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Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal v.17 n.3 Kentucky Negro Educational Association 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 kneav17n3 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal v.17 n.3 Kentucky Negro Educational Association Kentucky Negro Educational Association Louisville, Kentucky February-March 1946 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. 2 Ã‚Â§14131I$77 1 1 8 VOL. XVII February-March, 1946No. 3 Library luckyState, 00.,14P*i I~~ we Framl~fort IfffeV "An Equal Educational Opportunity for Every Kentucky Child' PAM The Kentucky - State College 1886 Frankfort, Kentucky 1945 Co-educational Class A College Degrees offered in Arts and Sciences Home Economics - Agriculture Business Administration Education FOR N!FORPMATON WRITE THE REGISTRAR I The K. N. E. A. Journal Official Organ of the Kentucky Negro Education Association VOL. XVII February-March, 1946 No. 3 Published by the Kentucky Negro Education Association Editorial Office at 2230 West Chestnut Street Louisville 11, Kentucky 'W. H. Perry, Jr., Executive Secretary, Louisville, Managing Editor Mrs. Lucy Harth Smith, Lexington, President of K.N.E.A. BOARD OF DIRECTORS A. F. Gibson, Pineville Victor K. Perry, Louisville Mrs. Mayme S. Morris, Louisville Whitney M. Young, Lincoln Ridge Published bimonthly during the school year October, December, February and April PRICE 50 CENTS PER YEAR OR 15 CENTS PER COPY Membership in the K. N. E. A. includes subscription to the Journal. Rates of advertising mailed on request. CONTENTS K. N. E. A. Officers............................ 2 Editorial Comment ............................ 3 Anncouncements .............................. 3 Education for Negroes (concluded) .............................- 8 Economic Opportunity and Employment ........................ 15 Who's Who on the Convention Program .......................... 25 Kullings..................................... ; 27 Outline of 1946 KNEA Convention Program ...................... 28 K. N. E. A. OFFICERS FOR 1945-1946 Lucy Harth Smith, President ............................... Lexington Robert L. Dowery, First Vice-President . ............. Franklin T. J. Long, Second Vice-President .......... ............... Louisville W. H. Perry, Jr., Secretary-Treasurer ..................... Louisville BOARD OF DIRECTORS Lucy Harth Smith, President .............................. Lexington A. F. Gibson ......................... Pineville Mayme R. Morris ..... .................... Louisville Victor K. Perry ........................... Louisville Whitney M. Young .. ......................... Lincoln Ridge DEPARTMENTAL AND CONFERENCE CHAIRMEN Edward T. Buford, High School and College Dept.....Bowling Green Mayme R. Morris, Elementary Education Dept .......... Louisville M. L. Copeland, Rural School Dept . .............. Hopkinsv-lle R. L. Carpenter, Music Department ....................... Louisville B. W. Browne, Vocational Education Dept ................. Paducah W. 0. Nuckolls. Principals' Conference ....... ........... Providence Beatrice C. Willis, Primary Teachers' Dept . ........... Louisville Anorma Beard, Youth Council ........... ................. Louisville Hattie Figg Jackson, Art Teachers' Conference ..... Louisville G. W. Jackson, Social Science Teachers' Conference ...... Louisville Gertrude Sledd, Science Teachers' Conference ..... ......... Danville Jewell R. Jackson, English Teachers' Conference .......... Covington C. Elizabeth Mundy, Librarians' Conference .............. Louisville W. L. Kean, Physical Education Department . ........... Louisville W. H. Craig, Guidance Workers' Conference . . Covington A. J. Richards, Foreign Language Teachers' Conference...Frankfort William D. Johnson, Adult Education Department ......... Louisville PRESIDENTS of K.N.E.A. DISTRICT EDUCATION ASSOCIATIONS 1-Bettie C. Cox, Paducah ................. First District Association 2-Herbert Kirkwood, Henderson ........ Second District Association 3-E. B. McClaskey, Russellville .......... Third District Association 4-Russell Stone, Bloomfield ........ ..... Fourth District Association 5-Elizabeth W. Collins, Louisville ........ Fifth District Association 6-Whitney M. Young, Lincoln Ridge.. Blue Grass District Association 7-H. R. Merry, Covington ............ Northern District Association 8-E. M. Kelly, Jenkins ................ Eastern District Association 9-J. A. Matthews, Benham ........ Upper Cumberland District Assn. GROUP LEADERS 1-_. T. Buford: High School and College Department, Principals' Conference, Librarians' Conference, Adult Education Department, Art Teachers' Conference (Section I): Music Department, (Section. I). 2-Beatrice C. Willis: Elementary Education Department, Primary Teachers' Conference, Art Teachers' Conference (Section 2), Music Department (Section 2). 3-G. W. Jackson: Social Science Teachers' Conference, Science Teachers' Conference, English Teachers' Conference, Foreign Language Teachers' Conference, Physical Education Department. 4-W. H. Craig: Guidance Workers' Conference, Youth Council, Voca- tional Education Department, Rural School Department. 2 I Editorial Comment I GOOD MANNERS Two Louisville organizations-one, a sorority, the other an organi- zation. for the advancement of Colored people-recently emphasized, publicly, the value of good manners, and the importance of their prac- tice by our youth. The need for such emphasis is readily recognized. Loud talking, thoughtless, boisterous actions, discourtesy and disre- gard for the presence and rights of others are all too frequently ob- served on streets and in public conveyances. Such practices are not indications of freedom; rather, they are evidences of license. Those who manifest such conduct not only lower the cultural level of the group; they do great harm to the cause of racial progress and, inter-racial good will. Passersby, not knowing the cultured, refined members of the Negro group, tend to establish stereotypes. They tend to think all Negroes are like -the ones who thrust themselves upon the attention of the public. Good manners should, of course, be taught in the home. If they are not taught there, the responsibility for so doing falls to the one agency capable of supplying the deficiency-the school. K. N. E. A. ANNOUNCEMENTS The 70th annual meeting of the Kentucky Negro Education Asso- ciaticon will be held in Louisville, Kentucky, April 10-13, 1946. Day- time sessions will be held at the Madison Street Junior High School building, Eighteenth and Madison Streets. The Wednesday and Thursday evening sessions will be held at Quinn Chapel A. M. E. Church, 9,12 West Chestnut Street. The annual musicale will be held at the spacious Louisville Memorial Auditorium, Fourth and Ken- tucky Streets. Sandwiches, hot lunches, and soft drinks will be served in the school lunch room during the convention. The election of president, first and second vice-presidents, secretary- treasurer, assistant secretary, historian, and directors will be held on Friday, April 12. The polls will open at 8:00 A. M. and close at 5:00 P. M. The privilege of voting is limited to members of the Associa- tion who are actively engaged in the-teaching profession, or who have retired and receive payments from local Boards of Education, or from the Retirement Fund of the State. The art exhibit will display classroom work of pupils of the ele- mentary and junior high schools of Louisville, done under the gui- dance of Misses Martha Christensen and Berta Warner, Supervisor .3 and Assistant Supervisor of Art, respectively. Mrs. Hattie Figg Jack- son, of the Louisville schools, is chairman of the Art Teachers Con- ference of the K. N. E. A., and will preside at the departmental meet- ing. The art demonstration, scheduled for Friday, April 12, will be of practical value to all visitors. An exhibit of home economics products is being arranged by Mrs. Grace S. Morton, Head of the Home Economics Department of Ken- tucky State College, and will feature foods prepared in home econo- mics classes of the state. Prizes totaling sixty dollars will be award- ed for items in the six foods classifications planned for. The annual musicale will be presented 'at Louisville Memorial Auditorium on Friday evening, April 12;, in order that ample space will be available for performers and audience. The program will in- clude numbers by Kentucky State College Chorus, Sarah Osborne, and artists from the Louisville Philharmonic Orchestra. The principals' banquet will be held at the Brock Building, Ninth and Magazine Streets, beginning at 5:00 P. M. on Thursday, April 11. The spelling contest will be directed by Mr. Theodore R. Rowan. Interest in the contest is being revived rapidly, after its discontin- uan-e during the war. Members of the K. N. E. A. will please bring with them their cur- rent membership cards and badges. The card is necessary for iden- tification when voting in the annual election; the ribbon will admit to movies as guests of the Lyric, Grand and Palace Theatres. THE K. N. E. A. PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE It is our desire that the annual meeting of the Kentucky Negro Education Association to be held in Louisville April 1.0-13 serve the teachers of our state to its fullest extent. War conditions have pre- vented us from holding our sessions, and therefore some of our ob- jectives could not be accomplished. We are pleased to report, however, that progress has been made. Cooperation from the State Department of Education, Frankfort, has helped us to focus attention on discrimination in salary against Negro teachers to such an extent that many districts have equalized salaries and others have increased them. Books on Negro life and his- tory have been included in our Course of Study for Kentucky. The K. N. E. A. has been active in its request for increased appro- priations for our state supported schools and educational opportuni- ties for our students. Contracts have been made with state and national organizations and thus we have been strengthened. There is still much work to be done in reference to salary increases, enrollments, attendance, 'adult education, vocational education, ade- quate buildings and equipment, industrial education and craftsman- ship, education for the handicapped, and increased library service in order to raise Kentucky from its low level 'among the states of our nation. -Lucy Harth Smith 4 NUCKOLLS ANNOUNCES CANDIDACY FOR K. N. E. A. PRESIDENCY Rosenwald High School Providence, Kentucky February 21, 1946 Dear Fellow-Teachers: According to custom The Kentucky Negro Education Association is due to elect its officers at our next annual meeting in April. In the very dawn of this postwar era the critical problem of de- termining what is best to work and contend for, for the greatest pres- ent and future good of our organization and the general social well being of our group becomes a vital task with a sacred obligation. This task calls for broad experience, consecrated devotion, and a storehouse of information. The persons chosen for president and for the other offices should possess these attributes. Being aware of all that is mentioned above, I counciled with our leading school men and women in every section and in every phase of education in 'our state. In keeping with their ideas and with promises of support from educational leaders from every section of the state, I hereby announce my candidacy for the presidency of the K. N. E. A. With over thirty years of experience and study of our welfare I am thoroughly convinced thtt our K. N. E. A. can and must play a more vital role in shaping educational policies in our state. If elected as your president, I shall with consent of the official staff, seek to get a group of men and women from both the younger and older groups from every section of the state, who are devoted to the work with dynamic qualities, to help study and advance our associa- tion and the cause of education in the state. Our schools, especially high schools and colleges, are now at criti- cal points where we can not afford to divide our interest for self ex- ploitation nor sectional combination. If our high schools and colleges are to survive, properly equipped and rated, we must pool our in- terests and influence fOr Equal Educational Opportunities. Two years ago my friends who were also friends to the cause of education in the state, along with other reasons stressed the fact that, according to our custom, it was time to elect a man from the western part of the state as president of the K. N. E. A. You are again re- minded that the east has already furnished two presidents since one has been elected from the west. With the help of the official staff and the members of our K.N.E.A. I shall work to make the following active realities: 1. Continue the work so effectively planned and put into action by the present and past administrations. 2. A more unified program between the K.N.E.A. and K.E.A. and the various educational organizations in the state. 3. Some plans to enable the Seoretary-Treasurer to secure more of 5 the nation's 'outstanding characters for annual programs. Also to en- able his office to keep in touch with vital issues and make publica- tions. 4. A committee appointed to make a study each year of general conditions of Negro schools and give a report with recommendations each year as a part of the annual program. 5. Along with what has already been stated, I favor the twelve-point program for the K.N.E.A. Legislative Committee: 1. Equalization of teachers' salaries. 2. Expansion of agriculture and shop courses in high schools. 3. Improvement of science library equipment. 4. Improvement of school buildings. .5. Establishment of guidance programs in all high schools and col- leges. 6. Legal transportation for all students. 7. Wider use of Negro books as reference material in all schools. 8. A lunch room program for all schools. 9. More equal educational opportunities for all school children. 10. Adequate program in health education and in physical educa- tion. 11. Expand college programs to meet practical and professional needs of the day. .12. Campaign to -obtain funds to establish a research bureau to com- pile and disseminate information on the Negro. Very respectfully ,yours, W. 0. Nuckolls FOR DIRECTOR February 28, 1,946 To Principals, Teachers and School People, Negro Schools of Kentucky Dear Co-Workers and Friends: Complying with the requests of many principals, teachers, and school people of Kentucky, I am hereby announcing my candidacy for membership on the Board of Directors of the Kentucky Negro Education Association to be voted on at the election of our 1946 ses- sion. As you know, it has been my pleasure to serve the Kentucky Ne- gro Education Association for 'the past thirty years in every capa- city for the development and improvement of Negro 'education in Ken- tucky, and I think, as far as possible, each district in Kentucky should be represented by a member on the Board of Directors. I have served In my district as principal of the Booker Washington High School for twenty-five years, during which time I have acted in the capacity of a Director, making' contacts, endorsing and supporting all programs for the betterment of Negro education. I have left no stone unturned in diligently working for the passage of increased appropriations for 6 Kentucky State College, Frankfort, and, also, State Vocational Train- ing School, Paducah, and Lincoln Institute, Lincoln Ridge. It has been my policy to labor for better opportunities for all the Negro schools of Kentucky. Should my past record for work and experience as a school man merit your consideration and approval I most earnestly solicit your support and vote for me as a member of the Board of Directors at our 1946 session of the Kentucky Negro Education Association. With best good wishes and hoping to greet you at the meeting, I am, Your old friend, C. B. NUCiKOLLS, Booker Washington High School Ashland, Kentucky. E. W. WHITESIDE NOMINATED FOR DIRECTOR Przf. E. W. Whiteside, Principal of Lincoln High School, Paducah, has been nominated for the K.N.E.A. Board of Directors. Mr. White- side is rendering excellent service in his home town, and has been for many years an active worker in the Association. The Domestic Life And Accident Insurance Co. STRENGTH - SERVICE - SECURITY 22 Years of Satisfactory Service OVER $2,000.000 PAID TO POLICYHOLDERS OVER 5Q0,000 POLICYHOLDERS RESERVE OVER 200,000 SURPLUS TO POLICYHOLDERS Has Purchased $820,000 War Bonds All Claims Paid Promptly And Cheerfully Insure In THE DOMESTIC and Help Make Jobs for Your Sons and Daughters HOME OFFICE - LOUISVILLE, KY. W. L. SANDERS, President J. E. SMITH, Vice President R. D. TERRY, Secretary and Agency Director CLARENCE YOUNG, Treasurer 7 - The Report of The Kentucky Commission on Negro Affairs EDUCATION FOR NEGROES (Continued from previous issue) (mLe December-January issue of the Journal contained all recom- mendations made by the Commission in the areas of civil affairs, edu- cation, economic affairs, health, housing and welfare, and the first part of the report on "Education for Negroes). BOARDING HIGH SCHOOLS A State Service And Local Cooperation It is surprising that so many Negro pupils are enrolled in high schools. It shows an eagerness on their part to get an education. It presents a challenge to the people of Kentucky to help them get the most out of their high school experience. In most of the counties that do not have any high schools for Negroes, the local boards of educa- tion are attempting to furnish Negroes adequate educational op- portunity by transporting them to high schools in adjoining counties, or by sending them to the boarding high school service provided by the State through a contractual agreement with Lincoln Institute. In 1944 the Legislature appropriated $42,000 per year to defray a part of the cost to provide this service at Lincoln Institute. Therefore, the cost to the county and independent boards of education has .been re- duced to $72.00 per year per pupil, which amount is commensurate with the average cost to educate white children, not including the cost of buildings and equipment. This is possible because Lincoln Institute is contributing its endowment income to the program. A long range program should seek to establish several boarding or consolidated high schools in centers as near the homes of pupils as is practicable. Critical Situation Mr. L. N. Taylor in his bulletin on Negro Education, 1943, writes: "The Negro high school situation is critical and becoming worse. The population has reduced so generally that most Negro pupils must be sent away either to other districts or to a state boarding high school. The cost in either case is much higher than for the same number of white pupils receiving a high school service at home. WVhite Teacher Training Laboratory High Schools "The feeling is expressed among superintendents that since the State provides, at liberal cost for buildings and operations, white teacher training laboratory high schools at its five normal colleges, it should provide similarly for the Negro college. Then such a school could also serve their need for a state boarding high school. One or two such schools would serve about half the counties and indepen- dent districts in the state. 8 Facilities Available "Facilities for one such school now are available to the State. Lin- coln Institute in Shelby County has an area of 444.85 acres fully ade- quate for a good agricultural and mechanical high school. It has dor- mitories for 150 boarding students. As the numbers increase, addi- tional buildings will be needed. The State has a boarding school service also at Paducah in connec-- tion with the West Kentucky Vocational Training School. Kentucky is a long state and should provide two schools-one in the West and one in the East." The Need Is Great According to Mr. Taylor's report of the school census; in districts in need of the services of a state boarding high school there are 859 Ne- groes of high school age; and in districts lacking adequate Negro popu- lation, which in years to come will have need of such services, there are 1,132 Negro children of high school age, a total of nearly 2,000 young people. Need For Increased Capacity There has been such 'a rapid increase in the enrollment of students at Lincoln Institute that over eighty-nine (89) girls alone were turn- ed away this year (1944-45). When the Army and Navy cease calling 18 year old boys, it is expected, on the basis of past experience, that as many boys as girls will seek to enroll. In other words, had times been normal, nearly 200 students would have been refused admit- tance to Lincoln Institute this year. The dormitories must be doubled in capacity to meet the need. Those who favor mixed schools in Kentucky are of the opinion that a large state boarding high school to accommodate the potential Ne- gro enrollment of even half -of the 2,0,00 pupils of high school age would preclude the opening of white high schools to Negroes in Ken- tucky. In other words, the availability of a large boarding high school for Negroes would relieve the present problem of providing rural high schools for them, and at the same time would remove the eco- nomic pressure for admitting Negro pupils to the white high schools later on. The availability of Lincoln Institute to the State, with its limited enrollment capacity of less than 200 students does not now fully meet the need. The Board of Trustees of Lincoln Institute report a building pro- gram, estimated to cost $524,000, which would increase the school's facilities to accommodate 500 students. This 'addition together with the present plant would cost Kentucky $1,500,000 to build. A State appropriation of $50,000' per year would 'be necessary, over a period of ten years, to enable Lincoln Institute to undertake the above build- ing program. Included in the plans are vocational shops, agricultural laboratories and a project farm and home economic laboratory wherein courses may be taught to encourage Negro youth from the State's rural areas to engage in agricultural pursuits. 9 Plans for the extension of the West Kentucky Vocational Training School are outlined in the section of this 'report devoted to Vocational Training. Kentucky should discourage the migration of its Negro youth, seeking educational and economic opportunity to urban centers of Ken- tucky, and to other states by offering within the State the kinds of educational programs designed to develop them into productive sub- stantial citizens. Ccnsicieraticn should be given to a program by which high schools might supply students to West Kentucky Vocational Training School and Kentucky State College on the junior college and senior college basis, respectively. Coordinated planning by Lincoln Institute, West Kentucky Vocational Training School, Kentucky State College, and inoluding possibly Louisville Municipal College would be both wise and effective, thereby avoiding an over-lapping and disjointed pro- gram. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION A Neglected Phase of Negro Education Vocational training is one of the neglected phases of Negro educa- tion in the State. Industrial arts courses are offered in the schools of Louisville and Lexington; a limited offering of vocational subjects is given at Lincoln Institute. West Kentucky Vocational Training School In 1938 the State Board of Education, by legislative enactment, es- tablished West Kentucky Vocational Training School at Paducah, Kentucky. It is supported mainly by state appropriations, but receives some allotments from Federal Vocational funds. The school has a mechanics shop equipped with modern machinery, other shops similarly equipped, and a library containing much voca- tional literature. Its buildings are valued at $350,000. Its function, as stated in its charter, "Is to make available facilities for vocational training for colored children to be carried o.n in accordance with the state plans for vocational education." The school's enrollment has increased more than 100% since 1.942, and now serves 215 regular students, as well as 15 handicapped re- turned soldiers. Larger facilities for this work are needed, particular- ly for the returned veterans in need of training for civilian occupa- tions. A partially completed state industrial survey indicates openings awaiting nearly a thousand Negro tradesmen in fields covered by the school's training program. This does not include the heavy in- dustries, nor does it cover the cities of Louisville and Lexington, the largest population centers. The West Kentucky Vocational School has not received a single dollar for permanent improvements since its establishment, regardless of the fact that the plant was planned for an academic school, and as a consequence was not adapted to the industrial program for the biennium 1946-48. 10 Needs of West Kentucky Vocational Training School, as listed by its President, are as follows: Permanent Improvements and Major Equipment Needed 1. Enlargement of Men's Trade Buiding .................... $ 10,000 2. Foods Room added to Women's Trade Building .......... 10,000 3. Dormitory for men .......... .......................... 95,000 4. Acquisition of adjoining lots ............................. 9,500 5. Health and Physical Education Building . .. : 42,500 6. Annex, Trades Conference Room to Adm. Building ........ 15,000 7. Living quarters for the President ........................ 7,500 8. Machinery and Equipment for trades ..................... 5,000 194,500 Vocational Education for Veterans In order to meet adequately the needs of the returning veterans, especially those who have had specialized and technical training the following procedure is hereby recommended: 1. Expand and strengthen the following courses at Lincoln Insti- *tute for rural high school students: Agriculture, Janitorial, Engineer- ing, and Building Trades. '2. Expand and strengthen all the trade courses now offered at West Kentucky Vocational School to the point where credit can be granted for two years of technical training beyond the high school level. 3. Expand and strengthen the vocational and technical offerings at Kentucky State College to the point where Negro veterans will have an equal opportunity to prepare themselves for post war re- sponsibilities as all other veterans. A unified and coordinated program should be worked out for the three schools in as far as trade and technical courses are concerned. This procedure would prevent overlapping and duplication in an area where expansion is certain to come. A number of bills have been enacted by Congress making certain grants possible for subsidizing these programs. In meeting this responsibility, we are also laying the foundation for a sound state wide technical program of education. Assistant Supervisor of Negro Education At the request of the Kentucky Negro Education Association, a Negro was appointed as Assistant Supervisor of Negro Education, and began duties in September, 1945. Mr. Whitney M. Young, has, during his brief period of service in this position, made valuable contribu- tion to the State Department through interpreting their policies to Negro communities by affording this 'official notice. This position should be put on a permanent basis. The salary for this service is now being contributed to the State Board of Education by Lincoln Insti- tute, which also engages Mr. Young as Director of its Educational Program. Salary Equalization The State Department of Education, through its -Department of 11 Finance, is seeking to equalize the salaries of teachers on both ele- mentary and secondary levels in terms of preparation, length of ser- vice, and quality of service. It is gradually requiring the elimination of differentials due to race. At present, such differentials exist in one county and twenty independent districts, which is contrary to exist- ing law and being an administrative matter should be removed at once. HIGHER EDUCATION The College Kentucky State College, Frankfort, the only State institution on the college level for Negroes is doing a good job with limited facilities and finances. However, it has barely met the minimum requirements for accreditation by the Southern Association. Its highest enrollment (in 1939) was 6812 students, and its lowest (1944) was 310 students. Its campus covers thirty (30) acres, and a farm of 268.53 acres which is used for student training and to provide food for the school. The College employs sixty ('&0) teachers and workers. There is a bonded indebtedness of $65,000.00 which was originally in 1935, $95,000.00 and was for the erection of a boys' dormitory. Comparisons In Curricula Kentucky State College offers training in the following courses: General Home Economics, General Agriculture, General Engineering, General Science, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics and Physics, Ele- mentary Education, Public School Music, English Language and Literature, Business Administration, Sociology, and Economics, His- tory and Government, Physical and Health Education. Whereas, the University of Kentucky for white students offers, on the under- graduate level, four year college courses leading to various degrees, including (1) A. B. in Journalism, (2) B. S. in Industrial Chemistry, (3) B. S. in Music, (4) B. S. in Mechanical Engineering, (5) B. S. in Metallurgical Engineering, (6) B. S. in Medical Technology, (7) B. S. in Electrical Engineering, (8) B. S. in Mining Engineering, (9) Bachelor of Laws, (10) B. S. in Laws, and (11) B. S. in Commerce. It is believed that were Kentucky State College for Negroes in- spected at this time, it would lose its rating. There is urgent need for the strengthening of existing departments at Kentucky State College, for considerable plant expansion, for cur- riculum expansion based on carefully determined needs of present and prospective students, and for increase in the salaries of the faculty- Salaries are lower than those for similar personnel in the state insti- tutions in other states, thus making it difficult for Kentucky to at- tract and retain desirable instructors. Comparison of State Appropriations The capital value of Kentucky State College and the bi-ennial ap- propriations made for it by the Legislature, are considerably less than those of other southern states with Negro populations equal to or smaller proportionally than that of Kentucky. (See Comparative Table Attached) FINANCIAL SUPPORT BY STATES OF STATE COLLEGES FOR NEGROES 1944-1945 '-d 0. CiD ~ . 0 State W a a Kentucky (1) | $ 15.0,0001$1,048,725 426**[1214,031 7.5Jj'$ 352. Oklahoma (1) 1 373,000.1 1,200,000 460**1168,849.j 7.21 81.1. 'Tennessee (11) 500,0000 1 000 1 506,73,61J 117.4500. Virginia (1) 1,1.96,7401 2,700,621. 1121 661,449] 24.7 1067. West Virginia (1) 621,50.01 2,033,294 - 803 I117,7!54t1 6.2J 773. ** 1945-46 The appropriation for Kentucky State College for the biennium 1944-46 was $150,000. Its needs for the biennium 1946-48, stated conservatively, are: Recommendations for Improvement 1946-47 1947-48 I. For ordinary recurring expenses of operation and maintenance $150,000 (Present Appropriation) II. For equalizing salaries with those in other state colleges III. 'For additional faculty personnel now needed IV. For strengthening departments in equip- ment and library in books and furniture V. For capital out-lay (Needs: Classroom-administration build- ing, Library, two dormitories, dairy barn, laboratory school, infirmary, engineering building, music, faculty houses, stadium, addition to gymnasium.) $15o0,000 75,000 75,000 15,0nn 60,000 200,000 $500,000 Clearly, considerable increase in the appropriation for State College is essential to its operation on an adequate imperative, if ev~en Teasonable progress toward desirable Is to be made. Tlhe Supreme Court Decision 15,000 60,0.00 200,000 $500,000 Kentucky basis, and standards The United States Supreme Court decision in the Lloyd Gaines 13 case, originating in Missouri, holds that under our United States Con- stitution and laws whatever program of higher education the state provides for its white citizens must be open also to its colored citi- zens, and what it does not duplicate in separate institutions in the state for the two races must be available on like terms to citizens of both races. Inequalities Our State university graduate school offers courses leading to the following degrees in graduate courses: 1. Master of Arts. 2. Master of Arts in Education. 3. Master of Science. 4. Master of Science in Agriculture. 5. Master of Science in Civil Engineering. 6. Master of Science in Education. 7. Master of Science in Electrical Engineering. 8. Master of Science in Home Economics. 9. Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering. 10. Master of Science in Metallurgical Engineering. 11. Master of Science in Public Health. 12. Master of Science in Mining Engineering. 13. Civil Engineer. 14. Electrical Engineer. 15. Metallurgical Engineer. 116. Mining Engineer. 17. Doctor of Philosophy. This outline of colleges and degrees gives only a general idea of the educational oportunities available at the University. Within the various colleges there are many possibilities of specialization and the pursuit of particular interests which are outlined in the general cata- logue of the University. These graduate courses are provided by the State through taxation, are legally available to the public, and are used by the public to the exception of the Negro people. Whether any graduate work should be offered at Kentucky State College is a question to be faced 'at some future time. Its considera- tion is not timely until present undergraduate courses are greatly strengthened and expanded. Such college courses and services as are not given at Kentucky State College, but are given at the University of Kentucky, should be avail- 'able without distinction of race. This is a field of public service to which Negro people of the state contribute and in which they have legal right, but in which they do not share. Regional Universities The idea of regional universities, proposed to be established cooP- eratively by certain southern states to provide for Negro youth edu- cational opportunities equal to those provided for white youth with- in the state, does not meet the requirements of the Gaines decision as 14 it does not provide equality of opportunity for higher education with-' in the state. Out-of-State Aids The Anderson-Mayer Act, a Kentucky law passed in 1936, enables Negro graduate students through the aid of state scholarships, amount- ing to the inadequate sum of $175.00 each, to pursue in as far as pos- sible post graduate courses in out of state institutions, such courses not being provided by Kentucky State College. Provision, however, is lacking for the undergraduate student to pursue out of state courses not offered at Kentucky State College. In effect, out-of-state aid offers inducement to Negro students to leave the state and not to claim their rights within the state. It is only temporarily expedient, and not a permanent solution to the problem. (End of section on Education of Negroes) REPORT OF COMMISSION ON ECONOMIC AFFAIRS ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY AND EMPLOYMENT Equality of Opportunity Fundamental in a democracy is equality of opportunity, the right of one to work at equal pay for equal service, with the same hope of security and advancement that all 'others possess. In no other field than that of employment-in other words, of breadwinning-does racial discrimination touch so deeply a human life; for, to live in decency and constructiveness, to feed, clothe and shelter himself and his family, to send his children to even the most inadequate schools, a man first must work. And for society's sake, he must work to the best and fullest utilization of his skill and capacity. What to do for removal of this discrimination poses a problem which in many respects is the mast difficult of solution. This is so because it involves the pattern of segregation itself. Programs of improvement in other fields may be applied without dislocating this pattern, and therefore are more readily accepted. At the same time, they can be given more definite shape, being less handicapped by the intangibles of social and intellectual attitude, custom and tradition. It may be re'adily agreed that everybody should be educated; but should every- body use the same washroom? While removal of the severe limitations upon the economic oppor- tunity of the Negro in Kentucky will depend to a large extent upon education, leadership and amelioration of attitudes, nevertheless, there are a number of definite, practicable steps in public action which may be taken toward improvement of the situation. Industrial Employment The major test of the Negro's acceptance as a worker, on terms of equal opportunity, lies in the field of industrial employment. The test will be applied in the fateful next year or two of readjustment, when employment will be stabilized, when seniority benefits will be invok- ed and competition for jobs will stiffen, and when trades unionism 15 will be measured as never before for its substance as a constructive, protective democratic force. The economic problem 'of the Negro in Kentucky has two main parts: 1. The handicap of his relative lack of skills, which makes him the "expandable" of the labor force, the first to go when unemployment impends. 2. The-barriers to employment, training, promotion and opportunity that are too often interposed because of his race. Thus, the Negro man or woman is still the marginal worker in in- dustry. The relatively full employment since 1940 has grooved him into war production or into taking the place of white workers who entered the better paid war production industries and who may be returning to former jobs. The position of the unskilled and semi-skilled Negro worker must be strengthened against the competition for jobs which is ahead and the returning Negro servicemen-some 20,000 from Kentucky-must not be barred from the opportunity which they fought to preserve for all. Of 482,811 placements by the United States Employment Service in Kentucky in the period 1941 through 1944, approximately 15 percent, cr 75,114, were those of "ncn-white" workers. However, the Negroes placed on skilled jobs were only about 1 2/3 percent of the total plac- ed in this classification, and 90 percent of the Negroes were placed in unskilled (47,209) or service (21,861) jobs. Of 407,697 white workers placed, nearly 25 percent went into skilled jobs. A typical distribution of the "non-whites" jobs is shown by the records for 1944: clerical and sales, 1 percent; service, 16.4 percent; skilled, 1.8 percent; semi- skilled, 9 percent; unskilled, 71.8 percent; professional and managerial, negligible (7 placements in 24,897). This is evidence (1) of a lamentable lack of skills, Q.2) of classifica- tion of many experienced Negroes as unskilled, because the greatest demand for workers was in the division of common labor. The Negro generally was barred from vocational training courses for war work- ers because of the vicious circle-few good jobs, with prospect of up- ,grading, because no training; no training, because no prospect of good jobs and the temporary great need of common labor. This condition creates a collateral injury to the Negro's name as a good worker be- cause it has discouraged a large number of better qualified Negroes to the extent that they often have shifted jobs seeking better oppor- tunities, thus giving rise to the charge that the Negro worker is rest- less, irresponsible, and not interested in this job. However, in jobs offering promise, good pay and stability, the Negro has been found to be as good a worker as any, responsive to training and dependable. The position of the Negro as a marginal worker, first to feel the impact of unemployment even in normal times, is shown by the Ken- tucky record of 1940, before the expansion of the defense program set in. In that year, the U. S. Census counted the white labor force at 904,376, the Negro labor force at 94,324. It was significant of the Ne- gro's economic need, incidentally, that more Negroes were working, 16 or needed work, than whites, in proportion to the total number. While the Negro's population was 7.5 percent of the total, the Negro labor force was 9 percent of the total. Also, 20 percent of Negro work- ers were unemployed, either in normal jobs or public programs of W. P. A., N. Y. A., etc.; but less than 15 percent of whites. It is obvious that the two factors of inadequate training and racial barrier were having their effect. The lack of vocational training for Negroes, supported either by local, State or Federal funds in public educational institutions, is striking. The difficulties encountered by the Kentucky State College for Negroes in its efforts to obtain support for special vocational courses at start of the defense program were large and baffling. This story becomes monotonous in 'repetition and extends to the in-train- ing programs of industry, from which the Negro worker is often cold- shouldered on the ground that he probably would not be accepted for upgrading and other benefits of equal status, and so the training would be useless. It is urged, however, that Negroes be afforded more opportunities for vocational training, whatever the apparent immediate prospects of acceptance. Too often, when an employer or an agency professes to be ready to place Negroes in skilled positions, he points to the lack of Negroes with requisite skills, and reverts to the old custom. If Negroes prepare themselves, they will be ready when the oppor- tunity comes, and one more reason for refusing to admit him to ad- vanced economic brackets will be overcome. As another point, Ne- groes should have as wide a variety of training as possible, because the more fields in which they become qualified, and the wider their distribution in industry, the fewer conflicts and tensions are likely. The very narrowing of training and employment opportunities is segregation in its classic aspects. These comments are urged. for consideration on the Vocational Educational Division of the State Department of Education and upon the administration of Veterans' Affairs, which will be faced with this problem of racial limitation of training. Labor Unions We are assured by representative leaders of both the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations that the situation as to racial democracy in organized labor, and the acceptance of Negroes on -equal terms of membership, is improving. It is a fact that the inherent, expressed policy of both these great as- sociations is committed to non-discrimination. However, there are exceptions to this policy and practice in other organizations, notably the large railroad brotherhoods, in certain affiliates of the A. F. L., and in the workings of local custom generally. "The Handbook of Labor Unions" lists nine A. F. L. unions, 25 C. I. 0. unions and four independent unions, including the United Mine Workers, whose constitutions expressly forbid discrimination because of "race, color, or national origin." It lists eight A. F. L. unions whose constitutions bar Negroes or relegate them to the status of auxiliary 17 or non-representative membership (a ninth bars on "Asiatic labor"). Six of the largest independents completely bar Negroes. It is note- worthy that five of these, and four of the eight A. P. L. unions; which interpose this restriction, are organizations of railroad workers, which persist in this stand, even carrying their fight, as in the recent case involving a Kentucky Negro worker, to the Supreme Court (where, incidentally, the Brotherhood of Firemen and Enginemen lost the is- sue and the Court laid down the principle of right to equal opportuni- ty). The Brotherhoods have officially opposed fair employment prac- tice legislation. This committee feels the need of education in democratic standards and practices, to be imparted by labor leaders to the rank and file of their membership generally. The pressure of enlightened and practi- cal public opinion upon the holdout unions is necessary. But no less so is education of Negroes, as they become identified with labor or- ganizations, in what unionism really means-in its social and demo- cratic implications, its responsibilities, its significance as something more than an instrument to raise wages. If the Negro is to become a union man, it behooves him to be especially a good and informed man, for the sake of his race and for the moral example of its dependability. In plants where collective bargaining applies, union officers should share with management the responsibility for obtaining the white workers approval of the employment of Negroes; and beyond that, approval of the common sense, economy and constructive value of non- segregation within the plants. NTegroes, like other workers, become more efficient through working with experienced workers; and the better understanding of one another, which thus may be brought about, is invaluable to any program of improved relationships in gen- eral. Women in Industry Negro women have been accepted slowly but definitely in Kentuc- ky industry within the last four years. In 1940, of 8,031 women em- ployed in Louisville, 6,315 or 78.6 percent, were in personal or domes- tic service, only 276 in manufacturing. At that time, 1,773 Negro wo- men in Jefferson County were unemployed, and 342 were working on W. P. A., N. Y. A. and other public programs. In 1944 alone, the U. S. E. S. reports placing 3,325 Negro women in manufacturing jobs in the Louisville area, which includes war production plants across the river in Indiana. This number had jumped from 1,187 in 1943, the increase demonstrating the need of women workers in a condition of reason- ably full employment. And so, it is obvious that no unemployment among Negro women now exists. What this advance means in the way of increased income and se- curity, both as to the individual and the community, is a matter of plain conclusion. The question now is how to hold this advance. Part of the answer lies in the increased competence and assurance which comes from the experience of employment at good wages. It lies in the better standards of living which have been made possible and which create aspirations to self-improvement. Yet it is obvious that 18 with the readjustment to peacetime production, many of these work- ers, if not most of them, will be displaced, for this is the most margi- nal of labor, and the group which is utilized only in emergency. It is equally obvious that unless some consideration is given to programs for serving this large labor force, it may have a disrupting influence on the labor market, increasing competitions and tensions. We recom- mend more positive programs of. employment, placement, develop- ment of industries to make use of this new supply, and strengthened social progress like mothers' aid, child care, medical care and other services which would relieve the pressure of necessity to go out from the home to find work. Likewise, better standards and practices in the field of domestic employment (see below) will improve the situa- tion. Discrimination in Employment All the foregoing proposals, it is apparent, would serve low-income and economically imperilled groups of both races. There can be no positive programs in their behalf without implements. In recommend- ing, therefore, Federalized employment services and unemployment compensation standards, we feel that only thus can action in behalf of the insecure, the "newly arrived" in industry be brought about. We urge upon employers generally the consideration of giving op- portunity to Negroes in fields from which custom has barred them; i.e., in sales personnel, in such operations as those of telephone switch- boards and street cars and busses. There is a convincing argument, it seems to us, in the greater community stability and common econo- mic benefit that comes from full employment, everybody contributing to the full extent of his powers, free of artificial hobbles that rob not only him of opportunity but the community of his potential contri- bution. Besides these steps which depend on education and moral persua- sion, there are proposals for definite legislation, within the scope of the Kentucky General Assembly, for enhancement of economic op- portunity of the Negro citizen. They are to be found in the report and recommendations of the Commission's sub-Committee on Civil Affairs. AGRICULTURE For the last 30 years or more, Negroes in Kentucky have been leav- ing the farms and rural centers so steadily and in such numbers that the movement has all the signs of an historic migration-or disposses- sion. Comparing the 1910 Census with that of 1940, we find that the Kentucky Negro has shifted from 59 percent rural and 41 percent ur- ban to 45 percent rural and 55 percent urban-or from 155,025 rural in 1910 to 97,259 in 1940. This shift may be seen in terms of definite economic loss and great- er insecurity when one compares the items of land ownership-12,- 628 Negro farm operators (owners, part owners, or tenants) in 1920, possessed of land, buildings and equipment of total value $36,072,178, and 5,547 in 1940, with holdings valued at only $9,826,638. 19 Negroes, comprising 6 percent of the state's total population, con- stitute but 2.2 percent of its farm operators, either as owners or ten- ants. Negroes simply have been increasingly unable to find satisfac- tions or even hope in agriculture. They are at a disadvantage in equip- ment either of education, facilities or incentive. Negtoes should not be discouraged from entering agriculture or, if already in the field, from remaining in it. In an economic and social system which is marked by limitation of opportunity in so many fields because of the artificial barriers of discrimination, there is no pur- suit more than husbandry that offers rewards in direct relation to the skill and effort applied. It is in essence a collaboration of man and nature, and nature knows no discrimination. It contemplates the ideal of independence under civilization: that of the man on his parcel of the earth. No one more than the Negro has vital need of this status. An inequality of opportunity as between the two races has develop- ed in Kentucky agriculture. We feel that this is not due to the Ne- gro's lack of fundamental aptitudes, or to inherent low managerial ability, but to the withdrawal of his incentives. His sources of educa- tion in modern agriculture are dried up. We deplore the prospect that many Negroes of rural origin, experience and knacks are con- demned by sheer lack of access to these facilities, condemned to the insecurity and squalor of the unskilled industrial worker in crowded urban centers, the Detroits and the Harlems, where economic and social conditions, neglected, intensify the very problems with the so- lution of which we are here concerned. The Kentucky State College for Negroes is a land-grant college, the same as the University of Kentucky, yet by action of the Legis- lature, the latter is designated as the sole recipient of funds for educa- tion and experimentation made available from the (Federal) Hatch- Adams-Purnell, Capper-Ketcham and Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 1-21) funds, the State College getting nothing. Most Southern States have established sub-stations for agricultural experiment at their Negro colleges; this is not done in Kentucky. For extension work among Negroes there are four Negro farm agents and two Negro home demonstration agents-and these are not connected with the Negro college, where it would seem they belong, but with the University staff. Although many, if not most white county agents make no stint of services to Negro farmers, social customs being what they are, it is hard to see how completely effective educational work on the land and in the homes-a process which to a large extent involves shar- ing the lives of people.-may be accomplished with so few agents to whom these intimate contacts are possible. And without extension work among Negroes, performed by members of their race, inspira- tion and encouragement is lacking for younger groups to see the higher specialized training that is necessary in the increasingly ex- acting pursuit of agriculture. Ambition to succeed is quickly thwarted, and so standards of living, income and hope decline, as facilities for getting knowledge and services are restricted. 20 Besides our recommendations of (1) strengthening the departments of the Kentucky State College, (2) granting more funds through legis- lative and administrative designation for this purpose, (3) centering an enlarged extension service at the Negro college, (4) establishing an experimental sub-station and other facilities for organized research at the latter, and (5) permitting advanced qualified Negro farmers or graduate students access to facilities of the main experiment station and University instruction, the committee feels there is need for broadening work among Negroes under the Smith-Hughes vocational: funds, administered by the State Board of Education. We point to these facts: 1. Only ten Negro high schools have departments of agriculture fi- nanced by these Federal funds; '2. Home Economics departments, thus subsidized, exist in 31 Negro high schools, with 34 teachers; 3. Eigh- Ieen Negro high schools, with 27 teachers, have Home Economics de- partments which lack this subsidy; 4. Only 24 Negro high schools have trades departments which enjoy this subsidy. Strengthening the Negro land-grant college in these respects would provide a natural center for annual gatherings of Negro 4-4H Club members (incidentally stimulating growth of membership) and for Negro farmers and farm homemakers generally, which is now lacking. 'As for general recommendations, looking to improvement of the lot of small farmers, tenants and croppers of both races, which naturally would strengthen the position of Negroes in these groups, we urge support of extensions of the Social Security System to bring farm workers under its provisions; development of a system of written leases which will include reimbursement for unexpended im- provements of land and dwellings *and acknowledgement of certain improved practices to stand in lieu of rent. Proposals stated in the publication, '"Legal Aspects of Farm Tenancy" (Ky. Ag. Exp. Station, 1041) should be reviewed with an eye to implementation by law or private agreements. Rural housing programs, inclusion of Negro rural dwellers in plans of community activities, organizational and recreational; acceptance of more Negroes in farm organizations and cooperatives-these are other desirable goals without which, in addition to the educational supplements previously recommended, the 'Negro will be. forced en- tirely from the land in sheer discouragement and need, or else be ,reduced to the status of a peasantry. HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT A field of employment which deeply concerns the Negro population of Kentucky, its standards and outlooks, is that of the household worker. One person out of every 25 employed in Kentucky (one out of 18 in Louisville) is in this classification. And of the total of 37,841 in Kentucky (1940 Census), 22,134 or 5,8.5 percent are Negroes, and' of these more than 80 percent are women. There are more women workers in household employment in Kentucky than in any other single occupation, including teachers or clerical and office workers- 21 This is a fact which has a great influence on the quality of family life. And yet this field is marked by the least security of tenure, the greatest lack of standards as to hours and conditions of work, the smallest prospect of independence after long years of labor, the least dignity and the most exploitation. The principal if not the only in- centive to en'er this field is elemental need; not, as in the case of most'callings, the hope of advancement, occasional leisure and more than a bare living wage. Much cf the difficulty ccmes from the general propensity to regard home-making, which is the true end of domestic employment, as a casual or unskilled trade. Consequently, this difficulty may be re- moved by changing this status, in the view of employers and in actuality, to that of skilled labor. Definite vocational training, leading to certificates at the comple- tion of a course certificates which would bear the guarantee of competence and depandability-seemns to this committee to be a funda- mental necessity. This training, which should be established as a public service and as part of a vocational program, would make possible a system of registration for qualified workers, who thus acquire the status of technicians. Naturally, a responsible institution of the sort proposed would be- come the center of a dependable employment service and a system of placement, in lack of which at present the Kentucky community has only the loosest, most casual and most haphazard method of job-seek- ing on one hand and employment on the other. It is to be expected that with dependable organization, discrepancies between supply and demand may be more nearly adjusted, with less hardship all around. The proposed training would be something more thkan domestic science or home economics. Hygiene, personal attractiveness and ethics would go along with technical instruction; and at least a mini- mum of scholastic education would be required, and imparted if not already possessed. The aim, in short, would be development of pro- ficiency without which any occupation is bound to remain under- privileged, unrecognized and unrewarded. The idea of technical in- struction of this sort, with certificates and registration, is not fantas- tic or untried. Since this report was undertaken, information has come of an identical venture in New York City, operated jointly by the U. S. Employment Service and the New York Board of Education. A class in house cleaning had just been completed there, to be fol- lowed by classes-free of charge-in cooking, laundry work and child care. Certificates are given upon completion of the course, as- suring fitness and desire to succeed. A commentary on the plan in that city said: "Housework, as any one who has attempted it is thoroughly aware, is besides being a real chore, a skill of high order. Why, then, should its acquisition be entrusted to *the time-consuming, old-fashioned method of learning as you go? Why shouldn't it be taught, point for 22 point, skill for skill, as any other trade? ... These women will have had experience in skilled work, exact hours and pay, and a business- like approach to making a living. It is not inconceivable that they will want to transplant some of this same efficiency to domestic tasks. Employers should welcome it, and maids, in order to invest house- work with the dignity it deserves, are not likely, one imagines, to let slip the opportunity to improve their own lot." In no other field of employment are practices so affected by the personal attitudes of the employer. And the average employer of household workers has not yet learned to regard himself as an em- ployer, with an employer's responsibilities; or to see that he helps himself by promoting responsibility on the part of the worker and by creating incentive. When an employer complains of generally low, unsatisfactory, desultory and undependable performance on the part of domestic employees, he should know that this is not the fault of the workers so much as of the system of training and employment. The training institution would become also a center of a program of education, information and interpretation to be imparted to the employing group as to the necessity of proper standards. It would be- come also the means of assembling household workers for organiza- tion to improve their standards, solve their problems, combine for group insurance and medical care, etc.; otherwise, they will be always separated by the isolation of their work, always underprivileged and undependable, except perhaps those of extraordinary determination or fortunate contacts of employment. General steps recommended for improvement of conditions include extension of Social Security systems to embrace domestic workers and grant them minimum wages, unemployment and old age benefits through their own participation. Even if exemption from Social Se- curity continues for this group, the State of Kentucky may still place household workers within the range of its unemployment compen- sation law. We recommend development of contractual relations between em- ployer and worker, with a standard work week and allowances for overtime, reasonable sick leave, vacations and days off; compensation for accidents, reasonable advance notice of resignation or dismissal, or pay in lieu of notice. The domestic worker has the same right as anybody else to leisure and personal interests, and to plan her own life. Too much enlightenment has been brought to bear upon social practices to permit this field of employment alone to remain in a sort of feudal status. Under the system proposed by this committee, it does not necessarily follow that improved standards of compensation will deprive many families of household service. It will be possible for every person to get the service for which he is able to pay, by day or by hour. An important consideration, in thinking of improving standards for the benefit of both parties-and incidentally of improv- ing attitudes and relationships between the races-is to prevent the household worker from being socially demeaned as an individual. 23 BUSINESS Economic opportunity for Negroes in Kentucky is restricted by the lack of substantial business establishments operated by members of this group. Negroes, for several understandable 'reasons, generally do not enter the field of business, either in the mercantile or service grouping, except as an alternative to the uncertainties and discrimina- tions of employment at wages. In such cases, they merely work for -themselves, instead of others. To a significant extent, their ventures are on the smallest scale, with the operator doing all the work. Thus, few or no opportunities are of- fered for employment of others. A recent study of business and em- ployment among Negroes in Louisville, where the bulk of Negro business in Kentucky is located, shows that in 654 establishments, only 649 persons outside of the operators were employed. This study by an associated group centering in the Louisville Municipal College knows that most of the enterprises are marginal, the largest number (11.9) being one-man traffics in ice, wood and coal. There are 9:9 Ne- gro-owned restaurants and taverns, 6'6 beauty shops, 47 barber shops, 36 junk peddlers, 34 rooming houses. The others run the scale of fami- liar occupations like auto service, cleaning and tailoring, hauling, funeral service, dressmaking, etc. There are but three drug stores, 26 food stores, most of the smallest variety. There is not a single general store, department store, clothing store either for men or women. Out- side of five newspapers, the best of which approach excellent stand- ards of organization, management and editing, and 4 insurance com- panies (which employ 136 of the total of 649 on Negro payrolls, and two of which are home offices), this structure of business is unrepre- sentative of a community group so large, with economic necessities so distinct. A number of obvious reasons for this condition present themselves. One of the first to strike this committee outside of the natural restric- tions of the segregation pattern (i.e., the fact that Negro business must depend almost exclusively on Negro trade, and the Negro popu- lation occupies the lowest income brackets) is the lack of experience of Negroes in the entrepreneur or managerial field, the lack of oppor- tunity for them to acquire knowledge of business standards, prac- tices, calculations, techniques of every sort from simple bookkeeping to sales psychology. There is no tradition of business or inheritance of business knacks and lore, and so the Negro must depend for his en- couragement, inspiration and chance of success upon acquired know- ledge, which simply has not been available. The study concludes with the following recommendations, in which this committee concurs: A bureau of business counseling, a business clinic, courses in busi- ness administration, marketing, sales and salesmanship, sales and cost accounting, advertising, retail trade, as well as, less technical courses, such as, bookkeeping, typing, shorthand and stenography, could and should be established, by or in such institutions as are equipped and capable of offering such services and training. Even 24 the least sanguine expectations, it says, would seem to perceive in such a development a progress in Negro business that would both in- crease the magnitude of that business and make it a more or less po- tent factor in the community and city. Because of the lack of advanced education among those now in business or likely to enter business, it is suggested that the courses be established in the lower levels of public school or adult instruction. The accessibility of adequate credit facilities should be an almost automatic development, once the prospective enterpriser is supported by such a structure'of guidance and guarantees of competence. After all, credit is a matter of character plus proven fitness to deliver. (NOTE: These recommendations naturally apply only to centers with Negro population sufficiently large to offer prospects.of patron- age to justify the preparation. Their consideration is urged upon the Department of Vocational Education.) WHO'S WHO ON THE CONVENTION PROGRAM Mr. Frank L. Stanley, former Louisville Central High School and Atlanta University Football star, and now Managing Editor of the Louisville Defender, is "making a niche" for himself as president of the National Negro Press Association. Under his leadership that organi- zation is developing a national program for racial advancement. Mr. Stanley, a member of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, is also a di- rector of the Committee for Kentucky. Dr. Leslie Pinckney Hill, president of State Teachers College, Cheyney, Pennsylvania, was class orator at Harvard, which institu- tion awarded him the Bachelor's and Master's degrees. He holds, as honorary degrees, the Litt. D., from Lincoln University (Pennsyl- vania) and LL. D. (Morgan College). He served as Head of the De- partment of Education, Tuskegee Institute, principal of the Manassas (Virginia) Industrial School, and has headed the institution at Chey- ney since 1913. He is a member of the American Academy of Politi- cal and Social Service; author of "Wings of Oppression" !(Poetry), 1,927; "Toussaint L'Ouverture" (Drama), 1928. He is a member -of the Phi Beta Kappa and Kappa Alpha Psi fraternities.. Dr. Lou La Brant, professor of English in the School of Education at New York University, received her A.-B. from Baker University, her M. A. from the University of Kansas, and her Ph. D. from North- western University. Before coming to New York University she was assistant professor at the University of Kansas; a teaching fellow at Northwestern; and professor of English at Ohio State University. In the summer of 1945, Dr. La Brant was in charge of a workshop on problems in English for Negro schools in the south, sponsored by the New York University and the General Education Board 'of the Rockefeller Foundation. She has also done summer teaching at the Rockfeller Foundation. She has also done summer teaching at Har- vard, Tulane and the University of Kansas. 25 Professor La Brant was editor of "Educational Method;" chairman of the Committee on Language Communication, National Council of Teachers of English, and has done research in the fields of language growth and reading for adolescents. She is a member of the Ameri- can Psychological Association, the National Conference on Research in Elementary School of English, the Progressive Education Associa- tion,'and the National Council of Teachers of English. Among the books she has written are: "The Teaching Litera- ture in the Secondary School;" "Experimenting Together;" "An Evaluation of Free Reading in Grades Seven to Twelve, Inclusive." Many of her articles have appeared in Progressive Education; Edu- cational Method; School and Society; The School Review; The Eng- lish Journnl etc. Mr. Charles H. Bynum, of New York, director of Interracial Activ- ities, The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, is no straLg- er to Kentuckians. He is well remembered, and asscciated in their minds with Simmons University, at which he taught. Mrs. Minnie J. Hitch, head of the Department of Elementary Edu- cation, also is well known among teachers of the state, many of whom are indebted to her for their understanding of the problems of the elementary school, and effective techniques for their solutions. K.N.E.A. HONOR MEMBERSHIP Mrs. Geneva Caldwell, Mrs. Geneva J. Ferguscn, Miss Ovenus Mitchell, Mrs. Helen 0. Nuckolls, Prof. W. 0. Nuckolls, Mrs. Catherine Pleasant, President H. C. Russell, Mr. M. J. Sleet, Mr. M. J. Strong, Miss Ethel Turner, Mrs. Debora Woolfolk, Mr. Whitney M. Young, Mr. James T. Cooper, Mrs. Jennie M. Cooper. % 26 INCREASINGLY, PRINCIPALS AND TEACHERS THROUGH- OUT KENTUCKY ARE POINTING THEIR STUDENTS TO THE- WEST KENTUCKY VOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL Paducah, Kentucky Graduates are fast entering the industrial and business life of the State. FOR INFORMATION WRITE Harvey C. Russell, President K. N. E. A. KULLINGS Louisville Municipal College plans to change from its semester 4system to the quarter system. Under this plan, veterans may accelerate their programs, clom- pleting the customary four year course in -three years through summer study. Mr. E. W. Bates, principal of the Campbellsville High School, visited in Louisville recently. Along with Mr. Diggs, he crossed the "hot sands" into the local Temple of Shriners. Quarters for returned G. I's are being erected on the campus of Kentucky State College. They will provide accommodations for single veterans, also for married veterans and their families. All members of the Rosenwald High School faculty, Providence, of which Prof. W. 0. Nuckolls is principal, have enrolled as honor members of the K.N.E.A. Two members of the faculty of L. M. C. have contributed to recent publications. An article, "Color Names and Color No- tions," by Dr. Charles H. Parrish, appears in the Winter, 1946, issue of The Journal of Negro Educa- tion. Four recent articles by Dr. Forrest Aran Wiggins are in Phylon, The Personalist, The Ne- gro, and The Quarterly Review of Higher Education Among Ne- groes. Mrs. Iola P. Morrow, Jeanes Supervisor, attended the National Jeanes Teachers meeting at At- lanta University in March, as the official delegate from Ken- tucky. i:*** * Mr. L. A. Diggs, formerly of the public school of Greenville, Ky., is now teaching at the Phyl- lis Wheatley School, Louisville. He plans to continue work to- ward the doctorate at New York University. The Allen otel 50 Rooms - Steam Heat - Baths - Radio 2516 West Madison Street Louisville 11, Kentucky Telephone Shawnee 9429 H. McLarin, Manager 27 Outline of Program of 1946 K. N. E. A. Convention April 10, 11, 12, 13, Louisville, Kentucky 1877 Seventieth Annual Session 1946 'Central Theme: "Meeting the Needs of Kentucky's Youth." WEDNESDAY, APRIL 10 9:00 A. M.-Registration of teachers at headquarters, Madison Street Junior High School, Eighteenth and Madison Streets. 10:00 A. M.-Visitation of Louisville schools in session. 8:15 P. M.-First General Session at Quinn Chapel A. M. E. Church, 912 West Chestnut Street. Addresses: Mrs. Lucy - Harth Smith, Lexington, Kentucky, President, K. N. E. A.; Mr. Frank L. Stanley, Director, Committee for Kentucky and President, National Negro Press Association. THURSDAY, APRIL 11 Place: Madison Street Junior High School 9:00 A. M.-Meeting of Music Department. Room No. 201. 9:30 A. M.-Secmnd General Session. In the gymnasium. Report of Committee on Necrology, and Memorial Service. Busi- ness session. 10:45 A. M.-Conference, Group II (Elementary Education, Primary Teachers', Art Teachers', Music Departments.) In the gymnasium. Address: '~Adjusting School Programs To Meet the Needs of The Elementary Child," Mrs. Minnie J. Hitch. Head Department of Elementary Education, Kentucky State College. 11:45 A.M.-DEPARTMENTAL MEETINGS: Elementary Education Department. In the gymnasium. Primary Teachers' Conference. Room No. 201. Art Teach- ers' Conference (See program for Friday, April 12.) 11:45 A. M.-4Demonstration: Uses of Macaroni, by Mr. Robert B. Lewis, at * Del-Rey Experimental Kitchen, 26th and Madison Streets. 11:45 A. M.-Picture, free to enrolled teachers, courtesy Lyric Thea- tre, 6th and Walnut Streets, Mr. R. L. Ransaw, Manager. (Showing of badges and payment of six cents govern- ment tax necessary for admittance). 1:00 P. M.-Lunch. School Cafeteria. 28 2:00 P. M.-Elimination of Spelling Contestants (tentative, written.) Room No. 301. 2:00 P. M.-Third General Session. In the gymnasium. Address: Mr. Charles H. Bynum, Director of Interracial Activities, The National Foundation For Infantile Paralysis. Report of Nominating Committee. 3:00 P. M.-Conference, Group III (Social Science Teachers', Science Teachers', English Teachers', Foreign Language Teach- ers' Departments.) In the gymnasium. Address: "New Responsibilities for the High School," Dr. Lou La Brant, Professor of Education, New York University. 4:00 P. M.-DEPARTMENTAL MEETINGS: English Department. In the gymnasium. Foreign Lan- guage Teachers' Conference. Room No. 202 Science Teachers' Conference. Room No. 210. Social Science Teachers' Conference. Room No. 203. 5:00 P. M. Principals' Banquet. Brock Building, 9th and Magazine Streets. ($1.50 per plate.) Mr. E. W. Whiteside, Toast- master. 5:00 P. M.-Meeting of Kentucky State College Alumni at USO, 920 West Chestnut Street. Reverend A. R. Lasley, Hopkins- ville, Kentucky, guest speaker. 8:15 P. M.-Fourth General Session. Quinn Chapel A. M. E. Church Address: "A Test of American Education," Dr. Lou La Brant, New York University. Address: "What Shall We Teach About the Peoples of The World," Dr. Leslie Pinckney Hill, President, State Teachers' College, Cheyney, Pennsylvania. 10:15 P. M.-Annual Meeting of Kentucky High School Athletic As- sociation. Beckett's Parlors, 1026 West Walnut Street. FRIDAY, APRIL 12 Place: Madison Street Junior High School 8:00 A. M.-Annual election of officers begins. Room No. 133. 9:00 A. M.-Awarding of prizes, Home Economics Exhibit. Room No. 304. 9:30 A. M.-Fifth General Session. In the Gymnasium. 10:45 A. M.-Art Demonstration. Second Floor Hall and Room No. 201. Demonstrations by small groups of pupils in painting, clay modeling, paper construction, paper cutting, ar- rangement of three dimensional material, mural paint- ing, plaster carving, stenceling, linoleum block cutting and printing, applied design. The demonstration will be followed by a conference of teachers of the art department. Visitors are* invited Room No. 201. 29 10:45 A. M.-Conference, Group I (High School and College, Prin- cipals', Librarians' and Adult Education Departments). In the gymnasium. Address: "The Special Charge of the Negro Teacher," Dr. Leslie Pinckney Hill, President, State Teachers College, Cheyney, Pennsylvania. 11:45 A. M.-DEPARTMENTAL MEETINGS: Adult Education Department. Room No. 210. High School and CIallege Department. Room No. 113. Libra- rians Conference. Room No. 11.1. Principals' Conference. Room No. 105. 11:45 A. M.-Rural Education Department. Room No. 233. 11:45 A. M. Picture, free ;to enrolled teachers, courtesy of Palace Theatre, 13th and Walnut Streets, Mr. Ralph N. Dunn, Manager, Mr. G. C. Cox, Assistant Manager. (Showing of badges and payment of six cents government tax necessary for admittance). 1:00 P. M.-Lunch. School Cafeteria. 2:00 P. M.-Annual Spelling Contest. Room No. 201. 2:00 P. M.-Sixth General Session. Reports of Legislative and Reso- lutions Committees. 3:00 P. M.-Conference, Group IV (Guidance Workers', Youth Coun- cil, Vocational Education, Rural School Departments). Address: Mr. William Steele, U. S. E. S. 3:00 P. M.-Meeting of Mathematics Teachers, to organize. Room No. IlUl. 4:00 P. M.--DEPARTMENTAL MEETINGS: Guidance Workers' Conference. Room No. 202. Rural School Department. Room No. 204. Vocational Educa- tion Department. Room No. 203. Youth Council. Room No. 210. 5:00 P. M.-Annual election of officers closes. Room No. 133. 8:15 P. M.-Fifteenth Annual Muisicale at Memorial Auditorium, Fourth and Kentucky Streets. SATURDAY, APRIL 13 9:30 A.M.-Final General Session. In the gymnasium. Reports of Departmental Chairmen. Installation of new officers. Business. Closing. 30 Fifteenth Aninual Musicale Kentucky Negro Education Association PRESENTING Organ Introduction, William R. King Sara Osborne, Carl J. Barbour, Phil Robinson, Soloists Edwin Idler, Violinist (Louisville Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra) Mrs. J. J. Loudermill (American Guild of Organists) Kentucky State College Chorus Lincoln Institute, Louisville Municipal College Choruses Glee Clubs-Central High, Madison, Jackson Junior High All City Sixth Grade Chorus Central High School Band Jewel McNari's Dance Group Memorial Auditorium FRIDAY, APRIL 12-8:15 P. M. Admission: Adults: 78 Cents Children: 50 Cents (Advance sale 60 cents) (Advance sale 35 cents) Patron Ticket: $1.25 All prices include Federal tax DURING K. N. E. A., VISIT DEL-RAY RESTAURANT & RATHSKELLAR "combining an excellent cuisine with wholesome entertainment in a delightful atmosphere where courtesy and service are paramount objectives- .7 - 4 The Spaghetti King -here setting bequeaths traditional cheer with modern surroundings to make your dinner and supper dates positively the very last word in so- ciable appetite." MADISON AT TWENTY-SIXTH LOUISVILLE SHawnee 9478 KENTUCKY