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Volume X Januaty-February 1940 No. 2 HISTORICAL SURVEY NUMBER NEW GIRLS' DORMITORY Kentucky State College, Frankfort, Ky. Rufus B. Atwood, President "An Equal Educational Opportunity for Everp Kentucky Child" 5 5 S S S S - - i . Ii I i I I i 9 I i Volume X janualry-February 1940 No. 2 I I I I I I i I I i i i i i I II i i I I i i i I LINCOLN INSTITUTE of KENTUCKY LINCOLN RIDGE, KENTUCKY A fully accredited VOCA- TIONAIL HIGH SCHOOL for young people of Ken- tucky who desire an equal educational opportunity. A qualified faculty. College preparatory coui- ses. } Accredited by the South- A ern Associationof Col- leges and Secondary Schools and the State De- 1 partment of Education, as an A-class school. Vocational courses under State regulations and adequately equipped. Ap- plied Electricity, Plumb- ing, Steam Boiler Opera- tion, Janitorial Service, Agriculture, Dairying, Building Trades, Home ~~P4# ~ Economics, Music. Boarding Department with reasonable rates. A well regulated program for the all-around develop- ment of the student. FOR FURTHER IN-FORMATION WRITE Whitney M. Young, Director LINCOLN INSTITUTE a The K. N. E. A. Journal Official Organ of the Kentucky Negro Education Association Vol. X January-February, 1940 No. 2 Published by the Kentucky Negro Education Association Editorial Office at 1925 W. Madison Street Louisville, Kentucky Atwood S. Wilson, Executive Secretary, Louisville, Managing Editor. S. L. Barker, Owensboro, President of K. N. E. A. BOARD OF DIRECTORS Lyle Hawkins, Louisville Whitney M. Young, Lincoln Ridge Victor K. Perry, Louisville E. Poston, Paducah Published Bimonthly during the school year: October, December, February and April PRICE 50 CENTS PER YEAR OR 15 CENTS PER COPY Membership in the K. N. E. A. (One Dollar) includes subscription to the Journal Rates for Advertising space mailed on request Present Circulafion, 2200 Copies. 1939 K. N. E. A. Membership 1469 CONTENTS Page K. N. E. A. Committees for 1939-40...........................2 Editorial Comment ............. ............................. 5 Financing Schools for Negro Children from State School Fund in Kentucky-By R. B. Atwood ................................. 10 The K. N. E. A. (A Poem)-By E. Poston ....................... 18 The Negro in Kentucky-By G. W. Jackson ..................... 20 The Negro in America-By John Wesley Dobbs .................. 26 Right of Negro to Enter University of Kentucky Recognized......28 The Present Thanksgiving (A Poem)-By Marie S. Brown ........ 29 Superintendent Sponsors Democratic Ideals ...................... 30 The Teaching of a Science Unit-By C. E. Nichols .............. 3/ K. N. E. A. Kullings................ . 34 Tentative Outline of 1940 K. N. E. A. Colnvention ...... .......... 36 K. N. E. A. Announcements ................................... 37 Youth Council Plans Conference ............................... 39 The 1940 K. N. E. A. Honor Roll .................. ........... 49 K. N. E. A. Directors Adopt Five-Point Program ................. 41 Budget for the K. N. E. A. for 1939-40 ........................ 42 Lincoln Institute Key Award ................................... 43 Map of District Area ......................................... 44 K. N. E. A. Committees For 1939-40 LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE A. E. Meyzeek, Louisville, Chairman J. B. Caulder, Lexington Dr. E. E. Underwood, Frankfort C. E. Cabell, Henderson R. B. Atwood, Frankfort G. W. Adams, Winchester M. H. Griffin, Paducah J. H. Ingram, Frankfort W. H. Humphrey, Maysville M. J. Sleet, Paducah A. L. Garvin, Louisville W. 0. Nuckolls, Providence H. E. Goodloe, Danville D. H. Anderson, Paducah W. L. Shobe, Lynch C. R. Bland, Paris Rep. C. W. Anderson, Jr., Louisville S. L. Barker, President of K. N.,E. A., Ex-Officio Member ADVISORY COMMITTEE H. C. Russell, Louisville, Chairman E. W. Glass, Hopkinsville W. S. Wheatley, Owensboro J. E. Kuykendall, Bowling G-teen Rev. W. H. Ballew, Louisville J. A. Thomas, Louisville Benjamin F. Spencer, Frankfort W. N. Johnson, Lancaster 0. N. Travis, Monticello C. A. Alexander, Covington Rev. G. H. Jenkins, Louisville Rev. L. R. Stewart, Hopkinsville Rev. Homer Nutter, Lexington RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE J. H. Ingram, Chairman, Frankfort W. H. Perry, Jr., Louisville Carl Walker, Hazard W. 0. Nuckolls, Providence P. Moore, Hopkinsville William Wood, Harlan L. R. Johnson, Princeton RESEARCH COMMITTEE Dr. G. D. Wilson, Louisville, Chairman Miss Maude Brown, Louisville L. N. Taylor, Frankfort Dr. H. B. Crouch, Frankfort T. R. Dailey, Frankfort H. R. Merry, Covington R. L.. DoWery, Columbia AUDITING COMMITTEE P. L. Guthrie, Lexington, Chairman J. D. Steward, Frankfort M. J. Sleet, Paducah NECROLOGY COMMITTEE Amos Lasley, Hodgenville, Chairman J. W. Waddell, Elkton Mrs. V. B. Alexander, Louisville YOUTH COUNCIL ADVISORY COMMITTEE Miss Eunice B. Singleton, Louisville, Chairman Mrs. Blanche Elliott, Greenville Mrs. Ann J. Hertwel]. Frankfort Miss F. Yolanda Barnett, Louis- W. J. Christy, Versailles ville Mrs. Li-cy HI. Smith, Lexington C. L. Harris, Newport Miss Lillian Carpenter, Louisville Miss Emma Edwards, Owensboro 2 COMMITTEE ON VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROBLEMS Frank Orndorff, Russellville, Chairman A. J. Pinkney, Lincoln Ridge M. H. Griffin, Paducah Miss L. A. Anderson, Frankfort. Miss A. M. Peyton, Louisville SCHOLARSHIP LOAN FUND COMMITTEE Miss Estella M. Kennedy, Louisville, Chairman H. S. Osborne, Middlesboro F. L. Baker, Lexington Miss Alice Nugent, Louisville Mrs. Bettie Davis, Georgetown Secretary-Treasurer A. S. Wilson, Ex-Officio Member COMMITTEE ON RURAL SCHOOL PROBLEMS Mrs. M. L. Copeland, Frankfort, Chairman Mrs. Cornelia Weston, Pembroke Mrs. A. L. Simms, Mayslick W. R. Cummings, Pikesville W. M. Smith, Davistown E. L. Poole, Bowling Green Polk Griffith, Guthrie COMMITTEE ON PROGRAM OF EQUALITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION Dr. J. T. Williams, Frankfort, Chairman E. W. Whitesides, Paducah Dean David A. Lane, Jr.,Louis- E. T. Buford, Bowling Green ville W. W. Maddox, Paducah COMMITTEE ON EXPENDITURES OF FUNDS ON EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITIES L. W. Gee, Hopkinsville, Chairman F. A. Taylor, Louisville Hielen Noel, Madisonville Sadie M. Yancey, Lexington Atwood S. Wilson, Louisville Privileges of Active Membership in the K. N. E. A. 1. The privilege of attending all general sessions of the Association. 2. The privilege of participating in the departmental sessions. 3. The privilege of speaking and holding office in the Kentucky Negro Education Association. 4. Whe privilege of voting and participating in the business affairs of the Association. 5. The privilege of receiving all literature of the Association includ- ing the official publication, The K. N. E. A. Journal. No Kentpcx k Teacher Should Fail to Enroll Send One Dollar To A. S. WILSON, Secretary-Treasurer 1925 W. Madison Street, Louisville, Ky. 3 The Kentucky State College Established 1886 FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY A Progressive State Supported Institution COURSES Arts and Science Agriculture Home Economics Mechanic Arts Well Trained Faculty Adequate Library and Laboratory Facilities, Comfortable, Modern Dormitories Full Program of Student Activities Class A Four Year College Accredited by the University of Kentucky and the Southern Association of Colleges anid Secondary Schools FOR ALL INFORMATION WRITE TO R. B. ATWOOD, President 4 I I Editorial Comment GLANCING BACKWARD AND LOOKING FORWARD This issue of the K. N. E. A. Journal reviews the history of the Negro in Kentucky, particularly in the field of education. The editor of the Journal dedicates this issue of the Journal to those Negro leaders in Kentucky who have contributed to the unusual progress made by the Negroes in Kentucky. Pres. R. B. Atwood of Kentucky State College has reviewed the legislative enactments of the Kentucky General Assembly as they pertain to the education of the Negro. It is to be noted in this article that gradually the white population of Kentucky has come to recognize the obligation to the' Negro as a citizen of the commun- ity. Kentucky now leads the southern states in providing educa- tional facilities for its colored children and recently has gone on record as recognizing its obligation to provide equal educational opportunities for every Kentucky child regardless of race or creed. Prof. G. W. Jackson of Louisville has given a historical sketch of the Negro in Kentucky along lines other than in the field of edu- cation. He has pointed out their progress in business, in civic life, in the field of religion, and along many other lines. His article in- dicates that the Negro has made rapid progress in every phase of Kentucky life and that moreover, he has contributed nationally to the fame of Kentucky. An article by J. W. Dobbs, "The Negro in America," reviews the history of the Negro in the United States and vividly outlines their progress. Concluding, he points out that the Negro today only seeks mainly those rights which are guaranteed him as a citi- zen by the Constitution of the United States. Other poems, editorials and articles in this issue of the Journal help to emphasize the present tendency on the part of the white population in Kentucky and elsewhere to give to the Negro child and to the Negro teacher those opportunities which rightfully belong to them. We pause to glance backward at the progress which we have made, but take pride, renewed energy, enthusiasm and! op- timism as we look forward to the future. We rejoice that America in this time of world strife is at home as well as abroad bringing Into a fuller realization the fact that democracy means "a govern- ment of the people, for the people, and by the people," a government in which each citizen has an equal opportunity to develop his tal- ents and ability. 5 SUPERINTENDENT L. C. CURRY Recently, there appeared in the retogravure section of the Louis- ville Courier-Journal an account of the public school system at Bowl- ing Green. Among the pictures which appeared was that of Superin- tendent L. C. Curry and the paragraph following: "Mainspring of the Park City school organization is L. C, Curry, superintendent, who maintains contact with teachers as well as principals. The system pays Negro teachers at the same rate as White teacbers. New construction has. been without Federal aid, the treasury has plenty of cash for current expenses, educational standards have been raised by added laboratory equipment. With it all Bowling Green's $1.10 school tax rate is the lowest for any Kentucky city of the third class, 23 cents below the average rate." Pursuant to this the K. N. E. A. wishes to congratulate Superin- tendent Curry and the Board of Education of Bowling Green for this splendid report. Elsewhere in the Journal is a report concern- ing the public schools of Bowling Green under the title, "Superin- tendent Sponsors Democratic Ideals." EQUAL SALARIES In the Louisville Times of November 24, there appeared the fol- lowing editorial under the caption, "Equal Qualifications Deserve Equal Pay Regardless of Teachers' Color." "The Maryland case will revive discussion of equal pay for teachers of equal qualifications in Louisville public schools. It cannot be maintained that Negro school children must be prepared for their tussle for bread and meat under teachers inferior to those under whom white children are prepared, when taxpayers foot both bills. Therefore it is the duty of school authorities to procure com- petent Negro teachers. No lawv can successfully direct a school government to deal justly as between teachers of two Colors if qualifications of individuals are decided and declared arbitrarily. The best basis bf decision as to qualifications is the prepared- ness record of the individual. Undoubtedly two teachers equally prepared so far as education is concerned might be widely different in capacity. That would not be true of 100 Negro teacliers and 100 white teachers. Negroes as well educated as whites, and accepted as teachers, are entitled to pay, in public schools upon a basis of preparation, it that rule applies to white teachers, without discrimination as to color, and without subterfuge." 6 THE PROPOSED K. N. E. A. MEMBERSHIIP FEE Recently, President S. L. Barker and the secretary-treasurer of the K. N. E A. had a conference relative to; the financial sftat- us of the K. N. E. A. It was decided that the teachers of Kentucky be allowed to vote on an amendment to raise the membership fee from $1.00 to '$1.E. lhis fee is sirrilar to that cf the K. E. A. and realizing that we arc seeking equal educational opportunities and equality of opportunity in general, it is logical that we assume the same obligation as other teachers in Kentudky. Moreover, the in- creasing demands made upon the treasury to finance departmental programs of the K. N. E. A. and to increase the number of K. N. E. A. Journals each year would make imperative the increasing of the membership fee. Our financial record indicates for the year eniding 1939 that the K. N. E. A. received $1,456.03 in membership fees and had expenditures totaling $2,242.32. This expenditure was. rmade possible mainly by entertainments sponsored by the secretary- treasurer to make extra mncney for the organiz,.tion. The K N. E. A. should get on a safe bass through its membership fees and the only solution lies in the increased membership tee. The president of the K. N. E. A. and directors on December 16, 1939, decided that it would be a good idea if school officials would ask their teachers to volunteer to pay a $1.50 membershlp fee for this year. We realize that this matter must be voted on official- ly at the next K. N. E. A. convention, but we are thinking that there might be some teachers who are interested enough to volun- teer an extra fifty cents to help the association. These teachers would receive an enrollment card designated "Honor Member," and the rnames of such teachers would appear in our next Annual Pro- ceedings. This extra donation is, of course, optional to teachers,. but we wish that it would be stressed in orde- that we meat be abble to carry on some of the activities that have been planned. For example the K. N. E. A. voted last year to raise $5,000.00 for the purpose of removing inequalities in the education of Negro and white childv'n in Kentucky. We hope that teachers will come to the next annual meeting pre- .pared towamend, the constitution so that the membership fee might be an official one for 1940-41. Under any cicumstances principals and school officials are urged to send in their membership fees as soon as possible. Our honor roll indicates the schools that have already enrolled up to this time. It is hoped that we shall exceed our membership of 1939 and that no less than 1.600 teachers will enroll in the 193940 convention. No colored teacher in Kentucky should fail to have a membership. in the Kentucky Negro Education Association. 7 KNOXVILLE JOINS BOWLING WHEEN In the December 14th, 1939, issue of the Louisville Times there appeared the following article: Knoxville today was believed to be the first city in Dixie to pay Negr'o school teachers the same salary as white instructors for the same work. Negro teachers will draw sajaries equal to those of white teachers where they show equal preparation effective as of Decem- ber 1. The city sahi;el board adopted unanimously a resolution to this effect after hearing a petition fromga the Negro Teachers' League for Equalization. The petition had been presented repeatedly for sev- eral years. Negro teachers' pay had been approximately 10 per cert lower than white teachers." OUR FRONT COVER PAGE, 'The new dormitory for women at the Kentucky State College was completed on schedule in December of this year at a cost of S105,501. This was the first of the three buildings under constrLIc- t'on on the campus to be finished. TIhe others are a power plant to accommodate the increased number of buildings and a dining hall aind kitchen to take care of the increased enrollment of the last few years. The buildling program was financed by the Public Works Adc ministration, the sale of bonds, and appropriations of the state leg- islature, and will be completed during the first half of 1940. When furnished the new dormitory will provide accommoda- tions for approximately 94 students and an apartment for the faculty director. Absolutely fireproof throughout, the structure has every modern convenience for the health, comfort, and social ieducation of the residents. On the 'first floor is a foyer running from the front to the rear of the building and providing from the large bay windows at the- rear a view of the city of Frankfort. The lounge doors at the back of the building open on a convenient concrete patio which will be provided with porch furniture where the girls may sit in the .afternoon sun away from the campus road which runs in front of -the building. Adjoining the lounge is the serving room and a modern kitchen for the convenience of the residents of the dormitory whene entertaining and where meals for patients in the infirmary may be prepared. A private lounge opening upon a sun deck enclosedby an ornamental iron railing is locatedon the second floor. Off of this lounge a reading room has been included to encourage study. Also on this floor for the convenience of the residents are the pressing 8 and drying room and the beauty parlor. The former is provided with six electrical outlets and hot and cold water, while the latter is already equipped with two of the latest type of hairdryers and shampoo facilities. On the third floor there is located a six-bed infirmary equipped with individual bed lights and signals for the nurse in charge, private bath for patients, and an adjoining room for the nurse. Patients from the infirmary may take advantage of the porch roof to obtain the benefit of the sun's rays shielded from observation from below by the concrete wall surrounding the roof. A dimming arrangement on the lights makes it possible to adjust them to the desirable in- tensity in various parts of the infirmary. The student rooms are designed to accommodate two occupants have composition tile floors, two closets, one window, and electrical baseboard outlets besides an attractive diffused lighting feature. The walls are white with cream woodwork and dark brown stained doors with safety-catch locks. The samne color scheme is used in the halls and lounges except that the floors are terrazzo instead of comnosi- tion. On each floor of the building are lavatory facilities, both tubs and showrers, and accommodations for light laundry work all finished with beige tile walls and terrazzo floors. Other features of the dormitory are: a large club room with composition block tile flocr and a storage room in the basement, ice water in the drinking fountains on all floors the year around, and an automatic elevator connecting all floors. The new dormitory to be seen from U. S highway 60 rising im- pressively above the lower campus is a definite contribution to the beauty of the college environment. THE AMERICAN TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION The new Executive Secretary of the American Teachers' ASisso- ciation is Pres. H. Councill Trenh~olm of the Alabamai State Teach- ers' College at Montgomery, Alabama. This association is under going a reorganization and plans are being made to. continue the publication of the bulletin-the official organ of that association.. The membership fee has been reduced from $1.50 to $1.00 per year in order that more teachers may participate in the national problems of teachers in the Coldred Schools. The K. N. E. A. has continuously affiliated with this organ- jzation, and again this year pledges its support. To thi5 end Ex- ecutive Secretary Trenholm has been finvited to be guest speaker on Friday, Apr.l 19th, at the General Session. Immediately after this session an opportunity will be given our Kentucky teachers to enroll' in the American Teachers' Association. The 37th Annual Meeting is in Pine Bluff, Arkansas July 23-26, 1940. Pres. Barker seeks the doo peration of all Colored Teachers in Kentucky for the American Teachers' Association. 9 Financing Schools For Negro Children From State School Funds In Kentucky R. B. Viewed from the standpoint of the long continued reluctance. of public authorities in Ken- tucRy to provide free public schools for white children of the state, the progress that has been made and the financial support that has been given to public sclaocois for Negroes in Ken- tucky is little short of remrark- able. For years little or no thought was given to the idea *of public state support for schools. The early pioneers in Kentucky saw little need' to transfer their churches and schools as established institutions to their new nomes. Consequent- ly the little formal education undertaken was done under pr- vate auspices together with some few sporadic efforts to es- tablish pubrc schools supported by the counties.' This latter ef- fort proved to be ineffective and education in the state early came to be regarded as a pri- vate responsibility and no con- cern of t h e Commonwealth.2 Kentucky's first constitution was accordingly innocent of any provision for state support of public education. The ideal of free schools was slow to devel- op and nearly a half century would pass in which several fu- tile and abortive attempts would be made to establish a IThomnas D. Clark, "A History of Atwood public system of schools only to be frustrated before any defi- nite state action was taken.3 At long last on February 16, 1838, greatly stimulated by an unexpected grant to the state of well over a million dollars from tho undivided surplus in the fed- eral treasury, the legislature established what passed as a common school system.r The, old antipathy towards public educa- *tion was not yet dead, however, as was evidenced by the fact that the legislature, pressed by the, panic of 1837, used part of the money originally intended :fcr the schools for other pur- poses. There followed a period of stress and strain for the newly established school system during which the legislature was especially niggardly in its support of the schools. The system languished and strug- gled with feeble lifo and doubt- ful success until it was rescued by the untiirn efforts of Robert J. Breckinridge waho came to the state superintendency in 1847. It was during the six :,,ears of his administration that the system was fully establish- ed and state taxation for school purposes was initiated, thus making the schools actually free.4 Much of thet progress that was now made would be lost Kentucky." New York: Prentice-Hall. 1937, pp. 305-306. 2E]lwood P. Cubberly, "'Public Educiation in the United States." Boston- Houghton Mifflin, 19S4, pp. 22-23. sBarksdale Hainlett, "History of Education in Kentucky.' Frankfort, Ken- -tucky: Lepartment of Education, 1853, p. B. 'RFobert J. Breekinridge,"Superiutendent's Report." Frankfort, Kentucky: Department of Education 1850 P. 3. 10 during the Civil War and it may be said that at the end of that struggle, though legal provis- ions had been made for public instruction of white children, in reality the school system in so far as it was public was little more than a name. First State Efforts to Educate The Negroes Against this background of general public indifference to the support of education by the state even for white children un- til after the Civil War one can best and most fully appreciate what has been done in Kentucky since the war to educate Ne- groes. Previous to the liberation of the, Negroes in the state none of the public efforts at ed- ucation were extended to the Negroes as it had not been con- sidered good policy to provide for their education. Here and there a few kind-hearted mas- ters or more often mistresses had given permission for pri- vate instruction for their Ne- groes and an occasional free Ne- gro acquired an education by one means or another. These cases, however, were highly ex- ceptional. Only after the Thir- teenth Amendment had been added to the Constitution of the United States freeing the Ne- groes in Kentucky was ony con- sideration given to the question of establishing schools for Ne- gro children. The number of colored school children in the state at this time has been esti- mated to have been about 40,- 000. They did not have to wait long before the legislature un- dertook to do something for them. The Thirteenth Amend- ment went into effect on Decem- ber 18, 1865, and in the follow- ing February the legislature made its first attempt to provide schools for colored children. On February 16, 1866, the legis- lature passed a law providing that all taxes derived from a five cents levy on property of '7r sthoes and Mulattoes be set aside to be divided equally for taking care of Negro paupers and the education of Negro chil- dren. The funds provided by the collection of taxes for a people so recently freed from slavery and having title to very little property would necessarily be very meager. The amount col- lected for the first year was $5,. 656.01, only one-half of which could be used for the benefit of schools, the other half being set aside for the support of col- ored paupers. The state per capita for each colored child was six cents while that for the white child was for the same year eighty cents.5 The law of 1866 was permit- ted to operate only one year be- fore it was completely repealed and replaced with another enacted on March 9, 1867. In ad- dition to the property tax the new law levied a capitation tax of two dollars on every male Xe- gro over the age of eighteen and provided that the entire sum be used for schools and paupers.6 An essential d&ffer- ence, however, was that the new 5Daniel Stevenson, "Superintendent's Report." Frankfort, Kentucky; Do- paaltment of Education, "I866, pp. 1'1-28. beots of Kentucky General Assembly., I'rankfort, Kentucky: Bec- retary of Stute, 11867, imp. 9N-94. 11 law provided for education first and that the residue, be put in the pauper fund. In the very next year this law was so changed as to destroy all pos- sibility of any appreciable amount of state aid being given to Negro schools. The new law provided that no part of the funds authorized to be raised for the benefit of Negroes and Mulattoes should be. applied to school purposes except what- ever excess there might be af- ter providing for the Negro paupers in each county.7 It further provided that the mon- ey already collected under -the act of 1867 be spent in accord- ance with this amending pro- vision. This amendment had the effect of almost completely nul- lifying the development of color- ed schools, so far as state action was concerned, for in most counties there. was no money left for education after the needs of paupers were served. This was certainly the case in Franklin county and may be as- sumed to have been equally true in most of the o~ther counties. of the state as there must have been large numbers of paupers among the newly emancipated Negroes.8 It must be remembered, that the Institution of slavery did not develop initiative and independence among the Ne- groes, but rather the opposites, dependence and the lack of init- iative. There is some evidence to show that the pauper pro; is- ion in the, law encouraged idle- ness and knowing that the money would not go to their schools colored people used ev- ery subterfuge to dodge paying the tax.9 Moreover, the law was not mandatory. Summarizing the situation after the passage of the law of 1867 and the amendment of 1868 wo discern a school system with practically no promise for the future. In the first place no money was left for education after paupers were cared for; colored people used every sub- terfuge to \avoid paying the tax; idleness among Negroes tended to *grow to large proportions in counties where the pauper fund was liberally administered; and the law failed to make obliga- tory that the trustees establish schools for colored children. In 1870 the legislature repealed all these acts and levied upon Ne- groes the same taxes as upon white people, and made no pro- visions for colored schools. Thus after five years of free- dom, each effort of the state to- ward providing schools for Ne- groes had met with defeat. In each attempt the state had fol- lowed the policy that Negro cit- izens should support their own schools, and what was more, care for their own paupers. Each attempt had failed miser- ably to accomplish the desired goal. 12 "TIbid.,' 1868, P. 4. 8Z, F. Smith, "Supeintendent's Report," Frankfort, Kentucky: Depart- ment of Educatioen, 1869, pp. 71-72. ""Ibid.," pp. 69-73. Nothing more of any signifi- cance in regard to colored schools was done until 1874 un- der the administration of Sup- erintendent H. A. M. Hender- son. According to all available records which the writer has been able to examine no state provisions for schools were made for colored children be- tween the years 1870 and 1874. Henderson '-ad very definite ideas on the whole problem of state support for Negro schools; he would (1) provide schools for Negro children so that the Ne- gro may learn to vote intelli- gently; (2) keep the schools separate; and (3) let Negroes finance their own schools by tAxing them and using all their taxes f or support of their schools. This plan, fallacious as it was, was adopted in the law of t874.10 This law established a uni- form system of common schools for colored children of the commonwealth. It set up a col- ored school fund which consist- ed of a tax of forty--five cents on each one hundred dollars in value of taxable property owned or held by colored peo- ple, a capitation tax of one dol- lar on each colored male over twenty-one years of age, all taxes levied on dogs owned by colored people, all state taxes on deeds, suits or any license fe es collected from colored ner- sons, all fines, penalties or for- feitures imposed upon and col- lected from colored people, and all gifts or grants from any source whatsoever. Provis- ion was made for three colored trustees to each school district, appointed by the county com- missioner. Authority was given to the county commissioners to certify teachers and to the state superintendent the power to organize separate county in- stitutes and a state teachers' association. In the State Board of Education was vested the control of the whole system. The entire set-up, with the ex- ception of financial provisions was the same as that for the white school systern. Table I has been constructed to show the general effective- ness of the, separate school sys- tem during the period in which it operated 1874-1882. A study TABLE I. Pupil Census, State Revenue and State Per Capita For White and Colored Children 1874-1882 Inclusive* -Children- -State Revenue- -State Per Capita- Year White Colored White Colored White Colored 1874-75 437,100 37,414 $ 861,755 $18,789 $1.90 $0.50 1875-76 448,142 50,602 1,057,513 32,976 1.90 .30 1876-77 459,3,95 53,126 960,640 50,737 1.90 .55 1877-78 407,323 59,S39 8Z6,42.7 48,913 1.65 .52 1878-79 476,807 62,837 805,976 49,670 1.60 .50 1879-80 478,554 66,564 690,400 49,770 1.25 .48 1880-81 483,404 70,234 853,112 45,471 1.45 .58 1881-82 488,815 74,432 721,787 26,007 1.40 .50 *Data obtained from State Supenintendent's Reports. Ã‚Â°'0"Acts d4 Kentucky General Assembly." Frankfort, Kentucky Sec- retary of State, 1873-74, p. 63. 13 of the data presented in thi table reveals that the amoun of money which the state colored school system was abl to make available to each colon ed child over the eight yea period, 1874-1882, ranged fron $0.30 to $0.58, while the amoun made available for each whit child ranged from $1.25 to $1.90 The colored system during th4 first fifteen years of its exist ence compares favorably wit] the white system during th4 first fifteen years of its exist- ence that is, the period froin 1838 to 1852, but falls far shor of reaching the white systen during the, period under consid eration, namely 1874-1882. It is remarkable, however how rapidly schools for colorec children were established undei the impetus of the law of 1874. By the close of the first year af- ter the' law became effective, 452 td stricts in 93 counties reported schools, and in 1882, 844 dis- tricts in 110 counties had es- tablished schools. Evidence is available to show that these spiools received aid from private sources and from tuition fees to supplement the funds monde available from the state and local districts from public funds. The colored people themselves always showed a keen Interest in the development of their schools and this was especially true after the enactment of the law of 1874. Over and over they expressed their desire to the state school authorities through the medium of their developing press and through well written resolutions passed in their var- I'An enlIghtening account of this is lous meetings. During t h e *t month of August, 1876 Super- s intendent Henderson called in e Frankfort a convention of color- - ed teachers and trustees. Thus r a permanent State Association of Colored Teachers was or- t ganized. This organization work- t ing with those persons in the State who were interested in the improvement of the schools for Negroes, would see the fruits of its efforts to im- 1 prolve the colored school system when the law of 1882was enact- - ed. This law merged the, white and colored systems and the t state per capita for the colored child was raised immediately - from $0.48 to $1.65. Mroreover, a law of April 24, 1883, provided for the submission to the vot- d ers of the state the proposition to repeal the entire law of 1874 establishing a colored school - system and to levy an additional tax of two cents for school pur- poses and to make 'the per cap- ; ita and school age for white and colored the same. The prop- tosition received the approval of the people, and in 1891, a period ,of twenty-five years, the idea of financing schools for colored children from the general state school fund had so taken a hold rt-non the minds of the people that they adopted it as a policy and incorporated it into the constitutional laws. Present Status of Negro Education in Kentucky While much progress has be:en made in our educational system under our last constitu- tion, equality of educational op- portunity is not yet realized by Negroes in Kentucky.-- There subject is Leonard M. Meece's "Negro Education in KentuckyX' in "Bureau of School Service." 'Lexington, Kentucky" University of Kentucky, March, 1938, Vol. X, No. 3. 14 are yet many unjust discrimi- nations against the race in the face of provisions to the con- trary incorporated in the state's constitution forty-se'ven years ago. Local sdhool boards re- ceive from the state the same per capita fund for a Negro and a white child. but there, as no provision requiring this money to be expended in the same manner. Nor does the state law seem to control the manner in which strictly local school funds are expended and In the state the local funds con- stitute the major portion of school monies. Traditional prac- tices are frequently at variance with the democratic policy set up by the esnstitution. Progress toward equality has continued to be made and wben the status of Negro educati.;n An Kentucky is compared to that of other southern states, it ap- pears that Kentucky may be justly proud. It should "be stated here that the Negro child is not alone in being denied equal advantagesi for schooling at public expense In Kentucky.12 Thousands of white children residing in the poorer school districts are suf- fering to an extent conTparable to that of Negro children. Thiq is due to the poverty of some districts and to 'the peonle's un- willingness thus far to amend the constitution or inability to enact an equalization law that circuamvents provisions of the, constitution nr'rvidine- that state school funds b3 prorated to the districts on the pupil census basis. The drive to eliminate these inequalities continued to be waged in nearly every biennial session of the legislature, and instances of some, progress can be cited so far as the Negro is concerned. The Law of 1936 Enactment of a law by the legislature in 1936,13 requiring independent school districts to provide schools for Negroes as well as for whites, removed what many educators felt to be the last legal discrimination against Negro education, ecx- cept that which appears to be inherent in the dual system it- 'self. Under this law each school district in the state is re- quired by law to provide at least a twelve grade school for -all children who reside within the district. This was not the case prior to the legislation of 1936. Effects of Sparsity of Negro Population in Some Districts Maintenance of twleve grades of school service for Negro children in districts; where the Negro population is sparse has become a problem of serious proportions in Kentucky.'4 In 61 of the state's 120 counties there is an average of only 70 colored pupil children per coun- ty or one child in Levery five square miles. In 28 of there counties there are onlv 16 e-l- ored children per countv. This situation presents a serious problem relative to elementarv schools for colored children End a more difficult one for his'h school service. Each decennial tSW. C. Bell, "Superintendent's Report." Frankfort, Kentucky; Depart- ment. of Eduication. 1929. Part I, pp. 12-18. 13"Acts of Kentucky General Assembly." Frankfort, Kentucky Sec- retary of State, 1936. 14James H. Richmond, "Report of Kentucky Educational Comnmission-'r FcTankfort, Kentucky: October, 1933. 15 census report since 1900 has shown a steady decline in Ker.- tucky's Negro population in ab olute numbers and since 1910 a steady migration from rural to urban centers within the state. School boards are reluctant to provide for such small numbers on account of the high cost per pupil. In a most definite way th.s situation may be said to be a genuine test of the state's adopted policy of maintaining the expensive dual system of schools for the two races. What effect, if any, this situation will have upon the policy -of separation of the schools for the twrso races it is of course im- possible to predict. A recent studv by the Departiment of Ed- ucation revealed that for at least 700 Negro children in the state no school service wa- r7-ovided. The Law of 1938 School boards, under a law enacted in 1933,15 were author- ized not only to pay tuition fees and provide pupils daily transoortation to neaV'by dis- tricts for high school service through the twelfth grade where such service is not pro- vided within the district. but also to transport pupils to and from a school located in an- oether district and pay their tuition fees and their mainten- ance while attending there. The maximum sum allowed for maintenance Is ten dollars per month. The maintenance fees may be paid to the school at- tended or to a private individ- ual with whom the pupils may room and board. Enactment of this piece of legislation enab- ling the payment of mainten- ance fees marks the first time such legislation has been en- acted by the state, and it dem- onstrates not only the effort the state is putting forth to equal- ize educational opportunity for the colored child, but also the exact extent which the state is willing to go in prder to maintain its policy of separate schools for the 'races. Equalities and Inequalities That Now Exist There is no discrimination against the Negro child in Ken- tucky with respect to the length of school term maintained. Be- cause of the fact that a major- ity of the Negro school popula- tion lives in the wealthier dis- tricts of the state, the term of school for the average Negro child is longer than that for the average white child. There Is but little difference in the amount of training of white and Negro teadhers in Kentucky. The typical elementary teacher, white or Negro has had approxi- Wately three years of college training, and the typical high school teacher is a college grad- uate. There are, however, inequali- ties in housing facilities and equipment, salaries paid for In- *structional service, and training facilities for Negro teachers. r""Acts of Kentucky General Assembly." Frankfort, Kentucky; Sec- retary of State, 1938, A-21. 16 Almost every comparison shows that Negro schools in Kentucky are less adequately housed and equipped than are the white schools. Discrimina- tion in salaries paid Negro teachers has almost disappear- ed in county districts, but still exists in a majority of the in- dependent districts. llost of the colored schools are in the in- dependent districts. State Supported Higher Education for Negroes Until 1938 the state maintain- ed a senior college at Frank- fort and a junior college at Paducah for Negroes. Both of these institutions trained teach- ers, and, in addition, the one at Fnankfort is the land grant college, becoming such in 1893. The two colleges serve approx- Imately 6 per, cent of the total college population of the state institution, while five higher Institutions for white persons serve 94 por eent of the college population. In 1938 the legislature con- solidated the entire college program in the Frankfort school, and initiated a vocation- al program on the sub-college level of Paducah.'6 The history of both of these schools is marked with rank discrimina- tion In the receipt of funds at the hands of the legislature. They have frequently been the victims of corrupt politics and loose management. During the past decade, however, the col- lege at Frankfort, somewhat relieved of the above condition, has become accredited and now appears to be about to enter an era of worthwhile services to the Negro youth of the State. In addition to maintaining the above named institutions, the state for the past two years has provided small scholarships to Negro persons to enable them to pursue in universities outside the state courses not available to them within the E tate because of their being pro- dibited from attending the state university. While these scholarships are small, they in- its obligations to its Negro cit- its obligations to its Negro cit- izens, which no doubt in time it will provide in full. Progress comes slowly in a democracy. Yet it is little short of remarkable that the same state which about seventy years ago refused to accept any fi- nancial responsibility for Ne- gro schools is today contribu* Ing toward the expense of their education on the graduate le7v- el. l2"Acts of Kentucky General Assembly.'2 Senate Bill No. 7. Frvnkfort. Kentucky: 1938. 17 NOTICE Kentucky State Alumni will hold their annual banquet and business meeting Friday, April 19th at the Y. W. C. A., 528 South 6th Street at 4 P. M. All persons who will take part please communicate with Mrs. Henrietta Butler, 538 South 18th Street, Louisville, Ky., Cbhirman of the banquet com- mittee, not later than the first of March. ...............- The K. N. E. A. (Dedicated to the teachers of Kentucky) By E. POSTON How well I remember the old Association, Way back in the Nineties we'd meet day by day In some certain city in friendly relation, Not dreaming we'd change it to K. N. E. A. President F. H. Williams, Reed Mayo, and Russell, F. M. Wood. J. E. Wood, Blanton, and Joe Ray. And others who were noted for hurry and hustle Said, "Let's change the name now to K. N. E. A." So they changed the name and made Louisville headquarters For meeting each April in battle array. And to the tune of five hundred the brave sons and daughters Marched up and enrolled in the K. N. E. A. F. M. Wood as President rose to the occasion Some said he couldn't but he did, by the way! He presided with dignity, tact and persuasion And the number increased in the K. N. E. A. In the language of football Wood "kicked off to Russell," Who took up the cross in the heat of the day And kept things agoing in hurry and hustle Till Reed took the reins of the K. N. E. A. As secretary, Reed gave us honest endeavor And reached every teacher in Kentucky some way As men came and went seemed he'd go on forever Like Tennyson's brook through the K. N. E. A. So young A. S. Wilson became secretary, And years he's served and worked day by day, He just keeps on serving, he never grows weary Of paying his vows to the K. N. E. A. E. E. Reed was succeeded by Edw. B. Davis Then A. E. Meyzeek got into the fray; We saw him elected. We all heard him say this: "Keep politics out of the K. N. E. A." The chair was filled next by a U. B. F. brother, Congenial Bill Humphrey, who in his own way Was strictly impartial for he knew no other Course to pursue with the K. N. E. A. 18 The battle then shifted to Western Kentucky, With Anderson and Timberlake still in the fray, D. H. knocked the plum. Then was the lucky New president of the K. N. E. A. Next President Atwood did the best he could Then Blanton essayed to rule well in the "House," In nineteen thirty-seven the honor was given To a kid whom we called Willie Fouse. Well our "little Willie" just knocked the thing silly He put on a program didactic and stout Gave time and his money, it really seems funny Though a kid, he put the Great Giant Ignorance to.rout. Well, lest we forget, let us stop here and mention Our women so loyal, so tidy and gay, Who in home economics forces attention And make up the sunshine of the K. N. E. A. Some said that woman rule simply meant ruin, And if given the suffrage equality they Would "hog" everything and start trouble a-brewing, But they've never proved such to the K. N. E. A. They outnumber us two to one in our meetings, A majority that's able to rule in full sway, Yet they have been modest accepting with greetings Whatever is left at the K. N. E. A. Then three cheers for the women of old Kentucky, Who have borne oh so much in a painstaking way. For your presence here we count ourselves lucky, For you are the sunshine of the K. N. E. A. Not homesick. But some~day my barque will be driven Across death's dark stream co my home o'er the way, My prayer is to meet you all somewhere in heaven My dear loving teachers, my K. N. E. A. NEGRO PROGRESS EXPOSITION Pla~ns are being completed for lam is executive director of the the 65 Years of Negro Progress Exaposition. It will present an Exposition to be held in Detroit, inventory and evaluation of the Michigan, during May and June, Negro's achievements, and hopa- 1940. Dr. George W. Baber is or many persons who have help- general chairman, and Eddie To- ed in the progress of the race. 19 The Negro In Kentucky By G. W. Jackson By the 1930 census 226,040, or 7.8 per cent of Kentucky's 2,- 614,589 population were Negro- es. They live for the most part in the inner Bluegrass area, of which Lexington is the center, and in the better farming sec- tion of the Pennyrile around Hopkinsville. The Negroes of Kentucky form an integral part of the life of the State, are proud of their native or adopted home, and have, considering their numerical, economic, and cultural strength, contributed no little to its history and devel- opment. In spite of scant and documen- tary evidence, the Negro played his part along with the other pioneers who laid the foundation of our Commonwealth. When Christopher Gist came to Ken- tucky in 1751 to search out lands for the Ohio Company, his only attendant was a Negro servant. Their report of a vast expanse of country richly tim- bered and watered brought scores of settlers to Kentucky. About fifteen years later a par- ty of five persons exploring southern Kentucky included a mulatto slave. The first Christ- mas party in Kentucky would have ended in dismal failure but for the fiddling of Cato Watts, a Negro servant who had come to Louisville with one of the families in the George Rog- ers Clark expedition. In ac- counts of Indian raids slaves are reported as loyal and dar- ing. In the battle of Little Mountain which the pioneers fought with the Wyandotte In- dians in 1782, the bravery of Colonel William Estill's slave Monk, inspired the pioneer war- riors as nothing else in the battle did. He was an expert in making gunpowder and such an interesting preacher that the whites and blacks from Shelby and surrounding counties flock- ed to his meetings. A few pioneers, coming main- ly from Virginia and North Car- olina, brought their slaves with them into Kentucky. While the number of slaves grew by nat- ural increase and by immigra- tion into the State of slave- owning whites, yet the luke- warm attitude of the early Ken- tuckians toward slavery is re- vealed in the first constitution of the State (1792), which pro- hibited commerce in slaves and authorized the legislature tc compel slave-owners to treat their slaves humanly. Resent- ment to radical outside inter- ference changed this sentiment so much that in the next half century Kentucky became decid- edly pro-slavery and the third State constitution (1850) pro- vided for the continuance of slavery. In 1790 there were 61,- 193 whites in the State, 12,430 slaves and 114 free Negroes. By 1860 there were 919,434 white people, 225,483 slaves and 10,- 684 free Negroes. Thus the in- crease from 20 to 24 per cent during the slave period was no- ticeably slight, while there was a positively relative decrease of 20 slaves during the last three decades of slavery in Kentucky. This was partly because of the profitable traffic with sections of the Deep South where cot- ton, cane, rice and other crops dependent on slave labor were raised. Another factor, very probably, was the Underground Railroad. Despite the reputedly mild and patriarchal character of slavery in Kentucky, Negroes in large numbers took advant- age of the opportunity offered by this shrewdly managed scheme to gain their freedom. 'Since Kentucky was not in rebellion against the Union the Emancipation Proclamation did not free the slaves in this State. That was affected by the Thir- teenth Amendment, issued De- cember 18, 1865. The following February the State legislature passed a civil rights act repeal- ing the old slave code. The Kentucky Negro has done "his bit" in the wars of the nation. By enlistments and re-enlistments, 23,700 Negroes took part in the Civil War,- and a far greater number than that furnished by the District of Columbia and anv other of the twenty-two States which fought on the Union side. Hun. dreds saw service in the Span- ish-American War. Of the 84,- 172 Kentuckians who served in the World War, 12,584 were Ne- groes. Constituting less than ten per cent of the State's pop- ulation, the Negroes furnished over 14 per cent of its World War soldiers. Speaking of the Negro, Bish- op Atticus G. Haygood says, "Their religion is their most striking and important, their strongest and most formative characteristic. They are more remarkable here than anywhere else; their religion has had more to do in shaping their better character in this country than any other influence." Negro Baptists were the first to or- ganize in Kentucky by establish- -ing the African Baptist Church in Lexington in 1790-two years before Kentucky was admitted into the Union. Religious life among the Negroes of Kentucky- has felt the effects of changing conditions. Controversial de- nominationalism has given place to liberalism; modern ideas have slowed up church ac- cessions, and the depression has affected unfavorably church fi- nances. The approximate Negro church census in the State is as follows: Episcopalians 350; Presbyterians 1,400; Catholics 2,500; Methodist Episcopal 6,- 600; Colored Methodist Episco- pal 7,700; African Methodist Episcopal 11,000; Baptists 90,- 000; other denominations 12,-. 000. Thus over 50 per cent of the Negroes are church mem- bers. Under the slogan, "Equal op- portunities for all the children," Kentucky is providing better fa- cilities for her colored as well as for her white children--mod- ern buildings, expanded curri- cula, and better prepared and better paid teachers. The at- tendance is 67.6 per cent of the- 58,192 enrolled in Negro schools. The number of high school graduates going to college has- increased. The state offers nor- mal and Industrial training in 21 two institutions; the West Ken- tucky Vocational Training School at Paducah and the Ken- tucky State College at Frank- fort, the latter having been ac- credited and given an "A" rat- ing by the University of Ken- tucky and the Southern Asso- ciation of Colleges and Secon- dary Schools. The city of Lou- isville maintains the Louisville Municipal College, which is on the "A' list of approved four- year liberal arts colleges and the Southern Association of Col- leges and Secondary Schools. In one institution only, Berea College, have Negroes in Ken- tucky been permitted to attend school with whites. But this practice was discontinued In 1904 when the law prohibiting "mixed schools" was passed. A division of property and endow- ment was effected and Lincoln Institute modeled on Berea was established in Shelby county. Since no State institution granting master's and doctor's degrees admits Negroes, the Anderson-Mayer Act, passed in 1935, requires the State to de- fray the expenses of Negro students who attend institutions outside of the State to secure these degrees. Perhaps the oldest and best organized body of public school teachers in the United States among Negroes is the Kentucky Negro Education Association. Its initial enrollment in 1877 of forty-five teachers has grown to nearly 1500 out of a possible 1615, due in recent years to the efficient work of its secretary, Atwood S. Wilson. Several of the outstanding educators of the State have been presidents of this organization, notably John Hl. Jackson, first president of the Kentucky State Col- lege; J. M. Maxwell, early high school principal at Louisville; W. H. Perry, Sr., principal of one of the largest Negro ele- mentary schools in the South; W. J. Simmons, for many years president of Simmons Univer- sity; W. H. Humnphrey, out- standing fraternal leader and principal of the John G. Fee High School at Maysville; A. E. Meyzeek, veteran school princi- pal and civic leader; H. C. Rus- sell, supervisor of Negro N. Y. A. work in Kentucky; R. B. At- wood, president of Kentucky State College at present; D. H. Anderson, former president of West Kentucky Industrial Col- lege, and F. M. Wood, supervis- or of Negro Schools, Baltimore, Maryland. Other ex-presidents of the K. N. E. A. are Miss Marie S. Brown, Professors Renry Sherley, C. C. Monroe, J. S. Hathway, WJ H. Mayo, Rob- ert Mitchell, C. H. Parrish, J. E. Wood, F. L. Williams, E. E. Reed, Edward B. Davis, W. S. Blanton, W. H. Fouse and S. L. Barker. The 1615 teachers in Negro schools have done the major part of the work of reducing the illiteracy of the colored peo- ple of Kentucky from 27.6 to 15.4 iniÃ‚Â¶ the last twenty years. In politics the Kentucky Ne- gro has been traditionally Re- publican, but in recent years, he has supported the Democrat- ic party. In Louisville, Lexing- ton, Hopkinsville and Paducah, the Negro vote Is often a decis- 22 ive factor. The number of Ne- gro voters in the State is esti- mated to be from 100,000 to 150,000. Phil Brown. for many years Xentucky's outstanding Negro in politics, was appointed Commissioner of Conciliation in the Federal Department of Labor in 1921 and served in that capacity until 1923. In 1940 Charles W. Anderson, Jr., the first Negro elected to the Kentucky General Assembly will begin his third term as a member of that body. In the "white collar" class the last census lists 727 Negro clergymen, 39 college presi- dents, 37 dentists, 25 lawyers, 240 musicians, 129 physicians, 1,615 teachers, and 86 trained nurses. The availability of Negro la- bor has been a favorable factor in the State's industrial develop- ment. Most of this labor is of course, unskilled and semi- skilled. An authority on indus- trial problems says, "The Ne- gro is a tractable, dependable worker who applies himself to the job and works faithfully and constantly. There are many local instances where Negroes have been on a company's pay roll for ten, twenty, and thirty years." According to the 1930 census, while 80.2 per cent of the Negro men in the United States Were gainfully employed, 78.4 per cent of the Negro men in Ken- tucky were so employed; while 36.2 per cent of the colored wo- men of the State were gainfully employed against 38.9 in the nation. There were 22,590 en- gaged in some kind of agricul- ture; 589 were carpenters; 317 were masons; 252 were plaster- ers; 144 machinists; 451 auto repairers; 92 were tailors; 266 cleaners and pressers; 73 shoe- makers, 241 painters; 786 bar- bers; 2,226 chauffeurs; 2,315 janitors; 1,473 porters, and 128 mail carriers. Hundreds of industrious Ne- groes have become property owners and substantial and re- spected citizens of their com- munities. Considering their eco- nomic condition, Kentucky Ne- groes own a fair proportion of valuable a n d comfortable homes. The Federal Housing Administration has completed a low-cost housing project for Ne- groes in Louisville, College Court, and a larger project is under construction. Before the depression there was some evidence that Ken- tucky Negroes were becoming business conscious. They were putting more interest, money, and energy into their small bus- iness enterprises; and having shared in the better wages of the immediate post-war period, they were both willing and able to invest generously in larger business ventures. The most out- standing results of their efforts are two large insurance com- panies in Louisville, the Mam- moth Life and Accident Insur- ance Company and the Domes- tic Life and Accident Insur- ance Company, and two credit- able banks, the First Standard and Mutual Standard, both lo- cated in Louisville, but having stockholders and depositors in all parts of the State. The In- surance companies survived the 28 Vhis page in the original text is blank. Vhis page in the original text is blank. Vhis page in the original text is blank. Vhis page in the original text is blank. depression, but other Negro business lapsed into its charac- teristic condition of smallness and mediocrity. Throughout the State restaurants, groceries, beauty parlors, undertaking es- tablishnments, barber shops, drug stores, hauling and mov- ing businesses, taxicab service, real estate offices, dressmaking, cleaning and pressing, uphol- stering, sign painting, billiard rooms are operated on a small scale because of meager capi- tal, scant patronage, and lack of business training and exper- ience on the part of the promot- ers. The exceptions are in the minority. Negro newspapers having the largest circulation in and out of the State are the American Baptist, the Kentucky Reporter, the Louisville Defender and the Louisville Leader. Quite a few Negroes born in Kentucky have attained prom- inence. Bishop Alexander Wal- ters, born in Bardstown, became a nationally recognized leader in church, civic, and political affairs. Allen Allensworth, born in Louisville, was a chaplain in the United States Army. Colo- nel Charles Young, born in Maysville, graduated from the United States M ilitary Acade- my and at the time of his death was the highest ranking Negro officer in the United States Ar- my. Isaac Murphy, famous jock- ey, and Isaac Hathaway. ex- cellent sculptor were born in Lexington. H. C. Russell, native of Bloomfield, serves as Negro Specialist in the United States Office of Education. Stephen Bishop discovered most of the wonders in Mammoth Cave. Dr. C H. Parrish, born in Lexington achieved national leadership in his church and the race. Phil Brown of Hopkinsville, served as Special Assistant in the Fed- eral Department of Labor. The Cotters, father and son, attain- ed distinction as poets. Shelby Davidson invented two attach- ments for the calculating ma- chines used in the United States Post Office Department. Ernest Hogan. a Bowling Green boy, was one of the school of, showmen who initiated jazz music in this country. Matilda ]5unbar, mother of Paul Law- rence Dunbar, was born in Meade county. C. W. Anderson, Jr., first Negro State legislator, was born in Frankfort. Stephen Collins Foster's songs made the "Old Kentucky Home" fa- mous. But slave life on the estate of the owner, Judge Rowan, inspired the most popular of these songs. A n d as the spirit of the Negro life gave essence and appeal to Foster's immortal songs, so Negro life is part of t h e warp and woof of the life and history of Kentucky. Sympathetic contacts of whites and blacks on interrac- lal committees, improved edu- cational facilities for the colored people, the decreasing number of discriminatory measures In- troduced in the State legisla- ture, frequent liberal ieditor- ials in leading white newspa- pers, the increasing number of white people who are Interested in the general welfare of all elements of the State's popula- 24 tion and in the good name of the tion and in the good name of the Commonwealth, the infrequency of racial conflicts, and the gradual elevation of the Negro's Built For standard of living may be of- fered as auguries of better days ahead for the quarter million Negroes in Kentucky. Your Protection The DOMESTIC LIFE and ACCIDENT INSURANCE CO. LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY BROWN'S LETTER AND PRIINT SHOPPE 533 S. 10th St. Louisville, Ky. Phone WA. 5629 We Emphasize These Essentials ACCURACY-PROMPTNESS-ECONOMY A Comparison Confirms This Statement Mail or Phone Us Your Order 25 The Negro In America (A. C. B. S. Radio Address on Jan. 1, 1939) By John Wesley Dobbs, Atlanta, Ga. To the twelve million Negroes of America this day has a high- er significance-to us it is Emancipation Day. On January 1, 1863, in the city of Washing- ton, President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation which freed three and a halt million slaves. Today their de- scendants pause to commemor- ate that historic event with pro- found gratitude to God and to Abraham Lincoln. We Have Been in America a Long Time We first' came to the New World with the early explorers. Black seamen were with Colum- bus in 1492. Alonza Pietro, a Negro, was in charge of the pilot house on one of the three ships of the crew, the Nina. They were -with Balboa in 1513; Cortez in Mexico in 1518. Esti- veneco, a Negro, led the expe- dition of 1537 which opened up the region now known as Ari- zona and New Mexico. A Negro member of the DeSoto expedi- tion of 1540 remained in this country and became the second settler of what is now the State of Alabama. The twenty slaves who landed at Jamestown, Vir- ginia in 1619, arrived a year ahead of the Pilgrim fathers at Plymouth Rock. For the next 240 years Negroes were forci- bly brought to America against their will. We Have Helped to Build America The sweat from the brow of our forbears fell in railroad cuts, cotton fields, rice planta- tions, in the forests and along the mountain sides. Negro labor became efficient and dependable by the way in which it helped to build America. We Have Bled and Died for American Democracy The first man to fall in the Boston Massacre of 1770 was *Crispus Attucks, a Negro, who died for American ideals six years before the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Peter Salem was another to dis- tinguish himself at the Battle of Bunker H'ill. Five thousand Negroes saw service in the Continental Army under Gen- eral Washington. In the Civil War, 200,000 fought in the Federal Army for their own freedom and the pres- ervation of the Union. Three million slaves made crops by day and protected homes by night, of their Masters who were fighting to keep them in bondage. Such loyalty and de- votion have never been sur- passed by any people in any period of history. In the World War, 380,000 were enrolled - 200,000 of whom saw service in France. The Negro has fought valiantly in every American War and has yet to produce a traitor to the Flag. We Have Been Free But 76 Years Today In this short time, our race has accumulated two billion dol- lars worth of property, includ- ing 22,000,000 acres of farm land, an aggregate area larger than the five states of Maine, 26 Vermont, N e w Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut. We Adopted the Religion of America In the midst of slavery, the Negro accepted from his Mas- ter the Christian Religion with the faith of a child. Today he counts aver 40,000 churches with a membership of five and a half million souls. We Have Made Progress in Education In 1860, 90 per cent could neither read nor write. By 1930 this illiteracy was reduced to 16 percent. Today 2500 are finish- ing American colleges annual- ly. Considering this achieve- ment, we can not give too much credit to the White Christian Missionaries w h o went South following t h e Civil War to help educate the Negro. Their task was one of sacrifice and consecration. The memory of these good people should never be forgotten. In turn, Negro men and wo- men became teachers them- selves. Quite a few, like Booker T. Washington, rose above tre- mendous obstacles to become useful educators. J. B. Watson, reared on a Texas farm, and un- able to finish high school until 25, worked four more years, entered Brown University at 29 and graduated at 33. Today he is the honored President of the State College for Negroes of Arkansas. Professor Fletcher Hender- son, father of the famous band leader, has been teaching con- tinuously for 58 years at Cuth- bert. Georgia- Professor George F. Green. Douglac High School, Lexington, Missouri, has been teaching continuously for 59 years. During the past 52 years he has not been tardy or ab- sent a single day from his post o f duty. Mrs. Charlotte Stevens, o f Dunbar High School, Little Rock, Arkansas, 67 years. These are but exam- ples of many others. In South Carolina alone there are 14 Ne- gro teachers with more than 50 years of service. Today maniy white people of the South, where most of the Negroes live, are seriously in- terested in his education. Ac- credited High Schools and Col- leges are being rapidly equipped and financed from public funds. The results are both encourag- ing and gratifying. What Does the Negro Want and Deserve? Over the doorway of the Na- tion's Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C., are en- graved four words, "Equal Jus- tice Under Law." This beauti- ful American ideal is what the Negroes want to see operative and effective from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Great Lakes to the Gulf - nothing more or less. They want equal rights and protection in the courts, in the streets and on the farms; they want equal op- nortunity to work at everyhon- orable trade and profession - equal opportunity to cast a bal- lot in all elections, everywhere. These fundamental rights and privileges, guaranteed by the Federal Constitution and its Amendments constitute th? aims, the hones and the desires of the Negroes of America to- day and tomorrow. 27 Right Of Negro To Enter University Of Kentucky Recognized By Committee At the call of Dr. Frank L. McVey, President of the Uni- versity of Kentucky, members of the committee appointed by Governor Chandler to study the problems of giving an equal ed- ucational opportunity to Ne- groes of Kentucky, will meet Friday in. the legislative cham- bers at Frankfort to go over the State situation and to pre- sent to Governor Johnson such recommendations as wvill be necessary to accomplish this ob- jective. The meeting is an outcome of the conference held with the governor last spring in which it was pointed out that in view of the recent opinion by the Su- nreme Court it was the duty of the State of Kentucky to pro- vide for its NTegro citizens the same educational opportunities that are available for white people. The legislative committee ot the Kentucky Negro Education Association, with the coopera- tion of representatives of other civic and educational groups in the State, informed the gover- nor that the inequalities in edu- cational opportunity were keen- ly felt by t'he State's Negro population. Although appreca- tive of the appropriations macv! by the State during the past few years to take care of tul- ti-n fees for out of state study, the committee informed the governor that this was no ade- quate substitute for the lack of sufficient educational facilities for the Negro population and that more inclusive plans should be devised for discharging the State's obligation to all its citi- zens. Much discussion centered around the probable attendance of Negroes at the University of Kentucky where certain courses are offered white residents and are not available for Negroes in the State. When the commit- tee met Friday, November 23, this and other pertinent quest- tions growing out of the laws and traditions of the State of Kentucky were studied by the committee for the purpose of charting a course which will eliminate the educational ine- qualities. In addition to Dr. Frank L. McVey, who is chairman of the committee, those expected at the conference include: Dr. Paul A. Garrett, president of West- ern State Teachers' College, Bowling Green; Dr. H. L. Don- ovan, president of Eastern. State Teachers' College, Richmond; Dr. James H. Richmond, presi- dent of Murray State Teachers' College, Murray; Dr. Raymond A. Kent, president of the Uni- versity of Louisville, Louisville;. Honorable Harry W. Peters, superintendent of public instruc- tion, Frankfort; Prof. R. E. Jag- Pzers, department of education, Frankfort; Honorable J. A. Thomas. executive secretary of Louisvile Urban League; Dixon David A. Lane Jr., Louisville 28 Municipal College, Louisville; fort; Prof. E. 111. Fouse, Lex- Prof. A. E. Mayseek, Jackson ington; Prof. S. L. Baker, Junior High School, Louisville; Oensbor; Prof. W. H. Hum- Attorney C. WV. Anderson, Lou- F isville; Prof, R. B. Atwood, phrey, Job1 C. Fee High School, Kentucky State College, Frank- Maysville. The Present Thanksgiving 1. November with its cold, bleak days, Is now with us once more, The time for thanking feasts and plays With memories of yore, But we deplore those bygone times We never more will see For Thanksgiving in the present Isn't what it used to be. 2. The turkey strutted sadly round For many days before, The ducks would gather on the ground, The wind would greatly roar, The chickens got together and Declared "We'd better flee," But Thanksgiving in the present Isn't what it used to be. 8. The students used to hurry back To be with parents dear, And were right glad to hear the quack Of the ducks so loud and clear. But now that has all passed away, The football they must see, For Thanksgiving in the present Isn't what it used to be. 4. The old folks used to go to church Then back at home to dine Now they start out for an eager search For the football field-their shrine. They, too, have lost the Pilgrim plan To be thankful as can be, For Thanksgivi-ng in the present Isn't what it used to be. 6. Some mothers who with tender care Cook a delicious dinner, Must wait until the field is bare And hear who is the winner, Before the meal is served, and then Their sons they barely see, For Thanksgiving in the present Isn't what it used to be. 6. Then onward to the dance they wing And stay 'till break of day. Thanksgiving's over, to the King No reverence did they pray, No family union in the homes, No bending of the knee, For the present day Thanksgiving Isn't what it used to be. .7. Dear Lord, I pray, as time moves on, We'll pause a while to think Before our days are almost gone, Before we reach the brink, That those who plan these func- tions may With serious thoughts agree To make Thanksgiving nowadays Just what it used to be. MARIE S. BROWN, Ex-President of the K. N. E. A. 29 Superintendent Sponsors Democratic Ideals SUPT. L C. CURRY Bowling Green Public Schools L. C. Curry, Superintendent of the Bowling Green City Schools, is the fourth person to fill this position since the schools were organized 57 years ago. Mr. Curry is a product of the public schols of Kentucky, a graduate tof Western Ken- tucky State Teachers' College and of the University of Ken- tucky. At the present time there are enrolled 2,500 pupils, 500 of which are Negro boys and girls. The salary schedules provides the same salary for white and Negro teachers and for elemen- tary and high school teachers with the same training and ex- perience. There has been a grad- ual increase in school population since the schools were organiz- ed. Several new buildings have been constructed to take care of the increase in enrollment. All of this has been done with- out Federal aid. Standards have been raised by adding new courses and new equipment. Both the white and Negro high schools have the highest accred- itment given by the state,. The present tax rate in Bowling Green is $1.10, 96c for current expenses and 14c for sinking fund. The school property is ap- praised at $900,000.00. The schools provide a retirement system for all employees of the Board. Employees may retire at age 60, but must retire at age of 70. School boy patrols are a well established aid to the 2500 en- rolled in white and Negro schools. Approximately 85 per cent of the high school grad- uates continue their education in colleges and universities af- ter high school graduation. This percentage has been maintained for the past ten years. With these physical facilities there cannot be a great school without great teachers. The present fac- ultv consists of 82 cultured men and women of high character, devoted to the profession of teaching. They are attempting to train the boys and girls to think clearly about social prob- lems and to be tolerant of other people's opinions. They have a so philosophy of education which accepts the principle that learning takes place where there is purposeful activity." TMis report of the Bowling Green public school system by Superintendent Curry empha- sizes a growing tendency in Kentucky to give all boys and girls and all teachers regardess of race equal opportunities. The- Kentucky Education Association through its superintendents is more and more energetic in bringing to a fuller realization. its slogan, "An Equal Opportun- ity for Every Kentucky Child." TEACH SCHOOL I WRITE no poem men's hearts to thrill, No song I sing to lift men 's souls; To battle front, no soldiers lead; In halls of state I boast no skill; I just teach school. I just teach school. But poet's thrill, And singer's joy and soldier's fire And stateman 's power-all-all are . mine; For in this little gt. ,up where still I just teach school Are poets, soldiers, statesmen- all. I see them in the speaking eye, In face aglow with purpose strong, In straightened bodies, tense and tall, When I teach school. And they, uplifted, gaze intent On cherished heights they soon shall reach. And mine the hands that led them on! And I inspired- therefore con- tent, I still teach school. -Author Unknown. INTER-COLLEGIATE PRESS 615 Wyandotte Street KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI Manufacturers and Distributors of: YEAR BOOKS JEWELRY INVITATIONS VISITING CARDS DIPLOMA'S CAPS AND GOWNS CLASS GIFTS MEDALS W. C. COCHRAN Kentucky State Supervisor 31 The Teaching Of A Science Unit By C. E. Nichols State Street High School, Bowling Green, Ky. Af ter the physics class of State Street High School had just completed the unit-Our Water System - they seemed somewhat deeply concerned about another unit of work. They were discussing possible phases, when a boy spoke up and said, "I saw my father run an electric wire from our kitch- en to our garage and put a light in it, so I would suggest that we learn all about that light." This statement created much interest among them and after considerable thought by teacher and pupils the unit men- tioned in the title was selected. They did not seem at all con- cerned about marks, but a pro- found knowledge about electric- ity, heat and light in the simp- lest way possible. They set about to devise plans by which they could best discuss the unit in a way that should develop bet- ter understandings of, and abil- ities to use the physical and In- dustrial applications of the principIes of physics intelli- gently. It required eight weeks to complete it, and it was a very nice job. 'The pupils collected all of the material they could concerning electricity, heat and energy from various physics textbooks. and carefully noted great ex- periments about the subject that --id been worked out in both chemistry and physics since both at the present time are turned toward the generaliza- tion idea. After a week of read- ing and discussing different phases concerning the problem from the standpoint of terms, relationships, and experiments, they decided to use for the main example - The Home of Mr. Johnson in a Rural District. It is a few miles from iihe city and very interesting to study. Visits were made on various days (permission from Principal and Mr. Johnson) by the class and the plant was studied from rules that they thought were sufficient to give them a good 'Working knowledge of every day life. ,Here a farm lighting plant was selected as a familiar and useful application of the prin- *ciples of physics worthy to study. This was treated as a complicated device for the con- version of stored eniargy into forms useful In daily life. The gasoline engine was treated as a device for converting the stor- ed energy of the gasoline into heat, and the heat into mechan- ical energy for turning the elec- tric generator. The generator was treated as a. device for converting the mechanical ener- gy into electrical energy. The storage cells were treated as de- vices for converting electrical energy Into chemical energy and chemical energy into electrical energy. Various household and farm machines were treated as machines for converting electri- cal energy taken from the power 32 plant or the storage cells into useful forms of energy. The electric lamp was considered as a means for converting electric- ity into heat and light, two oth- er forms of energy; the electric iron as a means of converting electrical energy into heat. Friction in machines, neces sity for lubrication, and the heat developed in moving parts of machines were used as a means of building up the notion that energy is not lost or destroyed but merely changed into other forms, some of which are not directly useful for the human purpose for which the machine is built. It was possible to trace the energy stored in the gaso- line to the crude oil, the crude oil to prehistoric primitive or- ganisms, and the stored chemi- cal energy of these organisms to the radiant energy of the sun. As we visited and studied the home, the pupils saw that the radiant energy given off from electric lamps in the different rooms came from radiant ener- gy released from the sun ages ago. By the pupils trying to find out all they could about electricity, heat and light; they went one step farther and found that the sun is the chief source of energy for the earth. The following ways were strictly adhered to in working out the above unit. 1. Through careful and thoughtful planning on the part of pupil and teacher (teacher In background) this unit was formed. It created a great deal of interest. 2. Detailed outlines of the unit were worked out by the pu- pils, these were pooled, from which a general one was finally submitted which served as the best method for retaining facts. 3. In collecting materials the names of scientists that bore on the work of this unit were se- lected and each associated with an achievement crecTteti to him. 4. The pupils studied all facts- of the outline with a great de- gree of interest. 5. They made a list of the most difficult scientific terms and re- called their meanings. 6. They listed all of the im- portant appliances or pieces of apparatus or machinery men- tioned in the study of the unit and associated with each the im- portant scientific principle which made it possible. 7. A socialized discussion of the unit followed in which all the major points were brought out clearly. 8. A test was given over the unit which showed a marked im- provement over another test which covered practically the same work but not ift unit form. A close follow-up of some of the pupils showed me the prac- tical knowledge gained by them. One girl stated her experience with an electric iron, while a boy had learned enough about electric wire, batteries, etc., to put in an electric bell at home, .,ill another had run an extra wire from his radio to his bed- room and had attached to it an- other loud speaker, so he could hear the radio while still in bed. This unit seemed to have cre- ated more interest, better atten- tion and a deeper sense of judgment on the part of the pu- pils than I expected. 3 K. N. E. A. Kullings The K. N. E. A. wishes all teachers, principals, school offi- cials and friends of education a Prosperous New Year. John W. Brooker is the new state superintendent of public instruction. The K. N. E. A. of- ficers congratulate Supt. Brook- er upon his election to that of- fice and pledges to nim their sincere cooperation. Mrs. Lucy Harth-Smith, chair- man of the Elementary Educa- tion Department of the K. N. E. A., recently appeared on the program of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History at Baton Rouge, La. * * * * Prof. W. M. Thomas, former- ly at Lawrenceburg, is now principal of the Knob City High School at Russellville. Mr. Geo. Edwards is the athletic director of that school. This corrects an error in the item in our last K. -N. E. A. Newsette and Journal. Pres. R. B Atwood recently attended the meeting of the presidents of land grant col- leges at Washington, D. C., which met on November 10 and 11. The teachers of Adair County Schools have been enrolled in the K. N. E. A. for the year 1939-40 by Supt. Marshall. * * * * The poem, "My Ambition," -which Appeared in the' K. N. E. A. Journal of November, 1939, was written by Mr. George L. Bullock, a teacher in the trade department of Central High School. This poem was selected for publication in the World Fair Anthology, and is found on page 98 of Vol. 2 of this 1939 edition. e*** * Mr. Leonard Owens, formerly of Cadiz, is the new principal at Lawrenceburg. Rev. William Holloway is now the principal at Cadiz. S. L. Barker, president of the K. N. E. A., was a representa- tive of the K. N. E. A. on the governor's committee on higher education for Negroes which met at Frankfort on November 23. * * * * Mrs. Nell C. McNamara, sup- lerintendert of Montgomery county schools has sent in the enrollment fees of teachers in that county 100 per cent. * ** * Pres. R. B. Atwood of K. S. C. and Dean David A. Lane, Jr., of L. M. C., were among those attending the Negro branch of the Southern Associa- tion of Colleges and Secondary Schools which met in Durham, N. C., December 7-8, 1939. * * * * Supt. P. D. Fancher of Union county has enrolled the teachers of that county 100 per cent in the K. N. E. A. Whithiey M. Young, president 34 of the Bluegrass District Teach- ers' Association, has reported three successful and interesting meetings of that organization. Supt. N. T. Hooks of Christian County recently sent in the en- rollment fees of the teachers of that county 100 per cent in the K. N. E. A. Twenty-nine states have re- tirement systems for teachers. Twenty-seven states now have permanent tenure laws. These are among the goals that have been adopted by the K. N. E. A. to improve the security of teachers in Kentucky. * * * * Other superintendents who have enrolled their teachers 100 per cent in the K. N. E. A. are H. C. Spalding of Marion coun- ty and H. L. Foster of Frank- lin county. Miss C. D. Murray has enrolled the teachers of Car- lisle. .** * * Mr. Robert K. Salyers, state director of the NYA, has ex- pressed appreciation to the K. N. E. A. for featuring NYA work In Kentucky in the Octo- ber-November issue of the K. N. E. A. Journal. The Board of Directors of the K. N. E. A. met in Louisville on December 16 to outline plans for the 1940 convention in Lou- isnille, April 17 to 20, and to recommend a program of activ- ities of the association. These recommendations appear in this Issue of the Journal. .kS ** * - Elktonds colored school sxys- tern received a gift of $250.00 from Associate Justice J. C. Mc- Reynolds of the Supreme Court and a former resident of the Todd County capital, for the purpose of providing a play- ground for colored children. Mr. W. R. Cummings has re- ported a successful three-day meeting of the Eastern Ken- tucky District Teachers' Asso- ciation at Flemingsburg, Nov- 9-11. .,' * * * Mr. C. L. Harris, teacher at the Southgate Street School in Newport, attended the Eighth Biennial Congress of the World Federation of Educational Asso- ciations which met in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, August 6-11, 1939. Mr. Harris will write a summary of this convention and it will be published in a subse- quent issue of the K. N. E. A. Journal. HI. C. Russell, State NYA Supervisor of Negro Activities in Kentucky, has reported splen- did progress in the various Ken- tucky schools he has visited. Re- cently he issued a special bulle- tin describing the various pro- jects in Kentucky for Negro Youth. These projects are also described In one of a series of articles being run In the local newspapers of Louisville. Miss Dorothy Maynor, of Norfolk, Virginia, and a grad- uate of Hampton Institute, made a triumphant debut as so- prano in flown Hall, New York City, November 19, Inefore a house that had been sold out two weeks in advance. 85 TENTATIVE OUTLINE OF 1940 K. N. E. A. CONVENTION April 17, 18, 19, 20 LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY 1877-Sixty-Fourth Annual Session-1940 CENTRAL THEME: "Democracy in Education" Wednesday, April 17 9:00 A.M. Regi~traticn of teachers at headquarters, Quinn Chapel, 912 West Chestnut Street, Louisville, Kentucky. 10:00 A.M. Visitation to Louisville Schools in session. 3:00 P.M. Fourth Annual Student Musicale at Quinn Chapel. All teachers invited to this program. 7:00 P.M. Music Recital-Presenting local artists at Quinn Chapel. 8:15 P.M. First General Session of K. N. E. A. Addresses by President S. L. Barker and Mrs. Crystal Byrd Fausett, Philadelphia Legislator, or Miss Jane Bolin, Judge in Court of Domestic Relations, New York City. Thursday, April 18 9:30 A.M. Second General Session of K. N. E. A. at Quinn Chapel. Business Session. 10:45 A.M. Address-Dr. J. W. Brooker, State Superintendent, State Department of Education, Frankfort. 11:15 A.M. Free picture to enrolled teacher at Lyric Theater. 2:30 P.M. Sectional Meetings of K. N.' E. A. at Central High School Building. 5:00 P.M. Principals' Conference and Banquet-Phyllis Wheatley Branch, Y. W. C. A., 528 S. Sixth Street. 7:00 P.M. Music Recital-State Artists. 8:15 P.M. Third General Session-Address by Langston Hughes, poet, dramatist, and novelist. Friday, April 19 9:00 A.M. Sectional Meetings of K. N. E. A. at Central High School building. 10:30 A.M. Snpelling Bee in Elementary Education Department, at Quinn Chapel, G. H. Brown, Director. 1:00 P.M. Luncheon Meeting-Ex-Presidents of K. N. E. A.- W. H. Perry, Sr., Chairman. 2:00 P.M. Band Concert-Kentucky School for Blind at Quinn Chapel. 2:30 P.M. Fourth General Session at Quinn Chapel-Address by H. Council Trenholm, Executive Secretary of the Amer- ican Teachers' Association. Special Reports: Legisla- tive Committee, Resolutions Committee, S'ecretary- Treasurer's Financial Report, Auditing Committee. Saturday, April 20 9:30 A.M. Business Session of K. N. E. A. at Central High School.. Gymnasium. 7:00 P.M. Twentieth Annual Exhibition at Armory-Pageant of Negro Music. 36 K. N. E. A. Announcements A prize is being offered for two pennants. A $10.00 prize for the Jeanes Pennant and a $5.00 prize for the Randolph-Dillard pennant. For particulars please write Mrs. M. L. Copeland, Box 153, Hiopkinsville, Ky. Period closes at K. N. E. A. where prizes will be awarded. Junior and Senior High Schocls are eli- gible. Pennants must convey the spirit of these persons and atti- tudes of all concerned. Daily Expense Teachers may secure room and board at the K. N. E. A. meeting for $1.75 per day. For sleeping in homes, the rate is $1.00 per night. Two meals are approximately 75c per day. Membership Cards Be sure to bring your nmem- bership card to the K. N. E. A. meeting. It has the following uses: (1) permits you to have a seat in the middle section at Quinn Chapel; (2) permits you to see a picture free at the Ly- ric Theater; (3) permits you to vote; (4) permits you to get. reduced admission to the Friday night musicale. BE SURE TO BRING YOUR MEMBERSHIP CARD WITH YOU. Badges The K. N. E. A. Secretary is sending out badges along with membership cards, Be sure to bring the badge to the Conven- tion with you. Wear your badge at the meeting and show both your loyalty to the K. N. E A. and to the teaching profession. The Ninth Annual Musicale The Ninth Annual Musicale will be held on Friday, April 19. This program will be Lelld at Quinn Chapel. Watch for the final announcement of the pro- gram. A fee will be charged non-members of the K. N. E. A. A membership card will admit a K. N. E. A. member free up to the value of 25c. Nominations Those who desire to have their names submitted to the Nominating Committee must send their names by March 1.3 to the secretary or to ?rof. W. E. Newsom of Cynthiana. This year the terms of two directors will expire and they or some other persons will be elected. Other officers, as now listed, will probably be candidates for re-election. The N ominating Committee w.iU make its report on Thursday morning, April 18. Voting will take place on Fri- day, April 19, at Quinn Chapel. Voting will be by ballot from E a. m. to 5 p. m. The Spelliin-% Bee The Annual Spelling Bee of the K. N. E. A. will be held Friday, April 19, at 10 a. m. in the Elementary Education Department. Names of entries must be sent to the secretary of the K. N. E. A. as soon as pos- sible before April 1. Send name, grade, and school system the pupil is to represent. Rules of the Spelling Contest and a sug- gested list of spelling words may be secured by writing the secretary of the K. N. E. A. Prior to the oral spelling con- test, there will be a written 37 elimination contest in accord- ance with the rules that have been published, same to be held in Quinn Chapel S. S. room starting at 9 a. m. on Friday, April 19. The first prize in the Spelling Contest will probably be $25.00 same to be donated by the Louisville Courier-Jour- nal. Other prizes will be scaled accordingly. Annual Exhibition The Twentieth Annual Exhi- bition of the K. N. E. A. will be held at the Armory on Satur- day, April 20. There will be a pageant in which over 1000 will participate. The usual social hours at the Armory will close the 64th Convention of K. N. E. A. Notify Necrology Committee Any one knowing of a teacher who has died since our 1939 convention is requested to send the name of the teacher to Mr. Amos Lasley at Hodgensville, Kentucky, who is chairman of our Necrology Committee. The LVncDin Institute Ke-' Award will be made at the 19i') Convention of the K. N. E. A. Each year Lincoln Institute awards a key of achievement for that educator or other person in Kentucky who makes the great- est contribution to the education of the Negro in Kentucky. The award is to cover the period from April 1, 1939 to April 1, 1940. Persons who desire to submit names of candidates should write Whitney M. Young, Director of Lincoln Institute, for details regarding the filing of recommendations for this award. The Board of Directors at a recent meeting approved a pro- posed amendment for the K. N. E. A. Constitution. Official no- tice is hereby given to the mem- bers of the K. N. E. A. so that they might vote on this amendment at the 1940 Conven- tion. The proposed amendment follows: That Article X, Section 3 should be changed to read as follows: "The Board of Direc- tors shall consist,of seven mem- bers of the Association, the president of the K. N. E. A. who shall be the chairman ex- officio and six other members representing the various sec- tions of Kentucky. The six areas (see page 44) are as fol- lows: (1) Western Area (coun- ties now included in the First and Second District Teachers' Association; (2) Mid-Western area (those counties now includ ed in the Third and Fourth Dis- trict Teachers' Association); (3) the Jefferson County Area (Louisville and Jefferson Coun- ty Teachers' Associations); (4) the Bluegrass Area (those coun- ties included in the Bluegrass District Teachers' Association); (5) the Northern Area (Kenton, Campbell and other counties in the Northern District Teachers' Association); and (6) Eastern Area (those counties now in- cluded in the Eastern Kentucky District Teachers' Associatibn and the Upper Cumberland Dis- trict Teachers Association). These directors shall be so elect- ed that the term of two of thenr 88 shall expire annually. The necessary traveling ex- penses of the members of the Board of Directors to and from the annual convention shall be defrayed by the Association." This amendment shall be ef- fective as soon as it is approved by the General Association. In carrying out the provisions of this amendment, the Board of Directors of the K. N. E. A. shall have the power to elect two additional members of the Board of Directors representing districts not represented follow- ing the election at the 1940 con- vention. At the 1941 convention four new directors shall be elected represent'ng the dis- tricts not then represented with the provision that the two di- rectors who receive the highest number of votes serve for a per- iod of three years and those two receiving a lesser number of votes shall serve for a period of two years. Thereafter two di- rectors shall be elected an- 'nually. The Board of Directors of the K. N. E. A. recommenced the following proposed amendment changing the Constitution: That Article V, Section 1 be revised to read as folows: "The annual mrembershin fee for active mem- bers shall be $1.50 per year to be paid to the secretarv-treas- urer at, or before, the time of the regular meeting or as oth- erwise provided. This member- ship fee shall include subscrip- tion to the K. N. E. A. Journal. Associate members shall pay an annual fee of $1.00." YOUTH COUNCIL PLANS CONFERENCE Eunice Singleton, Sponsor Edwyna Offutt, President It is very gratifying to know that there are many branches of the Youth Council of the K. N. E. A. functioning through- out the state. To date fifteen or- ganizations are recognized by the state body. We wish to ex- tend our congratulations to those who have enlisted in the army which is functioning, in the main, to help the students to intelligently view, analyze and solve the problems that are of great import to the youth of today. We wish to make a plea 'that every high school that has not. up to the present time, org-aniz- ed a youth council, will see the possilie value to be derived from such an organization and organize at a very early date. The most common problem presented in the state confer- ence was that. of a lack of recreational facilities in our smaller comnmunit'es. W e hope that the gymnasiums of these communities have been opened as a means of whole- some social outlet, as a health measure hand to encourage the worthy use of leisure time. This year we are expecting to hear that the council of your school has done some constructive work. The success of our Youth Council of the K. N. E. A. is based not only on the timeli- ness of our addresses and dis- cussions but on the richness of the participation of delegates and members of the organiza- tion. 39 THE 1940 K. N. E. A. HONOB ROLL (100%yo Enrollment to January 15, 1940) School Principal or Official City Lexington Public _-__H. H. Hill, Superintendent ------Lexington McCracken County ---Miles Meredith, Superintendent ----Paducah Greenville Training -- George C. Wakefield,. Principal --Greenville Bath County ------- W. W. Horton, Superintendent --Owingsville Adair County --------C. W. Marshall, Superintendent ----Columbia Clark County ------- William G. Conkwright, Supt. -Winchester Montgomery County - Mrs. Nell G. McNamara, Supt. --Mt. Sterling Union County ------- P. D. Fancher, Superintendent _-Morganfield Christian County ----.N. T. Hooks, Superintendent ----Hopkinsville Carlisle City -------- Miss C. D. Murray, Principal ------Carlisle Marion County ----- Hugh C. Spalding, Superintendent-_Lebanon Simpson County -_____Herbert L. Foster, Superintendent -Franklin Muhlenberg County - Robert H. Shaver, Superintendent -Greenville Monticello City ...... Mrs. J. D. Hawkins, Principal....Monticello Hart County ......... J. C. Cave, Superintendent. ...M.Munfordville Ly'nch City. W. L. Shobe, Principal .............. Lynch Jefferson County ... 0. J. Stivers, Superintendent ...... Louisville Subscribe To THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL OUTLOOK AMONG NEGROES Official Organ A. T. A. $1.00 Per Year 1210 Lamont Street, N. W. Washington, D. C. 7,000 CIRCULAT[ON-30,000 READERS 40 K. N. E. A. DIRECTORS ADOPT FIVE-POINT PROGRAM The Directors of the K. N. E. A. met in Louisville on Satur- day. December 16, 1939, and after approving a budget for the year 1939-40, which appears elsewhere ia this Journal,a five- point program was endorsed for the year 1939-40. This program follows: (1) The sponsoring of a re- tirement act that will include principals as well as teachers, similar to that act which was sub- mitted to the General Assembly of Kentucky in 1938. '(2) A permanent tenure law to makle sure a teacher's position after a period of probation. (3) A larger appropriation by the State Legislature to carry out the provisions of the Ander- son Mayer Act. (4) A Negro on the State De- partment of Education and a Negro Assistant Supervisor of Smith-Hughes vocational work in Kentucky. (5) The removal of inequali- ties in buildings for children and equipment; also removal of dis- crimination in the salary sched- ules of independent districts as thev affect white and colored teachers. The first four of these items will be taken up as part of the Legislative Committee's program for this year. Prof. A. E. Mey- zeek is chairman of this commit- tee as shown on page 2 of this Journal. The Directors suggested that the Research Committee co- operate with the Legislative Committee to the extent possible, but that the Research Committee undertake as a special objective the fifth point in the program adopted. This committee plans to study transportation and consoli- dation in order that the mileage in the case -of transportation for Negro children might be better known. The'Directors of the K. N. E. A. recommended that trans- portation which exceeds more than twenty miles for a child be discontinued and that efforts be made to have the State Depart- ment of Education cooperate in this. The Research Committee al- so plans to take photographs of various school buildings in se- curing data to bring out inequal- ities in providing educational facilities for the colored children in Kentucky. The Board of Directors, in ad- dition to adopting this five-point program, went on record as ap- proving the splendid work being done by Mr. H. (C. Russell, State NYA Supervisor of Negro Activ- ities in Kentucky. A tentative program for the 1940 Convention was also adopt- ed. This outline appears else- where in this issue of the Jour- nal. It is to be noted that we are attempting to bring to the next convention such / outstanding persons as Mrs. Crystal Byrd Fau- sett of Pennsylvania, Miss Jane Bolin, woman judge of New York City, Langsten Hughes, noted poet and author, Pres. F. D. Patterson of Tuskegee Insti- tute, President Steward Nelson of Dillard University, H. Council Trenholm, executive secretsrv of the American Teachers' Associa- tion and Supt.-elect J. W. Brooker, of the State Department of Edu. cation at Frankfort.* In addition to this, there will be outstanding educators to appear on the de- partmental programs. A new fea- ture of the 1940 convention will be a luncheon session of all the living ex-presidents of the K. N. E. A. The present directors of the K. N. E. A. will also be in- vited. 41 Budget For The K. N. E. A. For 1939-40 I. Estimated Income: 1. Membership Fees, 1,600 at $1.00 --------$1,600.00 2. Donations (extra 5Oc from 1,000 teachers) 500.00 3. Advertisements in 3 journals and pro- grams ------------------------------ 250.00 4. Net receipts of Annual Musicale -5------ 60.00 5. Net receipts from K. N. E. A. exhibition 250.00 6. Donation, Louisville Convention and Publicity Lea-rue ----- ----_--------- 50.00 Total Estimated Income ----------- $2,700.00 Il. Estimated Expenditures: 1. K. N. E. A. Journals and Programs ---$ 600.00 2. Clerical Hire for year -------------- 200.00 3. Clerical Hire during convention .-5----- 50.00 4. Stationery, office supplies, mimeographing 150.00 5. Salary of secretary for year (25% of fees) -____________--______--_______ 400.00 6. For speakers on general program ------ 200.00 *7. For speakers and all expenses of de- partmental sessions --____-____--- 200.00 8. For expenses of directors' meetings, pres- ident's expenses, publicity, and expenses of legislative committee --------------Ã¢â‚¬Â¦100.00 9. Committee on inequalities in education-- 500.00 Total Estimated Expenditures ------- $2,400.00 Total Estimated Balance for K. N. E. A. Treasury $ 300.00 *This $200.00 is yet to be prorated among departments and a definite amount which can be used for departments iduring 1939-40 for speakers and any other expense. The following recommendations are made in the distribution of this $200.00: Principals' Conference (Banquet) -----------------------$ 34.00 Art Department (Exhibit) ------------------------------ 20.00 Music Department (Stamps, etc.) ---------------------- 20.00 Youth Council ------------------------------------------20.00 Vocational Education Department ----------------------- 20.00 Librarians' Conference --------------------------------- 20.00 Guidance Workers' Conference -------------------------- 20.00 Adult Education --------------------------------------- 10.00 Social Service Department ------------------------------ 4.ou Foreign Language Department ------------------------- 4.00 Primary Department -__________________________ 4.00 HI.gh School and College Department ------------------- 4.00 42 Athletic Department ------------------------------------ 4.00 Science Department (Exhibit) ___ ---------------------- 4.00 Rural Education Department -_____________________ --- 4.00 English Teachers' Department -------------------------- 4.00 Elementary Education Department ---------------------- 4.00 Total -___________________________--___--___________$200.00 All departments who have allotments less than $10.00 should se- cure speakers who will have no fee or expenses. S. L. BARKER, President of K. N. E. A. Lincoln Institute Key Award (RULES AND REGULATIONS) 1. For outstanding achieve- -ment in education, an annual aiward 1shall be presented to th2 member of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association adjudg- ed to have made the most valua- ble contribution to the cause of education in Kentucky during the year preceding the annual convention of the association. 2. A candidate in order to be eligible to receive the above award must be nominated by the district chairman of the asso- ciation presiding in the district in which the candidate is employ- ed. 3. A typewritten description of the candidate's contributio-n to the cause of education with an affidavit of certification attach- ed thereto shall be in the hands of each judge not later than thir- ty days prior to the date of the annual convention. 4. The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of Lin- coln Institute will invite one offi- cial from the Department of Edu- cation, an officer of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, and will appoint one of its mem- bers to serve as judges. 5. The Executive committee of the Board of Trustees of Lin- coln Institute shall announce the names of the judges and adver- tise the contest in the K. N. E. A. Journal at least sixty days before the annual convention. 6. The award shall be made by the President of the Ken- tucky Neg~ro 'Educatiosnal Asso- ciation during one of the Iprinci- pal meetings of the annual con- vention of the association to which the public is invited. 7. The President shall pub- licly read the opinion of the judges describing the contribu- tion thev have adjudged the most valuable. 8. The omission of the judges shall be final, and in case of a tie two awards will be made. '9. All expenses pertaining to the award shall be borne by Lincoln Institute of Kentucky at Lincoln Ridge, Kentucky, and such expenditures as may be in- volved will be subject to the apt proval of the business manager of said institution. 43 -rri I X I ' Lnin 4s b X 3 .t oh-Ad @ ! 7 w ~~~~~~~~~L cto'i =ww9 TICI- 0~~~~~~~~~1 : zb a z ZI Louisville Municipal College LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY OFFERS Four-year Curricula in Arts, Sciences, and Secondary Education Pre-Medical, Pre-Law, and Teacher-Libra. rianship Courses FULLY ACCREDITED BY THE SOUTHERN ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGES AND SECONDARY S`HOOLS Fraternities Sororities Athletics Debating Christian Associations Dramatics ADDRESS THE DEAN THE WEST KENTUCKY VOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL PADUCAH, KENTUCKY Offers to promising young men and women on the high school level, the following courses: AUTO MECHANICS CABINET MAKING CARPENTRY CHEF COOKERY ELEC'. ENGINEERING MASONRY TAILORING BARBERING VOCATIONAL AGRI. BEAUTY CATTURE HOME ECONOMICS HOME MAKING M. H. GRIFFIN, President - I