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Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal v.22 n.1 Kentucky Negro Educational Association 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 kneav22n1 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal v.22 n.1 Kentucky Negro Educational Association Kentucky Negro Educational Association Louisville, Kentucky December 1950 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. V VOL. XXII. No. 1 SHELBYVILLE GRADED SCHOOL CATION A60CIATION m aity foDE y ChEi 1 ' DECEMBER 1950 KENTUCKY STATE COLLEGE Frankfort, Kentucky Established 1886 CO-EDUCATIONAL CLASS "A" RATING Agriculture - Biology - Business Administration Chemistry - Commercial Teacher Education - Education English - French and Spanish Literature History and Government - Home Economics Industrial Arts - Mathematics - Music Physical and Health Education Pre-Professional Courses Sociology and Economics Correspondence Courses A Complete Life on One Campus Modern, Well-equipped Housing - Athletics - Debating Student Infirmary - Student Government - Dramatics Aesthetic and Social Dancing - Fraternities Sororities - Clubs - Movies - Theatre SECOND SEMESTER BEGINS JANUARY 30, 1951 A DISTINCTIVE COLLEGE IN FACULTY, CURRICULUM, AND EDUCATIONAL POLICIES For Information, Write the Dean I i I LINCOLN INSTITUTE OF KENTUCKY A-CLASS HIGH SCHOOL-COLLEGE PREPARATORY VOCATIONAL COURSES 1. Engineering 4. Agriculture 2. Home Economics 5. Home Nursing 3. Building Trades 6. Commerce 7. Veterans' Program WE PROVIDE HEALTH - HAPPINESS - SAFETY The Domestic Life and Accident Insurance Company Louisville, Kentucky PROTECT THOSE YOU LOVE 1. DOMESTIC'S EDUCATIONAL POLICY will guarantee your son or daughter a college education. 2. DOMESTIC'S SPECIAL WAGE-EARNER'S POLICY will help pay the home expenses in the event of injury or sickness of the head of the home, and the Death Benefit of $250.00 will also guarantee a decent religious burial. The Domestic Has a Policy for Every Need See a Domestic Agent At Once for Further Information Help Make Jobs for Your Own Sons and Daughters I TYPEWRITERS Royal Underwood Remington L. C. Smith Portables Standards NEW - USED TERMS LEACH BUSINESS MACHINES CO. 105 S. Second St. AMherst 11 51 Louisville, Ky. Miss Robbie Gentry 1030 Fifteenth Avenue, South Nashville, Tennessee Presents Class Jewelry Senior Announcements Diplomas Club Pins Medals Trophies by WRIGHT & STREET, Inc. Chicago, Illinois "Fine Jewelry Since 1903" Write for Appointment LOUISVILLES MUSIC CENTER 10 Years of Service to The Teachers of Kentucky PIANOS Kimbal Kranich and Bach MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Penzel - Mueller Reeds F. A. Reynolds - Vincent Bach Brass William F. Ludwig Drums and Tym 422 West Liberty WAbash 8761 Louisville, Kentucky MILLER'S GRILL SOFT DRINKS - ICE CREAM BREAKFAST - LUNCH HAMBURGERS SHORT ORDERS 24-hour Service 630 W. Walnut Louisville, Ky. NEWEST CREATIONS Jewelry and Diamonds Wedding and Graduation Gifts The Watch Shop, Inc. The Hoffman Building Louisville, Ky. 2 - TOE K N. E. A JOURNAL official publication of the KENTUCKY NEGRO EDUCATION ASSOCIATION VOL. XXII December, 1950 No. 1 Published by the Kentucky Negro Education Association EDITORIAL OFFICE: 1740 West Dumesnil Street, Louisville 10, Kentucky EDITOR: W. L. SPEARMAN, Executive Secretary, Louisville PRESIDENT K. N. E. A.: R. L. DOWERY, Sr., Shelbyville ASSOCIATE EDITORS: W. B. Chenault, Stanford. E. K. Glass, Hopkinsville; V. E. Miller, Louis- ville; L. J. Twyman, Glasgow; W. M. Woods, Harlan; W. 0. Whyte, Maysville CONTRIBUTING EDITORS: R. B. Atwood, Frankfort; E. T. Buford, Bowling Green; H. E. Goodloe, Owensboro; Mary E. Guy, Horse Cave; N. L. Passmore, Lexington; W. H. Perry, Jr., Louisville; Mrs. Lucy H. Smith, Lexington; C. L. Timberlake, Paducah; A. S. Wilson, Louisville; W. M. Young, Lincoln Ridge PRICE ONE bOLLAR PER YEAR OR 25 CENTS PER COPY Membership in the K. N. E. A. includes subscription to the JOURNAL Rates of advertising mailed on request Table of Contents PAGE Editorial Comment ............................................................. 4 Cover Picture ................................................. 4 "The President's Letter," R. L. Dowery, Sr ........................................... 4 Greetings from Your Officers and the Members of Board of Directors ...................... 5 Notes on District Officers . ...................................................... 6 "Integration," W. M. Young ...................................................... 7 Other New Buildings ............................................................ 7 "The Annual Convention of the American Teachers Association," Lucy Harth Smith ......... 8 "Integrating Social Studies with English," Mary E. Guy ................................ 9 "Language," the first of a series on the Language Arts, Harvey L. Smiley .................... 16 District K. N. E. A. Meetings ..................................................... 18 "Bcok Nook," Ruth Hill Jones ................. .................................. 19 K. N. E. A. Kullings ............................................................ 20 3 Editorial Comment 75TH ANNIVERSARY In April of 1951 we will celebrate our 75th Anniversary. From a small group of teachers who met as a teachers' institute, we have grown to be an outstanding education association. We have pioneered in many fields, and have toiled hard to bring about equalization of educational opportunities at all levels and in all the ramifications of our State's educational structure. Our toils have been rewarded. Today we find ourselves at the beginning of an era greater than our fondest hopes could have ever expected. Today our opportunities are unlimited. Now we are face to face with reality. Equali- zation is no longer a dream. Integration is well on its way. Our labors, however, are not ended -they have just begun-we must fight to maintain those things we have worked so hard to gain. We must prepare ourselves to utilize our new opportunities to their fullest extent. Our preparations must start today-tomorrow will be too late. Gains hard won are easily lost. The membership of the K. N. E. A. must be leaders in a new era that may be darkened with misunderstanding and misfortune. We must cement ourselves together if we are to face this new era with a united front. We must recognize the implications of integration. We must inform not only our children but all the citizenry of Kentucky that these implications are not in- surmountable, but that they can be minimized and overcome. Our 75 years of progress will be of no service to the world unless that progress is used to bring about continued success. We cannot stop. We must use our past experiences to forge even further ahead. COVER PICTURE The Shelbyville Graded School is one of the latest schools to be completed. Construction was started in the Fall of 1949 and completed in the Spring of 1950 at an estimated cost of $123,000. The building, two and one-half stories high, contains six classrooms, box depository, and the principal's office. The cafeteria is located in the basement. In each of the classrooms there are steel lockers. The excellent educational and community services rendered by the school are made possible by Mrs. Willa S. Ray, Superintendent, assisted by Principal G. R. Williams and his capable staff of five teachers. Mr. Williams has his A.B. from K. S. C. The Presidenat's Letter November 1, 1950 To the Officers and Members of the Kentucky Negro Education Association Ladies and Gentlemen: As president-elect, I am deeply grateful for the honor you conferred upon me at the close of the Seventy-fourth Session by electing me without opposition to serve you. It can be truth- fully said that I have worked diligently to help every administration since I became a member of the organization. I am thoroughly acquainted with educational problems in Kentucky on all levels. The greatest teacher the world has ever known was Jesus Christ. During His stay upon this earth there were those who doubted His sincerity of purpose to help mankind live a richer and fuller life. There might be some in our organization similar to those during Jesus' time, known as the doubting Thomases. All I ask is that you give me a chance, and with your cooperation and the guidance of God, I will work hard to carry out all the points mentioned in my announcement. There is a motto, "United We Stand and Divided We Fall." It should be uppermost in the mind of everyone. It is imperative that every member of this organization realize the many responsibilities that confront us. Each one should remember that this organization can only go forward in proportion to our contributions for its good. I extend a hearty welcome, first to every officer of the organization, second to the heads of the various departments, and third to past officers, members and friends. Our session, April 11-13, 1951, will be the 75th Anniversary of our organization. It is my desire to celebrate this as our Diamond Jubilee Celebration. I am asking each department to be thinking in terms of building its program in accordance with the 75 years of progress. On the 18th of November a program planning conference will be held and work begun on the Diamond Jubilee Celebration. Members of this organization from every section of Kentucky have been called upon to serve on the various standing committees. I wish to thank each of you for your acceptance of these responsibilities. I welcome criticisms; all I ask is that they come as constructive ones rather than destructive. Yours for an aggressive and progressive K. N. E. A. R. L. DOWERY, SR., President 4 GREETINGS from YOUR OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS W.ith the elimination of barriers, the weakening of prejudices, the presentation of new oppor- tunities comes a great challenge for us as teachers and leaders, to make our contribution, through the adequate preparation of our youth, to hold their own creditably in a changing world. When the frequently used statement, "I cannot hold certain positions, I cannot realize my ambitions, I cannot achieve because I am black," becomes irrelevant, and is identified wholly with the past, we must see to it that the state- ment, "I cannot hold positions, realize ambitions, and achieve because I am not prepared," does not loom up in its stead. LET US ACCEPT OUR CHALLENGE CHEERFULLY AND SERIOUSLY. Yours for progress, AGNES DUNCAN, First Vice President The president and teachers of the First District pledge our loyal support to the K. N. E. A. in all efforts for the education of the total child in order that his unique abilities may be developed. Sincerely yours, FREDERICK INGERSOLL STIGER Second Vice President AN EDUCATIONAL FORECAST "The permanency of educational growth is assured only through assiduous effort." American education strives to retain those landmarks which have proved themselves in past decades to be a sound philosophy for democratic living. Ours is a heritage of caution and courage, a tantalizing challenge that faces us all. The strategy of our educational processes for maintenance must manipulate itself in soli- darity. To preserve the glorious history of the past calls for cooperative effort of all individuals, all groups, and agencies with pertinent responsi- bilities in our educational program. With careful scrutiny,. tapping our personal resources, alerting our mental switchboards, and establishing a psychological front of service in action, our educational index will reflect desir- able outcomes for a history of which each American citizen can be justly proud. "Invested interest for an interesting history." Sincerely yours, ALICE D. SAMUELS, Historian I have unlimited faith in the educators of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, their educational institutions and organizations. I firmly believe that the next seventy-five yea r s will see Kentucky emerge as one of the undisputed- lead- ers in an era of educational democracy. Let us continue to fight, but while we are fighting let us prepare ourselves and our children to maintain those things we have already won. Sincerely yours, WILLIAM L. SPEARMAN, Secretary-Treasurer To train leaders you must be a leader. In this day of strife and turmoil, the youth of Kentucky must be led rather than directed. Let us pray that God will give us the strength and courage to become greater leaders of to- morrow's citizens. Respectfully yours, ANITA COOPER RICHARDS, Assistant Secretary I have nothing but commendation for the tremendous strides our organization is making educationally. The interest and cooperation shown by the principals and teachers of Kentucky prove that no obstacle is too great to overcome when there is a desire to do so. Our organization is growing. Each department is organized and presents both interesting and valuable programs with prominent signs of greater improvements. The future outlook is good. As fellow edu- cators, let us combine our efforts and continually strive for nothing less than the best. Let us work together to eliminate any existing defi- ciencies and make this the greatest educational group in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Respectfully, W. B. CHENAULT, Board of Directors I wish to offer congratulations for the untiring efforts of the principals and teachers of Kentucky for their splendid work in e s t a b l i s h i n g democratic ideals in the educational system of our State. May we be encouraged by the great strides that have been made, and continue to reach for higher goals. Sincerely yours, E. W. WHITESIDE, Board of Directors Continued on bottom of page 6 5 Notes On District Officers L. J. TWYMAN President of the Third District K. N. E. A. L. J. Twyman of Glasgow, Kentucky attended secondary schools in Kentucky and Indiana. He is a graduate of Mayo-Underwood High School, received his A.B. degree from K. S. C., bis M.A. degree from I. U. in 1938, and he has done advanced study at the same school. He is principal of Glasgow High School. H. R. MERRY President of the Northern District K. N. E. A. H. R. Merry, President of the Northern District K. N. E. A. for the past twenty years, has been principal of Lincoln-Grant High School for the past twenty-eight years. A product of Fisk University, he has done postgraduate work at Cincinnati University, University of Wisconsin, Atlanta University, and Hampton Institute. As Principal of Booker Washington High School, Ashland, Kentucky, and as a member of the Board of Directors of the K. N. E. A., I wish to extend most cordial fraternal greetings and best wishes to my fellow teachers and co-workers of Kentucky. I wish to commend the fine work of the Board of Directors, President of the K. N. E. A., presidents of the District Associations, principals and teachers in all school areas of the State for their splendid cooperation in making the Kentucky Negro Education Association one of the greatest education associations in America. It acts as an educational commission which functions and shapes the policies of Negro education in Ken- tucky. It is impossible to evaluate the great work the K. N. E. A. has done over the years, and is continuing to do. We can pay no greater tribute to the K. N. E. A. than, on its seventy-fifth birthday session, April, 1951, to have every school from every hamlet and hilltop, from every town and city, to participate in the gala celebration in Louisville at that time. I extend to President Dowery and Secretary, Treasurer Spearman my best wishes, heartiest cooperation and support. Sincerely yours, C. B. NUCKOLLS, Board of Directors Thanks to my many friends and co-workerE for the opportunity to serve as a director of the K. N. E. A. Thus I feel keenly the obligation to help carry on the work which was inaugurated nearly seventy-five years ago, and has been continued by the fine people who have been your inspiration and mine. I challenge you to join those of us who are determined to carry on the work of the builders of the first seventy-five years, on an ever ascend, ing plane. Very truly yours, H. C. MATHIs, Board of Directors 6 CLIMB ON THE BAND WAGON! PAY YouR K. N.E. A. MEMBERSHIP FEE Now! IUTEGRATION WHITNEY M. YOUNG Now that integration is becoming a reality, a great many people are beginning to ask a few questions about the meaning of integration. Today, in our thinking, we always begin on the premise: you must tear down the Negro project, whatever it is. I would like to ask a question; in all sincerity, are we in favor of closing out all Negro news- papers, insurance companies, law offices, barring the doors to Negro dentists and doctors and the closing of all Negro schools, including elemen- tary and high schools? Any group of people who would deliberately black-list their own race and institutions does not deserve to live or to have the respect of other people. The Englishman, the Frenchman, the Italian, the Indian, the Japanese, the Chinese, the Mexican, the Philippino, the German and the Russian, all seek to maintain with dignity and grace their racial heritage and self-respect We must beware lest the theory of integration becomes the flame for extinguishing 90 per cent of all job opportunities for the future educated Negro. I am not opposed to integration, but I want integration to take place on both sides of the fence. I do not want any group to have the final say about where, when, and what type of education our children shall have. The Negro teacher, preacher, doctor, lawyer, dentist, businessman has done the most marvel- ous job of any, group of persons in the world when you consider the handicaps involved. In our haste to criticize we forget the tragic influence of slavery. We forget the terrible poverty and misery of the Negro home, the starvation salary of teachers for generations, and the time when the only voice that could be heard in the wilderness of reconstruction was the voice of the Negro preacher and journalist. We forget the long, weary years of exploita' tion when Negro women and men were the only launderers, the only sunup to sundown farmers. We also forget the blind alleys into which millions of our people were led by gullible idiots who grew fat and rich at the expense of the poor and ignorant Negro. We forget those bankrupt Negro organizations that collected millions of dollars from our poor and gave them nothing in return except a badge, button, ribbon, cane or sword which they might bequeath to their heirs as mementoes of an era when the blind led the blind and all men were slaves to a system that meant poverty and early death for all. As we face our tomorrow, let it not be without hope. If we must burn tomorrow, let's not fail to get the most out of today. Behind all our doubts and fears there can be the unchanging faith of Evangeline Booth. When someone asked her if she ever doubted God, she replied: "Yes, when my mother died after months of suffering from cancer, I doubted God. When my dear father went blind and lingered for years, I doubted God. But," said she, "He wouldn't be much of a God if I could understand Him." We can rest assured that truth and justice will triumph in the end. If there are Negro schools now in operation with good physical plants or the potentialities for building a good physical plant, we should do everything within our power to bring about integration within that plant. There are any number of examples to prove that for many years to come there will be a large number of Negro students who will find it socially and economically to their advantage to attend a college that is made up largely of their own people. In fact, in any community where there are Negro and white schools, I think some consideration should be given to the idea of integrating other races into the Negro schools as well as integrating Negroes into other schools. OTHER NEW SCHOOL BUILDINGS Soon our cover page will carry pictures of High School, and Mr. H. E. Goodloe, principal several new school buildings now under con- of Western High School, Owensboro, Kentucky, struction. announce that they bave new buildings under A new high school is under construction at construction. Benham, Kentucky, and will soon be ready for occupancy. The faculty, under the leadership Mr. C. B. Nuckolls, principal of Booker of Principal J. A. Matthews, will be increased Washington High School, Ashland, Kentucky, from nine to eleven teachers. announces the opening of a new home economics Mr. L. J. Twyman, principal of Glasgow building on his school grounds. 7 The Amnual Convention Of The American Teachers Association By MRS. Lucy HARTH SMITH The 47th annual convention of the American Teachers Association was held at Alabama State College, August 13-14-15, 1950. President H. Councill Trenholm, President of the College, and Executive Secretary of the A. T. A., with his efficient staff, had made ample preparation for the comfort and happiness of teachers in attendance. Memorial Services were held Sunday after- noon for 116 teachers who had passed during the year. Among those eulogized were Dr. Carter G. Woodson of Washington, D. C., Dr. Ahthony J. Major of Weirton, West Virginia; Mr. Harvey C. Russell, Louisville; Kentucky; Mrs. Hattie Haydon McElory and Miss Jennie L. Murphy of Lexington, Kentucky. The first general program session was held in Tullibody Auditorium, at which time greetings were extended from the state and city officials. The response to the greetings was made by President George W. Gore. The keynote address for the evening was made by Miss Corma Mowery, President of the National Teachers Association, who used as her subject "ATA- NEA United in Current Challenges of the Teaching Profession." Joseph T. Brooks, Vice- president of Region II, presided over this session. "Race in Education as It Relates to the Teacher" was the theme of the meeting held Monday morning. Participants were Dr. Howard H. Long, Dr. George W. Gore, Dr. W. E. Anderson, Mr. John Potts, Mr. Moss Kendrick of the NEA, and others. At the evening session two very informative addresses were given. Mr. John W. Parker, Chairman of the Depart- ment of English, State Teachers College, North Carolina, discussed "Benjamin Brawley as a Great Teacher," and Dr. Raymond W. Logan, Editor-Director of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, discussed "Negro History as a Resource and Tool in Education." A Life Membership Dinner was held Tuesday evening, at which time Dr. Robert C. Hatch, Vice President of the ATA, discussed "The Life Membership Project and Response," and Mr. William A. Robinson, the 17th ATA President, made the banquet address Attorney Austin A. Walden of Atlanta, Georgia, who has been prominent in the legal efforts to improve the status of Negro citizens, teachers and children of Georgia, addressed the Association Tuesday. The World Organization of the Teaching Profession held in Ottawa, Canada, July 18, 1950, elected the American Teachers Associa- tion as a member. The WOTP represents 19 world education organizations. ATA delegates were President George W. Gore and Executive Secretary H. Councill Trenholm. The ATA will have just one vote in this organization, but a possible seven delegates. There is the opportunity for regional, state, and local teacher organizations to be affiliated members without delegate or voting status. The annual meeting was well attended and a number of courtesies in the form of a garden party, reception, barbecue, banquet, and sight- seeing trip to Tuskegee Institute were well arranged. The Board of Directors of the K. N. E. A. held their Fall Meeting on September 30, 1950. Present were Directors H. C. Mathis, C. B. Nuckolls, E. W. Whiteside, President R. L. Dowery, Sr., and Secretary-Treasurer W. L. Spearman. N. S. Thomas, Fourth District President; Karl Walker, Eastern District President; H. R. Merry, Northern District President; H. S. Osborne, Upper Cumberland District President, sat with the Directors in an advisory capacity. Tentative plans for the DIAMOND JUB.I LEE MEETING were discussed. 8 Integrating Social Studies With English By MARY E. GuY INTRODUCTION To begin a problem or a unit West suggests that at least five steps should be taken: (1) help students realize why the unit is significant to them and to society; (2) arouse student interest in the unit; (3) relate the new to those previously studied, and place it in the framework of the year's work; (4) enable teacher and students to take stock of what class members think and know about the problem, topic, or period at hand; and (5) provide a brief overview of the unit. Developmental activities should be chosen so that the class works toward its unit objectives, utilizing the variety of procedures needed to take into account individual needs and abilities. The emphasis in this period of a unit is upon gathering and organizing information, following the unit outline of problems and content. Some activities such as talks and panel discussions will represent a complete project for the individual who presents information to the class; for the class as a whole, however, the activity is used as one means of gathering information. It is important all through this stage of the unit to vary from day to day and within each class period. The following activities may be utilized in the introduction of the unit: 1. A pre-test on knowledge of the material to 4. Visual materials be used in the unit 5. Recordings 2. An attitude scale 6. Field Trips 3. Articles, clippings and poems 7. Guest Speaker By studying the type of units outlined in this project students should gain a better knowledge and understanding of world affairs, learn to relate their historical knowledge to current problems, and at the same time build desirable habits of participating in community affairs. These units are designed for the ninth grade in social studies for a semester or longer if necessary. UNIT I OUR LOCAL COMMUNITY OBJECTIVE: To develop individuals who will work with others for the improvement of their community. UNDERSTANDINGS 1. To understand that people live better by sharing and working together. Social Studies Activities 1. We will conduct a survey to determine the number and types of jobs that the citizens of the community are en- gaged in. We will do this with the following questionnaire to be presented to the individual in charge: I. How many people are employed? 2. How many of these are skilled workers? 3. How many of these are unskilled workers? 4. How many of these are laborers? 5. How many of these are office workers? II. We will make a trip to the Chamber of Commerce to find out the formation of the community and how it de- veloped from a settlement into a city. III. After the data from the results of the questionnaires have been received and studied and the information gained from the Chamber of Commerce has been studied, the following pictures will be shown: I. A Pioneer Home-Io min. Develops an appreciation and understanding of the hard work and simple pleasures of that period. 2. Developing Leadership-io min. Shows a practical instance of what a boy did when a flood struck his home town. English Activities I. Instruct the class to write a questionnaire that will be sent to the place of employment in the community. II. The class will compose a letter to be sent to the Chamber of Commerce seeking a definite time for a visit to secure the necessary information concerning the development of the community. III. The pupils will write an essay pertaining to some special phase of the development of the community, such as: i. The Establishment of the First Church 2. The First School 3. How the Community Received its Name 4. Outstanding Leaders in the Early Days of the Com- munity, etc. 5. How Tobacco Has Helped the Community to Grow 9 2. To understand that the freedom which one community. (Reasons for laws.) Social Studies Activities I. We will make a trip to the courthouse to find out: i. The various kinds of laws 2. Who makes the laws 3. Who interprets them 4. How they are enforced enjoys is dependent upon others who live in the English Activities 1. The class will write a letter to the city and county judges seeking permission to visit the courthouse in a body. II. After the information has been discussed in class, in the form of a socialized recitation, we will write laws for our classroom. 3. To understand that a community is made up of many kinds of people and activities in order to be a good community. Social Studies Activities 1. Various pupils will interview outstanding people of the community for information concerning the important role they play in the activities of the city, such as: I. Judges a. Lawyers 3. Bankers 4. Doctors Through this investigation the pupils will discover the number of people who are leaders, and the type of work they do for the betterment of the community. English Activities 1. We will study and discuss "Interviewing," which is found in Chapter IV-English in Action-Book II- Tressler. I1. When the material received from the interviews has been assimilated, we will construct a "Who's Who" of the leaders of the community. 4. To understand that there must be opportunities for trade both in the community and outside. Social Studies Activities I. We will conduct a survey to find out the types of trading that are carried on in the community. This survey will be conducted by a visit to: A. Business Concerns I. Banks 2. Supply Companies a. School b. Utilities c. Medical 3. Warehouses (tobacco) B. Manufactories I. Dairy products 2. Farm implements 3. Granaries C. Stores I. Furniture 2. Clothing 3. Feed 4. Groceries D. Farms I. Livestock 2. Truck gardens 3. Grain English Activities 1. The class will make a chart showing the types of trade that are carried on in and out of the community. II. A scrap book will be made by a committee which will include pictures and written stories of the types of busi- nesses carried on in the community. III. A graph will be made to show just how much trade is carried on in the community between business concerns within thearea and the amount of trade with other localities. The information gained from the above outline will enable us to draw conclusions as to just how much business or trade is carried on between the concerns or businesses in the community, and how much trade is done with outside communities through exporting and importing. 5. To understand that organized groups work for the good of the community. Social Studies Activities I. Members of such organizations as the Community Chest, N. A. A. C. P. and Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. will be invited to our school to give talks which will explain how they function for the welfare of the locality. II. We will visit organizations like those mentioned above to see their setup and to get any bulletins, magazines and other materials that will help to further develop an under- standing of their dealings with the community. English Activities 1. The class will write summaries of the information given by the speakers from the various organizations. II. Posters will be made with correct slogans and will depict the activities of the organizations. III. The literature secured will be placed on the bulletin board in the hall for other interested students to read. IV. A play or a skit will be written to dramatize the value of the functions of the organizations to the community. 10 UNIT II COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY OBJECTIVE: To develop the desire of all students to help keep the community healthful and safe. UNDERSTANDINGS 1. To understand that with the aid of citizens the health and safety departments can foster a program that will aid in making life more enjoyable. Social Studies Activities Discuss these problems: I. What are the sanitary facilities in the community? II. How does the health department aid the community? 1Il. What has been done to improve the health conditions of the community? I'V. How is the water obtained that the citizens use? V. What per cent of the population use well water, water from springs, and water from the city water department? VI. Visit water company. English Activities I. Make health posters. II. Make check list designed to improve health. III. Write health reports. IV. Collect articles on health. V. Invite health officials to visit the school for a report on definite phases of health. 2. To understand that cleanliness is a needed factor for the welfare of a community. Social Studies Activities I. What are the types of illnesses that are prevalent in the cummunity? II. Find out how much use the people make of the health clinic. III. Discover the essentials of good health. IV. Determine what every citizen can do to promote better health. English Activities I. Make scrapbooks. II. Visit health clinic to understand the work carried on there. III. List correct foods that are essential to good health. IV. Make chart showing the types of illnesses and percent- age of each that affect the community. V. Write a play that can acquaint every citizen with how he can help the community promote good health. 3. To understand that 'safety is an important factor in prolonging life. Social Studies Activities I. Visit the traffic bureau to find out the speed limit for motorists in the city and on the highway. II. Discuss the rules that pedestrians should observe. 111. Diagnose the safety rules for motorists and bicycle riders. English Activities I. Make a chart showing the speed limit of the community. II. Construct a chart showing the death rate in the com- munity by: a. Natural death b. Auto accidents III. Make a list of rules for the motorists, bicycle riders, and the pedestrians. These rules will be posted on the bulletin board in the corridor. [IT III MAN'S STRUGGLE TO IMPROVE HIS LIVING OBJECTIVE: To emphasize the contributions that all races and nationalities have made to our civi- lization. UNDERSTANDINGS 1. To understand why man has misconceptions about races and nationalities. Social Studies Activities I. Locate information to establish the fact that the false ideas about races and nationalities are prevalent here and abroad. II. Find materials that will bring about an understanding that no nation has developed a civilization unaided by others. III. Select material that will correct this misconception. IV. Develop the understanding of the differences and similarities of races. English Activities I. Make oral reports that prove the fact that the false ideas about races and nationalities are incorrect. II. Have an authority to speak to the class concerning the differences and similarities of races. III. Make a chart that will show the races and some of their contributions. (Pictures will be included.) IV. Visit a museum to see some of the contributions the various races have contributed to civilization and make written reports of these contributions. 2. To understand that civilization developed and spread fast as contacts between people became more frequent. 11 Social Studies Activities Find material on and discuss the following: I. The three main divisions of history a. Ancient b. Medieval c. Modern II. The foundations of civilization a. Ancient times b. Egypt to Greece c. Greece to Rome d. Areas outside of Roman Empire i. Far East 2. Africa 3. Americas III. The uneven pace of civilization throughout the middle ages. IV. Visual Material I. Our Ancient World Inheritance-a view of ancient customs, and contributions. ' 2. One World or None-urges the need for world organi, Zation because of the atomic warfare. Filmstrips Patterns for World Prosperity-use to develop an under, standing of world trade. English Activities I. Read portions of Kipling's "White Man's Burden." II. Make an outline of the foundations of civilizations. III. Write a description of life during the "Dark Ages." 3. To understand that in modern times the world has become more interdependent. Social Studies Activities English Activities I. Develop the meaning of modern times. I. Write compositions such as "The Causes of Wars." II. Build an understanding of: II. Write an imaginary newspaper of the present day and a. Strong monarchies in Europe include an article on some phase of the United Nations' b. The area of revolutions in Europe and America activities. c..The First World War III. Write a diary of a boy or girl who lived in Europe d. The Second World War during the monarchies. e. Living in Atomic Age III. The accomplishment of the United Nations. UNIT IV HOW MAN HAS GOVERNED HIMSELF THROUGHOUT THE AGES OBJECTIVE: To develop a desire on the part of students to join the efforts of man to seek world peace. UNDERSTANDINGS 1. To understand the attempts man has made and is making to create world order. Social Studies Activities English Activities I. Trace the development of government from earliest time I. Construct a poll concerning a world problem, and com- to the present. pare the class results with such as the Gallup Poll or some II. Study the causes of revolutions and the swing toward other published poll that is related to the problem. dictatorship. II. Use an attitude scale which will allow the students to III. Develop a plan to promote freedom and democracy by express their feeling toward a current problem. understanding the purpose of the United Nations. III. Use articles, clippings and poems that tie up with a particular problem. UNIT V THE NEED FOR PEACE OBJECTIVE: To present definite knowledge essential to an understanding of current conditions and problems. UNDERSTANDINGS 1. To understand that peace can be obtained without resort to force. Social Studies Activities I. Find information and discuss the following material: a. Cost of wars b. Causes of wars c. Proposal for peace d. Development of international cooperation and law e. The United Nations II. Use the daily newspaper to find information about the war with Korea which will be used for discussion. English Activities I. Some of the World Problem Charts put out by the National Forum will be used to help to develop the unit. II. Use chart and graphs that compare cost of recent wars. These charts will be studied and written reports will be made for the school paper. III. Pupils will write letters to secure charts, graphs and literature that bear on the unit. IV. Make a comparative chart to show the difference be- tween the League of Nations and the United Nations. 12 DESIRABLE OUTCOMES 1. An understanding of the interest, motives, activities and ideals of people in the community 2. An understanding of the factors and forces which helped to make the community what it is today 3. An understanding of the influences in personality and social contacts that cause the individual to set up and observe certain standards of conduct in the community 4. A recall of outstanding facts about the settlement of our community 5. A realization of changes that have taken place in the community through recognized business 6. A comprehension of current proposals for bettering human relationships 7. Ability to read and interpret charts, graphs and materials used by business concerns, and social organizations 8. Greater freedom in giving oral reports 9. An impression of the world as a whole and the way natural conditions affect people's lives 10. Ideas about early man and the way he lived II. A knowledge of the contributions of nations of the world to civilization and the problems of today 12. An appreciation of what ancient Greece and Rome contributed to civilization and a knowledge of current conditions in those countries 13. An understanding of medieval life in Europe as a background for the history of the United States 14. To develop skill in unifying work 15. Greater ability to express themselves in the writing of letters and stories 16. Improvement in the use of mechanics in language and reading 17. Efficiency in using the library 18. Ability to make an organization outline in proper form of a body of material 19. Ability to engage effectively in informal conversation and formal group discussion 20. Ability to write, without notes or access to books, a relatively long paper in acceptable English, giving the "story" ofithe entire unit EVALUATION Evaluation of the units suggested and planned in this paper will be shown through the pupil's ability to fully use these entities of' measure: 1. Concepts 7. Appraising Material 2. Interests 8. Utilizing Material 3. Cooperation 9. Daily Problem Solving 4. Toleration 10. Tests 5. Locating Material a. Skills b. Achievement c. Attitude 6. Studying Material BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Kroneberg, Henry, Programs and Units in The Social Studies, pp. 59-60, July, 1941. 2. Michiner, James, The Future of the Social Proposals for an Experimental Social Studies Curriculum, pp. 30-32, November, 1939. 3. West, Edith, "Improving the Teaching of World History," National Council for the Social Studies, 1950. 4. Weeks, Ruth Mary, "A Correlated Curriculum," The National Council of Teachers of English, 3:301-305, 1936. DIAMOND JUBILEE LoUISVILLE, Ky. APRIL 11-13, 1951 13 I P: R. L. DOWERY President 328 Bradshaw Street Shelbyville, Ky. MRS. AGNES G. DUNCAN First Vice-President 1929 Yale Drive Louisville, Ky. F. I. STIGER Second Vice-President 507 N. Eighth Street Mayfield, Ky. MISS ALICE D. SAMUELS Historian 508 Washington Street Frankfort, Ky. W. L. SPEARMAN Secretary-Treasurer 1740 Dumesnil Street Louisville 10, Ky. 14 MRS. ANITA C. RICHARDS Assistant Secretary 2808 W. Chestnut Street Louisville, Ky. H. C. MATHIS Member of the Board of Directors Box 870 Drakesboro, Ky. W. B. CHENAULT Meinber of the Board of Directors Lincoln High School Stanford, Ky. E. W. WHITESIDE Meniher of the Board of Directors 1,514 N. Eighth Street Paducah, Ky. 15 NOT SHOWN: C. B. NUCKOLLS Menieber of the Board of Directors B. T. Washington High School Ashland, Kentucky LANGUAGE BY H. L. SMILEY EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first of a series of three articles by H. L. Smiley on the language arts to be presented in this JOURNAL. The numbers in parentheses refer to the number in the bibli- ography. Educators recognize that if the school is to prepare children to meet life situations training in the mother tongue must not be left to chance. Brown and Butterfield (2) say that if language training is not to be artificial it must be a real exchange of ideas among members of the group. Teachers in the modern school now realize that children do have something to say and that an environment conducive to self-expression must be created. Sympathy and understanding on the part of the teacher, not expensive equip- ment, are needed to create such an environment. Unless the teacher makes use of the psycho- logical principles of learning, little can be done towards improving the language skills of any pupil. It is not enough to tell pupils what is good, but one should stimulate in them the desire to use the best there is in our language. Pooley (6) says that the conception of a single standard or level of correctness no longer pre- vails. Our language which is a form of human behavior is subject just as any other behavior to endless variety. But one must keep in mind that there are certain usages which are either accepted or rejected by any society. According to the same author, there are at least five levels of English usage in our social group today. They are defined as follows: 1. The illiterate level-outside the group of educated society. 2. The homely level-outside the limits of standard cultivated usage. 3. Informal level-standard English, ordinary, comfortable usage with sufficient breadth in limits to permit variations necessary to the occasion at hand. 4. Formal level-standard English, more re- strained and careful. This includes public speech and formal letter writing. 5. Literary level--beautiful and rhythmical, surpassing needs of everyday expression. It is hoped that teachers realize the vast loss of time and energy in attempting to attain the literary level. If pupils can be helped to attain the informal level they will be able to speak clear, direct English so that the thought will be conveyed to the listener. ORAL EXPRESSION As the child matures language develops and through language personality is expressed. Oral language, if not developed correctly, will affect many other phases of the child's life. It is realized that ideas come first, then expression and writing. Before the child is allowed to write his ideas he should be able to express them orally. If care is taken in helping the young child to express himself freely and fully, less trouble will arise as the child moves on to higher levels of learning. In other words, a solid foundation in oral expression makes a safer structure on which to build written expression. Anderson (1) stresses the need for a linguistic environment of a high level in early years. He adds that if we have more attention given to the education of the young child, many of the problems found in later life would be simplified. McKee (4) says that helping pupils to take part in speaking or writing is much more than merely teaching the items involved in the activity. Mere instruction in what to do is not enough; pupils should be provided with many opportunities to engage in the total activity. In the light of their needs, children should have an opportunity to carry on and engage in real and meaningful experiences. In so doing, the pupils should be helped to set standards by which they can evaluate their own work. Speaking and writing should tie up with all other forms of school work when and wherever needed. Watts (9) says that the first principle in speech training is clarity, the use of words in a manner which can be clearly understood by anyone reading or hearing them. The child should be taught the proper use of synonyms and synonymous expressions. They should be trained to respect the principle of precision in using their own language. In describing an object or answering a question, a pupil should be taught to express himself so that he conveys the exact meaning he desires to give. The writer suggests that a game might be used in which a pupil gives a description of an object or mechan- ism, while another pupil draws exactly what has been described. In children's minds experi- ences are linked with language. They should be led to feel that what they say will be valued and appreciated when it is well expressed. SPEECH Someone has said that teachers are so busy trying to teach children to read that they forget to teach them to talk. Just a few years ago speaking without the permission of the teacher was forbidden. The social tool'of speech so useful for learning was neglected and re- 16 pressed. When children are encouraged to plan and to talk about work which is of interest to them, free speech that is worthwhile should follow. Strickland (7) differentiates between speech and language by explaining that speech is indi- vidual and colloquial, but language is the same for all the members of a linguistic community. Real life situations should accompany any attempt to have children use speech in the classroom. Free expression, by means of action and speech, is usually well established by the time the child reaches school age. Rapid growth in vocabulary and different shades of meaning are experienced through language forms. The time devoted to helping children realize real life experiences should be determined by the needs and abilities of the class and the individual child. The main problem is to get children, whose background has been limited, to talk. After this has been accomplished, some thought may be given to helping the child speak correctly. In primary grades most corrective work is done incidentally with such errors as poor pronunciation, and enunciation, clipped-final consonants, slurred pronunciation, and voice placement. The National Council oftTeachers of English (5) gives as desirable outcomes in conversation: 1. The ability to look squarely at the person one is addressing, 2. to sit or stand without slouch- ing, and 3. to speak audibly and distinctly and in a pleasant voice. The outcome to be desired in telephoning is to speak distinctly in a well-modulated voice, slowly enough to allow the person at the other end to write down the information. In discussing and planning, the desirable outcomes are: 1. to speak so all may hear, 2. to look at those to whom one is speaking, and 3. to maintain a posture. In story telling the child should: 1. speak to the audience, not merely before it, 2. speak audibly, distinctly and pleasantly, 3. cause the voice to express feeling, 4. use spontaneous gestures, and 5. stand erect but not stiff. In dramatization the child should be able to: 1. work out dialogues and stage business rather than memorizing lines and directions, 2. use appropriate tones and inflec- tions, postures and gestures, and 3. deliver audible, distinct speech with a conversational effect. In the more advanced state of elementary speech the child should be able to speak to groups if the following techniques are developed: 1. to stand well on platform, 2. to get one's balance after reaching position, 3. to speak audibly, deliberately and distinctly, 4. to pre- sent an animated countenance, 5. to speak directly to the audience, 6. to recite with ex- pression, 7. to speak lines of a play conversa- tionally, and 8. to use posture, gesture, and facial expression appropriate to the character one is playing. COMPOSITION IN LANGUAGE Composition is a fundamental activity not confined to any grade level or stage of learning. It is primarily a mental process and only second- arily a matter of speaking and writing. It involves the development and organization of ideas, and giving to them an appropriate form of expression. It is then, first of all, a process, afterwards a product. Composition begins when there is an occasion for communication. Any occasion to sieze or create a situation in which expression, oral or written, can be done should be grasped. Em- phasis on the expression of ideas and thoughts is taking the place of mechanics in teaching materials. All speaking or writing must have a purpose. Vicarious experiences should be used to give children something to talk about. Story telling as a means of sharing his experiences with others gives help in the composition of thoughts long before the child is asked to write. Trips, experiences with pets, and many everyday activities will provide material for the children to share. The teacher can add to these by reading stories and poems of interest to the children. These stories and poems may be dramatized by the children using their own ideas in express- ing them. Creative work in story writing and poetry should result from this type of experience. The idea that children will always write about bees and butterflies has given way to the knowl- edge that children will write about that which moves them most deeply and has the most meaning to them. Thought should be given to the way the child has shown his feelings and imagination in poetry. Letter writing is another form of composition. A real need for communication should be felt in the composition of letters. Watts (9) says that letter writing calls for simple planning on the part of the children if the occasions for writing them are chosen sensibly. Writing should be free and easy just as children speak. In a more formal situation they should be taught the necessary rules of good letter form. Watts (9) says that the virtues of prose writing are: 1. clearness, 2. interest, 3. orderli- ness, 4. simplicity, 5. appropriateness, and 6. euphony. Much practice in speaking and writing increases the ability to use words correctly with thought on diction, sentence structure, order, and proportion. Treanor (8) bemoans the fact that in the 17 teaching of composition we usually are satisfied if the product of our labor, which begins with some unusual word, phrase, or sentence, has good penmanship and proper margins. Expression by means of written language requires a knowledge of sentence structure, fluency of words, and ability to endow the whole composition with a particular theme. Yet teachers think nothing of asking immature minds to place evaluation on themes in terms of the extent and maturity of sentence structure. The writer does not mean to insinuate that composition should not be permitted in the elementary grades. Too many worthwhile ex- periences would be lost if this were true. So the fourth grade is not too early to begin, if the whole is broken down into meaningful units. This is done under the assumption that it is best to teach children the correct way at first rather than have them unlearn wrong habits later. By taking definite units of work the teacher can lead progressively on to the more difficult steps. No attempt should be made to regulate this teaching by exact laws or rules, but certain standards of achievements should be set as goals. It is obvious that in this progression of steps the real rewards will be reaped by those teachers of later years in high school. CONCLUSIONS Language involves the use of oral expression, speech and composition. In the modern school the children should be heard as well as seen. Teachers should realize that children have something to say and they should create in them a desire to say it in an acceptable manner. In speaking or writing the teacher should make use of the children's own experiences so that they may talk or write freely. Stress is no longer placed on structural grammar as such. The needs of the child are utmost in the mind of the teachers and long bore- some hours of needless drill have been forsaken. When the needs of the child have been met, when he has been taught to use books, and when he can speak and write intelligently his native language, he should be a fit citizen of the world in which he lives. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Anderson, John E., "The Development of Spoken Language," Thirty-eighth Yearbook, National Society for the Study of Education, Bloomington, Illinois, 1939. 2. Brown, Dorothy L. and Butterfield, Margaret, The Teaching of Language in the Primary Grades. New York: The Macmillan Com- pany, 1941. 3. Harrison, L. W., "The Need for an Adequate Oral Language Program," Elementary School Journal, 43:590-600, October, 1943. 4. McKee, Paul, "An Adequate Program in Language Arts," Forty-third Yearbook, Part 2, National Society for the Study of Education, Bloomington, Illinois, 1942. 5. National Council of Teachers of English, Basic Aims Committee. "Basic Aims for English Instruction in American Schools," English Journal, 31.40-55, May, 1942. 6. Pooley, Robert C., Teaching English Uses, New York: D. C. Heath Company, 1946. 7. Strickland, Ruth G., Language and Mental Development of Children, Bulletin of the School of Education, 33: No. 2. Indiana University, March 1947. 8. Treanor, John H., "English Composition in the Elementary School," Education, 40: 297-306, January, 1947. 9. Watts, A. F., The Language and Mental Development of Children. New York: D. C. Heath Company, 1944. District K. N. E. A. Meetings A prominent school of psychology holds that "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts." Such being true, then great Districts mean a greater K. N. E. A. Several of the district meetings were attended by either the president or the secretary-treasurer. Each meeting was an inspiration in itself. If only a portion of the enthusiasm found in the meetings could be brought to the K. N. E. A. in April, the Diamond Jubilee will be a grand success. The Districts are to be congratulated for their deep interest in the K. N. E. A. program. Seemingly, in most districts this was election year. The officers and membership of the K. N. E. A. wish to express their appreciation for the cooperation and the work done by the outgoing officers, and to congratulate the new officers. The President and Secretary-treasurer wish to extend their thanks to the Districts for extending invitations to their meetings. They are exceedingly grateful for its being made possible for them to attend several of the meet- ings, and they regret that other pressing duties made it impossible to visit each District. 18 Book Nook Floodtrid e. $3.oo. Reviews by RUTH HILL JONES FICTION Floodtide - Jackie Robinson NON-FICTION The-Art of Teaching By Frank Yerby. New York: The Dial Press. FRANK YERBY HAS- DONE IT AGAIN Floodtide is an exciting new novel of Natchez and the old South at the flood tide of its glory. It probes deeply into the forbidden emotions of both men and women, the gracious living of gentlemen planters whose drinking and Jovemaking equaled their violent politics. The story has all the attributes of a good tangy jambolaya1 Yerby has tossed in heaping measures of rape, murder, revolution, hanging, adultery, and madness. Floodtide is a worthy successor to the Foxes of Harrow, The Golden Hawk, The Vixens and Pride's Castle. Jackie Robinson. By Bill Roeder. New York: A. S. Barnes and Co. i83 pp. $2.50. In a surprisingly brief book for the baseball and social achievements it records, Bill Roeder, sparkling sports columnist of the New York World 1Pelegram, tells the Jackie Robinson story. He unravels many surprising facts about Branch Rickey's decision to bring a Negro player into organized baseball and erase the color line. He digs deeply into Robinson's motivations and reactions. The Mahatma, as Branch Rickey is known in baseball circles, always was a man with a peculiar curiosity about Negro athletes. Were there any who could play major league ball? When Rickey took over as president of the Dodgers in 1944 he made his move. Through an elaborate but undercover system of baseball scouting, he acquired a file on the outstanding colored players of the day. One name popped up more than any other-Jackie Robinson. Robinson would do as a ballplayer, the scouts reported. But Rickey was looking for something more. He wanted a man who would be courageous enough to face the hard- ships he would meet as the first Negro in organized baseball. He wanted a man level-headed enough to handle the glori- fication that he would receive from members of his own race. Robinson, former three-letter man at U. C. L. A. and an army officer during the last war, seemed to qualify. Rickey sent for him. Mr. Roeder's account of the initial meeting is one of the most gripping episodes in the book. For three hours Rickey lectured, questioned, and purposely heaped indignities upon Robinson in order to impress upon him the momen- tousness of the move. The announcement that Robinson had been signed to play for Montreal shook the baseball world. Was this just another publicity stunt to make the Rickey- turnstiles click? "I took the guy to win a pennant," Rickey retorted, There were "incidents." I use the word politely. How- ever, Robinson wore the "armour of humility" so well that for a long while fans didn't realize it was a disguise in his make-up. Little by little, in succeeding seasons, the armour melted away. The Negro whom people had assumed was tractable by nature now stands revealed as a fiery com- petitor-the choice of the fans as the National League a-llstar second baseman for 1950. The Art of Teaching. By Gilbert Highet. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 219 pp. $3.50. THE MAKING OF A GOOD TEACHER To the general public, books about teaching are a drug on the market. Not this one. It is the work of a scholar, and a humanist. It is written by a man who has studied and taught in widely diverse places and institutions. Gilbert Highet, Anthon Professor of the Latin Language and Literature at Columbia, is a graduate at Glasgow and Oxford and has lectured on the classics at Oxford. Like a number of eminent teachers both here and abroad, he has, in this age of crisis, had other kinds of experience. From such a source, one would not be surprised to find a discourse on teaching that is full of good counsel, good sense and good reading. He states first that teaching is an art, not a science; it is addressed to persons, not percentages, and is the decisive central art of civilization. For better or worse he quotes Plato as pointing out that teaching is always going on. Everyone in his daily work and contact with others is essentially a teacher-not only teachers and parents, but salesmen, ministers, lawyers, politicians, writers, husbands and wives. Yet teaching is so important that from the Greeks down a good part of it has been entrusted to a professional class. The pupil is dealt with in all ages and at all ages. Mr. Highet is too wise a man to think of teaching in the context of a single country, a single cult, or a single tradition, for he knows that the teacher is part of a larger social whole, and that education cannot be considered in isolation. Mr. Highet again makes it clear that teaching presents the same problems, however, varied in scope and technique for different stages of growth. He gives a briefing on the requisites of good teaching and constant lively illustrations of how those requisites were fulfilled at different times and places, as different as ancient Athens, nineteenth century England and twentieth century America. What is a good teacher? Mr. Highet makes quite clear his conception of what the ideal is though he knows it nowhere exists. Poverty, genteel poverty, is the highest reward of most teachers. What must a teacher be, what must he have? He must know his pupils, both the recurrent varieties, and in the case of the outstanding or the outstandingly difficult ones, their particular qualities. He must care about the young and be a psychologist, or he will not know how to do this. He must incarnate the vital relation of learning to life and have a good memory, a clear firm will and be naturally kind. But more than considering the character, methods and abilities of a good teacher, The Art of Teaching is a fascinate ing survey of the greatest teachers ofall time-from Socrates, Plato and Aristotle through Jesus of Nazareth, the Jesuits and down to the twentieth century. Teaching in the long run shapes the whole of civilization, it is a sovereign art. Mr. Highet treats his profession with proper respect. THUMBNAIL SKETCHES Teachers Are People, by Virginia Church. Wallace Hebberd. $r.00. A collection of witty and sparkling poems, so au- thentic that only an experienced teacher could have pro- duced them. Psychology, by T. L. Engle. World Book Company. A revised edition of a high school text, so thorough and readable that many older readers will want to read it. Four Square, by Dorothy Canfield. Harcourt, Brace. $3.oo. A collection of seventeen short stories, done by an expert and reemphasizing her faith in mankind. Human Growth, by Lester L. Beck. Harcourt, Brace, $2.00. The best textbook available on sex instruction for junior and senior high school students, 19 K. S. E. A. KUllings... Lincoln High School in Paducah has added four new teachers to its faculty. Miss Mae Anna Britt, who is a graduate of Lincoln High School, did her undergraduate work at KSC, and received her Master's degree from Indiana U. She teaches the second and third grades. Miss Iona B. Crim is a native of Metropolis, Illinois. She did her undergraduate work at Southern Illinois U., and is now doing advanced study in personnel work and guidance at the same school. Mrs. Frances M. Pryor received her public school training in Cincinnati. She has a B.S. degree in Commercial Education and is teaching in the commercial department. A graduate of Lincoln High School and former football star and all-around athlete, J. P. White returns to Lincoln to coach the Lincoln Hornets. Mr. White played football for Wilberforce U. for four years before receiving his Bachelor's degree from that school. He later returned to Wilberforce as assistant coach and biology instructor. He is working toward an advanced degree at the University of Miami at Oxford, Ohio. * * * Lincoln Institute's total enrollment, including the veterans' program, is 387. The school has reached an all-time high in the number of board- ing girls and has passed the peak enrollment for boarding boys for the past ten years. The school has had to turn away many boys and girls from cities and towns where high school service was available. This was done despite the fact that the school was requested to accept them by the principals and superintendents. This is in keeping with the policy of the school of not trying to interfere with complete local high school service wherever possible. * * * Many teachers believe that travel is broaden- ing! Or-at least so it would seem by the following list of teachers who visited the South Sea Islands: Miss Louise Matthews, Haiti; Mrs. Stella Eccleston, Cuba and Jamaica; Miss Juanita Lane, Dominican Republic and the Virgin Islands; Miss Leola Miles, Mrs. Aora Bertram and Miss Mary Fishback, Bermuda; Miss Mildred Williams and Mrs. Leon Wiley, Cali- fornia and Mexico. * * * We all hope that President C. L. Timberlake and Business Manager M. J. Sleet of the West Kentucky Vocational Training School will repeat that wonderful exhibit at the K. N. E. A. meeting next Spring. * * * Miss Mary E. Guy of Horse Cave; Thomas Green, Harvey Smiley and Elzy White of Louisville; and W. 0. Whyte of Maysville were among those who received their Master's degrees from Indiana U. this Summer. Charles H. Woodson, principal of the Bardstown Train- ing School, Bardstown, Kentucky, received his Master's degree from Indiana U. in June, 1950. Mrs. Frieda Washington and Mrs. Florence Cowan received their Master's degrees this Summer. Miss Auweeta Whilhite of Louisville received her Bachelor's degree at the end of the Summer. * * * The editor of the K. N. E. A. JOURNAL has been asked to exchange journals with 1' Edu- cation Nationale, a publication of the French Ministry of Education. * * * Walter Gillard, a graduate of KSC, has been made Dean of Men and will assist in the Depart- ment of Physical Education and Coaching at Lincoln Institute. Mrs. Sarah Gillard will serve as Matron of the Boys' Dormitory. * * * Samuel C. L. Reed, Jr. is the new principal at Pikesville. P. B. Cornett has taken over the principalship at Jenkins. * * * A new Science Building is under construction at KSC. According to President R. B. Atwood, this is part of a large expansion program for the future. Dean David Bradford of KSC addressed the Eastern Kentucky Education Association in October, 1950. * * * A cup will be given to the district having the largest percentage of members in attendance at the April, 1951 meeting. * * * The Board of Directors voted to change the K. N. E. A. meeting place to the Tenth and Chestnut area. * * * If you have any news that you would like to have appear in this column, please send it to the editor by the 15th of December. * * * Booker Washington High School, Ashland, Kentucky, has as its slogan for this year, "We shall make our school a community school." The school's high school department has a new $545 piano, which is a gift from the Boaid of Education and citizens of Ashland. 20 WEST KENTUCKY VOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL PADUCAH, KENTUCKY C. L. Timberlake, President Strictly a Trade School Offering Courses as Follows: Automobile Mechanics and Electric Welding (one course) Barbering Brick Masonry Woodworking Carpentry Chef Cooking Tailoring Dressmaking Office Practice )R MEN Maintenance Engineering Office Practices (Typing, Short- hand, Filing, etc.)-one course Shoe Repairing Tailoring Horticulture FOR WOMEN Beauty Culture Barbering (Typing, Shorthand, Filing, etc.) Practical Nursing This is an old established trade school that aids in placements and follow-up of its graduates For all information write: M. J. SLEET, Business Manager [ I. N. E.A. P40 DUMESNIL DUISVILLE 10, KY. 'OSTMASTER: If undeliverable FOR ANY REASON tify sender, stating reason on FORM 3547, postage which is guaranteed." Sec. 34.66 P. L & U. S. Postas(ge Paid Louisville, Ky. Permit No. 332 Kentucky's Oldest Life, Health and Accident Insurance Company Over 48 years of faithful service to policyholders. More than $34,000,000.00 paid to policyholders and their beneficiaries since organization. KENTUCKY CENTRAL LIFE AND ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY Home Office: Anchorage, Kentucky R. H. West, Secretary-Treasurer E. H. Speckman, President