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Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal v.21 n.1 Kentucky Negro Educational Association 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 kneav21n1 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal v.21 n.1 Kentucky Negro Educational Association Kentucky Negro Educational Association Louisville, Kentucky February 1950 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. c74e c74e K .NREA. Journal /877-(jca1 palcatoj KENTUCKY NEGRO EDUCATION ASSOCIATION VOL. XXI-NO. 1 FEBRUARY 19go "An Equal Educational Opportunity for Every Kentucky Child" KENTUCKY STATE COLLEGE FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY Established 1886 CO-EDUCATIONAL CLASS "A" RATING Agriculture * Biology * Business Administration Chemistry * Commercial Teacher Education * Education English * French and Spanish Literature History and Government * Home Economics Industrial Arts * Mathematics * Music Physical and Health Education Pre-Professional Courses Sociology and Economics Correspondence Courses A COMPLETE LIFE ON ONE CAMPUS Modern, Well-equipped Housing * Athletics * Debating Student Infirmary * Student Government * Dramatics Aesthetic and Social Dancing * Fraternities Sororities * Clubs * Movies * Theatre AN EIGHT-WEEK SUMMER SESSION SPECIAL COURSES FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS A DISTINCTIVE COLLEGE IN FACULTY, CURRICULUM, AND EDUCATIONAL POLICIES For Information Write the Dean 74e K. X. E. A. Journal Official Publication of the Kentucky Negro Education Association VOL. XXI FEBRUARY, 1950 No. 1 Published by the Kentucky Negro Education Association Editorial Office at 2230 West Chestnut Street Louisville 11, Kentucky W. H. Perry, Jr., Executive Secretary, Louisville, Managing Editor Whitney M. Young, Lincoln Ridge, President of K. N. E. A. 0 PRICE ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR OR 25 CENTS PER COPY Membership in the K. N. E. A. includes subscription to the JOURNAL. Rates of advertising mailed on request. Table of Contents Page Editorial Comment ................................... 3 Announcements............................................ 4 The President's Letter, Whitney M. Young ....................5 A Challenge to Kentucky Negro Librarianship, Mary M. Spradling ................................... 6 Human Relations in the Home and School, Ruby C. Northcutt ... 7 Teachers' Retirement System, H. 0. Kimbler .................. 13 Expansion of West Kentucky Vocational Training School Urged, C. L. Timberlake ........................... 14 Administrative Measures to Meet Pupils' Needs, William M. Cooper .................................... 16 Over the Editor's Desk .................................... 20 K. N. E. A. OFFICERS FOR 1949-1950 Whitney M. Young, President ................................ Lincoln Ridge W. B. Chenault, First Vice-President ........... ................. Stanford B. G. Patterson, Second Vice-President .......................... Georgetown Alice D. Samuels, Historian ............................. I ........ Frankfort W. Hl. Perry, Jr., Secretary-Treasurer ............................. Louisville BOARD OF DIRECTORS Whitney M. Young, President ............................... Lincoln Ridge Robert L. Dowery .......................................... Shelbyville C. B. Nuckolls...................... ; Ashland Victor K. Perry...................... Louisville E. W. Whiteside...................... Paducah DEPARTMENT AND CONFERENCE CHAIRMEN Edward T. Buford, High School-College Department ........... Bowling Green Mayme R. Morris, Elementary Education Department ............. Louisville Emma B. Bennett, Rural School Department ...................... Louisville R. L. Carpenter, Music Department ............................... Louisville B. W. Browne, Vocational Education Department .................. Paducah John V. Robinson, Principals' Conference ..................... Elizabethtown Arline B. Allen, Primary Teachers' Department .................... Louisville Hattie Figg Jackson, Art Teachers' Conference .................... Louisville H. S. Smith, Social Science Teachers' Conference ................... Frankfort Gertrude Sledd, Science Teachers' Conference ........................ Danville Christine B. Redd, English Teachers' Conference ................... Louisville Mary M. Spradling, Librarians' Conference ........................ Louisville W. L. Kean, Physical Education Department ...................... Louisville W. H. Craig, Guidance Workers' Conference ...................... Covington A. J. Richards, Foreign Language Teachers' Conference ............. Frankfort William T. Davidson, Adult Education Conference ................. Louisville PRESIDENTS OF K. N. E. A. DISTRICT EDUCATION ASSOCIATION Bettie C. Cox, Paducah ....................... First District Association Jacob Bronaugh, Hopkinsville .................... Second District Association L. J. Twyman, Glasgow ........................... Third District Association N. S. Thomas, Horse Cave ....................... Fourth District Association W. L. Spearman, Sr., Louisville .................... Fifth District Association W. B. Chenault, Stanford ..................... Blue Grass District Association H. R. Merry, Covington ....................... Northern District Association Karl Walker, Hazard ....................... Eastern District Association H. S. Osborne, Middlesboro ............ Upper Cumberland District Association 2 Editorial Comment . d . THE CONVENTION THEME The theme of this year's convention, "Exploring New Frontiers in Vocational Training and Vocational Opportunities," is in harmony with the K. N. E. A. slogan, "'An Equal Educational Opportunity for Every Kentucky Child." The slogan has had various interpretations during the seventy-four years of the history of the organization. For a long time it merely represented an ideal. The early Minutes, written a few years after the close of the Civil War, show the meetings were teachers' institutes, concerned principally with improving pedagogy, and with a strong overtone of qualifying pupils for self and racial advancement in spite of severe obstacles. The past score of years has seen the organization struggling militantly for equal salaries and for equality in terms of physical plants and academic offerings. The Day Law, requiring that education of the races be carried on separately, has been under constant attack, because separate education is almost never equal education. Rapidly now, even more rapidly than many dared hope, an attitude i inter-racial good will is developing, and permissive legislation, enabling schools an the graduate and professional levels to accept Negro students, is being passed. The growing emphasis on brotherhood, international pressures to the same end, successful suits for the constitutional rights of the Negro, are factors work- ing for an integrated educational system in Kentucky, as well as elsewhere in the nation. Although some barriers must be removed before general integration may occur, the K. N. E. A. may well look ahead. The granting of admission to tax supported institutions, even complete integration in all educational insti- tutions throughout the state, would not guarantee economic security to the Negroes involved, or even maintenance of their present economic status. Many "Negro jobs" and other incidental advantages enjoyed because of segregation would disappear. This is as it should be. Every Negro youth should be prepared to compete for employment as an individual. He should also be taught to seek employment in terms of ability, and to develop his ability to the highest level. Training to expect full citizen- ship rights should be accompanied by training to make the civic and vocational contribution expected of the good citizen. And, too, there need be opportunities for the gainful employment of all qualified individuals. It is out of this back- ground that there has emerged the slogan for the 1950 convention, "Exploring New Frontiers in Vocational Training and Vocational Opportunities." DIRECTORS AND DISTRICT PRESIDENTS XIEET Our Association is vitally interested in the K. E. A. program to secure better schools and shares concern for the success of the present effort to find more funds for education in the State. The Board of Directors and the District Presidents of the K. N. E. A., at a special meeting, discussed the issues arising with the legis- lature and school districts as a result of the K. E. A. request. Although it was recognized that the Governor had recommended an increased appropriation for each of the State Schools, there was no question that more funds are needed, particularly for elementary and high schools in the smaller districts. They noted that the general condition of schools in these areas is poor, and that many of those attended by our pupils are among the poorest physically, and as to loca- tion and equipment. * They favored active participation in all democratic movements that will improve conditions. The question of how funds should be raised, they felt, should be left to the taxing authorities of the State. Also, they regarded as a 3 local matter the question of techniques to be used to arouse the public to insist on adequate support for schools. There was general agreement that each Dis. trict Association would give active support, in its locality, to movements for better schools. H. C. RUSSELL The passing of Harvey C. Russell last Fall marked the close of a career dedi- cated to educational and racial advancement. Educated in the public school, of Bloomfield, Kentucky, at Kentucky State College, awarded the A.B. degree by Simmons University and the M.A. degree by the University of Cincinnati, he was well trained for leadership. Along with formal preparation he had an understanding of people, gained through close association with the rank and file, as well as leaders of groups in fraternal, business, religious and educational fields. Perhaps no man had more intimate knowledge of the people of the state than Mr. Russell. In all his relations, he met them on the human level. The list of key positions he held is long and well known. In each of them he ren- dered sigficant service. As dean of Kentucky State College, State Director of Negro Affairs for the National Youth Administration, President of West Kentucky Vocational Training School, Business Manager of Simmons University, President of the K. N. E. A., he gave strong, effective leadership to develop advantages for youth. After his retirement from active service, he devoted much time to writing a history of the K. N. E. A.. and published several monographs on phases of its development. Other pamphlets were planned at the time of his passing. The strong influence of Mr. Russell will be felt in the state for many years. Announcements The annual convention of the Kentucky Negro Education Association will be held in Louisville, Kentucky, April 12, 13, 14, 1950. Daytime sessions will be in the Madison Street Junior High School building, Eighteenth and Madison Streets, and evening sessions will be at Quinn Chapel A. M. E. Church, 912 West Chestnut Street. The Annual Musicale, to be held on the evening of April 14, is tentatively scheduled for Halleck Hall, Second and Lee Streets. The theme for the 1950 convention is "Exploring New Frontiers in Vocational Training and Vocational Opportunities." Mr. J. A. Thomas, Industrial Secretary of the National Urban League, New York City, will address the opening meeting on Wednesday evening, April 12. Another high point of this meeting will be the annual address of President Whitney M. Young, outlining the achievements of the year and sounding the keynote of the convention. Mr. James M. Nabrit, Secretary of Howard University, and Dr. Felton G. Clark, Jr., President of Southern University, will address the Association on Thursday evening. Dr. Virginia Lacey Jones, one of the few Ph.D.'s in Library Science, will address sectional meetings during the convention. Social features will include a dance given by the K. N. E. A. on the evening of April 12, open to K. N. E. A. members and their friends, and a semi-formal dance on April 13, given by the Kentucky State College Alumni, honoring its members and their friends. The annual Principals' banquet will be held on Thursday afternoon, April 13, and the annual Spelling Contest on Friday, April 14. Word lists for the spell- ing contest may be secured from the office of the secretary. 4 THE PRESIDENT'S LETTER Lincoln Institute Lincoln Ridge, Ky. February 10, 1950 My dear fellow teachers: It seems but yesterday when I began my administration as President of the Kentucky Negro Education Association. I was not greatly thrilled at the out- set because I had served for a number of years as a member of the Board of Di- rectors and knew something about many of the headaches which would come after the shouting was over. As I look back I think I can honestly say that it has been a genuine pleasure as well as a high privilege to serve as your leader. No president could have had greater cooperation than I have had from all the Officers and District Presidents. Just to mention a few of the things which we have succeeded in accomplish- ing, I would like to call your attention to the following: 1. The organizing of the District Presidents into an advisory body which will meet twice a year to advise with the Board of Directors. This new step resulted in the raising of $2,055.00 for the NAACP which opened the doors of the University of Kentucky to approximately thirty Negroes during the past summer. 2. A special dinner was provided for all ex-presidents and their wives or husbands on Wednesday evening of the K. N. E. A. Week. I think this was one of the greatest steps the Association has taken. It was a real fellowship meeting. There were a number of people who were made to feel for the first time that they were still a part of a great Association which they had faithfully served for a long period of years. 3. The way in which the teachers responded to the increase in membership dues was one of the most encouraging things that could have happened. Our enrollment increased rather than decreased. 4. There has been printed a documentary legislative committee report which was sent to all teachers, principals, superintendents, boards of education and influential White and Negro people. 5. The musical proved to be more of a success than the previous one. 6. We discussed the matter of a State-wide track meet with the President of Kentucky State College and other officials. They have promised that such a meet could be held at the College. ?. We adopted the' policy of offering all our key speakers expenses and honor- arium. Because of this action we were able to present to the teachers speakers of national calibre and prestige. 8. A definite attempt has been made to bring about closer cooperation be- tween K. N. E. A. and K. E. A., also the Kentucky Congress of Parent Teachers' Association. I think we have made progress in this direction. 9. Our district meetings are better organized and much more active than they have ever been before. We hope that it will be possible for some of the K. N. E. A. officials to attend the district meetings this fall. 10. The matter of employing a lobbyist was discussed at our last meeting and it seems that money will be available for such services when the legislature meets. 11. We have given special attention to the program for handicapped children and the veterans. This overall summary, in brief, sets the stage for the future. For the re- mnainder of my administration, I shall have but one policy, to work with and not for the people. Yours very truly, WHITNEY M. YOUNG, President 5 A CHALLENGE TO KENTUCKY NEGRO LIBRARIANSHIP ARY MACE SPRADIAG. ' eC I1)0pal Vi a (illai in Librarians' Section. K. N. E. A. IEleen ntar v librwarv Serv icI slji ni id 1wi finana nil l stiippirttd to Ib e sjtli exteni as gigh schod lil brarv service. ThI loealI bo)ard oi if education sliot(l d al)- pu J#roriate and spend annuall v $1.23 per elementary poupiil. Ilhese staterne't. are iutled from the IducEatcional Bulletin. Libray iService for Kentukevi Sch ls;, as is the folloiwing: Tllere shall b- an annial appropiriatiin anl v ;- piendliture by the l(ocal board of' education of a minimum of 150.00,. or at least 81.25 for each junior and senior hiigh school pupil (%vhiche(v'I armount is largeri for bliooks. periodicals. and otther non-hook p)rinted materials and stupplies. iin- cluding printed cataloi g (ard.." Did vou knoNN tfiat one Negro school in our state lial ca n annual appri )prii- tion of $A10.00? The Negro population in Kentucky is shliiting to stich a degree that. in mans *ases the sclaoxl for Negroes has been discontinued: in cities and towns whver; there was one high school. there is only an elementary school: where there were teachers for every grad(e. the teachers have more than one grade. Tlhis is ni)t news to most. of you readers. It is not news that adequate library service on a public hlevel is almost noin- existent: barelv evident. on hrigh school level: and even less evident on the cle- inentarv level. Full-time librarians are overworked: part-time librarians ba e little or no time to devote to promoting library service. Principals have to 1b convinced (of th(- importance ('i allo inrig time to the librarian: school boards and superintend(nts have to be cajoled into see-ing tlal Negro libraries have funds. How can we use the Librarv lxtension Division? Ilow can the Stupervisor (if Negro Education help us? Can the Negro librarians in Kentucky unite ti assure adequate library service on all levels to its Negroes? Are we receiviril the maximum counsel from participation in local. state an(f national irofmif-isional1 organizations? X e urge attendance at all district meetings and the next Mee~tingI of tie Librarians' Section of the K. N. E1. A. Past Presidents and Past Secretaries, K. N. E. A. 6 HUMAN RELATIONS IN THE HOME AND SCHOOL by RUBY CASTLE NORTHCUTT Elementary Supervisor, Ashland, Kentucky I "There probably never has been a time in the history of our country when it was more important for a man to know how to get along with other people. In times of expanding frontiers it was possible for him to go off by himself and carve a niche in the world without caring greatly what others thought of him. In times of industrial expansion there was a place for everyone with skill and knowledge and energy. "Today something more is required. If one is to be successful in almost any arena of human activity, he must have the knack of getting along with others. He must understand them, must attune his conduct to theirs, must be able to win their friendship, their respect, and their cooperation." Does that bit of philosophy sound modern: It was written fifteen years ago by Milton Wright-written before World War II, before jet propulsion, before the atom bomb! If we had won the friendship and cooperation of Germany and Japan, think what a tragic loss would have been avoided! The subject of human relations has been the consideration of every eminent pen, from the days of Solomon to the present. To say anything strictly new would be impossible; but perhaps we can present a few items that will set you to thinking about this important topic. In the words of the poet: "We have gathered posies from other men's flowers. Nothing but the thread that binds them is ours." II If you have any doubts as to the importance of human relations in the home and school, examine your own life. How much time do you spend thinking about, planning, worrying about your family? If you are in an average family you are almost constantly confronted with these problems. You plan your meals, bedtime, furniture arrangements, baths, clothes, and recreation trying to please the family or else trying to defy the family and prove your own independence. In order to bring about harmonious relationships in the home and school we need to know a great deal about human behavior. Some people seem to be born with this knowledge, but all of us can acquire it in some small degree or measure. "Self-preservation is the fundamental law of human behavior." Take any emotion, or any instinct or impulse, or any character trait of any man, woman or child, and you can trace it to that fundamental law. Psychologists tell us that we are born with three emotions-fear, rage, and love. As we grow older these emotions develop, branch out and subdivide until the adult is said to have seven emotions: fear, disgust, wonder, anger, dejection, elation, and affection. Each of these emotions is a mighty factor in human achievement. Each of them is a powerful stimulus to action, and each of them is expressed in a very definite way-that is, each is reflected in its own particular instinct. If you want to influence someone, there is no emotion you can appeal to so strong as the emotion of fear. Every man has it in some form. The old-fash- ioned preacher worked on it when he pictured a fiery hell; mother says, "Just wait until your father comes home, he will whip you;"' the teacher says you are sure to fail unless you study, and so it goes. The emotion of disgust arouses the instinct of repulsion. In its most ele- inentary state it is caused by an unpleasant taste or a noxious odor. If you want to make an impression on someone. check up on this emotion. You know the old saying about onions, "They build you up physically, and drag you down socially." Many a salesman has failed to land an order because of his breath and many a clever young woman has added to her allure by using the righ perfume at the right time and place. The emotion of wonder has its corresponding instinct-that of curiosity In a way it is related to fear, but with this difference: fear, when it is not cause( by impending known danger, is caused by the appearance of something wholl) unfamiliar; wonder, on the other hand, is aroused by- unfamiliar phases of some thing with 'which we have some familiarity. Keeping people guessing is a surn fire technique in holding their interest in you. The emotion of anger arouses the instinct of pugnacity. Fundamentally it comes from interfering with a person's natural movements, but civilizatior has elaborated this stimulus enormously. If you place a "No Trespassing' sign on a plot of grass, you would be surprised at the number of persons whc would want to walk there just because of the prohibition. Should we tell the children not to eat spinach or drink milk? Very often we say you aren't big enough to do that and the child proves he is! The Casper Milquetoasts who obey the warning are restrained by that still more powerful emotion, fear. The emotion of dejection arouses the instinct of self-abasement. It is caused by a sense of inferiority to those about you. It gives you a tendency to slink and cower. Some people say that they never slink and cower, but how do you feel when in the midst of a very fashionably dressed group you find a run in your hose or your shoes don't match, or your supporter breaks? In contrast to this emotion is the emotion of elation, whose corresponding instinct is that of self-assertion. It manifests itself in strutting and similar attitudes and is caused by a sense of superiority over the spectators before whom you are appearing. One of the ways to please a man or child or to get him to fall in with your plans is to elevate him to a positon of prominence-not neces- sarily a position of authority, but a conspicuous position which carries with it the appearance of authority! Lastly, we have the emotion of affection, which is best expressed by the parental instinct. At times this can override any other emotion, even the emo- tion of fear. The thought that a mother could let fear or anger or subjection drive out her protective emotion for her baby is too far-fetched to entertain- but even here we have exceptions-some mothers have killed their babies. In addition to these well-defined emotions there are several emotional tenden- cies which are not by any means so clearly defined. They are: 1. The reproductive instinct. 2. The gregarious instinct. 3. The acquisitive instinct. 4. The constructive instinct. Let your contact with people be based upon one of human nature's well- defined emotions in them, and you can get along with those people in any way you may desire. To dispel the thought that because all people are alike in many ways it is a simple thing to understand and guide them, let us look at some of the ways in which men differ. Men are complex creatures and, however alike they may be at bottom, they are vastly different in most of their sentiments, their interests, and their activities. Mankind, we might say, is like a wheel. At the hub we have the basic, well-defined emotions common to us all. From that point the acquired traits of one man may make him shoot out in this direction, while the development of another man lies in a direction wholly different. When they reach the rim of the wheel, one man may be directly opposite the other-as far away from him as possible in his nature-although both started from the same hub of well-defined emotions. But why bother with this, you ask? If our object is to get along with people and if appealing to them at the hub, where those seven well-defined emotions are, will accomplish that object, why complicate matters by going way out to the rim of the wheel, where there are so many more factors? The answer is that usually you cannot reach the hub directly. It is only at the rim that you can make contact. With anl of us, our primitive emotions 8 have been pretty thoroughly covered up and stretched out so that the only op- portunity you will have in most cases to affect or influence a person is not at the point where he is like everyone else, but at some point where he differs from everyone else. There are many ways of grouping people, but we will consider one which psychologists have found useful based on emotional tendencies. They find that people tend to fall into two groups-introverts and extroverts. For our purposes this is a very practical classification, for to get along with introverts to the best advantage we use one set of tactics, and to get along with extroverts we use another. Which are you-introvert or extrovert? Perhaps most of you are thinking I do not belong wholly in either group. Of course, you don't-if you did you would be a patient in an asylum. but sub- stantially every one of us has a predominant one way or the other. Study the people of your immediate circle, try to classify them and see if it helps you to understand them and get along better with them. III Social Adjustment 1. Motive 2. Frustration 3. Varied responses 4. Solution Some common substitute adjustments: 1. Compensation Gossip Parents secure adjustive satisfaction through children Childless women work with child welfare agency. 2. Rationalization The need for rationalization arises whenever an immediate motive runs contrary to an individual's conception of social values. (a) Business man defends "shady deal" with "business is business." (b) Child's bad habits inherited from father. (c) You got "A" and the professor flunked me. (d) A man with race prejudices will cite many arguments against the race. 3. Withdrawing Burnt child fears fire. Holding grudge, refusing to cooperate. 4. Daydreaming Conquering hero. .. Adjustment by becoming ill. Headache to avoid unpleasant situation Sick person receives attention Husband won't leave sick wife to go out with "the boys" Child too sick for school, but well later. Failure to adjust means you become a patient of the asylum. IV A recent book published by the American Council on Education lists several things that teachers, parents, and other adults should know in order to under- stand children. Naturally, understanding children practically assures you of understanding adults. First, we need to think of all behavior as being caused. All present actions are based on past experiences. We very often say, "I don't know why he behaves that way-I just don't understand him," but if we really study the situation We will see that there is a reason even if it is difficult to find the reason. Second, we must be able to accept all children emotionally, not reject or blame a child for what he does, because his behavior is seen only as a symptom of under- lying causes. Two philosophical conclusions reinforce this scientific basis for accepting all children. One is the belief that every human being is inherently 9 1% - ,'-.y I/ MF I WW I_ SECOND FLOOR t _O1Z.NS BANK BUILDIon, Gnuc y Dear Teacher: For many years COMMUNITY has specialized in making Personal Loans BY MAIL to Teachers absolutely without security-nothing more required than a signed note. We are pleased to present to you an opportunity to obtain Cash on this liberal basis, in any amount up to $300-regardless for what purpose. Many Teachers at this time of the year borrow from COMMUNITY to pay bills accumulated during the summer or to buy needed things or to meet some emergency. The entire transaction may be completed BY MAIL in the privacy of your home-school executives, friends, trades people, or relatives will not be notified-- NO embarrassing questions will be asked-NO co-signers-NO wage assign- ment will be required and there will be NO deductions-NO fees and NO life insurance. Please let us know how much Cash you require by returning the coupon- promptly you will receive in a plain envelope our folder, "How Teachers Borrow By Mail," also the necessary papers for a loan. If you have an account with us now, you can get Extra Cash quickly; our files contain sufficient information. For quick action, fill in, sign and return the papers and promptly you should receive from us a CASHIER'S CHECK drawn by our local bank for the full amount of your loan. Our firm name will not appear-we strictly adhere to the use of plain envelopes. We will appreciate the privilege of serving you. Cordially yours, P. S.-After you receive the loan, if you decide for any reason that it is not needed, you may return the money to us within ten days and there will be no charge or cost to you. Geo. C. Leach, President Please send me, IN A PLAIN ENVELOPE, your folder, "HOW TEACHERS BOR- ROW BY MAIL," also necessary papers for a LOAN. It is understood this inquiry will not obligate me in any manner and you will not notify my executives, friends or relatives. N am e..................................................................................................................................................... I do not owe you a balance but want to borrow S........................................ I owe you a balance and want to borrow an additional amount of S........................................ Street or R. F. D . Address............................................................................................................... City. County. 10 valuable and, therefore, has the right to all the help that can be given him in achieving his best development. The other is the recognition that all children potentially can make some contribution to carrying on the society into which they are born and, therefore, deserve respect for whatever talents they can put to work for the common good. Third, adults who understand children invariably recognize that each one is unique. An understanding person recognizes this and continuously gathers and organizes information about the child, uses it to distinguish significant differences between individuals, and attempts to help each child in a way that subtly takes this uniqueness into consideration. Fourth, we believe that the various sciences concerned with human growth and behavior have demonstrated that young people, during the several phases of their development, face a series of common '"developmental tasks." They have to learn to walk, to talk, to dress themselves, to get along in groups, to behave conventionally in a thousand situations, to read, write, figure and spell, to use money, to respect property, to accept the values that characterize Ameri- can life, to find a way of earning a living, to select and win a marriage partner, to fulfill civic responsibilities, to arrive at a satisfying explanation of the mean- ing of life and of the universe-and much else. We believe that individuals naturally tend to work at these tasks when they reach the appropriate maturity levels, and that they are disturbed when they fail to accomplish any of them. Understanding adults know what these tasks are; their sequence and timing in relation to physical, social, and mental maturity; what complications often arise as persons with different characteristics and backgrounds work at them: and what conditions, relationships, and experiences are most helpful to children in mastering each of them. Fifth, the understanding person habitually uses scientific methods in making judgments about any particular child. This means checking the validity of all information about the child and recognizing when the facts are too few to permit sound judgment. Think how this would revolutionize human relations if we habitually used scientific methods in making judgments about any particular person! V Psychologists at last are making a serious effort to discover techniques for bettering human relations. In Boston recently, the American Psychological Association heard Dr. Gardner Murphy say: "Since we have no ready made technique for bettering human relations, we must get down to the problem of a technique-a tooling up process-a process of sober research that might really improve human relations." Dr. Murphy offered "good hypotheses" about human relationships. In this list let us see how we can aid our young people in the home and school and how we can better understand the adults of our acquaintance. L. Those who enjoy personal warmth and affection in early childhood tend thereafter to seek and to maintain stable and satisfying human relations. I'm sure you can think of a personal illustration to substantiate that hypothe- sis. We are encouraged to give the newborn child affection now as never before: thousands of war orphans growing up today are being deprived of personal warmth and affection and will no doubt leave their mark on future generations. 2. Those who in early childhood are encouraged to identify with a wide va- riety of personalities of widely varying cultural background will later tend to accept and get along with a wide variety of adults. This hypothesis should help us in a large measure. Usually youngsters have no prejudices of race, color. religion, etc., and if we provide worthwhile contacts with many groups, we will help solve the problems of the adult world. 3. Those who are free from insecurity and personal threat will tend to show. towards those who suffer, the "primitive kindliness" and "primitive sympathy." I remember hearing a college professor say that people had to live before they could live for high purposes. The individual who must be constantly concerned with earning his daily bread is not likely to have time to be concerned about his neighbor or about worthy ideals. A hungry man is more 11 concerned about food than about brotherly love. Therefore, we must strive to establish security for all children. 4. Those who get practice as children in tolerance and cooperation will show some transfer effects in adult situations. We often hear that an only child in a family is more likely to be selfish and demanding than a child reared with a nurn- ber of brothers and sisters. Naturally, we can cite exceptions, but the child who learns early to practice tolerance and cooperation as equipped himself with a valuable tool for meeting the world. This hypothesis has special meaning for kindergarten and first grade teachers. 5. Those who as children are rigid and authority ridden will cling most stub- bornly to the suspicious attitudes which already characterize an authority ridden world. Here again I think you can make a personal illustration. 6. Human relations will almost automatically be bettered if new ways be made available, not too solemnly, but with zest and humor, through stories, skits, movies, or better still, actual games, parties, and work projects. As the therapist might state the matter, the person may be assisted in a friendly manner to see himself and his associates in an accepting way, parking his defences and especially his sense of guilt outside the gate-perhaps reliving with Socrates the conception that evil is a form of misunderstanding, or repeating with Jesus the phrase: "Neither do I condemn thee." VI If we are to build a braver and better tomorrow for our children, certain forces must be released in the life of today. There must come among us a new emphasis upon physical well being, mental discipline, spiritual sensitiveness and civic responsibilities. We must have a more adequate security and higher social standards. But before all else, and in order to set into operation these new forces, there must come a new resolve to achieve and practice the Golden Rule in personal, national and international life. What was said long ago by the great- est Teacher of all time is still true, "Whatsoever you would that men should do unto you, do ye also unto them." When the Golden Rule is released by a self- governing people, you have taken the first and sure step to a new day. There are three possible philosophies by which men can live. They may be expressed by these terms: live, and let live, and help live. We shall never build a better world until we give ourselves loyally to that third philosophy of helping to live. "Life is before you, from the fated road You cannot turn; then take ye up the load. Not yours to tread or leave the unknown way, Ye must go o'er it, meet ye what ye may. Gird up your souls within you to the deed, Angels and fellow-spirits bid you speed." Conference-Teachers of English 12 STATE OF KENTUCKY TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY To: Superintendents, Principals, Supervisors, Teachers, Educators and Citizens State of Kentucky As per request, we outline the needs of the Teachers' Retirement System and financial requirements for certain improvements you have suggested: 1. Present Law. i On the basis of the present law and actuarial soundness, the Retirement System will need (1) $1,150,000.00 from the members and (2) $1,504,270.00 from the State for each year of the biennium 1950-52. The obligations of the System have been increased $656,188.00 by reason of the retirement of 140 members since June 30, 1949. This brings to 1,115 the number retired. If the per capita school aid is increased, add to each (1) and (2) $33,000.00 for each million dollars of increase. The present law provides funds to support a minimum of $300.00 and a maximum of $1,200.00 per year for the career teacher. A new teacher entering the profession at age 23 or younger may qualify for a $1,200.00 annuity by age 64. A member may enter the profession as late as age 36 and receive the maximum of $1,200.00 by age 70. As of July 1, 1949, the highest retirement annuity is $868.80; July 1, 1950, the highest annuity will be $913.20; July 1, 1951, $960.00, and so on up to $1,200.00. Others with lower salaries, less service credit, and retiring at earlier ages proportionately less at this time. The cost to the member is about $1.00 for each $10.00 she expects to receive in a normal length of life. The Kentucky Retirement System is especially excellent for what it costs the member. It has been improved twice: (1) By amendments in 1946, and (2) by a Special Appropriation of $2Ã‚Â½ million in 1948. It is more than 100 per cent better, all points considered, than at the beginning nine years ago. 2. Some of the improvements you are asking the General Xssembly to provide: (1) To increase the minimum for 30 years service from $300.00 to $480.00. This will cost the State $250,000.00 for the next biennium. (2) To increase the maximum upon which dues are paid from $2,400.00 to $3,000.00. This will cost members paying same $74,334.00 and the State $74,334.00 for matching. (3) To increase the annuity all along, at every age and salary, above the present level and to a maximum of $1,500.00. Said increase will be reflected as contributions are paid. (4) To pay the cost of this program, it will require a one per cent increase in each contribution bracket; matched by the State. The members contribute $345,000.00 above the present level and the State would match the contribution. The $345,000.00 includes the $74,334.00. On the basis of the above improved program, the Retirement System would need from the State for each year of the biennium $1,974,270.00 plus 844,000.00 increase per million dollars increase in Educational Funds for teachers' salaries. This program would help to get new teachers and would hold our own present teachers. It would raise Kentucky to a median position between Florida with $2,880.00 and Mississippi paying $870.00. Explain this to your Senator and Representative. Mere "pressure" is not going to do any good this year: each Senator and Representative must have an understanding of the needs for the appropriation and just what the increase Will do, not only for the teachers, but especially for the pupil children. If you have any questions, please write me. When you receive the Ninth Annual Report, read it with care. N. 0. KIMBLER, Secretary Teachers' Retirement System of the State of Kentucky 13 EXPANSION OF WEST KENTUCKY VOCATIONAL TRAINING C. L. Timberlake SCHOOL URGED... C. L. TIMBERLAKE The West Kentucky Vocational Training School is the State Institution in Kentucky for the training of Negro youth in trades and industries. It is the only State supported school for that purpose. Its field is state-wide, and its program is designed to meet the vocational demands in every community, large or small. This institution was established by a special act of the Legislature in 1938 to occupy the plant of the former West Kentucky Industrial College, which had been merged with the Kentucky State College at Frankfort, Kentucky, the same year. The merger involved only the transfer of records and academic curriculum to Kentucky State College. The physical plant was left intact, and all instructional equipment, laboratories, library books and furnishings were assigned to the new vocational school. In addition, the vocational shops were equipped with some modern tools and machines. THE FUNCTION OF THE SCHOOL. The purpose of the school as stated in the charter is to make available facilities for vocational and trade training for Negro boys and girls to be carried on in accordance with the State's plan for voca- tional education, Sec. 166.040 Kentucky Common School Law. This general aim has been stated as follows: To train the hand and head of Negro youth for skilled and semi-skilled employment; to provide better workers in technical and service occupations; and to improve the home life of the Negro family of the state. INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. West Kentucky Vocational Training School has dedicated itself to the development of an industrial and trade educational program as its main feature. Since its establishment, 582 persons have finished 14 trade courses at West Kentucky. Because of the limited means at our disposal, classes in sewing, domestic service, carpentry, drafting, auto mechanics, and ,ther trade classes were forced to do. their work under very crude conditions. At present, a small per cent of the approximately 226,000 Negroes in Kentucky are engaged as skilled workers. Although the number of Negro skilled workers is small, such workers have formed a vital part of the state's program of economic and industrial expansion. Through more adequate trade and industrial train- ing facilities, the Negro worker can be made a potent factor in helping the state expand its growing program of industrial development. We are strongly of the opinion that because of the small opportunities offered the Negro boys and girls of the state to learn trades, some definite movement should be made toward expanding the opportunities for industrial training of Negroes by broadening the studies and raising the standards of West Kentucky Vocational Training School to a first-class trades and training institution. According to estimates prepared by the Bureau of the Census for the year 1940, Negroes were engaged in the following occupations in Kentucky: Musicians.................. 168 Trained Nurses and Student Nurses ............................. 128 Farmers and Farm Managers ............................ 5,631 Personal Services ...................................... 125 Typists, Stenographers and Secretaries ................... 62 Bakers.......... 50 Cabinet Makers and Pattern Makers .......................... 23 Carpenters ............................................ 429 Electricians ........................................... 29 Masons ............................................... 279 Mechanics and Repairmen .............................. 825 Painters (Paper Hangers and Glaziers) ................... 490 Plasterers and Cement Finishers ......................... 417 Plumbers and Gas and Steam Fitters ..................... 140 Shoemakers and Repairers .............................. 59 Tailors and Furriers .................................... 72 Dressmakers and Seamstresses ........................... 173 Metal Workers ........................................ 8 Domestic Service Workers .............................. 25,753 Barbers, Beauticians and Manicurists .................... 474 Cooks................................................ 2,304 Practical Nurses ........................................ 305 Janitors and Porters .................................... 7,906 Laundry Operators and Laundresses ...................... 743 Total ...... ....... 46,593 In spite of the large number of Negro workers in Kentucky who are engaged in occupations requiring specialized training, there is not an institution in the state where Negro boys and girls have adequate facilities for learning the trades listed above. These facts emphasize the importance of immediate steps being taken to provide industrial training for the great number of Negro youths who will profit by this type of training. The number and scope of the trades offered at West Kentucky Vocational Training School must be considerably enlarged before the great need of indus- trial training for Negro youth of Kentucky will be adequately met. Although the increased legislative appropriation for 1950-52 will not permit complete ex- pansion of the program of the school, the future holds a very bright and encourag- ing outlook for the institution and its program. (EDITOR's NOTE: The foregoing comment by President Timberlake was presented to the State Board of Education, along with an outline of the urgent needs of the institution and a summary of his legislative appropriation request.) 15 ADMINISTRATIVE MEASURES TO MEET PUPILS' NEEDS By WILLIAM M. COOPER Director of Adult Education, Hampton Institute To the Principals and Supervisors of the Negro Schools in Kentucky: It is'a pleasure to bring greetings from Hampton Institute and from Virginia where we, too, are concerned with the major problems confronting youth, namely how to equalize educational opportunities for all the children of our respective states. You are to be congratulated for the splendid effort you are making in this direction and you must realize that we, over in Virginia, are thoroughly in accord and are pulling with you toward the early realization of your dreams. Today we, who are school administrators, are confronted with a number of new significant developments in public education. We must pay attention to them because they are the components of the new program of public education which is just evolving and which we will be called upon to administer. Within these new developments are to be found the following: The first of these late present-day developments is that of studying the child as well as the subject matter. The second is that of home-community study and resource use. The third emphasis in education today is on world understanding and appre- ciation whereby we will not only acquaint our children with the locality, the state and the country in which they live, but also with people who live in other coun- tries, to the end that they may understand these people and appreciate their contributions that they have to make; particularly those contributions that come with human progress because of the diversity of cultures of people in differ- ent parts of the world. The fourth emphasis is that of adult education in which we are realizing for the first time that it is impossible to pre-educate a person for life. In other words, changes are taking place so fast and so drastic these days that even if a person were given the fullest education he could take before he entered the world of work, he would not have enough to meet the new conditions which require new understandings, new knowledge and new skills. The fifth phase of education that is receiving a tremendous amount of atten- tion is that of guidance of pupils in the light of the child's nature, in the light of the community in which he lives and in the light of the world in which he lives. The sixth emphasis is that of evaluation. Criteria and principles are being worked out whereby we can continuously evaluate what is being done in the schools to the end that we can know whether we are achieving our purposes or not and then revise our programs so that the pupils' learning will be improved. Now all of these developments are important. It is for us who are educators to organize them in a compact, workable plan that we can use in working with our teachers and in helping them to improve the opportunities of the pupils. However, there is one basic element which must underlie all of the foregoing emphases; that element is, the sincere desire of the teacher and adminis- trator to see their pupils grow into the very best of which they are capable. Does this sincere desire lead us to study the pupils? Yes, but in terms of poten- tials rather than in terms of limitations, in terms of appreciation for what the pupil is and has rather than condemnation because he is not what we thought he ought to be. It is only human that teachers and parents respond better to praise and encouragement than to scorn and denunciation. Both teachers and parents are what they are and do what they do for very good reasons. It is our job as administrators to understand them sympathetically and with this understanding to help them obtain their best as they work directly with the children. SPECIFIC ADMINISTRATIVE MEASURES RECOMM3IENDED FOR MEETING PUPILS' NEEDS A. The Investigative Measures. These measurf's consist of finding in- formation about conditions in the community in which the pupils live and mnak- 16 illg this information available in understandable language to teachers and parents so that they may use it in working with their children. Not long ago an ex- ample came to my attention of a boy now eight years of age who already has caught the vision of becoming something better than his immediate family sur- roundings would encourage him to become. Accordingly he has associated himself with another boy who is on the upgrade and has joined a church different from that where his parents claim membership and is looking for associates and situations which enable him to become a higher type of citizen than that which his home surroundings will provide. His mother, divorced from her first hus- band, has married another man who is a racketeer, and the home situation is not conducive to the better way of life. Because of what goes on in this home, he frequently spends week ends with his aunt in order to avoid having to go through the degrading Saturday night and Sunday orgies in his home. The boy is not strong physically because he does not secure the proper food, but has great enthusiasm to become a fine man and perhaps to render some outstanding service. Teachers will generally welcome information of this kind from prin- cipals and use it to great advantage in planning the part they will play in enabling students like this to develop to their optimum. This is not all, of course, there are thousands of opportunities to bring teachers information that will contribute directly toward special units of work or projects they are carrying on in their classrooms-information that may be secured from magazines, newspapers, books and other sources that come to the attention of the principals but which may not come to the attention of the teacher. Such contributions are a direct help in promoting the work that the teachers are doing for the pupils. Also principals may investigate for the benefit of parents and teachers new opportunities that they do not see because they are envolved in working on details. Principals, for example, attend meetings and especially conferences with the superintendent of schools or the state teachers association, where new ideas are exchanged. He may bring these ideas back to the teacher and help her plan so that what she does contributes directly toward the current program in education for that respective community and school. However, it is impor- THE DOMESTIC LIFE AND ACCIDENT INSURANCE CO. Strength * Service * Security 29 Tears of Satisfactory Service OVER 3 MILLION DOLLARS PAID TO POLICYHOLDERS $793,872 Surplus to Policyholders $1,920,438 Policy Reserves Has Purchased $2,274,560 U. S. Government Bonds and Insured Stock. All just claims paid promptly and cheerfully. Insure in the Domestic and help make joys for your sons and daughters W. L. Sanders, President J. E. Smith, Vice Pres. R. D. Terry, Secretary and Agency Director Clarence Young, Treas. J. A. Redd, Vice Pres. & Auditor 17 I tant to point out again that all of these investigations and services must be given the right spirit or else they may not be accepted for their real worth. B. Stimulative Measures. Each principal here knows that there are times when the greatest service he can render is to encourage or stimulate the teacher and parents to do their best for the pupil. One of the important ways to stimulate is to arrange in your program for the recognition of any achieve- ments whatsoever on the part of teachers and parents. This means sometimes that we *ill have to arrange for the recognition of every teacher in the school. When people raise the question as to whether you should recognize one teacher in public if you are not going to recognize all of them, my answer is by all means let us recognize all of them. This can be done even if we as administrators have to work individually with some few teachers in order to help them merit their recognition. We can also publish the honor roll of teachers and parents for the year, naming the outstanding contributions they have made. An out- standing example of such recognition is to be found in The Courier-Journal for April 21, 1949, in which a picture and story is published of a teacher and her pupils who here in Kentucky have done outstanding work in the field of art. A second way in which we can stimulate is to arrange red letter occasions on which teachers will be proud of what they have done. It may be an assembly of the whole school, at which time the teacher will have the pupils present some outstanding activities that they have developed under her guidance. Or it may be a dinner at which time teachers will be honored for their outstanding contri- butions of the year and presented with a certificate of merit or some small token of appreciation. Still another way of stimulating people is to arrange a com- munity calendar on which each teacher will have a special place during the year to present some culminating activity of her group. C. A third administrative measure for meeting pupils' needs is that known as the Integrative Measures. Integrative measures may be started with the organization of planning committees whereby all teachers have a part in plan- ning the work for the year. Not just what will go on in her classroom, but the total school plans for the year. If organized in small groups with specific duties, they will feel that they have had a part in deciding what "we" are attempting to do in our school for any given year. A second thing that can be done is the organization of grand culmination activities when all can hear what the others have done. That is, at the end of the year they can have local get-togethers, at which time they can appraise or evaluate what has been done by reporting actually what occurred, what the results were, and what seems to be the effects upon the pupils and their parents. In this way we bring everybody together, let everybody know what the others have done, and perhaps get some ideas for improving what they will do the following year. The third way of integrating is to arrange for inter-county or inter-city get- togethers of teachers, so that they learn from each other what they are doing and at the same time gain the feeling of unity as they work for school and com- munity improvement. The fourth way of integrating is to have the annual dinner, at which time emblems and songs and tokens of appreciation will be presented with everybody having a place and a part, with everybody also receiving some recognition for the work that has been done. But with the major emphasis placed upon the total amount that has been achieved during the year by all the people work- ing together. CONCLUSIONS Now we have before us these three administrative measures for meeting pupils' needs: first, the investigative measures; second, the stimulative measures; and third, the integrative measures. They all depend upon the basic element, namely, sincere desire to help parents and teachers as well as pupils to grow into the best possible individuals of which they are capable. In proportion, there- fore, as we as administrators are able to utilize our information, our skills, our points of view in helping our teachers and parents grow strong as they work with the pupils in that proportion will we succeed as administrators and justify the important positions that we hold. 18 --WEST KENTUCKY VOCATIOXAL- TRAINING SCHOOL PADUCAH, KENTUCKY Established in 1938 succeeding West Kentucky Industrial College STRICTLY A TRADE SCHOOL Offering Courses as Follows: FOR MEN Automobile Mechanics and Electric Welding (one course) Barbering Brick Masonry Woodworking Carpentry Chef Cooking Maintenance Engineering Office Practices (Typing, Shorthand, Filing, etc.) (one course) Shoe Repairing Tailoring FOR WOMEN Barbering Beauty Culture Dressmaking Home Services (Cooking and Sewing) Office Practices (Typing, Shorthand, Filing, etc.) (oiie course) Tailoring For All Information Write: M. J. SLEET, Business Manager Or C. L. TIMBERLAKE, President I 19 - OVER THE EDITOR'S DESK . . Newsletter, a news bulletin of the Louisville Public Schools, is published every two weeks, and issued to all school employees and to friends of education, to let them know what the schools are doing. The work of Kentucky's Committee on Moral and Spiritual Education is attracting attention nationally and internationally. Its chairman, Mr. J. Mansip Tydings, has been invited to address several educational associations. Requests for copies of the report of last summer's work shop have come from many states and from Australia, Japan and Greece. The committee has stressed the idea of finding the moral and spiritual values in ordinary school situations and helping pupils to accept them as parts of good living. Mrs. Lucy Harth Smith, principal of the Booker T. Washington School, Lexington, Kentucky, was guest speaker at the Texas State Teachers Association in Houston, Texas, recently. Her subject was "Guidance in the Study of Negro Life and History." Prof. L. J. Twyman, Glasgow, Kentucky, has succeeded Prof. H. C. Mathis as president of the Fourth District Education Association, and Mr. W. L. Spear- man, Sr., Louisville, Kentucky, has succeeded Mrs. Agnes G. Duncan in the Fifth District Association. Both retiring presidents have given fine leadership in their respective organizations. Their successors have already given promise of continuing the good work. The degree of LL.D. has been conferred by Wilberforce University upon Prof. E. T. Buford, principal of State Street High School, Bowling Green, Ky. Miss R. L. Carpenter, Assistant Supervisor of Music in the Louisville Public Schools, attended a workshop in music education at Boston University, under direction of the well-known conductor, Kousevitsky. The Committee for Kentucky, which has for six years directed a self-examina- tion by the people of Kentucky, has turned over its affairs to the University of Kentucky and has gone into history. The status of the state in education, health, housing, labor, taxation, agriculture and other areas was carefully de- termined and "blue prints" for a greater Kentucky drawn. The facts which were publicized helped "Kentucky awake from its lethargy and start on the march to progress." Dr. R. B. Atwood, of Kentucky State College, and Mr. Frank L. Stanley, of the Louisville Defender, vice-presidents of the organization, and Mrs. Ora K. Glass, chairman of the Henderson County Negro Citizens' Health Committee, were active workers in the program of the Committee. The National Conference of Christians and Jews, Inc. will provide competent speakers on interesting and entertaining movies, records, film strips or other program aids on the Brotherhood theme. Also, they will assist and advise with groups planning round tables, institutes on human relations, forms and discussion groups to discover a working basis for cooperation among men of good will. John T. Kenna, 201 Realty Building, is director of the Kentucky Regional Office. The Southern Regional Council, in a pamphlet, Race in the News, states: "In their positive efforts to improve race relations, many papers have gone con- siderably beyond what conservative newspapermen might think their readers would stand for. At least one such newspaper can be found in virtually every Southern state . . . The responsible editor . . . merely applies the same news values to Negro events that he does to all events . . . with the same respect for accuracy, the same sense of fair play and good taste, that good journalism demands in all stories." The Handy Foundation for the Blind, Inc. has been organized to work for the prevention of blindness and to promote more job opportunities for the blind. The Foundation is named after Mr. W. C. Handy, now totally blind for the past twelve years, a Broadway music publisher-composer of the internationally famous "St. Louis Blues" and "Memphis Blues." J'almetto State Teachers' Education News and The Broadcaster, official organs of the state education associations of North Carolina and Tennessee, respect- ively, come regularly to our desk. Each contains live news and articles of interest to teachers. 20 LINCOLN INSTITUTE of KENTUCKY Providing a High School Service for Counties in Kentucky Where There Are No High Schools For Negro Youth. KENTUCKY STATE COLLEGE FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY Established 1886 CO-EDUCATIONAL CLASS "A" RATING Agriculture * Biology * Business Administration Chemistry * Commercial Teacher Education * Education English * French and Spanish Literature History and Government * Home Economics Industrial Arts * Mathematics * Music Physical and Health Education Pre-Professional Courses Sociology and Economics Correspondence Courses A COMPLETE LIFE ON ONE CAMPUS Modern, Well-equipped Housing * Athletics Debating Student Infirmary * Student Government * Dramatics Aesthetic and Social Dancing * Fraternities Sororities * Clubs * Movies * Theatre AN EIGHT-WEEK SUMMER SESSION SPECIAL COURSES FOR PUBUC SCHOOL TEACHERS A DISTINCTIVE COLLEGE IN FACULTY, CURRICULUM, AND EDUCATIONAL POLICIES For Information Wrte the Dean -