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Mountain Life & Work vol. 10 no. 3 October, 1934 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv10n31034 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 10 no. 3 October, 1934 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky October, 1934 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. VOLUME X OCTOBER, 1934 NUMBER 3 When School and Community Join Hands A Relief Officer Looks At Relief Doris Ulmann Haste To The Wedding (A Play) Nepotism In The Kentucky Mountain Schools A Guidance Program for Breathitt County Young People-O. Latham, Hatcher Livingston Becomes Recreation-Minded Summer Activities A Loose Leaf Book Reviews -Katharine E. Glad f elter 1 -L. F. Brashear -Olive D. Campbell 11 -Frank H. Smith -Maurice F. Seay -Frank H. Smith 23 24 26 28 -Mary P. Dupuy Published Quarterly at Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual understanding between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the nation MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME X OCTOBER, 1934 NUMBER 3 WHEN SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY JOIN HANDS Katharine E. Gladfelter We arc particularly glad to present this account of the wide and progressive educational program which is being developed by ,e Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. through its Unit of Educational and Medical Work. A1- Ã¢â‚¬Â¢hough some of the work described by Miss Gladfelter is not carried on in the Southern Mountains, it cannot fail to inteiest mountain workers and give then, refreshing food for thought. -Editorial Note "The summers at home are not so bad when there is work out of doors to do. But when winter comes .... and the roads are bad, and when there is nothing to do at home and no place to go-that is when it is hard." The speaker, a senior in a mission high school, was describing her home community, one of the little Spanish-AmeriÃ‚Âcan plazas perched high on a mountain side in the northern part of New Mexico. Her stateÃ‚Âment, however, would fit any one of hundreds of communities in rural United States, communities equally primitive in health conditions, equally limited in economic opportunities, equally barÃ‚Âren of wholesome social and recreational interests, and equally restricted in their chances of developÃ‚Âing and enriching the life of the spirit. It is from just such communities that the maÃ‚Âjority of the students in the schools under the Presbyterian Board of National Missions come, and it is to such communities that, in all but a few exceptional cases, they return. The community with its needs and problems has inevitably, thereÃ‚Âfore, bulked larger and larger in the thinking of those in the schools. They have come to realize that an institution which builds walls around its boys and girls by isolating them from the life of the community, which attempts to give a purely academic education to all rather than to the limited few who can and should go on to college, in short, an institution which educates its stuÃ‚Âdents away from their communities, is not only failing to prepare the great majority of them for the life which they will have to live after school days arc over, but is failing to give the com- munities the type of adequately trained leadership they have the right to expect from the sch=ools. As a result, each year has seen changes and adaptations in school programs in an effort to bring the schools and their communities closer together. Schools have introduced new subject matter into courses, dropped some courses and substituted others, changed their set-up and methods of teaching, and launched a wide range of extension activities both in their immediate vicinÃ‚Âities and the more distant places which their stuÃ‚Âdents call home. Varied as these developments are because of differences in local conditions, certain basic convictions are common to all. One is the conviction that the program of each school must have a social emphasis and must be developed to meet the needs not only of the individual student, but of that larger social group, the community, of which the student and even the school itself is a part; that this program must be preventive and constructive rather than merely remedial; that it must aim to improve the life of the community as a whole along religious, social, recreational, health, and economic lines; and that it must work toward leading the people of the community into full responsibility for the program as rapidly as possible. Another conviction is that "learning by doing" is a sound educational policy, that the best way to train the better leadership needed for local communities is to give boys and girls pracÃ‚Âtical experience in such leadership while still in school. The brief accounts which follow of the exÃ‚Âperiments which some of the Board's schools arc making in bridging the gap between school and community fall into two main groups, first those which have brought the community into the school either through using the life of the comÃ‚Âmunity-its history, problems, needs, changing conditions-as the subject matter of the curri- Page 2 MOUNTAIN Lu n AND WORK October, 1934 culum in the school, or through opening some of the facilities of the school for use by the comÃ‚Âmunity; and second, those which have taken the school out into the life of the community through various extension activities carried on by the staff and older students. Needless to say these two groups are closely related and the best projects inevitably lie neither wholly in one nor the other, but in both. Using the life of the community as subject matter for the school is one of the simplest ways of bringing about a closer relationship between the community and school. On an elementary level this is illustrated by a combined history and language project carried on last winter in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades (all being in one room) in the day school in Embudo, New Mexico. The village is a typical plaza in the SpanishÃ‚ÂAmerican field with a history which, like that of all primitive communities, has been handed down by oral tradition. When, therefore, the teacher began to ask about certain old houses, curious rock formations, and so on, the children volunÃ‚Âteered, "I don't know but I think my father does," and "My grandmother might know." Their interest was keen from the start and they soon de- cided not merely to find the answers to the quesÃ‚Âtions, but to make a written history of the plaza covering such topics as education, religion, busiÃ‚Âness life, early history, recreation and social life, and superstitions. Group trips were made to places of special interest, the oldest inhabitants were interviewed, and the few official records which the village possessed consulted. As the separate reports were ready the group passed on them, selecting the best and suggesting changes and additions before they were written up in final form for the book. The teacher responsible for the project summed up the values afterwards as follows, "When the book was completed the cHdren acted as critics. They discovered mistakes hi of course, and many things left out which should have been included. All agreed, however, that they had made an honest effort and had thoroughly enjoyed themselves. We all feel that if the subject matter gathered in our survey is preserved it should prove valuable as source material in the future. On Spring Exhibit Day the book was read by many of the parents, all of whom ex- pressed their appreciation of the way the children had, as never before, shown interest in the comÃ‚Âmunity." A study of the community similar in type but on an advanced level, was also carried on during 1933-1934 by the junior class of the Asheville Normal and Teachers College at Asheville, North Carolina. In an effort to secure a better underÃ‚Âstanding of such basic community problems as economic conditions, spiritual life, cultural and educational opportunities, and so on, the students surveyed a small nearby community, covering such topics as the proportion of churches to the number of attendants, distribution of wealth as shown by the types of homes and manner of livÃ‚Âing, the number unemployed and the effect on the community, the professional preparation of the teachers and their ability to adapt themselves to the needs of the community, social and recreaÃ‚Âtional life and cultural resources, to mention only a few. Groups of students made the investigations in the community itself; then analyzed the findÃ‚Âings in the classroom, comparing the problems and needs of this typical community with those of their home towns. The final step was a study of the curriculum of their college to see how well it was preparing them as future teachers to meet those problems and needs intelligently and adeÃ‚Âquately. Changing social and economic conditions which touch the life of the community are now used by schools generally as the subject matter of civics classes. That they often have broader implications which touch other courses as well is shown by this brief report from Dorland-Belt School, Hot Springs, North Carolina: "Much attention has been paid to the T.V.A. project, which concerns us immediately; in the physical geography class, in connection with flood control; in general science, in connection with discussion of electrical power; in chemistry, in connection with nitrogen comÃ‚Âpounds; and in vocational guidance, in connection with the possibilities of employment for young women." Similarly Ganado Mission, Ganado, Arizona, on the Navajo Indian Reservation, feaÃ‚Âtured last year problems of reforestation, flood control, prevention of erosion, in biology, general science, history, and English as well as in civics. With parents and older brothers working in C.C. October, 1934 MOUN'T'AIN Lit't: nw WORK Page 3 C. camps and truck loads of sheep which had been bought up by the Government as part of the erosion control plan going past the Mission almost daily, these local reservation problems were far more important and alive than any which could have been found in a text book, however good. Just as large problems of the community are vital subject matter for the school, so study focusÃ‚Âing on a specific problem which is a problem of the individual in relation to the life and activities of the community may be equally worth while. For example, Mossop School for Girls at HarriÃ‚Âman, Tennessee, which chooses to remain unacÃ‚Âcredited in order to be free to give a practical rather than an academic education, has dropped algebra from the curriculum and substituted a course in applied mathematics which centers around the problem of managing a budget effecÃ‚Âtively for a farm family. The main subject is broken up into sub-topics covering such typical and important items as the operation of the home -painting and improvements, machines for the farm, farm animals, fertilizing, fencing, expenses of a car or truck, taxes, labor, size of garden, and cost of seeds; food-estimate of the amount to be obtained from the farm, amount to be bought, whether to buy in package or bulk; sundry exÃ‚Âpenses-benevolences, welfare, higher life; income from the farm-farm animals, vegetables, fruit, lumber, and so on. In order to make the course as practical as possible, mail order catalogues, newspapers and similar publications are consulted regularly for prices. No single text book is used, the girls referring to text books only as there is need in figuring taxes, interest, insurance, or other items. Another specific problem for the individual from a rural community learning how to live a satisfying life on the farm, constituted the basis of a summer project carried on as an experiment at Dorland-Bell School in North Carolina during the past summer. Fifteen girls, the science teacher, and a volunteer lived in an old house at the school farm, which is on the outskirts of Hot Springs, about two miles from the school. The executive writes of the project: "We know that most of our girls will probably be farmers' wives and so the summer experiment was a definite part of our educational program to train them to meet real life situations as they find them in their comÃ‚Âmunities. The girls lived under the same conditions that they do at home, using a cook stove, oil lamps, washing in hand tubs, ironing with oldÃ‚Âfashioned irons, and doing without any conÃ‚Âvenience except water in the house. Each girl had a garden plot of vegetables such as a family of five should have, many of the vegetables being new to the girls. They built a roadside stand themÃ‚Âselves, attractive in appearance, where they sold twenty-one dollars' worth of vegetables. This sum went back into their budget, so that with the proÃ‚Âduce raised and milk from the dairy they were practically self -substaining. They canned everyÃ‚Âthing that was in season, with the result that we have a good supply for our school table this fall. They learned new ways of cooking vegetables, how to keep the dairy clean and care for the cows properly, how to make really good butter; they worked on balanced menus, studied GovernÃ‚Âment bulletins of practical value, kept up on curÃ‚Ârent events, at the same time that they were helpÃ‚Âing with the religious activities in Hot Springs, teaching Sunday school, leading Junior Christian Endeavor, and helping with the young people's group. yWe feel that their work was the equivalent of a year of classroom agriculture and that we would like to make the plan a permanent part of our program. It is one of the ways in which we are trying to encourage our girls to stay on the farm and to help them learn how to live a satisÃ‚Âfying life there." Activities which have brought the community into the school by opening up some of the facilities of the school for use by the community are reÃ‚Âported by the majority of the Board's schools. As a rule these are mainly along social (or recreÃ‚Âational) and educational lines. For instance at Sheldon Jackson School in Sitka, Alaska, where the opportunities for a wholesome social life for the boys and girls of the native village are meagre in the extreme, a group of young people from the village have been meeting twice a week for volley ball in the school gymnasium. The enthusiasm has grown steadily so that the school expects, with the completion of its new recreational hall this summer, to be able to put on a more varied social program another year for this group. At DorlandÃ‚ÂBell School the school library is open to the com- Page 4 MOUNTAIN Lm r. AND WORK munity, with, interestingly enough, a small Negro group using the books to a greater extent than the white group. The school recreation room, also open to the community, is spoken for weeks i;1 advance, two older boys' clubs using it two night, a week and younger boys and girls two other periÃ‚Âods. At Chacon, New Mexico, another of the plazas in the region where the Spanish-Americans live, the little day school put on a night school last winter as a definite part of its program of meeting community needs. The school was held one night a week for three months with classes in beginning English, advanced English, business arithemÃ‚Â°tic, Spanish, agriculture, and craft work. One of the teachers reported, "We tried to make the classes as practical and as elastic as possible, so as to giv: our people what they needed. The pupils ranged in age from their teens up into the sixties, some having had a fairly good elementary schooling and some having been to school only a year or so. Expense was kept at a minimum as the men brought the wood to heat the building, the cost of lights was covered by a small fee, and the teachers, two from the mission and two volunteers who were former public school teachers, gave their services. Interest was keen, so we are hoping to go even farther another year." Valuable as are projects of the types mentioned above in bringing the school and the community closer together, of even greater importance are the various extension activities which serve to take the school out into the life of the community and in which more mature students are givcn practical experience in discovering and meeting needs. Such extension activities arc now carried on in one form or another in practically all of the Board's schools of high school grade, in the imÃ‚Âmediate vicinity of the school and in students' home communities during the school year, and in the home communities during the summer whip students are there on vacation. The predominant number of such extension projects are along reÃ‚Âligious lines, the schools feeling acutely the need of helping to develop a better trained leadership for the little churches, many of them mission churches without resident ministers, to which students return. As a whole, however, they touch the life of the communities on many different sides. October, 1934 J A typical example of an all around community project which has developed from a very simple beginning is El Euerte, a community center mainÃ‚Âtained by La Progresiva, at Cardenas, Cuba. TraÃ‚Âditionally the upper classes in Cuba have not as yet a keen sense of social responsibility for the underprivileged, so that the school has been conÃ‚Âstantly on the alert for opportunities of enlisting the students in worth while community service. About six years ago, as a result of this emphasis, ten of the high school girls decided t-o play Santa Claus to children in an underprivileged part of town. The Christmas party was so successful that the girls invited the children to come each Sunday for Bible study and songs to the home of one of the students who lived nearby. The next year this student graduated from the normal department at La Progresiva and started a little day school in her home. By another year the day school and the Sunday school had grown until larger quarters were urgently needed, with the result that by the students and staff of La Progresiva and the leaders in the community giving money, labor, and buildÃ‚Âing materials, and the Board making a small grant, the present attractive little community center was erected. Now, with a day school of three grades, afternoon classes for young girls and for mothers, evening clubs for boys and men, the Sunday school and Christian Endeavor, all under a leadership of two paid teachers and volunteers from La Progresiva, the center is again overÃ‚Âcrowded. The executive reports that "some of the positive gains we can list for our community proÃ‚Âject after six years are cleaner streets, a better lighting system,and garbage disposal-all secured from the town authorities; a good primary school located where there were practically no school facilities; a better vision given to the home makers; a Sunday school attended by a large majority of the young people of the community; and a fine group of young men and women developed until they arc the recognized leaders of the local comÃ‚Âmunity. A few of the original group of workers from La Progresiva still remain, while the places of those who have graduated and gone have been filled by other students who have come along. Just last Sunday for example, every one of the twelve teachers in the Sunday school was a graduate or a pupil of La I'rogresiva. El Hucrtc is still our October, 1934 MOmrrr,am Lire AND WORK Page 5 experimental station where our students are getÃ‚Âting a practical training for life while still in school-it might almost be called our `spiritual laboratory.' " Extension work in more distant communities is carried on at present primarily by boys' groups, as problems of transportation and overnight housÃ‚Âing are less difficult for boys than for girls or for a mixed group. Menaul School in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has, for example, used a Gospel Team for some years in keeping a continuous conÃ‚Âtact with home communities of students and in reaching new communities. Frequently the team spends a week-end away from the school visiting a single plaza, or two or three, if the distance travelled is not so great. A carefully planned soÃ‚Âcial or recreational program led by the boys may be put on nn Saturday evening. The next morning Sunday school is held, followed by a worship service. Now after several years of this work it is interesting to see that the majority of the SpanishÃ‚ÂAmerican ministers in the mission churches of Colorado and New Mexico are former students of Menaul and that the lay lead:rship also comes increasingly from the school. Asheville harm School at Swannanoa, North Carolina, has organized its work of religious eduÃ‚Âcation so as to use both the religious activities at the school and the extension work of the Gospel Team as laboratories for trying out methods and materials which the boys can use later on in their home churches. To this end, not only arc stuÃ‚Âdents acting as officers in the Sunday school and assistants in teaching some of the Sunday school classes, but a reorganization of the two young people's societies last spring put the younger boys in charge as leaders with members of the Gospel Team serving as advisors. The Gospel Team conÃ‚Âducts the Friday morning chapel services while the members individually are active in the Farm School church, two being deacons. In the extension line, the Gospel Team has taken over the definite responsibility for helping regularly in the Sunday school of a Presbyterian church in an adjoining community, in addition to the worship services which are conducted each week in neighboring mountain churches, community centers, and pubÃ‚Âlic schools. One of last year's monthly reports lists eleven services of this type, two in Baptist and Southern Presbyterian churches, one in a nearby orphanage, another in the C.C.C. camp at Hot Springs, and the others at various National Missions centers and churches. Summer extension projects carried on by stuÃ‚Âdents in their home communities are at present II I I I n I I 'in'tcd 'li number ow*n, to the difficulties of supervision and the problem of expense. One of the Board's definite goals for its schools is, howÃ‚Âever, a year-around program so that when funds permit such projects can be made a definite part of the work of every school. Allison-James School in Santa Fe, New Mexico, has been particularly successful in this line of work. During the year actual problems of the Spanish-American comÃ‚Âmunities from which the girls come are discussed in the various classes and the students are helped to assemble materials and information which will be useful in the summer months. The advanced class in Bible prepares worship services and asÃ‚Âsembles good stories, hymns, religious pictures for use in the Sunday school and Christian EnÃ‚Âdeavor Society; the music class learns songs for group singing at picnics and parties; the nature study and science classes plan collections which can be continued at home; the domestic science class learns practical ways of canning and preÃ‚Âserving native fruits and vegetables; and the home nursing class learns how to care for a new baby in the home and to teach health habits to younger brothers and sisters. The last two years a mimeoÃ‚Âgraphed chart listing a wide variety of suggestions for home improvement, recreation, music, art, home nursing, and religious work has been given each girl at the close of school and she has been asked to keep a careful record on this of her activities. One year the girl who was awarded first place for the best report in the fall had cooked three meals a day for nine persons and brought back menus with the cost of each meal; washed the wool and ticks for mattresses; whiteÃ‚Âwashed the walls and ceilings of her home; screened the windows; completed a lumber floor; cleaned the yard and outdoor toilet; given tub baths to two infants; played for Sunday school and Christian Endeavor several times; led a worship service at church; and followed a proÃ‚Âgram of out-of-door activities for thirty minutes a day for eight weeks. Page 6 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1934 The further possibilities of this type of extension work both in the development of leadership and in the enrichment of community life, when exÃ‚Âpert supervision is available, are illustrated by the special piece of Daily Vacation Bible School work done in the Spanish-American field last summer. A field worker who assists with the Board's proÃ‚Âgram for the churches made tentative plans for the schools with the ministers and then presented the idea to the older girls at Allison-James and asked for volunteers. A special class was organized which met for three weeks under the leadership of the field worker to study Daily Vacation Bible School and Sunday school methods. The leader also prepared and mimeographed an eighty-page manual of materials for use in the schools. The morning before commencement a consecration service for the volunteers was held on the lawn of the school, and the day after commencement four of the girls started in the leader's Ford to open the first schools. Before the summer was over fourteen schools had been organized with enrollments ranging from eleven to fifty-eight. These beginnings in linking education with life give promise of a better day-better for the inÃ‚Âdividual, better for the community, and better for the Kingdom of God. A RELIEF OFFICER LOOKS AT RELIEF ,. F. Brashear The pioneers who first reared log cabins, cleared the fields, and cradled their families in the AppaÃ‚Âlachian valleys had opportunities for gaining a livelihood not available to their many heirs of the fourth generation still living in this area of limited agricultural resources. The division of the arable land among the present generation leaves many with holdings too small and too poor to furnish adequate support for a family even under an improved type of agriculture. Although opporÃ‚Âtunities for gaining a livelihood in non-agriculÃ‚Âtural pursuits, especially mining, developed with the coming in of the railroads about 1910, the great increase came with the impetus given the coal industry when America entered the World War. Then every available tract of land was leased, tipples built, and camps of more or less substantial houses were erected for the housing of the miners. The unemployed from nearby nonÃ‚Âmining counties came to live in these "camp houses" and earn the five to forty dollars a day paid for work in the mines. Not many of these had ever been the possessors of much money and it was "easy come, easy go" until the war was over and the prosperous decade had passed. When the mines, no longer having orders for their proÃ‚Âduct, closed down voluntarily or went into bank- ruptcy, large numbers of men were thrown out of work. Some of these, with their families, still live in the camp houses where they resided during better times. Many of those who remain are crippled, unable to work in the mines should they again operate; many are widows with children; many are past the age of usefulness to mine operations. I should add also that there is another class, able-bodied, but regarded as trouble makers by the operators, who would not be emÃ‚Âployed by any company in the field-the "blackÃ‚Âlisted." To these industrial unemployed and unÃ‚Âemployables must be added those descendants of the first settlers whom the inhospitable, unfertile land will no longer support. To help these five classes survive and to make plans for their future is the task of the Federal Emergency Relief AdÃ‚Âministration. No other influence is so widespread and farÃ‚Âreaching in its effect upon the lives of the whole people as is the F.E.R.A. No one entirely escapes its touch. Ministers serve on committees, phyÃ‚Âsicians minister to the needy sick, employers find it setting a wage scale which they perforce must meet, sometimes to their chagrin. Merchants feel the increase in their business as a result of its October, 1934 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 7 disbursements and in some cases attempt to use their influence with the relief office to secure help for some of their customers. County and state officials are the recipients of complaints as to the way it is being handled; county paupers are taken from the county rolls and placed under its proÃ‚Âtecting arm. The F.E.R.A. touches individuals and local authorities alike in its activities. Let us for a moment look at a typical F.E.R.A. office. To enter, one must get by the doorman, whose duty it is to see that only those with real business to transact are admitted, because this ofÃ‚Âfice is a busy place and time must not be wasted. Next one comes to the intake clerk where one is subjected to further questioning and more than likely given such assurance as makes it unnecessary to proceed further. If one passes into the inner office, he finds a very busy place indeed. A long row of case record files occupies one side of the room. Tables, chairs, and other files are also much in evidence. Seated at the tables are the Home Visitors writing on their case records, taken from the files and handed to them by a file clerk. The uninitiated may wonder what all the employees of a relief or area office can find to keep them busy, but when one becomes familiar with the large amount of clerical work involved, the multiÃ‚Âplicity of reports, and the extraordinary number of complaints and requests to be investigated, he wonders how the work is ever done. Over all these employees is the Relief Worker, and well does he merit the name, for he is indeed a worker. The number of problems brought to him for solution is staggering; and if he holds his job he must give the correct answer; so he should possess the wisdom of Solomon, the tact and diplomacy of Paul, and the patience of job. "The poor ye have always with you," has been true of the mountains for generations, but very little care has been given them until recent years. About twenty-five years ago the plan of allowing "pauper claims" by the Fiscal Court of the counÃ‚Âties became quite general and for longer than that the state has allowed ';seventy-five dollars per year for each idiot. The pauper list grew to such proportions that it constituted a serious drain upÃ‚Âon the resources of the counties; as income deÃ‚Âcreased it became increasingly burdensome. The disastrous flood of May 30, 1927 first brought the Red Cross into this area. It came as a relief and rehabilitation agency, and well did it perform its work. The 1930 drought again brought it to us and it continued to render aid to the destitute durÃ‚Âing 1931 and part of 1932. Too much praise canÃ‚Ânot be given to the unselfish work of the volunÃ‚Âteer personnel who handled the relief in those trying days; so efficient was the set-up in most cases that Red Cross volunteer workers became the Kentucky Relief Commission employees when, in October, 1932, K. R. C. began operation. The K. R. C. was a work and direct relief program with funds supplied to the state by the ReconÃ‚Âstruction Finance Corporation. It was successful in some counties and unsuccessful in others, deÃ‚Âpending upon the personnel of the committees and their interest in the program. The F. E. R. A. succeeded the K. R. C., and with the assistance of its ill-starred child, the C.W.A., which survived only from November to March, it has continued to administer relief until the present. The work program as now administered is an experiment; but we who have been closely connected with it from its inception believe it is superior to the dole. The F. E. R. A. deals with four distinct types of communities in the mountains: rural comÃ‚Âmunities, urban centers, mining camps, where some work is still going on, and camps which have been abandoned. As stated before, the small, steep, sterile farms do not produce food and forage enough to care for the family needs, therefore it is necessary that some member or members of this type of family find employment away from the farm to augment the family income. In times of depression this employment cannot be found. Therefore the relief agency must lend a hand. These people are able and willing to work. In fact our office is rarely asked by them to give relief, but only to give them work. The town presents very much the same problem as any urban comÃ‚Âmunity, but the fact that a large part of our town relief is given to families who have drifted from the mines to the town complicates matters. In the mining camps of a going concern it is someÃ‚Âtimes necessary for relief to be carried on, because of strikes or slack runs, of which we have had several. Such relief, however, is usually of short duration, as the emergency soon passes. It is the Page 8 MOUNTAIN LITr AND WORK abandoned camp that gives us the greatest conÃ‚Âcern. Houses which were built when coal was in great demand, some of them fairly good when new, are now in a sad state of repair and have become tenanted by "squatters," those who canÃ‚Ânot or will not work at the mines in operation. The proportion of them who will not work is very low, I am glad to say; but it is a sad comÃ‚Âmentary on human nature that there should be any. These squatters present a real problem, and no solution is yet in sight. The mountain Home Visitor has an exceedingly hard position to fill. In three of the five counties composing the Hazard Area, nearly all the travel must be done on foot or on horseback, as th~ roads are too bad for cars to travel. She must be on the job early and late, rain or shine; and even when she has given her last ounce of energy, there will be something left which ought to have been done. The F. E. R. A. has taken the maximum of pains to select for this difficult task those who have the training, tact, and diplomacy to do the job well. They are not usually taken from the relief lists because the type of person necessary for the job does not often get on these lists, but they are selected on the basis of their fitness for the task. The Home Visitor must make a firstÃ‚Âhand investigation of the applicant's needs and must do it painstakingly, diplomatically, and thoroughly. Upon her rests the blame if John Jones, who needs no help, gets relief, while Bill Smith, who ought to have it, is refused. She makes mistakes, but we feel that they are of the head and not of the heart. When the Home Visitor recomÃ‚Âmends a client, the case record is placed before the Relief Worker for his approval. After reading the October, 1934 record he makes the final decision as to amount and kind of relief, if any, that is to be given. It is therefore of great importance that all facts bearing upon the case be written into the record of the case. Relief is of two kinds, Direct and Work. Direct relief is given to the applicant without his giving anything in return. The medium used is a MerÃ‚Âchant Supply Order which cannot be cashed, but which may be traded at any store for articles specified upon the back of the order. Work Relief is given to those who are able to work, such perÃ‚Âsons being given employment at a reasonable wage upon projects, of which more later. The method of payment for their work is by check drawn by the Area Disbursing Officer upon the funds of the Kentucky Emergency Relief Administration. Both Work and Direct Relief are based upon the needs of the family as determined by the Homc Visitor and Relief Worker. There is also a form of Direct Relief known as Medical Relief. This consists of an order to any doctor or druggist to give medical aid to the applicant. The order is only given after the Home Visitor determines the need of medical service. To supplement the above two forms of relief, we have commodities. These have been bought with F.E.R.A. funds or the processing tax. Many staple articles of food and clothing are repreÃ‚Âsented: flour, pork, butter, cheese, beef, cereal, lard, potatoes, eggs, oranges, and blankets have all been given. These are granted to relief cases and near-relief cases, but only upon the approval of the Home Visitor. As an example of the amounts of relief given, I submit the following figures for Ferry County: MONTH WORK DIRECT RELIEF RELIEF COMMODITIES Potatoes I Smoked Butter Canned Lard Milk- I Pork Beef I~ wheatol July $5,038.80 $11 690 05 143 090 lbs I 3 938 lbs August 10,243.80 September 9,901.50 5,185.97 8,271.11 11,760 lbs.l1 10,150 1bs.!1,260 1bs. 17,178 16s.1 16,168 lbs.l 1. A food mixture of milk and cereal especially l adapted to children. With the addition of water, it is ready to use. 153 lbs.1,268 lbs.l October, 1934 MOUNTAIN LthL AND WORK Page 9 A program of such magnitude cannot be launched without mistakes. As 1 said before, the operation of r. E. R. A. is largely experimental, and some theories which appear excellent are found to be utterly impractical when put into opÃ‚Âeration. We deal with humanity and must always take the human element into account. There is a serious misunderstanding on the part of many people with respect to relief. Even the office staff do not, as a whole, understand the goals aimed at in some of the orders received from WashingÃ‚Âton. We are told to do such and such, but not why we should do it. More explicit instructions, with reasons, would help us to get the spirit of the order as well as the letter of it. Then too, our citizens may not understand just what we arc doÃ‚Âing and why, and I fear we often find ourselves too busy to stop and explain the seeming disÃ‚Âcrepancies in our program. So John Citizen takes his pen in hand and writes to everybody from President Roosevelt down, criticizing the way the local office is being run. If John could have half an hour with one of us he would, had he an open mind, be convinced that we were doing our best to carry out a tremendously difficult undertaking without ourselves having a real goal set before us. At all times we must be on the alert lest we be accused of playing politics. It is a hard question to decide what to do when a politician calls upon us for aid for someone in whom he is interested. Our experience has shown us that the selfÃ‚Âseeking politician is in the minority; that when appeals come from those whose motives might be open to question, some investigation may disclose their sincerity. Yet with an organization of the size and scope of the F. l:. R. A. many political ends could be furthered. To combat any accusation of politics in the office, Washington promulgated Administrative Order No. 2, which is as follows: No one is to be employed in any Relief Office in Kentucky, who is related either by blood or marriage to any public office holder, member of any Relief or Reemployment Committee or to any of the staff of the Relief or Recmployment office. This order extends to all degrees of relationship to, but not including, first cousins. Some of the F. E. R. A. employees have not taken their tasks seriously enough. These have, in the main, been replaced and the personnel has been greatly improved thereby. The hardest places to fill are the positions of Home Visitors, because upon them devolves the success or failure of this great undertaking and unless they conscientiously do their duty the proÃ‚Âgram will not measure up to its possibilities. Their problems are illustrated by the following letters, received by our office, given as examples of our daily "fan mail." This one is pathetic: I am a widow woman and have five small chilÃ‚Âdren. They are 10, 8, 6, 4, and 2 years old. I can't send them to school unless I get some help. I paint got no shoes and clothes for them and not eneagh food. Please send the field man to vestigate me. Hoping to hear from you real soon, Yours in trouble this amusing: Deer sir I hear it has been reported that 1 got a job and my relief voucher has been stopped. Thank God it is not so. Please send voucher at once. Yours truly and this exasperating: Dear sir: I want to know why I can't get no relief from your office. J.D. gets relief and he don't need it near as bad as I do. He has got four in family. I have got seven. If you don't do me right about this I'm going to write to Louisville and see what they say about the way you fellows are doing. So you better make haste while the sun shines. Yours for relief. These letters must be answered, and the grievÃ‚Âances must be investigated, and often they must be reported upon to the Louisville office. In the Work Division we can only place men upon projects which have been approved by the local and Louisville offices. They must be on public property or for the benefit of the public and in this area consist of road projects, school projects, airports, sewing, chairmaking, park imÃ‚Â provement, indexing county records, mattress making, street and sidewalk repairs, sewer and water lines, and so on. The greatest weakness in the work program consists of lack of competent supervision. The governmental unit for which the work is being done employs the foreman, who sometimes serves without remuneration; this sitÃ‚Â uation of course does not make for the most efficiency. But many of us who are on the firing line day after day have visions of much good that may come out of our work program. We hope to (Continued on page 29) A MOUNTAIN STUDY BY DORIS ULMANN October, 1934 MOUNTAIN LirE AND WORK Page 11 DORIC' ULIVlANN Olive D. Campbell The Appalachian section lost one of its most understanding friends when Mrs. Doris Ulmann of New York died, August 28, 1934. A portrait photographer and an artist, Mrs. Ulmann was internationally known for the beauty of her work. Many famous people sat for herÃ‚Âamong them Galsworthy, George Russell (AE), Einstein, Borglum, John Drinkwater, and Sir RabÃ‚Âindranath Tagore, but she rarely took a photoÃ‚Âgraph unless interested in the sitter. Independent economically, she carried through the entire phoÃ‚Âtographic process herself, from the taking of the photograph to its final mounting, and this when suffering from illness which would have a helpless invalid of many. She was particularly interested in interpreting the different elements in American life and deÃ‚Âvoted special attention to the Southern Highland people, whom she loved and admired. Her gentle and generous personality disarmed criticism and suspicion, and her rare sympathetic insight enÃ‚Âabled her to catch and reveal character in a manÃ‚Âner usually confined to the artist alone. As a reÃ‚Âsult we have in her large group of mountain photographs a ren,arhablc record of mountain life and character, such as we may never expect to have again. During the past year and a half she has been making a series of photographs for our mountain "AE," Mr. Allen E. Eaton, of the Russell Sage Foundation. Mr. Eaton is writing a book on the handicrafts of the Southern Highlands, which the photographs were intended to illustrate. Mrs. Ulmann had practically finished her part of the work when she was taken ill in Asheville the niddle of August, after almost five months of continuous field work. It is to be earnestly hoped that her plan for a full collection of her mountain pictures at Berea may still be carried out, and that Mr. Eaton's book will be enriched by her illustrations. May we hope still further that some day Mr. John Jacob Niles, who accompanied her and helped her on her last journey through the Highlands, and who has made a remarkable collection of mounÃ‚Âtain ballad and folk song, will also issue his record of one phase of our life, and that this book may be illustrated with Mrs. Ulmann's pictures of the singers? In the meantime many schools and individuals will mourn the loss of her gracious and genÃ‚Âerous friendship. Page IZ MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1934 HASTE TO THE WEDDING Prank H. Smith Copyright 1934, Frank H. Smith CHARACTERS JOHN MARSHALL, a rough-looking man about 40 UNCLE TOM, a mountain patriarch WIDOW JONES, careworn but still attractive, about 35 LIZZIE, her daughter Other children of WIDOW JONES SCENE I (A mountain road in the Southern HighÃ‚Âlands. JOHN MARSHALL is sitting on a stump, wiping perspiration from his facÃ‚Â°_). JOHN: Hit shore is warmish! (shouts) Uncle Tom, come an' set ye in the shade. (Enter UNCLE TOM) UNCLE TOM: How's harvest a-lookin' back yender? JOHN: Tolerable. Party day, ain't it? UNCLE TOM: Shore is. JOHN: Uncle Tom, I bin a-thinkin'. UNCLE TOM: (Laughs) What ye bin a-thinkin'? JOHN: I bin wantin' to ask ye what would ye think o' me a-gettin' wed. (UNCLE TOM laughs) 'Tis three year ago Liza were buried. I ain't satisfied nohow. Like as a house don't do a feller no good, less'n there's a woman in't. UNCLE TOM: Who air ye thinkin' o' gettin' wed to? Picked ye out a woman? JOHN: No, dad burn it! Yisterday I wuz a-settin' eatin' my snack of vittles, an' my mind wuz a-roamin'. Ye see, Uncle Tom, it ain't ne'er a bit o' use a-thinkin' on them younguns, darn 'em! Hit shore wuz a sight different in my young days, let alone yourn. A oldish man could oft times pick him out a nice soft party youngÃ‚Âun and get wed. But dad burn it! Them days ain't a-comin' back. UNCLE TOM: John, a-thinkin' o' the young girls be plumb crazy. Pick ye out a good solid body-a widder woman likely. JOHN: I shore don't want to be extra partic'lar, but I do have a nice little farm. My hogs an' chickens is a-doin' right nice. I ain't a-comÃ‚Âplainin'. I don't keer just so's I gets me a party woman. UNCLE TOM: Party women is apt to be skittish, John. JOHN: (reproachfully) 'Pears ye wants me to wed a oldish woman. (Sighs) I ain't a-comÃ‚Âplainin'; an' I ain't seed ne'er a woman what is puny an' likely to fancy a oldish feller like me. (A long pause, while UNCLE TOM thinks hard) UNCLE TOM: Widder Jones, up Norton's HolÃ‚Âler, is a might fine figure o' a woman, John. An' what's more, she owns her a good little farm. Her old man died last Christmas an' I ain't never heerd tell she's swore to die a widÃ‚Âder. JOHN: Dad burn my hide! Uncle Tom, I ain't seed her fer nigh on twenty year. We wuz brung up together in school; when we wuz children she shore wuz party. But I'm a-thinkÃ‚Âin' she won't tak' no stock in the likes o'me. 1 anus heerd she wuz kinder superior. UNCLE TOM: I ain't a-sayin' she would marry the likes o' ye, John Marshall, but I tell ye what I'll do if ye say the word. I'll maybe go see her. I'll kinder find out; maybe she'll take a notion to have ye. JOHN: Listen to me an' remember: I'm a-goin' to pay ye yer wages and walkin' time fer aÃ‚Âlookin' into the question fer me. I don't keer to tell ye I'd be mighty proud to git her, if ye say she's a fine figure o' a woman. Dad burn it! Uncle Tom, I'm feared she'll ne'er consider the likes o' me. UNCLE TOM: Well, I'll be gettin' along now, John. Maybe she is thinkin' o' gettin' wed herÃ‚Âself the way ye air, but I ain't never heerd tell on't-an' I ain't sayin' she'd consider the likes October, 1934 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 13 o' ye. Howsomever yer pigs air middlin' an' yer chickens an' corn puny fair. (Exit UNCLE TOM. JOHN scratches his head as the curtain falls). SCENE II (The interior of WIDOW JONES'S cabin. WIDOW JONES is seated in a rocker. A girl about thirteen years old is reading a mail order catalog. Knocking is heard outside). WIDOW JONES: Lizzie, go see who can't open the door for hisself. (LIZZIE goes to the door, and admits UNCLE TOM) Howdy, Uncle Tom. UNCLE TOM: (sitting down) How air ye, WidÃ‚Âder Jones? (turns to look at LIZZIE) Lizzie be a mighty fine girl fer her age. WIDOW JONES: Lizzie, go see if the chickens is a-roostin' in that apple tree again. Pull 'em down an' put 'em in the chicken house where they belong. (Exit LIZZIE) UNCLE TOM: How fer is it to old Silas Norton's place? WIDOW JONES: A couple o' mile. Air ye goin' out thar? UNCLE TOM: I shore am, Widder Jones; but seems I ain't as young as I wuz, an' I'm kinder give out. WIDOW JONES: Well, stay an' rest ye a while. It's shore a long while since I seed ye. UNCLE TOM: Hit shore is, ain't it? (A long pause) Widder Jones, if yell excuse me a-speakÃ‚Âin' about it, seems like as ye'd be a-thinkin' about gettin' ye a man again one o' these days. (Pause) It shore is a puny day. WIDOW JONES: (showing no interest in the weather) Uncle Tom, my man was a-settin' in that chair eight months ago. I ain't never given no thought to havin' no other feller a-settin' thar. UNCLE TOM: Well, seems as ye ought to have ye a husband. It ain't none o' my business; but I'm a old man as allus had a mighty fine respect fer ye since ye wuz a child, though I aI 't see d much of ye since ye moved out here n into these mountainous parts nigh on twenty years ago. WIDOW JONES: Well, Uncle Tom, I will sav I anus held a high respect fer ye. I looked up to ye right smart when I wuz a child. UNCLE TOM: (after a pause) Hit shore is a puny day. WIDOW JONES: (after a pause) Hit shore is. UNCLE TOM: So ye ain't never give no thought to gettin' ye a man again? WIDOW JONES: No, I ain't never. But I don't keer to tell ye it's mighty still an' lonesome of a night. This place is kinder outen the way a piece. UNCLE TOM: Hit shore is. (A pause) WIDOW JONES: But I ain't never give it no thought. UNCLE TOM: I ain't neither. I wuz a-thinkin' as I come along the creek as how yet fences wuz kinder down, an' yer crop not lookin' so good. "Ah!" I says to myself, "The widder's a mighty fine woman, but the placed be a right smart o' work fer a good man, let alone her an' the children." That was the first time as ever I give it a thought. WIDOW JONES: Well, ye see, Uncle Tom, it seems the men nowadays don't take much stock in a widder no more. They's all the time a-runÃ‚Ânin' after the young girls, an' I ain't a-blamin' 'em. No sir, it's the young girls as is best sitÃ‚Âuated fer gettin' wed. I ain't a-sayin' a oldish man mightn't consider a womzn what's had experience, (she laughs) but I can't call to mind no oldish feller as I ever heerd on in these parts what don't have a wife an' children, leastways a'd consider the likes o' me. Ye see, Uncle s 1 1 Tom, there's six younguns to be brung up in this yere house, and what feller's a-goin' to ferget about that? Ne'er a one, likely. UNCLE TOM: Maybe ye're right, but I ain't a-thinkin', Widder Jones, as ye've got any call to be a-givin' up hope. (A pause) Now I come to think on it, one day I wuz a-talkin' to old man Marshall as lives down t'other side o' the mounÃ‚Âtain. I ain't never heerd tell as he's a-thinkin' o' gettin' wed. But he's been a widder man fer nigh on three year. I did happen to notice his place Page 14 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1934 wuz lookin' mighty fine on the farm; but it's a sight how he gets along in the house. He can't never find nothin', an' he don't get his meals as he oughter. WIDOW JONES: Well, ain't it a sorrowful sight to see a widder man a-housekeepin' by hisself! UNCLE TOM: He has Mary Combs's girl in to clean after him, but ye know how it is-she don't never do no more'n she has to. He can't tell her nothin'; leastways, not same as a woÃ‚Âman. WIDOW JONES: It's shore a sight! Hit shore is! Ain't never heerd tell o' his sayin' as h~ might be considerin' gettin' wed? UNCLE TOM: I ain't never. But if you wuz to want me to, Widder Jones, I might see him an' find out fer ye. WIDOW JONES: I don't reckon as I'd keer a thing about him nohow. But I did think he wuz a right smart boy when we wuz in school when we wuz young; but I ain't never seed him fer nigh on twenty year. (She sighs).. UNCLE TOM: Now I come to think on it, he did say one time I wuz a-talkin' to him as he thought mighty high o' ye when he knowed ye. WIDOW JONES: Did he now? I guess he's a right smart-lookin' feller, ain't he? UNCLE TOM: Yeah, an' his farm's a nice little farm. He's a great hand to farm, but he's got more'n he can handle all by hisself. His chickens a' his hogs is a purty sight, but not so good IF 1 1 1 as his crop. Yourn an' his'n would shore make `a mighty fine stock fer one farm. I allow he'll be workin' hisself into a early grave likely. (Pause) Well, I'11 be gettin' along. Hit shore wuz nice to see ye again, Widder Jones. WIDOW JONES: Well, ye don't have to hurry off, Uncle Tom. Call in on the way home; maybe yell stay the night. UNCLE TOM: I'll be a-secin' ye. (Exit) WIDOW JONES: (After a long pause, as she rocks) John Marshall shore was a right smart boy when he was young. SCENE III (As in Scene II. The WIDOW is sitting in the rocker, patching a pair of trousers. LIZÃ‚ÂZIE is washing dishes. Two or three children are playing in a corner. Enter UNCLE TOM and JOHN MARSHALL). UNCLE TOM: Howdy, Widder Jones, I brung old John Marshall to see ye. WIDOW JONES: (casts upon JOHN a shrewd penetrating glance) Howdy, John. Pull ye up some chairs an' set ye down. Hit shore is a long time since I seed ye, John; nigh on twenty year. JOHN: (warmly) How air ye, Mary? Ye shor, were a right smart lass when you ~wuz a-go:n' to school down on Jackson's Creek. WIDOW JONES: How's everything a-goin' in ycr parts? Come to think on it, seems like I heerd years ago as you wuz wed to Sally Sparks what used to live at th' store down than JOHN: Why, Mary, ain't ye never heerd how she wuz took sick with fever three year come the first o' next month, an' died in three days? WIDOW JONES: Seems like I did hear it, but I had forgot. Hit's a pure pity fer a body to lose his woman. Like enough she left ye wi' cmÃ‚Âsiderable family. JOHN: Five! Three girls an' two boys they is. An' mighty nice children too. I allow they's a-needed their Ma to held 'em down some when I ain't home. (Pause) That thar yet oldest child washin' them dishes? (WIDOW JONES nods) WIDOW JONES: That's a right smart little famÃ‚Âily, John. JOHN: Yes. They ain't a-lookin' none too keered fer, as ye might say, right now. A woman they're a-needin'. Hit's a sight how a woman shore does make a world o' difference to the childern. I allow a good home-keepin' body's what they air a-needin'. WIDOW JONES: Well, John, I ain't a-doubtin' ye've picked ye out a good woman fer 'em. JOHN: Can't say as I have, Mary. UNCLE TOM: (at window) John, I'm a-fixin' to look at the corn down yonder. Hit's a-lookin' mighty fine. WIDOW JONES: Hit shore is, Uncle Tom. That damp ground shore do suit corn when th' seaÃ‚Âson's dry. (Exit UNCLE TOM) WIDOW JONES: Lizzic, go see if chickens is roostin' in that apple tree. If they air, pull 'em down an' put 'em in th' chicken house. October, 1934 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK (Exit LIZZIE) JOHN: No, Mary, I hain't picked me out a woÃ‚Âman. (Pause) But when I seed ye fer the first time today in nigh on twenty year-why ye wuz so youngish lookin' I wuz took back in a flash to them days as if they wuz yesterday. Seems like I never seed any woman from them far off times a-lookin' so spry and puny as you. An' I anus held a high respect fer ye too, Mary Jones. WIDOW JONES: John Marshall, ye were anus a good hand to speak a piece. I allow if I listen to ye I'll be gettin' all carried away and flusÃ‚Âtrated. A body what's seen the childern growin' up around here the way I have, an' what's buried a good man too, ain't used to listenin' to sech like conversation. I ain't a-sayin' but what ye wuz a right smart boy. I've heerd good reports, an' never a ill word of ye since. An' old Uncle Tom do say as how you've got a right puny farm-and yet chickens an' hogs they tell me is a sight to see-even if they do need a woman body to see after 'em. JOHN: Hit shore is the truth they need a woman body, let alone the children. (Pause) Hit's a sight, Mary, how good I feel to be a-talkin' to ye. Dad burn it! But if we had your stock and mine on the one piece o' ground it shore would be a great day for old John Marshall. WIDOW JONES: Why John! What is it ye air a-sayin'? JOHN: Hit ain't no use, Mary. If ye air conÃ‚Âtented the way it is, I'll say no more about hit, but I shore would like fer ye to marry me. But I'm a-thinkin' marryin's the last thing on yer mind; leastways to a oldish feller like me. But hit's fer ye to say. WIDOW JONES: What's on yet mind, John Marshall, thinkin' I'd keer a thing in the world fer any sort of a feller but one that's had experience. Let alone a man that's a right smart hand to talk real interestin', an' what's able to bring to mind the days we wuz childern. (Pause) I don't keer if I do, John. JOHN: Durn it, here come Uncle Tom back from the holler. (Speaking rapidly in a loud whisper) I allow a week will be time enough. I'll see the preacher as I go over the mountain; it shore is mountainous country up here. Ye've brung me Page 15 happiness this day, Mary, Lord bless ye! Will ye marry me a week come Tuesday? WIDOW JONES: A week will do fine, but I ain't a-cravin' to consider it till we've had this yere stir-off. JOHN: I'll be on hand fer the stir-off myself, never fear. An' I ain't a-lettin' no little thing like that delay the ceremony, no siree. (Enter UNCLE TOM) Well, I'll be a-goin' along with Uncle Tom. WIDOW JONES: I'll be a-seem' ye. UNCLE TOM: That corn down in the holler shore is puny. An' I see ye're gettin' yer cane fixed fer a stir-off. WIDOW JONES: Yes, Uncle Tom, an' I'm a-fixÃ‚Âin' to have a party too. Tomorrow night I'll be lookin' fer ye. Tell the folks out your way to come along. We'll do considerable celebratin' I'm thinkin' in these parts, right soon. But sit ye down, while I get a couple o' pieces o' corn bread an' a cup o' coffee. (Exit to other room) JOHN: (In a loud whisper) Uncle Tom, dad burn it if I ain't done it! I shore do thank ye, an' remember I am a-payin' ye wages fer yer trouble an' fer yer walkin' time. (WIDOW JONES returns with corn bread) WIDOW JONES: John, run down to the barn a' take a look a my mule; hit met with a ac- n I cident on Tuesday. Hit's hind legs don't appear to be workin' like they oughter. (Exit JOHN) WIDOW JONES: (Gives coffee and cornbread to UNCLE TOM) I shore am obliged to ye fer bringin' old John Marshall. He's a right smart feller, now ain't he? We're fixin' fer a weddin' a' I ain't a-fergett'n' the part ye had in bring- n in' it about. I allow yell be needin' some nice plow lines, maybe. My old man bought some a day or so before he wuz took sick an' they ain't been used. He give a right smart price for 'em. I'm a-thinkin' I'd like mighty well to give 'em to ye when John Marshall ain't around. An' I shore do thank ye. UNCLE TOM: Listen, Mary, ye don't have to be doin' nothin' like that. I ain't a-talon' em. Page 16 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1934 WIDOW JONES: Now that's not right, Uncle Tom. I won't feel easy in my mind if ye refusÃ‚Â°. 1 shore would like ye to have 'em. UNCLE TOM: Well, Mary, to please ye, I'11 maybe consider it. Now 1 guess I'll be a-goin'. I allow John will take considerable time to look at them mules' hind legs. An' I figure he'll not be movin' far from here nohow. WIDOW JONES: Maybe ye're right, Uncle Tom. I ain't a-fixin' to let him. An' I shore am obliged to ye. (UNCLE TOM rises) But sit ye down Nepotism in the Kentucky 1L~lountain Schools jest fer a minute. I've got a right smart o' canÃ‚Âned stuff, an' I'm a-goin' to have ye take a can of preserves along. (Exit to other room) UNCLE TOM: (Philosophically) I wonder as how a fcller wuz a-loin' right to take them plow lines. John's a-goin' to pay me fer me service and me walkin' time, an I ain't a-likin to think as it could be altogether proper fer me to take what belonged to Mary's first man in reward fer a-helpin' to get her a second. (Pause) Hit shore is a queer world when ye stop to think about it, it shore is! Maurice F. Seay The practices of nepotism, favoritism, and barÃ‚Âgaining in the public school system of Kentucky are thought to be very serious by many of our educational leaders. However, there has been preÃ‚Âsented very little factual material that reveals the true situation. Obviously, such material is very difficult to obtain. The writer has attempted to determine someÃ‚Âthing definite about these practices. A questionÃ‚Ânaire was submitted during April, 1933, to the students in three colleges who had taught during 1932-1933, and who had secured a position or the promise of one for 1933-34. The three instiÃ‚Âtutions-a junior college, a four-year liberal-arts college, and a state teachers' college-are located so as to serve logically the mountain section of eastern Kentucky. In submitting the questionnaire the following statement was made: "This is a confidential questionnaire. There is no way to identify a paper with the person filling it out. You are urged to answer each question, but, if you do not feel free to do so, omit any or all of them. You need not write in your usual handwriting but may letter in your replies if you desire. We have absolutely no desire to know who fills out these questionnaires. We are attempting to find the true situation in order to aid educaÃ‚Âtion, particularly the teachers. If you do not unÃ‚Âderstand a question, ask for an explanation. The questionnaires when completed are to be placed on the platform face down. They will be mixed up before they are taken away, and they will be kept as confidential material. Any report that is made will be guarded so as not to reflect upon your college or its students. The questionnaires were filled out by 614 stuÃ‚Âdents who taught in county school systems durÃ‚Âing 1932-33 and by 683 students who had a posiÃ‚Âtion or the promise of one in county school sysÃ‚Âtems for 1933-34. Since the number of those from other types of districts who replied was small, no tabulations were made except for teachers in county school systems. Data that concerns the answers to the follow ing questions are given in Table I (similar quesÃ‚Âtions were asked with reference to 1933-34): "Did you, or someone for you, pay to anyone connected with the school system any money for your position this past school year? (Answer `yÃ‚Â°s' or `no.') "Did you, or someone for you, pay to anyone connected with the school system anything other than money for your positions this past school year? (Answer `yes' or `no.') "In securing your last position, was it a part of the agreement for you to obtain board and room at a specific place? "Did you have a relative who is connected in any official way with the school system in which you taught this past year? October, 1934 MOUNTAIN LrnF. AND WORK Page 17 In tabulating the replies, when more than one affirmative answer was given by the same student, only the first "Yes" was considered. This proÃ‚Âcedure prevented duplication in the computations. No claim is made that the percentages of Table I represent the exact situation for these teachers. Undoubtedly, the percentages are low. However, the writer does maintain that the true percentages are at least as high as those given in the table. It w*]I be observed that of the entire group of teachers for both years slightly more than oneÃ‚Âthird state that they secured their position by barÃ‚Âgaining or that they had a relative who was ofÃ‚Âficially connected with the school system. The percentages are highest for the students of the junior college, which serves almost entirely mounÃ‚Âtain counties. The percentages are least for the TABLE I taught their last school and the number that they expected to have earned when they began teaching the following year. From these replies it was posÃ‚Âsible to group the teachers according to the amount of training. The percentages of teachers in each of three groups who stated that they had ')argained for their positions or that they had a relative officially connected with the school sysÃ‚Âtem are given in Table II. An examination of Table II shows that the practices of nepotism and of bargaining for posiÃ‚Âtions are not so serious with the better-trained teachers. The percentages for teachers who had sixty-four or more semester hours, or the equivaÃ‚Âlent of two years or more of college work, are generally lower than for either of the groups who have less training. PERCENTAGE OF Tl:ACHFRS WHO BARGAINED FOR THEIR POSITIONS OR HAD SOME RELATIVE OFFICIALLY CONNECTED wITH THE SCHOOL College and Year Percentages of teachers who- Paid Money Paid Some- Agreed to Had a Rela- Either barÃ‚Â thing other board at a rive Connected gained or had than money specific place with the a Relative School Connected with the school Junior College: 1932-33 ___ 7.5 3.8 3.0 40.G 54.5 1933-34 .__8.3 1.8 2.4 31.6 4-I.1 Liberal Arts College: 1932-33 ._5.1 0.0 1933-34 .______ 3.5 2.1 State Teachers' College: 1932-33 ._ 1933-34 .__ Three Colleges Combined: 1932-33 - 1933-34 state teachers' college, which enrolls a large perÃ‚Âcentage of its students from territory outside of the mountains. Thus the data, when the constitÃ‚Âuencies of the colleges are considered, indicate that the practices of buying positions and of nepotism are more serious in the mountain section. This conclusion agrees with general opinion. The teachers were asked to state the number of semester hours that they had earned before they 6.1 29.2 40.3 2.1 40.0 47.6 2.G 0.0 2.1 19.3 24.0 7.4 0.3 1.G 26.0 29.3 4.1 0.8 2.9 25.4 33.2 3.5 1.0 1.8 30.3 36.G The data that have been presented reveal a serÃ‚Âious situation. However, some say that nepotism is not really serious, because the people of many communities, when distant relatives are considÃ‚Âered, are nearly all related to each other. In an attempt to determine the true situation, the stuÃ‚Âdents were asked in the questionnaire to state what relation the school official was to them. From the replies the data in Table III have been computed. Page 18 Mour`urn1N L1rF AND WORK October, 1934 TABLE II PERCENTAGE OF TEACHERS GROUPED ACCORDING TO TRAINING WHO BARGAINED FOR THEIR POSITION OR HAD SOME RELATIVE? OFFICIALLY CONNECTED WITH THE SCHOOL Percentages of teachers who- Paid Money Paid Some- Agreed to Had a Rcla- Either bar- thing other board at a rive Connected gained or had College and Year than money specific place With the a Relative School Connected with the school Group I (0-3 L hours) 1932-33 _____ 5.7 0.8 2.3 29.9 38.5 1933-34 - 4.3 1.4 0.0 31.4 37.1 Group II (32-63 hours) 1932-33 _3.5 0.9 4.0 23.5 31.9 1933-34 ___ 3.6 0.5 2.2 39.4 45.7 Group III (G4 or more hours) 1932-33 _ __ 1.4 0.3 3.2 19.2 23.3 1933-34 - ______ 3.1 LS 1.5 17.1 23.2 A study of Table III shows that in general the relation of the school officials to the teacher is close, with the possible exception of "cousin." Only approximately one-fourth of the relatives, however, fall in this classification. Thus the data of Table III show that the nepotism practiced inÃ‚Âvolved "close kin." The writer has purposely refrained from elabÃ‚Âorate explanation and interpretation of the data presented in this article. The conclusions seem obÃ‚Âvious. Other studies for other representative instiÃ‚Âtutions in Kentucky would undoubtedly present si ilar results. These facts, however, present a imi challenge to the teaching profession, to the legisÃ‚Âlators, and to the citizens of our state. What are we going to do about it? Cousin - __ Father _._ __-_ Uncle ________ Brother _________ Mother _____ Brother-in-law ____ Aunt _________ Grandfather - __ ..__ husband ______ Sister ______ Father-in-law ____ Mother-in-law _ ____ Wife __...____ Grandmother _____ Sister-in-law w ----------------- zG.t 24.2 19.0 9.0 5.2 4.6 2.6 2.6 2.0 2.0 1.3 TABLE III CLASSIFICATION OF RELATIVES OFFICIALLY CONNECTED WITH THE SCHOOL SYSTEM Percentage 1933-34 2s.s 16.0 28.1 9.2 5.1 6.0 3.2 1.0 .9 1.4 1.4 .s .0 October, 1934 MOUNTAIN LIFP, AND WORK Page 19 fl Guidance Program for Breathitt County Young People O. Latham Hatcher Speaking recently at a guidance institute at Columbia University, Dr. John M. Brewer of Harvard presented these thoughts on the nature and functions of guidance:' Education, if real, is guidance and its only funcÃ‚Âtion is to guide. No other function can be proved for it. The question has been asked, why, if guidÃ‚Âance is education and education is guidance, is there any need for the word guidance? The answer is analogous to the need found for General SherÃ‚Âman's declaration that "war is hell:" The synonym is needed to bring the reality home to us. Guidance does not mean making decisions for the person guided, but helping him to develop his capacity for self-guidance through educational activities and experiences best suited to him inÃ‚Âdividually. It follows that it cannot function with the best effectiveness without having within its control a curriculum flexible enough to adjust these educational experiences or activities to individual capacity, interest, and need. It is therefore the function of educators, and so of educational guides or counselors, to see that such adjustable educational experiences are available, instead of the traditional school routines and rigidities. It would of course be a mistake to carry the individualizing principle in education so far that students were no longer taught in groups. It is the action and interaction of the individual and the group instruction or educational experiences which together make for the individual's best development and his best integration as a useful member of society. Dean William Russell of Columbia, speaking on the same occasion, added this explanation as to why guidance is acutely needed as a revolutionÃ‚Âizing force in education: On the one hand, we have the inadequacy and futility of the old educational mill, grinding young people out on the principle that all arc alike; on the other, the sciences have made us recognize the fact that until we use their results for adapting eduÃ‚Âcation to the individual, we cannot hope for essenÃ‚Âtial improvement. Meanwhile, the sciences arc steadily providing increasingly helpful aids to this end. Gradually, as a result, educational leaders have thrown overboard the traditional "disciplines" and This quotation, like those from Dean Russell and Mr. Feltner, is probably not in the words of the speaker throughout as it represents notes which were taken during the speech. It is, however, as nearly verbatim as possible. have put in the center of educational planning and programs the individual child, his abilities and needs rather than any specific educational content such as mathematics, history or literature, Per so. Although his needs as a social being and future citizen are taken into account, everything is deÃ‚Âveloped around his own best capacity for developÃ‚Âment, irrespective of what the capacities of any of his companions are. This face-about is guidance, and it is revolutionizing the point of view, objecÃ‚Âtives, content and procedures in education. It is the broader concept of guidance, including all due regard for vocational guidance, on which the Breathitt County program is being based in the effort to help those in need of guidance and adÃ‚Âjustment, both children in school and young people out of school. That the need of this latter group is very acute, no reader of Mountain Life and Work is likely to doubt, considering the conÃ‚Âgestion of population resulting from "comeÃ‚Âbackers," the stoppage of city opportunities, the difficulties in the farming situation, the many inÃ‚Âevitable evils of relief, and all the rest. Mr. J. M. Feltner, speaking recently at a Breathitt County conference, summed this problem up in his usual dynamic way: We can't expect to grow our mountain boys and girls into men and women, if we give them nothÃ‚Âing to do, or to develop character and industrious, constructive citizenship if we go on raising them on relief. If we do so, we may as well realize that we are really just getting them ready for meanÃ‚Âness. The worst thing we can do for them is to leave them with nothing to do. How best and where best to help on this whole program by cooperating in an experimental guidÃ‚Âance program for mountain young people has been in the thought of the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance throughout the depression, with especially intensive study given to this need during the past two years. Finally, the decision was to answer a request presented by the superÃ‚Âintendent of schools of Breathitt County, KenÃ‚Âtucky, by helping her to develop a program. NoÃ‚Âbody involved has ever doubted the intricacy and general difficulty of such a task, or the ups and Page 20 MOUNTAIN LrnE AND WORK October, 1934 downs to be encountered in its accomplishment; but something needed to be done, and to be done in a sufficiently flexible yet careful way, and in a sufficiently representative environment, for the results to be as helpful as possible to young people elsewhere. It was fully realized, however, that any resulting good would rest upon and largely be made possible by what regional leaders had been gradually accomplishing there. Reasons for choosing Breathitt County were various. The county superintendent was keenly anxious to go forward on such a program. l he existence of the Agricultural ExperimÃ‚Â°nt SubstaÃ‚Âtion at Quicksand, the facts already known about the county, the prospect of counsel from Doan Thomas C. Cooper and his colleagues, the favorÃ‚Âable judgment of President and Mrs. l~r?cVey of the University of Kentucky and theer wha'eÃ‚Âhearted offer of support-all these consu,~rations weighed heavily, as did also the fact that the county library and the county newspaper were ready and eager to further the program. These reasons were supplemented by the pronouncement of Dr. O. E. Baker and Dr. T. B. Manny, leading specialists of the Bureau of Agricultural EcoÃ‚Ânomics of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and both close students of the areas, that the county was reasonably typical of the physical condition of many others in the Appalachians. While the decision was pending, data regarding the county, provided by the county itself, by the Kentucky State College of Agriculture, the KenÃ‚Âtucky State Board of Education, the U. S. Census Bureau, and the U. S. Department of Agriculture, were discussed at a conference of government specialists and a few others called in Washington last March to consider the outlook for capable, ambitious young people in such a county as this, and the best way to try to help them in the light of that outlook. Attending that conference were such people as the U. S. Commissioner of Education, Dr. George P. Zook; Dr. Arthur E. Morgan, Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority; Dr. Franklin J. Keller, Director of the National Occupational Conference; Dr. Alba M. Edwards and Dr. Stuart Rice of the U. S. Census Bureau; Dr. Manny and Dr. Baker already menÃ‚Âtioned, and others similarly authoritative. Many valuable suggestions as to the approach to the problems of guidance of young people in such a county were provided there, and these have entered strongly into the basic planning for the Breathitt County program, being reflected in its three salient features: the early creation of a County Council concerned with the guidance problems of youth, a county survey of actual and potential resources for capable aspiring young people, and the gradual development of a proÃ‚Âgram taking account of both in-school and outÃ‚Âof-school young people. The Breathitt County Council consists of repÃ‚Âresentatives of local groups, and county leaders of agricultural, educational, health, religious and reÃ‚Âlief work, with Miss Helen Dingman, Executive Secretary of the Conference of Southern MounÃ‚Âtain Workers, in an advisory capacity, and Mr. James M. Feltner, Regional Director of 4-H Club Work, representing the regional as well as the county point of view, as members of the CounÃ‚Âcil. The University of Kentucky, the National OcÃ‚Âcupational Conference, and the Southern WomÃ‚Âan's Educational Alliance, which last serves as the coordinator of technical aspects of the guidance program, are the special outside agencies helping on the program. Through the National OccupaÃ‚Âtional Conference, which is the guidance departÃ‚Âment of its work, the Carnegie Corporation is rendering financial assistance on the condition that the project shall "demonstrate a guidance proÃ‚Âgram in an Appalachian area." The grant was made to the Southern Woman's Educational AlÃ‚Âliance. Features of the program falling within that of the county schools are naturally under the superintendent of schools, but since the superinÃ‚Âtendent is serving also as chairman of the County Council, difficulties in unifying the new efforts are at a minimum. Naturally, an effective guidance program for the young people of a given area must rest upon knowledge and understanding of the factors conÃ‚Âditioning life and opportunity there, factors human, physical, economic and occupational, eduÃ‚Âcational, social, or recreational; and it must take account not only of present conditions but of an improving or a declining outlook, also of unÃ‚Âdeveloped possibilities as far as any of these can be traced. However, the wealth of data concerning the mountain areas of Eastern Kentucky that has al- ready been gathered by the Kentucky Agricul-October, 1934 MOUNTAIN UFL AND WORK tural Experiment Station and by the federal govÃ‚Âernment precludes the necessity for the usual sort of intensive study of agricultural conditions, and throws light upon other economic and social conÃ‚Âditions influencing the outlook there. There are the valuable surveys of Laurel and Knott Counties in the same general area and other information supplied by the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. Dr. O. E. Baker, already mentioned, has supplied for this program a special interpretaÃ‚Âtion of the 1930 census data; and the federal five year minor census due in January 1935 will bring many of these data up to date. Where needs do arise for information indispensable from the guidÃ‚Âance point of view, everything possible will be done towards filling them, but neither the finanÃ‚Âcial resources available nor the necessities of the case make advisable any effort at re-combing the county for facts already authoritatively ascerÃ‚Âtained. One need, however, is for an up-to-date occupational survey of Jackson, the county seat, for both actual and potential occupations there, whether of the full time or of the part time sort. The collection of the purely occupational data for this smaller study is approaching completion; it is being made with F.E.R.A. assistance under thÃ‚Â° direction of Dr. Wilbur I. Gooch, whose services are a part of the contribution of the Carnegie Corporation. Studies are being made, too, of the education and occupations which the young people now in school individually express the desire to have; also of those represented by their brothers and sisters who have left school, and by their fathers and mothers. Evidently the level of eduÃ‚Âcational equipment is rising, even during the deÃ‚Âpression, and along with it, the level of occupaÃ‚Âtional aspiration. Inquiry in homes and at the county library is bringing out interesting inforÃ‚Âmation as to reading habits and available reading material. The library reports fifteen hundred readers, and two-thirds of the high school children cite reading as the thing they like to do in leis= time, yet there are hardly five hundred readable books in the county library. Much interest is found in music in the homes, and musical instruÃ‚Âments abound there. The search comes constantly upon revealing facts such as these, useful in underÃ‚Âstanding and guiding young people. Efforts will be made to get all possible up-toÃ‚Âdate information about industries that do or Page 2 i might supplement farm income in the county. Non-farming but income-yielding activities of the fathers of high school children in the county are being studied, as are also those appearing in the Knott and Laurel County surveys, and suppleÃ‚Âmentary activities recommended from WashingÃ‚Âton. Present occupations, if any, of graduates of the two public high schools for the past seven years are being followed. Obviously the place to begin was with all pracÃ‚Âticable preparation of the teachers; in order to facilitate this, guidance instruction was taken to them through the cooperative arrangement with the University by which a five weeks' Guidance Institute was held in the county beginning on June 17. This course on the guidance approach to education and its simpler techniques, gave teachers something which they could begin to use in apprentice fashion in their schools, learnÃ‚Âing more by practice under supervision and by continued training. With Dr. J. E. Miner's special cooperation, the University of Kentucky gave six hours' credit for the very intensive course and provided Dr. Graham Dimmick as one of the four instructors; Superintendent R. S. Proctor of Craven County, North Carolina, distinguished for his county-wide guidance programs, was the senior instructor, and Mr. and Mrs. R. S. Pugh, also of Craven County, gave suggestive instruction in projects on "learning by doing." The county superintendent arranged through a local bank for the teachers to pay the fee, about twenty-five dollars, after salary payments for the year were made. A new county supervisor and attendance ofÃ‚Âficer, Mr. Ernest Leeka, broadly equipped in eduÃ‚Âcational administration as well as in educational psychology and methods of guidance and proÃ‚Âgressive education, has just begun his work with the schools. He will carry on the work in the Guidance Institute, gradually spreading it to the other schools of the county. As a part of the study of the individual he and Dr. Dimmick arc cooperating also in an experiment with testing programs. The biting question as to what sort of vocaÃ‚Âtional guidance can be given is very acute in a county such as Breathitt, where agriculture never offered a promising outlook for most, where minÃ‚Âing, lumbering and in consequence railroading Page 22 MOUNTAIN LrnF: AND WORK October, 1934 have declined to the lowest ebb, and where the prevalent return of sons and daughters from the city makes bad conditions much worse. On the other hand, inquiries of the young people about occupations on the higher levels are increasing and although many who ask ought to be enÃ‚Âcouraged to look in other directions, each one has a right to the most accurate information possible about the outlook and the requirements in the occupations which interest him. The occupational prospect, however, is not all gloomy, although it is dangerously easy to exagÃ‚Âgerate the encouraging part. Technicians, a good many of them outsiders, are more numerous in the mountains now than before, in forestry, in engineering and road building, in electrical inÃ‚Âstallation and so on. There is much government writing, too, on possible combinations of indusÃ‚Âtries with agriculture. On these and other acÃ‚Âcounts, there seems n-) convincing reason why Breathitt County should not have somewhat more of its suitable boys and girls sharing in the more interesting occupations of the region. The guidance provision for out-of-school young people is to be made through opportunity centers or centers for adjustment service. The distinctive feature of this program is that there is to be first a study of the individual needs and interests of the young person to be helped, and then cooperÃ‚Âation in finding local opportunity for the needed study and training. This vital part of the demonÃ‚Âstration will fail of its purpose if it does not mean more careful study and cooperative fitting toÃ‚Âgether of individual and opportunity. The conÃ‚Âcensus of many advisors is that typically wcllÃ‚Ârounded experience in such a center should conÃ‚Âsist of a combination of study, training through work-experience, and avocational and recreational activities. A part of the survey just now under way conÃ‚Âsists of gathering information about the yo.ung people needing such centers, about the assets which they themselves and other available people can contribute to them, and about practicable work projects through which to provide them with training. Only two such centers are likely to be launched within the next few months. OpportuÃ‚Ânity center manuals are being prepared for use in them, and one constructive aim behind the effort should be that each participant will somehow both give and get in the program. The question, Where do I fit in? will be in point in both directions if he has guidance training and approach. At the time when Breathitt County began its project, Rev. William A. Worthington, SuperinÃ‚Âtendent of Annville Institute in Jackson County, Kentucky, was ready to work toward reDrgwizin" his school along guidance lines, and also to work with the county superintendents towards developÃ‚Âing a county program of guidance. The ground is being broken for this now. A County Planning Council there is already about two months old, and four thousand copies of a schedule supplementing census data have been prepared by F. E. R. A. assistants for the county teachers to gather cerÃ‚Âtain information through the school children. Superintendent Proctor has visited the county to hold a brief institute at Jackson and Annvillc InÃ‚Âstitute itself is working out a valuable prevocaÃ‚Âtional school meant to serve the interests of the entire county. What strikes one most in the unfolding of these programs thus far is the surprising amount which a county can do on its own resources in developÃ‚Âing a guidance program for its young people, once its interest is aroused and its resources are anaÃ‚Âlyzed. This is especially trite in Kentucky this year because of the sales tax. For example, the Guidance Institute as arranged in Breathitt CounÃ‚Âty for training county teachers is possible for any other county with similar financial conditions without a penny of outside help. County superÃ‚Âvisors and attendance officers, for the employÃ‚Âment of which the sales tax allows, can be much more skilful in promoting attendance and in other phases of their work if aided by such a program. The census provided for each county the basic economic data needed in a country survey, and P.E.R.A. would probably provide investigators to get more, under responsible leadership. A strong, persistent interest and well-directed inquiry and energy will do wonders towards bringing the newer guidance aids to rural young people, and if experiences in Breathitt County and Jackson County are typical, F.E.R.A. will cooperate in one or more phases of the undertaking. October, 1934 MouNrmN LnE AND WORK Page 23 LIVINGS TON BECOMES Frank H. One hot and sleepy Sunday afternoon in late spring I arrived at the attractive little town of Livingston, Tennessee, to conduct a two-week's program of community recreation. First, a Punch and Judy show, then a heavy trunk of dolls, books, and personal belongings were unloaded from Mr. Klein's faithful car, the "Ford jabbock." I found comfortable quarters at the Commercial Hotel. Then I went to meet Mrs. Mae Daily, the skilled local organizer of the Save the Children Fund. Later, I met the pastor, Rev. R. B. Hurt, his delightful wife, and the friendly congregation of the Christian Church. Good friends from other local churches, and members of the Civic Club also made me cordially welcome. All these people willingly cooperated in the promotion of comÃ‚Âmunity events during my visit. No two weeks in a crowded and fascinating year's work gave me greater satisfaction. In this agricultural community the century-old songs and times seemed particularly at home. Daily gatherÃ‚Âings for singing games, folk dances, and entertainÃ‚Âment features -,rew like the proverbial snowball. News of our meetings spread rapidly; each night new faces were seen. Often these visitors watched the first time, but the next night saw them change into active participants. A small group which met in the afternoons became an advanced class, learning more difficult figures like the ScandinavÃ‚Âian Rosalil and Weaving, and simpler English country dances, Black Nag, Haste to the WedÃ‚Âding, and Bonnets So Blue. This smaller group gave demonstrations at Livingston, Davidson, and Rickman. One beautiful June night came the unique cliÃ‚Âmax-a games demonstration and a Punch and Judy show in the Livingston public square. Lights from the Court House were extended across the street. Areas for cars, spectators, and participants were roped off; a truck was run upon the side-Ã‚Âwalk to provide a stand for the Punch and Judy Show. These excellent arrangements were furnishÃ‚Âed by enthusiastic citizens, with the cordial apÃ‚Âproval and cooperation of the mayor and other civic officers, including the police. Between three and four hundred persons were interested specta- RECREATION - MINDED Smith toys at this event, so reminiscent of folk festivals on the village greens of England centuries ago. At the urgent request of the young people I agreed to remain an extra week as the guest of the citizens, boarding around like an old-fashioned subscription teacher. As a result a still greater number of people-citizens, business and profesÃ‚Âsional people, religious leaders, and especially thÃ‚Â° young people-enjoyed the glorious fun of tradiÃ‚Âtional singing games and folk dances. Best of all, the Overton County Recreation Club was organized by a joint committee of active young people and older leading citizens. A simple constitution was framed by the committee, and approved by the entire group. Game leaders to conduct future programs were appointed. After my departure Mrs. Daily wrote, "Our club met for the first time last night. We had a nice time. Rose Hart led the games, and did we have a crowd? The room was full. Our trouble now is worrying about what to do with so many." AcÃ‚Âcording to the word recently received from the committee chairman, Rev. R. B. Hurt, the weekÃ‚Âly meetings continued successfully until the openÃ‚Âing of school. New plans are being considered for the winter. Mr. William Klein of Alpine Institute wrote recently, "The work which you started at Livingston is going on exceptionally well, and seems to have an increasing effect. They arc still meeting every Thursday evening at the school, and on one occasion the group went to the town of Monroe to teach the games." Mrs. Daily has reported on plans for the winter. It is hoped that the Overton County Recreation Club will be able to continue its visits to some localities where there are accommodations for inÃ‚Âdoor games. Since schools have opened, invitations have been more than the club can fill, and a number of the teachers have been able to introÃ‚Âduce some of the games into the school themÃ‚Âselves. Concerning the weeks I spent in the comÃ‚Âmunity in June, one of my enthusiastic fellowÃ‚Âworkers wrote: "It was the happiest play situaÃ‚Âtion I have ever experienced, and the joy of it is that the tunes you taught us are still echoing in our hills." Page 24 LVouwrniN Lu r AND Work October, 1934 SUMMER ACTIVITIES TENTH ANNUAL RURAL COMMUNITY CONFERENCE The tenth annual Rural Community ConferÃ‚Âence on the Cumberland Plateau was opened August 21 at Monterey, Tennessee, with ChairÃ‚Âman George Kerwin presiding. Reports were read from nine communities which had been studied for the Rural Community Conference, and which were represented at the meeting. Five other communities had also been studied. At the afternoon session the members of the conference listened to Dr. Clark, Cumberland Homestead Director, who gave a summary of the findings of these studies. He stressed the thought that the greatest difficulty to be dealt with, as reÃ‚Âvealed by the reports, was economic, while next in importance came social and recreational, health and religious problems. Only after careful study of needs and resources can suitable programs for each community be developed. Then, to translate theory into fact, it will be necessary first of all to build a sense of cooperation among all the memÃ‚Âbers of the community. Recreation, health, school and church activities cannot be developed unless the whole community is willing to share in them. In the evening Mr. Howard Hubbell, State Y.M.C.A. secretary, and Dr. Clark summarized the preceding sessions. The night meeting was held at Crossville. The following morning Rev. Harry UpperÃ‚Âman, vice chairman, presided over the last session, which was also held in Crossville. Dr. Floyd Reeves of the Tennessee Valley .Authority preÃ‚Âsented the program of the Tennessee Valley deÃ‚Âvelopment, explaining its aims and telling of the work of the training division. Dr. Reeves stated that in addition to courses in leading industries, there are cultural classes similar to those offered in colleges which are given in all the training centers. All courses are free and although no urge is given workers to attend, a large percentage of them are taking advantage of the chance to use their leisure in this way. Dr. Reeves stated that the Tennessee Valley Authority program for the whole region included an expert librarian and library trucks to carry all types of books to people in the region. The TenÃ‚Ânessee Valley Authority cooperated to help the local relief situation by lending the use of shops and tools so that furniture for schools, stores and homes could be made at the cost of the materials alone. It is planned to establish twenty health centers throughout the area. Government experts will make a thorough study of all land in that section-a project which should be of great help in planning for the future. At the close of the meeting the group resolved to send to Mr. Edwin E. White an expression of appreciation for his service and hope for his speedy recovery and return to the work of the CumberÃ‚Âland Plateau. It was announced that Rev. Harry Upperman was elected President for the coming year. The eleventh meeting of the Rural CommuÃ‚Ânity Conference is to be held next year at BaxÃ‚Âter, Tennessee. CANNING BEEF FOR THE F.E.R.A. An interesting news note comes to us from the School of the Ozarks, where students, aided by many of the neighbors, were at work canning beef last August for the Federal Relief CommisÃ‚Âsion. The facilities of an unusually complete school canning plant were used to the utmost under the supervision of the school dietician, the head nurse, and other skilled workers, and the cannery was inspected at intervals by Government officials. More than three hundred quarters of beef a day were received. A large ammonia ice plant made it possible for them to be kept until they could be used. The meat was carefully cut, boned, and all parts were used according to the latest methods. Students helped to keep the boiler going twentyÃ‚Âfour hours a day, to care for the closing machine, to cook the meat in the cans, and to stack and store it. White uniforms made by the girls were worn by all workers. Before entering the cannery, it was necessary to pass the careful inspection of a trained nurse, and no one was admitted without a uiforni. Workers were entitled to sixteen hours' m 1 work a week, yet the quota of four hundred and fifty workers could not be exceeded, nor the time October, 1934 MOUNTAIN Lit e, AND WORK Page 25 limit of each worker. Every can of beef had to be turned over to the commission to be used for the needy later on, and every spoiled can had to be reported. The school was proud to record that of the first thirtyÃ‚Âthree thousand cans, only ten spoiled. At a time when school crops were an utter failure because of drouth, the canning project was doubly welcome. It supplied needy students with work and was a benefit to the community as a whole. EMERGENCY NURSERY IN SCHOOLS FOR MOUNTAIN AREAS Twenty-four students, almost all of them from mountain counties of Kentucky, attended the training course, July 12 through August 15, which was held at Berea College Pre-school Home LabÃ‚Âoratory for Emergency Nursery School teachers. From Berea, as from the other four training cenÃ‚Âters which were set up for this work in Kentucky last summer, the students have returned to set up nursery schools in their home communities. These Emergency Nursery Schools constitute the sixth emergency educational program authorized by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and sponsored by the United States Office of EducaÃ‚Âtion. Besides studying child health, child developÃ‚Âment and psychology, students of the course obÃ‚Âserved and did practical work with children in the Home Laboratory. A NEW CRAFTS BUILDING FOR PENLAND The fifth consecutive Weaving Institute was conducted at Penland, North Carolina, by Mr. Edward P. Worst, Supervisor of Hand Work in the public schools of Chicago, and author of "Foot Power Loom Weaving," and "How to Weave Linens," from August 13th to August 26th. A preliminary week of instruction was offered for the first time this year by The Penland Weavers and Potters under the direction of Miss Lucy Morgan. This course was designed for the purpose of preparing inexperienced weavers for the adÃ‚Âvanced work under Mr. Worst, and proved to be a valuable addition to the teaching program. A number of allied crafts were offered during this week as well as during the Weaving Institute proper. The Institute was judged to be the best in the history of Penland, both from the standÃ‚Âpoint of the number enrolled and from the standÃ‚Âpoint of interest shown. Forty-eight students, representing twenty-two states and the District of Columbia, were enrolled and formed a most congenial and enthusiastic group. Since the inception of the Institute, there has never been an adequate place in which the work could be carried on. The students of this year sensed this difficulty, and decided to take things into their own hands. As a result, they are he'.pÃ‚Âing to make possible a dream which Penland has long had-that of building a crafts house which shall be headquarters for the Weaving In stitute, and which it is hoped will eventually beÃ‚Âcome a laboratory for crafts people from all over the United States. In this way, Penland hopes to be able to make a contribution to the craft-loving people of our country such as no other place to our knowledge is making. The crafts building, which is to be called, "The Edward F. Worst Crafts House," will be a monument to the unÃ‚Âselfishness and devotion with which Mr. Worst has served craft-lovers here to the number of over one hundred and fifty. It will belong to the Weaving Institute, and after that, it will belong to anybody who wishes to come at any time of the year and use it for a laboratory in which may be worked out on looms threaded under Mr. Worst's direction any number of designs, from those employing the simple four-harness drafts to the most intricate linen, crackle, summer and winÃ‚Âter, and double weaves, requiring many harnesses. Each student of this year's Institute pledged $2.50, which is sufficient to buy one log for the building. In addition to this, one member donated the fireplace and chimney, another the front door and entrance, another promised to wire the buildÃ‚Âing free of charge, and the husband of another, a landscape architect, will give valuable assistance in the working out of the plans. One day the mail brought a letter from Mr. D. R. Beeson, an archiÃ‚Âtect in Johnson City, Tennessee, generously offerÃ‚Âing to make the architect's plans free. In the spring when the apple trees are in bloom, it is hoped to have the "log-raising" of this new building, and the plan is by next year's Institute to have the first floor ready for use. Page ZE MOUNTAIN LIFT. AND WORK October, 1934 fl LOOSE LEAF Mary P. The world is full of loose leaves, miscellaneous and compiled, shut within note book and desk or scattered to the winds of public scrutiny; comÃ‚Âments of cynics or memoirs of saints. Again they may be merely the honest thoughts of a humble mind or the humble questionings of an honest one. Herein is an illustration-a loose leaf from a thick volume of summer's living. Last Tuesday-week as neighbors went to the mill, one stopped at the community house to say that Mrs. Moses wanted me to come down as soon as I could. Feeling it urgent, I dropped the afterÃ‚Ânoon's work and after a torrid chase to get LightÃ‚Âfoot saddled in the pasture, rode down the creek. Mrs. Moses wanted to talk about the possibilities of sending John Jay off to school. We went over pros and cons as we had done many times before. After a winter's effort to get the consent of both John Jay and his parents, I was elated to find them suddenly school-conscious. To be ready for the out-going mail at five in tile morning, letters were written, after nightÃ‚Âschool classes were over, to half-a-dozen schools. As the Moses family seldom got to the post office more than once a week, I rode down again to carry the prompt replies and help make decisions. The family was still strong for John Jay's schoolÃ‚Âing. I explained the necessary preparations and outlay of clothes and money. Next day, only a week before school was to open, I gave up the women's meeting and rode five miles across the mountain to send a wire which would assure his admission. I hunted up old text books which might help him and paid another visit on Thursday to take them and see further about clothes and linen. At Sunday school on Sunday morning, John Jay said the family was not willing he should go unless 1 take him. A new turn-over of plans. It would never do to go thus far and no farther. Plans for Monday and Tuesday were cancelled, and our cooperative group arranged other work. I was due at a conference at the county seat at nine next morning, but M___ consented to go if I would take her junior League and evening service, so she could start that afternoon. Special guests Dupuy for Sunday dinner, and the rest of the day packed full. As no one was free Monday morning to go to the station to bring Lightfoot back, I started at four on foot, a lovely, dewy tramp to the siding on yon side of Brushy, where the young scholastic was to board the train at seven. Arrived there, I sat under a scrub oak and rested and waited, and waited and rested. The train roared in and out of the cut, and the sun rose high and hot. I saw neither hide nor hair of John Jay, his equipage, or his family. At ten I started up the big hill again, losing the heat in its damp greenness, and came around the Broad Gap road to see if swift fate had overtaken the Moses family. In a flat patch of white sunlight, just out of the black shadow of the mountain, the family slung their hoes rhythmically in and out of the loose, purple earth, contented, unconÃ‚Âcerned. A group going through the simple routine of life, undisturbed, unfluttered, unabashed. I sat on the rock by the apple tree at the end of a row and waited. Well? Well, they hadn't gotten straightened out as they had expected, hadn't got to town on Saturday to see about his new clothes. And Jim Townes had a sick cow that they had to sit up all night with. Then too, Mother had got into canÃ‚Âning blackberries and couldn't get the other clothes washed. Besides, John Jay had taken a notion he wouldn't go anyway. They could never let a child of theirs say they had made him leave home. Maybe it would be better, after all, to wait u'I corn was in. I might take him around nti Thanksgiving time if I wanted to. There were plenty of beans in the pot. Wouldn't I stay for dinner? I walked wearily homeward around the hill and up the creek, and walking, I pondered. Time, strength, interest, the outlay; the outcome, John Jay still in the cornfield. I had done all I could. It at least should assure them of friendship and good will and willingness to serve. Still, perhaps if I i had gone down again Sunday afternoon, if I had offered to go to town for the clothes on Saturday, October, 1934 MOUNTAIN LITT AND WORK Page 27 if 1 had been just a little more urgent? Should I minimize or magnify my efforts? Should I feel satisfied that I had tried, even with failure? It is easy to be content with only effort, discounting results. Yet can one be continually smitten with a sense of shortcomings and failure, and go on to any success? How should I feel, besides tired and disappointed? . . . The door to the school at the mount of Tim's Branch was open. The slim little teacher was cleaning out the summer's debris, moving benches, sweeping, mopping, nailing, shining the scarred old school house against the morrow's opening. I crossed the low ford, stopping to enjoy the laureled dimness about me. So quiet, so cool, so remote from life, so unlike it. Yet too, how wild and rough and confused when tides rose high in season. Last January the old minister from TideÃ‚Âwater almost lost his horse, if not his life, crossing to get nails for the carpenters, so they could finish the church roof by the third Sunday. On the big pine at the cross roads was the gay poster that Miss T___ had put there to advertise he well children's clinic. She had spent some .ours over posters and days over plans and visits, and had curtailed her vacation in order to hold the clinic before berries came in. In the end only six came, for there seemed little reason for findÃ‚Âing out a child was sick when he wasn't, and there is always so much to do anyway, what with garÃ‚Âdens and chickens and all. There it was again: time, strength, energy, service! But these are mere incidents, I argued back, in disgust. Nothing to think of twice comÃ‚Âpared to the real work, the real hardships, the pioneering courage and adventure which really great souls have given for the mountains. Many everyday incidents, these, found in the Line-AÃ‚ÂDay of many-of any-teacher, nurse, minister, community leader. Time, strength, energy, love, service, I conned again. Each day often a long physical pull, to accomplish little or much; a runÃ‚Âning-around to make connections, to pick up threads, to convince, persuade, cajole, coerce people into doing what they do not naturally want to do. Perhaps the sum total measures high in well-meant and unconscious unselfishness, in sponÃ‚Âtaneous out-giving of self and resources, but is it always pitted with common sense? With courage to risk results if the other fellow totes a fair share of the load of responsibility for his own and his community's welfare? Should the little teacher have waited for stronger backs to move the heavy benches? If John Jay's father had taken the teleÃ‚Âgram-- Again I countered with myself. How would such an attitude stack up against those finer elements which we count as our contribution to our field-time, strength, energy, love, service? I do not know. Perhaps the thoughts only came because the walk was long and hot, the disapÃ‚Âpointment fresh, and something else was waiting into which to throw time and strength and energy. This is only a loose leaf from my diary, a stray page from my thoughts as I went slowly home over the rough trail, late again for dinner. Page 28 MOUNTAIN Lur, AND WORK October, 1934 O BOOK REVIEWS LAMB IN HIS BOSOM By CarolirrcÃ‚Â° Minor. Nete York.. I-larper's, $2.50 Reviewed by Emily Ann Smith In "Lamb in His Bosom" one lives absorbedly, poignantly with Cean Smith from the time when, sweet and young and newly-married, she leaves her father's house in a gently jouncing cart, until as an old woman, the mother of many children, she welcomes Dermid O'Connor back from the war., The book provides an amazingly minute study of life among rural whites in southern Georgia about the time of the Civil War. But there are no limits of time to the loves and sins and mullings and sufferings of these people whom Mrs. Miller so carefully and steadily portrays. Cean, Lonzo, "master-worried" or "masterÃ‚Âproud," and Seen with her poor burnt feet dancÃ‚Âing in boiling syrup; Lias, turbulent and handÃ‚Âsome, beautiful Margot, Jake, haunting his beÃ‚Âloved swamp; the children -Maggie, Kissie, Wealthy, Fairby, Caty, Cal-they cannot be forÃ‚Âgotten soon because the reader knows them well. For days after he finishes the book, he finds himÃ‚Âself mulling over parts of it-pregnant Cean's sweet pity for the little pled-ed calf that must be killed, the hog killings, the coming of winter when "pines heaved on their deep moorings in the earth," the dove-colored cabin with its avenue of crepe myrtle. Mrs. Miller writes in sharp, careful detail of birthings and weddings and deaths, of fullÃ‚Âmouthed laughter and misery that has no plumbÃ‚Âing. Cean's life at times-at most times-is dark with tragedy: hard field work, children who die when they seem sweetest, the ever-coming pains of childbirth; and yet somehow when the book is finished there is a sense of peace and health and renewing joy. And that peace and health and joy arc deposited in Cean, with her love for her "little Iuns," her vision of a heaven where Sister ElizaÃ‚Âbeth cared for small Caty, new to heaven; with her sense of sin when for two years she stayed lean and brown and spry, free from the childÃ‚Âbearing that was hers by right; with her trust in a stern but just God; with her love of the fields and of animals and the changing seasons. One comes to believe with Lonzo that the woman is "clean as a sycamore's trunk in spring; brave enough to blow a painter's tough skull wide open; sweet as the breath of a beehive where the bees swarm all the summer through; and quiet in her ways as that hive in midwinter when you strike the gum and hear only the drowsy stir of a thousand wings that are folded close in warm, honey-sweet air, sleeping through all the cold." Prom "Lamb in His Bosom" there radiates the steady redolence of warm, virile living, a redolence that increases with many readings. STARS FELL. ON ALABAMA By Curl Carrrror. Illustrated by Cyrus LeRoy Baldrid,,,,e. NcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢u~ York. Farrar and Rirae%ctrt 1934. X3.00 Reviewed by Margret Trotter "Alabama felt a magic descending, spreading, long ago. Since then it has been a land with spell on it-not a good spell, always." Thus C:. Carmer introduces the story of his Alabama imÃ‚Âpressions. For six years, a Yankee professor at Tuscaloosa, he investigated this enchanted land of "moons, red with the dust of barren hills, thin pine trunks barring horizons, festering swamps, restless yellow rivers." He visited great plantations and listened to their legends; he visited the swamps of the "conjure country"; he stayed at Mobile, and traveled in the bayou country, sojourning among the Cajans. He also spent weeks among the mountain people of the Red Hills. Some of the most vivid and pleasant chapÃ‚Âters of the book are concerned with his exÃ‚Âperiences there: the fiddlers' convention he witÃ‚Ânessed; the all-day singing, where old Sacred Harp books were used, with shaped notes; foot washÃ‚Âing in a weathered mountain church; and the old ballad of Barbara Allen, of which his friend Henry said, "My granddad said he knew bath them people when he was young." Perhaps Alabama is neither so remote, so exotic or so enchanted as Mr. Carmer sees it. But his book makes absorbing reading, particularly the mountain chapters. October, 1934 MOUNTAIN Lnw AND WORK Page 29 A RELIEF OFFICER LOOKS AT RELIEF (Continued from page 9) see many of our clients taught useful trades which may help them to support their families after relief is no more. We are trying to teach thÃ‚Â°m better methods of tilling the small farms they own or rent, so that they may get the maximum crop from their efforts. We teach them how to can and preserve their surplus crops for wrote: use; and we seek to interest them in health and sanitation. If we accomplish but part of these things, our efforts will be rewarded. We hope that the future will see the passing of the necessity for relief, but we are familiar enough with our conditions to feel sure that for many years some form of welfare work must go on. We look forward to seeing all relief administered by JUST SLIP ME A VOUCHER QUIET ,S WONT fELL NoHODY HI C -CANSHA - SNEE MuH FAroWysN Ã¢â‚¬Â¢' ~~,'-~.-.r -j SNTARvIN~7( County Welfare Associations under the direction of a State Welfare Bureau which in turn will be under a Bureau of Public Welfare at Washington. Funds would be furnished from the nation, state and county in the proportion which they could raise without an unduly excessive burden being thrown upon the taxpayers. All the above governÃ‚Âmental units should have some part in the proÃ‚Âgram. We in this area have two unsolved problems, one in the mines where employers do not have work enough to afford the employees the necesÃ‚Âsaries of life, another in the fact that the increase in our rural population is rapidly resulting in the decrease of tillable land for each family. How these problems can be met only the future will reveal. BE SURE TO HELP ~pNDY MUDDLEWAD p4 LICKS PO7TLE !E HRANIH \)~ ~~., CDUNt~AL WE REPRESENT YG95TARV,NG FAMILIES A7 SLAVERY COALCAMP wN00vT waRK YESTEIjpqy,AND ARE DEMANDpN6 HELP M y TENANTS CANT PAY RENT 'N 57-ORE-BILI-5 9 9~. HEADQUARTERS CALLING I WM'IN--RAVENrYAREPOHTEpON CASE OF M9 HOMLE55 NrTWTAND FAMILY oF1Ã‚Â¢STRANDep IN OREGON? YOURS FIRED / RELIEF WORKER'S DAY ('age 30 Muuivrnov Lint: AND WORK October, 1934 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Helen H. Dingmrtn _ Editor Dr. Williana James Hutchins . Counsellor mountains will be kept forever green in successive generations. Mr. E. O. Robinson, who.;,: home was m Fort Thomas, Kentucky, was ki1_'.ed in an auto:nobilc a'dent on June 15, 1934. ccl Orrin L. Keener Associate Editor Margret G ~. Trotter Associate Editor CUMBERLAND STUDY TOUR CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson Mrs. ,John C. Campbell - Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn Mr. John P. McConnell New York City Brasstown, N. C. Berea, Ky. East Radford, Va. Dr. Arthur T. McCormack _ Louisville, Ky. Dr. John Tigert .. Gainesville, Fla. ISSUED QUARTERLY-JANUARY, APRIL, JULY, OCTOBER Subscription Price $1.00 per year. Single Copy 30c. Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as second class mail matter ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK BEREA, KENTUCKY A HARDWOOD TREE FOR REMEMBRANCE In the death of Mr. E. O. Robinson the KenÃ‚Âtucky Mountains lost a staunch and loyal friend. The mountain workers who had the privilege of meeting him at the Robinson Harvest Festival and at other meetings in Eastern Kentucky will miss the inspiration of his deep interest in their work, his faith in people and his wise and pracÃ‚Âtical philosophy of education based upon his own experience in the section. Through Homeplace, Ary, Kentucky, and the Robinson Experiment Substation of the University of Kentucky-two places made possible by his generosity-the spirit of Mr. Robinson will live on in an ever broadening service to his mountain friends. And as each year on November fifteenth each 4-H Club Member in Eastern Kentucky plants a hardwood tree as a memorial to him, his friendship for the boys and girls of the Kentucky The Study Tour sponsored by the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers last year is to be repeated this year in a more limited area. The Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee is the region selected for this intensive study, because of the numbers of varying types of institutional work. This year the purpose is to see how the needs of a particular region are being met by the private and public agencies serving the area. Dates for the 1934 Study Tour are November 5-13. Those interested should address Mountain Life and Work for further information. RURAL REHABILITATION Two regional conferences, one at Robinson Experiment Substation, Quicksand, Kentuck- Octobcr 8-9, and the other planned for Novembe~ 2-3 at Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, Tennessee, are outgrowths of plans discussed at recent meetings of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers. Rural rehabilitation was chosen as the topic for both regional conferences. In Kentucky the Kentucky Rural Church Council joined the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers in sponsoring the second annual regional conference at Quicksand. Speakers included Dr. William J. Hutchins, President of Berea College, Chairman of the Kentucky Rural Rehabilitation Committee, Mr. Earl Mayhew, Director of KenÃ‚Âtucky Rural Rehabilitation, President Gross of Union College, President McVey of the University of Kentucky, and Miss Ruth L. Parker, Area ReÃ‚Âlief Supervisor of Breathitt, Perry, Leslie, Knott and Letcher counties. Plans for the meeting at Harrogate arc not yet complete. Mr. C. E. Brehm, Chairman of the Tennessee Rural Rehabilitation Committee, President Hutchins, and W. R. Woolrich of the Tennessee Valley Authority will be among the speakers. Address Mountain Life and Wor' for complete programs and information. October, 1934 MouNrmN Lir-F AND WORK Page 3 L WHY NOT A FOLK FESTIVAL? The idea of a folk festival, representing schools and centers throughout the mountains, a celebraÃ‚Âtion which would be non-competitive and to which each school or center to participate could make a distinctive and individual contributionÃ‚Âthis was the thought which sprang out of the fifth annual recreational course for teachers and comÃ‚Âmunity leaders, held June 4-13 at the John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, North CaroÃ‚Âlina. Plans are now on foot to realize this project. As yet, little is certain except the date and the place-April 25-28, at Berea College. Mr. Lynn Rohrbough, an authority on folk material, is a member of the committee, and it is hoped that others outside the mountain territory will attend the festival. A further announcement will appear in the January issue. Now in the cold months sleek snakes had found their holes, and rough-hided toads their burrows of mud. Somewhere deep in the earth the snakes might lie dozing, coiling ever so slowly, now and then, a vicious head laid across the head of its mate. The frogs that had shrilled their brittle, metallic singsongs through the wet summer months were blinking sleepily in the dark somewhere, squatted on their ugly haunches, multiple thousands of them in a thousand burrows. Birds sought through the dead grasses for their meals of dried seeds. In Cean's pea-patch partridges found the dried pods that had split open, leaving dried peas free for the small wild beaks. All through the flat-woods, pines heaved on their deep moorings in the earth; they rocked to the south when the north wind blew, they rocked to the west when the east wind blew; but when the winds were gone back into the east and north, and there fell a quiet, balmy day, the pines were straight as ever, moored fast to the black, deep-coiled roots of the old earth herself . . . . In summer the sound of the many little breathing calls and cries paneled the dark as one listened, as thin covering hides a rough wall. But the winter dark was a different thing from summer dark. In winter, the night was a bare, bleak thing without the unobtrusive clickings and peepings of little winged creatures. One could not hear the dark now; there was only silence with the wind howling through it. -"Lamb in his Bosom" by Caroline Miller OUR CONTRIBUTORS KATHARINE E. GLaDrH:Lor.u is one of the secretaries of the Unit of Educational and Medical Work of the Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A. L. F. BRASH6wR is Disbursing Officer of the Kentucky Emergency Relief Administration for the Hazard Area, which includes Breathitt, Perry, Leslie, Knott, and Lctcher Counties. Oi.mr D. CAMPBELL, head of the John C. Campbell Folk School, was closely associated with Mrs. Ulmann in her work of moantain portraiture. FRANK H. SmrrH, the itinerant recreation leader under the auspices of the Conference of Southern MounÃ‚Âtain Workers, is beginning his second year of work in our mountain area. Mauaucr P. STAY is Dean of Union College. O. Lw-rFiaM Ha2-cmEn, formerly head of the ComparaÃ‚Âtive Literature Department of Bryn Mawr and Later a member of the English Department there, is the author of books on problems of guidance. She is President of the Southern Woman's EducaÃ‚Âtional Alliance. MARY 1'. Duruv writes from years of experience as a community worker. She is now in the Extension Department of Berea College. This nzagazivze evas printed by the Berea College Press :n which mzore than thirty-five students earn all or part of their expenses.