to a three-year-old record of 2.I91., and Robert Bonner vainly sought to add her to his collection of stars. Fred Crocker, a bay gelding, foaled March 23, I878, by Electioneer out of Melinche by St. Clair, established the two-year- old trotting record at 2.25-1, and he riveted atten- tion upon his sire. The question often was asked, iWill the equal of Fred Crocker ever be seen " Other fast two-year-olds by Election- eer were Bonita, 2.24-2; Wildflower, 2.2 I; and Sunol, 2.i8. These were to high-wheel sulky on tracks not as fast as those of to-day. The supreme two-year-old by Electioneer is A rion, 17 5 176 The Trotting anid the Pacinig Horse bay horse, foaled March 13, i889, dam Manette by Nutwood. His record of 2.104o to high-wheel sulky is the best of its kind ever made. The champion three-year-old trotters by Electioneer are Hinda Rose (I883-I885), 2.I9,, and Sunol (i889-i893), 2.I0o. The champion yearling by Electioneer is Bell Bird, I891, 2.261. In 1894 the yearling record was reduced to 2.23 by Adbell by Advertiser, son of Electioneer. In 189i Sunol, as a five-year-old, reduced the trotting record for that age to 2.084. This was to high- wheel sulky without artificial aids, and it is still the best of its kind. In i89i, trotting to high- wheel sulky, Palo Alto reduced the stallion record to 2.084. As Sunol is out of Waxana by General Benton, she out of Waxy, thoroughbred daughter of Lexington, and as the dam of Palo Alto is Dame Winnie, thoroughbred daughter of Planet, these two performers made clear the fact, even to the obtuse, that Electioneer was wonder- fully prepotent. He transmitted the trot through other running mares, notably in Ansel, 2.20, dam Annette, thoroughbred daughter of Lexington; Azmoor, 2.204, dam Mamie C., thoroughbred daughter of imported Hercules; and in Advance, 2.224, dam Lady Amanda, thoroughbred daugh- The Family of Electioneer ter of imported Hurrah. Whips by Electioneer, out of Lizzie Whips, thoroughbred daughter of Enquirer, trotted in 2.274-, and sired Azote, 2.04-. Truman, who trotted in 2.12, is by Electioneer out of Telie by General Benton, and she out of Texana, thoroughbred daughter of Foreigner, son of imported Glencoe. These impressive truths took the wind out of the sails of dogmatic theo- rists, and every year added to the lustre of the star of Electioneer. The championship laurel was worn by many of his i58 trotters, and one of the jewels in his crown is that he sired but two pacers. His family is steadily growing in numbers and importance, and conspicuous among his 98 pro- ducing sons are Chimes, St. Bel, Sphinx, Elec- trite, Expedition, Anteeo, Arion, and Del Mar. Eighty-three of his daughters are dams of speed. As a direct transmitter of the trotting gait and as a factor in the problem of extreme speed, Electioneer stands in a class by himself. His equal has not yet appeared. He died Decem- ber 3, I 890. Chimes, brown horse, i6 hands, foaled April 4, I884; by Electioneer, dam Beautiful Bells by The Moor, trotted in 2.30- as a three-year-old and was not further trained on account of a N I77 178 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse quarter crack. At Village Farm he made a great reputation as a sire of speed. His daughter Fantasy held the three-year-old record, 2.083, and the four-year-old record, 2.06. His son, The Abbot, was the champion trotter until his record of 2.03-4 was beaten by Cresceus. Chimes is the sire of 72 in the list, and his daughters have produced American Belle, three-year-old, 2.124; Dare Devil, 2.09; and Lady of the Manor (pacer), 2.041. St. Bel, the elder brother of Chimes, trotted to four-year-old record of 2.121, and was making rapid progress in the stud at Prospect Hill Stock Farm, Franklin, Pennsylvania, when death cut short his career in September, i89I. The fastest of his 47 trotters is Lynne Bel, 2.Iolt, also a pro- ducing sire. Baron Bel, 2.1 n, is the fastest of his nine pacers. Whips is the sire of Azote, 2.044; Cobwebs, 2.12; and eight other trotters. His one pacer, Myrtha Whips, has a record of 2.09. Whips died in his prime. Ansel, before his death, sired Answer, 2.141, and eight other trotters. He also had one pacer, Miss Emma, 2.17. Anteeo by Electioneer, out of Columbine by A. W. Richmond, she out of Columbia, thorough- The Family of Electioneer bred daughter of imported Bonnie Scotland, trotted to a record of 2.I64, and is the sire of 46 trotters and one pacer. The best of his nine pro- ducing sons is Alfred G., sire of 33 in the list. The fastest of his trotters is Charley Herr, 2.07, a stallion with an iron constitution. The fastest trotter by Arion is Nico, 2.o8X. Fannella, one of his daughters, trotted as a brood mare to a record of 2.2221, and is the dam of Sadie Mac, 2.I I, the winner of the Kentucky Futurity in I 903. Sphinx (i883) by Electioneer out of Sprite by Belmont, second dam the famous Waterwitch by Pilot Jr., trotted to a record of 2.201- and is the sire of 56 trotters and 3I pacers. The fastest of his get are pacers, which shows that the influence of Pilot Jr. was felt in descending lines. Egotist, the younger brother of Sphinx, has a record of 2.2221, and is the sire of 40 trotters and three pacers. In this instance the blood of Pilot Jr. did not strongly assert itself. Electrite, a still younger brother, has a record of 2.282. He was purchased as a weanling by Allen Farm for 5ooo, and later was sold at a long price to go to Texas. He has 35 trotters and i9 pacers. I179 i8o Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse Here the influence of the pacing ancestry was more in evidence. The closer we inquire into the brother busi- ness the more we are puzzled at some of its vagaries. Is it not true that each organism possesses the power of reacting on the different external influences with which it is brought in contact Impressions made upon the mind of the future mother in the nuptial hour may shape to some extent the fortunes of the foal. And nutrition is an influence that cannot be ignored. I was in St. Louis when Lady Russell, sister of Maud S., started to California to form a closer acquaintance with Electioneer. It was a union which I had urged upon Mr. Brodhead, as well as Senator Stanford, because it would result in the commingling of the blood of the two great brood mares, Miss Russell and Green Mountain Maid, and naturally I was gratified at the news. The message came by wire from Woodburn that Lady Russell and the mares that accompanied her might be stopped and exhibited at the famous St. Louis Fair, and no time was lost in advising the public of this fact. The distin- guished mares from the most renowned of Ken- tucky breeding farms received an ovation on The Family of Electioneer the fair ground, and the journey to Palo Alto was resumed, where Lady Russell produced, April 5, i889, a brown colt by Electioneer, which was named Expedition. The colt developed into a horse of speed and a sire of speed. Expe- dition was trained comparatively little, and yet in I894 he trotted to a record of 2.I 53. His brother, Re-Election, and his sister, Electrix, also trotted to records, and their blood is march- ing on. Mary P. Leyburn, out of a pacing daughter of Onward, is the fastest of the 34 trotters by Expedition. Her record is 2.1 I4. Re-Election has contributed eight trotters and three pacers to the list. Norval, 2.141, dam Norma by Norman, 25, second dam by Todhunter's Sir Wallace, is one of the forcible speed-producing sons of Elec- tioneer. He has 6 I trotters and I 7 pacers, and I 3 of his sons are sires of trotters. In i885 he was bred to Elaine, daughter of Green Mountain Maid, and the result was the brown filly Norlaine, the first of her age to reduce the trotting record to 2.3 I1. Norlaine, unfor- tunately, perished in a stable fire. Palo Alto, who as a four-year-old trotted to a record of 2.204, as a seven-year-old in 2.T2+, i8i 182 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse and then reduced the stallion record to 2.o84, was one of the gamest horses that ever scored for the word. His first dam was by Planet, his second dam by imported Glencoe, and his third dam by imported Margrave. Why then should he not carry his action through stubborn contests of divided heats Palo Alto died July 27, I892, and as he was one of the horses that Governor Stanford refused to price, - a friend of mine offered iooooo for him, -his loss was severely felt. The fastest of his I4 trotters was Iran Alto, 2.I2'1, and three of his sons are producing sires. 4, May King, the sire of Bingen, 2.064, and other fast trotters, is by Electioneer out of May Queen, 2.20, and he has a record of 2.21. February i6, i887, the chestnut mare Sontag Dixie by Toronto Sontag, out of Dixie by Billy Townes, running bred, produced the bay colt Del Mar by Electioneer. He passed to Suburban Stock Farm, Glens Falls, New York. He trotted to a record of 2.i63, and meeting with an acci- dent, was destroyed. Among his iI trotters are Copeland, 2.091, and Major Delmar, I.594. He was a sire of extreme speed, and it is a pity that he could not have lived to witness the triumph of his wind-splitting son. The Family of Eleclioneer i83 The Electioneer family is one of remarkable vigor, and the years add to instead of take from its importance. Those who believe in the doc- trine of the survival of the fittest will keep close to the family founded by one of the greatest, if not the greatest, son of Hambletonian. CHAPTER XVIII VOLUNTEER, ABERDEEN, HAPPY MEDIUM, DICTATOR, HAROLD, AND STRATHMORE Volunleer ONE of the early foals of Hambletonian was Volunteer (I854), dam Lady Patriot by Young Patriot, son of Patriot by Blucher; second dam the Lewis Hulse Mare, fast at the trot and the run. Volunteer was placed in the stud at Washington- ville, Orange County, not far from Chester; and as his owner, Alden Goldsmith, was industrially pushing him into popular favor, Mr. Rysdyk was nettled, and he denounced Lady Patriot as the poorest mare ever sent to the court of Hamble- tonian. This statement was far from true, but it had its effect upon some people. Mr. Goldsmith did not relax his efforts, and the reputation of Volunteer steadily grew. The stallion trotted to a wagon record of 2.37 and had a highly finished, courageous look. I doubt if he would have trained on because he was rough-gaited, but what he accomplished in the stud will cause 184 Volunteer him long to be remembered. His first great trotter was Gloster, a bay gelding, bred by James Roosevelt of Hyde Park, New York, foaled in I876; dam Black Bess by Stockbridge Chief; second dam by Mambrino Paymaster. Alden Goldsmith purchased and campaigned him, and when he trotted to a record of 2.17 at Roches- ter, August I4, I874, his fame was heralded over the country. A long price was refused for him, and it was decided to give him the benefit of a win- ter in California. He was taken there, and died October 30, i874. Powers, 2.21; Huntress, 2.203; Driver, 2.19; Bodine, 2.I9-; Alley, 2.I9; and Domestic, 2.20, were among the hard fighters in grand circuit campaigns, and their good feet and legs and unshrinking courage caused think- ing people to respect their sire. St. Julien, who once divided championship honors with Maud S., was the fastest of the Volunteer tribe. He was a bay gelding, foaled in 1879, and dam Flora by Harry Clay, 45, second dam by Napoleon. Orrin A. Hickok trained him and drove him to his record of 2.1 -I at Hartford, August 27, i 88o. The producing record of Volunteer is 38 trotters and one pacer, and 4I sires and 54 dams of speed. Sweetness, who trotted to a i85 i86 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse record of 2.21 1, was by Volunteer, and she is the dam of Sidney, 2.19., sire of Sidney Dillon, the sire of Lou Dillon. Volunteer was a bay horse of commanding appearance, standing 15.3, and he died at Walnut Grove Farm, Decem- ber 13, i888. Lady Patriot died at Thorn- dale, September 2, i876, the property of Edwin Thorne. Her son, Sentinel, brother of Volun- teer, trotted to a record of 2.294. He died at ten years old after siring trotters and sires and dams of trotters. Heroine, the sister of Volun- teer, is the dam of Shawmut, 2.26, and Hero of Thorndale, prominent as a brood-mare sire. Shawmut is also a sire of speed. Aberdeen Isaiah Rynders, who was once a notable figure in the political life of New York City, owned a chestnut mare, foaled in i852, by Seely's Ameri- can Star, called Widow Machree, who trotted to a record of 2.29 at Union Course, Long Island, June 7, i86i. He sent this courageous mare to Chester, and in the spring of i866 a bay colt by Hambletonian was born. The youngster devel- oped into a shapely and strongly muscled horse and was named Aberdeen. Captain Rynders Aberdeen was a man of quick temper and violent speech, and he was led into many heated controversies over Aberdeen and the blood lines of his second dam. He came to me often in his trouble and was soothed as far as possible with gentle words. Aberdeen, who stood i5.3, trotted but one race and that was in a three-year-old stake, at Prospect Park, Long Island, which was won in 2.46. In private he was timed a half-mile in i.o09. When Hattie Woodward, a daughter of Aberdeen, swept all before her in the grand circuit and trotted to a record of 2.I51 , Captain Rynders was in his glory, and his stallion, as a matter of course, was the peer of any stallion that ever lived. Early in March, i88i, Captain Rynders came to me with a story of distress. William H. Vanderbilt had demanded payment of a note given his father, the gallant old Commodore, and Rynders said, with moisture in his eyes, that in order to make the payment he would be compelled to sell Aber- deen. He named a price that he would take, and two days later General W. T. Withers of Ken- tucky called at my office. As soon as he heard about Aberdeen he asked me to go to Passaic, New Jersey, with him to see Captain Rynders and the horse. When we arrived at the breeding i87 i88 The Trotuing and the Pacing Horse establishment we found Aberdeen chained in his stall, and the services of three men were required to lead him out. Although the horse acted like a savage, General Withers paid the price and took him away. Rynders was never the same man after this. He grieved much over the loss of his horse. In October of the same year I was at Fairlawn and asked for Aberdeen. General Withers pointed to a three-acre paddock, and there was a stallion quietly grazing. An old negro groom was sent after him, and he put a bridle on the horse and led him to his roomy box stall as quietly as he would a lamb. The open- air treatment, combined with gentleness, had driven savage thoughts from the brain of Aber- deen, and he was as docile as any stallion at Fair- lawn, until the death of General Withers in i889. Then he passed to Colonel James E. Clay of Paris, Kentucky, and remained his property until he died, in October, 1892. Kentucky Union, 2.071, is the fastest of the 49 trotters from the loins of Aberdeen. Among his 33 producing sons is Sir Walter, 2.2441, sire of Sir Walter Jr., 2. 81, sire of Alcidalia, 2.Io0, and Glory, 2.II 1 \Viggins, sire of Katharine A., 2.14, and other fast ones, is another producing son. Onward Happy Mediun Silver, 2.05-, is out of one of the producing daughters of Aberdeen. Happy Medium Princess, who was born in Vermont, in I846; who was by Andrus Hambletonian, a descendant of Messenger; who was owned by D. A. Gage of Chicago, and trotted under the name of Topsy; who passed from him to California, where she dis- tinguished herself on the turf; and who was in rivalry with Flora Temple,- made the acquaint- ance of Hambletonian in i862, when the country was convulsed with war, and in the spring of i863 a bay colt, bred by R. F. Galloway of Sufferns, New York, appeared. This colt was named Happy Medium, and he grew into a horse of 15.2. i--Ie started in public once as a four-year-old, and once as a six-year-old. In his last race he trotted to a record of 2.321, and when eight years old was purchased by Robert Steel of Philadelphia, for 25,000. When i6 years old he passed from Cedar Park Stud to Fairlawn and died the property of General W. T. Withers, in February, i888. At one time the critics found much fault with Happy Medium, said that he was too light- waisted to sire a robust family, and that his weak- i89 i o The Trolling and the Pacing Horse ness was due to the vitality-sapping campaigns of his dam. The Happy Mediums had good action but were termed soft-hearted. His great- est triumphs were achieved at Fairlawn. The fastest of his 87 trotters is Nancy Hanks, dam Nancy Lee by Dictator, who became queen of the turf when Budd Doble drove her at Terre Haute, in September, I892, to a record of 2.04. This record held for two years, when Alix beat it by one-quarter of a second. Milton Medium, 2.251, one of the 66 producing sons of Happy Medium, is the sire of Lou Milton, dam of Lou Dillon, I.5821. The greatest producing son of Happy Medium is Pilot Medium, gray horse, foaled in 1879, sire of Peter the Great, 2.074, and 96 other trotters; also sire of 2i pacers. The sons and daughters of Pilot Medium are also speed-pro- ducers. Maxey Cobb, an entire son of Happy Medium, reduced the stallion record to 2.131 in 1884, and held the championship for five years. Dictator Clara was the name of a black filly, bred by Jonathan Hawkins of Orange County, New York, sired by Seely's American Star, and foaled in i848. Her dam was a brown mare with four Dictator white feet, standing 15.2, obtained from a gypsy band and used for family driving. She produced Shark, who trotted to saddle in 2.2 743. Clara stood 14.3, and had a star, snip, and three white feet. Young Hawkins drove her pretty hard on the country roads until the spring of 1857, when he sent her to Chester and bred her to Hambletonian, and thus became possessed of the phenomenal trotter Dexter. In i863 the brown colt Dictator, brother of Dexter, was foaled. When eleven months old, Harrison Durkee, who had a breeding farm at Flushing, Long Island, purchased him. Alden Goldsmith broke him to harness, and as a three-year-old Dictator began his career at Spring Hill Stud Farm. Mr. Durkee was over cautious, and he talked much about the great speed of the brother of Dexter without giving the public a chance to hold their watches on the stallion. I frequently drove to Flushing in those days and saw Dictator in harness, but could not persuade his owner to enter him in races. In i876 John W. Conley urged Mr. Durkee to send Dictator to Kentucky, and the horse was leased to Colonel Richard West, of Edge Hill Farm, near George- town. The fee, 200, however, was too big I9I 192 The Trotting and Ibe Pacing Horse for the times; and in I878 the brother of Dexter was returned to Long Island. Among the trotters sired by Dictator while at Edge Hill Farm were Jay-eye-see, 2.10; Phallas, 2.1 3 ; and Director, 2.17. In the summer of I 884 these three were the sensation of the grand circuit. Just before I left New York for Chicago Mr. Durkee asked me to find a purchaser for Dic- tator at 15,000. At the Buffalo meeting I was staying with Mr. C. J. Hamlin, and when he spoke of a stallion that could take the shine out of Jerome Eddy, 2.I6-, then at the head of his great rival, Jewett Farm, I suggested Dic- tator, sire of the champion trotting gelding and of the champion trotting stallion. Although Dictator was then approaching the yellow leaf, Mr. Hamlin authorized me to offer 20,000 for him. I went to New York, but could not bring Mr. Durkee to terms. He telegraphed, during the negotiations, to Major H. C. McDowell of Lexington, Kentucky, that I was trying to buy the horse; and McDowell took the next train for New York. As soon as he arrived he called on A. A. and David Bonner, and persuaded them to join him in the purchase of the stallion at 25,000. Whatever you may say of Mr. Durkee, Dictator he was keen at a bargain. At Ashland, the old historic home of Hon. Henry Clay, Dictator was not in vigorous health for a time, and the Bonner interest passed to McDowell. The horse died May 25, I893, at the age of 30 years. He was a very impressive sire, and his blood is breeding on. He has 46 trotters and ii pacers in the list, and 56 sons are sires of speed. The best of these is Director, black horse, foaled in 1877, and out of the great brood mare Dolly by Mambrino Chief. As a three-year-old he trotted to a record of 2.30, was a game race- horse in his maturity, and retired to the stud with a record of 2.17. Among the 40 trotters sired by Director is Directum, dam Stemwinder by Venture, son of Williamson's Belmont. As a four-year-old he made a wonderful campaign, and reduced the stallion record to 2.05 . The fastest of Director's pacers is Direct, 2.0512, the sire of Directly, 2.034 at the pace. Director has 27 producing sons and 27 producing daughters. The blood of Dictator is so potent that extreme speed springs from it as we recede from the fountain head. 0 193 194 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Harold The first time I saw Harold, at Woodburn, I was disappointed in him, and in a letter which I wrote for publication described him as " bench- legged." This appellation stuck to him all his life. He was a bay horse, foaled September 14, I864, bred by Charles S. Dole of Crystal Lake, Illinois, by Rysdyk's Hambletonian (son of Abdallah), dam Enchantress by Abdallah. It was the desire of Mr. Dole to double the blood of Abdallah through good individuals, and he selected Enchantress because she was a bay of fine appearance, whose speed and courage had been tested on the road, and also because her dam was represented to be by imported Bell- founder. When ii months old Harold was sold to R. A. Alexander to take the place at Wood- burn made vacant by the death of Alexander's Abdallah. He grew into a horse of I5 hands, with great substance for his height; but early visitors to the farm were not strongly impressed by him. If they were partial to his blood lines they were not fascinated by his form. Harold's first great success was Maud S. This magnifi- cent chestnut out of Miss Rtissell in fact created Harold him. She made him the fashion, and mares of superior rank were sent to his court. He died October 6, i893, and among his 40 trotters and 5 pacers are Noontide, 2.201; Carmie L., 2.21 and Mattie Graham, 2.2I1. His best producing son, Lord Russell, brother of Maud S., 2.084, is without a record, but that is for the reason that he never started in public. The best of Lord Russell's get is Kremlin, who beat a powerful field for the Transylvania at Lexington, Octo- ber Io, i892, and who became the champion trot- ting stallion when he reduced his record to 2.071. A horse of more determination than Kremlin was never seen in a race. Hartford, another pro- ducing son of Harold, sired the famous little pacer Robert J., 2.0I4-. Beulah, foaled in i88i, by Harold out of Sally B. by Lever, thorough- bred son of Lexington and Levity by imported Trustee, is the dam of five in the list, including Beuzetta, 2.o64, and Early Bird, 2.i0. Ethelwyn by Harold out of Kathleen by Pilot Jr., she out of Little Miss, thoroughbred daughter of imported Sovereign, is the dam of five, including Extasy, 2. I I; Impetuous, 2.13; and Orator, 2.23. In all 54 of the daughters of Harold are speed pro- ducers. Attorney, one of the 45 producing sons 19 5 i96 [he Trotliig and tbe Pacing Horse of Harold, is the sire of Atlanta, dam of Alix, 2.034. Doubling the blood of Abdallah, son of Mambrino, son of Messenger, gave us an indi- vidual not free from criticism, but a progenitor of extreme speed at the trot and the pace. Sfrallhmore Strathmore, formerly called Goodwin Watson, was a bay horse, foaled in i866; bred by Aristides Welch of Erdenheim, near Philadelphia; got by Rysdyk's Hambletonian, dam Lady XValtemire, a roadster of celebrity by North American; second dam by Harris's Hambletonian. He was a horse of substance, a shade over 15 hands, and Mr. Welch used him principally on the road until he sold him, in 1873, to Colonel R. G. Stoner of Bourbon County, Kentucky. He left but three or four foals on the Atlantic seaboard, and one of these was the bay horse Chestnut Hill, dam Polly Barber by Bully King, son of George M. Patchen. He passed to A. WV. Griswold of New York, who drove him on the road and raced him to a limited extent. At Utica, in August, i879, he trotted to a record of 2.242. Steinway, bay colt by Strath- more out of Abbess by Albion, trotted in August, i879, at Lexington, to a three-year-old record of Stratbnwre 2.254, and as this was fast for those days general attention was attracted to the sire. Steinway never reduced his record, but was taken to Cali- fornia, where he sired a high rate of speed. More pacers than trotters came from him; and con- spicuous among his pacers are Klatawah, 2.05i; W. Wood, 2.07; Agitato, 2.09; and Cricket, 2.I0. One of his sons, Charles Derby, who trotted to a record of 2.20, is also a sire of fast pacers, - Don Derby, 2.06; Much Better, 2.074; and Derby Princess, 2.08 1. Santa Claus, bay horse, foaled in 1874, dam Lady Thorn Jr. by Williams's Mam- Tbrino by Ericsson, son of Mambrino Chief; second clam Kate by Highland Chief by Mambrino Chief, was the greatest son of Strathmore. The first time I saw him he was called Count Kilrush, and he showed as a three-year-old a high rate of speed on the track of Colonel West at Georgetown. In December, i877, John W. Conley took the colt to California, where he was sold to P. A. Finegan, and his name changed to Santa Claus. At Sac- ramento, in i879, he trotted to the five-year-old record, 2. I 8, and in i 88 i and I 882 was campaigned in the East by 0. A. Hickok, where he defeated such horses as Edwin Thorne, Piedmont, Wedge- wood, Voltaire, Hannis, Adele Gould, and Fanny I97 I98 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse Witherspoon, and reduced his record to 2. I 7 12 The fastest trotter sired by him is William Penn, 2.074, and one of his pacers, Sidney, 2.19 , was out of the trotting mare, Sweetness, 2.2 I 4, by Volunteer; second dam Lady Merritt by Edward Everett (son of Hambletonian); and third dam by Harry Clay. Here we have three direct lines to Hambletonian and two to Mambrino Chief, and yet Sidney preferred the lateral to the diagonal gait and is the sire of speed at both gaits. His trotters, however, outnumber his pacers, the fast- est being Monterey, 2.091-, and Dr. Leek, 2.091,. His fastest pacer is Lena N., 2.054. One of the mares bred to Sidney was Venus, dam of three in the list, and the produce was Sidney Dillon, sire of Dolly Dillon, 2.7 1, and Lou Dillon, I.581. As the champion trotter of the world traces directly in the male line to Strathmore, I have gone at some length into his blood lines. The tendency to pace was strong in Strathmore, who died at Fort Wayne, Indiana, March iI, i895. CHAPTER XIX CUYLER, EGBERT, JAY GOULD, EDWARD EVERETT, AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE HAMBLETONIAN TRIBE IN the first catalogue of Stony Ford, Gray Rose, a gray mare of 15.2 by Bishop's Hamble- tonian, appeared among the brood mares. She was bred to Rysdyk's Hambletonian and pro- duced, May I3, i868, a bay colt named Cuyler. He was but a few days younger than Electioneer, and the two grew up side by side. At maturity he stood I5.3 and was a horse of range, quality, and good temper. When he was four years old Mr. James C. McFerran bought him from Mr. Backman, choosing him over Electioneer. At Glenview Farm, the famous breeding establish- ment near Louisville, Kentucky, he made a repu- tation, but in October, i886, after the death of Mr. McFerran, was sold under the hammer to John H. Shults of New York. He died at Des Moines, Iowa, May 31, I894. Elvira, 2.I82; Day Dream, 2.2I4; and Algath, 2.23, attracted 199 200 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse attention to him as a sire of early speed. Elvira, who was out of Mary Mambrino (dam of Bea- trice) by Mambrino Patchen, was bred to Pan. coast, 2.213 (son of Woodford Mambrino and Bicara by Harold), and the result was Ponce de Leon, a black horse of i6 hands, who trotted to a record of 2.i3 and is a good producing sire. Beatrice, the sister of Elvira, is the dam of Patron, 2.1414, a distinguished trotter and sire; Prodigal, 2.i6, another famous trotter and sire; and Patron- age, the sire of Alix, 2.034. The blood of Cuyler thus rounded out champion form. Both Patron and Prodigal are the sires of fast pacers as well as fast trotters. Baron Crisp, 2.1242; Cuyler- coast, 2.11 ; and Prince of Orange, 2.074, are out of daughters of Cuyler. Egbert Camptown by Messenger Duroc (son of Ham- bletonian) was bred to Hambletonian, and the fruit was Egbert, who in the hands of Colonel Richard West achieved quite a reputation as a sire. Two of the 67 trotters by Egbert are Superior, 2.1721, sire of Wentworth, 2.o8; and Egthorne, 2.121, sire of Maid Thorn, 2.14. The daughters of Egbert are also noted for their speed- Eghert, Victor Bismarck, and Idol 201 producing qualities. The close doubling of the blood of Hambletonian returned in this case highly gratifying results. Victor Bismarck and Idol Victor Bismarck by Hambletonian, dam Hattie Wood (dam of Idol and Gazelle) by Harry Clay, second dam Grandmother by Terror by Eclipse, went from Stony Ford paddocks to Kentucky, where he achieved success. The climatic cross may have aided him. The fastest of his trotters was Edgemark, 2.I6, the sire of Miss Whitney, 2.0741. Edgemark had the benefit of another climatic cross, as he was transferred from Ken- tucky to Massachusetts. The fastest trotter by Idol, brother of Victor Bismarck, was Idolf, 2.I343 and the fastest pacer was Fidol, 2.0412. Gazelle, the sister of Victor Bismarck, trotted to a record of 2.2I, and at Palo Alto entered the great brood- mare list. Louis Napoleon, by Volunteer, out of Hattie Wood, also passed from Stony Ford paddocks to Michigan, where he sired 23 trotters and I I pacers. One of his producing sons is Jerome Eddy, 2.A61, sire of Fanny Wilcox, 2. I0. The sons and daughters of Jerome Eddy are also speed producers. 202 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Jay Gould Jay Gould was one of the highest formed sons of Hambletonian. He was a bay of I5.2, foaled in i864, dam Lady Sanford by Seely's American Star; second dam Old Sorrel by Exton Eclipse, son of American Eclipse; and third dam by Mes- senger Duroc by Sir Archy Duroc by Duroc by imported Diomed. His public appearance was sensational; at Buffalo, August i i, I871, under the name of Judge Brigham, he won the 5000 purse, from a stout field, and equalled the stallion record of George Wilkes, 2.22. Mr. Jay Gould was one of the gentlemen who witnessed the race, and he joined Henry N. Smith and George C. Hall in the purchase of the horse. The price paid was 30,ooo. His name was changed to Jay Gould, and the following year, at Buffalo, he reduced his record to 2.21I. In i874 he trotted a match race at Baltimore, against Bashaw Jr. In the first heat Bashaw went wrong and was distanced. Jay Gould trotted a second mile in 2.I93, but it was never considered a part of the technical record. Mr. Smith became the sole owner of Jay Gould, and at Fashion Stud Farm the stallion had access to choice mares of demon- Jay Gould strated speed. One of the mares bred to him was the famous Lucy, 2.A81, and the produce was Inheritor, who died in i879, after siring Mont- gomery, 2.2 I; Lucia, dam of six with records, including Beulah, 2.Ig9, Hurly Burly, 2.A6+, and Edgardo, 2.I334, sire of Tomah, 2.IO; Sapphire, dam of four with records, including Nominee, 2.17+, and Nominator, 2.I7+; and Sybil, dam of four with records, also of Syndic, a producing sire. This is a remarkable case of blood breed- ing on. The fastest trotter by Jay Gould is Pixley, 2.o8+, and the fastest of his three pacers is Kiswick, 2.I84. Another great producing daughter is Sonnet, dam of Martense Maid by Jackson's Flying Cloud. In her the blood of Mlessenger and Justin Morgan is joined, and she is the dam of Poem, 2. 1 x-, a producing sire; Prose, 2.i6+; and Stanza, 2.221. The Moccasin AMare, by imported thoroughbred Moccasin, dam Dolly Star by Hambletonian, second dam Loril- lard Mare by Seely's American Star, was bred to Jay Gould and the fruit was Sandal, who, at the Newminster Stud of William H. Fearing, be- came the dam of Mahogany, 2.121; Ixia, 2.I83; Magic Flute, 2.2I-, a producing sire; and Three 'eatler-s, 2.22+. Ixia, who trotted a trial in 2.1 I, 203 204 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse was bred to her half-brother, Magic Flute, and the result is Miss Fearing, 2.191. The daughters of Jay Gould stand high as speed producers. The son of Hambletonian and Lady Sanford was an impressive horse on the track, in the show ring, or the stud, and his closing days were somewhat sad. When misfortune overtook Henry N. Smith and his stud was disbanded, Jay Gould, then 29 years old and but a shadow of himself, was led into the auction ring and sold for 50 to James O'Neil, formerly in the em- ploy of Mr. Smith, who kindly cared for him until he died, June IO, i894. Edward Everett Edward Everett, formerly called Major Win- field, was a bay horse, foaled in i855; bred by Adam Lilburn, and got by Rysdyk's Hamble- tonian out of Fanny by imported Margrave. Mr. Robert Bonner paid 20,000 for him when the world was talking about his two sons, Judge Fullerton and Mountain Boy, and transferred him to his farm at Tarrytown. He died in August, I878, leaving behind him I3 trotters, one of which was Hambrino, 2.2 I1-, who is the sire of 39 trotters and eight pacers. Delmarch, Edward Everett, Dauntless 2.111, is the fastest of Hambrino's trotters, and he is a commanding sire of trotters and pacers. Thirty-eight of the daughters of Hambrino are dams of speed. One of these produced Ed Win- ter, 2.123 and Hawthorne, 2.06-. If Edward Everett had lived longer and been given a wider opportunity, his descendants would fill larger space in the history of the light-harness horse. His son, Joe Elliot, trotted a trial for Mr. Bonner in 2.I5'-, when this rate of speed was considered marvellous, and Eldridge, another son, trotted in 2.201 for Mr. Bonner. 2 Dauntless Dauntless, brother of Peacemaker, was a bay horse foaled at Stony Ford, April 3, i867, and by Hambletonian out of Sallie Feagles by Smith's Clay, son of Neaves's Cassius M. Clay Jr. He is the sire of 33 trotters, including Gean Smith, 2.I51, and Billy Parks, 2.151 ; and of three pacers, one of which was Ed Annan, 2.I6+, prominent in Grand Circuit battles. Ten of his daughters are dams of speed, and the fastest of their produce are William Penn, 2.07I, and Benton M., 2.10. 205 206 The Trotling and the Pacing Horse Startle In the first Stony Ford catalogue (i870), Startle appears with Victor Bismarck and Dauntless under the head of three-year-old colts. He was a bay colt, foaled May 14, i867, by Rysdyk's Hambletonian, dam Lizzie Walker by Seely's American Star. He stood 15.I, but had strong shoulders and massive quarters. He was the first Northern-bred three- year-old to trot in 2.36, and he passed from Charles Backman through George B. Alley to Robert Bonner, who drove him on the road and track. Startle was the first horse to trot a mile over the old Fleetwood track in 2.I9, and on another occasion he trotted a half-mile in I.0412. Mr. Bonner thought so much of Startle that he paid Mr. Backman 5000 for the unborn colt of Lizzie Walker by Hambletonian, which came dead. Startle was not given much of a chance in the stud, but among his ten trotters were Instant, 2.141, and Majolica, 2.I5. Portia, one of his daughters, is the dam of four in the list, including Lightning, 2.1I, and Protein, 2II34. His best producing son is Mambrino Startle, sire of 14 trotters, among them the excellent Startle, Nelson campaign mare, Mambrino Maid, 2.I54. Gui- nette, 2.05 at the pace, and Emma Offut, 2.114 at the trot, are out of daughters of Mambrino Startle. In all, Hambletonian has I50 sires of speed and 8o dams of speed. Without question he was the greatest trotting progenitor that ever lived. Nelson Nelson is a bay horse, foaled in I882, by Young Rolfe, 2.2 4 (son of Tom Rolfe, he by Pugh Aratus, out of Pocahontas, 2.I7 -); dam Gretchen by Gideon by Rysdyk's Hambletonian; second dam Kate by Vermont Black Hawk,-son of Sherman Morgan by Justin Morgan. He trot- ted at Cambridge City, Indiana, October 2I, I890, in 2. I103, which gave him the post of honor in the stallion group. Second to him in i890 was Stamboul, with a record of 2.II. Third was Axtell, with a record of 2.I2, and fourth was Palo Alto, with a record of 2.121. Nelson was bred and owned by C. H. Nelson of Waterville, Maine, and had his owner not become involved in a dispute with the two gov- erning associations, his chances for more endur- ing fame would have been greater. He was a 207 208 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse horse of pure gait, carrying the blood of founda- tion sires, and contributed as much to the glory of Maine as did Thomas B. Reed, or the rugged pines of that stalwart state. In I891 Nelson took third place in the stallion group, Palo Alto going to the head with a record of 2.084, and Allerton being second with a record of 2.091. Bashaw Bashaw (Green's), whose register number is 50, was a black horse, foaled in i885; bred by Jonas Seely of Orange County, New York, and sired by Vernol's Black Hawk (son of Long Island Black Hawk by Andrew Jackson), dam Belle by Webber's Tom Thumb (a trotter of speed and endurance but of untraced blood); second dam the Charles Kent Mare (dam of Rys- dyk's Hambletonian) by imported Bellfounder. When a suckling he and his dam passed to F. M. Cummings of Muscatine, Iowa, and from him to Joseph A. Green of Muscatine. He died January 25, i88o, leaving behind him quite a family of trotters. The fastest of his trotters was Josephus, 2. I94. One of his entire sons, Hamble- tonian Bashaw, trotted to a record of 2.21 - and is a producing sire. Twenty-two other sons are Basbaw 209 also sires of speed, and 32 of his daughters are producing dams. As the second dam of Green's Bashaw was the dam of the great progenitor, Hambletonian, scores of people bred to him on that account. He was not equal to his oppor- tunity. CHAPTER XX THE STAR FAMILY IN i837, at Pompton Plains, New Jersey, there was born a chestnut colt of quality which has played an important part in equine history. He was named American Star after his sire, Stock- holm's American Star, son of Duroc, the son of imported Diomed, and as he was owned for many years by Edmund Seely, of Orange County, Newv York, he was given a prefix. The registered number of Seely's American Star is 14. He had speed at both the run and the trot, and was one of the "do or die " kind. Mr. Berry remarked that he had the "most bottom and best game of any horse he ever saw." His feet were bad, wiring in at the heel, and this defect was trans- mitted. His dam was a broken-down stage mare, and it has been claimed that she was a daughter of Henry, who ran four-mile heats against Ameri- can Eclipse. This claim was never established. Mr. Battell has written much to show that Seely's American Star was a descendant of Justin Mor- 2IO The Star Family gan, but the hearsay evidence presented by him would not stand for a moment in any intelligent court. In December, I894, I was at Stony Ford with Mr. Robert Bonner, and the suggestion that Seely's American Star was one of the Morgan tribe brought out an explanation from Charles Backman, who at one time had more Star mares in his stud than could be found in all the other breeding establishments in the country: " When I was a young man I was almost constantly on the road in New England, especially in Ver- mont and New Hampshire, collecting money for the firm with which I was then engaged. I drove and saw hundreds of the best Morgan horses, and became familiar with their striking points. They were, as a rule, high-headed and short-gaited horses. When I started to found a stud at Stony Ford I hunted up all the best daughters of Seely's American Star that could be bought, with the object of breeding them to Rysdyk's Hambletonian. I had nearly 40 of these mares, and their characteristics became familiar to me. The sons and daughters of Seely's American Star were low-headed and long- gaited, with wide action behind, just the reverse of all the Morgans that I ever knew. Therefore 211I 212 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse I cannot accept the conclusion that Seely's American Star was the son of an inbred Morgan. If like produces like, a low-headed and long- gaited type could not come from an up-headed and short-gaited type." Mr. Bonner, whose mind was intensely logical, was impressed, and he remarked, " Peerless and all the best Stars that I ever knew had the thoroughbred form, just a form that we would expect from a horse of the recorded breeding of Seely's American Star." I remember an afternoon at Glen Lea, the country seat of William Crawford, in Orange County, when that able lawyer and distinguished statesman, General Benjamin F. Tracy, went through the story of Mr. Battell and tore it to tatters. Seely's American Star was not much appreciated when he entered the stud, and all kinds of mares were bred to him at a nominal fee. In i86o he got but ten colts, and that fall Mr. Seely gave him to Theodore Dusenbury, whose property he died in February, i86I. He stamped his offspring with his form, resolution, gait, and disposition, and contributed much to the success of Rysdyk's Hambletonian. Only four of his get -Widow Machree, 2.29; Bolly Lewis, 2.291-; Newburgh, 2.30; and Lady Whit- The Star Family man, 2.30-entered the standard list, but through his daughters he founded a family. One of his sons, Conklin's American Star, is the sire of St. Cloud, 2.21; Lowland Mary, 2.25; and Star, 2.30; and their sons and daughters figure as moderate speed producers. Dexter, the brown gelding with blaze and white legs, foaled in i858, first emphasized the value of the Hambletonian- Star combination. He was bred by Jonathan Hawkins of Orange County, New York, and George B. Alley paid 400 for him and sub- sequently sold him to A. F. Fawcett. He was trained by Hiram Woodruff, and appeared for the first time at Fashion Course, May 4, i864. His turf career was short but brilliant, and among the horses defeated by him were General Butler, Lady Thorn, and Goldsmith Maid. At Buffalo, August I4, i867, driven by Budd Doble, he started to beat the 2.194 of Flora Temple, and trotted the first mile in 2.201, and the second mile in 2.I71. This established a new world's record, and immediately after the performance the announcement was made that Dexter had become the property of Robert Bonner. The price paid was 35,ooo, including a commission of 2000. Mr. Bonner at that time was the 21I3 214 The Trollhig and the Pacing Horse owner of Peerless, a fast and handsome road mare, and as she was by Seely's American Star, he recognized the value of the blood. Of Clara, the greatest daughter of Seely's American Star, I shall speak at length in the chapter devoted to Great Brood Mares. Dexter was the greatest horse of his day for speed and endurance, and a few years after his purchase by Mr. Bonner he trotted a mile to road wagon over Prospect Park, Long Island, carrying 3I9 pounds, in 2.2 I4. Prominent among the daughters of Seely's Amer- ican Star were Widow Machree, dam of Aber- deen, a stallion whose blood bred on; Lady Sears, dam of Huntress, 2.204-i, and Trio, 2.2341; Lady Sanford, dam of Jay Gould, 2.2 I-1, a successful sire, and of Emblem, dam of five in 2.30; Flora Gardiner, dam of Guy, 2.09`, and Fred Folger, 2.204; Nancy Whitman, dam of Madeleine, 2.231, and Robert McGregor, 2.I 741, sire of Cresceus; Lady Dunn, dam of Joe Bunker, 2.i94, and of Lady Bunker (dam of Guy Wilkes, 2.15-, El Mahdi, 2.251-, and William L., sire of Axtell, 2.12); and Imogene, dam of Arthurton, sire of Arab, 2.15, and of the famous brood mare, Han- nah Price, dam of Lesa Wilkes, 2.09. Leland, sire of Geneva, 2. II-, and others in the list, as The S/ar Family 215 well as of speed-producing sons and daughters, is the brother of Arthurton. Emma Mills, dam of Sweepstakes, celebrated as a speed-producing stallion, was by Seely's American Star. Charles Backman read well the future when he gathered into one band the choicest daughters of Star and bred them to Hambletonian. The blood of this combination is adding to the volume of speed from generation to generation. CHAPTER XXI THE CLAY FAMILY GRAND BASHAW was an iron-gray horse of I5 hands, foaled in I8I6, and imported from Tripoli in August, I820, by Joseph B. Morgan. The official record says: " He was selected by the importer from the best stock of Oriental horses in that country; and it is believed that in point of beauty, action, and speed he is not excelled by any horse ever imported into the United States." His first duties in the stud were in Montgomery County, near Philadelphia. Pearl, a daughter of First Consul and Fancy by imported Messenger, was bred to him, and the result was Young Bashaw, who produced, out of a trotting and pacing mare, Andrew Jackson, the sire of Henry Clay. The latter was a black horse, foaled in i837, and dam Lady Surrey, a fast trotting mare brought from Canada and owned by George M. Patchen. Henry Clay was a horse of great vitality, and for several years previous to his death was owned by General James WXadsworth of Geneseo, New 2i6 The Clay Family York. He was blind at the time he died, in April, i867. The only standard trotter sired by him was Black Douglas, who took a record of 2.30, but he became the progenitor of a family of trotters. In I842 Joseph Oliver, of Brooklyn, New York, bred to Henry Clay a fine road mare called Jersey Kate, who was noted as the dam of the fast trotting gelding, John Anderson. The outcome was the bay horse, Cassius M. Clay, who passed to George M. Patchen and was celebrated as the best trotting stallion of his era. Only one fast trotter came from his loins, and that was George M. Patchen. One of his sons, Cassius M. Clay Jr. (Amos), a black horse foaled in i854, was the sire of the famous trotter, American Girl, 2.i61. Another son, Neaves's Cassius M. Clay, a brown horse, foaled in i848, and out of a daughter of Chancellor by Mambrino by imported Mes- senger, was the sire of four record trotters,- Lady Lockwood, 2.25; George Cooley, 2.27; Lew Sayers, 2.283; and Harry Clay, 2.29. He was taken from New York to Ohio, where he broke a leg and was destroyed. Strader's Cassius M. Clay was a brown horse, foaled in i852, and by Cassius M. Clay (son of Henry Clay) out of a daughter of Abdallah, she out of a mare by Law- 2 I 7 2I8 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse rence's Eclipse. He passed from R. S. Strader to General William T. Withers, and he died at Fair- lawn. He sired four trotters, Durango, 2.234-; Harry Clay, a black gelding, 2.234; Equinox, 2.27.1; and Sinbad, 2.293. Sixteen of his sons are sires of standard speed and 35 of his daughters are producers of trotters and pacers. George M. Patchen, a bay horse, foaled in i849, was a great performer on the trotting turf from 1859 to i863, and retired with a record of 2.2324, made at Union Course, Long Island, in August, i86o. He was a horse of distinguished appearance as well as action, and his sire was Cassius M. Clay, by Henry Clay, dam Head'em by imported Trustee, son of Catton and Emma by Whisker. George M. Patchen was bred by Richard M. Carman of Monmouth County, New Jersey, and among the four trotters sired by him was the celebrated bay mare Lucy, 2. 1 8, foaled in 1857, who won 62 heats in 2.30 and better, and became a speed-pro- ducing dam at Fashion Stud Farm. Fourteen of the sons of George M. Patchen are sires of speed. One of these is Godfrey Patchen, sire of eight trotters, including Hopeful, 2.143, and of four pro- ducing sons. Another is George M. Patchen Jr. (California Patchen), sire of ten trotters including The Clay Family Sam Purdy, 2.201. Eleven sons and I 5 daughters of California Patchen are speed producers. Sam Purdy was a bay horse, foaled in i866, and his dam was Whiskey Jane by Illinois Medoc. He was a very game horse, and his record of 2.20-2-, made at Buffalo in August, i876, was not the full measure of his speed. James R. Keene purchased the stallion and presented him to his brother-in- law, Major F. A. Daingerfield of Virginia. Dur- ing a recent visit to Castleton, the great breeding establishment of James R. Keene, of which Major Daingerfield is the manager, I heard the pathetic story of the death of Sam Purdy. He was down with colic, and as no veterinary surgeon was within reach, several of the physicians of Culpeper were sent for. All declined the summons on the theory that to relieve the sufferings of an animal not gifted with speech would degrade their pro- fession. The reply of Major Daingerifeld was that Sam Purdy was worth more to the state of Virginia than the whole of Culpeper, and that he had no patience with such foolish chatter. In the hope that a strong physical effort would remove the cause of colic, Sam Purdy was liter- erally dragged to the near-by track. The moon was shining brightly, and the fire of his racing 2I 9 220 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse days was rekindled at the sight of the half-mile oval. The game horse forgot his sufferings in the flood of memories, and with the determina- tion that caused Christian martyrs to face fire without flinching, he lifted his head and reached out with the stroke which had so often carried him to victory. Like a ghost under the full-orbed moon he swept around the track, and there were hopes that through heroic effort his life would be saved. But the machinery cracked as he swept proudly down the home-stretch. At the little judges' stand he dropped as if a bullet had pierced his brain, and when the group of awe- struck watchers reached him he was stone dead. This little story reminded Hon. P. P. Johnston, president of the National Trotting Association, of an incident that occurred at the colored fair at Lexington. A large man, who was speeding on the track to road wagon, sat rigid in the rush down the home-stretch, and when the horse stopped of his own accord, the discovery was made that the man was dead of heart-disease. The figure was so braced that it did not fall when breath left the body. It was a striking illustra- tion of how closely death sometimes rides with life in the bright sunshine of a summer morning. The Clay Family Years ago, at old Fleetwood Park, I saw a fast trotting mare die in the hands of Mr. David Bonner. She was to road wagon and had gone to the half-mile pole with a rush. Then she faltered, and Mr. Bonner held her together. When she fell there was not a quiver to indicate life. She had died on her feet in a struggle for the goal which satisfies animal ambition. Cicero J. Hamlin saw George M. Patchen repeatedly in races, and when he started the modest breeding venture at East Aurora, which developed into the famous Village Farm, he laid the foundations with a son of that horse. Ham- lin Patchen, who was by George M. Patchen out of Mlag Addison, produced but two indifferent record trotters, but his daughters contributed to the Village Farm volume of speed. From them came such noted trotters as Belle Hamlin, 2.I 27 ; Globe, 2.14B3; Justina, 2.20; and Nettie King, 2.201. Mr. Hamlin was a strong believer in progression. In i897 he said to me: " Unless a family shows a higher development at the end of every five years, it will not do to tie to. The individuals that do not show the stamp of im- provement must be discarded from the breeding stud. I have progressed by taking the best 22 I 222 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse individuals of great families and uniting their blood in a way to produce harmonious results- conformation, good heads, speed, and the ability to adhere to gait." The Abbot, 2.034, the fastest trotter ever bred by Mr. Hamlin, illus- trates the idea. He is by Chimes (son of Elec- tioneer and Beautiful Bells), dam Nettie King, 2.20:-, by Mambrino King (son of Mambrino Patchen and Belle Thornton by Edwin Forrest); second dam Nettie Murphy by Hamlin Patchen. Lord Derby, 2.054[, is another illustration. He is by Mambrino King, dam Clarabel by Hamlin's Almont Jr. (son of Almont and Maggie Gaines by Blood's Black Hawk); second dam by Almon- arch, 2.241 (son of Almont and Hi, thoroughbred daughter of Asteroid, son of Lexington); third dam Black Woful by Hamlin Patchen. Harry Clay, whose register number is 45, but who passed from Decatur Sayre to Erastus Corning, and from him to J. D. Willis, was a black horse, foaled in 1853, and by Cassius M. Clay Jr. (Neaves), grandson of Henry Clay; dam Fan by imported Bellfounder, the sire of the Charles Kent Mare, dam of Rysdyk's Hambletonian. July 9, i864, he trotted at Chicago to a record of 2.29. He was faster than this, but those who knew him The Clay Famil best have frankly conceded that he was not a resolute race-horse. He had a good deal in him of what Robert Bonner once, in the heat of con- troversy, characterized as sawdust. Four trotters came from his loins, the fastest of which was Clayton, 2-I9. Shawmut, 2.26, one of his sons, is a speed-producing stallion; but it is as a brood- mare sire that Harry Clay stands out with promi- nience. Flora, one of his daughters, bred to Volunteer, produced St. Julien, who was a sen- sational trotter in i 8So, taking a record of 2. I 41 -at Hartford. Another daughter, Hattie Wood, out of Grandmother by Terror, son of American Eclipse, challenged national attention at Stony Flord by producing Gazelle, 2.2 i, and three suc- cessful sires, Idol, Louis Napoleon, and Victor Bismarck. Hattie Hogan by Harry Clay out of Nellie Sayre by Seely's American Star, pro- cluced Hogarth, who was the champion four-year- old stallion of i877, retiring with a record of 2.26. Hier daughters were producers, and Mr. Backman valued her highly. The greatest of the daugh- ters of Harry Clay in the Stony Ford collection was Green Mountain Maid, whose fame will endure as long as the trotting horse holds a place in the esteem of mankind. I shall speak 223 224 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse of her at length under another head. Masetto, 2.08-1; Harrietta, 2.094; Bellina, 2. 134, a producing sire; and Bodine, 2.191, were out of daughters of Harry Clay. The blood of the black son of Neaves's Cassius M. Clay nicked best with plastic speed-supporting strains like those of Seely's American Star and American Eclipse. CHAPTER XXII THE BLUE BULL, ROYAL GEORGE, AND OTHER SUBSIDIARY FAMILIES WVHAT may now be defined as a subsidiary family is that of Blue Bull. This chestnut horse was foaled in I858, bred by Elijah Stone of \Vheatland, Indiana, and sired by a horse called Pruden's Blue Bull. As a yearling he passed to Daniel Dorcll of Rising Sun, Indiana, and from him to James Wilson of Rushville, Indiana, who developed him and his foals. He was a horse of strong individuality, a fast pacer, and stamped himself upon his colts. James Wilson and his sons were good horsemen, and nothing by the chestnut stallion that could go escaped training. When such trotters from the loins of Blue Bull as Will Cody, 2.I91; Zoe B., 2.20 4; Silverton, 2.201 ; Chance, 2.20-; Richard, 2.21 ; Mamie, 2.2I4; Gladiator, 2.224; Elsie Good, 2.221-; and Kate McCall, 2.23, were prominent in Grand Circuit contests, there was quite a fever to breed to Blue Bull, notwithstanding his unsatisfactory Q 225 226 Tbe Trolling and the Pacing Hotuue pedigree. This fever abated as time rolled by, because it was then made plain that the pre- potency of the Wilson pacer was not strong enough to dominate generations. Blue Bull died July ii, i88o, and his direct contribution to the speed list was 56 trotters and four pacers. Forty-eight of his sons became sires of moderate capacity, and io8 of his daughters became pro- ducing dams. The influence of Blue Bull was felt most largely in the female line. The family would be weak indeed without the group of pro- ducing dams. Thirty years ago, when appointed to make awards in the show ring, I would seri- ously consider, in breeding classes, animals that would now be passed by. Fashion changes because families do not maintain their suprem- acy. They fade away under the obliterating force of lines charged with superior vitality. Royal George Another subsidiary family is that of Royal George. This brown horse was foaled about I844, in Toronto, Ontario. His origin was obscure, and he did service at Lewiston and Buffalo, and died at St. Catherines. He left four trotters, Toronto Chief, Lady Byron, Tartar, and Subsidiary Families 2 27 Lady Hamilton, and one fairly good producing son, Field's Royal George, the sire of Byron, 2.252. After the Civil War Buffalo became a great breeding centre, and the blood of Royal George was at the foundation of some of the estab- lishments. In this way the strain obtained more prominence than it otherwise would have done. The Morse Horse The Morse Horse, whose number in the reg- ister is 6, was a gray, foaled in 1834, bred by James McNitt of Washington County, New York, and by European, an imported French horse from Canada; dam Beck by Harris's Ham- bletonian, son of Bishop's Hambletonian. He was owned for many years by Calvin Morse, and contributed one trotter, Gray Eddy, to the 2.30 list. The best of his get was Alexander's Nor- mian, a bay horse foaled in I848, and dam by Jersey Highlander, second dam by Bishop's I ambletonian. In I 859 R. A. Alexander placed hiim in the stud at Woodburn, where he became the chief of a small tribe. Kate Crockett, by imported Hooton, was bred to him, and the re- sult was the celebrated trotting mare Lula, 2.I5, dam of Lula Wilkes, dam of Advertiser, 2.I541, 228 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse sire of the champion yearling trotter Adbell, 2.23. Lula Wilkes is also the dam of Alla, 2.21-1 2' and Welbeck, 2.221. At one time Governor Stanford thought so well of Advertiser that he refused an offer of ioo,ooo for him. The stal- lion carried the blood of Electioneer and George Wilkes as well as that of Alexander's Norman, and an extravagant valuation was put on the combination. Jenny, daughter of Crockett's Arabian, was bred to Alexander's Norman, whose registered number is 25, and the fruit was May Queen, a trotter of celebrity, who re- tired with a record of 2.20. May Queen is in the great brood-mare list as the dam of Maiden, 2.23, and May King, 2.21+. The latter, who is by Electioneer, is the sire of Bingen, 2.064, a producing sire. Election, the brother of May King, is also a producing sire. A daughter of Todhunter's Sir Wallace, she out of Eagletta, thoroughbred daughter of Gray Eagle, was bred to Alexander's Norman, and the outcome was Norma, who, bred to Electioneer, produced Nor- val, 2.I443, sire of the first great yearling trotter, Norlaine, 2.3 I 2. Among the more than three- score trotters of Norval is Countess Eve, with a record of 2.091. Norman, 25, passed from Subsidiary Families 229 Woodburn to Blue Grass Park, where he died the property of A. Keene Richards, March 31, I871. Mr. Richards was the importer of the Arabian horse, Mokhladi, the sire of Crockett's Arabian, and of the dam of Sannie G., 2.27. Alexander's Edwin Forrest, a bay horse, foaled in I851, was by Alexander's Norman, out of a mare by Bay Kentucky Hunter. He sired Billy Hoskins, 2.26-4; Champagne, 2.30; and a number of producing sons and daughters. Norman found his best opportunity in Kentucky in mares de- scended directly from the thoroughbred race-horse. His blood is a factor in breeding to-day, but not a controlling factor. The Champions Grinnell's Champion was a chestnut horse, foaled in I843, bred by Charles Simonson of Hempstead, Long Island, and got by Almack, son of Mambrino, dam Spirit by Engineer, second clam by American Eclipse. As Engineer, like Mambrino, was a son of Messenger, there was a double tracing to the gray thoroughbred im- ported from England in I788. As a three-year- old Champion was purchased by William R. Grinnell, who used him in the stud at Aurora, 230 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse New York, and who sold him in i850 to go to Independence, Missouri, where he was killed during the Civil War. Grinnell's Champion was the founder of the Champion family. Cham- pion Jr. (King's) was a chestnut horse, foaled in i849, and by Grinnell's Champion, dam Bird by Red Bird, a descendant of Duroc, the son of imported Diomed, and he was in service at Battle Creek, Michigan, from i86i to i865, and died in New York in May, i874. He was the sire of George B. Daniels, 2.24; Nettie Burlew, 2.24; and other trotters of moderate capacity. Some of his sons and daughters were speed producers. Gooding's Champion was a bay horse, foaled in i854, by King's Champion, dam Cynthia by Bar- toulet's Turk. He was owned by T. W. and W. Gooding of Ontario County, New York, and is the sire of Naiad Queen, 2.204-; Cosette Boy, 2.2!; and 15 other trotters. He also was the sire of seven dams of trotters, one of which was Colonel Wood, 2.2 I1. The Auburn Horse, a chestnut gelding, foaled in i858, and who passed into the stable of Robert Bonner after he had trotted to a record of 2.28- at Auburn, New York, August i9, i865, did much to bring the Champion family to public notice. The Auburn Subsidiary Families 231 Horse was driven for several years on the road by Mr. Bonner, and fabulous stories of his speed got into print. He was by King's Champion. The family founded by Grinnell's Champion had not the power to subordinate other families with which it was brought into contact, and it has ceased to be an important factor in breeding establishments. Hialoga The Hiatoga family, to which reference once was freely made, is now seldom heard of. The head of it was Hanley's Hiatoga, a bay horse, foaled in i849, and by Rice's Hiatoga by a pacer called Hiatoga taken from Virginia to Ohio. He sired two trotters of standard speed, and Scott's Hiatoga, whose blood bred on when not opposed by stronger blood. Scott's Hiatoga was a bay horse, foaled in i858, and his dam was by Blind Tuckahoe, a pacer. He was a fast pacer himself, and died at Bradford, Ohio, September 20, i876. His best trotter was Lew Scott, a bay gelding, campaigned for several years by W. H. Crawford, and who took a record of 2.23 before he died on the track at Bradford, Pennsylvania, in June, i88o. Eight of the sons of Scott's Hiatoga are speed producers, and i8 of his daughters are dams 232 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse of speed. Amy Lee, 2.14, and John S. Clark, 2.93 are the best trotters from his daughters. St. Lawrence The St. Lawrence tribe is of minor rank; still, it deserves brief mention. Old St. Lawrence was a Canadian, and not much is known of the maternal line of his son, Foster St. Lawrence, who was owned in Orleans County, New York, and who sired Harry Mitchell, 2.283. The vol- ume of speed descended from St. Lawrence is so small as to plunge the family into obscurity. MISS RUSSELL A Wonderful Fountain of Speed. 1I)4 r Is f', r mu copyrigted phIotogra h 1hI tciber a S;oI. , GREEN MOUNTAIN MAID The Great Mother of Trotters. biiikji This page in the original text is blank. CHAPTER XXIII GREAT PRODUCING MARES: GREEN MOUNTAIN MAID, MISS RUSSELL, AND BEAUTIFUL BELLS THERE are over 4000 mares in the " Table of Great Brood Mares," but less than 6o of these have produced five or more with standard trot- ting records. Severe critics like Robert Bonner, Leland Stanford, Charles Backman, and Benjamin F. Tracy regarded it as objectionable in a mare to vary in the transmission of form and gait. One of the select brood mares under the high- est test is Green Mountain Maid. Others have produced a greater average of speed, but there is none whose blood has bred on with such deep persistence. I regard her as the greatest of matrons. Green Mountain Maid was a brown mare of I 5 hands, with star and white hind ankles, foaled in i862; bred by Samuel Conklin of Mid- dletown, Orange County, New York, and got by Harry Clay, 45 (son of Neaves's Cassius M. Clay Jr.), dam Shanghai Mary, a bloodlike mare of nervous temperament from Ohio and supposed 233 234 The Trolting and the Pacing Horse to be by Iron's Cadmus, a grandson of American Eclipse. The first time I saw Green Mountain Maid was in a large paddock at the Sunshine Stud of D. B. Irwin, who owned the stallion Middletown by Rysdyk's Hambletonian. She was a self-willed filly, and having been frightened by a dog barking at her heels, was bred to Mid- dletown instead of being trained. Charles Back- man purchased her for 450 in foal, and from that hour until her death she enjoyed the freedom of the pastures of Stony Ford without ever being touched by harness. The bay filly by Middle- town was born in the fields during a heavy rainstorm in the spring of i867. The filly weas puny-looking, and the wonder was that she sur- vived the shock of birth. She was called Storm, was sold at auction for I40, and at maturity was driven on the road and used as a brood mare. At the age of 17 she trotted to a record of 2.264. With Storm by her side Green Mountain Maid was led across the hills to Chester and bred to Hambletonian. The result was a bay colt, foaled May 2, i868, and named Electioneer. He was never regularly trained, but as a three-year-old trotted a quarter to wagon in 38 seconds. In the fall of I876 Leland Stanford visited Great Producing Mares Stony Ford, and was so much pleased with the form of Electioneer that he paid the price asked for him, I2,500, and shipped him to California. He was eight years old at the time, but had not been used much in the stud and left very few colts east of the Alleglhany Mountains. At Palo Alto Stock Farm he was bred to mares of differ- ent families, and impressed his trotting form and action upon all of them. His descendants are legion, and champion records are distributed all along the line of descent. After the birth of Electioneer, Green Mountain Maid was bred without exception to Messenger Duroc, son of Hambletonian. As Hambletonian died in i876, there was no chance to return her to that horse after Electioneer began to prove his worth. The produce of I869 was the black colt Prospero, who was gelded and sold to W. M. Parks, who campaigned him and trotted him to a record of 2.20. Prospero died from the effects of an injury to his jaw-bone. The foal of I870 was Dame Trot, who trotted at eight years old to a record of 2.22, and was a producer of speed. The fifth foal, Paul, was driven on the road, where he showed a 2.30 gait. Miranda, chestnut filly, born in i872, trotted to a record of 2.3i, driver 235 236 The Tvltting aid the Pacing Horse and sulky weighing over 300 pounds. She is a source of speed. The seventh foal of Green Mountain Maid, a colt, died of a broken leg. The brown filly Elaine came in I874. She was the champion four-year-old trotter of I878, with a record of 2.24-. She was sold to Leland Stan- ford, in whose hands she reduced her record to 2.20, and developed into a great brood mare. Bred to General Benton, she produced Elsie, dam of five in the list, including Palita, 2.i6, and Rio Alto, 2.I6 . Bred to Ansel, she produced An- selma, 2.29k'. Bred to Norval, she produced Nor- laine, who was the champion yearling trotter of i887, with a record of 2.3I1-. Bred to Palo Alto, she produced Palatine, 2.i8, and Iran Alto, 2.12-, a producing sire. Elaine was true to her dam, the great mother of trotters. In 1876 Green Mountain Maid gave birth to a chestnut colt, Mansfield, who trotted to a record of 2.26 after being used in the stud. He is a sire of trotters and of the sires and dams of trotters. The brown filly, Elise, was born in I877. She capped her hip as a yearling, and was put to breeding. She is in the great brood-mare list. Elite, a bay filly, the foal of I878, trotted half- miles in her work in i.09, and passed to Wood- Great Producing Mares burn Farm, where she contributed three trotters to the list. Antonio, i88o, was the twelfth foal, and although small, he was truly balanced, with beautiful action. There probably was too much fold of knee for long-contested races, but intense action is desirable in a stallion who is expected to control gait, especially when bred to long- striding mares. Antonio trotted to a record of 2.284 after one summer's handling, but showed 4 bursts of 2.1 2 speed. He died soon after Mr. Backman had refused 30,000 for him. The fastest of his I 7 trotters is Swift, 2.07. Elista, the fourteenth foal, passed to Allen Farm, where she trotted to a record of 2.2o0, and is the dam of Elision, 2.I7, and of Kiosk, a producing sire. Elista died young. Elina was the fifteenth foal, and she trotted to a record of 2.28 before joining brood-mare ranks. Lancelot was the sixteenth and last foal of Green Mountain Maid. I saw him an hour after he was born, and only the greatest watchfulness preserved his life. Novem- ber i6, i888, he was sold as a yearling to Will- iam Russell Allen for 12,500, the largest price ever paid for a trotting yearling up to that date. He trotted to a five-year-old record of 2.23, and previous to being sold to go to Austria sired at 237 238 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Allen Farm i i trotters and pacers, and sires and dams of speed. On an eminence overlook- ing the Wallkill at Stony Ford is the grave of Green Mountain Maid, marked by a tall shaft of red granite, with this inscription:- IN REMEMBRANCE of GREEN MOUNTAIN MAID THE GREAT MOTHER OF TROTTERS AND PRODUCERS OF TROTTERS Born 1862-Died i888 at STONY FORD The Birthplace of all Her Children Darn of ELECTIONEER 1867 PROSPERO, 2.20 ELAINE, 2.20 DAME TROT, 2.22 MANSFIELD, 2.26 STORM, 2.26 ANTONIO 2.28 MIRANDA, 2.31 ELISTA, 2.20 ELITE, ELISE, ELINA, 2.28 PAUL, - LANCELOT (1887), 2.23 Also Grand Dam of NORLAINE, one-year-old record 2.31k This stone was erected A.D. 1889, by Charles Backman, on the spot dedicated to her worth and honored by her dust Although Electioneer was without record, he did more to fix the rank of Green Mountain Maid than all of those which obtained records. Great Producing Mares A horse of his wonderful prepotency marks the sweep of centuries instead of years, and cannot do otherwise than lift his mother into the fore- most place of matrons. In her young days Green Mountain Maid led the brood mares at Stony Ford at a trot; she could go no other gait. Miss Russell I place Miss Russell but a shade lower than Green Mountain Maid. She was a gray mare, foaled in i865; bred by R. A. Alexander; sired by Pilot Jr.; dam Sally Russell by Boston; sec- ond dam Maria Russell by Thornton's Rattler; third dam Miss Shepherd by Stockholder; fourth dam Miranda by Topgallant; and fifth dam by imported Diomed. She spent all her life under the trees of Woodburn, and died full of years and crowned with fame. J. H. Wallace questioned the pedigree of Sally Russell, and in a letter sent to me for publication Superintendent Brodhead gave a concise history of the controversy: " Long before the registration of trotting pedigrees passed from the hands of Mr. Wallace he made an attack on the pedigree of Sally Russell, the grand-dam of Maud S. All the facts in regard to the pedigree were brought out and its authen- 239 240 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse ticity demonstrated beyond a doubt. The evi- dence was so conclusive that Mr. Wallace dared not bring the matter before the Board of Censors of the National Trotting Horse Breeders' Asso- ciation, which settled all pedigrees of doubtful authenticity and was the authorized tribunal of WMallace's Trotting Register. Mr. Wallace made frequent attacks on this pedigree in the papers, but continued to register animals tracing to it, thus perpetrating in the Register what he pre- tended to be a fraud, when his duty as registrar was to have the Board of Censors pass upon it and expunge it from the Register if found in- correct. These attacks were continued until 1893, when the matter was brought before the Board of Censors and the Executive Committee of the American Trotting Register Association. Mr. Wallace was advised that on a certain date the pedigree would be taken up, and requested to be present. At the time appointed I went to Chicago, hoping that Mr. Wallace would be present and produce whatever evidence he might have bearing on the pedigree of Sally Russell, but he had no evidence and prudently stayed away. In the presentation of the case I endeav- ored to bring all of the evidence bearing on the Great Producing Mares pedigree before the Board, including the objec- tions of Mr. Wallace, and in so doing presented the original documents or sources from which evidence was obtained. I insisted on the gentle- men composing the Board examining the origi- nals, which they did with great care, taking the deepest interest in the investigation, and patiently examining each document as presented." The official decision was that Sally Russell was a thoroughbred daughter of Boston. It is easy by insinuation or invention to assail char- acter or pedigree, but to prove the case is quite another matter. The first of Miss Russell's i8 foals was Nutwood, chestnut colt (I870), by Belmont. He trotted to a record of 2.i83, and was in the stud in California, Kentucky, Iowa, and elsewhere. The measure of his fertility was a roster of I 33 trotters and 35 pacers. He was a very great stallion, but under the high trotting standard was not the equal of Electioneer. His fastest trotter is Lockheart, 2.08k-, and his fastest pacer is Manager, 2.o64. There are no champion performers, no epoch-makers, among his sons and daughters. But 135 of his sons and I26 of his daughters are speed producers. His grandsons are also speed producers. The blood that breeds R 241 242 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse on in this way is thoroughly alive. The brothers of Nutwood are Nutbourne (i877, died at 1 2 years), and Pistachio (I886), both sires of speed. The sisters of Nutwood are Lady Nutwood (i870); Cora Belmont, 2.242 (1872); Nutula (i879), a producing mare; and Rusina (1887), a producing dam. Maud S. by Harold was foaled in i874, and she was the undisputed queen of the trotting turf for i i years. Her 2.084 to high- wheel sulky, without artificial support, over a regulation track, made in i885, has never been beaten. Lady Russell (I882), sister of Maud S., died at i i years, after producing Expedition, 2.I54; Re-Election, 2.274; and Electrix, 2.28 . Russella (i88o) and Russia, 2.28 (I883), were sisters of Maud S. and fountains of speed. Lord Russell (i88i), brother of Maud S., is the sire of Kremlin, 2.073, and 30 others in the list. His sons and daughters also are producers. Pilot Russell (i885), brother of Lord Russell, failed for lack of opportunity. Mambrino Russell (I878) by Woodford Mambrino is the sire of I7 performers, and i8 of his sons and 20 of his daughters are producers. Rustique (i888) by Electioneer trotted to a record of 2.I83i and died young. Suffrage (I889), sister of Rustique, is Great Pioducing Mares a brood mare at Allen Farm. Sclavonic (1890) by King Wilkes is the last foal of Miss Russell, and he has a pacing record of 2.I5j. The filly of I875 did not live. Miss Russell trotted in 2.44 as a three-year-old, but was not regularly trained. She was always an object of romantic interest at Woodburn, and bore herself like an aristocratic dame. She was as white as a ghost when she died at the age of 32, leaving a power- ful tribe of performers, which steadily increases with passing generations. Beau/iul Bells I place Beautiful Bells third in the select group of great brood mares. She was black, 15.2, star and strip, off hind ankle white, foaled in i872; bred by L. J. Rose, Sunny Slope, California, and by The Moor; dam Minnehaha by Bald Chief (Stevens') by Bay Chief (Alexander's), son of Mambrino Chief and the daughter of Keokuk by imported Truffle; second dam Nettie Clay by Cassius M. Clay Jr., 22; third dam Colonel Mor- gan Mare by Abdallah (sire of Hambletonian); and fourth dam by Engineer 2d, sire of Lady Suffolk, 2.28. The Moor was by Clay Pilot (son of Cassius M. Clay Jr., 20, and Lady Pilot by 243 244 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Pilot, sire of Pilot Jr.), dam Belle of Wabash, 2.40, by Young Bassinger, by Lieutenant Bassinger; second dam by imported William Fourth. The pedigree of Belle of Wabash was questioned by J. H. Wallace, but George C. Stevens of Wiscon- sin, who owned her when she was nursing The Moor, convinced an impartial public that he had correctly recorded it. Beautiful Bells was a high- strung mare with considerable speed at the trot, and she retired from the turf with a record of 2.2912. She was purchased in I879 by Leland Stanford, and made an enviable reputation as a brood mare at Palo Alto. She was bred almost steadily to Electioneer, and her first foal, Hinda Rose (i88o), brown filly, trotted as a yearling to a record of 2.361, as a two-year-old to a record of 2.32, and as a three-year-old to a record of 2.I19. Alta Belle (i88i), brown filly, is a producing dam. St. Bel (i882), black colt, trotted in 2.241 at four years old and died in his ninth year at Prospect Hill Stock Farm, Pennsylvania. He was a great producing stallion considering the brevity of his life. Rosemont (i883), bay filly, by Piedmont, is the dam of three trotters and a grand-dam of speed. Chimes (1884), brown colt, by Electioneer, trotted in 2.301 as a three-year-old, and at Village Great Producing Mares Farm became a remarkable sire of speed. Bell Boy (I885), brown colt, brother of Chimes, trotted ill 2.26 as a two-year-old and in 2.I94 as a three- year-old, and was sold at auction for 5 i,ooo. He died soon after the sale and is the sire of I4 in the list and of five producing sires. One of these sires is Liberty Bell, 2.24, sire of Tommy Britton, 2.o6l. Palo Alto Belle (i886), bay filly, trotted to a three-year-old record of 2.242, and is a produc- ing dam. Bow Bells (i887), bay colt, trotted to a record of 2.I9-, and is a sire of fast trotters and pacers, one of which is Boreal, 2.I53- at three years old, and sire of Boralma, 2.07. Bow Bells died at Hartford in 1902. Electric Bel (i888), brown colt, is the sire of 13 in the list, including Captor, 2.og91. Belleflower (I889), brown filly, trotted to a four-year-old record of 2.I23 and then entered breeding ranks. Bell Bird (i890), brown filly, trotted to a yearling record of 2.264, and was reserved for breeding purposes. Belsire (i89i), brown colt, trotted to a record of 2.M8, and is a producing sire. Day Bell (I892), black colt, by Palo Alto, was sold to E. A. Manice of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, where he died before he had a chance to distinguish himself. He has two in the list. Adbell (i893), brown colt, by Advertiser, son 245 246 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse of Electioneer, trotted as a yearling to a record of 2.23, which is the best of its kind. He is a pro- ducing sire, the best of his get being Rowellen, 2.094. In Kentucky, in the autumn of 1902, Adbell broke his leg while at play in his paddock and was destroyed. Adebel, 2.29-, and Monbels, 2.233-, are the youngest of the trotters of Beauti- ful Bells, giving her i i in the list. Monbels was trained as a four-year-old simply for the purpose of putting a record on him. He was foaled in i897, and is by Mendocino, 2.191 (son of Elec- tioneer), sire of Monte Carlo, 2.071 ; and Idolita, 2.094. Beautiful Bells grew old gracefully at Palo Alto, and the memory of when I saw her last, in the shade of a tree, will always be with me. She was a remarkable producer; but what would she have been without the aid of Green Mountain Maid With one exception all the foals of Beau- tiful Bells were by Electioneer or one of his sons. Minnehaha, the dam of Beautiful Bells, also ranks high as a producer. She is the dam of eight trotters, including Sweetheart, 2.2 2-2, and Eva, 2.23; of six producing sons, one of which is Alcazar, 2.204-, sire of 12 in the list and of two producing sires; and more than one of her daughters is a producing dam. Red Heart, who Great Producing Mares is out of Sweetheart, has a record of 2.ig, and one of his trotters is Chain Shot, 2.o61. The success of Beautiful Bells emphasized the fact that a chain of producing dams is desirable in a pedigree. The Moor, who sired Beautiful Bells, died at the age of eight, and among the six trotters sired by him was Sultan, 2.24. He was a brown horse of commanding appearance, foaled in i875; dam Sultana by Delmonico by Guy Miller, an inbred son of Rysdyk's Hambletonian; second dam Celeste by Mambrino Chief; and third dam by Downing's Bay Messenger. He sired 42 trotters and io pacers, and 2I producing sons and 22 producing daughters, and died at Ab- dallah Park, Cynthiana, Kentucky, having been sold by Mr. Rose to WV. H. Wilson. The most distinguished of Sultan's get was Stamboul, dam Fleetwing by Hambletonian; second dam Patchen Maid by George M. Patchen, 2.231; and third dam by Abdallah. Fleetwing also pro- duced Ruby, 2.I93 ; and Lady Mackay, dam of Oakland Baron, 2.o091, Lucy R., 2.M84, and Semi- Tropic, 2.24. Mr. Rose, who bred Stamboul, was an optimist, and the stallion was kept constantly before the public. A glamour was thrown around 247 248 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse him and there was much curiosity to see him when he was brought East in his ten-year-old form. He had won the 20,000 stallion race in i888, and in the autumn of I892 fought a long- distance duel with Kremlin for the stallion crown. The record dropped by fractions; and as Stam- boul had the last trial at it the announcement was that he had trotted in 2.07, beating by a quarter of a second the record of Kremlin. Stamboul's performance at Stockton was rejected by the American Trotting Register Association, but accepted by the National Trotting Associa- tion. At the Hobart sale in Madison Square Garden, Mr. E. H. Harriman purchased Stam- boul for 41,000, and placed him at the head of Arden Farms breeding establishment, where he remained until he died. He was exhibited at the National Horse Show, New York, I894, I896, and i897, and carried off the highest honors. Stamboul has 46 in the list, and his grave is prominent in the infield of the Orange County Driving Park at Goshen. CHAPTER XXIV OTHER GREAT PRODUCING MARES, INCLUDING CLARA, ALMA MATER, AND DAME WINNIE I PLACE Clara high in the group of great brood mares for the reason that extreme speed at the trot has come from her. She was a black, 14.3 hands, foaled in i848, and died in i875; by Seely's American Star, dam the McKinstry mare (dam of Shark, 2.273 to saddle). In i858, when ten years old, she produced, at the Jona- than Hawkins Farm in Orange County, the brown colt Dexter by Hambletonian. He was gelded, and trotted to a record of 2.174. He was a posi- tive champion when tracks and sulkies were slow, and I believe would have transmitted a high rate of speed if he had been kept entire. Lady Dex- ter, sister of Dexter, was born in i86i. She was a bay mare of I 5 hands and was in breeding ranks at Stony Ford. She is the dam of Dexter Prince and Prince George, both by Kentucky Prince. Dexter Prince passed to Palo Alto, where he showed a very high rate of speed as a 249 250 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse two-year-old and was placed in the stud. He is the sire of 63 in the list, and his fastest trotters are Eleata, 2.o8-, and James L., 2.09g. Twelve of his daughters are dams of speed and five of his sons are sires. Prince George is the sire of the great yearling trotter Princess Clara, 2.26- in a race, and others. Dictator (brother of Dexter), foaled in I863, never started in public and is without a record. He is the sire, however, of extreme speed. One of his sons, Jay-eye-see, dethroned Maud S. when he trotted to a record of 2. i0. Later, when a cripple, Jay-eye-see shifted his gait to the pace, which is easier than the trot, and gained a record at this way of going at 2.o64 Phallas, 2.133, who was the champion 4. trotting stallion of his day, was a son of Dictator; and he is a sire of speed. Director, 2.17, was from the loins of Dictator, and he is the sire of the once champion trotting stallion Directum, 2.05+, and 56 others in the list. Among the 43 producing daughters of Director are the dams of John A. McKerron, 2.041, and Ozanam, 2.08. Direct, who trotted in 2.i8+ and paced to a rec- ord of 2.051 to high-wheel sulky, is the sire of 54 in the list, among them the pacers Directly, 2.034, and Direct Hal, 2.04+, and the trotter 0/her Great Producing Mares Directum Kelly, four-year-old record 2.o8'. Among the io8 producing daughters of Dictator are the dams of Lockheart, 2.081, and of Nancy Hanks, 2.04, an ex-queen of the trotting turf. Here we have the brother of Dexter transmitting extreme speed from generation to generation. Arlma, 2.281, Astoria, 2.29-k, and Aida are three producing sisters of Dexter. Almera, by Ken- tucky Prince, out of Alma, is the dam of five in the list, all by Kremlin. Kearsarge (I864) by Volunteer is a producing sire, and his sisters, Corinne and Hyacinth, are producing dams. Metropolitan is one of the producing sons of Hyacinth, and Reina Victoria is her great pro- ducing daughter. She is the dam of four with records, including Muscovite, 2.i8, and Princeton, 2.I93, both good sires of speed. Galatea, dam of Prefix, dam of Liberty Bell, 2.24, sire of Tommy Britton, 2.o6l, is a daughter of Hyacinth; and Prefix, dam of Prince of India, 2.234, sire of Prince of Orange, 2.o6l, is out of Galatea. We follow the blood of Clara link by link, and as the chain lengthens discover extreme speed. This is a supreme test of merit. Twilight, the second dam of Jay-eye-see, was a thoroughbred by Lex- ington out of Daylight by imported Glencoe. 25I 252 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Orator, 2.23, and Impetuous, three-year-old trotting record 2.13, are by Dictator, out of Ethelwyn by Harold; second dam Kathleen by Pilot Jr., and third dam Little Miss, thor- oughbred daughter of imported Sovereign. The power to control action out of mares with a strong running inheritance is another high test of merit. Alma Mater Alma Mater, chestnut mare, foaled in i872, by Mambrino Patchen, dam Estella, thoroughbred daughter of imported Australian, second dam Fanny G. by imported Margrave, was a remark- able producer of trotters, and she confounded the critics who objected to the thoroughbred founda- tion for light-harness purposes. Her first foal, Alcantara by George WVilkes, trotted to a four- year-old record of 2.23, and is the sire of 153 in 2.30, and a host of producing sons and daughters. Alcyone (1877), brother of Alcantara, has a rec- ord of 2.27, and is the sire of Martha Wilkes, 2.08; Bush, 2.091; Harrietta, 2.093; and 56 others in 2.30. Among his scores of producing sons is McKinney, 2.I I, sire of five 2.10 trotters, and fifty others in the list. His daughters also rank high as producers. Alcyone died when Other Great Pioducing Mares ten years old, and his success for that short space of time was dazzling. Arbiter (i878) by Administrator trotted to a record to 2.223, and is a producing sire. Alline (i88o) by Belmont is the dam of two in the list. Alfonso (i886) by Baron Wilkes is the sire of i8 in 2.30. Allen- dorf (i883) by Onward is the sire of 32 in the list. Other producing sons are Alsatian and Baron Alexander. The nine trotters from Alma Mater are Allendorf, 2.I91; Arbiter, 2.224; Alcantara, 2.23; Almater (by Hambrino), 2.24.1; Alcyone, 2.27; Amami (by Wilton), 2.283; Alicia, 2.30; Alsatian, 2.30; and Baron Alexander, 2.30. Almeta (by Almont) has a record of 2.324. This is a wonderful showing - speed from six different stallions. Australian was a richly bred horse by West Australian out of Emelia by Young Emilius, she out of Persian by Whisker; and he died at Wood- burn, where he was a noted sire of race-horses. Margrave was also a richly bred horse, by Muley, out of Election, and tracing directly to Crofts Bay Barb and Burton's Barb Mare. He was im- ported into Virginia in I835. If speed is not interchangeable, why should the half-running bred Alma Mater have become the mother of 253 254 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse a prolific family of trotters When eighteen years old Alma Mater was sold for 15,000 to W. S. Hobart of California. Dame Wifnie Dame Winnie, a strictly thoroughbred mare, also accomplished wonders in the trotting stud. She was a chestnut, I5.2, foaled in i87I ; bred by A. J. Alexander; by Planet, dam Liz Mardis by imported Glencoe, a first-class race-horse in Eng- land, who sired the immortal Pocahontas, dam of Stockwell, Rataplan, and King Tom, and whose blood has exalted value in America; second dam, Fanny G. by imported Margrave; third dam Lancess by Lance, son of American Eclipse; and fourth dam Aurora by Aratus. Planet was by Revenue, son of Trustee, dam Nina by Boston by Timoleon by Sir Archy by imported Diomed; second dam Frolicksome Fanny, who traced directly to the Jive Waxy line. Rosalie Sommers, the dam of Planet, was by Sir Charles by Sir Archy, the Godolphin of America. Planet was the first foal of Nina, and Exchequer, his brother, was the second foal. As Trustee, who was by Catton, out of Emma by Whisker, was the sire of Trustee Jr., the first 0/her Great Prvoducing Mares horse to trot twenty miles in an hour, and as he was the sire of Head'em, sire of the dam of George M. Patchen, to say nothing of John Nel- son, the sire of Nerea, 2.2 3-, when Governor Stan- ford's agent came to the office of the Turf Field (uid Farm for advice with regard to thorough- bred mares to breed to Electioneer, his attention was called to Dame Winnie. The purchase was made, and the chestnut daughter of Planet be- came a famous dam of trotters at Palo Alto. Her record sons and daughters are: Big Jim (I88i, gelded) by General Benton, 2.2312; Palo Alto (I882), bay colt by Electioneer, 2.204 at four years, 2.I21 at seven years, and 2.084 at nine years; Gertrude Russell (i883), bay filly, by Electioneer, 2.231; Altivo (i890), bay colt, by Electioneer, 2.I8-; and Paola (i887), bay colt, by Electioneer, 2. I 8. Palo Alto was one of the gamest race-horses that ever wore harness, and his record to high-wheel sulky, 2.083, has never been beaten by a stallion that way rigged. He died at ten years old, and is the sire of I5 in the list, including Iran Alto, 2.I 24, and Pasonte, 2.13. Gertrude Russell broke down in training and is a producing mare. Paola and Altivo are sires of speed. Exchequer, 25 5 256 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse the brother of Planet, forced his way into the Trotting Register by siring Lucile, 2.2I, and Rigolette, 2.2 2. He also is the sire of a speed-producing dam. I have elaborated the pedigree of Dame Winnie in order to show that she was not from dead or cast-off lines. She traces to progenitors who are at the foundation of the thoroughbred structure, and which have strengthened it from decade to decade. Her germ plasms, however, must have had a plastic bent to allow her to become such a conspicuous mother of trotters. It is a striking fact that Fanny G., the second dam of Alma Mater, should also be the second dam of Dame Winnie. Liz Mardis, by imported Glencoe, was her first foal, and Estella, by im- ported Australian, was her tenth foal. Beulah was a bay mare, foaled in i88i, and by Harold, dam Sally B. by Lever, thoroughbred son of Lexington and Levity by imported Trustee; second dam by old Pilot, sire of Pilot Jr. She is the dam of Beuzetta, 2.o64, by Onward; Early Bird, 2.10, by Jay Bird; Honey H., 2.283; Juanita, 2.29; Roberta A., 2.291; and Judex, 2.293. Here are six trotters, but only Early Bird and Beuzetta can be regarded as high- Other Great Producing Mares class. As a three-year-old Beuzetta won the Kentucky Futurity, worth 3I,430, for her owner, E. W. Ayers of Woodford County, Kentucky, and took a record of 2.I24. Early Bird is a producing sire. The blood of Lexington and Trustee has proved speed-sustaining blood in other trotters of renown. Primrose was a bay mare, foaled in i865; by Alexander's Abdallah, dam Black Rose by Tonm Teemer; second dam by Cannon's Whip; and third dam by Robin Grey. It was my good fortune to see her often at Woodburn, where she died, and her sister, Malmaison, dam of Malice, Manetta, Manfred, and Irma G. Her first foal was Princeps (i870), by Woodford Mambrino, and he passed to R. S. Veech and made a great name at Indian Hill Stock Farm, near Louisville. He is the sire of 47 trotters, including Greenlander, 2.12, and Trinket, 2.14; of five pacers and of 40 sires and 44 dams of speed. Primrose is the dam of six trotters and of io sires of trotters. She died in March, i893, leaving a rec- ord for uniformity which is equalled by but few. Lark, bay mare, foaled in i875, by Abdallah Mambrino, dam by Norman, has contributed eight trotters to the 2.30 list, three of which have S 257 258 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse records of 2.20 or better. This is a great show- ing for a mare that was not favorably situated to achieve success. Sontag Mohawk, gray mare, foaled in i875, by Mohawk Chief, dam Sontag Nellie by Toronto Sontag, made a distinguished record at Palo Alto. She is the dam of eight trotters, one of which, Norhawk, has a record of 2.I5 1, and another, Sally Benton, trotted to a four-year-old record of 2.I74. Conductor, one of her produc- ing sons, has a record of 2.I44, and is the sire of Walnut Hall, 2.094, and of I 7 others. Another son, Eros, 2.29', is the sire of Dione, 2.074, and i8 others. One of her daughters, Sally Benton, is the dam of Surpol, 2.I0. Sontag Mohawk was fertile to six different stallions. Soprano, bay mare, foaled in i875, by Strath- more, dam Abbess by Albion, is the dam of eight trotters and two pacers; and one of her sons, C. F. Clay, 2.J8, is the sire of 42 trotters, includ- ing Leola, 2.Iol, and I7 pacers. Dolly Smith, brown mare, foaled in i879, by Mambrino Chief Jr. (son of Mambrino Chief and a thoroughbred mare by Birmingham), dam Maid by Surprise, thoroughbred son of Bonnie Scot- land, is the dam of five trotters and two pacers. Other Great Producing Mares Her fastest trotters are Phoebe Wilkes, 2.o8l, and Prime, 2.121. Her fastest pacer is Phebon W., 2.10-. When we consider the blood lines of Dolly Smith, and that her performers are by dif- ferent stallions, we look at her with an expression of wonder. She made herself fashionable. Bicara was a bay mare, foaled in I87I, by Harold, dam Belle by Mambrino Chief. Bred to Woodford Mambrino, she produced, in I887, the bay colt Pancoast, who trotted to a record of 2.2I 3, and is the sire of Cuylercoast, 2.Ii, and 24 others in the list. Among the score of producing sons by Pancoast are Patron, 2.144; Ponce de Leon, 2.I3; Prodigal, 2.16; and Patronage, sire of Alix, 2.0343. The daughters also are pro- ducers of great speed. Bicara is the dam of six trotters, and her blood is much sought after. Mabel L., black mare, foaled in i88o, by Victor, son of General Knox, dam Hippenheimer by Vol- unteer, has five trotters, including Reina, 2.12i, and Judge Keeler, 2.14. General B. F. Tracy is the owner of Mabel L. He also owns Hannah Price, brown mare, by Arthurton (son of Hamble- tonian and Imogene by Seely's American Star), dam Priceless, an old-time trotter, by Mystery. She is the dam of five, one of which is Lesa 259 260 Tbe Trolling and the Pacing Horse Wilkes, 2.09. Annie G., the first foal of Hannah Price, is the dam of five, and two other daughters are speed producers. Charm, bay mare, foaled in I884; by Santa Claus, 2.1741, dam Toto (sister of Trinket, 2.14) by Princeps, is the dam of eight trotters, three of which have records of better than 2.i6, and five of which have records of better than 2.18. Her rank is very high. Toto, dam of Charm, was a disappointment as a trotter, but she is the dam of three with records from 2.13-2 to 2-2941. Mabel, by Mambrino Howard (son of Mani- brino Chief), dam Contention by Allie West, 2.25 (son of Almont and daughter of Mambrino Chief), is the dam of three trotters and two pacers. One of her trotters is Nightingale, 2.Io0-, and the other is Cresceus, the champion stallion. The blood of the foundation sire, Mambrino Chief, it will be observed, is doubled in her. Lucia, bay mare, foaled i876, by Jay Gould, 2.2I-1, dam Lucy, 2.X81, by George M. Patchen, 2.2312, is descended on both sides from performers; and she is the dam of six trotters, two of which, Edgardo, 2.I33, and Hurly Burly, 2. I61, are pro- ducing sires. Two of the daughters are produc- ing dams. 0/her Great Producinbg Mares Marguerite, a bay mare, foaled 1876; by Ken- tucky Prince, dam Young Daisy (dam of Prince Lavalard, 2.113, Wellington, 2.20, and Graylight, 2.i6+) by Strideaway (son of Black Hawk Tele- graph and the famous pacer Pocahontas by Iron's Cadmus), is the dam of six,- Marguerite A., 2.12 ; Axtellion, 2.I541; Axworthy (3), 2.I52; King Darlington, 2.6; Mary A., 2.27-2; and Colonel Axtell (2), 2.30. She is descended from producers of a high rate of speed in male and female line, and is a great producer herself. Rosebud is a bay mare of 15.3, foaled i88i, by General Washington (son of General Knox and Lady Thorn), dam Goldsmith Maid, 2.14, by Alexander's Abdallah. Her mother trotted I14 heats in 2.20 and better, when 2.20 was a high measure of speed. When I saw Rosebud at Fashion Stud Farm, in I887, her breeder and owner, Henry N. Smith, told me that she was nervous like her mother, and required kicking straps in harness. She had, in i885, a filly by Jay Gould, which the mother did not nurse, and it was raised by hand on milk and lime-water. This filly showed a fine gait as a yearling, but she got frightened and died of a broken spirit. Rosebud is in the great brood-mare list as the 26 I 262 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse dam of four trotters. One of these, Artus, is a producing sire. Stranger, the brother of Rose- bud, is the sire of 39, among them Colonel Kuser, 2.I i and Ballona, 2. I i1. Boodle, by Stranger, out of Bride by Jay Gould, she out of Tiny by Ethan Allen, trotted to a record of 2.I2-, and among his trotters are Ethel Down, 2.IO, and Thompson, 2.142. Colonel Kuser, another son of Stranger, is the sire of Belle Kuser, 2.o81. The blood of Goldsmith Maid is breeding on better than I at one time expected that it would do. Lady Russell, gray mare, foaled 1882, by Harold, dam Miss Russell, was early put to breeding, and she is the dam of five in the list-Expedition, 2.I5j4, sire of 40, including Mary P. Leyburn, 2.1II; Alcatraz, 2.164 at the pace; Re-Election, 2.27- (sire of Refina, 2.o8-); Electrix, 2.281- (dam of Proscription, 2.243, and Impeachment, 2.181); and Lady Kin, 2.30, trial 2.23. Rossignol, by King Wilkes, out of Lady Russell, is a brood mare at Allen Farm, and the dam of Ka, 2.2341; Krishna, 2.244; and Kamala, 2.28,-all by Kremlin, son of the brother of Lady Russell. This is a wonderful record for a mare killed by lightning at eleven years old. 0/ber Great Producing Mares Manette, bay mare, I5.I, foaled August, 1878; bred by J. W. Knox, California; by Nutwood, 2. I 83, dam Emblem (sister of Voltaire, 2.201) by Tattler, 2.26 (son of Pilot Jr. and Telltale, thoroughbred daughter of Telamon); second dam Young Portia, by Mambrino Chief, - is by right of inheritance a great producer. Oro Fino, her first foal, by Eros (son of Electioneer), trotted to a record of 2.18, and became a brood mare. Helen T., by Electioneer, the fourth foal of Manette, was used as a brood mare at Bitter Root Farm, the great Montana breeding estab- lishment of Marcus Daly, and she there produced Potential, 2.29i-, a sire of speed. Arion, the brother of Helen T., came in I889, and he is the champion two-year-old trotter, and a growing sire. Athel, the brother of Arion, was born in iSgo, and Hon. F. P. Olcott paid 25,000 for him at auction to place at the head of his stud at Round Top Farm, at Bernardsville, New Jersey. Thus far the best of Athel's trotters is Bugle, 2.I21. Manaloa, by Advertiser out of Manette, has a record of 2.26-. The rank of Manette as a fountain of speed steadily grows. Merry Clay, by Harry Clay 45, dam Ethel- berta, the noted producing daughter of Harold, 263 264 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse was bred to Artillery, 2.2 I2-, son of Hambletonian and Wells Star by Seely's American Star, and the offspring was Bellina, who trotted to a record of 2.131, and is the sire of I5 in the list, includ- ing The Judge, 2.I21, and Alberto, 2.1-3. Mer- rivale, by Alcantara, is an impressive son of Merry Clay. He trotted to a record of 2.22, and is the head of Mr. H. 0. Havemeyer's breeding stud on Long Island. Alcina, a daughter of Merry Clay, has a record of 2.20; but the fastest of her trotters is Masetto, 2.o8-, by Constantine, 2.124 (brother of Thorn, 2.I214), by WVilkes Boy by Mambrino Patchen. Merry Clay runs in all directions to the pillars of the trotting structure, and Masetto is a representative of an accumu- lative fountain of speed. Lady Horton by Sweepstakes (son of Hamble- tonian and Dolly Mills by Seely's American Star), dam Nellie Horton by Horton Clay, son of Harry Clay 45, trotted to a record of 2.341, and is the dam of seven in the list. One of these, Annie Stevens, 2.I81, is the dam of Helen Grace, 2. II4-. Sweepstakes is the sire of 42. Lady Stout, chestnut mare (0871),-by Mam- brino Patchen, dam Puss Prall by Mark Time, son of thoroughbred Berthune; second dam by Other Great Producing Mares Daniel Webster by Lance, -created a marked sensation when she trotted at Lexington, Ken- tucky, in 1874, to a three-year-old record, 2.29; and she was sold to Robert Bonner for I5,ooo and became the dam of Cartridge, 2.412. In addition to Lady Stout, Puss Prall produced Lotta Prall, 2.28, and Black Diamond, 2.293. She also is the dam of four producing sons and four producing daughters. One of these daugh- ters, Sally Southworth, is the dam of Chatterton, 2.i8, a sire of speed, and of Willie Wilkes, 2.28, dam of Rachel, 2.08-, dam of Great Spirit, 2.091. It is an illustration of how blood breeds on. forming a chain of unbroken speed. Columbine, bay mare, foaled 1873, -by A. W. Richmond (son of Blackbird by Camden by Shark), dam Columbia, thoroughbred daughter of imported Bonnie Scotland; second dam Young Fashion, by imported Monarch; and third dam Fashion by imported Trustee,-is the dam of Anteeo, 2. I61; Antevolo, 2.I94-; J. C. Simpson, 2. i8; and Coral, 2. I8, all by Elec- tioneer. Anteeo is the sire of 50, including Alfred G., 2.193, the sire of Charley Herr, 2.07. Antevolo is the sire of i5; Anteros, his brother, is the sire of 35, one of which is Major Ross, 265 266 The Trot/lg and the Pacing Horse 2.2 512; Conrad, another brother, is the sire of two; and J. C. Simpson is the sire of Sally Simpson, 2.1 i- , and others. The thorough- bred strains in Columbine are among the best in the stud book, and yet her union with Elec- tioneer has given us a world of light-harness speed. It is manifestly impossible in a work of this kind to give a complete list of the great brood mares, and I have selected from the thousands a few that will illustrate the importance of pay- ing attention to female lines. The successful breeder in these days of rapid progress devotes as much thought to the dam as he does to the sire. I remember the time when the sire was expected to do it all, and his harem was usually a band of mediocrity. In spite of that handicap progress was made, but it was slow in proportion to the progress of selection based upon scientific principles. Now that great brood mares have multiplied to a degree that is cumbersome on the Register Association, and which gives so much latitude to the breeder who fails sharply to discriminate, it seems to me that admission to the table should be made more difficult. Under the present rules Other Great Producing Mares mares that have produced two or more trotters with records of 2.30 or better, or two or more pacers with records of 2.25 or better, or one trotter with a record of 2.30 or better, or one pacer with record of 2.25 or better, are admitted; also mares that have produced one 2.30 trotter, or one 2.25 pacer, and another son or daughter that has sired or produced a 2.30 trotter or a 2.25 pacer. When over 4000 mares are qualified un- der these rules, it is time for another forward step. The rules were all right in the beginning, but we have grown away from them. When Hon. Hugh J. Jewett came to New York to accept the presidency of the Erie Rail- road, which at that time stood in need of wise and conservative management, he left in charge of Fair Oaks, the breeding farm at Zanesville, Ohio, his son, George M. Jewett, who was fond of the life of a gentleman farmer. Fair Oaks was a delightful place to visit, and I cherish sweet recollections of it. I have before me the catalogue of 1883, and under Duke of Bruns- wick, bay horse, foaled in I864, by Rysdyk's Hambletonian, dam Madame Loomer by War- rior, second dam an English-bred mare, I find this note: "Duke of Brunswick has won races 267 268 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse for me in 2.40 and trotted quarters in 35 seconds and no question of his ability to trot in 2.25 in condition, but has not been regularly handled for speed. His colts, like those of Almont Chief, have had the misfortune to fall into the hands of those who would not develop them on the track. Among the trials reported or witnessed by me were: Bonnie Oaks (five), 2.28; Jamie (four), 2.3I ; Lo Crine (five), 2.36; Dekasala (three), 2.37; Pleasant Girl (five), 2.31 ; Eloise Hersch (five), 2.38; Duke Patchen (three), 2.40; Maid of Fair Oaks (four), 2.45; William Wallace (three), 2.50; Doubt (two), 2.50; Shipman (five years), a winner in local races, and can show a 2.30 gait." George M. Jewett looked, at that time, out upon the world through rose-colored glasses, and Duke of Brunswick was put in the best possible light before the public. Twenty years have passed, and the line of Duke of Bruns- wick is one of the thousands that have faded from recognition. He left but three trotters, - Gov- ernor Hendree, 2.23; WVilliam Wallace, 2.281; and Red Duke, 2.30. By way of contrast take Red Wilkes, who was foaled ten years after Duke of Brunswick. He is the sire of i67 in the list, headed by Ralph Wilkes, 2.064; his Other Great Producing Mares 269 sons are the sires of 6oo in the list, and his daughters are the dams of i50 in the list. The difference in the vitality, the activity, of the two lines is so sharp as to be painful. Mr. Jewett was a man of brains and financial resources, advantageously situated for breeding, but he pinned his faith to the wrong horse. What breeder of reputation would now dream of claim- ing as a point of merit in his horse the ability to trot a mile in 2.40, or talk of a five-year-old show- ing a trial in 2.38 The span of twenty years is comparatively short in evolution, and yet what strides have been made in that time in breeding the light-harness horse! CHAPTER XXV THE ERA OF HIGH PRICES AT a public sale in the American Institute Building, New York, in January, I892, II colts by Electioneer sold for an average of 6415. Previous to this Mr. Bonner had paid 41,000 for Sunol with a three-year-old record of 2.1ol; and Mr. Forbes had paid I25,000 for Arion with a two-year-old record of 2.io. Consignments from other California breeding establishments, notably from the farms of WRilliam Corbitt and L. J. Rose, had commanded extraordinary prices under the hammer in New York, and the pessimist felt like a man packed away in ice. In the late fall of i889, Mr. Bonner was in California and at Rosemeade saw a bay filly called Reverie, foaled January 5, i888, by Alcazar, dam Sallie Dur- brow by Arthurton, which had trotted to a year- ling record of 2.36. Her conformation was speedy, but she had what is termed a washy look. Mr. Rose painted her future in glowing colors, and when she was placed under the hammer in Madi- 270 AXTELL Who was sold for 105.000 after trotting to a high-wheel, three-year-old record of 2.12 at Terre Haute, October I 1, 1899. ARION Who was sold to J. Malcolm Forbes for 125.000 after trotting to a high-wheel, two-year-old record of 2.1034 at Stockton in 1881. This page in the original text is blank. Tbe Era of Higb Prices son Square Garden I was sitting in a box with Mr. Bonner, directly opposite the auctioneer. Before any one could make a bid the owner of Maud S. and Sunol cried out somewhat sharply, "; Ten thousand dollars." Mr. Rose was equal to the occasion. Rising to his feet, he blandly said: " I hope no one will raise Mr. Bonner's bid, be- cause I want to see this grandly bred filly go into his stable." Mr. Bonner bowed his acknowledg- ments, and the hammer fell. Reverie was one of the greatest of his stable disappointments. She was dear at Iooo. The scramble for fashion- able pedigrees, without regard to individuality, was wild, and the results were disastrous. The boom collapsed, bringing financial ruin to thou- sands of over-sanguine people. Why did it collapse Partially because of the general de- pression in business, but chiefly for the reason that judgment had been thrown to the winds. Pedigree is essential, as it reveals to us each step toward progress. Without it we should grope in the dark. But pedigree should not blind us to the truth that weak individuals do not comply with the great law of the survival of merit. Natural selection weeds out the old, the weak, and the infirm. Under man's direction the weak 2 7 I 272 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse are tenderly guarded and used in reproductive channels. The tendency to infirmity is thus multiplied, and the Register is filled with animals hardly worth the price of registration. Some insects, as is well known, live only to propagate their kind and then die. The life of the male bee goes out with the shock of fertilization. If weak and worthless stallions were subject to the bee law, the monstrous error of reproducing them- selves with slight variations would not be re- peated. Another important question is why brothers and sisters are not of equal merit. Every year brings disappointment to scores who hold that one brother should accomplish as much as another brother. They forget the force of external surroundings. Nutrition plays an im- portant part in development, and so does an atmosphere conducive to the building up of the nervous system. The condition of the mother while carrying the colt, environment after foaling, and the quality of the food given will have their influence and may account for the difference in the family group. I believe with Weismann that each organism possesses the power to react on the different external influences with which it is brought in contact. As the use of organs in- The Era of Higth Prices creases and the disuse of them decreases capacity, why should we not place stress on the transmis- sion of acquired characters The running gait is in a measure antagonistic to the trotting gait, but it is the fastest of all gaits and has been suc- cessfully used to increase speed in light harness. Messenger, above all horses, taught us the value of the thoroughbred foundation; and the fame of the trotting department of Woodburn was largely due to the fact that the groundwork of the struc- ture was right. In I890 Superintendent Lucas Brodhead stated: " The original idea of breeding thoroughbred mares to trotting stallions was to breed fillies for brood mares and thus to build up pedigrees with thoroughbred foundations. These fillies were bred young to our trotting stallions, thus getting two trotting crosses on a thorough- bred foundation. There was no expectation of getting phenomenal speed from the first cross." After you have laid your foundation broad and strong, then breed stout-lunged trotter to trotter, always avoiding weak individuals, and you will find yourself on the road to championship honors. Increased nourishment from generation to gen- eration increases size to a marked degree. There is, however, a limit to all growth, due to germ 273 274 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse cells. The germ plasm is continuous, and upon it depends the doctrine of heredity. The energy of inheritance, nevertheless, is not unchangeable in its type. Were it so, the theory of evolution would fall to the ground. The potency of some new lines is superior to the old, and thus advance steps are made. Evolution is progressive, is a succession of platforms one rising above the other; and Pope, following Spencer, furnishes food for reflection when he says: " The two sen- sations of hunger and sex have furnished the stimuli to internal and external activity, and memory or experience with natural selection have been the guides. Mind and body have thus developed contemporaneously and have reacted mutually." The high-bred horse has more intel- ligence, more sensibility, than the low-bred horse, and his social instincts probably are greater. CHAPTER XXVI 'FILE DAWN OF SYSTEMATIC BREEDING: TRACK GOV- ERNMENT PRIOR to Hambletonian, Mambrino Chief, Pilot, and Clay, there was no systematic breeding of the trotting horse. Much was left to chance, and darkness ruled. Pedigrees were not accurately recorded, and there was no intelligent guide. With these foundation sires, the light spread, and the star of evolution began to run its course. In January, i87I, the first compilation of 2.30 per- formers in harness was handed to me by Nicholas Saltus for publication in the Turf, Field, and Fzarm, and a start in classification was thus made. This table afterwards became the keynote to reg- istration. The first volume of Wallace's Trot- ting Register was issued in i87i, and there was no suggestion in it of a 2.30 speed basis. The National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders was formed after the Centennial Trotting Meet- ing in I876, and its constitution was amended in December, i882. Henry W. T. Mali was presi- 275 276 Tbe Trotling and the Pacing Horse dent of the Association; Leland Stanford, first vice-president; I. V. Baker, second vice-presi- dent; J. P. Wiser, third vice-president; L. D. Packer, secretary; and J. W. Gray, treasurer. Among the members of the Executive Committee were S. F. Knapp, J. D. Willis, H. N. Smith, WV. H. Wilson, G. S. Moulton, W. T. Withers, J. D. Norris, Charles Backman, and Benjamin F. Tracy. The Board of Censors was composed of Guy Miller, F. D. Norris, David Bonner, W. S. Tilton, and E. G. Doolittle. One of the articles read, " All breeders and those interested in the trot- ting horse are eligible to membership in this asso- ciation, if approved by the Executive Committee, who shall take into consideration the character and standing of the applicant." Other articles were: " At least one general meeting shall be held under the auspices of this association each year, at such date and place as shall be announced by the Executive Committee. Entries to be confined to geldings of five years old and under, and to mares and stallions of any age, owned or bred by mem- bers of this association, or the get of stallions owned or stood by members. The pool box shall be prohibited at all meetings, and all forms of gambling. The Executive Committee shall ap- Tbe Dawn of Systematic Breeding 277 point annually five skilful and trusty men who shall have charge of all questions relating to pedi- grees, and be designated as the Board of Censors. T he supervisory control of pedigrees in Wallace's American Trotting Register, having been ten- dered to this association, the same is accepted, and the said Register is hereby declared to be the official record of pedigrees - subject always to such corrections and changes as the facts may require. In assuming and exercising this control, the Board of Censors on pedigrees provided for, and to whom this duty is specially entrusted, will be governed by the following regulations: " Its duty shall be to examine all doubtful pedi- grees brought to its notice in the first and second volumes of the Trotting Register, and indicate to the compiler all additions, erasures, and correc- tions that should be made in said pedigrees, and order them to be reinserted in the fifth volume as corrected. Provided, that when the compiler objects to anything, his reason therefor shall be submitted in writing, and be fully considered before the decision is made. It shall be the duty of the Board of Censors to examine the third and succeeding volumes of the Register before publi- cation, and consider and determine the forms in 278 Tbe Trolling and the Pacing Horse which they shall appear. The Board of Censors shall establish certain rules with regard to giving names to horses, and require those rules to be observed in the Register, so that all clashing and confusion from duplication or approximations will be avoided. WNhen any disagreement arises be- tween a party contributing a pedigree and the compiler of the Register, it shall be referred to the Board of Censors, and after a free hearing and examination of the evidence on both sides, the decision shall be so reported. This provision shall apply to disagreements in recorded pedi- grees as well as those offered for record. In order to establish the truth and check fraud, the Board of Censors may order any pedigree in- serted in the Register in its true form, without the application or wish of the owners; provided, however, that go days' notice shall be given. In all contested cases the Board of Censors shall keep a plain record of its proceedings and find- ings, but all evidence substantiating them shall be reduced to writing and placed in the office of the Register." The rules were as follows: " In order to define what constitutes a trotting-bred horse, and to establish a BREED of trotters on a more intelligent The Dawn of Systematic Breedillg 279 basis, the following rules are adopted to control admission to the records of pedigrees. When an animal meets with the requirements of admission and is duly registered, it shall be accepted as a standard trotting-bred animal. " First. - Any stallion that has, himself, a record of two min- utes and thirty seconds (2.30) or better; provided any of his get has a record of 2.40 or better; or provided his sire or his dam, his grandsire or his grandam, is already a standard animal. " Second. - Any mare or gelding that has a record of 2.30 or better. " Third. -Any horse that is the sire of two animals with a record of 2.30 or better. " Fourth. -Any horse that is the sire of one animal with a record of 2.30 or better; provided he has either of the follow- ing additional qualifications: - it i. A record himself of 2.40 or better. " 2. Is the sire of two other animals with a record of 2.40 or better. "c 3. Has a sire or dam, grandsire or grandam, that is already a standard animal. "wFzth. -Any mare that has produced an animal with a record of 2.30 or better. " Sixth. - The progeny of a standard horse when out of a standard mare. " Seventh. - The progeny of a standard horse out of a mare )3y a standard horse. " Eighth. -The progeny of a standard horse when out of a mare whose dam is a standard mare. "Ninth. - Any mare that has a record of 2.40 or better; and whose sire or dam, grandsire or grandam, is a standard animal. 280 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse " Tenth. -A record to wagon of 2.35 or better shall be regarded as equal to a 2.30 record." Previous to giving the National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders supervisory control of the pedigrees in the Trotting Register, J. H. Wallace had quarrelled with prominent Ken- tucky breeders, and they started and published, in i88I, under the editorship of J. H. Sanders, The Breeders' Trotting Stud Book. Rules for entry were: " The object of this book is to preserve a reliable record of the pedigrees of all trotting horses that have trotted a mile in 2.30 or better; or that trace directly or collaterally to such horses under the conditions hereinafter mentioned: - "Harness team or saddle records of 2.30 or better will entitle animals to enter. Any animal coming within the provisions of any of the fol- lowing rules will be entitled to entry: "Rule I. Any stallion, mare, or gelding who has a record of 2.30 or better. Rule II. Any stallion that has sired a horse, mare, or gelding with a record of 2.30 or better. Rule III. Any mare that has produced a horse, mare, or gelding with a record of 2.30 or better. Rule IV. The dam of any stallion or mare that has sired or produced a The Dawn of Systenmatic Breeding 2SI horse, mare, or gelclincg with a record of 2.30 or better; provided said mare was by a stallion or out of a mare entered in this book. Rule V. Any animal by a stallion entered in this Stud Book out of a mare entered therein. Rule VI. Any, animal whose sire and whose dam, first clam and second dam's sires are entered in this Stud Book. "A public trial trotted according to the rules of the National Trotting Association for govern- ing races, and timed by three judges selected in the usual way by any association, a member in good standing of the National Trotting Associa- tion, shall be considered a record so far as eligibility to entry in this Stud Book is con- cerned. A certificate giving the time made under the above conditions must be signed by the three judges and countersigned by the presi- dent and secretary of the Association authorizing said trial: such certificate to accompany the entry and remain on file." The gentlemen who signed the above as Committee on Rules were A. J. Alexander, R. West, J. C. McFerran, H. C. McDowell, R. S. Veech, and L. Brodhead. It will be ob- served that in this Stud Book, as well as in the 282 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse supervised Trotting Register, the idea to which I first gave publicity and which I strongly ad- vocated, a record of 2.30 as the basis of the speed standard, was turned to practical account. I am particular in stating the facts in detail, because uinder the rules of i88i and i882 the evolu- tionary period of breeding was given force. Mr. Wallace later disagreed with his Censors and the National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders, and under compulsion of rivalry which would have brought ruin to him, he sold out to the American Trotting Register Association, of which William Russell Allen is president. All interests were harmonized by this transfer, and all pedigrees are now registered with the new association. The rules for registration were changed from time to time, and those now in force read: - "THE TROrING STANDARD "When an animal meets these requirements and is duly registered it shall be accepted as a standard-bred trotter: - " I. The progeny of a registered standard trotting horse and a registered standard trotting mare. " 2. A stallion sired by a registered standard trotting horse, provided his dam and grandam were sired by registered standard trotting horses, and he himself has a trotting record The Dawn of Systematic Breeding 283 of 2.30 and is the sire of three trotters with records of 2.30, from different mares. " 3. A mare whose sire is a registered standard trotting horse, and whose dam and grandam were sired by registered standard trotting horses, provided she herself has a trotting record of 2.30, or is the dam of one trotter with a record of 2.30. "4. A mare sired by a registered standard trotting horse, provided she is the dam of two trotters with records of 2.30. "5. A mare sired by a registered standard trotting horse, provided her first, second, and third dams are each sired by a registered standard trotting horse. "THE PACING STANDARD "When an animal meets these requirements and is duly registered, it shall be accepted as a standard-bred pacer: - " I. The progeny of a registered standard pacing horse and a registered standard pacing mare. " 2. A stallion sired by a registered standard pacing horse, provided his dam and grandam were sired by registered standard pacing horses, and he himself has a pacing record of 2.25, and is the sire of three pacers with records of 2.25, from different mares. "3. A mare whose sire is a registered standard pacing horse, and whose dam and grandam were sired by registered standard pacing horses, provided she herself has a pacing record of 2.25, or is the dam of one pacer with a record of 2.25. "4. A mare sired by a registered standard pacing horse, provided she is the dam of two pacers with records of 2.25. 284 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse "5. A mare sired by a registered standard pacing horse, provided her first, second, and third dams are each sired by a registered standard pacing horse. " 6. The progeny of a registered standard trotting horse out of a registered standard pacing mare, or of a registered standard pacing horse out of a registered standard trotting mare." The National Trotting Horse Breeders' Asso- ciation passed with the issue that called it into existence, and but few of the founders of it are now alive. The Breeders' Trotting Stud Book was also merged into a broader movement, and centralized authority over registration is, I feel sure, for the best interests of all engaged in breeding. CHAPTER XXVII THE GROWTH OF DISCIPLINE: HORSE SHOWS IN I825 the New York Trotting Club was organized, and its race ground was at Jamaica, Long Island. In i828 the Hunting Park Asso- ciation was established in Philadelphia, for the encouragement of the breed of fine horses, " espe- cially that most valuable one known as the trot- ter." Topgallant, Betsey Baker, Trouble, Sir Peter, Whalebone, Screwdriver, and other horses of that period trotted over the Hunting Course. The races usually were at two-, three-, and four- mile heats, and more attention was paid to endurance than speed. As the roads improved the taste for trotting grew, and the old song eulogized the 2.40 mare on the plank road. The Centreville track, Long Island, had a code in force in i838, but the rules most generally re- spected were those of Union Course, Long Island. During and immediately after the Civil War there was so much laxity in the conduct of races that trotting fell into disrepute. It was in 285 286 Tbe Trotting and Wbe Pacing Horse i866 that I began to advocate improvement, and kept at it until a change was inaugurated. The call was for a congress of trotting tracks to formulate rules for the government of trotting races on all the tracks of the country. Hon. Amasa Sprague, president of the Narragansett Park Association, Providence, Rhode Island, was a man of importance in those days, and when he issued a call for a meeting at the Everett House, New York, February 2, i870, the responses were liberal. Forty-seven tracks were represented by I05 delegates, and much labor was given by a committee of I3 to drafting a set of rules. The gentlemen who composed this committee were Isaiah Rynders, B. G. Bruce, H. S. Russell, Horatio Page, Thomas J. Vail, Alden Goldsmith, D. Goodhall, Jesse Boynton, J. L. Cassidy, C. J. Hamlin, George B. Hall, and L. L. Dorsey. The Fashion Course rules and the racing rules were gone over section by section, and the best ideas of both were transferred to the new code. The title of the voluntary association in Febru- ary, i870, was The National Association for the Promotion of the Interests of the American Trotting Turf. The president was Amasa Sprague of Providence. Rhode Island, and the 6 -Itw . _ E C n-E :: 5 .5 z w -J -J -4 : i U) n U) -D 0: n I bl, E- F- .O E WE ra_ ._ On O H Z .2 U _ :E L Z -E L._ , n This page in the original text is blank. Tbh Growtb of Discipline: Sbows secretary was George H. Smith of Providence. The association was without funds, and the president was expected to keep the wheels oiled. Those who had opposed the movement tried to show that its birth was spontaneous, and in an editorial in the Turf, Field, and Farm, February I8, 1870, I said: "s Does any one believe that a call for a Turf Congress, issued by any associa- tion two years ago, would have met with any response The people were not ripe for a movement then; men had to be impressed with the importance of the measure, had to be taught to look at it as representing something broader than sectional pride. For two years the Turf, Field, and Farm hammered at the idea, and after two years of agitation the Narragansett Park Association took the initiative in calling the association together." The organization born at the Everett House, New York, developed into one of the most powerful track-governing bodies in the world, and it stimulated breeding to an unexpected degree. The best people of the country turned their attention to the trotting horse, and race-tracks rapidly multiplied and had the support of the leading citizens of the corn- munities in which they were located. Trickery 287 288 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse was punished without regard to persons, and trotting passed from the shade of outlawry and became the dominant outdoor sport of the United States. Discipline is absolutely neces- sary to the perpetuation of an amusement upon which large financial interests depend, and whole- some discipline was the cardinal principle of the National Trotting Association. Amasa Sprague remained president until i876, when he resigned; and Charles WV. Woolley of Cincinnati was his successor. James Grant of Davenport, Iowa, succeeded Colonel Woolley in i88o, and he was succeeded in i888 by P. P. Johnston of Lexing- ton, Kentucky, who is still in office. The first Board of Appeals was composed of Thomas J. Vail, Hartford; George C. Hall, Brooklyn; H. S. Russell, Boston; C. J. Hamlin, Buffalo; M. S. Forbes, Cincinnati; K. C. Barker, Detroit; David A. Gage, Chicago; and George Lauman, Read- ing, Pennsylvania. The secretaries have been George H. Smith, D. F. Longstreet, T. J. Vail, M. M. I\Morse, and WV. H. Gocher. The meet- ings were annual until i874, when they became biennial. There are five districts in the territory over which the association has jurisdiction, and there are three members to a district, making the TIhe Grow/b of Discipline: Sbows total membership of the Board of Review fifteen. There are, in addition to the president, two vice- presidents. a secretary, and a treasurer. The Board of Review meets twice a year, May and December, to decide cases that have been appealed from the individual tracks, and the most careful consideration is given to each case. The Board of Review is the court of last resort, and its authority extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. The executive office of the association is at Hartford, Connecticut. The American Trotting Association was organized at Detroit, Michigan, March 2, i887. The element which was dissatisfied with the administration of the affairs of the National Trotting Association was the backbone of the new organization. The relations between the National and the American are now harmonious, and they race under the same rules and give force to each other's penalties. W. P. Ijams is president of the American Trotting Associa- tion, and WV. H. Knight, secretary, and the executive office is in Chicago. The office of the American Trotting Register Association is also in Chicago, and it is closely affiliated with the National and the American. U 289 290 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse The combined influence of the three associations is very great, and all who object to discipline are in the position of the boy who tried to whistle down the tides of the sea. The National Horse Show Association of America, founded in i885, has been quite a fac- tor in improving the light-harness type. It rec- ognizes speed, but emphasizes conformation. In other words, its aim is to combine beauty with action. The faddists who sacrificed everything to speed have been checked. At the annual horse show in Madison Square Garden, New York, always held in the month of November, the keenest critics watch the distribution of rib- bons, and the great world of fashion honors the occasion. The show has made plain the fact that the well-bred and well-schooled horse is the idol of cultivated classes. The trotting-bred horse which possesses substance and high conforma- tion is easily schooled to heavy-harness classes, and he gathers in blue rosettes by the dozen. The fever kindled by The National Horse Show Association has spread over the entire land, and the annual horse show is the leading social func- tion of cities like Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, Louisville, Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City. U-- o 7- z . LI. t4 . 0 LU -D Zl 0 U-i LU co 0 LiL -J 0 -1 Oo vo) 0- -.EI - X E A: I o a qi 0 U) 79 -I- LI] Io CP This page in the original text is blank. The Growtb of Discipline: Shows Rules are sternly enforced, and the little group of so-called horsemen, which in the old days was a law unto itself, has ceased to offend justice and good taste and to pull the horse down to a level where chicanery is a tree of luxuriant blossom. It has been my privilege to test the rules of the National Trotting Association, the American Trotting Association, and of horse-show asso- ciations in awarding premiums under them, and the result contributes to a feeling of personal gratification that I was an humble instrument in adding to the crystallization of each suggestion. It was March I3, i89i, that the committees appointed by the National Trotting Associa- tion, the American Trotting Association, and, the American Trotting Register Association, met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York, and agreed upon a code satisfactory to all. The Register Association was particularly interested in the drafting of a rule for governing perform- ances against time, and the rules now in force, the result of that conference, have done away with a vast amount of friction and given general satisfaction. The pioneer track of the evolutionary period was opened at Buffalo under the inspiration of 29I 292 Tbe Trolling and the Pacing Horse C. J. Hamlin, August I4-I7, i866. The pre- miums amounted to Io05oo, and the meeting at- tracted the best horses in the country and proved a great success. The " mammoth purse," as it was styled, 5 750, for free-for-all trotters, was won by Dexter from George M. Patchen Jr. and Rolla Golddust, and the fastest time was 2.25. The success stimulated to bolder endeavor in i867, and the fame of Buffalo gradually increased as the trotting centre of America. The maxi- mum premium list was 70,000. Hampden Park, at Springfield, Massachusetts, was built in i857, but owing to the Civil WVar it did not burst into full flower until i868. The first annual spring meeting of the Cleveland Club, under the aus- pices of the Northern Ohio Fair Association, was held June 20-23, I87i, and John Tod, a son of the war governor, was president, and George WV. Howe was secretary. In I873 the Quad- rilateral Trotting Combination was formed- Cleveland, July 29 to August i; Buffalo, August 5 to 8; Utica, August 12 to I4, and Springfield, August 19 to 22. The premiums for the four meetings amounted to i69,300, and enthusiasm increased as the horses swept down the line. In I874 Charter Oak Park at Hartford was opened, The Growtb of Discipline: Sows and in i875 there was a clash between the new tracks at Rochester and Poughkeepsie. The Grand Trotting Circuit was thus extended, and summer after summer I started with the horses at Cleveland and followed them to the close, The charm of those days will always linger with me. I was a member of the fortunate visiting delegations, and at each place there was a series of social entertainments. Ladies sat with gentle- men through elaborate dinners, and as the topic of conversation was the horse, the love of trotting was well nourished, and the fever spread to all sections of the country and gave a tremendous boom to breeding. Other circuits were formed and tracks multiplied until we were able to count them by the thousand instead of by the score. In his " Tales of the Turf," WV. H. Gocher quotes Hon. Lewis J. Powers of Springfield, who has been the treasurer of the National Trotting Association from the start, and was one of the stewards of the Grand Circuit, as follows: "To what might be termed the 'Old Guard,' there are many pleasant memories attached to those meetings and banquets at which the love for a good horse and the purely American sport, harness racing, was the bond of fellowship. 293 294 The Trolling and the Pacing Horse Sentiment without a particle of commercialism brought together the men who sat around the board each year. To them a race was a contest for which they were willing to pay, should the association which they represented and in a few instances managed come out at the small end of the horn when the last heat was trotted. This happened two or three times in Springfield, there being one season when seven of us were called on to chip in iooo apiece to balance accounts. Then there were years when the balance was the other way. In the old days the commercial spirit of the turf was left to those who entered and drove horses and the general public. The financial ventures of those who managed meet- ings were foreign to the race track. Grand Cir- cuit week was their holiday, and they took as much pride in keeping up the standard as the New York Yacht Club has in retaining the America Cup. It was the good old spirit for genuine sport that called Colonel Edwards to the front in Cleveland; and it is with regret that I see this spirit on the decline, the tendency to-day being toward shorter races and increased specu- lation. Such a course, especially the latter, is beset with danger, for without a big grain of The Grow/b of Displine: Shows 2 sentiment horse-racing can never retain the popular support which was given it in the old days when the names of Goldsmith Maid and Dexter were household words, and when every slip of a lad with a hobby-horse or a sled desig- nated it with a name that had become prominent on account of record-breaking performances." Utica, Springfield, Rochester, Poughkeepsie, Pittsburg, Albany, Philadelphia, Saginaw, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, Glens Falls, and Portland, which at different periods were members of the Grand Circuit, are no longer links in the chain; but individual meetings are given at the majority of these places. The circuit has changed in many ways since the days when my enthusiasm was greater than now and I first began the pilgrimage from Cleveland to Hartford. 295 CHAPTER XXVIII ROAD-RIDING MOVEMENTS ROAD-RIDING movements quickened the devel- opment of the light-harness horse, but men of resolute purpose were required to lead in order to lift the horse into an atmosphere of respect. In i856, when Robert Bonner first appeared on the road, trotting was in bad repute, and years of stern example were required to restore it to public favor. Burnham's, a house of refreshment on Bloomingdale Road and 76th Street, was the first rendezvous of gentlemen drivers, and Elm Park on the Bloomingdale Road at 92d Street was the next resort. Admission to the club- house and half-mile track was restricted to members. The third rendezvous was the Dubois half-mile track on Harlem Lane and I45th Street. It went out of existence soon after the Civil War, and the riders broke up into groups, some going to Bertholf's Road House, some to Florence's, and some to Smith's. Prominent among the early riders were Commodore Vander- 296 6 F n E 0 75 : I 0 = "A 0- : 0 c. Az z a 0 E w n :o z f C 1 I This page in the original text is blank. Road-ridinig Movements bilt, Robert Bonner, Frank Work, William H. Vanderbilt, Shepherd F. Knapp, George B. Alley, Charles H. Kerner, and William Turnbull. The first noted pair of Mr. Bonner were Flatbush Maid and Lady Palmer, and it was in the autumn of i86i that he drove these good mares around Union Course in 2.27. At Fashion Course, May i0, i862, he drove the same pair two miles ill 5.01., the first mile in 2.26, and there was profound sensation. Commodore Vanderbilt's pair were Post Boy and Plow Boy, and he was jealous of their reputation. The spirit of rivalry between Bonner and Vanderbilt grew more intense with the years, and their respective friends caught the fever, and breeders and trainers reaped the profit. Later John D. Rockefeller, William Rockefeller, Frank Work, William H. Vanderbilt, T. C. Eastman, and C. J. Hamlin were carried forward by the torrent, and the road-riding movement was at its zenith. The expansion of the city destroyed Harlem Lane for fast driving; and then at the suggestion of prominent road riders I started an agitation for a speedway on the west side of Central Park. During the administration of Hugh J. Grant as mayor of New York, a bill was passed 297 298 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse by the legislature authorizing the construction of such a driveway; but the opposition was so violent that the vote was reconsidered and the measure defeated. When Thomas F. Gilroy succeeded Mr. Grant as mayor, a bill for a speed- way on the west bank of Harlem River was prepared and passed by the legislature and signed by the governor. In the interest of this measure the Road Horse Association of the State of New York was formed, in i892, with Frederic P. Olcott, president; C. J. Hamlin, vice-president; J. C. De la Vergne, treasurer; and Hamilton Busbey, secretary. Among mem- bers of the Executive Committee were Lawrence Kip, H. M. Whitehead, W. M. V. Hoffman, A. B. Darling, Jacob Ruppert, John H. Shults, Charles Backman, Henry C. Jewett, W. B. Dick- erman, George WV. Archer, and I. V. Baker, Jr. The association gave moral support to the members of the Park Board, who favored the speedway-A. B. Tappen, Paul Dana, Nathan Straus, S. Van Rensselaer Cruger, and George C. Clausen; and the work was pushed during the administration of Mayor William L. Strong, and thrown open to the public in the early part of the administration of Mayor Robert A. Van Wyck. Road-riding Movements In the latter part of December, i893, I addressed a letter to Hon. A. B. Tappen, president of the Park Commission, asking him to draw the attention of his associates to the autograph letter from Robert Bonner in relation to the controversy over the sidewalk plan. Mr. Bonner said, in his letter to me: "I do not see any objection to having two sidewalks on the speed- way so long as all means of passage across it shall be by archways. It is true that the build- ing of two sidewalks will involve greater expense, but as they are intended for the accommodation of the people, and the people have to pay for them, I do not see any good reason for depriving the public of the enjoyment to be derived from witnessing exhibitions of speed." A line was added below the signature of Robert Bonner, "The above letter expresses our views." The signatures attached were those of Lawrence Kip Charles H. Kerner, J. B. Houston, F. P. O]cott, A. Newbold Morris, Charles Backman, William Rockefeller, and C. F. Hoffman, Jr. It took longer to build the speedway than was at first anticipated, and the expense was heavy; but the great pleasure drive is worth to the city all that it cost in worry and money. In June, 299 300 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse I898, ex-Mayor Gilroy wrote me a letter in which he said: " I am glad to learn that the speedway is to be opened so soon for driving purposes, and that the light drivers of New York, who have waited with so much patience for so long a time for this event, will receive the reward of their patience. There are driveways for light driving in many of the large cities of the country, but none of them, for length, for pictu- resqueness and beauty of location, for solidity as well as elasticity of road-bed, can compare with our own speedway. The side of the river on which it is built will always be cool in the after- noon shade, there are no intersecting streets from 155th Street on the south to Dyckman Street on the north; and through this latter street the speedway connects with Kingsbridge Road, Fort Washington Bridge Road, and Boulevard Lafa- yette on the west, thus furnishing the most mag- nificent system of driveways possessed by any city on the civilized globe." The highest prices have been paid by gentlemen of means for horses to drive on the road, and the future of the light- harness horse depends as much upon speedways as it does upon tracks devoted to professional races. CHAPTER XXIX AMATEUR DRIVING CLUBS MAY 25, i895, the Gentlemen's Driving Club of Cleveland was organized, with William Ed- wards as honorary president; C. E. Grover, pres- ident; and Frank Chamberlin, secretary. Its object was matinee racing to road wagons, and although it was not the first club of the kind, it quickly took higher rank than any other club built on similar lines. It has a large and im- portant membership, and as horses famed for speed contest for ribbons and cups, the races are attended by thousands. The members of the club are amateurs, and an amateur is defined "as a man who has not accepted wages or hire for his services as a trainer or driver. Any indi- vidual club member who competes for the first, or against professional, except in such events as are especially arranged for amateurs, after May i, i90i, shall forfeit his amateur standing." The officers of the club at this time are: hon- orary president, H. M. Hanna; president, H. K. 301 302 ThLe Trot/ing and the Pacing Horse Devereux; vice-president, D. R. Hanna; secre- tary-treasurer, F. L. Chamberlin. The Gentle- men's Driving Club of Boston was organized in January, i899, and the officers at this time are: president, Albert S. Bigelow; vice-presidents, Peter B. Bradley, John E. Thayer, J. Malcolm Forbes'; treasurer, Frank G. Hall; secretary, T. L. Quimby. At a meeting held in New York, in November, I890, the League of the Ameri- can Driving Clubs was organized, with the clubs of Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Pittsburg, and Syracuse in membership, to which have been added Columbus, New York, and Memphis. The officers of the league are: president, H. K. Devereux; vice-president, Harry Darlington; secretary-treasurer, T. L. Quimby. Horace White and C. K. G. Billings are prominent among the directors. Many thousands of dollars are spent each year for horses to compete for badges of honor at the amateur meetings, and lovers of the light-harness horse hope that ama- teur racing to road wagon has come to stay. Deceased. CHAPTER XXX THE PACING HORSE WHEN the country was new and the roads were bad the easy-gaited saddle horse was in demand. Long journeys were made on his back. The use of light vehicles was out of the question. In Rhode Island there was a family of pacers called the Narragansett, and it is claimed that it sprang from stock imported from Andalusia in Spain. This blood was widely disseminated, and it was the germ from which came the tendency to ease of motion under saddle in other sections of the land. The pacing ancestors of Kentucky and Tennessee were from Canada, and Mr. Bat- tell contends that their origin was not found in the horses originally imported into Canada from France. " There are but two sources," he writes, "1other than the original Canadian stock, from which the Canadian pacer could have sprung the horses imported from across the sea, or from the States. The English thoroughbred blood might add to the speed of the pacer, but it cer- 303 304 Tbe Trotling and the Pacing Horse tainly is not the source of pacing families." This is followed by the suggestion that the Morgan horse, through general intercourse between the people of Vermont and the people of the Prov- ince of Quebec, was early introduced into Canada, and was a strong factor in the pacing families in that section. Where facts are obscure there is always room for suggestion. Copperbottom, a chestnut horse of I5.2, strongly built and hand- some in appearance, was taken to Kentucky in i8i6, and he was followed by Tom Hal, a roan of blocky build, and later by the black horse Pilot, the sire of Pilot Jr. General John B. Castleman, president of the Louisville Horse Show Association, and a noted breeder of saddle horses, says in a recent paper: "Virginia and the South Atlantic states had given much atten- tion to racing, and were even then breeders of the thoroughbred. The only other source of importation was from Canada. There they raised a hardy little horse, said to be a cross of the French importations with generally such stallions as could be obtained from New York and New England. Wh1Iatever these Canadian horses were, they had some of the qualities required for man's comfort, and the Canadian had given much atten- The Pacing Horse 305 tion to the development of the pace or amble. Many of these horses were pacers; and our fore- fathers bred these Canadian mares to thorough- bred stallions. After a while it was noticed that certain lines of thoroughbred blood produced better results than others, and it is remarkable to note how great saddle sires trace to the same origin. The horse that man needed as a saddle horse began to be produced." It was not until after good roads were built in Kentucky and Tennessee that the pacing horse was used to any extent in harness. He was coveted for his ability to control gait under the saddle. The foundation stock of the American Saddle Horse Breeders' Association is thus officially stated: - " Denmark (thoroughbred) by imported Hedge- ford. " John Dillard by Indian Chief (Canadian). " Tom Hal (imported from Canada). " Cabell's Lexington by Gist's Black Hawk (Morgan). " Coleman's Eureka (thoroughbred and Morgan). " Van Meter's Waxy (thoroughbred). " Stump-the-Dealer (thoroughbred). " Peter's Halcorn. x 306 Tbe Trolling and the Pacing Horse Davy Crockett. "Pat Cleburne [by Benton's gray Diomed]." I have before me the American Turf Register of i870, and only 59 pacing races for the entire country for the year i869 are recorded in it. In the majority of these races only two horses faced the starter, and the time made was wretchedly slow. There were only four pacing races in the great state of New York, but one in Tennessee, and none in Kentucky. This shows what a feeble factor the pacing horse was in harness at that comparatively recent period. The chestnut mare Pocahontas by Iron's Cadmus by American Eclipse had established a national reputation by pacing, June 2I, i855, at Union Course, Long Island, to a wagon record of 2.172; but that performance weighed so lightly on the mind of breeders and trainers that no determined at- tempts at imitation were made. The pacer was really under ban for harness purposes; and many horses that would have paced fast if left to their own inclinations were converted into trotters by the application of toe weights. When a horse transmits the pacing form he transmits the pac- ing gait or a tendency to pace. The horse paces naturally when the body is not long enough to fly rvis.i... fr-,, n e... 'rip-htrd plhot-_gra""ph by Sbhr-ib-r I tIsz Philaur,110"a MAMBRINO PATCHEN The Prepotent Son of Mambrino Chief. 1r I... io.. , fron a -opyrightr, by Seh lr r ilhr & on. lil.Iph hi. BARON WILKES The Speed-begetting Son of George Wilkes. This page in the original text is blank. The Pacing Horse allow the diagonal stroke to be made with ease. The hind leg then follows the corresponding fore leg to avoid interference. I have seen Mr. Bon- ner, who was a profound student of equine structure and the greatest enthusiast that the world has known on foot-balancing, take a pac- ing colt and in a few minutes change it to a trotter by simply changing the bearing of its heels. Colts of this description had the trotting conformation, but the form was distorted by an uneven growth of hoof. Were the laws of balance better understood than they are by the mass of mankind, the list of pacers would not swell as it does from year to year. It is not worth while to devote much space to obscure pacing families when we see pacers springing from sires of estab- lished blood lines and of world-wide reputation. Take George Wilkes, for instance. Although a great progenitor of trotters, he sired pacers, and his sons and daughters are producers of pacers. WVith him it is not inheritance, only so far as con- formation is modified by mares to which he was bred, or by reversion to some previous type. Man is often bewildered by the way in which a former ancestor, after lying dormant for genera- tions, awakens and asserts its power. Gambetta 307 308 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse WVilkes by George Wilkes, dam Jewel by Gill's Vermont, tracing directly to Justin Morgan, trotted to a record of 2.194, and is the sire of about as many pacers as trotters. The fastest of his I 37 perform- ers in harness are pacers,- Guinette, 2.05; Lottie Loraine, 2.05; Eyelet, 2.061; and Cubano, 2.o61 His inheritance, so far as known, is purely a trot- ting inheritance, but in transmitting speed he varies form so as to contribute to the lateral as well as the diagonal column. Dictator by Ham- bletonian out of Clara by Seely's American Star carries the blood of two foundation trotting sires, and his son Director out of Dolly by Mrambrino Chief was a great trotter; but Direct by Director out of Echora, 2.231-, by Echo by Hambletonian, has a record at both ways of going, -2.X84- at a trot and 2.051 at the pace, - and he is the sire of both pacers and trotters. The fastest of his get, Directly, 2.0341, is a pacer, and at Shultshurst he is demonstrating that the trot and the pace are interchangeable according to the influence exer- cised by the mares fertilized by him in moulding conformation. Jay-eye-see, the sensational trotter, by Dictator, was a compact little horse with the open Star action behind which permitted the hind feet to clear the forward ones; and I saw enough The Pacing Horse3 of him to believe that he would have beaten his record of 2. I 0 at the trot if he had kept thoroughly sound. When he became tender on one of his legs, he was differently balanced, and shifted to the easier pacing gait, and took a record at that way of going of 2.064. Baron Wilkes, who trotted to a record of 2.i8, and who carries the blood of George Wilkes and Mambrino Patchen, the best son of Mambrino Chief, is one of our greatest sires of trotters, and yet the fastest of his get are pacers, - Bumps, 2.03-1, and Reubenstein, 2.05. WVith such illustrious examples before us we need not puzzle our wits to discover the origin of the Narragansett pacer or the source of the Canadian pacer. John R. Gentry, one of the handsomest horses in the world for his size, and a standard-bred trotter, is a fast pacer. He was bred by H. G. Toler, Wichita, Kansas; foaled in 1889; by Ash- land Wilkes, 2. 7I7, who traces twice to Hamble- tonian through George Wilkes and Administrator; dam Dame XWood by Wedgewood, 2.I9 (son of Belmont and Woodbine); second dam Fancy, 2.30, by Winton. We should look for him to show extreme speed at the trot, whereas, owing to his form, he is a pacer with extreme speed. Among 309 3i0 The Trvttiig and the Pacing Horse the great pacers beaten by him in the fierce bat- tles of the turf are Joe Patchen, Star Pointer, Robert J., Anaconda, and Frank Agan. He was sold at auction in i896, for i9,900, has challenged the admiration of the country, and has frequently been driven on the road, where his manners are perfect, by his owner, Edward H. Harriman. As a sire he transmits both the trotting and the pac- ing gaits. Joe Patchen, the iron-hearted and iron-limbed horse, is owned by Hon. John McCarty, whose Parkway Farm at Goshen is not far from Arcden Farms, the estate of Mr. Harriman. He is a powerfully built black horse, foaled in i889, and sired by Patchen Wilkes (son of George Wilkes and Kitty Patchen by Mambrino Patchen); dam Josephine Young by Joe Young, who traces twice through his sire, Joe WVest, to Justin Morgan. Betty Brown, the dam of Kitty Patchen, was a daughter of Mambrino Patchen (son of Mambrino Chief) out of a daughter of Mambrino Chief. The potent foundation strains of Morgan, Ham- bletonian, and Mambrino Chief are closely inter- woven in Joe Patchen, and yet the result is a great pacer, with pacing conformation. Joe Patchen never knew when he was beaten on the The Pacing Horse turf; he was resolute of purpose to the very end, and I often was moved to applaud his determined finishes. He retired to the stud with a record of 2.011, where both trotters and pacers are coming 4,9 from his loins. His greatest triumph is Dan Patch, a brown horse foaled in i896; bred by D. A. Messner of Oxford, Indiana; dam Zelica, a mare of great quality, by Wilkesberry; second dam Abdallah Belle by Pacing Abdallah. Dan Patch has the pacing lines with some pacing blood, and at Providence, Rhode Island, August 29, I902, he paced to a record of I.59-. During the season of I903, Dan Patch, driven by the master reinsman, M. H. McHenry, paced I3 ex- hibition miles in 2.04 or better, and dropped below two minutes -at Brighton Beach, I.59; Colum- bus, I.591; Lexington, i.591; Memphis, I.561; and Memphis, I.571. The I.561 is the best har- ness record with shield, and the I.571 is the best wagon record with shield. Prince Alert, bay gelding, foaled in i892, by Crown Prince (son of Artemas); dam Till, a bay trotting mare of 15 hands, of untraced blood, was bred by G. W. Fort of Knightstown, Indi- ana, and October 31, I902, he paced to a record of two minutes at Memphis. lHe wears hopples, 3" 3I2 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse and during the season of I903 had the advantage of a wind-shield. At Empire City Park, New York, September 23, he paced in I.57; at Lex- ington, October io, in i.591; and at Philadelphia, October I5, in I.5912. The wind-shield, with which his best performance was made, is of far more assistance to the performer than a dirt- shield, which is a narrow strip of canvas fastened to the axle of the sulky which goes in front, drawn by a runner. The I.57 performance has been rejected. Previous to 1903 the pacing champion was Star Pointer, who in i897 acquired a record of I.591. He is a big bay horse, foaled in I889, and a typical pacer, descended from a family of pacers. When Campbell Brown, a courtly gen- tleman from Spring Hill, Tennessee, was in the flesh, I followed Brown Hal down the Grand Circuit line and grew enthusiastic over some of the races in which he was engaged. Brown Hal was a handsome horse, finely coupled by Tom Hal Jr. (Gibson's). dam Lizzie (dam of Little Brown Jug, 2.I i3) by Netherland by Henry Hal; and when he left the turf it was with a record of 2.121. Gibson's Tom Hal was by Kittrell's Tom Hal, out of Julia Johnson by Adam's Stump-the- STAR POINTER 1.591,4, the First Pacer across the Two-minute Line. jOHN R. GENTRY 2.OO`t,. the Trotting-bred Pacer owned by E. H. Harriman. This page in the original text is blank. The Pacing Horse Dealer. The original Tom Hal was a roan taken from Canada to Kentucky, and it has been claimed that he carried the blood of Justin Morgan. The people of Maury and other coun- ties of Tennessee were fond of the saddle, owing in a measure to the quality of the roads, and the pacing conformation was cultivated by them. In addition to Brown Hal, the fast pacers sired by Gibson's Tom Hal were Little Brown Jug, who took his record of 2.1 I4 in i88i; Hal Pointer, 2.0412, once a shining light of the Vil- lage Farm campaign stable; and Imperial Hal, 2.121. There were no trotters from him, because 4. he stamped his form upon his progeny. Sweep- stakes, a mare with sloping hips, foaled in i871, and by Knight's Snow Heels, son of Knight's Tom Hal, the son of Gibson's Tom Hal; dam Kit by McMeen's Traveller by Sugg's Stump-the- Dealer, was bred to Brown Hal, thus bringing together kindred strains, and the result was Star Pointer. He is a representative of strictly pac- ing lines, and I shall look for him to produce pacers, except when he breeds away from his own type. Sweepstakes is the greatest of pac- ing matrons, and she passed from Armstrong Glenn, who raised her, to Captain H. P. Pointer 31I3 3I4 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse of Spring Hill, who bred her to Brown Hal. She is the dam of fiv-e in the list, -Star Pointer, I.59; Hal Pointer, 2.04z1; Elastic Pointer, 2.o62-; Cloud Pointer, 2.2441; and Tennessee Pointer, 2.23j. Brown Hal is the sire of 48 in the list, including Hal Dillard, 2.044; Hal Chaffin, 2.051; Elastic Pointer, 2.061; Star Hal, 2.064; and Hal Braden, 2.074. Mr. John K. Ottley, a banker and breeder of Georgia, and one of the moving spirits of the Atlanta Horse Show, which commands the sup- port of the fashion of the South, rides a gaited saddle horse, but is not an admirer of the pacer in harness. In a recent letter to me he says: - " In the small towns of the South and on the plantations the walking horse is a great favorite. In the larger towns and cities the gaited horse takes its place. " In the Southern cities some few people have copied, from our English cousins and brethren of the North, the walk-trot horse, but a large per- centage of the gentlemen prefer the present gaited horse, which has the three gaits of walk, trot, and canter, with the addition of the rack, slow gait, fox trot, or stepping pace. " The pacing horse is not popular in the South. The Pacing Horse Pacers are not pleasant drivers over country roads where they are at all rough. The pacer in the South has very little market value except for racing purposes. The few that are used for pleasure driving are generally used by people wNho simply want speed, and the pacer is selected for the reason that more speed can be bought for less money, than in the trotter. " The most popular horse in the South with the greatest number for general utility and pleasure purposes is the standard-bred trotter. He has more finish and greater endurance than any other horse used in the South. In fact, the trotter is now recognized as the ideal harness horse in the South." Large purses are now offered for pacers, and pacing races afford a means for lively specula- tion; therefore we find the pacer much more in evidence than formerly. He has multiplied so rapidly as to give rise to the thought that he will ultimately destroy the trotting breed. Through the use of hopples, combined with hurried prepa- ration for track contests, many horses are added to the pacing column which otherwise would be found in the trotting column. The hopple is the refuge of the lazy or incompetent trainer. 315 CHAPTER XXXI THE MULTIPLICATION OF THE PACER I HAVE before me a manuscript sent to me in i877 by E. H. Douglas of Tennessee, describ- ing the foundation pacing horses of that state: - "Black Hawk (Dr. C. T. Bright's), so known in Tennessee. Was bred in Kentucky; by Davy Crockett out of a Blackburn Whip mare. This horse captured many premiums in Tennessee, and was the equal of John Waxy as a combined harness and saddle horse. Was able to trot to harness in 2.55, and repeat under saddle in 2.50 over the same ground with only time to change from harness to saddle. His best colts were sired in Sumner County. Dr. Bright bought Old Black Hawk and gave iooo for him. He was killed under General WXTilliam Bates at Shiloh. It is from this stock that we have the fast trotting mare Kate Allen. " Thompson's Traveller by Old Traveller sired the toughest and best horses in Tennessee. They were sound as gold dollars and tough as 316 The Multiplication of the Pacer iron; could work all day and run foxes at night; eat less and stand more on empty bellies than any horses I ever saw. They were the best saddle horses in the Confederate cavalry, and looked like race-horses built on the Jack Malone and Bonnie Scotland type. They were the most useful stock in our state. Many of the fastest pacers in Tennessee, such as Prince Pulaski and Mattie Hunter, are proofs of the value of the Traveller blood. " There is a Clipper stock that once was popu- lar, but unsound eyes obscured them. They were from the Tom Hal family of Kentucky. "The two premium saddle horses and sires of middle Tennessee were Old Mountain Slasher and Thompson's Traveller. Pedigrees as given in handbills are doubtful, but Mountain Slasher is good enough to trace to for speed and saddle horses. He was a beautiful iron-gray, dappled when young, and had a white or silver tail and mane. Was near a three-minute horse on the road, and was in his day Tennessee's ideal saddle horse, always creating a sensation in the fair ring. He was a model fit for a king to ride. His running walk and fox trot have never been equalled since his day. It would have carried 31I7 3i8 The Trot/ing and the Pacing Horse you with perfect ease to rider and horse from ten to twelve miles an hour. We doubt if Kentucky, or any other state, ever had the superior of Old Mountain Slasher. His prepotency was remark- able." Mr. Douglas describes Love's Pilot as a rich brown of I5.2, by a son of Elliott's Pilot Jr. by Alexander's Pilot, dam Fanny Fern, a premium saddle mare. " Fayette Denmark was a strong and hand- some bay of i6 hands, going all saddle gaits, and got by Washington Denmark of Kentucky, son of imported Hedgeford, dam by Gray Eagle. He took premiums in Kentucky, and at Nashville, Murfreesboro, Franklin, and Columbia, Tennes- see, and later was returned to Kentucky." A handbill, issued in I882, describes Dillard Denmark as a rich brown of I5.2. " Dillard the Third, the sire of Dillard Denmark, was out of Electra, she by Thompson's or Pointer's Slasher. Electra was quite as fast and fine a saddle mare as Zephyr, her grand-dam on sire's side. Zephyr captured all the blue ribbons wherever shown. Electra's dam, Stockings, was by Highlander, a four-mile race-horse by Glencoe. Stockings was a number one saddle mare, having often coon- The Multiplication of the Pacer 319 walked or running-walked seven or eight miles an hour, never requiring or allowing rider to use whip or spur." Much color, if not fiction, was infused into these early descriptions, and I quote them to show how the ancestors of pacing horses were regarded by the warm-blooded people of Ten- nessee. The Tom Hal family is the live pacing family of Tennessee and America. In I876, when the chestnut mare from Ten- nessee, Mattie Hunter, who acquired a record of 2.124, paced a series of races in the Grand Cir- cuit with Rowdy Boy, Lucy, and Sleepy Tom, the public heart was fired by the whirlwind rushes, and the stewards of the circuit awoke to the fact that a field of fast pacers was a draw- ing card, and there was an upward trend in the value of purses for pacers. Sleepy Tom was a chestnut gelding by Tom Rolfe, and, although totally blind, fought his races with great deter- mination. The confidence that he reposed in his driver was wonderful. He obtained a record of 2.1 24. In i883 the brown gelding Richball was a circuit sensation, beating such horses as Westmont, Gurgle, Flora Belle, Sleepy Tom, Buffalo Girl, and Lucy, and by this time nearly 320 The Trot/ing and the Pacing Horse every prominent trotting stable had added one or more fast pacers to its string. The pacing races appealed to the speculative feeling, and the bet- ting was fast and furious when they were in progress. The brown gelding Little Brown Jug made his appearance in i879, and in i88o, i88i, and i882 was a brilliant star in the pacing firmament. His best race was at Hartford, Connecticut, August 24, i88i, where he beat Mattie Hunter and Lucy in 2.1I 4, 2. I13, 2.I21. His brother, Brown Hal, later paced to a record of 2.121, and won distinction as a sire of fast pacers. John- ston, a bay gelding, by Joe Bassett, won his first race at East Saginaw, Michigan, July 4, i883, and marched straight to championship honors. In i884 he paced to high-wheel sulky to a record of 2.064. This high-wheel record was reduced by Dan Patch in I903 to 2.043. At the close of 1902 the records stood : Star Pointer, bay horse, by Brown Hal . . . . 1.594 Dan Patch, brown horse, by Joe Patchen . . . . 1.59i Prince Alert, bay gelding, by Crown Prince . . . . 2.00 John R. Gentry, bay horse, by Ashland Wilkes . . . 2.oo0 Joe Patchen, black horse, by Patchen Wilkes . . . 2.014 Little Boy, bay gelding, by Kenton. . . . . 2.011 Robert J., bay gelding, by Hartford. . . . . 2.0I Coney, black gelding, by McKinney. . . . . 2.02 JOE PATCHEN 2.01 t,4. the Sire of the Champion Pacer. Dan Patch. i.561/4. BROWN HAL A Distinguished Sire of Pacers. This page in the original text is blank. The Multiplication of the Pacer Through the aid of dirt-shields in I903 the important change was Dan Patch, Oct. 22, at Memphis. . . . . I.56's One hundred horses paced miles in 2.10 or better during the season of I903, and at the close of I902 there were 47I horses with records of 2.i0 and better. The list of fast pacers grows astonishingly from year to year. The exciting races in 1895 for championship honors were between Robert J., Joe Patchen, and John R. Gentry, and as each of these horses was trotting-bred the truth was forced upon thou- sands that the two gaits are interchangeable. Now nearly as much money is offered every season by track managers for pacers as for trot- ters. Under the rules of registration and the rules of racing the pacer is a type distinct from the trotter. Although the pacing interest was of minor importance prior to i86i, I append a table show- ing the reduction of the pacing record from I 839:- Drover, bay gelding 1.. . . . . 839 2.28 Fanny Elisler, gray mare. . . . . 1844 2.27i Unknown, chestnut gelding. . . . . 1844 2.23 Pet, roan gelding. . . . . . . i8522.A82 y 32 I 32 2 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Pocahontas, chestnut mare Sleepy George, bay gelding Sleepy Tom, chestnut gelding Little Brown Jug, brown gelding Johnston, bay gelding Johnston, bay gelding Direct, black horse Hal Pointer, bay gelding Mascot, bay gelding Robert J., bay gelding John R. Gentry, bay horse Star Pointer, bay horse Dan Patch, bay horse i855 I 1879 i879 I.883 1884 . 1891 . 1. i 892 1892 . 1894 I 896 1 897 . 1903 The 2.I712 of Pocahontas, in i855, was to wagon, a big handicap as wagons were built in those days. Johnston's 2.o6+ was to high-wheel sulky on a regulation track, and it stands out as conspicuously as does the 2.083 of Maud S. to high wheels on the regulation track at Cleveland. The 2.06 of Direct was on the kite track at Inde- pendence, Iowa, which was faster than an oval for high wheels. The bicycle sulky came into gen- eral use in 1892, and all subsequent records were made to it. The fastest unquestioned record in the compilation is that of Star Pointer. The I.561 of Dan Patch was with dirt-shield. Star Pointer was a marvellous horse, bred from pac- ing lines for pacing purposes, and among the great pacers defeated by him in races were Joe 2.171 2.15i 2.124 2.11I 2.10 2.o64 2.o6 2.054 2.04 2.014 2.00.4 I'594 1.564 s The Multiplication of the Pacer Patchen, John R. Gentry, and Frank Agan. In I897 he paced nine miles in 2.024 or better, and at Readville, August 28th, established the record at I.594. In i898 he beat two minutes four times and equalled his record of I.591. No wonder that the people of the fertile pacing district of Tennessee are proud of Star Pointer and his family. The pacing gait was at one time considered slower than the trotting gait, but higher breeding for lateral action gave a more direct stroke to the pacer and carried him in advance of the trotter. High breeding, with skill in training, driving, and equipment, has improved the physical form of the trotter, giving less friction to the diagonal stroke, and I look forward to the time when the trotting record will again equal, if not surpass, the pacing record. 323 CHAPTER XXXII BREEDING AND BREEDING ESTABLISHMENTS THE Kentucky Trotting Horse Association was organized in i873, and when I attended its first meetings at Lexington, the outlook was any- thing but cheerful. Only what you might call a corporal's guard paid to see the races; and the officers of the famous Kentucky Association, the then oldest active racing association in America, with General John C. Breckinridge at its head, predicted a speedy failure. The best people went to the running races, and noses were turned up at the trotter. The pioneers of the movement, however, were made of stern stuff, and did not readily yield to discouragement. Colonel Rich- ard West, Major Henry C. McDowell, Lucas Brodhead, W. H. Wilson, R. G. Stoner, Dr. L. Herr, R. P. Todhunter, J. C. McFerran, R. S. Veech, and John E. Green, the three last from Louisville, persevered in the effort, and the asso- ciation steadily grew in importance and influence. It became the fashion for gentlemen from the 324 z F- d 2E li 2 b, .s 10 F- 7 111 0 -j .t LI 0 L ii U This page in the original text is blank. - 11"'-1"11- . I-- :1P pIgl- y n ,lIrir& os. .'1 RYSDYK'S HAMBLETONIAN The Great Trotting Progenitor. MAMBRINO CHIEF A Foundation Sire. This page in the original text is blank. Breeding and Breeding Establisbments 325 East, notably New York, Buffalo, Philadelphia, and Boston, to charter private cars and spend the week in the Blue-grass section with the trotter; and it was not long before the accommo- dations of Lexington were severely overtaxed during the October meeting. The gates of the running track finally were closed, and thousands flocked to the well-appointed grounds of the trotting association. The leading breeding es- tablishment was Woodburn Farm, founded by R. A. Alexander; and next in importance were Glenview Stock Farm, J. C. McFerran, at Louis- ville; Indian Hill, R. S. Veech, Louisville; Edge Hill, Richard WRest, Georgetown; Ash- land, H. C. McDowell, Lexington; Fairlawn, General WV. T. Withers, Lexington; Forest Park, Dr. L. Herr, Lexington; and Abdallah Park, Cynthiana. Other establishments were founded by WAilliam L. Simmons, Z. E. Sim- mons, B. J. Treacy, Cecil Brothers, T. C. Anglin, Bowerman Brothers, L. L. Dorsey, R. P. Pepper, WV. C. France, T. E. Moore, R. C. Estill, W. W. Estill, P. P. Johnston, Lewis Brothers, Lister \Witherspoon, XV. W. Baldwin, W. E. D. Stokes, Scott Newman, Peter Duryea, J. F. Calloway, John E. Madden, T. J. McGibbon, Richard Pen- 326 The Trotting and Ibe Pacing Horse istan, Dr. S. Price, J. T. Shackelford, R. S. Strader, R. G. Stoner, A. S. Talbert, J. W. Bailey, and L. V. Harkness. The latter is the proprietor of Walnut Hall Farm, one of the best- appointed establishments of its kind in the world. The whole Blue-grass section was a nest of breeding farms, and weeks instead of days were required thoroughly to inspect them. Nutrition is essential to successful live-stock farming, and the sweet and holding grass of the undulating limestone lands of Kentucky furnishes the grazing that builds up constitution with rapid growth. In Orange County and Dutchess County, New York, the grazing lands are excellent, and the great foundation establishments after the Civil War were Stony Ford, where Charles Backman gathered around his table and in the smoking room men of distinction from all parts of the civilized world, and Thorndale, where Edwin Thorne dispensed refined hospitality. Other Orange and Dutchess County breeders were Alden Goldsmith, Harrison Mills, J. M. Mills, Guy Miller, R. F. Galloway, Benjamin F. Tracy, E. H. Harriman, and Jacob Ruppert. In Erie County, New York, the spirit of rivalry was strong and the overshadowing establishments i2 0 z U- LI) z -J 02 a. ,E Ed -) . n, Li. This page in the original text is blank. Breeding and Breeding Establishments 327 were those of C. J. Hamlin and Henry C. Jewett. R. L. Howard and Gerhardt Lang also had much money invested in breeding at Buffalo. W. E. Spier, John B. Dutcher, Erastus Corning, John H. Shults, James Butler, J. W. Daly, WV. B. Dickerman, Robert Bonner, F. G. Babcock, Jud- son H. Clark, H. N. Bain, I. V. Baker, George D. Sherman, D. S. Hammond, Harrison Durkee, NV. R. Janvier, S. C. Wells, John McCarty, J. Howard Ford, William Simpson, Brayton Ives, Caril S. Burr, E. R. Ladew, H. 0. Havemeyer, and A. A. Housman had or still have important breeding farms in the state of New York. The establishment of greatest magnitude in New Jersey was Fashion Stud Farm, at Trenton, in the prosperous days of Henry N. Smith; but other breeding farms in the state were those of A. B. Darling, E. S. Wells, F. P. Olcott, R. A. Fairbairn, William H. Fearing, Hugh J. Grant, WV. C. Hendrickson, WV. F. Redmond, and A. V. Sargeant. The pioneer breeding establishment of Cali- fornia, previous to the death of Leland Stanford, was Palo Alto; and other extensive breeders of the state were William Corbitt, L. J. Rose, J. B. Haggin, WV. S. Hobart, Monroe Salisbury, and 328 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse Henry Pierce. Jay Beach was prominent in Oregon, the Dubois Brothers in Colorado; H. I. & F. D. Stout, Walter I. Hayes, and Nat Bruen commanded earnest attention in Iowa; in Kansas, Sprague & Akers and H. G. Toler were prominent; in Minnesota N. W. Kittson, XV. R. Merriam, and G. WV. Sherwood bred extensively. In Michigan S. A. Browne, Walter Clark, Dewy & Stewart, and Sutherland & Ben- jamin; in Illinois were Arthur J. Caton, F. S. Gorton, A. G. Danforth, Fred Seacord, XV. A. San- born, and C. WV. Williams; in Indiana, NV. P. Ijams, M. L. Hare, James WRilson, and White River Stock Farm. Bitter Root Farm, during the life of Marcus Daly, was the foremost breeding farm of Montana; but other breeders that obtained prominence in that state were Huntley & Clark, C. X. Larabee, and XV. H. Raymond. In Wis- consin, H. L. Dousman, Jerome I. Case, John L. Mitchell, Uhlien Brothers, and F. S. WNaters were prominent. George M. Jewett, C. F. Emery, WV. H. White, Frank Rockefeller, John B. Cassily, George H. Ketcham, L. G. Delano, Allen G. Thurman, and Lewis & Albough kept Ohio to the front. May Overton, G. M. Fogg, V. L. Kirk- man, A. H. Robinson, J. WV. Thompson, and Breeding and Breeding Eslablishbnen/s 329 Campbell Brown stood in the front rank of Tennessee breeders; and R. H. Plant is the best- known breeder in Georgia. In Wyoming we have A. C. Beckwith, and in Canada J. P. Wiser, Cyrille Laurin, and Simon James. To West Virginia I credit Henry Schmulbach and W. G. Bennett; to Virginia, H. C. Chamblin and Floyd Brothers; to Texas, Henry Exall and J. W. Bailey; to North Carolina, L. B. Holt; to Maryland, C. M. Garmendia; to Maine, C. H. Nelson, J. M. John- son, and B. F. Briggs; to Connecticut, C. M. Pond, \W. B. Smith, Rundle & White, Albert C. Hall, Charles H. Maury, and Miss A. A. Marks; to Rhode Island, F. E. Perkins and F. C. Sayles; and to Vermont, Edwin Bates and Joseph Bat- tell. Miller & Sibley founded a second Palo Alto at Franklin, Pennsylvania, and for years it was the greatest breeding establishment of the state. Other prominent Pennsylvania breeders are Robert Steel, A. H. Moore, H. S. Henry, Powell Brothers, and John P. Crozier. In New Hamp- shire, Frank Jones, during his lifetime, stood in the very front rank. Massachusetts is one of the greatest among trotting-horse breeding states. At Pittsfield we have Allen Farm, upon which W. R. Allen has spent hundreds of thousands of 330 The Trotling and Ihe Pacing Horse dollars. At Lancaster is Maplehurst Farm, Colo- nel John E. Thayer, the home of Baron Wilkes. At Great Barrington are Forkhurst Farm, Charles H. Kerner, and Locustwood, Colonel William L. Brown. The great Dreamwold Farm of Thomas WV. Lawson is at Scituate. At Read- ville is Forbes Farm, the home of Arion, Bingen, and Nancy Hanks. H. S. Russell, Elizur Smith, George B. Inches, C. C. Mayberry, Charles Whittemore, and C. WV. Lasell stand high on the roster of Massachusetts breeders. Death treads closely on the heels of Time, and the breeding situation is constantly changing; but the trotting horse will live until the Union is broken into fragments or good roads are wrecked by a convulsion of nature or of sentiment. The question of how to breed successfully is an important one, and the reader, I am sure, will thank me for introducing the views of a man of large experience. The appended letter was written to me from Boston, under date of September 22, I903:- " It seems to me that in the Eastern states, at least, where it is so expensive to raise horses to the age at which they can be useful for racing Breeding and Breeding Establishments 3 31 or for fast driving on the road, the key of the breeding problem is to have a few really good mares rather than a large number of less value. In other words, if I intended to invest ten thou- sand dollars in brood mares I would consider it a safer investment, with less chances of failure, to buy five mares worth two thousand apiece, than to buy twenty mares worth five hundred. But one must be a very good judge to be sure you get your value in the five mares. Before starting a trotting stud of my own, I had seen many failures by others, because breeding and speed were not sufficiently valued and sought after in sire and dam. I chose Arion because of his phenomenal speed; he had recently trotted as a two-year-old in 2. IO 3 to a high-wheel sulky with no ball bearings. His sire stood far ahead as a producer of 2.30 speed. His dam was sired by Nutwood, who was the second sire of 2.30 speed. As the greatest producer of speed, there- fore, I put Electioneer as the best son of Hamble- tonian IO. One must remember that he stood at the extreme Western section of our country, that he was kept as a private stallion, and his wonder- ful showing was from the mares of one owner. " The other noted stallions have stood in locali- 332 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse ties where they could have the choice mares of a large circle of horsemen. Alexander's Ab- dallab, George Wilkes, Dictator, and Happy Medium seem to be the order of merit in which the other sons of Hambletonian should be ranked. The two-minute record for trotting and the 1.57 record for pacing show that we are fast getting to the time when we can claim that we have a trotting and pacing breed of horses in this country that approximates in breeding to the thoroughbred race-horse in England. " J. MALCOLM FORBES." Since the above letter was written, Mr. Forbes, who stood for all that was praiseworthy in sport, has passed away, leaving a gap that is really diffi- cult to fill. The evolution of the trotter has been aided by trainers, drivers, sulky builders, harness makers, and track builders. The successful trainers of to-day are thoughtful, hard-working men, with a larger store of information than those of former decades. They understand balancing through shoeing better than their predecessors, and re- spect the rules drawn up for the preservation of discipline. The material that they handle is far Breeding and Breeding Establishments 333 better than that of twenty or thirty years ago, and quicker results are obtained. The tracks and vehicles are seconds faster than when Dexter was heralded as the invincible trotter of the world. This page in the original text is blank. INDEX Abbess, 196, 258. Abbot, The, 33, 76, 120, 178, 222. Career of, 77. Illustration of progression in horses, 222. Recor(ls by, 9, 12. Abdalbrino, 155. Abdallah (i), son of Mambrino, 37. Descendants of, i00, 144-145, 194, 217, 243, 247- History of, 143-144. Abdallah (i5), Alexander's, 32, 33, 39, 78, 123, 126, 147, 332. Death of, 153. Descendants of, 154-155, 171, 257, 261. Goldsmith Maid sired by, 153. History of, 152-153. Abdallah, Conklin's, 65. Alblallah, Spaulding's, 38. Abdallah Belle, 34, 311. Abdallah Chief, Roe's, 171. Abdallah Mambrino, 257. Abdallah Park, 247, 325. Aberdeen, ancestry of, 214. History of, i86-188. Progeny of, 188-189. Adbell, 176, 228, 245-246. Addison, I00. Adebel, 246. Adelaide, 65. Adele Gould, 197. Administrator, 253, 309. Adonis, 26. Advance, 176. Advertiser, 176, 227, 245, 263. ValuLation put on, by Leland Stanford, 228. Agitato, I97. Aida, 25. Ajax, 144. Albert France, 170. Alberto, 264. Albion, 153, 196, 258. Alcantara, ancestry of, 31, 121, 158, i66,252,253- Career of, i66. Descendants of, 127, 264. Alcatraz, 262. Alcazar, 246, 270. Alcidalia, i88. Alcina, 264. Alcvo, I67. Alcyone, I21, 127, 158, i66, ,I67, 252-253. Aldine, 7, 85. Alexander (Arabian), 140. Alexander, A. J., 281. Dame Winnie bred by, 254. Miss Russell owned by, I32. Alexander, John K., i18. Alexander, R. A., 129, 153. Harold bought by, 194. Mliss Russell bred by, 239. Morse Horse owned by, 227. Alexander's Abdallah. See Abdallah, Alexander's. Alfonso, 253. Alfred, 129. Alfred G., 179, 265. 335 336 Index Algath, 199. Alice Carneal, 147. Alicia, 253. Alix, 75, 76, 121, 122, 126, 154, I96, 200, 259. Career of, 75-76. Columbian Exposition Stake won by, 102. Records by, 9, 12, 190. Alla, 228. Allen, William Russell, 13, 15-X6, 18, 20, 73, 237- President of American Trotting Register Association, 282. Allendorf, 253. Allen Farm, Pittsfield, Mass., 123, 329-330. Residence at, of - Elista, 237. Lancelot, 237-238. Rossignol, 262. Suffrage, 242-243. Allerton, 79, 80, 119, 168. Alley, 170, 185. Alley, George B., 206, 297. Dexter bought by, 213. Alley Russell, 170. Allie West, 33, 78, 260. Allie Wilkes, 164. Alline, 253. Alma, 251. Almack, 37, 229. Alma Mater, 31, 121, 127, i66, 252- 254. Almater, 253. Almera, 251. Almeta, 253. Almonarch, 222. Almont, 31, 32, 33, 78, 124, 154- Descendants of, 124, I55-156, 222, 253, 260. Almont Chief, 268. Almont Jr., Hamlin's, 222. Almont Star, 31. Alsatian, 253. Alta Belle, 244. Altamont, 156. Altamont Jr., Hamlin's, 156. Altivo, 255. Amami, 253. Amazonia, [44. America, early horses in, [-4, 86-95, 142. Importation to, of - Grand Bashaw, 216. Bellfounder, 145. Mambrina, 142. Margrave, 253. Messenger, 135. American Belle, 178. American Boy, 37. American Commander, 36. American Eclipse, ii6, 120, 134, 143, 201, 210. Career of, 136. Descendants of, [71, 201, 202, 223, 229, 234, 254, 306. Pedigree of, 117-118. American Girl, 45, 107, 157, 217. American Saddle Horse Breeders' Association, foundation stock of, 305-306. American Star (37), 31, 32, 33, 38, 100, 210. American Star, Conklin's, 213. American Star (14), Seely's, 33, 49, 78, 150, 168, i86, 190, 202, 206, 259, 264, 308. Pedigree of, 210-212. American Star, Stockholm's, 100,210. American Trotting Association, or- ganization of, 289. American Trotting Register Associ- ation, 282, 289. Americus, race of, against Dutchman and Lady Suffolk, 42-44. I'll Amos (Cassius M. Clay Jr.), 217. Amy Lee, 232. Anaconda, 310. Andrew Jackson, 208, 216. Andrus Hambletonian, 38, 141. Anglin, T. C., breeding establish- ment of, 325. Annabel, 126-127. Annette, 72, 176. Annie G., 260. Annie Stevens, 264. Annie Wilton, 76. Ansel, 72, 178, 236. Pedigree of, 176. Anselma, 236. Answer, 178. Anteeo, 177, 178, 265. Descendants of, 179, 265-266. Anteros, 265. Antevolo, 265. Antonio, 172, 237. Arab, 214. Arabian, CrocL ett's, 228, 229. Arabian, Leeds', i1S. Aratus, 142, 254. Arbiter, 253. Archer, George W., 298. Arden Farms breeding establish- ment, E. H. Harriman's, 248, 310. Argonaut, 107. Ariel, 136. Arion, 75, 126, 175-176, 177, 179, 263, 330, 331- Price paid for, by J. M. Forbes, 270. Two-year-old record by, 82. Aristos, 100. Arlington, 164. Artemas, 311. Arthurton, 214, 259, 270. Artillery, 264. Artus, 262. dex 337 Ashgrove Farm, George Wilkes at, 158-159. Ashland, H. C. McDowell's, 193, 325. Ashland Wilkes, 164, 309, 320. Association for Promotion of Inter- ests of American Trotting Turf, formation of, 286- 287- Associations, early racing, 285. Asteroid, 222. Astor, Henry, Messenger bought by, 136. Astoria, 251. Athel, 263. Atlanta, 75, 76, 154, 196. Atlanta, horse shows at, 290. Attorney, 75, 76, 154. Descendants of, 195-196. Auburn Horse, the, 230-231. Aurora, 254. Australian, 253, 256. Autograph, 31. Awful, 37, 42. A. W. Richmond, 178, 265. Axtell, 79, 8o, 120, 169, 207, 214. Axtellion, 26i. Axworthy, 72, 261. Ayers, E. W., Beuzetta owned by, 257- Ayres P., 6. Azmoor, 176. Azote, 102, 177, I78. Babcock, F. G., 327. Babraham, 89. Bacchus, 38. Backman, Charles, 125, 150, 206, 2I5, 223, 233, 298, 299, 326. Officer of National Association of Trotting Horse Breed- ers, 276. z 338 In Backman, Charles [con/inuedl] - Monument erected to Green Mountain Maid by, 238. Owner of- Antonio, 237. Green Mountain Maiil, 234. Messenger Duroc, 171 -172. Rosa Lee, 140. Quoted on pedigree of Seely's American Star, 2I1-212. Bailey, J. WV., 326, 329. Bain, H. N., 327. Bair, WV. W., 70. Baker, I. V., 276, 327. Baker, I. V., Jr., 298. Balch, V. P., 98. Bald Chief, 243. Baldwin, XV. WV., 325. Ballona, 262. Baltimnre, races at, 27, 42. ],arb) Mare, BurtonI's, 2-3. BIarefoot, i i i. Barker, K. C., 288. Barney Henry, 102. Baron Alexanler, 253. Baron Bel, 178. Baron Crisp, 200. Baron de Shay, 170. Baron Wilkes, i58, 253, 330. Ancestry of, 12I, 170. Foals by, 170. Pacers descended from, 309. Bashaw, Green's, 208-209. Bates, 13Bnjamin, I00. Pates, Edwin, 329. Ilattell, Joseph, 88, 89, 112, 329. Cited concerning the Pilot family, 129-131. On Canadian pacing horses, 303. Pedigree of Seely's American Star according to, 210-211. Bayard, 131. Bay Barb, Croft's, 253. dex 1 Bay Bolton, 135. Bay Chief, Alexander's, 243. Bay Kentucky Hunter, 229. Bay Messenger, 38, 78, 247. Beach, Jay, 328. Bean, Levi, 93. Beatrice, 76, 121, 200. Beautiful Bay (True Briton), 88-89. Beautiful Bells, 76, 177, 222, 243. Ancestry of, 243-244. Bred to Electioneer, 175. Beck, 227. Beckwith, A. C., 329. Bedlford, 142. Bedford1, E. T., 85. Bell, Robert, 130. Bella, 151. Bell Bird, 176, 245. Bell Boy, 245. Belle, Si, 123, 155, 208, 259. Belle Braslield, 6G. Belle F., 9og. Belleflower, 245. Belle Iamnlin, 7, 84, 85, 221. Belle Kuser, 262. Belle Loupe, 123. Belle of Saratoga, 97. Belle of Wabash, 244. Belle Patchen, 121. Belle Thornton, 120, 222. Bellfounder (English), 145. 1ellfounder (imported), 145, 173, 194, 208, 222. Bellfounder, Brown's, I23. Bellfounder, Latourett's, 3S. Bellina, 224, 264. Beflnut, team record of, 7. Belmont, 123-125, 127, 154, 155, 179, 241, 253, 309- Belmont, Williamson's, 26, 193. Belsire, 245. Bemay, 8, 85. Ben Franklin, 1oo. Ihl Bennett, W. G., 329. Benton M., 205. Bertholf Horse, the, 171. Berthune, 80, 264. Bertrand, 142. Bessie Wilton, 170. Betsey Baker, 38, I43-144, 285. Betsey Richards, i8. Betty Brown, 12I, 310. Betty Leeds, 89. Beulah, 103, I95, 203, 256. Beuzetta, 125, i66, 195, 256-257. Bicara, I24, 200, 259. Bicycle sulky, advent of, 11-12, 74. Comparison of high-wheel sulky and, 18-22, 83. Effect of, on kite track, 5. Bigelow, Albert S., 302. Big Jim, 255. Billings, C. K. G., 12-13, 19, 20, 27- 28, 29-30. Director of League of American Driving Clubs, 302. Double-harness teams owned by, 8. Billy Barr, 99. Billy Hoskins, 229. Billy Parks, 205. Billy Root, 97, i64. Billy Townes, 182. Bingen, 75, 77, I82, 228, 330. Bird, 230. Birmingham, 120, 258. Bishop, Isaac, 138. Bishop, J. M., 138. Bishop, Wesley, i6i. Bishop's Hlambletonian. See H1am- bletonian, Bishop's. Bitter Root Farm, 263, 328. Black Bashaw, 38. Black Bess, i85. Blackbird, 265. Blackburn Whip, 316. lex 339 Black Diamond, 265. Black Douglas, 217. Black Hawk (5), 42, 97-98. Lady Suffolk bred to, 44. See also Vermont Black Hlawk. Black Hawk, Blood's, 104, 222. Black Hawk, Dr. C. T. Bright's, 316. Black Hawk, Gist's, 305. Black Hawk, Vernol's, 208. Black Hawk Telegraph, 261. Black Kate, 0oo. Blacklock strain, 48. Black Maria, I36. Black Rose, 257. Black Woful, 222. Blanch Star, 31. Blanco, 62. Blandina, I23. Blaze, 135. Blind Tuckahoe, 231. Blucher, 184. Blue Bull, family of, 225-226. Blue Grass Park, 146. Bodine, 53-61, I85, 224. Bolly Lewis, 212. Bolton Starling, 89. Bond, Colonel, 40. Bonita, 175. Bonner, A. A., I2. Bonner, David, 99, I47, 149, 150, 192, 221, 276. Bonner, Frederic, I8-19, 23. Bonner, Robert, 5, 212-213, 233, 296, 297, 327- Flatbush Maid and Lady Palmer driven by, 297. IHambletonian (Rysdyk's) cured by, 150. Letter concerning sidewalks on the Speedway, 299. Owner of- Auburn Horse, the, 230-231. Edward Everett, 204. 1 Index 340 Bonner, Robert [continzed] - Owner of- Eldridge, 205. Joe Elliot, 205. Lady Stout, 119, 265. May Bird, 158. Peerless, 214. Pocahontas, 99. Startle, 206. Sunol, 72-73- Pacers treated by, 307. Price paid by, for Sunol, 270. Purchase by, of- Dexter, 49-50, 213. Maud S., 70. Prince Imperial, 48. Rarus, 66. Reverie, 270. Sunol, 270. Rivalry between Commodore Vanderbilt and, 297. Testimonial presented to, 73. Bonner, R. E., i8, i9, 22-23. Bonnie Oaks, 268. Bonnie Scotland, 133, 178-179, 258. Boodle, 262. Boot, James, 145. Boralma, 245. Boreal, 245. Boston, sire of Lexington, 132, 143, 147, 254. Sally Russell sired by, 132, 133, 239, 241. Boston, Mass., Gentlemen's Driving Club of, 302. Horse shows in, 290. Boston Blue, 3, 8, 40, 41, 86. Boswell, Hart, 74. Bourbon Wilkes, 154, 158. Bow Bells, 245. Bowerman Brothers, breeding estab- lishment of, 325. Boynton, Jesse, 286. Bradley, Peter B., 302. Brandywine, 144. Bravado, 165. Breeders' Trotting Stud Book, the, 280-282. Brenda, 133. Bride, 262. Briggs, B. F., 329. Bright, Dr. C. T., 316. Bright Phoebus, 137. Bristol Gray (Russell's Hambleto- nian), 139. Brodhead, Lucas, 239-241, 281, 324. Quoted concerning breeding, 273. Brood mares, limitation on admis- sion of, to registry recom- mended, 266-267. Brooklyn Maid, j44. Brooks Horse, the, 1o0. Brown, Campbell, 312, 329. Brown, Colonel William L., 330. Brown Figure, 36. Brown Hal, 312, 314, 320. Brown Kitty, 120. Brown Wilkes, 158. Browne, S. A., 328. Bruce, B. G., 286. Bruen, Nat, 328. Bryan, David, 41, 44. Buffalo, as a breeding centre, 227. As early trotting centre of Amer- ica, 292. Dexter's performances at, 213, 292. Jay Gould's records at, 202. Pioneer trotting track at, 291- 292. Races at, 42, 49, 63, 107. Rarus's race against time at, 65- 66. Buffalo Girl, 319. Bugle, 263. Bull Calf, 8, 40. Index Bully King, i96. Bulrush Morgan, 96, 105. Bumps, 309. Burr, Carll S., 327. Burr, Smith, 65. Busbey, Hamilton, secretary of Road Horse Association of State of New York, 298. Bush, i67, 252. Butler, James, 327. Buzzard, III. Byerly Turk, 135, 143. Byron, 227. Cade, 89. Cadmus, Iron's, 62, 63, 99, 234. Descendants of, 26i, 306. Caffrey, Charles, 104. California, breeding establishments in, 25, 26, 167-168, 327- 328. See Palo Alto Farm. California Patchen (George A. Patchen Jr.), 218-219. Calloway, J. F., 325. Camden, 38, 265- Cammie L., I95. Camors, 103. Camptown, 200. Canada, breeding farms in, 329. Pacing ancestors from, 303-305. Captain Webster, 26. Captors 245. Carman, Richard M., George Patchen bred by, 2I1 Carolinas, horses in the, 2. Cartridge, 119, 265. Case, Jerome I., 328. Cassidly, J. L., 286. Cassily, John B., 328. Cassius M. Clay, 38, 217. Cassius M. Clay, Neaves's, 217. Cassius M. Clay, Strader's, 218. e A. 217, 34' Cassius M. Clay Jr., 8o, 217, 243. Cassius M. Clay Jr., Neaves's, 38, 205, 233- Cassius M. Clay Jr., Strader's, 3r, 39- Castleman, General John B., quoted concerning Canadian pa- cers in Kentucky, 304. Opinion of, on Mambrino Chief, 114-115. Catbird, 171 Cato, 42. Caton, Arthur J., 328. Catton, 218, 254. Cecil Brothers, breeders, 325. Celeste, 247. C. F. Chedel Horse, Io0. C. F. Clay, son of Soprano, 258. Chain Shot, 165, 247. Champagne, 229. Chamberlain, Frank, secretary Cleve- land Driving Club, 301. Chamblin, H. C., 329. Champion, Gooding's, 230. Champion, Grinnell's, 229-231. Champion, King's, 230. Champion family, the, 229-23I1 Champion Jr., King's, 230. Chance, 225. Chancellor, 36, 217. Chanticleer, io6. Charles Derby, 197. Charles Kent Mare, the, 138, 144, 208, 222. Charley Herr, 179, 265. Charm, 260. Chatterton, 265. Chester, Walter T., 83. Quoted, 36-39, 94. Chestnut Hill, 196. Cheyenne, 102. Chicago, horse shows in, 290. Races at, 69, 70, 74. 342 Index Chimes, 6, 76, 177, 222, 244-245. Cincinnati, races at, 42. Maud S. at, 69. Clara, 49, 150, 190-191, 214, 308. History of, 249-251. Clarabel, 222. Clark, Judson H-, 327. Clark, Walter, 328. Clark Chief, 124-125. Clay, Henry, 114. Clay, James B., 114, 115. Clay, Colonel James E., Aberdeen bought by, i88. Clay, Smith's, 205. Clay family, the, 216-224, 263-264. Clay Pilot, 243. Clayton, 223. Cleora, 84. Cleveland, Gentlemen's Driving Club of, 301-302. Goldsmith Maid-Smuggler race at, 51-62. Races at, 28, 29, 71, 85. Climate, effect of, on horses, 162, 201. Clingstone, 84. Cloud Pointer, 314. Cobwebs, 178. Cock of the Rock, xoi. Cockroft, James ,M., 113. Cohnfield, Isador, 84. Colbert, 166. Coles, General Nathaniel, 136. Colonel Axtell, 261. Colonel Kuser, 262. Colonel Morgan Mare, the, 243. Colonel Wood, 230. Columbia, 265. Columbian Exposition Stake, 102. Columbine, 178, 265-266. Columbus, 98. Columbus, Ohio, races at, 33, 79. Comanche, I 12. Comee, 0oo. Commodore Vanderbilt, 156. Complete Trotting and Pacing Rec- ord, Chester's, 83, 94. Conductor, 258. Coney, 320. Confidence, 156. Conklin, R. B., 65. Conklin, Samuel, Green Mountain Maid bred by, 233. Conklin's American Star, 213. Conley, John W., 191, 197. Connecticut, breeders in, 329. Conqueror, 4, 37. Conrad, 266. Constable, William, 136. Constantine, 264. Consternation, 8o. Contention, 33, 78, 260. Controller, wagon record of, 7. Cook, William H., 10o. Copeland, 31, 182. Copeland 'Maid, 31. Copperbottom, 304. Cora Belmont, 242. Coral, 265. Corbitt, William, x68, 270, 327. Coriander, 36. Corinne, 251. Corning. Erastus, 222, 327. Cosette Boy, 230. Countess Eve, 228. Count Kilrush (Santa Claus), 197. Crafty, 165. Crawford, W. H., Lew Scott cam paigned by, 231. Cresceus, 14, 178. Ancestry of, 32-33, 78, 214, 260. Career of, 78-79. Records made by, 7, 9, 12, 33-34. The Abbot beats, 77. Wagon performances by, 7, 8. Cricket, 197. Itt6 Crockett's Arabian. See Arabian. Crop, 134- Crown Prince, 35, 311. Crozier, John P., 329. Creeping Kate, 142. Crusader, 78. Cubano, 308. Cummings, F. M., 208. Cunningham, " Bill," i6o. Cupid, 26. Cuyler, 140, 199-200. Cuylercoast, 200, 259. Cynthia, 230. Dahlia, I33. Daingerfield, Major F. A., Sam Purdy owned by, 219. Daly, J. W., 327. Daly, Marcus, 263, 328. Daamania, team record of, 7. Dame Trot, 235. Dame Winnie, 80, I76. Pedigree of, 254, 256. Dame Wood, 123, 309. Damsel, Miller's, ITS, I36, 143. Danforth, A. G., 328. Daniel Lambert, Ioo-1ox, I04. D)aniel Webster, 265. Dan Patch, 14, 320, 322. Ancestry of, 34, 121, 311. Career of, 34-35, 31I- Recor(ds of, 35, 3I . Dansereau, Louis, 130. Dare Devil, 120, 178. D)ariel, TOT. I)ark Night, i67. Darley Arabian, I I 8, 143. Darling, A. B., 73, 298, 327. Dauntless, 205. Davy Crockett, 8I, 306, 316. Day Bell, 245. Day Dream, i99. Daylight, 251. lex 343 Defiance, 40. Dekasala, 268. De la Vergne, J. C., 298. Delano, L. G., 328. Del Mar, 31, I77, I82. Delmnarch, 204-205. Delmonico, 247. Denmark, 305. Denning Allen, 102. Denny, R. S., 1o0. Derby, American-bred horse wins the English, 48. Derby Princess, 197. Deucalion, 151. Devereux, H. K., 301-302. Dewy & Stewart, breeding establish- ment of, 328. Dexter, 45, 49, 249, 333- Ancestry of, 150, 191, 213. Buffalo record of (2.171), 151. Career of, 49, 2I3-214. Death of, 50. Effect of career of, on Rysdyk's H-ambletonian, 150. Ethan Allen and running mate vS., 98. George M. Patchen Jr. beaten by, 292. Harness record of, 8. Lady Thorn a rival of, xi6. Rolla Golddust beaten by, 292. Wagon record of, 7. Dexter Prince, 249-250. Diamond, 89. Diana, 133- Diclerman, W. B., 298, 327. Dick Swiveller, 84. Dictator, 74, 79, 80, 308, 332. Descendants of, 132, 190, 193, 250-251, 252. See Jay- eye-see. History of, 190-193. Dillard Denmark, 31S-319. 344 lilX Dillard the Third, 318. Diomed, 100, 103, 117, 136, 147, 171, 202, 210, 230, 239, 254. Dione, 258. Direct, 193, 250, 308, 322. Direct Hal, 250. Directly, 193, 250, 308. Director, 125, 192, 193, 250, 308. Directum, So, 125, 193, 250. Directum Kelly, 250-251. Dirt-shields, 5-6. See Shields. Dixie, 134, i82. Doble, 8i. Doble, Budd, Dexter trained and driven by, 49, 98, 213. Goldsmith Maid driven by, 5 1-61. Nancy Hanks driven by, 74, 190. Dr. Leek, 198. Dole, Charles S., 194. Dolly, 125, I93, 208. Dolly Dillon, 26, 198. Dolly Mills, 264. Dolly Smith, 258-259. Dolly Spanker, 156, 157. Dolly Star, 203. Domestic, 185. Don Derby, 197. Don Juan, 42. Don Quixote, 41. Doolittle, E. G., 276. Dorell, Daniel, 225. Dorsey, L. L., 11o, I11, 286, 325. Doubt, 268. Douglas, E. H., quoted concerning Tennessee pacing horses, 316-318. Dousman, H. L., 328. Draco, 98, io6, 1o8. Draco Prince, 156. Dreamwold Farm, Lawson's, 330. Drew Horse, the, 38. Driver, 185. Drover, 321. lex Dubois, L. B., 122. Dubois, Major 0., 130. Dubois Brothers, breeding establish- ment of, 328. Duke of Brunswick, G. M. Jewett quoted concerning, 267. Red Wilkes contrasted with, 268- 269. Duke Patchen, 268. Dunlap, George, 116. Durkee, Harrison, 191-I93, 327. Duryea, Peter, 325. Dusenbury, Theodore, Seely's Amer- ican Star given to, 212. Dutcher, John B., 327. Duroc, 37, 100, 103, 117, 136, 171. Descendants of, 202, 210, 330. See American Star, Seely's. Dutchman, 6, 8, 42. PRace against Americus and Lady Suffolk, 42-44. Eagletta, 228. Early Bird, 195, 256. Eastman, T. C., 297. East Saginaw, races at, 320. Eaton Horse, the, 39. Echo, 308. Echora, 308. Eclipse (American). See American Eclipse. Eclipse (English), 136. Eclipse, Lawrence's, 217-218. Ed Annan, 205. Eden Stock Farm, Ili. Edgardo, 203, 260. Edge Hill, Colonel Richard West's, 124, 191, 325- Edgemark, 201. Edsall, Seely, 152-153. Edward, 84. Edward Everett, 198, 204-205. Edwards, William, 51, 71, 301. r Index Edwin Forrest (bay horse), 74, 81, 120, 222, 229. Edwin Forrest (black gelding), 4, 8. Ed Winter, 205. Edwin Thorne, 197. Egbert, 200-201. Egotist, 127, 179. Egthorne, 200. Elaine, bought by Robert Bonner, 173-174. Descendants of, 181, 236. Elastic Pointer, 314. Eldri(dge, 205. Eldridge, Richard, I13. Eleata, 250. Election, 228, 253. Electioneer, 31, 32, 72, 76, 8o, 8i, 82, 199. Ancestry of, I73. Beautiful Bells bred to, 244-246. Breeding of, 234. Characteristics of progeny, 174. Death of, 177. Descendants of, 127, I32, I73- 183, 222, 228, 235, 242, 246, 255, 263, 265, 331. Prices paid for eleven colts by, 270. Electra, 318. Electric Bel, 245. Electricity, 132. Electrite, I27, I77, I79. Electrix, I8I, 242, 262. Elina, 237. Elise, 236. Elision, 237. Elista, 237. Elite, 236-237. Eliza, 142. El Mahdi, 214. Eloise Hersch, 268. Elsie, 236. Elsie Good, 225. 345 Elvira, 121, 199-200. Emblem, 214, 263. Emelia, 253. Emery, C. F., 328. Emma, 218, 254. Emma Arteburn, 127. Emma Mills, 215. Emma Offut, 207. Enchantress, 194. Engineer, 41, 135, 141, 229. Engineer 2d, 4, 243. Enquirer, 48, 177. Envoy, 76. Ephraim Smooth, 40. Equinox, 218. Equity, 6, 85. Erdenheim, Aristides Welch's, 196. Graves of Flora Temple and Leamington at, 48. Ericsson, 8i, 197. Eros, 258, 263. Estabella, 127. Estella, 166, 252, 256. Estill, R. C., 325. Estill, W. W., 325. Ethan Allen, 47, 97, 98-99. George Wilkes beats, 156, i6o. Trotters sired by, 99, 262. Ethan Allen, Holobird's, 1o0. Ethan Allen, Woodard's, ioo-ioi. Ethelberta, 263. Ethel Down, 262. Ethelwyn, 195, 252. European, 227. Eva, 246. Evans, Robert, 92, 93. Eventide, 8o, 122. Everett House, New York, a note- worthy meeting at, 286- 287- Eureka, Coleman's, 305. Exall, Henry, 329. Exchequer, 254, 255-256. 346 Index Expectation, 31, 32. Expedition, 177, 242, 262. Career of, i8i. Extasy, 195. Exton Eclipse, 202. Eyelet, 308. Fairbairn, R. A., 327. Fairlawn Stud I arm, WV. T. Withers', ioi, 188, 325. Aberdeen at, i88. Happy Medium at, i8g-1go. Fair Oaks estate, 267. Fan, 222. Fancy, 216, 309. Fannella, 179. Fannie, 33- Fanny, 133,204. Fanny Cook, ioo. Fanny Ellsler, 321. Fanny Fern, 318. Fanny G., 252, 254. Fanny Wilcox, 201. Fanny Witherspoon, 124, 197-198. Fantasy, 126, 178. Farrington Horse, the, 105. Fashion, 265. Fashion Course, Dexter at, 49. Fashion Stud Farm, H. N. Smith's, 103, 104 ,i6, 134, 327- Disbandment of, 204. Jay Gould (stallion) at, 202-203. Rosebud at, 261. Faugh-a-Ballagh, 48. Favorite, 154. Favorite Wilkes, 154-155. Fawcett, A. F., Dexter owned by, 213. Fayette Denmark, 318. Fearing, William H., 203, 327. Fearnaught, io6-io8, 156. Fearnaught Jr., I07. Felter, Harry, 156, 157. Fidol, 201. Field's Royal George, 227. Figurante, 135. Figure (Justin Morgan), 89. Figure Mare, the, 137. Fillmore, 7. I inegan, P. A., 197. First Consul, 2i6. Fisette, Pierre, I30. Flatbush Maid, 297. Flaxy, 3!. Fleetwing, 247. Fleety Golddust, XI1. Flirt, 76. Flora, 67, 68, I85, 223. Flora Belle, 319. Flora Gardiner, 214. Flora Temple, 45, 140, 141, 213. Ancestry of, 46, 131. Career of, as trotter, 46-47. Death of, 48. Harness records of, 8. Offspring of, 48. Florizel, 136, 142. Floyd Brothers, breeders, 329. Fly, dam of Lou Milton, 28,30. Flying Childers, 135. Flying Cloud, Jackson's, 203. Flying Cloud, Ward's, 102. Flying 'Morgan, I70. Fogg, G. M., 328. Forbes, J. Malcolm, 5-6, I8 74, 75. Death of, 332. Price paid for Arion bv, 270. Letter of, on successful breeding, 330-332. On wind-shields, 82-83. Vice-president of Gentlemen's Driving Club of Boston, 302. Forbes, M. S., 288. Forbes Farm, 75, 330. Ford, J. Howard, 327. Index Foreigner, 177. Forest Park, Dr. L. Herr's, 325. Forkhurst Farm, C. II. Kerncr's, 330. Fort, G. W., Prince Alert bred by, 31'. Foster, Charles J., quoted, 42-44. Foster St. Lawrence, 232. Fourth of July, 144. Fox, 135. France, W. C., 325. Frank, trotting record of, 6. Frank Agan, 310, 323. Frank Forrester, 144. Fred Crocker, 8i, 175. Fred Folger, 214. Fred Kohl, 127, i68. Frolicksome Fanny, 254. Gage, David A., 189, 288. Gail Hamilton, 170. Galatea, 107, 251. Galloway, R. F., I89, 326. Galway, James, 67. Gambetta Wilkes, 158. Pacers and trotters sired by, 169, 308. Gano, ii6, 117, xi8, 136. Garmendia, C. M., 329. Garnett, W., 11i. Gazelle, 151, 201, 223. Gazette, i66. Gean Smith, 205. Geers, E. F., The Abbot trained by, 77. Three abreast driven by, 85. General Benton, 72, 176, 177, 236, 255. General Butler, 49, 156, 213. General Knox, ancestry of, 102-103. Descendants of, 259, 261. Grave of, 104. Lady Thorn bred to, 1 7. Trotters sired by, 103-104. 347 General Taylor, 4, 39. General Washington, 103, 117, 261. Geneva, 214. Gentlemen's Driving Clubs, 301-302. George B. Daniels, 230. George Cooley, 217. George M. Patchen, ancestry of, 39, 218, 255. Career of, 218. Descendants of, 196, 218, 221, 247, 260. Ethan Allen beats, 98. Flora Temple vs., 47. Saddle record of, 6. George M. Patchen Jr., 49, 218- 219. George Palmer, 107. George Wilkes, 32, 332. Ancestry of, 156, 158. Descendants of, 31, 34, 8o, 8i, 126-127, 158, 228, 252. Foals by, 157-158. History of, 156-163. Pacers sired by, 158, 307-308. Stallions by, I58, 168-170. Gertrude Russell, 255. Gideon, 207. Gifford Morgan, 37, 109-1 10 Gipsey, 135- Gladiator, 225. Glencoe, 76, 107, 177, i82, 251, 254, 318. Glenn, Armstrong, Sweepstakes raised by, 313. Glenview Stock Farm, J. C. McFer- ran's, 199, 325. Globe, 7, 85, 221. Glory, x88. Gloster, i85. Gocher, W. H., 288. "Tales of the Turf " by, quoted, 293-295. Godfrey Patchen, 218. 348 Index Godolphin Arabian, 89, 1i8, r35, 143. "Godolphin of America," Sir Archy called, 143. Golddust tribe, the, 110-112. Gold Leaf, 7. Goldsmith, Alden, 184-185, 191, 286, 326. Goldsmith Maid, 45, 66, 153, 154, 261. Career of, 51. Dexter beats, 49, 213. General Washington bred to, 103. Harness records of, 8. Race against Smuggler, 51-62. Goliah, 38, 120. Goodhall, D., 286. Gooding, T. W., 230. Gooding, W., 230. Gooding's Champion, 230. Goodwin Watson (Strathmore), xg6. Gordon, W. J., 84. Gorton, F. S., 328. Goss, David, 93. Goss, Joel, 93. Goss, John, 93. Gould, Jay, Judge Brigham (Jay Gould) bought by, 202. Governor Hendree, 268. Grand Basbaw, importation of, 216. Grand Circuit, origins of, 292-293. Grandmother, 201, 223. Grant, Hugh J., 297-298, 327. Grant, James, president of National Trotting Association 288 Grant, U. S., rides behind Dexter, 50. St. Julien visited by, 67-68. Grattan, 102. Gray, J. W., 276. Gray, Lugerean, 129. Gray Eagle, 72, 142, 165, 228, 318. Gray Eddy, 227. Graylight, 261. Gray Rose, 140, 199. Gray Trouble, 44, 140. Great Eastern, 6, 63, 65. Great Spirit, 265. Green, " Charley," Lucille Golddust driven by, 53-6i. Green, John E., 324. Green, Joseph A., 208. Greenlander, 257. Green Mountain Maid, 32, 173. Ancestry of, 140, 223, 233-234. Descendants of, i8i, 234-239. Foals of, sired by Messenger Duroc, 235-238. History of, 233-238. Monument over grave of, 238. Green Mountain Morgan, 109- lo. Gretchen, 207. Grinnell, William R., 229-230. Grinnell's Champion. See Chaim- pion. Griswold, A. W., 196. Grover, C. E., president Cleveland Driving Club, 301. Guinette, 207, 308. Gurgle, 319. Gussie Wilkes, So. Guy, 84, 110, 125, 214. Guy Miller, 247. Guy Wilkes, 121, i68, 214. Haggin, J. B., 327. Hal Braden, 314. Hal Chaffin, 314. Halcorn, Peter's, 305. Hal Dillard, 314. Hale, Silas, 1o9. Hall, Albert C., 12-13, 329. Hall, Frank G., 302. Hall, George B., 286. Hall, George C., 202, 288. Hal Pointer, 313, 314, 322. It' Hambletonian, Bishop's, 36,102, 103. Ancestry of, I37. Death of, 139. Descendants of, 138, 145, 227. 1lambletonian, Harris's, 31, 37, 139- 141. Descendants of, 140, 196, 227. ilambletonian, Judson's, 141. Hambletonian, Rysdyk's, 25, 30, 32, 39, 48,49,79,80,101,103, 123. Ancestry of, Io0, 125, 138, 145, 208, 222. Descendants of, 152-172, 184, i86, 191, 194, 196, 198- 207, 234, 235, 247, 259, 264, 309- Description of, 146. Foals by, 148-149. Green Mountain Maid bred to, 234. History of, 145-151. Monument at grave of, I53. Pictures of, 149-150. Trotters sired by, 151. IHambletonian, Wood's, 154. Hambletonian Bashaw, 208. Hambletonian-Mambrino Chief de- scendants, 125-126. Halnbrino, 204, 253. Hamlin, C. J., 73, 76, 286, 288, 297, 298, 327- Champions in double harness owned by, 85. George M. Patchen a foundation horse for, 221. George Wilkes underrated by, 162-163. Offer of, for Dictator, 192. Quoted on progression in horses, 22I-222. Hamlin Patchen, 76, 221, 222. Hammond, D. S., 327. lex 349 Hampden Park, Springfield, built, 292. Handspring, 76. I-anna, H. M., 301. Hannah D., log. Hannah Price, 2I4, 259. Hannis, 128, 197. Happy Medium, 26, 27, 74, 79, 141, 332. History of, 189-I90. Hare, M. L., 328. Harker, Joseph, 69. larkness, L. V., 326. Harold, 70, 132, 195-196, 200, 242, 252, 256, 259, 262. History of, I94-196. Maud S. sired by, 242. Miss Russell bred to, 194-195. Harriet Clay, 127. Harrietta, 127-128, 167, 224, 252. Harriman, Edward H., 123, 326. John R. Gentry owned by, 3I0. Stamboul bought by, 248. Harris, Russell, I39. Harris, S. T., quoted, 107. Harry Bassett, 48. Harry Clay (45), 67, 173, i85, 198, 201, 217, 263, 264. Harry Clay, son of Neaves's Cassius M.Clay,217, 222-223, 233. Harry Clay, son of Strader's Cassius M. Clay, 218. Harry Mitchell, 232. Harry Wilkes, I58. Hartford, 195, 320. Hartford, races at, 66, 68, 70, 185. Harvey Mare, the, 104. Hattie Hogan, 223. Hattie Wood, 201, 223. Hattie Woodward, I87. Havemeyer, H. O., 128, 264, 327. Hawkins, James, 93. Hawkins, Jonathan, 190, 213, 249. I IILI (CX 350 l Jayes, `4amuci, 7X. Hayes, NX alter 1., 328. Head'em, 218, 255. Heath, James, io;. Hector, 37, 42, 98, 153-154. Hedgeford, 305, 318. Heinsohn, D., 129, 130. Heir at Law, 6, 120, 127. Helen Grace, 264. Helen T., 263. Hendrickson, W. C., 327. Henry, 136, 210. Henry, H. S., 329. Henry Clay, 38, 157, 216, 218. Henry Hal, 312. Hercules, 176. Hero, 140. Herod, 136, 142, 143. Heroine, i86. Hero of Thorndale, i86. Herr, Dr. L., ii6, 118- 19, 324. Heustis, David, i12. Ili, 222. Hiatoga, 38. Hiatoga family, the, 231-232. Hickok, Orrin A., 67, 68. St. Julien trained and driven by, I85. Santa Claus campaigned by, 197- 198. Highland Chief, 197. Highlander, 318. Highland Maid, 8, 47. Hill, David, 97. Hills Black Hawk. See Vermont Black Hawk. Hinda Rose, I75, 176, 244. Hippenheimer, 259. Hobart, XW. S., 254, 327. Hoffman, C. F., Jr., 299. Hoffman, W. M. V., 298. Hogarth, 223. Hoke, Andrew, Io. IIoke Mare, the, 112. Holcomb, J. W., 98. Holt, L. B., 329. Home Farm, II. S. Russell's, 107. Honest Allen, io0-102. Honest Anse, Flora 1Temple beats, 47- Honest George, 85. Honey H., 256. Hooton, 227. Hopeful, 65, 218. Hopples, the use of, 315. Horace Jones, i6o. Horse shows, 290-291. Horton Clay, 264. Hotspur, 99. Housman, A. A., 327. Houston, J. B., 299. Howard, R. L., 327. Howe, George W., 292. Hoyt, E., 152. Hudson River Stock Farm, Jacob Ruppert's, 170. Huldah, i68. Hunting Park Association, Phila- delphia, 285. Huntley & Clark, breeders, 328. Huntress, 185, 214. Hurly Burly, 203, 260. Hurrah, 177. Hyacinth, 251. Idol, 201, 223. Idolf, 201. Idolita, 246. Ijams, WV. P., 20, 328. President of American Trotting Association, 289. Illinois, stud farms in, 328. Illinois Medoc, 219. Imogene, 214, 259. Impeachment, 262. Index Imperial Hal, 313. Impetuous, 19S, 25 Inbreeding considered, 125-127. Inches, George B., 330. Independence, 84, 103-104. Inclependence, Ia., kite track, 5, 322. Races at, 74, 79. Indiana stud farms in, 328. Indlianapolis, 134. Indian Chief, 104, 305. Indian Hill Stock Farm, R. S. Veech's, 257, 325. Indicator, iii. Inheritor, 203. Instant, 206. Iowa, breeding establishments in, 328. Iran Alto, 182, 236, 255. Iron Duke, Golddust beats, iii. Irma G., 257. Iron's Cadmus, 62, 63, 99, 234, 261, 306. Iroquois, 48. Irwin, D. B., 234. Ithuricl, 164. Ives, Brayton, breedinog farm of, 327. Ixia, 203-204. Jack Rossiter, 42. James K. Polk, 42. James L., 250. James, Simon, 329. Jamie, 268. Janvier, W. R., 327. Jay Bird, 8o, 1iS, i68, 256. Jay-eye-see, 5, I 1, 308-309. Ancestry of, 132, 192, 250. Career of, 70. Records by, 9. Jay Gould, 151, 202-204, 214. Foals sired by, 203, 260, 261, 262. Onward beaten by, i66. J. C. Simpson, 265, 266. 35' Jeanne (I'Arc, 130. Jennie Cameron, 89. Jennie Johnson, I27. Jennison, A., 105. Jennison IHorse, the, 105. Jenny, 228. Jerome Eddy, 192, 201. Jersey Highlander, 227. Jessie Pepper, 126. Jewel, 308. Jewett, George M., 328. Quoted concerning the Duke of Brunswick line, 267-268. Jewett, Henry C., 298, 327. Jewctt, Hugh J., 267. Jewett larm, Jerome Eddy at, 192. Joe Bunker, 214. Joe Elliot, 205. Joe Patclhen, 34, 121, 310-311, 320, 321. Joe West, 310. Joe Young, 310. John A. McKerron, 168, 250. John Goldsmith, 26. John Morgan, Flora Temple beats, 47- John Nelson, 255. John R. Gentry, 123, 164, 309-310, 320, 321, 322, 323. John S. Clark, 232. Johnson, J. 'M., 329. Johnson, Peter, Bodine driven by, 53-61. John Stewart, 4. Johnston, 320, 322. Johnston, P. P., president National Trotting Association, i8, 20, 220, 288, 325. John Waxy, 316. Jones, Frank, 329. Jones, Morris J., 76. Jones, William, 40. Josephine Young, 3Io. 352 Index Josephus, 208. Joslyn Horse, the, 39. Juanita, 256. Jubilee de Jarnette, 104. Jubilee Lambert, 104. Judex, 256. Judge, The, 264. Judge Brigham (Jay Gould), 202. Judge Fullerton, 53-61, 65, 204. Judge Keeler, 127, 259. Julia Aldrich, 7. Julia Johnson, 312. Juliet, 128. Jupe, 164. Jupiter, 38. Justina, 7, 84, 85, 221. Justin Morgan, 31, 32. Descendants of, 96-I 2, 203, 207. Description of, 90-92. Effect of Rysdyk's Hambletonian on, 151. History of, 88-94. Pacing horses claim blood of, 304, 313- Pedigree of, 89. Stud career of, 93. Ka, daughter of Rossignol, 262. Kalamazoo, races at, 47. Kamala, 262. Kansas, breeding establishments in, 328. Kansas Chief, 65. Kansas City, horse shows at, 290. Kate, 197, 207. Kate Allen, 316. Kate Crockett, 227. Kate McCall, 225. Katharine A., 188. Kathleen, 195, 252. Katie Middleton, I 19. Katy Darling, 147, 152-153. Kearsarge, 251. Keene, James R., Sam Purdy bought by, 219. Kennedy, C. WV., 131. Kenton, 320. Kentucky, breeding establishments in, 325-326. Pacing horses in, 304. Kentucky Clay, 31, 32. Kentucky Futurity Stake, 179, 257. Kentucky Hunter, 26, 46. Kentucky Prince, ii0, 124, 249, 251. Descendants of, 125, 266. Kentucky Queen, I i0. Kentucky Trotting Horse Associa- tion, the, 324. Kentucky Union, i88. Kentucky Whip, 76. Kentucky Wilkes, 97, I58. Description of, 165. Keokuk, 243. Kerner, Charles H., 297, 299, 330. Ketcham, George H., 78, 328. King, The, 158, 169. King Darlington, 261. King Rene, 123-124. King Tom, 254. King Wilkes, 243, 262. Kiosk, 237. Kip, Lawrence, 298, 299. Kirkman, V. L., 328. Kiswick, 203. Kit, 313. Kite tracks, advent of, i. Passing of, 5, 79. Kittson, N. W., 48, 328. Kitty Bayard, 131. Kitty Patchen, 121, 310. Kitty Temple, 48. Klatawah, 197. Knapp, Shepherd F., 276, 297. Knight, W. H., 18, 289. Knox, J. W., Manette bred by, 263. Kosciusko, 122, 143. Index Kremlin, 8o, 122-123, 126, 195, 242, 251, 262. Career of, 195. Stallion record of, 248. Krishna, 262. Ladew, E. R., 327. Lady Abdallah, 155. Lady Amanda, [76. Lady Banker, 151. Lady Bunker, I21, i67, i68. Lady Byron, 226. Lady de Jarnette, i04. Lady Dexter, 249. Lady Duke, 48. Lady Dunn, i68, 214. Lady Frank, 8o, i68. Lady Fulton, I44. Lady Griswold, 170. Lady Hamilton, 227. Lady Horton, 264. Lady Hunter, 65. Lady Kin, 262. Lady Lockwood, 217. Lady Mackay, 247. Lady Maud, 103. Lady Merritt, 198. Lady Moscow, 42, 44, 108-109. Lady Nutwood, 242. Lady of the Manor, 178. Lady Palmer, 297. Lady Patriot, 184, 186. Lady Pilot, 243. Lady Russell, descendants of, i8i, 242, 262. Exhibition of, at St. Louis Fair, I80-I8I. Electioneer bred to, i8i. Lady Sanford, 202, 2I4. Lady Sears, 214. Lady Shannon, I40. Lady Smathers, io8. Lady Stout, II9, 264-265. 353 Lady Suffolk, 4, 8, 9, 37, 243. First appearance of, 41. Racing career of, 4I-44. Skin of, as an advertisement, 44-45- Lady Surrey, 216. Lady Sutton, 4, i08-i09. Lady Thorn, 32, 45, ii6, 156, 26i. Career of, ii6-il7. Dexter beats, 49, 2I3. General Knox bred to, 103. George Wilkes beats, [59. Lady Thorn Jr., 197. Lady Vernon, 47. Lady Victory, 42. Lady Waltemire, i96. Lady Whitman, 212-213. Lance, I36, 254, 265. Lancelot, 237. Lancess, 254. Lancet, 97. Lang, Gerhardt, 327. Lang, T. L., I03. Langmaid, William, 93. Larabee, C. X., 328. Lark, 257-258. Lasell, C. W., 330. Lauman, George, 288. Laurin, Cyrille, 329. Lawrence, Leonard W., 41. Lawson, Thomas W., 330. Lea, 26. League of the American Driving Clubs, 302. Leamington, 48. Leland, 214. Lena N., 198. Lena Pepper, 126. Leola, 258. Lesa Wilkes, i68, 2I4, 259-260. Lever, 195, 256. Levity, 195, 256. Lewis & Albough, breeders, 328. 2 A 354 Int Lewis Brothers, breeders, 325. Lewis Hulse Mare, the, 184. Lew Sayers, 2I7. Lew Scott, 23I. Lexington, 48, 72, 107, 176, 195, 222, 251, 256, 257, 305. Ancestry of, 143, 147. Electioneer's claim to, as ances- tor, refuted, 173. Lexington, Ky., races at, 29, 34-35, 70, 8I, 195. Liberty, 103. Liberty Bell, 245, 251. Lieutenant Bassinger, 244. Light-harness horses, development of, 9-10. Lightning, 206. Lilburn, Adam, 204. Linsley, D. C., quoted, 90-92, 109. Little Albert, 102. Little Boy, 320. Little Brown Jug, 312, 313, 320, 322. Little Ida, 8i. Little John, 142. Little Miss, 195, 252. Liz Mardis, 254, 256. Lizzie, 312. Lizzie Walker, 206. Lizzie Whips, 177. Lohasco, 102. Lock Goss Horse, the, io6. Lockheart, 241, 251. Lo Crine, 268. Locustwood Farm, W. L. Brown's, 330. London, ii9. Long-distance performances, 4. Longfellow, 48. Long Island Black Hawk, 208. Longstreet, D. F., 288. Lord Clinton, 102. Lord Derby, 120, 222. lex Lord Russell, 8o, 195, 242. Lorillard Mare, the, 203. Lottie Loraine, 308. Lou, 79. Lou Dillon, 4, 14, 82-83. Ancestry of, 26-27, 28, 30, 186, 190, 198. Career of, 27-29. Price paid for, 27. Protest against 2.05 record of, 18. Records by, 4, 7, 9, 12-13, 29-30. Louis Napoleon, 201, 223. Louisville, horse shows at, 290. Races at, 47. Lou Milton, 26, 28, I90. Love, Joel, 153. Love's Pilot, 3I8. Lowland Mary, 213. Lucia, 203, 260. Lucile, 256. Lucille Golddust, 52-61. Offspring of, 111-112. Lucille's Baby, II 2. Lucy, 157, 203, 2I8, 260, 319, 320. Lucy R., 247. Lula, 52-6I, 227. Lula Wilkes, 227-228. Lynne Bel, I78. Lyon Mare, the, 171. Mabel, 32, 78, 260. Mabel L., 259. jMac, race against Lady Suffolk, 44. McCarty, John, 327. Joe Patchen owned by, 310. jMcDonald, William, 47. McDowell, "Andy," 75. McDowell, Major Henry C., 281, 324- Dictator bought by, 192-193. Mace, "D Dan," driver and trainer, 53-61, 98, 100, 117, 134. Index McFerran, James C., 199, 281, 324. McGibbon, T. J., 325. Mcllenry, M. H., Dan Patch driven by, 31I. Mackay, John W., 8i. McKinney, I67, 252, 320. McKinstry Mare, the, 249. McLaughlin, H. E., quoted, 23-24. McLaughlin, "Sam," trainer, 159. McNitt, James, 227. Madam Temple, 46, 131. Madden, John E., 325. Madeleine, 151, 214. Madison Square Garden, horse shows at, 290. Mag Addison, 221. Mag Ferguson, 124. Maggie Gaines, 222. Magic Flute, 203. Alagna Charta, 0og. Magnolia, I02. Magnum Bonum, I4I. Mahogany, 203. Maid, 258. Maid of Ashland (Lady Thorn), I 16. Maiden, 228. Maid of Fair Oaks, 268. Maid Thorn, 200. Maine, breeding farms in, 329. Majolica, 206. Major Delmar, 14, 30-32, 82, 182. Records by, 7, 29. Major Edsall, 32, 78. Major Ross, 265-266. Major Winfield (Edwvard Everett), 204. o Mali, Henry W. T., president of National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders, 275- Malice, 257. Malmaison, 257. Mambrina, 142. 355 Mambrino (English, sire of imported Messenger), IOO, 120. Pedigree of, 135, 141-142. Mambrino (son of imported Messen- ger), I17, 143- Descendants of, 37-38, 143-145, 171, 217, 222, 229. Mambrino, Williams's, 197. Maambrino Boy, 79, 80, 19-120. Mambrino Chief, 32, 38, 39, 78, 79, 8o, II6, 117-II8, I20, I24-125, 127, 128, I55, 164, i68, I93, I97, I98, 243, 247, 258, 259, 260, 263, 308. Ancestry of, 113, 125. Description of, 114-II5. Lady Thorn sired by, i16, II7. Mambrino Chief Jr., 258. Mambrino Dudley, I22. Mambrino Gift, 63, 128, 133. Mambrino Howard, 32, 78, 260. Mambrino Kate, Ilg. N1ambrino King, 76, 120, 127, 222. Mambrino Maid, 206-207. Mambrino Patchen, 31, 32, 8o, II8, 119, 121, 168. Descendants of, 121, 127, i66, 200, 222, 252, 264, 310. Trotters sired by, 119-120. Mambrino Paymaster, 38, I13, iI6, I25, I85- Mambrino Pilot, 128. Mambrino Russell, 242. Mambrino Star, 80, I68. Mambrino Startle, 206-207. Mamie, 225. Mamie C., I76. Manager, 241. Manaloa, 263. Manetta, 257. Manette, 82, 176, 263. Manfred, 257. I i 356 Index Manice, E. A., 245. Mansfield, 236. Maplehurst Farm, John E. Thayer's, 164, 170, 330- Marguerite, 261. Marguerite A., 261. Margrave, 182, 204, 252, 253, 254. Maria Russell, 133, 239. Marion, 107. Mariposa Stock Farm, 76. Marks, Miss A. A., 329. Mark Time, 119, 264. Marshland Stud, Benjamin F. Tracy's, x65. Martense Maid, 203. Martha Wilkes, i67, 252. Marvin, Charles, trainer and driver, 53-6i, 63, 72, 82, 174. Mary A., 26!. Mary Mlambrino, 121, 200. Mary P. Leyburn, i8i, 262. Mascot, 322. Masetto, 224, 264. Massachusetts, breeding farms in, 75, 107, 123, 329-330- Introduction of horses into, 2. Matchem, 143. Mates, trotting with running, 6, 98. Mattie, 151. Mattie Graham, 195. Mattie Hunter, 317, 319, 320. Maud, 154- Mlaud S., 5, i i, I8, I9, 20, 21, 133, 250. Ancestry of, 70, 72, 112, 194, 242. Career of, 69-72. Death of, 72. Double-harness work by, 85. Records by, 5, 9. St. Julien and, 68. Maud V., team record of, 7. Maury, Charles H., 329. Maxey Cobb, 79, 84, 190. Mayberry, C. C., 330. May Bird, I58. May Day, 39. Mayflower, 8i. May King, 182, 228. Maynard, J. E., 98. May Queen, I82, 228. Meddler, 75. Medoc, 128, I34, 136. Melinche, 8i, 173. Memphis, races at, 27, 28, 30, 35, 85. Mendocino, 246. Mercedes, 127. Merriam, W. R., 328. Merrivale, 264. Merry Clay, 263-264. Messenger, 32, 36, 41, 86-87, 103, 113, 17- Career of, 135-136. Descendants of, 36-37, 136-141, 171,189,203,216,217,229. History of, 135-136. Pedigree of, 135. Value of thoroughbred founda- tion shown by, 273. Messenger Duroc, 171, 200, 202. History of, 171-172. Progeny of, by Green Mountain Maid, 235-238. Messenger-Hambletonian combina- tion, 141. Messner, D. A., Dan Patch bred by, 3"1. Metropolitan, 251. Michigan, breeding establishments in, 328. Middletown, Green Mountain Maid bred to, 234. Midnight, I32. Miller, Guy, 276, 326. Miller, James, 153. Miller & Sibley, breeders, 329. Miller's Damsel, I 18, 136, 143. Ina Mills, Harrison, 326. Mills, J. M., 326. Milton Medium, 26-27, 190. Minerva, 134. Minna, 97, 165. Minnehaha, 8, 243, 246-247. Minnesota, breeding establishments in, 328. Miranda, 235-236, 239- Miriam, 107. Miss Copeland, 31. Miss Emma, 178. Miss Fearing, 204. Miss Russell, 70, 112, 262. Breeding of, to Harold, Career of, 132-133. Death of, 243. Exclusiveness of, I32. History of, 239-243. Pedigree of, 132-133. Miss Shepherd, 239. Miss Whitney, 64, 201. Mitchell, John L., 328. Moccasin, 203. Moccasin Mare, the, 203. Mocking Bird, I20. Modesty, 37. Mohawk Chief, 258. Mokhladi, 229. Molly Morris, 65. Monarch, 265. 194-I95. "Monarch of the Home-stretch," Robert McGregor called, 78. Monbels, 246. Monk, The, 6, 85, 120. Monmouth Eclipse, 136. Montana, stock farms in, 263, 328. Monte Carlo, 246. Monterey, 198. Montgomery, 203. Moor, The, 177, 243-244. Moore, A. H., 329. (ex 357 Moore, T. E., 325. Moquette, 170. Morgan, John M., 63. Morgan, Joseph B., Grand Bashaw imported by, 216. Morgan, Justin, owner of Justin Morgan, 88, 93. Morgan, Barnard's, i 0o. Morgan Chester, 37. Morgan Eagle, 4, 38, 108, 109, 110. Morgan Eagle, Henderson's, 0og. Morgan Tally Ho, ioi. Morgan tribe, the, 37, 86-88, 94-95. Morrill, 38. See Old Morrill. Morrill, French, io6. Morris, A. Newbold, 299. Morris, Lewis G., 143. Morrow, R. S., 67. Morse, Calvin, 227. Morse, M. M., 288. Morse Horse, the, 38, 227-229. Moscow, 4, 44. Moulton, G. S., 276. Mountain Boy, 204. Mountain Maid, 1o6. Much Better, 197. Muley, 253. Munson, Isaac, 139. Muscovite, 251. Myron Perry, 157. Myrtha Whips, 178. Mystery, 127, 259. Mystic, 127. Mystic Park, races at, 51. Naiad Queen, 230. Nancy Awful, 65. Nancy Hanks, 9, ii, 154, 330. Career of, 74. Pedigree of, 74, 190, 251. Nancy Lee, 74, 190. Nancy Pope, 129. Nancy Taylor, 129. 358 Index Nancy Whitman, 33, 78, 214. Napoleon, 38, 65, 185. Narka, II2. Narragansett pacers, 2, 303. Nashville, races at, 80. National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders, formation of, 275. Officers of, 276. Passing of, 284. Rules of, 276-280. Sally Russell's pedigree decided by, 239-241. National Horse Show Association, the, 290. National Trotting Association, for- mation of, 286-287. Officers of, 288-289. Natural Barb Mare, 135. Naugatuck, 39. Nellie Horton, 264. Nellie Sayre, 223. Nelson, 79, 207-208. Nelson, C. H., 207, 329. Nerea, 255. Neta Medium, 84. Netherland, 312. Nettie, 151. Nettie Burlew, 230. Nettie Clay, 243. Nettie King, 76, 221, 222. .Nettie Murphy, 76, 222. -Newburgh, 212. Newman, Scott, 325. Newminster Stud, W. H. Fearing's, 203. New York, breeding establishments in, 326-327. New York Trotting Club, the, 285. Nicholas, 140. NicO, 179. Nigger Baby, 38. Nightingale, 4, 33, 78, 120, 260. Nina, 254. Nominator, 203. Nominee, 203. Noontide, 132, 195. Nora Wilkes, 8o. Norcross, E. L., io6. Norhawk, 258. Norlaine, 181, 228, 236. Norma, i8I, 228. Norman, 38, I8I, 227, 228-229, 257. Norris, F. D., 276. Norris, J. D., 276. North American, i96. Norton, Selah, 88. Norval, 181, 228, 236. Nova Scotia, horses introduced into, from France, 2. Nutbourne, 242. Nutspra, 7. Nutula, 242. Nutwood, 7, 82, 331. Ancestry of, 123, 241. Descendants of, 127, 241, 263. Nutwood Wilkes, i68. 175-176, Oakland Baron, 170, 247. O'Blennis, i44. Ohio, breeding farnis in, 328. Olcott, Frederic P., 263, 298, 299, 327- Old Cadde, 141. Old Morrill, 105, 1o6. Old Mountain Slasher, 317. Old Partner, 142. Old Sorrel, 202. Old Traveller, Thompson's, 316, 317. Ole Bull, 39. Oliver, Joseph, Cassius M. Clay bred by, 217. One Eye, 138, 145. One Eyed Kentucky Hunter, 46. Oneida Chief, 42. Inc O'Neil, James, Jay Gould cared for by, 204. Onward, 125, 158, 165. Career of, 165-166. Descendants, 166, i8i, 253, 256. Onward Silver, 125, i66. Pedigree of, i88-i8g. Orange Girl, 151. Orator, 195, 252. Oro Fino, 263. Ottley, John K., quoted on pacers and trotters in the South, 314-315. Ouida, 126. Overton, May, 328. Ozanam, 250. Pacers, Alcantara's, I66-I67. Distinct type from trotters, 321. Electioneer sires only twvo, 177. Famous, 195, 197-198, 314-319. In the South, 314-315. Tomn Hal family of, 3I7-319. Pacing Abdallah, 34, 311. Pacing records, 34-35, 320, 32I-322. Packer, L. D., 276. Page, Horatio, 286. Palatine, 236. Palita, 236. Palo Alto, ancestry, 80, 176, 182, 255. Career of, 181-182. Descendants, 182, 236, 245, 255. Records by, 5, 22, 176, 207, 208. Palo Alto Belle, 245. Palo Alto Stock Farm, 327. Residence at, of- Advertiser, 228. Beautiful Bells, 244. Dame Winnie, 255. Dexter Prince, 249-250. Electioneer, 174, 235. Lady Russell, i8i. Sontag Mohawk, 258. tex 359 Pancoast, 76, 122, 124, 200, 259. Paola, 255. Parks, W. M., Prospero campaigned by, 235. Parkville Farm, J. H. Shults's, 103. Parkway Farm, John McCarty's, 310. Pasonte, 255. Patchen, George M., Cassius M. Clay owned by, 217. Henry Clay bred by, 216. Patchen Maid, 247. Patchen Wilkes, 121, 158, 310, 320. Pat Cleburne, 306. Pate, R. C., I22. Patriot, 184. Patron, 121, 200, 259. Patronage, 75, 76, 121, 200, 259. Paul, 235. Paul Pry, 41, 138. Paymaster, 113, 120. Peacemaker, 205. Pearl, 2I6. Pearl Onward, i66. Peerless, 212, 2I4. Pelham, 4, 8, 42. Penistan, Richard, 325-326. Pennsylvania, breeding farms in, 329. Pepper, R. P., x66, 325. Perkins, F. E., 329. Perkins, S. R., i06. Perkins, Urban, 105. Perrin, George E., 46. Persian, 253. Pet, 321. Peter Swigert Mare, the, 72. Peter the Great, 75, 134, 190. Pfeifer, " Peg," driver, 159. Phallas, 79, 125, 192, 250. Pheasant, 137. Phebon W., 259. Philadelphia, horse shows at, 290. Races at, 42, 47. 360 Index Philips, 171. Phil Thompson, 164. Phoebe WVilkes, 259. Piedmont, 124, 156, 197, 244. Pierce, Henry, 27, 328. Pierce Brothers, 26. Pilot (Alexander's, black horse), 38, 256, 304, 318- Description of, I29. History of, 129-I31. Pilot, Love's, 318. Pilot Jr., ancestry of, 38, 129-131. Descendants of, 127, 128, 131- 134, 179, 195, 239, 252, 263, 318. History of, 129, 131. Mambrino Chief matched against, 114. Miss Russell sired by, 239. Trotters sired by, 131. Pilot Medium, 134, 190. Pilot Russell, 242. Pilot Temple, 131. Pixley, 203. Planet, 8o, 176, 254. Plant, R. H., 329. Pleasant Girl, 268. Plow Boy, 297. Pocahontas (by Ethan Allen, dam Pocahontas by Iron's Cad- mus), 99. Pocahontas (by imported Glencoe), 254. Pocahontas (pacer, by Iron's Cad- mus), 63, 99, 207, 261, 306, 322. Poem, 203. Pointer, Captain H. P., pacers bred by, 313-314. Polly Barber, 196. Ponce de Leon, 121, 200, 259. Pond, C. NI., 329. Porter, John, loo. Portia, 206. Post Boy, 297. Potential, 263. Pot-8-os, 136, 137. Potomac, 137. Powell Brothers, breeders, 329. Powers, 185. Powers, Lewis J., quoted in "Tales of the Turf," 293-295. Pratt, John, 135. Prefix, 251. Price, Dr. S., 326. Priceless, 259. Prime, 259. Primrose, 126, 155, 257. Prince, 7, 47. Prince Alert, 14, 35, 82, 311-312, 320. Prince George, 249-250. Prince Imperial, 48. Prince Lavalard, 261. Prince of India, 251. Prince of Orange, 200, 251. Princeps, 122, 126, 155, 257, 260. Prince Pulaski, 317. Prince Regent, 127. Princess, 27, I41. Ethan Allen beats, 98. Flora Temple vs., 47. Hambletonian (Rysdyk's), bred to, 189. Princess Clara, 112, 250. Princeton, 251. Prince Wilkes, 164. Prodigal, 76, 121, 200, 259. Progression in horses, 221-222. Prophet, 31. Prophet Jr., 31. Proscription, 262. Prose, 203. Prospect Hill Stock Farm, 178, 244. Prospero, 235. Protein, 206. Index Pruden's Blue Bull, 225. Pugh Aratus, 207. Puss Prall, 119, 264. Descendants of, 265. Quadrilateral Trotting Combination, formation of, 292. Quartermaster, 167. Queen Dido, 164. Queen Mary, 133. Queen's Daughter, The, 48. Q-uimby, T. L., secretary of Gentle- men's Driving Club of Boston, 302. Quimby Messenger, 38. Races, famous: - American Eclipse vs. Henry, 136. Bertrand vs. Aratus and Creep. ing Kate, at Charleston (1826), I42. Columbian Exposition Stake, 102. Dutchman-Americus-Lady Suf- folk, 42-44- Fearnaught's, at Buffalo (1868), I07. George Wilkes vs. Ethan Allen, 16o. Goldsmith Maid Vs. Smuggler at Cleveland (1876), 51-62. Kentucky Futurity Stake, 179, 257. Stallion, for 20,000 (x888), 248. Rachel, 265. Ralph Wilkes, 126, 164, 268. Rarus, 8, 65-67. Rataplan, 254. Rattler, 3, 42. Rattler, Biggart's, 38. Rattler, Thornton's, 133, 239. Raymond, W. H., 328. Reality, 112. 36i Records, championship, 4. Double-harness, 7-9, 30, 71, 84- 85. Five-year-old, 176. Four-in-hand, 7. Half-mile, 7. High-wheel, 5-6. Lady Suffolk standard, 45. One-year-old, Norlaine's, 236, 238. Pacing, 34-35, 320, 321-322. Saddle, 6. Stallion, 78-80,190, 195,207,208. Team, 6-9, 30, 71, 84-85. Three-abreast, 7. Three-year-old, 176, 206. Two-year-old, 81-84, 175-I76. Wagon, 7-9, 30. Dexter's, 214. Volunteer's, 184. Red Bird, 230. Red Duke, 268. Red Heart, 246-247. Red Jacket, 37, 164, 165. Ancestry of, 96-97. Redmond, W. F., 327. Red Wilkes, 97, 158, 164. Comparison of, with Duke of Brunswick, 268-269. Descendants of, 268-269. Re-Election, 181, 242, 262. Refina, 262. Registration of trotters, rules for, 282-284. Regulus, 135. Reina, 102, 127, 259. Reina Victoria, 251. Reindeer, Flora lTemple beats, 47. Relf, C. P., i i6, i59, i6i. Reubenstein, 309. Revenue, 254. Reverie, Robert Bonner buys, 270- 271. 362 Index Rhode Island, 47, 157. Rhode Island, breeding in, 329. Rhythmic, 170. Rice, William, 93. Richard, 225. Richards, A. Keene, 146-147, 239. Richball, 319. Rigolette, 256. Rio Alto, 236. Road Horse Association of State of New York, formation of, 298. Road houses, old-time New York, 296. Robbie P., i04. Roberta A., 256. Robert Bruce, 76. Robert Fillingham (George Willkes), I56-157, I6o. Robert J., I95, 310, 320, 321, 322. Robert McGregor, 4, 32, 33, 78, 214. Robin GreV, 257. Robinson, A. H., 328. Rochester, races at, 42, 68, 70, 79, I85. Rockefeller, Frank, 328. Rockefeller, John D., 297. Rockefeller, William, 84, 104, 297, 299. Rockwell, Elias Lee, 130. Rodes, Levi S., ii6. Rodes Mare, the, 31, ii6, ji8. Rogers, Joseph, 93. Rolla, 37. Rolla Golddust, 11, 292. Roma, 112. Roosevelt, James, 185. Rosa Lee, 140. Rosalie Sommers, 254. Rosalind, 112, 154. Rosaline Wilkes, 112. kosamond, iii. Rose, L. J., 270, 327. Breeder of- Beautiful Bells, 243. Reverie, 270. Stamboul, 247-248. Rosebud, 26i, 262. Rose Leaf, team record of, 7. Rosemont, 244. Rose of Washington, 98. Rossignol, 262. R Round Top Farm, Athel at, 263. Roving Nelly, 80. Rowdy Boy, 319. Rowellen, 246. Rowena, 147. Royal Fearnaught, io8. Royal George, 38. Family of, 226-227. Rubber, 170. Ruby, 247- Rumor, 134. Rundle & White, breeders, 329. Running mates, trotting with, 6, 98. Ruppert, Jacob, 170, 298, 326. Rusina, 242. Russell, Henry S., 52, 60, 62, 63, 98, 107, 286, 288, 330. Russella, 242. Russell's Hambletonian. See 1Ham- bletonian, Russell's. Russia, 242. Rustique, 242. Rynders, Isaiah, 286. Aberdeen owned by, 186-i88. Rysdyk, 48. Rysdyk, William M., 145-151. Rysdyk's Hambletonian. See Ham- bletonian, Rysdyk's. Sadie Mac, 134, 179. St. Arnaud, 127. St. Bel, 177, 178, 244. St. Clair, 81-82, 175. Index St. Cloud, 213. St. Elmo, io8. St. Julien, 8, 67-68, 185, 223. St. Lawrence, Kinkead's, 133. St. Lawrence tribe, the, 232. St. Louis, horse shows at, 290. Lady Russell exhibited at, i8o. lRaces at, 42. St. Remo, 68. Saladin, 38. Salisbury, Monroe, 327. Sallie Durbrow, 270. Sallie Feagles, 205. Sally Anderson, 33, 124. Sally B., 195, 256. Sally Benton, 258. Sally Miller, 4. Sally Russell, I12, 239. Bred to Pilot Jr., 132. Miss Russell produced by, 132- 133. Pedigree of, settled, 239-241. Sally Simmons, 7. Sally Simpson, 266. Sally Southworth, 265. Saltus, Nicholas, compilation of 2.30 performers by, 45, 275. Sampson, 135. Sam Purdy, 219. Story of death of, 219-220. Sanborn, W. A., 328. Sandal, 203. Sanders, J. H., Breeders' Trotting Stud Book edited by, 230. Sanders, Millard F., 27. San Mateo Stock Farm, i67-168. Sannie G., 229. Santa Claus, 25, 197, 260. Santa Rosa Farm, 26. Sapphire, 203. Sarah Puff, 42. Sargeant, A. V., 327. Sarpedon, 147. 363 Satinet, 171. Sayles, F. C., 76, 329. Sayre, Decatur, 222. Scannell, John J., 77. Schmulbach, Henry, 329. Sclavonic, 243. Scotland, 133. Screwdriver, 3, 40, 285. Seacord, Fred, 328. Searcher, 102. Seely, Edmund, owner of American Star, 210. Seely, Jonas, 208. Rysdyk's Ilambletonian bred by, 145- Seely's American Star. See Ameri- can Star, Seely's. Selim, 144- Semi-Tropic, 247. Senator L., 4. Sentinel, i86. Shackelford, J. T., 326. Shanghai Mary, 233-234. Shark, 136, 137, 191, 249, 265. Sharpless, Charles L., 149. Shawmut, i86, 223. Shepard, Jonathan, 93. Sherman, 158. Sherman, George D., 327. Sherman, James, 96. Sherman Black Hawk, 38, I02. Sherman Morgan, 38, 96-97, 101, i65. Sherwood, G. W., 328. Shields, dirt and wind, 12-13, 14-17, 22-24. Official discussion of, 20-21. Views of J. M. Forbes on, 82-83. Shipman, 268. Shults, John H., 73, I03, 199, 298 327- Shultshurst, 72, 73, 308. Sibley, J. C., 73. 364 Index Sidi Hamet, 126. Sidney, 25, 26, 28, 186, 198. Sidney Dillon, 26, 30, i86, 198. Signal, 102. Silvertail, I45. Silverton, 225. Simmons, 7, 158, 170. Simmons, William L., o01, 156, 157, 158, 325. Quoted concerning George Wilkes, 159-162. Simmons, Z. E., 98, 156, 325. Simonson, Charles, 229. Simpson, William, 327. Sinbad, 218. Singerly, George A., 164. Sir Archy, 78, 118, 120, 121, 122, 142, 143, 147, 254. Sir Archy Duroc, 202. Sir Charles, 103, 254. Sir Charles, Howard's, 068. Sir Henry, 37. Sir Peter, 138, 285. Sir Wallace, Todhunter's, 181, 228. Sir Walter, 144, 188. Sir Walter Jr., i88. Sir William, Lear's, 168. Slander, 134. Slasher, 318. Sleepy George, 322. Sleepy Tom, 319, 322. Smathers, E. E., 29, 31. Smith, Elizur, 330. Smith, George H., 287, 288. Smith, Henry IN., 52, 276. Owner of- General Knox, 103. Jay Gould, 202. Lady Thorn, I16-117. Rosebud, 261. Tattler, 134. Smith, W. B., 329. Smuggler, 52, 63, 64, 65, 79. Snap, 135. Snediker, Isaac, i44. Snow, David, ioo. Snow Heels, 313. Sonnet, 203. Sontag, 31, 140. Sontag Dixie, 31, 140, 182. Sontag Mohawk, 140, 258. Sontag Nellie, 140, 258. Sophie, 74. Soprano, 258. Soso, 8i. Sour Crout, 117, 143. Sovereign, 195, 252. Speedway, agitation for a, in New York, 297-298. Building of, 299-300. Sphinx, 177, 179- Spicer, driver of Americus, 44. Spier, William E., 30, 327. Spirit, 229. Splan, driver, 66. Sprague, Amasa, 99, 286. Sprague & Akers, breeders, 328. Sprague Golddust, X X1-112. Spring Hill Stud Farm, 191. Sprite, 127, 179. Stamboul, 126, 207, 247-248. Stanford, Leland, 72, 233. Advertiser owned by, 228. Advocate of early development of horses, 174-175. Beautiful Bells bought by, 244. Dame Winnie bought by, 255. Elaine owned by, 236. Electioneer bought by, 173, 234. Refusal of ioo,ooo for Palo Alto, 182. Two-year-old champions bred by, 81-82. Vice-president of National Asso- ciation of Trotting Horse Breeders, 276. index Stanza, 203. Star, 213. Star Hal, 314. Starling, 135. Star Pointer, 35, 310, 322. Pedigree of, 313-314. Records by, 35, 312, 322. Startle, 206-207. Stearns, George NI., letter concerning Robert lonner, 73. Steel, Robert, 189, 329. Steinway, I96-197. Stemwinder, 193. Stevens, George C., Belle of Wabash's pedigree settled by, 244. Stockbridge Chief, 98, 185. Stockholder, 120, 143, 239. Stockings, 318-319. Stockwell, 254. Stokes, W. E. D., 325. Stone, Elijah, 225. Stone, Samuel, 93. Stoner, Colonel R. G., 196, 324, 326. Stonewall Jackson, 49. Stony Ford, Charles Backman's, 125, 171, 234, 249, 326. Monument to Green Mountain Maid at, 238. Storm, 234. Stout, H. I. & F. D., breeders, 328. Strader, R. S., 217-2i8, 326. Stranger, 103, 262. Strathmore, 25, i96-198, 258. StrideaWay, 261. Stump-the-Dealer, 305. Stump-the-Dealer, Adam's, 312-313. Stump-the-Dealer, Sugg's, 313. Suburban Stock Farm, 30, 182. Suffrage, 242. Sulkies, bicycle, 5, 11-12, 74. High-wheel, vs. bicycle, 18-22, 83. Sultan, 8r, 247. 365 Sultana, 247. Sumpter, 147. Sunol, 5, II, 175, 176. History of, 72-73. Price paid for, by Robert Bonner, 270. Records by, 9, 82. Sunshine Stud, D. B. Irwin's, 234. Superior, 200. Surpol, 258. Surprise, 258. Sutherland & Benjamin, breeders, 328. Sutton, Lewis J., 152. Sweepstakes, 215, 264, 313. Sweetheart, 8I, 246, 247. Sweetness, 25, 185-i86, i98. Sweet Owen, 127. Swift, 237. Sybil, 203. Syndic, 203. Tackey, 133. Tacony, 47, 98. Taffolet Barb, 135. " Taking the Reins," Ehninger's, 50. Talbert, A. S., 326. "Tales of the Turf," W. H. Gocher's, quoted, 293-295. Tanner, Charles, 20. Tartar, 226. Tattler, 134, 263. Team records, 6-9, 30, 71, 84-85. Telamon, I34, 263. Telegraph, 31, 65. Telie, 177. Telltale, 263. Temple Wilkes, i65. Tennessee, breeding farms in, 328- 329. Foundation pacing horsesof, 316- 319- Tennessee Pointer, 314. 366 Index Terre Haute, races at, 74, 75, 77, 79, 190. Terror, 201, 223. Texana, I77. Texas, breeding farms in, 329. Thayer, John E., 164, 170, 302, 330. The Abbot. See Abbot. The Judge. See Judge. The King. See King. The -Monk. See Monk. Thomas Jefferson, 63. Thompson, 262. Thompson, J. W., 328. Thomson, Alden WV., quoted, [38- 139. Thorn, 264. Thorn lale, Edwin Thorne's, 125, 154, 326. Thorne, Edwin, 113-114, i86. Thornetta, X 17. Thornton's Rattler. See Rattler. Three Feathers, 203. Three-year-olds, Electioneer's, 176. Records by, 176, 206. Thurman, Allen G., 328. Till, dam of Prince Alert, 311. Tilton, W. S., 276. Timoleon, 143, 254. Tiny, 262. Tippoo Saih, 36. Tod, John, 292. Todhunter, R. P., 324. Toler, H. G., 309, 328. Tomab, 203. Tom Crowder, 38. Tom Hal, 304, 305, 313- Tom Hal, Gibson's, 312-313. Tom Hal, Kittrell's, 312. Tom Hal, Knight's, 313. Tom Hal family, the, 317, 318, 319. Tom Hal Jr., 312. Tommy Britton, 245, 251. Tom Rolfe, 207, 319. , Tom Teemer, 257. Tom Thumb, 208. Topgallant, 3, 36, 40, 41, 138, 239, 285. Topsy (Princess), 189. Toronto Chief, 31, 226. Toronto Sontag, 31, 140, 182, 258. Toto, 260. Tough, Captain W. S., 62. Tracy, Benjamin F., 73, 97, i65, 233, 259, 276, 326. Pedigree of Seely's American Star according to, 212. Tramp, 111. I Traveller, Lloyd's, 89. Traveller, McMeen's, 313. Traveller, Morton's imported, 89. Traveller, Thompson's, 316-317. Treacy, B. J., 325. Tredwell, John, Abdallah (i) owned by, 144. Trevillian, 169. Trinket, 70, I26, 257, 260. Trio, 214. "Trotting Horse of America, The," Foster's, 42. Trotting and Pacing Record, Ches- ter's, 83, 94. Trouble, 285. True Briton, 88-89, 151. Truffle, 243. Truman, 177. Trustee, 38, 48, 195, 218, 254, 256, 265- Trustee Jr., 254-255. Tuckahoe, 63. Tuna, io0. Turf, 135. Turk, Bartoulet's, 230. Turk, Duke of Newcastle's, 135. Turnbull, William, 70, 297. Tuscarora, I 12. Twilight, 132, 251. Index Twombley, Ezekiel, 97. Two-year-olds, champion, 81-84. Electioneer's, 175-I76. Uhlien Brothers, breeders, 328. Unalala, 68. Undine, i65. Union Course, races at, 46-47, 285. Unknown, 321. Vail, Thomas J., 286, 288. Valensin Stock Farm, 25. Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 296-297. Post Boy and Plow Boy driven by, 297. Rivalry between Robert Bonner and, 297. Vanderbilt, William H., 69-70, 85, 187, 297. Van Ranst, C. W., 136. Veech, R. S., 257, 281, 324. Velie, Wellington, 46. Venture, 193. Venus, 26, 28, 30, I98. Vera Capel, 170. Vermont, breeders in, 329. Vermont (gray gelding), i40. Vermont, Gill's, 308. Vermont Black Hawk, 38, 65, 100, 207. Description of, 97. Vermont Hero, 102, 103. Vermont Morgan, iio. Victor, 78, 259. Victor Bismarck, 201, 223. Viking, 133. Village Farm, C. J. Hamlin's, 76, 85, 221. Chimes at, 178, 245. Hal Pointer at, 313. Virginia, horses in early, 2. Stock farms in, 329. Voltaire, 134, 197, 263. 367 Volunteer, 25, 67, 185-186, 198, 251, 259. History of, 184-1S6. Voyager, 130. Wadsworth, General Jamcs, 216. Wagner, 76. Wallace, J. H., Belle of Wabash's pedigree questioned by, 244. Retirement of, from editorship of Register, 282. Sally Russell's pedigree ques- tioned by, 239-241. Wallace's Trotting Register, 240. First issue of, 275. Semi-official organ of National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders, 277-278. Walnut Grove Farm, i86. Walnut Hall, 258. Walnut Hall Farm, L. V. llarkness's, 326. War Dance, I47. 'Warder, 133. Washington, Burr's, 38. Washington Denmark, 318. Waterloo, 133. Waters, F. S., 328. Waterwitch, 127, 133-134, 179. Wavelet, 133. Waxana, 72, 176. Waxy, 48, 72, 176, 254. Waxy, Van Meter's, 305. Webster, 128. Wedgewood, 123, 197, 309- Welbeck, 228. Welch, Aristides, 48, i96. Wellington, 26i. Wells, E. S., 327- Wells, S. C., 327. Wells Star, 264. Wentworth, 200. 368 Inl West, Colonel Richard, 124, 65, 191, 200, 281, 324. West Australian, 253. Westmont, 319. West Virginia, breeders in, 329. Whalebone, 41, 138, 285. Whip, Blythe's, i io. Whip, Cannon's, 257. Whips, 177, 178. Whisker, 218, 253, 254. Whiskey Jane, 219. Whistle Jacket, 171. White, Horace, 302. White, W. H., 328. Whitehead, H. M., x6g, 298. White River Stock Farm, 328. White Turk, 135. Whittemore, Charles, 330. Wichita, races at, 33. Widow Machree, i86, 212, 214. Wiggins, i88. Wildair, 89. Wildflower, 8i, 175. Wilkes, Ralph, 170. Wilkesberry, 34, 311. Wilkes Boy, 121, 158, 264. Wilkes Golddust, 112. Will Cody, 225. William Fourth, 244. William L., 79, 168-169, 214. William Penn, 198, 205. William Wallace, 268. William Welch, 48. Williams, C. W., 328. Williams, G. T., 113. Williams, Warren, 113. Willie XWilkes, 265. Willis, J. D., 222, 276. Will Leyburn, 170. Wilson, James, 225, 328. Wilson, W. H., 63, 157, 247, 276, 324. Wilton, 158, 170, 253- dex Wind-shields, J. M. Forbes's views on, 82-83. See Shields. Winthrop Messenger, 37. Winton, 309. Wisconsin, breeding farms in, 328. Wiser, J. P., 329. Wiser, W. P., 276. Witherell Messenger, 38. Withers, General W. T., ioi. Aberdeen bought by, 187-188. Almont bought by, 124. Cassius M. Clay owned by, 218. Happy Medium owned by, 189- 190. Member of Executive Committee of National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders, 276. Witherspoon, Lister, 325. Woodbine, 122, 123, 309. Woodburn Farm, R. A. Alexander's, 123, 129, 153, 325. Residence at, of- Australian, 253. Elite, 236-237. Miss Russell, 239. Primrose, 257. Woodburn Farm cup, 71. Woodbury Morgan, 37, 96, io8, 109. Woodford, 76, 122. Woodford Mambrino, 8o, 122-123, 126, 200, 242, 257. Woodruff, Hiram, 42. Dexter trained by, 213. Quoted, xo8-1og. Woolley, Charles W., 51, 288. Work, Frank, 84, 297. Wyoming, breeding farms in, 329 Yankee (of year 1806), 3. York Boy, 8, 85. Young America, 97. Index Bashaw, 37, 38, 216. Bassinger, 244. Bulrush, 105. Daisy, 261. Emelius, 253. Engineer, 37. Fashion, 265. Flaxy, 3I. Jim, 34, i68, 169. Morrill, 38, io6, io8. Patriot, 184. 369 Young Portia, 263. Young Rolfe, 207. Zambra, 4. Zanesville, Fair Oaks breeding farm at, 267. Zelica, 34, 311. Zephyr, 3i8. Zilcadi, iIo-iii. Zilcadi Golddust, 112. Zoe B., 225. 2B Young Young Young Young Young Young Young Young Young Young Young