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Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal v.19 n.1 Kentucky Negro Educational Association 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 kneav19n1 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal v.19 n.1 Kentucky Negro Educational Association Kentucky Negro Educational Association Louisville, Kentucky November-December 1947 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. VOL. XIX NOVEMBER-DECEMBER, 1947 No. 1 6,An Equal Edu.atio.al Opportnity for Every Kentucky Chfl, " SAn Equal Educational Opportunity for Every Kentucky Child" _ I The K~entucky State College 1886 Frankdort, Kentucky 1947 Co-educational Class A College Degrees Offered In Arts and Sciences Home Economics- Agriculture Business Administration Education Engineering -Industrial Arts FOR INFORMATION WRITE THE REGISTRAR - The K. N. E. A. Journal Official Organ of the Kentucky Negro Education Association VIL. XIX NOVEMBER-DECEMBER, 1947 No. 1 Published by the Kentucky Negro Education Association Editorial Office at 2230 West Chestnut Street Louisville 11, Kentucky W. H. Perry, Jr., Executive Secretary, Louisville, Managing Editor W. 0. Nuckolls, Providence, President of K.N.E.A. PRICE ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR OR 25 CENTS PER COPY Membership in the K.N.E.A. includes subscription to the Journal. Rates of advertising mailed on request. CONTENTS Editorial Comment ....................................................... 3 K.N.E.A. Outlook, .W. 0. Nuckolls ....................................................... 4 K.N.E.A. Legislative Program ............ .......................................... 5, 6 The Dawn of Abdominal Surgery, Mrs. A. T. McCormack ........................ 7, 8 A Newcomer Looks at Lincoln, Mrs. Katherine Taylor ............................. 9 State Educational Association Officers Meet, G. W. Gore, Jr . ............... 10 Survey of 'Segregated Schools Systems ....................................................... 11, 12 Bradford New K.S.C. Dean ...................................................... 13 Faculty Changes at K.S.C . ........................................................ 14 Can West Kentucky Training School Make It? ............................................. 15. 16 Over the Editor's Desk ...................................................... 17 Exchanges ........................................................ 18 Improved Spelling, T. R. Rowan ..................... ................................. 19, 20. 21 K.N.E.A. Kullings .......................................: .............. !:! .. . . ... 22, 23 K.:N.E.A. OFFICERS FOR 1947-1948 W. 0. Nuckolls, President. . .. Providence Robert L. Dowery, First Vice-President ... Franklin Elmer 0. David, Second Vice-President ................................................... Cynthiana W. H. Perry, Jr., Secretary-Treasurer . .......................................... Louisville BOARD OF DIRECTORS W. 0. Nuckolls, President . ................................................... Providence C. B. Nuckolls.............. Ashland Victor K. Perry . .Louisville E. W . W hiteside.................................................................................................................................P aducah Whitney M. Young .................................................... Lincoln Ridge DEPARTMENTAL AND CONFERENCE CHAIRMAN Edward T. Buford, High School and College Department ..BowlingGreen Mayme R. Morris, Elementary Education Department ...................... Louisville Emma B. Bennett, Rural School Department . ............................................... Louisville R. L. Carpenter, Music Department . ............................................. Louisville B. W. Browne, Vocational Education Department . ............................ Paducah John V. Robinson, Principals' Conference...........................................Elizabethtown Beatrice C. Willis, Primary Teachers' Department . ......................... Louisville Hattie Figg Jackson, Art Teachers' Conference . .............................. Louisville G. W. Jackson, Social Science Teachers' Conference .......................... Louisville Gertrude Sledd, Science Teachers' Conference . ................................. Danville Jewell R. Jackson, English Teachers' Conference . ........................... Covington C. Elizabeth Johnson, Librarians' Conference ................................................ Louisville W. L. Kean, Physical Education Department . ................................. Louisville W. H. Craig, Guidance Workers' Conference . ................................. Covington A. J. Richards, Foreign Language Teachers' Conference .................. Frankfort William T. Davidson, Adult Education Conference . ......................... Louisville PRESIDENTS OF K.N.E.A. DISTRICT EDUCATION ASSOCIATIONS 1-Bettie C. Cox, Paducah ............................... First District Association 2-Lester G. Mimms, Earlington ............................... Second District Association 3-E. B. McClaskey, Russellville ............................... Third District Association 4-M. J. Strong, Campbellsville ............................... Fourth District Association 5-Elizabeth W. Collins, Louisville .............................. Fifth District Association 6-P. L. Guthrie, Lexington ............................... Blue Grass District Association 7-H. R. Merry, Covington ............................... Northern District Association 8-E. M. Kelly, Pikeville ............................... Eastern District Association 9-Esther R. Ball, Middlesboro .Upper Cumberland District Association 2 Editorial Comment THE McGUIRE CASE The Kentucky State Federation of Teachers took a courageous action in urging the resignation of Heman H. McGuire as president of the Kentucky Education Association, in the "interest of public education in Kentucky and in the interests of racial and religious tolerance," be- cause he had "freely and flagrantly indulged in ignorant and bigoted references to a religious faith and to a racial group." The references had been publicly made by Mr. McGuire because, he said, "It is my duty as K.E.A. president to lead the fight for sound principles in edu- cation." That Mr. McGuire, who is superintendent of the Carter County- schools, was white-washed by the Board of Education and educational organizations of Carter County, doubtless means he expressed the sen- timent of his community. That the directors of the K.E.A. wiped their hands of the affair, neither supporting nor condemning the action of their president, means they failed to take high ground when an issue presented itself. Mr. McGuire's unretracted statement must have been embarrasing to the many fine members and leaders of the K.E.A. whose records show them out of harmony with his point of view. Whatever Mr. McGuire's personal prejudices may be, his position as county superintendent and as K.E.A. president imposed upon him the obligation of asuming the role of a good American. This he failed to do. Statements such as those made by the honored Kentucky educator go to Russia, along with American food and clothing. It is to be hoped that whenever they may be chosen, Mr. McGuire's successors in the official positions he now holds, will be persons whose efforts will be to establish, rather than to destroy, the attitudes which make good neigh- bors of individuals and of nations. Salary Limitation Removed The judicial decision that the $5,000.00 constitutional limitation on the salaries of state officers of our Commonwealth does not apply to the salaries of principals and teachers. is of interest to the group. It means that their pay schedules, though limited by the availability of funds, will not be handicapped by the former low pay ceiling. Although teachers salaries in Kentucky have been improved constantly during recent years, by increases ranging from mere tokens to several hundred dollars per teacher per year, their buying powe is, in many instances, less than that of the lower salaries years ago. Further increases, due to increased living costs, already are warranted. There is abundant evidence that the larger pay checks have im- proved teacher morale, with 'a consequent raising of the level of pro- fessional service. Thus the support given. by the public recently to teacher movements for increased pay is being justified. We in the educational profession must never fail in our first obli- gation-to render the best possible service to the pupils. Also, 'We should utilize opportunities for keeping the public informed of the financial support needed for good schools, and of the value of good teachers. Then, too, we should not fail to have available, through our educational organi- zations, the potential pressure groups through which modern democracy functions. 3 K.N.E.A. OUTLOOK By W. 0. Nuckoils It has been encouraging to note that the great dynamic force of teachers in Kentucky are admirably going on with the task to maintain and improve thrift and -a democratic spirit in our way of life. It is gratifying that general school needs are being improved. Salary differentials and general equipment have been improved, but are by no means satisfactory. Negro teachers and interested citizens are urged to keep alert and continue to work for equal support for education for all Kentuckians. Farm study, by our group, has improved to some degree. The con- tinued shift of the Negro population from rural 'and smaller urban centers increases the problem to maintain adequate intermediate and high school opportunities for our group. We are probably missing one of our best opportunities through gradual lack of interest and shift from the farm. The K.N.E.A. Board of Directors has met several times since the last annual meeting. It is proud to report that through these meetings and the meeting of a committee appointed by the president, to seek information concerning the resignation of President H. C. Russell from West Kentucky Vocational Training School of Paducah, that the State Board of Education accepted the K.N.E.A. Board of Directors as an advisory board to it concerning matters pertaining to that Training School. The President then appointed the following persons on -an advisory committee to the K.N.E.A. Board of Directors: R. S. Lowery, G. D. Wilson, G. W. Jackson, Mrs. M. J. Egester, 'Mr. Rufus S. Stout and Chas. T. Steele. The following is the personnel of the committee which met with the State Superintendent and the Vocation Training heads: The Presi- dent, R. S. Lowery, G. W. Jackson, G. D. Wilson and Mrs. Mayme J. Egester. If the ;Secretary-Treasurerf can get a good enrollment early the general preparation for 'a constructive program for the annual meet- ing and the necessary planning for the next Legislative program will go forward in a way that, we think. will reflect credit to the KNEA. Respectfully yours, W. 0. NUCKOLLS,. President, KNEA. K. N. E A. Legislative Program The K.N.E.A. is in full harmony with the legislative program of the K. E. A. However, Kentucky's dual system of education makes additional legislative and administrative action necessary if equality of educational opportunity is to become a reality. Specific needs are covered in the following report, made by our legislative committee at the April, 1946 convention. The Report The K.N.E.A. Legislative Committee wishes to offer the following report as its recommendation covering the legislative needs and some administrative adjustments for the improvement of education in the State of Kentucky. 1. Physical Plants and Equipment. A primal need in each of the three State Schools for Negroes is that of buildings, major equipment, and in some cases, adequate land for the prosecution of efficient educa- tional programs. In the latter need, there is now an indefinite policy and a lack of positive cooperation on the part of the State Government in the procurement of land, the location and erection of buildings. We would therefore recommend; (a) that there be established a functioning Division of Buildings and Grounds, under the Department of Education, to be manned with a competent staff of engineers, archi- tects, and other necessary employees; (b) that the K.N.E.A. join with the administrators of other state schools in their campaigns for adequate legislative appropriations to bring the buildings, plants and equipment of the Kentucky State College, West Kentucky Vocational Training School and Lincoln Institute up to the standards of other similar state educational institutions. 2. Education and Agriculture. That the Negro in Kentucky is fast losing out as a farmer and in other agricultureal pursuits is common knowledge, and the State seems not to care. Due to the State policy of segregation in education and social welfare, Negro farmers and Negro youth enjoy but little of the benefits which come to the State from Federal and State funds for the encouragement and improvement of agriculture and agricultural education. Therefore it is recommended: (a) that the State and Federal Governments cooperate to set up an Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension Division for Negro farmers, with sufficient personnel for research and experiments, farm demonstrations, and field work by farm and home demonstrators to serve the needs of Negro farmers who reside in areas' where local service is not provided under the present systm; (b) that an adequate plant be established and maintained at the Kentucky State College to operate and administer such special agricul- tural service as may set up adequate opportunities for Negro farmers and Negro students of agriculture. 3. Teachers' Salaries. Although much progress has been made toward the equalization of salaries in local school systems, there still exist wide variations of salaries in many systems, due largely to a legally permissive practice of assigning special duties to certain teachers, usually extra-curricular duties, 'and awarding them special salaries for these services. The 'advantage almost universally favors teachers in schools for white pupils. We recommend that extra-service compensation be discontinued, and that (1) a minimum wage scale of $2,400.00 per year for college grad- uates professionally prepared to teach be adopted; (2) that annual salary increases, starting with the second year of service, and continuing with additional experience to a level of at least $4,000.00 per year, for college trained teachers with ten years of service. 4. Th Day Law. It is now forty-three years since one Representa- tive Day introduced in the General Assembly and secured the passage 5 of a law prohibiting the attendance of white and Negro students in the same educational institutions in Kentucky. The principal immediate effect was the exclusion of Negro students from Berea College-which, according to the then President of Berea, they had attended together "without contamination or reproach." During the intervening years from 1904 to 1947, the position of the Negro in Kentcky has become in- creasingly more acute as concerns differentials in educational oppor- tunity and in his ability to secure education for tine needs of life even though much of this education is operated in the state at public ex- pense. Therefore: (1)' We recommend the repeal of the Day Law. Or if, the alter- native becomes necessary, we recommend that such modifications of the Day Law be made as will permit Negro students to attend public graduate and professional schools, and such private schools of this type as will admit them, and that this include interneship in public hospitals and sanatoria; (2) that, until such time as the admission of graduate and pro- fessional students to institutions within the state does equalize these op- portunities as between races, the State grant adequate financial sup- port to out-of-state study under the Anderson-Mayer Act; (3) it is further recommended that the Anderson-Mayer Law be so amended as to require a minimum of only one year of residence within the state to secure its benefits; (4) that the Anderson-Mayer Law be further amended to include the study of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy and Nursing. .5. Civil and Economic Rights. The Kentucky Negro Education Association joins with the Kentucky Division of the Southern Regional Council, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in a constant campaign for full participation in the civic and economic opportunities of citizens of the State and Nation. In par- ticular, we appeal to the state and local governments for: (1) equal employment opportunities for Negroes in the public service, in contracts and work on public projects, and under whatever conditions public funds are expended; (2) we recommend also the formation of a State Division of Statistical Researchi on Negro Affairs, adequately financed, and re- sponsible to the Governor for at least a quarterly report on the progress and needs of Negro citizens of the State. 6. Administrative Issues. More of an administrative nature than legislative are the following items: (a) Supervision. The effective work of the present 'State Assist- ant Supervisor of Negro Schools, *Mr. Whitney M. Young, has shown the possibilities of this type of work in Negro education. It is now recommended that instead of part-time supervision, the, Assistant Supervisor of Negro Education be placed on a full-time basis at an adequate salary. 7. Implementing These Recommendations. In order to secure the needed legislative and administrative improvements set forth in this report, the officers of the K.N.E.A. are directed: (a) to have bills prepared, secure sponsors, and make every effort to obtain the required legislation to make these recommendation effec- tive. The employment of a lobbyist is strongly recommended; (b) that such portions of this report as pertain to regulation and administration by departments of the State Government be presented by a committee to be appointed by the president of the association for that purpose, and at such time or times as the president may see fit. (During the April convention of the Association, the above report was adopted by unanimous vote. Members of the Legislative Commit- tee were:.H. C. Russell, Chairman; H. E. Goodloe,, E. W. Whiteside, J. A. Matthews, S. L. Barker, R. B. Atwood. C. B. Nuckolls. 6 THE DAWN OF ABDOMINAL SURGERY The following proclamation invites observance of a day in recognition of the first successful abdominal operation ever performed. It was done at Danville, Kentucky, on Christmas Day, 1809, prior to the dis- covery of anaesthesia. December 13, the date of Jane Todd Crawford's decision, is to be observed. Governor Willis, in accordance with the Act of the General As- sembly, February 21, 1942, has issued the following Proclamation honor- ing the date upon which two courageous pioneers, a physician and his patient, mutually decided to enter into an experiment that has resulted in great benefit to humanity the world over. This Legislative Act calls for observance of December 13, each year, "in schools, churches, clubs, and other suitable places with appropriate historical and memorial ceremonies." PROCLAMATION By The GOVERNOR Of The COMMONWEALTH OF KENTUCKY TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME: WHEREA'S, we once again approach the time when all Ken- tuckians take pride in paying tribute to that brave resident of Green County, Kentucky, Jane Todd Crawford, who, while stricken with an illness believed to be fatal, traveled sixty miles by horse- back over rough terrain to the home of a great surgeon, Dr. Ephraim McDowell; and WHEREAS, it was concluded that she must submit to an abdominal operation in order that her health might be restored; and WHEREAS, although modern anesthesia was unknown, she courageously submitted to the operation; 'and WHEREAS, this was the first performance of an operation of this nature and as a result of her fortitude and the genius of the surgeon, thousands of lives have been saved since that time; 7 NOW, THEREFORE, I, SIMEON WILLIS, GOVERNOR of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, do hereby proclaim December 13, 1947, as JANE TODD CRAWFORD DAY IN KENTUCKY and call upon the citizens of this Commonwealth to pay homage to our great heroine of surgery. Done *at Frankfort, Kentucky, this tenth day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and forty-seven and in the year of the Commonwealth the one hundred and fifty- sixth. SIMEON WILLIS, Governor Commonwealth of Kentucky Charles K. O'Connell Secretary of State Teachers may secure a copy of THE STORY OF JANE TODD CRAWFORD, by the late George Madden Martin, author of EMMY LOU, by writing to Mrs. Wm. H. Emrich, 842 South Second Street, Louisville 3, Kentucky. Under the chairmanship of Dr. Irvin Abell, assisted by Mrs. Eleanor Hume Offut, the Kentucky State Medical Association is renewing the attempt, interrupted by the War, to furnish the restored old home of Dr. McDowell in Danville, where the momentous experiment was per- formed so that this scene of surgery's stepping-stone may be re-opened to the public as Kentucky's Medical Shrine. Mrs. A. T. McCormack, Chairman Woman's Auxiliary, Kentucky Medical Association "The Newest and Finest in Visual Tools for Modern Schools" * BELL & HOWELL MOTION PICTURE PROJECTORS SLIDEFILMSTRIPS - PROJECTORS RECORDINGS - RECORD PLAYERS D. T. DAVIS COMPANY More Than Twenty Years Serving the Schools of Kentucky 543 S. 5th St. 178 Walnut St. 911 Main St. Louisville, Ky. Lexington, Ky. Cincinnati, Ohio 8 I A NEWCOMER LOOKS AT LINCOLN INSTITUTE By Mrs. Katherine Taylor I have called "Lincoln" home for about two weeks. A short time, Yes! But each hour I spend here, I'm more and more convinced that I'm indeed fortunate to be a part of this great institution. When I look about at the rolling, majestic hills; the carpet of green grass; the towering trees and the glowing sunset, I feel the presence of an Omnipotent God. Without a shadow of a doubt, it must have been his guiding hand that set this "City on a hill," in Shelby County, and allowed it to send its beams to the remote sections of our grand old state, biding -all young people, who will, to come and lay the corner stone for a richer and fuller life. The director, Mr. Whitney Young. his able assistant, Mr. J. A. Carroll, and the dean of education, Mrs. Kathelene Carroll, have per- fected a school organization of which every "Kentuckian" can be justly proud. I find associated with them a splendid faculty group. Men and women who are academically and spiritually prepared to meet the needs of the students. As one, they are striving to develop these stu- dents into well rounded personalities, who can best serve humanity. From the teachers and students alike there radiates a spirit of friendliness and goodwill. A cooperative *attitude is exhibited by all. Truly, everyone seems to be a loyal member of the "Lincoln family." Many visible signs of improvements can be seen this school year. In the dormitory for girls, a new heating system has been installed; the rooms have been painted, and new hardwood floors have been laid. The living quarters for boys have been redecorated. Shrubbery has been planted on the campus, and work has begun on the road construction project, leading from the main highway to Berea Hall. More than fifty counties and independent districts are represented in the student body. Lincoln, like other educational institutions, is experiencing an overflow in her enrollment. Many are those who were not permitted to enter this semester, because every available space is already in us. This institution is rated "A" class by the "State" and "Southern Association." Recently it passed from the "Lincoln Foundation" to state control. Its possibilities for future developments are many, and a bigger and better "Lincoln" has already begun to 'appear on the horizon. Opportunities for basic vocational training are being offered and the young people are urged to accept the same. I could not look 'at '$Lincoln" without seeing in it, the dynamic courageous and christian spirit of Mr. Young, the man Who stands at the helm and leads aright. Though not a carpenter; yet he builds, Though not a doctor; yet he heals, Though not a farmer; yet -he sows, Though not a magician, boys and girls grow. Though not a warrior; yet he fights, Work, for the Good of All Is his chief delight. LINCOLN is on the March! 9 STATE EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION OFFICERS HOLD MEETING AT FLORIDA A. AND M. COLLEGE The second meeting of the State Association Officers, a depart- ment of the American Teachers Association, was held at Florida A. and M. College, Tallahassee, Florida, July 2. in connection with the annual meeting of the American Teachers Association. Representatives from eleven state associations were present. Mr. J. R. Picott of the Virginia Association for Education presided. The meeting considered a four-part program. The first part concerned itself with adopting a constitution and making plans for a February meeting of the Associa- tion to be held in 'Louisiana. The second part of the meeting concerned itself with cooperation with the American Teadhers Association in keeping with the constitution of that organization. The third feature was *a presentation by Mr. Picott on national advertising for state association magazines. The fourth feature considered new business and discussion of plans for development of the organization. All mem- bers of the organization were asked to pay a fee of $5.00 for the first year. The election of officers was as follows: president, J. R. Picott; vice-president, C. L. Harper of Georgia; secretary-treasurer, George W. Gore, Jr.; lay members of the Executive Committee, Dr. R. C. Hatcher of Alabama and Mr. A. T. Butler of South Carolina. The department will hold its annual meeting during the meeting of the American Teachers Association, and 'a winter meeting at the time and place de- cided upon at the annual meeting of the department. G. W. GORE, JR., (The K.N.E.A. was represented at the first meeting of this asso- ciation, held in Memphis last February.) 10 The Domestic Life and Accident Insurance Co. STRENGTH - SERVICE - SECURITY 26 Years of Satisfactory Service OVER $2,000,000 PAID TO POLICYHOLDERS OVER 500,000 POLICYHOLDERS RESERVE OVER 200,000 SURPLUS TO POLICYHOLDERS Has Purchased $1,500,000 Government Bonds All Claims Paid Promptly And Cheerfully Insure In THE DOMESTIC and Help Make Jobs for Your Sons and Daughters HOME OFFICE - LOUISVILLE, KY. W. L. SANDERS, President J. E. SMITH, Vice-President R. D. TERRY, Secretary and Agency Director CLARENCE YOUNG, Treasurer I l SURVEY OF SEGREGATED SCHOOL SYSTEMS REVEALS LITTLE PROGRESS IN 15 YEARS Bureau of Educational Research, Howard University. A survey of the segregated school systems in 17 states and the District of Columbia has just been completed by the Bureau of Educa- tional Research, Howard University. This study reveals that very lit- tle progress has been made in the provision of educational opportunities for Negroes equal to those enjoyed by whites in the same school systems. In 17 states (Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Ken- tucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, Okla- homa, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia) and the Districct of Columbia separate schools are required by law for the education of the white and Negro races. Separate schools have been decclared by the courts to be legal only when equal educational oppor- tunity is afforded each racial group. The findings of the survey of these state school systems which are given in some detail in the current (Summer, 1947 Yearbook) number of the JOURNAL OF NEGRO EDUCATION, published by Howard University, showed that in no separate school system does the Negro receive educational opportunity equal to that of white students in the same community. The most noticeable progress toward equality of educational op- portunity has been made in two areas: length of scchool term and in- crease in teachers salaries in the common schools. Fifteen years ago the length of school term for white pupils was 30 days longer than the Negro school term. In 1945 the white term was only 10 days longer than the Negro term, but the Negro school term was -about equal to the white school term in 1930. White elementary school teachers re- ceived an average salary of $958 in 1930 and $1307 in 1945. Negro teachers were paid $510 in 1930 and $939 in 1945. The difference in white and Negro teachers' salaries has been reduced from 85% to 40% in the last 15 years. In general, this reduction 'has been made possible by court cases instituted in many states requiring that equal salaries should be paid white and Negro teachers with the same training and doing similar work. The study revealed, however, that very little progress has been made in the equalization of facilities for transporting pupils to school, or in the provision of buildings and equipment in the common schools. Fifteen years ago the value of school property per white pupil enrolled was $166 and for each Negro, only $32; in 1945 the amount invested in white school property was $224 for each white pupil in school and only $52 for each Negro pupil. At the present rate of progress, it would take 60 years before the buildings and equipment in Negro common schools would become substantially equal to those provided for white pupils in 1945, to say nothing of the future. In the matter of transportation to school, which is -an important item because of the rural character of many Negro schools, not only are proportionately three and a half times as many white pupils trans- ported as Negroes, but twice as much per pupil is spent for transport- ing a white pupil as for 'a Negro pupil. One state (Texas), for example, spent as much merely to haul white pupils to school in 1945 as was spent on the Negro common schools for everything-teachers salaries, transportation, teaching materials, etc. The survey revealed that the provision of higher and professional educational opportunities for Negroes by the several states is relatively little, if any, better than 15 years ago. Some increased but still in- 11 adequate provisions have been made for collegiate education and a little graduate work of limited quantity and highly questionable quality has been started. Three times as many undergraduate curricula are offered in the average state college or university for white students as are offered in the corresponding Negro higher institution. Graduate work is offered in eight Negro state colleges in seven states, which give work leading to the master's degree ONLY. No Negro higher institu- tion, public or private, offers work leading to the doctor's degree. Graduate work leading to the master's degree is offered by at least one state-supported institution for white students in each of the 17 states, and the Ph.D. degree is offered in 12 states. Professional education in STATE institutions was available for white students as follows: DENTISTRY, 4 states; law, 16; medicine, 15; pharmacy, 14; social work, 9; and library science, 11 states. For Negroes NO state-supported institution in any state provides any op- portunity for medicine, dentistry, or pharmacy; only 4 institutions offer law; and 1 library secince. The most striking example of the relative opportunities provided for white and Negro students in state-supported higher and professional institutions is revealed by the fact that, in 1944, an amount equal to $2.43 for each person in the white population in these states was ex- pended for white higher institutions as contrasted with 56 cents for each Negro. In 1930, the corresponding amounts were $1.39 for whites and 33 cents for Negroes. Thus, the difference in favor of the white institutions has INCREASED by 13%, instead of being decreased. The following conclusions stated in the "Editorial Note" indicate In brief the status of the problem of the Negro separate school: no critical observer can honestly say that Negroes are ob- taining equal educational opportunity in the separate school anywhere. Moreover, the elimination of disparities in financial outlay for Negro and white common schools has been so slow that, even if equality of expenditures assured equality of educational opportunity, it would take 25 years or more for the Negro schools to reach the point where the white schools are NOW, and a hundred years to attain parity. These facts suggest that either there can be no such thing as "separate but equal" educational opportunity; or that, even if it were possible, it is' not the intention of the several states in which separate schools are legally required to provide such opportunity for Negroes; or both. . . "It is clear that segregation in education based upon race must be abolished. The question is when and where to start. It is the con- sidered opinion of a growing number of intelligent people, North and South, white and Negro, that we could and should begin NOW in the graduate and professional fields, gradually working down to the lower levels. (And this appears to b'e *a sensible sort of gradualism.) For there are numerous indications that such a step is not possible NOW in more than half of the states which require separate schools, but is absolutely necessary if Negroes are to obtain anything like equal op- portunity on these levels." 12 DR. DAVID H. BRADFORD Dr. David H. Bradford was appointed Dean and Registrar of Ken- tucky State College at the beginning of the school year. Mr. Bradford has had a wide and varied career. He has been connected with Ken- tucky State College since 1935, coming to that institution from Samuel Huston College in Austin, Texas, where he was professor of history. Previous to going to teach in Texas, he was on the faculty of Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina. Dean Bradford is a graduate of the University of Michigan with the A.B. and A.M. degrees and has a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. While at the latter university, he was a Research Assistant in the History Department under the auspices of the Social Science Research Council. Besides his work as a classroom teacher, he has been active as a writer. For more than two years before going into the army, Mr. Bradford wrote a weekly column for the Louisville Courier-Journal. He has written a number of articles and book-reviews for The Crisis, The Quarterly Journal of Higher Education Among Negroes. and the Journal of Negro History. i3 FACULTY CHANGES AT KENTUCKY STATE COLLEGE FOR 1947-48 (A release from the Office of Public Relations, KN.E.A.) Dr. David H. Bradford, head of the department of history and gov- ernment at Kentucky State College since 1935, has been appointed dean and registrar to succeed Dr. J. T. Williams. The latter left KSC after nineteen years on the faculty and ten as dean to become president of Princess Ann College, a state school in Maryland. Mr. A. J. Richards has been named assistant registrar to replace Mrs. Violet J. Wood who also has gone to Princess Ann. Mr. Richards is head of the Romance Languages Department and has been at Frank- fort since 1929. Mr. Cecil M. Morton, manager of the college cooperative and bookstore and a lecturer in economics has also received an ap- pointment at the Maryland college. After serving in various war related capacities Mrs. Ann Jackson Heartwell is back at Frankfort as dean of students. Mrs. Minnie J. Hitch, principal of the elementary practice school connected with the college, Mr. W. W. Jones, head of the department of mathematics, and Mr. M. P. Carmichael, head of the department of sociology and eco- nomics, have 'all returned from sabbatical leaves during which they studied at Chicago, Indiana, and Columbia respectively. Mr. Sheley Lynem, formerly superintendent of buildings and grounds, has been appointed college business manager, 'and three new persons have been added to that office staff: Mrs. Ella B. Scott, book- keeper, Miss Cathyn Moody, clerk-typist, and Miss Frances Ann Poin- dexter, bill clerk. New teachers and staff members at the college include -Mr. Henry V. Adams, Tuskegee graduate who is teaching in the agriculture depart- ment and acting as football line coach; Mr. Robert E. Claybrooks, Jr.. M.A. from the University of Illinois, teaching in the departments of English and Romance Languages; Mr. John Ed Crowe, Jr., M.S. from Indiana University, is dean of men, and coach of football, and a part- time instructor in physical education; Mr. George Edwards, former athletic star at Kentucky State College, has returned to teach in the physical education departmen; Mrs. Ozelle M. Hamilton, a graduate of Southern University who has done graduate work at the University of Illinois, has been shifted from the position of dormitory director which she held last year at Frankfort to the department of home economics; and Mr. Cary B. Lewis, Jr., M.A. from the University of Chicago, is teaching in the department of business administration;, Miss Edith Prunty, a graduate of Shaw University and the Atlanta University School of Library Science, has been appointed assistant librarian; Mrs. Beatrice E. Brown is now director of Kentucky Hall; and Mrs. Giebreth Holt is director of Chandler Hall. 14 CAN WEST KENTUCKY MARE IT? Can West Kentucky make it? Read the facts set out in this article and form your own conclusion. On July 1, 1947, Mr. M. J. Sleet, who had served -as business manager of the West Kentucky Vocational Training School and its predecessor, the West Kentucky Industrial College since 1934, became Acting President of the West Kentucky Vocational Training School. Determined to do a first class job, Mr. Sleet started to write an addi- tional chapter of this institution with vim, vigor 'and vitality. Simul- taneously with his appointment, he began to institute plans for carry- ing out his favorite slogan: "MAKE THIS A GOOD VOCATIONAL SCHOOL.;' To that end many improvements have been made and are being made. The Chef Cooking which heretofore did not have a permanent location is now being housed in the basement of the Ad- ministration Building, in the quarters formerly occupied by the tailoring department. The department has been adquately equipped and gas lines have been laid to serve the same. The drawing has been moved to the second floor of the Administration Building in quarters formerly held by the office practice department. The office practice depart- ment has been moved to quarters which previously housed the drawing instruction. The laboratory, equipped for the teaching of college chem- istry, has been converted into a practice room for the barbering stu- dents, and the room formerly used as the practice room for barbering has been converted into a lecture room for both the barbering and beauty culture departments. The library quarters which were too spacious for a school of this kind, now house the tailoring depart- ment. To this already well equipped department, new machines and other equipment have been added. Fitting rooms for men and women have been provided. A good school library is one that serves the needs of the school with which it is connected. A commercial library would certainly not be considered adequate for a law school, nor is a junior college library adequate for a vocational school. Therefore the library is being supplied with books necessary in the carrying out of the school's curricula, and is housed in quarters sufficient for that purpose. A large storage room has been built in the basement where things can be amply and systematically stored. The steel foundry building has just received its second coat of 'aluminum paint. An instructor in foundry has been interviewed. Plans for converting the auditorium into a combination gym and auditorium, as well as for the moderization of the old boys' dormitory, so it can be used for housing girls have been drawn and approved by the State Department of Education. Equipment and supplies are being delivered each day. Among the equipment are to be found, six power sewing machines, two Allen auto motor testers, one automobile lift, one double gas range stove, one 16 MM Sand motion picture projector, two typewriters, and one 2 A model S. P. 3 horse motor self propelled whirlwind lawn mower; a number of drill presses, donated by the Southern Textile Company. On September 9, the school got off to a dazzling start with the largest enrollment since its beginning in 1938. Students, eager to enjoy the rich opportunities afforded by the institution, poured in large numbers from other states, as well as from more than fifty Kentucky counties. Some of the trade departments were filled the' first day. From all indications, the student body is not only larger, but seems to be of a much higher calibre than it has been in previous years. The new administration began the term by passing on the teachers and students: his slogan: "MAKE THIS A GOOD VOCATIONAL SCHOOL!" "Says Acting President Sleet: "It is all a matter of timing. The scientist is not satisfied with anything less than exactness. The same 15 exactness Is needed in operating an institution of learning. Efficiency and economy in the carrying on of every phase of the work here must be the order of the day." In carrying out the program of efficiency and economy, along with the improvements in the physical plant, previously mentioned, other. improvements of a more significant nature have been made. The pro- gram of studies in each trade has been enriched and made more effective;. The school term has been lengthened from ten to eleven months. Real- izing that no school can progress if teachers are burdened with financial worries, Acting President Sleet at once discarded the old salary schedule which the school has maintained from the first, and secured substantial increases, ranging from 20 to 50% in the salaries of all teachers and- employees. All teachers and employees -are now paid for 12 calendar months. This is a very definite step forward. Realizing that Christianity must stand at the foundation of every successful life, the religious phase has not been neglected. Vesper services are conducted once per month. There are also present on the campus religious organizations. The ministers of the city hold indi- vidual and group conferences with students from time to time. In- cluded in the school's program are provisions for recreation and culture. Various artists will be brought before the students from time to time. "It is the policy of the administration," declares Mr. Sleet," to afford opportunities for development not only in the matter of vocational skills, but in 'all phases which go to make the well integrated person and the good life." ("One brick upon another 'and the biggest wall is laid. One flake upon another and the deepest snow is made." It was altogether fitting and proper that at the very first assembly, Acting President Sleet introduced Dr. D. H. Anderson, the man who made untold sacri- fices to lay one brick upon another in order that the Negro youth enjoy the opportunities now afforded by the West Kentucky Vocational Train- ing School. In his introductory speech. Mr. Sleet gave a very brief, but stirring story of the dramnatical founding of the West Kentucky Industrial College, from which the West Kentucky Vocational Training School received its heritage. Dr. Anderson's interesting and helpful address to the students centered around the Biblical quotation: "Seest thou a man diligent in his business, he shall stand before kings and not mean men." Dr. Anderson began his address with an ovation 'and finished with triumph. At the first Assembly, 'among the faculty members were seen four new faces. Mr. Fred E. Drummond, New Port News, Va., B.S. degree in Tailoring from St. Paul's Polytechnic Institute, Lawrenceville. Va., Tailoring Instructor, Mr. David H. Edwards, Jr., Monroe, Alabama, B.S. Degree from Tuskegee Institute, who teaches in the Auto' Me- chanics Department; Miss Alice Simpson, Frankfort, Ky., of the Atlanta University Library School, who serves -as Librarian; Miss Mary Bell Marshall, Shelbyville, Kentucky, who was graduated from the 'Office Practice Department of West Kentucky Vocational Training School last year, and is back to serve as one of the institution's secretaries. -CAN WEST KENTUCKY MAKE IT? Any who may doubt that the institution has promise of a glorious future, I point you to its heritage, its progress, and most important of all, to its functional service in the light of present day needs. May those who occupy the stage of action now and those who will occupy it in years to come have the vision, faith 'and courage to pursue, come what may, the goal of making and maintaining an institution which will never cease to do its' bit in the making of a better world. . -Contributed 16 Over The Editor's Desk Employment of Negroes. "I cannot urge too strongly that all of us in industry embark whole-heartedly on a program for the employment of Negro workers. Negroes have a lot to give; all they need is a chance to show it," J. J. Morrow, personnel manager of Pitney-Bowes, Inc., postage meter manufacturers, told a public meeting of the Stamford Social Work Council, which had met to interpret the new Connecticut Fair Employment Act to executives of business and industrial plants, unions, employment agencies and others affected by the law. Morrow recounted Pitney-Bowes experience in integrating the Ne- gro in its Stamford factory and office, a program which began several years ago. He emphasized the importance of the company's attitude toward the introduction of its first Negro employees. "A half apologetic or uncertain -management answer to disgruntled white employees might easily doom the whole program before it is well under way. Acceptance comes much more quickly when it is understood immediately that the company's stand on non-discrimination is -a firm -and irrevocable one. "In employing a Negro worker, an organization is also buying some qualities which, over a period of time, will bear increased work effi- ciency. The Negro worker knows he has a tough row to hoe, 'and, like any human being with more than a normal compulsion to make good, he will generally surpass himself. "The difficulties one expects to find in starting a program to inte- grate the Negro worker," Morrow said, "materialize to the extent of about 5% of what was anticipated. The bogey of race prejudice can hardly fail to disappear when it is really brought into the daylight and put to the test of normal day to day contacts. Reducing Negro Illiteracy. A project started last year by the U. S. Office of Education, and concerned especially with the 3,000,000 Negro adult illiterates, will be continued for an additional two years, through a $25,000 grant by the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Bureau of the Census figures indicate that two out of every five U. S. Negroes are functionally illiterate. During the past year 25 demonstration classes for adults were conducted. Approximately 500 -adults, ranging in age from 25 to 65 years, and representing varying degrees of illiteracy, were enrolled. The Southern Regional Council. A report by J. M. Tydings, chair- man of the 'Kentucky Division of the Southern Regional Council, out- lines the successful efforts of the organization to secure integration of Negro with white physicians in a symposium on cancer, sponsored by the American Cancer Society in Louisville last August. He says. "The experience of this 'incident' confirms that public opinion, adequately supported by the press, plus a friendly positive approach, is effective in meeting problems of racial discrimination especially if the people con- cerned are conscious of the moral issues involved. EXCHANGES The Broadcaster, official organ of the Tennessee Negro Education Association, states that the 1947 General Assembly provided for salary increases over 1946-47 from $300 to $800 per year, depending on train- ing, experience and position. There are differentials based on years of professional experience, but none based on grade taught, sex or race. The monthly salary range is from 5115 to $255 for a teacher who holds a Ph. D. degree with ten or more years of experience. Principals are allowed give dollars per month for each full time teacher under his supervision up to fifteen teachers. Educational News, published at Columbia, S. C., by the Palmetto State Teachers' Association, with A. T. Butler, Sr., as editor, contains a large number of articles written by teachers and principals, dealing with general problems of education and of the state association. The North Carolina Negro Teachers' Association publishes, quar- terly The North Carolina Teachers Record. The Texas Standard, a four page publication, is issued six times a year by the Colored Teachers' State Association of Texas. At the October, 1947 meeting, the name Virginia Association for Education was changed to Virginia Teachers Association, Incorporated. The departmental sessions were reported the Ã‚Â¶most effective in the history of the association, with over 2400 teachers participating. The latest issue of The Bulletin, published by the West Virginia State Teachers Association, lists two bills affecting education which were passed by the last legislature. One increases the basicc minimum monthly pay for teachers with master's degree from $165 to $255; for teachers with bachelor's degree, from $150 to $200. Teachers with lower grade certificates were given a flat $30 per month increase in basic salaries. The other bill provides that in any district where no high school for Negro pupils is maintained, the board must provide for payment of tuition fees not to exceed $10.00 per month per pupil in the nearest Negro hig:h school. The board must also pay transportation of such pupils. The Kentucky School Journal, publication of the Kentucky Education Association, says editorially in the September, 1947 issue, "We can no longer be concerned alone with the matter of salaries, of protective measures, of welfare agencies, but we shall now have to give more attention to the broader and deeper aspects of our professional life. The Kentucky Educational Association, in this new cycle, will have to take its stand upon the principle of increased professional sincerity and purpose . . . . It will have to stand squarely with the principle that a profession is a profession, and being such must necessarily cling to an idealism which flourishes only in high altitudes." 18 IMPROVING SPELLING TO THE TEACHERS: In keeping with the promise I made at the Spelling Bee during the K.N.E.A. last spring, I have compiled a list of the words most commonly misspelled by grade-school pupils. I have purposely made the list long enough to serve as a functional spelling list, and yet short enough to be covered in a school term. It has been made short enough that the teacher may add other words such as the names of the states, or, if in a rural community, such words as "tractor," "alfalfa," "hybrid," etc. Of course, if the teacher so desires, certain words may be omitted. It should be remembered that no word is mastered until a pupil spells the word correctly WITHOUT EXCEPTION in his themes, notes, letters and all written work. With this in mind, it is suggested that each pupil be required to keep a list of all words he has misspelled. It is surprising how large a percentage of errors occur among some fifty words. It is suggested that the pupil look at the word carefully, pronounce it aloud according to syllables, and notice the arrangement of the letters in the word before attempting to spell. It is further suggested that the earlier in his school life a pupil masters such words as BEEN, ANY, BEGINNING, TRULY, SEP- ARATE, FALSE, COMING, ALL RIGHT, DOES, ITS, the longer he will have to make the correct spelling of these words habitual. If we can teach the children of Kentucky to spell correctly the words on this list, we shall have done more good than we could ever hope to accomplish by conducting an annual spelling bee. Theodore R. Rowan, Director Annual K.N.E.A. Spelling Contest HELPFUL HINTS 1. Committee has two m's, two t's, and two e's. 2. There is a A RAT in separate. 3. All right is two words, like all wrong. 4. Judgment is too long already, so leave out the "e". 5. After "c" an "e" apply, after other letters "i". Put "i" before "e", except after "c" or when sounded like "a" as in neighbor and weigh. NOTE: This rule is for spelling words in which "ie" and "ei" have the sound of "ee": believe, receive. Exceptions: weird, foreigner, seize, neither, leisure, height. (The weird foreigner seizes neither leisure nor pleasure at its height). 6. Urge pupils to form pairs or larger groups and pronounce the spelling words to each other. This will relieve the teacher of much drill work, and help create the habit of self-reliance and self- criticism. 7. If any teacher who knows any helpful hints will send them to me, I shall be glad to include them in a revised bulletin. 8. If the teachers will make a list of the words constantly misspelled and send me the list, I will star these words in the revised list. Thus we will know the words needing special emphasis. 9. I am especially anxious to develop some type of award so that recog- nition can be given to the schools whose pupils master this list. Your suggestions are solicited. any false omitted convenient preferred didn't invoice once exactly effect loving early copy accordingly finally done concerning grammar answered decide hear captain appreciate isn't description could instead item dearest 19 heard generally further certain complete don't easy among believe always buy benefit criticism dropped clothes built blue accommodate beginning concerned describe friend February again customer communication forward comes been its across beautiful crowd been circumstances ache bills co-operation inconvenience executive busy future equipment American based interesting athletics cancel business already immediate almost allowed bit considerably yours judgment knew maybe literature ought arrange asked accept consideration enclosed color during freight insurance athlete indeed especially community divide government addressed assume break course doctor enough here dependent instructions although buy correspondence disposition general expect convenience appreciation committee doesn't catalog affectionately coming edition actually credited foreign definite advice choose excellent feel advised guess appears children does handling department approval can't every hoarse acquaintance cough hour later 20 having forty attention country disappointed great half grateful acknowledge county fourth hole canceled prices assure piece advise heart really awful certainly purchase reference sincerely together stretch recent purpose returned though studying whose promptly regret shining women separate writing purchased remember Tuesday sugar regretting their weeks raise there waste society sorry partial says read (red) situation written possible satisfactory weather tomorrow shipped whole stating quiet none receipt necessary to paid or sufficient usual quite men need too just know memorandum oh knowledge naturally least wrote mortgage off laboratory using which original much laid acceptable bulletin connection all right courtesy additional inquiry beg arrangements certificate dear mutual probably loss library mentioned opportunities personally remittance two led months receive regarding often wear vacation loose recipe meant lose material privilege volume therefore minute particularly making stopped until sure lady's many referred truly losing mamma occurred pleasant prevent used similar principal ready suppose woman shipment wouldn't sense supply whether statement writer shown Wednesday threw surprised wait satisfactorily won't semester through sandwich taking seems tear said tired shoes trouble since college advertising some awfully different formerly 21 K.N.E.A. KULLINGS Mrs. Louise Rudder Wilson, graduate of Kentucky State College, and former teacher at Earlington, Kentucky, has accepted a position as instructor in clothing and history at Lincoln High School, Paducah, Kentucky. Also, at Lincoln High School, Mrs. Florence Brashear Morton, graduate of Fisk University, is clerk to Principal E. W. Whiteside. Mrs. Emma B. Bennett, chairman of the Rural Section of the K.N.E.A., and Miss Alberta Abstain, teacher of the Jeffersontown Pub- lic School, attended the July meeting of the American Teachers Associa- tion, at Tallahassee, Florida. The annual A. T. A. meeting was also attended by Mrs. Lucy Harth Smith, past president of the K.N.E.A., and member of the Board of Directors of the A. T. A. Mrs. Hazel Fellows Landers, of Henderson, Kentucky, is the newly elected secretary of the Rural Education Department of the K.N.E.A. Miss Mary Frances Hambleton, former teacher in the Lexington Public Schools, is now teacher of foods at the Madison Street Junior High School in Louisville. At the same school, as teacher of social studies, is Mr. Thomas M. Bond, who, during World War II was director of USO camps, with headquarters in New York. Kentucky has seven life members in the American Teachers Asso- ciation-President R. B. Atwood, Mr. T. R. Dailey and Mrs. Catherine B. Dailey, of Frankfort; Mrs. L. B. Fouse and Mrs. Lucy Harth Smith, of Lexington, Mrs. Ellen C. Taylor, of Louisville, and Mrs. Mayme L. Copeland, of Hopkinsville. Mrs. Lillian Larke Bates, formerly of the Eminence and Owensboro school systems, is now a teacher of science at Central High School, Louisville. Mr. Frank L. Stanley, editor of the Louisville Defender, has spent a busy season in the newly created position of Commissioner of Athletics in the Mid-Western Athletic Association. Mr. Howard R. Barksdale, former Fisk University end, and now instructor at Louisville Municipal College, has made his debut this sea- son as a football official. Mr. Thomas D. Jarrett, one time instructor at Louisville Municipal College, has been awarded the doctorate in English by the University of Chicago, and is now on the Atlanta University faculty. Dates of the 1948 K.N.E.A. convention are April 14, 15, 16. Mrs. Nannie B. Crume, teacher of music at Central High School. and Miss R. Lillian Carpenter, chairman of the Music Department of the K.N.E.A., attended Ted Waring's workshop in music during their recent summer vacation. Prof. J. Bryant Cooper, principal of Phyllis Wheatley School, served as chairman of the Colored Population Division of the Louisville Com- munity Chest Drive this year. This division, under his direction, ex- ceeded its quota. Prof. A. S. Wilson, former secretary-treasurer of the K.N.E.A., and principal of Central High School, has submitted to the Louisville Board of Education a carefully prepared 95 page study, giving suggestions for 22 the proposed new Central High School building. Proposals include a swimming pool, athletic field, spacious aduitorium and well appointed gymnasium. Mr. Robert Ewing, of Columbia, Kentucky, is the new principal of Jackman High School in his home town. Durham High School, Campbellsville, has two new teachers, Miss Ann Brewer, Louisville, for music, and Miss Gwendolyn Boulden, May's Lick, home economics. Both are 1947 graduates of Kentucky State College. Messrs. Robert S. Lawery, E. T. Woolridge and Lyman T. Johnson, all of Central High School, Louisville, were elected first vice-president, corresponding secretary and financial secretary, respectively, of the Louisville Chapter of the Federation of Teachers. The Palmer Foundation of Texarkana, Texas, recently set aside $100,000.00 to be used in furthering the work of character education in schools, especially, and also in the home, the church and the community. West Kentucky -Vocational Training School Paducah, Kentucky Established in 1938 succeeding West Kentucky Industrial College A STRICTLY TRADE SCHOOL Offering Courses as Follows: Carpentry and Building Construction Cabinet Making Auto Mechanics-Welding (One Course) Tailoring Chef Cookery Barbering Beauty Culture Sewing Cooking Home Makinlg Home Making Trade Tailoring Courses in process of being set up: Foundry Work Brick Masonry Plastering Shoe Repairing For All Information Write M. J. SLEET, Acting President 24 -