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Mountain Life & Work vol. 11 no. 4 January, 1936 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv11n40136 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 11 no. 4 January, 1936 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky January, 1936 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. VOLUME XT .) ANUARl', 1936 NUMBER 4 The Mountaineer in Industry -Clarence Pickett 1 Thoughts of a Kentucky Miner --Mack Adarns 4 The Backgrounds of the Mountain People -Paul E. Doran 5 Come to the Folk Festival -Marguerite Butler 12 Two Poems -James Still 15 Mountain Problems for Mountain Men -John O. Gross 16 Morning Walk (Poem) -Margret Trotter 19 The Kentucky Rural Church Council -W. D. Nicholls 20 Recreation Conference at Quicksand -Merton Oyler 22 Five Years of a Child Health Fund 23 What They are Doing 25 The Reviewing Stand 27 Index 31 Published Quarterly at Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual underÃ‚Â standing between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the nation MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME XI JANUARY, 1936 NUMBER 4 THE MOUNTz4INEER IN INDUSTRY CLARENCE E. PICKETT A tall, gaunt figure of a man, accompanied by his wife, sitting on the front porch of a crude farmer's cabin, or hoeing corn on a forty-five deÃ‚Âgree angle hillside, is the usual picture that comes to the minds of outsiders in response to the use of the term "mountain people." In many respects this picture is correct. Over the past thirty years, however, industry has reached out its long vigorous hand, and has drawn to itself many of the youth from homes of mountaineer farmers. These young people now have grown to maturir_v as industrial workers, employees in rubber plants, automobile factories, and, above all, in the coal mines. In 1931, agents of the Federal Government reÃ‚Âquested the American Friends Service Committee to undertake the feeding of children in the biÃ‚Âtuminous coal areas. During that winter, this organization fed about forty-two thousand chilÃ‚Âdren. It was thrown into intimate touch with some six hundred coal mining communities. Most of these were in the territory known as the Appalachian regions; considerably more than half of the children fed were the offspring of mounÃ‚Âtaineers who had become industrial workers in the coal mines. Out of that experience, a study was made that revealed something like a total of two hundred thousand permanently displaced coal miners; of whom approximately a hundred and twenty--five thousand are mountaineers. Certain other facÃ‚Âtors enter into the picture to make that figure sI ificant. Added to this hundred and twentyÃ‚Â gni 1 1 1 five thousand would be a large number-no one knows how many-who having gone out from the mountain areas to seek employment in other cities, when employment failed in Detroit, Toledo, Akron, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and elsewhere, miÃ‚Â grated back to their native counties. The years 1931 to 1933 saw a doubling of the school popu- lation in forty-one mountain counties, due to the return of mountaineer families who had returned under the drive of unemployment. Another important factor is the shift in the age level of employment. In many cases men are employed in coal mines after they are forty years of age; but in case a man loses his job and has to seek re-employment in another mine, if he is more than forty, it is quite unlikely that he can find a job. A third significant item in the picture is the entrance of government control over production, wages, hours, and prices in the coal industry. This first came with the NRA, and is now continued under the Guffey Coal Act. There is no doubt but that it has increased the revenue to coal operÃ‚Âators; has improved working conditions for miners; has greatly increased the prestige and power of the labor unions; and has raised the pay for workers. For those men in the coal camps who are employed, life is better. But the very fact that wages have been increased despite compeÃ‚Âtition with oil, gas and electricity, is a great deterrent to the expansion of the coal business. It has driven many inefficient mines out of busiÃ‚Âness, and has caused the efficient mines to mechanize their processes. In all of the large producing areas, conveyors are being introduced ridly. This means intensifying the emphas' api I I I I is on the employment of younger miners, and a large displacement of older miners by machinery. These industrial shifts have been developing since 1926; they became intense in 1931 and 1932, and have deepened with the years since that time. None of these factors will be greatly changed by such industrial recovery as seems to be in prosÃ‚Â pect. The spectre of large scale unemployment is increasingly to be reckoned with throughout the Appalachian regions, so far especially as the coal industry is concerned. Page 2 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1936 Certain obvious effects inhere in these changes. First, a psychological sense of defeat and inferiÃ‚Âority always has to be taken into consideration; a widespread sense of insecurity, resulting in fear and the intensifying of community and domestic conflict, is to be observed everywhere. WhenÃ‚Âever people lose the chance to use the one skill which they know, and no effort is made to reÃ‚Âtrain them for new skills, the result is upsetting to the morale and spirit of individuals and of communities. Second, there is an increasing tendency toward drink and disrespect for propÃ‚Âerty. These are the inevitable concomitants of unemployment, especially where there is no alterÃ‚Ânative form of employment that can be provided, as is true in the coal mine areas. Third, while governmental and other experiments with this problem have shown what can be achieved by highly skilled educational devices, they have thus far not been able to work out to a satisfactory conclusion the problem of employment to form an economic base for the structure of a new soÃ‚Âciety. The American Friends Service Committee has undertaken certain projects which it feels to be worth experimenting with in this field of drawÃ‚Âing a new pattern by which unemployed persons and also many of those who are active in mining shall find a possible life. Most important among these is an educational program. In Belmont County, Ohio, where there are both operating and dead coal mine communities, a People's UniÃ‚Âversity has been established for the purpose of raising the general educational level., and conseÃ‚Âquently the capacity to think out the solution of problems both of employed and unemployed by the men and women themselves. Many have thought that coal miners and those who live in that kind of a community are not interested in education. We have only to say that two hundred fifty-seven people voluntarily particiÃ‚Âpated in class work during the winter of 1934Ã‚Â1935 in this university. At the present time, something over two hundred fifty have enrolled for the current year. In Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, there are communities where there is some employment, but a large scale unemployÃ‚Âment. Here also small groups have been drawn together in educational ventures. In Bell County, Kentucky, the approach has been made through a series of mothers' clubs, and in Logan County, West Virginia, through a health unit. In cooperÃ‚Âation with the government homesteads in West Virginia, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania, efforts have been made not only to transfer people from minÃ‚Âing camps where there is no employment to new homes in homesteads, but also to re-train them for new skills, for a cooperative pattern of life, and for democratic living in contrast to the type of life that is developed in a company town. Growing out of this experience, there are cerÃ‚Âtain deductions that seem quite clear. In the first place, it is obvious that if the problem of reÃ‚Âeducation for new skills is taken seriously, men can be not only trained for new skills, but psychologically reconditioned. It is also true that in almost any of these counties where there is large scale unemployment, there is a permanent problem of over-population. In one county in Pennsylvania where at the presÃ‚Âent time a great deal of coal is still mined, there are one hundred fifty-two mine camps, ninetyÃ‚Âsix of which are dead and will probably remain closed for many years. In that county a good deal can be done to develop production on the land, to develop hand arts and handicraft skills; it may be possible to bring in some small industries to assist in employment. But there should be a systematic and consistent effort to train the people between the ages of sixteen and twenty-five for skills which would take them out of their derelict communities back into the main stream of life. A venture of this kind has been undertaken as a cooperative measure between the National Youth Administration and the American Friends ComÃ‚Âmittee at Pence Springs, West Virginia. There an abandoned hotel has been secured for school purposes, and about seventy girls drawn from twenty of the coal-producing counties of the State of West Virginia have been brought in; the first, for two months' training; and now, with the new student group, the period will be somewhat lengthened. At the end of two months, oneÃ‚Âthird of those who had been brought to the school were placed either in schools which would train them to get back into the stream of unemployÃ‚Âment, or have in actual jobs. While, as a general policy, it is probably not wise to train country young people for city employment, there seems to be no alternative to such a migration from January, 1936 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 3 many of these over-populated areas, and if that migration is to take place, it should be a planned migration preceded by training for those who miÃ‚Âgrate. While it is true that coal production has inÃ‚Âcreased about twenty per cent since 1933, it is also true that re-employment has lagged far beÃ‚Âhind the increased coal production. In all the coal mining areas there is a problem of at least fifty per cent over-population. Such a situation can only be met by migration. To do nothing means degeneration, crime, spread of disease and of discontent. It is important, therefore, that voluntary agencies and government should give thought to the factors which are necessary in longÃ‚Âtime rehabilitation problems, and that all agencies interested in the mountain areas should become increasingly conscious that a major emphasis durÃ‚Âing the next decade might well be laid upon the problem of the displaced worker and his family. It is also quite clear that more important and sI ificant than housing and purchase of land and gru 1 its development, is the education of men and women and children for a new type of life which they must come to understand before they atÃ‚Âtempt to participate in it. If the Homestead Movement in one form or another is to be folÃ‚Âlowed as a pattern both within operating mine camps and for those who are displaced, such transÃ‚Âplanting of populations should be preceded by a careful educational program in the communities where they arc now living and should, in our -judgment, be carried out slowly as the need and desire arise within the minds of the proposed miÃ‚Âgrants. Within the operating coal camps themselves there are conditions which need serious considerÃ‚Âation. In order to exploit our mines rapidly, there seemed in the past to be no way to take care of the problem of housing and utilities exÃ‚Âcept through company-owned towns. Now, howÃ‚Âever, necessity seems to be opening the question as to whether tile time has not come for rethinkÃ‚Âing the pattern of life by which coal miners live. Most mining communities are now cursed with too much leisure-two or three or four days a week are the usual practice so far as employment in mine camps is concerned. The situation seems to require either a still further reduction in the number of men used in order to keep them emÃ‚Âployed full time or steady employment for workÃ‚Âing men for only three or four days a week. Usually it is possible for miners to get two or three acres of land near enough to the tipple, so that they could live on the land, cultivate it during their leisure time, and secure wages at a fairly good rate in the coal industry when it is operating. If gradually provision could be made either by government loans or through the help of indusÃ‚Âtrial groups and private organizations for the purÃ‚Âchase of land, construction of houses, the gradual demolition of company towns, and the purchase of small homesteads by miners who are employed three or four days a week-this, together with the introduction of the Consumers' Cooperatives as a means of distributing goods, might restore the democratic life of communities and greatly inÃ‚Âcrease the economic well-being of mountaineer inÃ‚Âdustrial workers. It is encouraging to discover that some coal companies are already giving consideration to this possibility. As a preliminary step in that direction, a great many companies have initiated garden programs, which have been producing foodstuffs in large quantities during the depression years. There are those who think that the entire proÃ‚Âblem will 'be solved by thorough organization of the coal industry. The Welsh experience by no means bears this out. All Welsh coal miners are included in the trade unions, but they have not been able, because of the position of the industry, to find full employment. They have large quoÃ‚Âtas of permanently displaced workers; they have done very little to nourish the connection between coal mining and agriculture; and, consequently, there has been long and intense suffering even though the miners have had labor unions for two-score years. But to work out this new pattern will require the assistance of skilled educators, agriculturalists, and people of fine sensitiveness to human values. To mine coal in such a way that respect can be retained for character and personality is possible. It is possible for industrial communities to be democracies. It is with some of these long-time goals in mind that we need to rethink our service to the industrial mountaineer. Page 4 MOUNTAIN LITE AND WORK January, 1936 THOUGHTS OF A KENTUCKY MINER MACK ADAMS Lame Shoat Gap looks like an old house sunk uide down in the mountain. Smears of dawn psi 1 1 daub the east, filter through murky fog, and rest above Dark Hollow. Scrub oak bushes are silhouettes on the rock cliffs; look like corn i I I shucks full of sausages hanging from the rafters. Everything is quiet, like a farm before roosters start crowing. Down below Dark Hollow lies snoring. Huge folds of dusk wrap her up in black blankets. Here and there lights flicker out from a miner's shack, like spikes of gold half hammered into the dark. Dark Hollow's where we live. It's just like the name. Darkness loves that hollow; comes early and stays late. We slope downward on the other side of Lame Shoat, trudge along to the creek trace; then start up Razor Back to Greasy Gap and down to the mines. Brown beech leaves carpet the dirt. They hide rocks and dead limbs. We stumble. The leaves rustle apart and back together like ripples on a mill pond. Withy beech limbs claw at our faces. They slap and sting with the sharp December morning. Carbide lights sputter. A sudden breeze snatches the blaze and is gone. We are six brothers, all six feet. Never been to school. We just know the strength of six feet of muscles. Our shoulders are bent, hunched forward as if trying to fend a blow. When we walk our long arms dangle down 'most to the knee. We are not as good to look as we used to be. We mine coal. Miles back into the bowels of the mountain we burrow, like a wild animal clawing its hole for hibernation. Our days are lived in the dark, bent in a strained crouch like you've seen a football team before the kickoff. Our heads set well back between the shoulders; necks bend sort of like a goose-necked hoe. That makes a large Adam's apple. Our eyes curve upward as if we study the weather. The mine is full of treacherous horse-backs-slate flakes that drop without warning. They leave a hole the shape of a horse's back, and crush whatever they fall on. We're always looking upward. We are sleepy. Getting up at three o'clock every morning, tramping over Lame Shoat to the mines, is tough. Even for muscles like seasoned hickory, warped in the sun. We've done this since we were big enough to lift a chunk of black coal. We are a solemn group. Never know what to expect next. Maybe a gas explosion. Maybe a horse-back. One brother is minus an arm. A horse-back got him. Knocked his carbide light out. He was working an isolated room. For half a day he lay there in the dark with half a ton of slate rock crushing his arm. We missed him at night and went a-looking. His arm was ground up in a bloody mess. We managed to drag him out to the drift mouth. The doctor was gone. The arm stayed that way till next day. But he loads ten tons of black coal now. He loads ten tons with the one long arm. Mostly we stumble on toward the mines in silence. Now and then a limb slaps back. One curses. Another grunts. His foot plunges into a hole. A round rock turns an ankle. One falls and grabs with his hands. We slide down bluffs, catch slim hickory saplings to hold us back. Dark traces across the mountains, worn by stumbling feet. Dark entry, jet as the coal that lines its s*des. Hard black coal down in the uts of the 1 0 earth. Bodies as black as that coal. Lungs the color of mashed poke berries. We breathe black air. We spit black spit. Our lives are dark. Our minds are cramped. Occasionally there are scant snatches of conÃ‚Âversation. Mostly it's about our conditions, our kids. Down there in Dark Hollow where we never see daylight except on Sundays, where blackness likes to hover like a smothering cloud, shut out from the light of decent learning, our kids are struggling to grow up. But this is America! We are part of her. Our fathers hewed the wilderness and fought the revoÃ‚Âlution. Our fathers were dangerous men. They believed in right. They took their guns and went barefooted with Washington. They madeJanuary, 1936 a revolution. And there may come a time when we are dangerous men, even the one-armed brother. For every day we look up and say: "God, must our children follow our stumbling MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 5 feet! Is there no sunshine of new life, of intelliÃ‚Âgent learning, ideas that will penetrate even the dismal depths of Dark Hollow?" Our kids, they're all that matter now. The Backgrounds 0 f The Mountain People PAUL E. DORAN One of the significant trends in our day is the desire everywhere to recover a knowledge of the past. This urge is only now making itself felt in our Southern Mountains. Until within recent years the average mountaineer has never known nor cared much about his past. Outsiders have not known, because the story of our mountains has never been told. If you go into a public library and seek information about SouthÃ‚Â°rn Mountain history, you will be disappointed at the meagre results of your search. There is an abundance of material on the backgrounds of New England life, for in the early days many a New Englander kept a diary or a journal, and countless historical works have been produced. Our mountain people, however, were so interested in the outdoors and in the work they were doing that they never wrote much. What they did write was on politics and religion and not on history. Before I begin my story of the mountain backÃ‚Âground, perhaps I had better give some of the sources of my material. I have picked it up piecemeal over a period of more than thirty years and cannot give all of it. A great deal of it has been derived from old church record books, old diaries, and the like. Much of it is in manuscript in the state archives at Nashville, Tennessee; much has been published in the Tennessee Historical Magazine. Biography has been the richest source., The Mountain district, as we know it, has alÃ‚Âmost the same boundary lines as the old Cherokee nation, concerning which a word ought to be said. 1. See Foote's "Sketches," Carruthers' "Life of Caldwell of Alamance," Dillard's "Life of McGready," "MemÃ‚Âoirs of David Rice," "Memoirs of Samuel Aston," and the "Autobiography of David Crockett." When the whites first came into touch with the Cherokees, that remarkable people was one of the most highly developed of any of the Indian tribes north of Mexico.2 They lived in fixed homes and had a settled life. Boundaries were, of course, somewhat vague and indefinite, as the boundaries of the mountain district are today. The line beÃ‚Âgan about fifty miles north of Charleston, ran northward along the Kanawha to the Ohio, thence along the Ohio to the Tennessee River; thence southward into northern Alabama, thence east and north to the starting point. Their capital and holy city of refuge, Echota, was near the present Maryville, Tennessee, and their chief centers of population were in southern Tennessee, northern Georgia, South Carolina and Alabama. The vast territories north of this, now western North Carolina, West Virginia, western Virginia, east Tennessee, and Kentucky, were their great huntÃ‚Âing lands, and for the most part were unoccupied except as hunting camps. This area is almost exÃ‚Âactly what we now call the Southern Highlands. The Indians had a network of trails, which, widened into roads by the settlers, have become the highways of our day. They not only gave us the location of many of our important roads and gave their names to many of our towns and rivers, but taught our forefathers how to make a living in a new and strange land. The foods of 2. See: "Myths of the Cherokee" by James Mooney, 1900; "The History of the American Indian" by James Adair, 1775; "Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee" by Haywood, 1823; "Annals of TenÃ‚Ânessee" by J. G. McG. Ramsay, 1853; "The CheroÃ‚Âkee Indians" by J. V. Parker, 1907; "The Story of the Cherokees" by W. L. R. Smith, 1928; and "Forty-second Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology," 1924-1925. Page 6 MouNrncrr Lire AND WORK January, 1936 the Indians have become important articles of diet of our mountain people. Even the herb doctor who has always been a familiar figure in the mountains got much of his art from the mediÃ‚Âcine man. Many of our superstitions and much of our folklore we borrowej from the red man. The first white settlements in the mountain area were made on the great hunting lands of the Cherokees. It is interesting to note that the first settlers almost always bought the land on which they settled from the Indians; the grabbing of land from the Indians came at a later period and was then carried on by the government itself. Except for two small reservations in the heart of the mountains, the Cherokees have been gone nearly one hundred years, and in their stead are the people variously known as southern highÃ‚Âlanders, mountaineers, mountain whites, but who prefer to call themselves simply mountain people. The term "mountain whites" is objectionable to them, and in some places is regarded as foul and abusive language for which there is no excuse and little forgiveness. The mountain people have been referred to as the purest strain of Anglo-Saxon stock in the world. Now this is a fine rhetorical phrase but it is not the truth. The first settlers came from Ireland and Scotland and swept along with them a few Welsh, who are also Gaelic, and some English.3 There came also a few French, German, and Danish. Since that early day of settlement comÃ‚Âparatively few people from the outside have come into our mountains, and the people who live here now are the most part the descendants of the first settlers. During the last two hundred years we have been in a great measure a people apart. We have played a great part in the life on this conÃ‚Âtinent but our story is not known to the rest of the country. In the beginning we were perseÃ‚Âcuted; then later we were forgotten; when we were rediscovered, we were looked down upon as inferior. 3. See: "Proceedings of the Congress of the ScotchÃ‚ÂIrish in America," Columbia, Tennessee May 8-11, 1899; various histories of Tennessee by Ramsay, PutÃ‚Ânam, Haywood, Phelan, Garrett, and McGee; "A History of Cumberland University" by W. P. Bone; "Life of George Donnell" by J. C. Anderson, pp. 39Ã‚Â42; "Captives of Abb's Valley"; "Winning of the West," pp. 134, 138-141, 170. The settlement of our mountains was the reÃ‚Âsult of religious and political persecution. The colonization of this section represented the second great religious migration of English-speaking people to the new world. Everybody knows the story of the settlement of New England but alÃ‚Âmost no one knows the story of the settlement of the Southern Mountains. But the two were in many respects very similar.4 The first attempt of Irish Presbyterians to settle America was in 1636. The "Eagle Wing" set sail in September 1636 under the leadership of Robert Blair and John Livingstone and intended to make a settlement on the Merrimac. It was struck by a storm and had to return. No other attempt was made until 1686, when the first Irish colonies were established in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. During the next few years great numbers of people from both Scotland and Ireland joined them. One hundred years after the settlement of Plymouth Rock there was great persecution in Ireland and Scotland and ship load after ship load of people left for America seeking political and religious liberty and better economic opportunities. They landed at many points on the Atlantic coast. Life there was then settled, and there was no room for them. They found the same conditions from which they were trying to escape. One group settled in Boston. Their church was burned and in many other ways they were given to underÃ‚Âstand that they were not wanted. Thousands of them settled on the Potomac in Virginia. They built meeting houses and by every meeting house a school, for education was a part of their religion. But the Church of England was the established church in Virginia. No sooner were they estabÃ‚Âlished in their worship than attempts were made to bring them under the authority of the estabÃ‚Âlished church. They were taxed to support it and unless the ministers of the established church married them, their children were declared illegitiÃ‚Âmate and were not allowed to inherit. Many legends have come down from that day which are a part of the folk lore of our mountains. One runs like this: A young couple wanted to get 4. Many old family records, church records, biographies and the like tell of the reasons for the settlement in the mountain country. See Anderson's "Life of George Donnell" p. 41-42, and "Captives of Abb's Valley." January, 1936 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 7 married, but the rites had to be celebrated by an Episcopal minister to be legal. The couple made the long journey to an Episcopal parish and preÃ‚Âsented themselves to the priest. The ceremony went well until the minister, with the bridegroom repeating after him, came to a clause where the man said to the woman, "and with my body I thee worship." At this the bridegroom ceased repeating and said, "I'll no say that, it's idolatry." The minister repeated it; again and again the bridegroom refused to say it. The couple left the floor amid the confusion of all present. There were conferences and it was thought a kind of compromise had been arranged. The minister beÃ‚Âgan all over again, but when he reached the obÃ‚Âjectionable clause and read it again, the brideÃ‚Âgroom with flashing eyes and angry voice said, "I told you I would no say that," but the minister without seeming to notice went on with the next statement, and so the ceremony was finished. Other colonies were established in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but they fared no better than those planted in New England and Virginia. They were persecuted in many ways and this drove them more and more to cling toÃ‚Âgether and have as little as possible to do with those about them. Under persecution, many of the colonists de- cided once more to move on in search of freedom. 1 1 They settled in the Shenandoah Valley and soon they had homes with churches and schools. To this valley came great numbers of other Irish and Scotch colonists from the other colonies and many direct from Ireland and Scotland. In a few years they were again disturbed by the clergy of the established church. They had grown so powerful by this time that the Governor of Virginia granted the Presbyterian ministers the license to preach, but still they were harrassed in so many ways that again they voted to move, this time farther back into the mountains. By 1730 the movement was well under way, and they were pouring into western Virginia and North Carolina in great numbers. My own ancestors were settled on the Toe River in 1728. Because many of the valleys in this region were more narrow than those where they had first settled, and conÃ‚Âgregations were smaller, the custom was estabÃ‚Âlished of having one minister serve two or more churches and this has ever since been a characterisÃ‚Âtic of our mountain churches in the smaller comÃ‚Âmunities. There was a growing spirit of unrest. Many complaints were made in that day that the agents of the colonial governors were collecting more taxes than were due, and more and more these Presbyterians who were now living in the mounÃ‚Âtain valleys were manifesting a desire to be inÃ‚Âdependent of the established government. This caused them to push farther and farther into the mountains. This probably gave Theodore Roosevelt and other writers their idea that the mountaineers were criminals and debtors. The old records of that time do have resolutions adopted like the following: Resolved, that we will pay no more taxes until we are satisfied they are agreeable to law, and applied to the purpose therein mentioned, unless we cannot help it .... Resolved, that we will pay no officer any more fees than the law allows, unless we are obliged to do it; and then to show our dislike and bear our open testimony against it. Out of these disturbances came the organization known as the Regulators, who for years resisted the sheriffs, dispersed courts, and drove the tax collectors out of the country. In 1771 matters came to a head. The Governor marched with an army into the mountain country and a battle took place on Alamance Creek in which nine ReguÃ‚Âlators and twenty-seven soldiers were left dead on the field. News of the fight spread, and sympathy with the cause of freedom was aroused in other colonies. This was soon followed by the definite setting up of a republic which declared itself free alike of England and of the colonial government of North Carolina. It is interesting to compare this first mountain declaration of independence with the one which was adopted under the leaderÃ‚Âship of Thomas Jefferson at a later time. I give here two of the resolutions which will give the spirit of the Declaration: Resolved, that we, the citizens of Mecklenburg, do hereby dissolve the political bonds which have conÃ‚Ânected us with the mother country and hereby absolve ourselves from all allegiance to the British crown, and abjure all political connection, contract, or association with that nation, who have wantonly trampled upon our rights and liberties and inhumanly shed the blood of American patriots. Page 8 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1936 Resolved, that we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent people; are, and of right ought to be, a Sovereign and self-governing association, under the control of no power, other than that of our Go and the General Congress; to the maintenance of which independence we solemnly pledge to each other our mutual cooperation, our lives, our fortunes, and our most sacred honor. This was the spirit of the Regulators who had been formed years before. Hundreds of ReguÃ‚Âlators were in that meeting. The Revolution was in full swing in the mountains. It is no wonder that in England it was called the Presbyterian Rebellion in America. Several thousand men were at Mecklenburg that day and shouted their approval as the resolutions were read, and they went from that meeting determined to defend them with their lives. When later Jefferson's Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress and George Washington was elected commander in chief of the Army, the first unit to present itself as ready for action was an army from the Southern Mountains under the command of Daniel Morgan. Wives and sisters and sweetÃ‚Âhearts had worked the long nights through makÃ‚Âing powder and moulding bullets for the men, who made the long journey on foot, dressed in their hunting shirts and coonskin caps and leather breeches, carrying with them their long hunting r*fles. As the Revolution went on, and men d I an boys were pouring out of the mountains into the Continental armies, the mountains had to draft men to stay at home-the first American selective draft. As the war went on, small bands of Tories came from time to time into the mountains to burn a church or commit some other outrage. These were often repelled by the old men and boys who were left at home and sometimes by the women themselves. At one time in the darkest days of the struggle, when the British generals were planning how they could speedily wind up the business, Cornwallis sent an army into the mountains to punish them for their part in the struggle. They encamped on King's Mountain and sent out their notices of destruction. The answer was that an army of old men up to seventy and boys down to twelve, together with men at home on furlough, was quickly assembled and the detachment of Cornwallis's army was destroyed. The news of this battle electrified the whole coun- try and put new heart in it. Yorktown and the surrender of the British followed. Individual stories of heroism during this battle have become part of the folk lore of our mountains. In our family there is a story that has been handed down to each succeeding generation and which is typical of these legends. Mary Doran had two brothers at home on furlough. These, tog; ther with her sweetheart, went to the battle. All day before the battle this slim, dark-haired mountain girl spent the time moulding bullets while her mother made the powder. At nightfall she hitched the old mare to the sled and with her powder and bullets started to the scene of the battle alone. At early dawn she passed through the lines of fire and delivered her cargo. Her sweetheart was killed and one brother was seriously wounded. She hauled them back home on her sled. When the war was over and the soldiers reÃ‚Âturned home, many young people in the mounÃ‚Âtains married and began malting homes of their own. Young Irishmen and Scotchmen who had come over to fight in the Revolution decided to remains Some of these came to the mountains and married mountain girls. There was great deÃ‚Âmand for new lands. In 1785 the United States made its first treaty with the Cherokee nation. In this treaty the Cherokees, who had aided the British in the Revolution, were punished by havÃ‚Âing 43,000 square miles of their territory taken from them as an indemnity. This land was given to veterans as a compensation for their services. This opened up a vast number of new homes. Other treaties followed until by 1794 the Cherokees had been forced to give up practically all of their lands in Virginia and North Carolina. Each treaty was followed by new grants of land to veterans for services in the Revolution. As fast as the grants were made, new settlements were formed. In 1795 at the Treaty of Tellico, the Cherokees gave up the Cumberland mounÃ‚Âtains; these mountains were soon settled, and the period of colonization in the mountain country was over. With few exceptions the newer mounÃ‚Âtain country had been settled from the older secÃ‚Âtions of the mountains, so that the whole moun- S. Here one has to rely mainly on old family records and biographies. The records of the Pension Office, of which I have seen a great number, also bear out the statement. January, 1936 twin country had the same population as to type, and it has remained so until this day. When the second war with England came in 1812, it was unwelcome in New England, but our mountains welcomed it as an opportunity to settle some questions which had not been settled by tile Revolution. One of these was the question of relationship to the Spaniards in the South and to the Creek Indian Nation. The Spaniards and the Creek Indians were causing untold trouble to the settlements in the Cumberland District. While the rest of the country was fighting in many reÃ‚Âspects a disastrous war with England, the mounÃ‚Âtains were raising armies and were conquering the warlike Creeks, thus extending the United States southward and at the same time preparing the way for the taking over of Florida by the United States. In the 1820's and '30's, people went from the mountains to western Tennessee and Kentucky. Mountaineers also settled in the southern part of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and later in the Ozark region of Arkansas and Missouri. When, a few years later, the mountains began to feel crowded again, under the leadership of David Crockett, who had represented the CumÃ‚Âberland mountain district is the United States Congress, and Sam Houston, a former governor of Tennessee, colonies were planted in Texas and the Republic of Texas was set up. Then under James K. Polk, another mountaineer, we went to war with Mexico and annexed half of that country to our own territory. Many of us now feel uncomfortable when we think about th% ethics of that transaction, but still it is probably true that very few would favor giving the land back to Mexico. When the call was made by tile president for volunteers for that war, so many volunteered from the mountains of Tennessee that that state was given the name Volunteer State, which it still bears. Following the return of the soldiers from the Mexican war, there was a remarkable developÃ‚Âment in all the mountain country. In the ten years from 1850 to 1860, more miles of railroad and more factories were built in the mountain country than in all the rest of the United States. The mountains were beginning to come into their own. Then came the Civil War. What MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 9 that war did to our mountains has never even been guessed by the rest of the country. No -renter tragedy has ever befallen any people. Lincoln felt that if he could not hold the mounÃ‚Âtains he could not save the Union; Davis knew that if he could not win the mountains, he could not set up his government. The result was that our mountains and the valleys approaching the mountains became the battle ground of the Civil War. There was such destruction as can not now be appreciated. For four years great armies were marching through the mountain country and great battles were fought. Almost daily skirmÃ‚Âishes were taking place and innocent people were being killed. Schools were frequently used as barracks and most of the schools in the mountains were burned either accidentally or intentionally. Priceless books were taken out of libraries and used to start fires. When the war was over the mountain country was ruined. The great maÃ‚Âjority of the mountain people had remained loyal to the Union and they had poured out their blood and treasure for the sake of the Union. Some mountain counties sent more men to fight for the Union than they had voters. But some men also went to tile Confederate Army. When the war was officially over and the armies came marching home, it started all over again in the mountains; old scores had to be settled and a form of war in some ways more terrible than the other began, which made recovery from war impossible. This aftermath of the war the outside world has called feuds. But these feuds continued for fifty years after the war was over. Even the church was so torn by the war that it became powerless and alÃ‚Âtogether died out in many sections. In the years following the war great numbers of our best people, tired of the conditions and utterly hopeless as to the future, went west. In some sections only those too poor or too shiftless to move were left. Much of the land then passed into the hands of Northern speculators who beÃ‚Âcame absentee landlords and an economic chapter in our history was written which it is painful to contemplate. Under such conditions it is no wonder that the mountains did not develop. The wonder to me is that any vestige of civilisation remained in these mountains. Today in the atÃ‚Âtics of solve mountain homes whose adult occuÃ‚Â(Continued on Page 12) Page 10 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1936 January, 1936 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 11 TWO MOUNTAIN PORTRAITS BY DORIS ULMANN Mr. and Mrs. Luce Scroggs, who, with their children, gave the first twenty-five acres of land to the John C. Campbell Folk School. Until his death last spring, "Uncle Luce" was interested in every phase of building up rural life. Mrs. Scroggs is an active member of the Woman's Club, a member of the Craft Guild and also a member of both of the Brasstown cooperative organizaÃ‚Âtions-the Credit Union and the Mountain Valley Cooperative, which includes a creamery, feed and egg business. This year the November number of the John C. Campbell Folk School bulletin was dedicated to the memory of "Uncle Luce." Page 12 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1936 (Continued from Page 9) pants cannot read their own names in any langÃ‚Âuage, are Greek and Latin texts which were used by their ancestors. This tells something as to the background and at the same time reveals the tragedy that overtook out mountain people. The outsider coming into our mountains and not knowing the background of our people canÃ‚Ânot appreciate what he sees. He never hears any of our legends and hero tales, because these are only told around mountain firesides when no out- s*der is present. On long winter nights when two or three families are gathered at one house, some old man will start telling the stories of olden times. Others join in and then after the tales are told comes the mountain man's proud evaluation: "Well, if it hadn't a been for the mountains, there never would 'a been any United States, because there were too many in the colonieÃ‚Â°, that wanted England to win. We held the balance of power in those days and we were solid against England. And if it hadn't a been for the mountains in the Civil War the South would 'a whipped the North, and the Union would 'a been divided, for again we held the balance of power. And our people may again save the nation, who knows?" In this is the background of mountain life, and the foreÃ‚Âward look as well. COME TO THE FOLK FES TI hAL MARGUERITE BUTLER Our first Mountain Folk Festival, which was held at Berea College last April, proved so successÃ‚Âful that every one present declared it must be an annual affair. For two days students and teachers from seven schools scattered throughout our mountain area played folk games together, sang folk songs, enjoyed folk plays, and listened to stimulating talks on the value of folk material, the history of the dulcimer, and what is meant by a folk play. Every one who shared in this first folk gathering went away feeling richer for the experience. Not only had we had a thoroughly good time together, but we had reÃ‚Âceived a new vision for creative recreation, based on our own folk culture. This year the University of Kentucky has exÃ‚Âtended a most cordial invitation for us to be their guests. They believe that what we have to bring will be of great value to their departments of English, Music, and Drama. The President, Dr. McVey, and the Dean of Women, Miss Blanding, are so cordial in their invitation that they ask us to be their guests during our stay. The committee could not refuse such hospitality, although for many of us Lexington is a long day's drive. Some will say that Lexington is out of the mountains. It is, but the University and the College of Agriculture have always been greatly interested in the mountain region. Here is an opportunity for the mountains to make a con- tibution to the State. ri I However we do not want to impose upon the generous Kentucky hospitality. The committee presents the following plan: that guests of the University include only teams, with the ones in charge, speakers, and committee. Undoubtedly many, as last year, will wish to come to observeÃ‚Âcounty agents, home demonstration agents, recÃ‚Âreational leaders, and teachers from the schools which hope to take part in a future festival. These we ask to make their own reservations at some hotel or tourist home. After careful study April 2-4 has been chosen. The opening session will be on Thursday night, April 2; the last session on Saturday night, April 4. Because of Holy Week and the fact that April 15-18 was not convenient for the University of Kentucky, we were limited in our choice. At least these dates will not conflict with commenceÃ‚Âments or May Day preparations, as our festival dates did last year, coming at the end of April. Very shortly letters will go out to all the schools and centers of our Southern Mountain Workers' Conference. These will contain a short quesÃ‚Âtionnaire to be filled out and returned, but in the meantime here is a brief explanation of the plan. A team may include one or two teachers if de- January, 1936 MOUNTAIN Lm:E AND WORK Page 13 sired. The outside limit for hospitality, however, from any one school is eight people. Every team, I 'f desired, may give a demonstration of folk games not to last over ten minutes, but because we want the good fun of all playing together, the following games have been chosen for all to learn: TYPE, 1. American Play Party Games Sandy Land Jenny Crack Corn Old Brass Wagon Paw Paw Patch 2. Danish Singing Games Seven Maids in a Ring Meadow is Mowed Napoleon Trallen Crested Hen Weaving 3. English Country Dances SOURCE Kit. 29, Published by Church Recreation Service, Delaware, Ohio. 25c Kit 24, Published by Church Recreation Service. 25c Kit 36, Published by Church Recreation Service. 25c "Singing Games Old and New" Published by John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, N.C. 50c. Durham Rell "Five Popular Country Dances" Carl Fischer, Inc., New York, 75c Circassian Circle Black Nag Vol. I: "English Country Dance" G. W. Gray Co., New York, $1.50 Haste to the Wedding Vol. II: "English Country Dance" G. W. Gray Co., New York, Christ Church Bells Sellengers Round Vol. III: "English Country Dance" G. W. Gray Co., New York, $1.50 All of the English Country Dances are on victrola records and can be bought at Wurlitzer Music Company, Fourth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. John Jacob Niles, who sang so delightfully for us last year, will be in charge of the music. Not only will he play and sing, but he plans to have all the teams sing together, and suggests the folÃ‚Âlowing songs: Carrion Crow Little Pigs Geordie Whistle, Daughter, Whistle No Shelter for Mary Jesus the Christ is Born Set 14, American Folk Song Series, G. Schirmer, New York. 50c Set 16, American Folk Song Series, G. Schirmer, New York. 50c Page 14 MOUNTAIN LITT, AND WORK January, 1936 Also he would like each school to bring in a few songs, preferably local versions. Richard Chase of Chapel Hill, N. C., field repÃ‚Âresentative of the Institute of Folk Music, who is the successor of Frank Smith in recreational work through the mountains, will teach all the listed games and songs to the schools which he visits during the next three months. Mr. Chase's itinerary is now being planned and schools inÃ‚Âterested in securing him should write Miss Dingman at once. As there will be no expense for board, the comÃ‚Âmittee voted to ask each team to pay $1.00 registration fee to help meet the expense of mimeographing, mailing, and so forth. As this is written, the students of the John C. Campbell Folk School are working on a folk play -their contribution to our folk drama. I hope Carolina. that a number of schools will be inspired to do likewise, or to dramatize a ballad. Perhaps some will feel they ,cannot give a demonstration of games or put on a play, even a small one. Do not let this keep you away. The whole idea of this gathering is the exchange of folk material and the joy of doing things together. There are no judges, no competitions, banners or prizes. COMMITTEE Miss Marguerite Butler, Brasstown, North Carolina, Chairman Mrs. Ed Davis, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky, Secretary Miss Abby Christensen, Beaufort, South Carolina Rev. John Window, Dante, Virginia Mr. Richard Chase, Chapel Hill, North The Conference of Southern Mountain Workers will be held in Knoxville, Tennessee, March 24-26. Programs and announcements will be ready the latter part of February. January, 1936 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 15 gUTO J OEyYL-1 JAMES STILL DEATH ON THE MOUNTAIN No child he had Nor any kin, Only the cold January wind To speak the hopeful word At death: Two hound dogs To cry his dirge, And Troublesome's tide To sweep and surge Over fevered brain At death. Only a fiddle Beside his bed Brightening his days Before life fled. Only remembered song At death. SHIELD OF HILLS Ewes' first wool and linsey cloth Shall line the grave box for this child And smooth-grained chestnut sawn and planed His wooden garment for a while. The earth shall rise up where he lies With a steady reach, and permanent. A shroud of cedars be his mound, This shield of hills his monument. The story of the American pioneer going out into the forest primeval is indeed worthy of a great epic poem. He had practically no reÃ‚Âsources except the raw materials furnished by the land. Yet he created a nation of gigantic wealth and budded a civilization that now offers more to the ordinary man than any known in the history of the race. It is interesting to know that no section of the nation possessed originally any greater supply of natural resources than the mountain region of Kentucky. Its resources of timber, coal, oil, and gas have been great factors in developing the nation. When one turns to the present condition in the mountains, however, he finds the timber depleted, the oil supply reduced to a negligible quantity, and coal classified as a "sick" industry. The land commonly supposed to furnish all the living is insufficient, and the relief load in the mountains of Kentucky shows that of all cases, 70 per cent are farm families. This can be underÃ‚Âstood when one is told that the average gross production-all that is grown on the farm f-or local use and sale-on 65 per cent of the farms in the mountain region last year was worth less than $400. Anyone knowing the circumstances surrounding agriculture in recent years may apÃ‚Âpreciate the reply of a farmer to a city man who questioned the title of the farm he was buying: "Well, I may not be able to give ye a good deed to the land, but I can take ye to the grave of the man I bought it from. He starved to death tryin' to farm it." It is easy in this particular day, when a great financial depression covers the entire nation, to refer to depression as the cause of all our economic poverty, but in addition there were the poor crop seasons of 1931 and 1932, when drouth comÃ‚Âpletely destroyed the crops. Nevertheless, after these factors have been duly considered, there reÃ‚Âmains evidence that certain forces at work in the mountains would independently have brought such poverty and distress as that known during the past five years. Students of mountain prob- MoUN'rAIN Lll-U AND WORK Mountain Problems For Mountain Men JOHN O. GROSS January, 1936 lems, for instance, have long decried the mounÃ‚Âtain farmer's practice of disposing of his natural resources without using the returns intelligently or without having sufficient returns to build a lasting culture. In brief, the policy of the mounÃ‚Âtaineer to use what he has for the quickest reÃ‚Âturn possible is largely responsible for bringing the mountain area to the most critical period in its history. What has happened in recent years in the entire mountain area may be seen from a study made in one of the mountain counties in Kentucky. Like the other counties, it was originally rich in fine hardwood timber. Although one of the smallest in area, it had, when the first settlers came, no less than 800,000,000 board feet of standing timber. This was valued, according to the 1925 dollar, at $30,000,000, which represented a per capita wealth of $3750. This past year the inÃ‚Âcome of the average farm in that county, where agriculture is the only industry, was hardly more than 6 per cent interest on the $3750. The dwelling occupied by the average family was listed as being worth $250, or the price of five walnut trees. This economic lack has affected every phase of the life of the people. The number of days in the public school session has been the lowÃ‚Âe~t among the mountain counties, and the average salary paid the teachers in 1930 was less than $500. In 1932 there was no 4-H club organization in the county studied. There were two doctors to look after the health of almost 10,000 people. There was no dentist reported located in the county. Church life, at least under the direction of a trained minister, was maintained only in the county seat. Only a few newspapers passed through the mail, and there was a circulation of not over three of the national magazines for every one hundred inhabitants. 1t should be noted that in the mountain counÃ‚Âties the natural resources have in but too few inÃ‚Âstances contributed to the betterment of the people's present living conditions. Even a casual study made of current conditions in the mountain January, 1936 MouN [AIN l.wu AND Woa& Page 17 area reflects the disastrous inroads of poverty. Poor housing, insufficient clothing, and inadeÃ‚Âquate diet are the common lot of the masses. DurÃ‚Âing the past fifty years the average Kentucky mountain farm has been reduced from 112 acres of standing timber to 6 acres. The policy of using the land for the quickest returns has taken the timber, until now less than b per cent remains. A picture of rural mountain life given by Mr. Bruce Poundstone in the October issue of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK shows that the average Kentucky farm dwelling in 1929 in the mountain area was worth $370 in contrast with $660 for the rest of the state. In the Bluegrass the average was $2100, practically six times the value reported for the mountain region. Since 1929 the population has increased, probably as much as 25 per cent. Hill land once rich in timber is now used for farming, and it is estiÃ‚Âmated that, if this program of converting hill land into farm land continues, within the next ten years almost all the land will be cleared of timber and subject to the devasting results of free erosion. Students of mountain problems may well be anxious for the future of their area. With timber gone and soil washing away, it may appropriately be asked, "What will be the source of income toward which we may look for the maintenance of the people, and what are the prospects of building here a lasting civilization?" In trying to find an answer to this question, may we look to agriculture? Those who have studied farming in the mountains have found that farming does not offer the opportunities often represented. MounÃ‚Âtain land to the largest extent should be classified as submarginal. Some go so far as to say that not over 10 per cent of the land in the mountains may be profitably cultivated. It is certain that the maximum that can be cultivated will support not more than 60 per cent of the population that now looks hopelessly to the soil for a living. Furthermore, population is increasing here much faster than in other parts of the state. Contrast Knox County with its population of 28,000 and a birth rate of 38 per thousand with the city of Louisville with a population of 330,000 and a birth rate of 17 per thousand. In 1934 there were 1008 births in Knox County, and in the city of ouisville, with 15 times as many people, there were only five times as many births, or about 5,000. In Knox County, of the 1008 babies born, 349 deliveries were paid for by the KERA. If the rate of increase continues in the mountains as it has, the population will increase 15 to 20 per cent during the next ten years and will double within the next thirty-five. What hope will there be for such a population on land that is not able to sustain on a subsistence level its present population? In spite of all the urgings of the relief agencies that people produce more foodstuffs, it is estiÃ‚Âmated that less than half the actual food needs of the present population are met by mountain farms. This, in itself, is sufficient reason for us to say that mountain land as now farmed will not sustain the population. Nevertheless, agriculture still remains one of the chief means of lifting the standard of living in the mountains. To rehabiliÃ‚Âtate families it will be necessary to teach them to produce maximum crops on the better-lying land. In Knox County a study shows that 31 per cent of the bottom land was unfit for agriculture beÃ‚Âcause it was wet or in need of drainage. This land, properly drained, and with the level of creek beds lowered, could prove to be three or four times as productive as the average land in the county. Terracing should be encouraged. By use of lime, fertilizer, and seeds of the right kind, mountain crop production could be made to offset many of the deplorable circumstances that now exist. Since subsistence farming, however, is almost all we may look for from mountain land, it is reasonÃ‚Âable to infer that some adjustment should be made in our population so that a subsistence can be seÃ‚Âcured by the people who remain. This will mean that the rough, steep, hillside farms will have to be abandoned in favor of a larger popuÃ‚Âlation located on the well-lying, low land of the mountains. Any shift in this direction, howÃ‚Âever, makes it necessary to take into consideraÃ‚Âtion the use of land that is too step for farming. It is obvious that a program of reforestation for the mountain region is imperative. Not only does it have economic implications that may be considered in connection with the value of timber, but it has agricultural implications that would Page 13 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK make it possible to use the low-lying land for maximum production. As it is now, floods reÃ‚Âsulting from the heavy rainfalls which run off unÃ‚Âprotected soil make bottom lands difficult to cultivate with success. An agricultural program, then, should be paralleled by a program of reÃ‚Âstoring the mountains to forests. Soil control, flood control, and timber crops will be in the long run far more productive than the pursuÃ‚Âing of a land policy that cultivates the hillside for immediate crops. This plan will run counter to the mountain farmer's present land policy-to get the largest immediate returns from the land. It looks to posterity, and the hope for a larger return from timber than any other generation has known. Success for such a program will depend on the government's acquiring large tracts of subÃ‚Âmarginal land for national forests. It is an enÃ‚Âterprise that is so far-reaching in its scope that it is too extensive for private capital. This land will also provide help for some of the people now in the area by making it possible for them to find employment in the maintenance of forests. Such work will be far more constructive in its social value than continuing with relief, or with a works program that includes such projects as the conÃ‚Âtinuous making of dirt roads to farms where there are no marketable products. The major industry of the mountains now is coal mining, an industry which has suffered unÃ‚Âusual stress during the past few years. Previous high prices of coal resulted in the over-developing of the industry, and now it is safely said that less than one-half, probably more than one-third, of the former coal-mining population may be emÃ‚Âployed by the coal-mining industry. It is evident that the superfluous population cannot be reÃ‚Âturned to the soil. The solution to the complex problem will be near if there can be a courageous breaking away by coal companies from many of their past practices. Where the territory warÃ‚Ârants it, a balanced program of mining and farmÃ‚Âing would offer a larger amount of the necessities of life and provide some employment for leisure along with inducements toward thrift which have not always been given in company-owned camps. Coal operators will not be able to solve either their own problems or the problems of their em- January, 1936 ployees until they approach the situation with the outlook of 1935 instead of 1921. Another potential major source of income and consequent rehabilitation would be the developÃ‚Âment of portions of the mountain area for recreÃ‚Âation. The proximity of this territory to the great centers of population encourages the belief that a worth-while portion of the cash business from the United States tourist trade may some day be located in this region. Since 1931 the total number of visitors to the Cumberland Falls territory has increased three times. The Great Smoky Mountain National Park, with its half- mill'on acres of natural beauty, now enjoys a larger tourist visitation than any other national park in the United States. In 1934 alone there were 430,000 visitors to this park. It will be noticed that the suggestions already offered involve some long-time planning. Mr. Bruce Poundstone, (now with the Land Policy Section of the Department of Agriculture) in an address before the Institute of Public Affairs held at Union College,' Barbourville advocated the wisdom of a rural zoning program for the mounÃ‚Âtains. Through power granted by the legislature, counties would be able to pass zoning ordinances like those now in use in first- and second-class cities, and land would be classified and used acÃ‚Âcordingly. In this section zoning would point diÃ‚Ârectly to at least four classifications: 1. AgriÃ‚Âculture, 2. Forestry, 3. Mining, 4. Recreation. In general, with these four industries rests the soÃ‚Âlution of our mountain problem. Very closely interwoven with the mountain problem is the human equation. At no place in approaching the situation may this be forgotten. A changed situation will require a new outlook on the part of the people. Generally they are unaware of the seriousness of the increase of population, the inevitable consequences of some of the present farm practices, or the possibilities of bettering their living conditions. To correct this unawareness will require a vital program of adult education. Before we can better the living here in the mountains we shall have to teach the people the importance of sanitation, the right 1. See Bruce Poundstone, "Land Use In Eastern Kentucky," Mountain Life and Work, October 193 S. January, 1936 MouNraIrr Lirw AND WORK Page 19 way to prepare food, and the need of a balanced diet. We shall also have to show them the opporÃ‚Âtunity for education and the culture which is reÃ‚Âsultant only from it. Little can be accomplished as long as our people feel, as one woman did when approached, "What more does a body want? Yonder's a smart stand of corn, a pile of cushaws, and the hogs will be fat enough to kill when the land is gone." This limited outlook, only too common, now stands as the impediment to the resettlement program, and to all other methods of rehabilitation in the mountains. Unless the people are led to see the promised land they will never desire it actively and intelligently. To acÃ‚Âcomplish what is needed in this work, a long line of persons competent to instruct adults must be strategically placed to cooperate with county _~_flO'ZYLLYL~ ~CA MARGRETJTROTTER The naked trees in the bladed light Of winter sun stand stiff on the hill, Slashed by shadows, blue, keen as wounds, Too present, intolerably still. A morning to purge the earth of lifeÃ‚ÂW-hat wing could move in this crystal air, What mole could sigh, transfixed by frost, On this diamond grass could leap what hare? How can you walk on these ringing stones With casual feet, and say it is cold, And bear this fresh-created warldÃ‚ÂHow can humanity be so bold? and home demonstration agents. Such a plan of adult education, coupled with needed revision in :he public school program to fit the mountain area, thus appears to be the first major objective in the difficult but worthy struggle to raise Southeastern Kentucky to the standards she should enjoy. Mountain problems continue to be specific reÃ‚Âsponsibilities of mountain men. The messiahs from afar will never come, although they may continue to look. Within our own boundaries are the materials we will have to use to build our culture. Even the little that yet remains is enough for a beginning, and its efficient use as outlined will multiply the resources and help in lifting our people to a higher level. Page 20 MOUNTAIN Lu:L AND WORK January, 1936 THE KENT UCK Y R URAL CHUR CH CO UNCIL W. D. NICHOLLS As a part of the annual Farm and Home ConÃ‚Âvention at the College of Agriculture in January, 1934, a rural church day was arranged for, and on that day more than two hundred earnest men and women met to study and discuss the rural church and its outlook. At the end of 'the scheduled program a member of the audience suggested that upon adjournment all persons interested in the formation of an interdenomiÃ‚Ânational organization for the advancement of the work of rural churches in Kentucky should reÃ‚Âmain for a meeting. Accordingly a large group remained for a further session. In the discussion which followed concerning the method to be used in setting up such an organization, the proposal was made that members of each of the denomiÃ‚Ânations represented at the meeting should conÃ‚Âvene in denominational groups, each group to select a member of an executive committee and each denominational representative in turn to name four associates, the executive committee and the associates thus appointed to become a stateÃ‚Âwide organization entirely unofficial in character and having no authority to commit any church or denominational body to any line of action. This proposal was adopted. The Council was to be "an interdenominational organization of rural ,pastors and laymen to promote the common interests of all rural churches." The first project carried out by the Council was the observance of Rural Life Sunday on May 6, 1934. Programs for exercises to be used by churches throughout the state were prepared. Newspapers of the state published the programs of these exercises, which were presented in many churches. On the morning of Rural Life Sunday, May 6, a radio program was presented from StaÃ‚Âtion WHAS, in which Chairman A. N. Gordon spoke on the significance of Rural Life Sunday and the work and objectives of the Kentucky Rural Church Council. The chief address of the day was made by Dr. A. T. Robertson of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary of LouisÃ‚Âville. A number of well known hymns were sung by a choir selected from the student body of the University of Kentucky. During the summer of 1934 a regional conÃ‚Âference was held at Western Kentucky State Teachers College, Bowling Green, the central theme being "What the Church and the Rural Pastor can do in the Improvement of Rural Homes and Communities." Another regional conference was held at North Middletown ChrisÃ‚Âtian Church in Bourbon County in which more than two hundred pastors and church and Sunday school leaders participated. The evening session of the conference consisted of a service conducted by Dr. Tinder, the pastor, and his congregation. At the request of the program committee Dr. Tinder conducted this service in exactly the same way as his Sunday evening services are conducted each week. The service was a demonstration of the remarkable interest and participation of both the young people and the older people which Dr. Tinder has succeeded in bringing about during his seventeen years' pastorate at North MiddleÃ‚Âtown. The most significant project of the Kentucky Rural Church Council in 1935 consisted of its activities in proposing a week's short course for rural pastors and lay leaders and mobilizing an active state-wide interest in the project. In reÃ‚Âsponse to this interest such a course was inaugurÃ‚Âated by the College of Agriculture late in April, 1935. One hundred and forty-seven pastors and lay leaders were in attendance at this short course -38 members of the Church of the Disciples, 33 Baptists, 29 Presbyterians, 23 Methodists, and 24 members of other denominations including EpisÃ‚Âcopal, Congregational, Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, Nazarene, Mennonite, and Church of God. Cordial fellowship was in evidence throughout the week and there was an entire absence of friction of any sort. Each person present showed an earnest desire to gain everything possible from the lectures and from exchanging ideas and exÃ‚Âperiences with his fellow workers to the end that January, 1936 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 21 when he returned to his home community he might be able to get more effective results in bettering the spiritual and material lives of the people of his community. Dr. E. C. Cameron gave a series of lectures throughout the week on the efficient administraÃ‚Âtion of the rural church, and Dr. Henry W. McLaughlin a series on religious education in the rural church. The services of Dr. Cameron were furnished through the generosity of the national and state boards of his denomination, the Disciples of Christ, and of Butler University School of ReÃ‚Âligion, which granted him a leave of absence from his duties on the faculty of that institution. Dr. McLaughlin's services were furnished by the Committee on Religious Education of the PresbyÃ‚Âterian Church, U.S. Several noteworthy round table discussions were held. One of these was on the farm tenant problem and its relation to the country church. Others dealt with the problems of getting all eleÃ‚Âments of the rural community to participate in the program of the church; the policies of home missions boards; the federal AAA farm program and its effects on the economic life of the people in rural communities; the church and the negro. These discussions brought out points of vital imÃ‚Âportance and evoked spirited and constructive participation on the part of the conference groups. During the afternoons the visitors were conÃ‚Âducted on tours of inspection of some of the laboratories of the University and Experiment Station and some of the experimental plants and the flocks and herds on the six-hundred-acre farm of the Experiment Station. During these periods department heads explained the experiÃ‚Âmental work being carried on. By these means the visitors gained some insight into scientific and practical agricultural problems and made contacts with numerous scientific workers on the College of Agriculture staff, which will enable them to gain further information as it may be needed from time to time in connection with the work in their communities. Very gratifying and significant was the presence at the sessions during the week of state and disÃ‚Âtrict executives of boards of the various denomiÃ‚Ânations including home missions boards, boards of religious education, superintendents of mountain work, and state and district Sunday school assoÃ‚Âciations. One of tire most significant phases of the program of the week was the quiet reverence which marked the daily worship periods. Recognizing the far-reaching significance of this short course to all denominational groups, the Rural Church Council urgently requested the ColÃ‚Âlege of Agriculture to pit on another short course in the spring of 1936, and the College agreed to comply with this request. The Rural Church Council has demonstrated the value and feasibility of a project in which rural church groups have a common interest. The Council is fully convinced that such an organizaÃ‚Âtion can contribute a highly useful service in helpÃ‚Âing town and country churches put on more efÃ‚Âfective programs. Page 22 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1936 A small group of workers interested in a broad approach to the use of leisure time met at QuickÃ‚Âsand, Kentucky, November 28 to December I, 1935. The Robinson Substation was host to the conference group. Those who assembled on Thanksgiving night to get acquainted included rural and urban workers interested in recreation, also workers in community projects, agricultural and home economics extension work, rural sociÃ‚Âology and physical education. They came from McCracken, Leslie, Warren, and Jefferson counÃ‚Âties, evidence of the state-wide nature of the con- ference. On Friday morning, with Chester Bower of the University of Louisville as chairman, the conÃ‚Âference listed the problems of recreation on which members would like help. Fourteen problems were brought up for discussion: 1. How to approach and develop community personality 2. When to use skills, activities 3. Defining the effective use of leisure 4. Determining whether recreational standards are external or internal, and who is the final authority 5. How to deal with taboos 6. How to introduce new things 7. Obtaining permanent value from novelty 8. How to extend socially valuable recreation 9. How to develop normal sex attitudes 10. Methods to extend feeling of social or comÃ‚Âmunity responsibility 11. Individual or social recreation 12. Getting everyone to participate 13. Dealing with anti-social groups 14. How to use tile NYA program in developÃ‚Âing recreation A brief discussion was devoted to each of these problems as they were enumerated and they were brought up for continued discussion at later sessions. At one session the following broad objectives in recreation were outlined: Recreation Conference At Quicksand MERTON OYLER 1. Emotional release through socially approved means 2. Integration of personality 3. Development of group consciousness 4. Technique of education a. Curiosity b. Imagination c. Tolerance d. Critical attitude e. Friendliness 5. Richness or variety in life The conference group accepted the kind inviÃ‚Âtation of Miss Lula Hale to visit Homeplace, at Ary, on Saturday afternoon and evening. A number of civic leaders from Hazard were at I-Iomeplace for the Saturday afternoon discussion, which dealt with present needs and possibilities for community recreation. The Saturday night discussion there centered around standards in recÃ‚Âreation. Should the leaders in a community recÃ‚Âreation project be satisfied with just any forms of leisure time activities that will "go over big"? Is it the opportunity of the leaders to help the comÃ‚Âmunity constructively select through demonstraÃ‚Âtions of the new and unfamiliar in addition to demonstrations of the old and familiar types of recreation minus the objectionable side issues of drinking and fighting? Some helpful experiences from mountain communities in Tennessee and Kentucky were presented to show how communÃ‚Âity leaders can help to develop a constructive type of recreation, even in communities where the citizens have habitually come to expect excessive drinking and trouble-making to be associated with any community play parties or celebrations. At the closing session a summary of the disÃ‚Âcussions was made, and the group considered conÃ‚Âtinuing this type of conference. Tentative plans are under way for such a meeting in the autumn of this year. Further details of this conference may be presented in a later issue, or those interÃ‚Âested may write for information to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. January, 1936 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 23 FIVE YEARS OF A CHILD HEALTH FUND In 1930 the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers received a gift of $1400 from The Golden Rule Foundation, to be used for child health work. To administer the fund, a comÃ‚Âmittee of three was appointed from the ConÃ‚Âference by The Golden Rule Foundation-Mrs. John C. Campbell, Miss Helen H. Dingman, and Dr. William J. Hutchins. This group decided that no better use could be made of the fund than to allocate it to five centers where it could be used to defray the cost of dental clinics for underprivileged children, and accordingly $200 went to each of the four centers selected in the Southern Mountains, and to one center in the Ozarks, with the understanding that it be used for dental work among children. The reports which were received in the fall of 1930 indicated that during the summer a number of children had received dental treatment which they could not otherwise have had, and in several cases the $200 was stretched to unbelievable lengths, through cooperation among workers, dentists, and parents. Fathers and mothers who were able to pay a minimum fee for their children did so; dentists gave services, charging only for the cost of the material in some instances; and at a Tennessee center a surprising number of treatments was made possible by the cooperation of the parents, the center, and the State Department of Health. When all reports were in, the Committee felt tha; its initial venture in allocating funds had been highly successful. In the following year a smaller fund-$800Ã‚Âwas divided among seven centers, and children: with defective eyes and ears were helped in loÃ‚Âcalities where dentistry was not the most pressing need. About this time the Sigma Phi Gamma Sorority, a national organization desiring to take part in some type of health work for children in the Southern Mountains, became interested in the project. The committee, which had been enÃ‚Âlarged from the original three and which had been given the name of A Committee of Friend of the Mountain Children, eagerly welcomed the additional help which the offer of the Sorority made available. Since that time, a representative of the Sorority has always been a member of the Committee, as has been a representative of The Golden Rule Foundation. With the help of both of these organizations, the Committee has been able to carry on its work through recent years o: crisis in the mountains, when child welfare wori; was never more needed. With the aid of the Sorority, in 1932 it was possible to allocate to the work $2150, divided among twenty-two centers. In sending out the fund the Committee recommended that it be used not only for remediable defects, but also in cases of malnutrition, and in related family welfare work. After these grants had been paid, a surÃ‚Âplus of $225 remained, which was later allocated to additional centers. Reports showed that the money had been spent for hot school lunches and additional nutrition in many localities. (Mountain workers in many places will remember this year for its hungry children, in spite of the splendid campaign of emergency feeling which the AmeriÃ‚Âcan Friends Service Committee carried on in the coal fields). Children with remediable health deÃ‚Âfects such as poor eyesight, defective teeth, or tonsils which needed to come out were helped by the Friends of the Mountain Children, and some reports showed that the funds had covered muchÃ‚Âneeded inoculations and immunization for dipthÃ‚Âtheria or typhoid. In the fall of 1932, questionnaires were sent out to 81 centers, asking for information in regard to health needs of children in the surrounding loÃ‚Âcalities. Forty-four replies were received, many of them indicating great need. During the winter months the Committee sent out to the twenty most needy centers monthly checks totaling $530. These checks were sent to the Committee for dis- tibution by the Save the Children Fund, a naÃ‚Âri 1 tional child welfare agency, and were to meet reÃ‚Âlief and health needs. About one-half of the total amount was spent for nutrition, including cod liver oil, hot lunches for school children, and food for those who were virtually without any. Again and again reports of children barefoot, unable to attend school during the winter weather, came to the office and it was not surprising to find many AND WORK of these checks had been spent for winter clothÃ‚Âing. One recipient of the grants used the whole amount on shoes. Others used the money for sweaters, overalls or jackets. In most cases these fundamental needs of food and clothing were more pressing than the correction of remediable defects, but in a few instances these grants too were stretched to cover several urgent medical cases. According to some of the reports received, these checks helped children in families where there was no able-bodied father, and where federal aid was not being received or relief from any other source. In addition to regularly allocated grants and checks from the Save the Children Fund, the Committee of Friends of the Mountain Children received and handled donations from interested individuals. Boxes of clothing were forwarded to communities where they were most needed, and $178 in cash was turned over to various centers for child health work. A particular effort was made not to duplicate gifts, but to share the funds among as many cenÃ‚Âters as possible. Save the Children Fund checks were not, in most cases, sent to those who had received a grant from the Committee; and extra donations went only to those whose special need was plain. The secretary, Miss Helen H. Dingman, carried on correspondence with persons interested in the situation, sending addresses of centers where clothing or funds would be particularly welcome for relief work. When gifts were sent to the office an effort was made to send a report of the use of the money both to the donor and to the agency through which he became interested. Each center was asked to send in a statement as to the use of checks from the Save the Children Fund, and duplicates of all reports were sent to the direcÃ‚Âtor of the Fund. The following year, 1933-1934, the Committee of Friends of the Mountain Children allocated $1600, to be divided among twenty-two centers, for the regular work in child health. ScholarÃ‚Âships totaling $200, offered to mountain students by The Golden Rule Foundation, were allocated to three schools by the Committee. Two centers received additional grants amounting to $100, and last but not least, $17.95 was a bargain price January, 1936 to pay for the additional cost of a very successful clinic at one school. The grants were spent chiefly on dental and medical needs. In some sections clothing was bought, and school children received hot lunches and cod liver oil. Milk saved the life of a motherless baby, fed on strong coffee and catnip tea-a diet which had proved nearly fatal. In one community a baby clinic was held, and at an Ozark school the money was used to cover treatment of trachoma cases. Checks amounting to $85 were again adminisÃ‚Âtered for the Save the Children Fund, and as beÃ‚Âfore were chiefly used to feed undernourished children. A special donation of $10 paid for a high school project in making layettes for needy mothers. The following year the number of centers reÃ‚Âceiving grants was again increased, this time to twenty-nine, and the sum of $1150 was allocated, with the recommendation that parents and the children themselves should be encouraged to work out as much as possible of the amount received to aid pauperization. This year relief was left to vol 1 1 1 the local and federal agencies, although their coÃ‚Â operation in one case at least, where a K. F,. R. A. area supervisor administered a special grant of $100 to cover two tonsil clinics and a school lunch program, was very helpful in the wise use of the fund. Surplus funds made possible two more special grants totaling $75, which went to centers not included in the original allocations. For the current year, 1935-1936, no complete reports are as yet available on the use of $1325, granted by the Committee to thirty-two centers. The tendency has been from year to year to deÃ‚Âcrease the amount of the individual grant, so that most of the thirty-two centers received $50, and many of them received $25. They have been chosen on the basis of individual need and geoÃ‚Âgraphical distribution, as it is the aim of the ComÃ‚Âmittee to serve as wide an area as possible. A number of denominations are represented on the list. Some schools and centers are small, some large, but all of them, to receive the grants, must be able to secure adequate help for children and young people with health needs. The annual meeting of the Committee of Friends of the Mountain Children is held in Knox- v'Ile at the tirne of the Conference of Southern i I January, 1936 MOUNTAIN Lira AND WORK Page 25 Mountain Workers, usually during March. ReÃ‚Âports are made by the Secretary, Miss Helen H. Dingman, and allocations for the coming year are voted upon. Usually representatives of the organizations which have made the work of the Committee possible-The Golden Rule FoundaÃ‚Âtion and the Sigma Phi Gamma Sorority-are able to meet with the Committee. A complete report is always given to them, with deep appreciation for their continued interest and cooperation in the work for the mountains. Each year sees a more varied and we hope more useful service rendered by means of these gifts to the Committee, and whether the particular grant is for $100 to cover a special series of clinics, or for $3, to buy something for a bare little school room, each one is handled with special interest. Each amount, as far as it is humanly possible to tell, goes to meet a genuine need, and mountain workers at least will agree that the fund could not be better invested than in the future generation which is growing up around them. cWfiat gfiF_tJ. c~ ~z~ ~ot`n9 *On Lynn Fork of Leatherwood Creek, in Perry County, Kentucky, there are approximately 2,500 acres of original forest remaining. A greater variety of trees may be found in the tract than in the Smoky Mountain federal preserve in Tennessee. There is a tulip poplar which towers eighty feet before branching-the largest of its kind in the United States. A league has been formed under the chairmanship of Miss Daisy Hume, Lexington, to preserve this forest. BeauÃ‚Âtiful vegetation and clear streams make the area a natural recreation spot. Its preservation would be a service to wild life, as well as to botanists and conservationists. *Glyn Morris reports that a fire at Pine MounÃ‚Âtain Settlement School unfortunately d.estr.oycd one of the buildings recently. More cheerful news from Pine Mountain: a counselor has been added to the staff this year to furnish individual guidance. His work will make it possible for staff members to know more about their students, and he will coordinate for each student all the possibilities for his development. Richard Chase, of the Institute of Folk Music, University of North Carolina, will be itinerant recreation leader for the Conference this year, taking over the work which Frank H. Smith did for two years. A grant from the Kappa Delta Phi Sorority makes the project possible for six months. Schools interested in securing Mr. Chase's services should write MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. '*'Stuart Robinson School, Blackey, Ky., has orÃ‚Âganized a social club for day students in the surÃ‚Ârounding communities, and for young people nearby. The club has been in existence nearly a year, and meets twice a month for games, marshÃ‚Âmallow toasting, or occasional hikes in the hills. The Southern Highlanders Inc. report a good Christmas. Sales at the Christmas shop at Rockefeller Center ran to $4270. The home shop at Norris, Tenn., sold about a thousand dollars worth of mountain crafts. Two years of junior vocational college are offered by Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School, which, added to the tenth and eleventh grades of high school in the central farm school, will make a four year course. The community school will still be conducted as a junior high school of nine grades for day pupils of the community and the families of the rotating faun settlement. The School for Adults, of both the farm settlement and the comÃ‚Âmunity, will be maintained as heretofore. The Rabun Gap-Nacoochee plan offers farm families a unique opportunity for education. The blueÃ‚Âcovered announcement of the vocational course and description of the school makes interesting reading. Send to A. J. Ritchie, President, Rabun Gap, Ga., if you wish a copy. '*'W. P. Breneman will be greatly missed at Asheville Normal and Teachers College, where for years he filled the office of treasurer. AlÃ‚Âthough health has brought about his withdrawal from active service, both Mr. and Mrs. Breneman Page ZC MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1936 write from Philadelphia of their warmly continued interest in the mountains. Songs, games, dramatics and story-telling are being stressed at Berea Opportunity School this year. Several of the young people taking the course are being sponsored by the NYA. They wM go back to their communities equipped to help in NYA activities. '*'Lucy Furman, noted for her long service at Hindman Settlement School and her books porÃ‚Âtraying mountain tradition and character, is now active in the Anti-Steel Trap Campaign in Kentucky. *A Health House has been added to the buildÃ‚Âings at Konnarock Training School, bark-shingled and green-roofed to match the main building. It contains a large clinic room with a small officeÃ‚Âlaboratory-consultation room adjoining, and in the rear quarters for the two nurses and room for an occasional neighborhood patient for whom adeÃ‚Âquate home nursing conditions are not otherwise a*lable. Much of the time and building ma- val terial which went into the construction of the Health House were contributed by neighbors. *'A graduate nurse is now established at Kate Duncan Smith D.A.R. School, Grant, Ala. The community as well as the school will profit by her services. Thanksgiving was truly a harvest festival at Asheville Farm School. An agricultural exhibit of corn, wheat and oats in the sheaf, yellow pumpkins, apples, and vegetables furnished the stage setting for an unusual program of harvest hymns, talks on the agricultural methods that produced the harvest, and a graphic presentation of farm statistics of the year, especially production and consumption on the school land. Music and art departments and many of the students worked together to make a colorful, artistic and impressive program. '$'Dr. Elmer E. Gabbard, formerly pastor of the Northside Presbyterian Church in Chattanooga, is to be the new president of Witherspoon College at Buckhorn, Ky. Dr. Gabbard succeeds the late Dr. Harvey S. Murdoch, founder and for thirtyÃ‚Âfour years head of the school. January, 1936 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 27 THE REVIEWING STAND A STONE CAME ROLLING By Fielding Burke, New York, Lozzgznans, Green, 1935. X2.50. The pretty opening page of "A Stone Came Rolling" would never let you guess what it's about: Fairinda lightly kissed the air, touching her lips to April. Not so foolish a gesture for the time and place. That part of the middle South whose sunset ramÃ‚Âpart is the high Smokies and whose eastern lap is furÃ‚Âbelowed by the Atlantic, was slipping out of its early twitter into full song. To do the book justice, it must be told that the beautiful Fairinda Ferrabee is only a minor charÃ‚Âacter and that there is rice pudding underneath this strawberry ice-cream. All the persons of the story live in or near a cotton-mill town of North Carolina, and the author makes a sincere attempt to deal with the reality of the familiar southern industrial-agricultural situation. Comparatively few pages have the mountains as their scene; in this respect the present narrative of Ishma and Britt Hensley is less a "mountain" book than "Call Home the Heart," its predecessor of three or four years ago, in which Ishma Waycaster made her appearance. These two main characters, howÃ‚Âever, bear always the stamp of their mountain origin. Britt farms, while his wife works in a mill in Dunmow. Conscientious and a natural leader, miraculously poised and unselfish, Ishma cannot neglect the duty of arousing the other workers and the unemployed to organize. AnÃ‚Âother important character is Bly Emberson, owner of a hosiery mill, who in spite of his position reÃ‚Âmembers that his employees are human beings and who tries to keep up wages in the face of compeÃ‚Âtition with other employers who are cutting. Some of the best parts of the book are those which deal with the distresses of the Emberson family. "A Stone Came Rolling" is artistically negli- gible; but that hardly matters, for the author's aim is persuasion, and what you think of her book is likely to be affected by what you think of her doctrine. If you think that factory labor is alÃ‚Âready getting its fair share of comfort and wages and that increasing class-consciousness is an evil, you won't like the book; if you think it possible that a disproportionate amount of the product of industry is being distributed at the top, you will be sympathetically disposed to Fielding Burke's tale. She knows reality well enough to grant, through the character of Bly Emberson, that there are employers who are sincerely devoted to the interests of their workers. But she makes it plain that such employers are doomed, like him, to go down in the flood. He experiences a variety of inner struggles, the chief one being that he is unÃ‚Âable to break loose from the competitive system but cannot perform the inhumanities necessary in one who would stay in it successfully. The author's remedy, of course, is the abandonment of capitalism. Her immediate hope is the rousing of class consciousness among workers and unemÃ‚Âployed, which-in the book-sounds as easy as turning over your hand. This flaw, and the somewhat wooden perfection of the incredible Ishma keep "A Stone Came Rolling" from being as persuasive as it ought to be. -Keith Hollingsworth RADIO AND THE FARMER By Edrrzzznd do S. Brunner, and A SYMPOSIUM ON THE RELATION OF RADIO TO RURAL LIFE. New York, Radio Institute of the Audible Arts, 1935. Dr. Brunner points out the entertainment and cultural as well as the occupational values of the radio to the farmer, and calls attention to special uses of the radio adapted to rural life. Some of the Symposium topics are: "Breaking Down Rural Isolation," "Farmers Same as Other People," "Makes Farmers Understand Place in the World," "Keeps Young People on the Farm," etc. A third of the space is devoted to a list of agricultural programs, and there is a bibliography. A 65-page free pamphlet of value to rural minÃ‚Âisters, social workers, teachers, or others interested in improving and enriching rural life. It may be obtained from the Radio Institute of the Audible Arts, 80 Broadway, New York. -O. L. Keener Page 28 MOUNTAIN LirE AND WORK January, 1936 Inheritance As The Opportunity For Rural Youth Last summer I attended a conference of agriÃ‚Âcultural economists in Germany, and for a week before and a week after the conference our German hosts arranged for us to visit German farms. At almost every farm we were provided with a page or two of mimeographed information about the farm. Most of the mimeographed sheet told of the acreage of the crops, yield per acre, fertilizer used, crop rotations, number of horses, total cattle, milk cows, swine, chickens, etc., but always at the top of the page for those farms which could claim the honor, and most of them could, was a statement somewhat as follows: "This farm has been in the family 300 years." Some farms had been in the family since the eleventh century. As I considered what had happened during these centuries-wars, economic crises, periods of inflation and deflation, political revolutions-the thought came to me, how many times would this family have lost its wealth had it been invested in anything else but land. In the United States it has often been said that alÃ‚Âmost every farm is for sale and the average period of occupancy is only a comparatively few years; much longer for owner-operators, however, than for tenants. But in Germany, I was delighted to find that, in general, the farm is considered a heritage from the past, an "Erbhof" or hereditary home, to be passed on from father to son for as long as the family line remains intact. In southÃ‚Âern Germany the farms, I was told, are frequently divided among the children, as in the United States, one son usually buying out the others and getting into debt to do so; but in northern Germany it was customary, in order to avoid debt or too small farms, to pass on the farm to one child, frequently the youngest son, the other children having gone to the city to make their fortunes. All the children had the right to reÃ‚Âturn to the farm in time of distress for shelter and sustenance. In considering the problems of conserving the S'I oi resources of the United States, the problems of land utilization, and, more recently, the probÃ‚Âlems of agricultural prosperity and of opportunity for youth, I have come to the conclusion that there is no substitute for the institution of the family. The government can buy some of the land that is eroding, or land that has eroded badly, or is otherwise too poor to support a family in a decent manner, and convert this land into forest or grazing reserves. This should be done with millions of acres of land before it washes down into the rivers, causing ever greater floods and devastation. Fortunately, a start is now being made by the Resettlement Administration. But a much larger acreage of land must be used to grow crops, and the only general alternatives to the family farm are corporation farms and government farms. Few corporation farms have survived the depression in the United States, and state socialism in Russia appears to be resulting in more weeds and worse erosion than peasant farming. For the better utilization of our arable land I have full faith only in the family farm, and in the family farm only in the case of the family with continuity of life and occupancy of the land. And continuity of family life and of land ocÃ‚Âcupancy is dependent on a philosophy of life, or, if you prefer, on religious belief. There will not be, I fear, much better utilization of farm land in the United States until more farmers pass the farms on to their sons, and these sons continue to operate the farms, expecting, in turn, to pass the farms on to their sons. The rapid decline in the birthrate associated with the urbanization of the people suggests strongly that land and life are closely related. It is becoming clear that the land is the foundation of the family and that the family is the foundation of the State. -O. E. Baker, "The National Welfare and Rural Urban Migration in the U.S.A." From "The Christian Rural Fellowship Bulletin." January, 1936 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 29 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND CORK Hclea 1-t. Dir7gmarr Dr. William James Hutchins Orrin L. Kccrtor Mar,vet G. Trotter CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson Mrs. John C. Campbell Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn Mr. John P. McConnell Dr. Arthur T. McCormack Dr. John Tigcrt ISSUED QUARTER I,1-JANUARY, APRIL, JULY, OCTOBER Subscription Price $1.P0 per year. Single Copy 30c. Editor Counsellor Associate Editor Associate Editor New York City ---- Brasstown, N. C. ----- Berea, Ky. East Radford, Va. Louisville, Ky. Gainesville, Fla. Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as second class mail matter ADDRESS ALL COMUNICATIONS TO MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK BEREA, KENTUCKY ALLANSTAND ADVERTISES MOUNTAIN CRAFTS One of the important services rendered by the Asheville salesroom of The Southern Highland Handicraft Guild is the amount of advertising which it makes possible for mountain crafts. During the months of November and December, for example, more than five hundred packages were sent out from Allanstand Cottage IndusÃ‚Âtries to every state and to the Canal Zone, to Canada, England, Switzerland and Germany, each bearing inside some advertising matter. During the past three years Mrs. Loeffler of the Allanstand shop estimates that over 20,000 folders have been distributed, telling of the work of the Guild. She spends many hours each week explaining it to tourists who drop in at the shop. Some of them leave never heard of the Guild before. Others have been attracted by folders which they found in Asheville travel agencies or hotels. Some had visited the exhibit of Guild handicrafts which was sponsored by the American Federation of Arts, and placed on display in many large cities two years ago. This prompted them to stop in at Guild headquarters when chance brought them to AsheÃ‚Âville. Increasing variety of Guild products and wise arrangement in the shop itself have doubtless inÃ‚Âcreased the number of sales; but much of the growth of 85 per cent in the last two years must be the fruit of Mrs. Loeffler's unremitting pubÃ‚Âlicity. As a chief aim of the Guild is to benefit the native craftsman by providing for him a steady market, let us cheer Allanstand on at the beginning of what should be a better year than ever. A NEW DEPARTURE IN COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS In MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK for October, 1934, Dr. O. Latham Hatcher of the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance reported the study of guidance needs among young people in Breathitt County, Kentucky, at that time just begun by her organization. A complete report of this study is now out, as well as a twenty-sixÃ‚Âpage mimeographed bulletin telling of the reorÃ‚Âganization of the County High School at QuickÃ‚Âsand, Ky. The new curriculum is grounded on gWance. Mrs. Marie R. Turner, Superintendent ul 1 of Breathitt County Schools, is in charge of the work. Technical consultation is furnished by the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance. The experimental curriculum to be gradually adopted is based on the 6-3-3 plan of organizaÃ‚Âtion, modified as far as necessary to meet local road conditions. The work of various urban progressive schools was studied, with a view to uifying activities and study, and relating both ni 1 1 1 1 closely to life experiences. The schools studied, more than thirty in number, are being granted by more than two hundred colleges and universities privileges to experiment, which arc similar to those being given to Breathitt County schools. As tile program is perfected, going to school in Breathitt County should become not only easy and pleasÃ‚Â ant, but also a valuable part of real life. Of course such a program demands the most careful study of !;the individual student. Full facilities for this are available to every teacher. Autobiographies and home and parent records for every student arc on file with the student's home room teacher. Personality files for each student are being added to daily by the teachers, so that by the end of the year the office will have a full tabulation of his qualities, as seen through the eyes of his various instructors. Page 30 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1936 Beyond agriculture and home economics courses, there is as yet no opportunity to introÃ‚Âduce vocational work in the curriculum. This work will come as the plan is developed later. Foreign language and mathematics beyond algebra were placed on the elective list, and for the first year no student has elected them. It was thought that if these subjects should be studied by some proportion of the students, the happiest way to bring this about was to make the subjects elective and gradually show the wisdom of electing them for furthering the best interests of the individual student involved. All desirable school activities have been considered important parts of the school curriculum. Faculty round tables, held regularly for training and progress in administering gidance, I u are assumed to be a vital part of the school program. With the second semester, changes are probably going to occur in the curri- culum, as the need for them becomes apparent, and as students and teachers become better orientÃ‚Âed in their tasks. Radio and motion pictures will be used in this up-to-date school. A film projector large enough to function in a large assembly room has been acquired. It will be used for the first year chiefly in agriculture classes. Such a curriculum development can be imÃ‚Âmeasurably helped or hindered by physical equipÃ‚Âment, just as it can be by the quality of its leaderÃ‚Âship. It is perhaps a proof of the latter that a new county high school building is just being beÃ‚Âgun in Jackson, with accommodations for six hundred students. The construction will be of stone and brick, at an estimated cost of $51,000, and will have ample space for shop work and such activities as have hitherto been hampered by the old crowded quarters of the school. J January, 1936 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 31 INDEX MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME XI An index of articles according to author and title, supplemented by a partial subject index. A Adams, Mack Thoughts of a Kentucky Mirror XI:4 Jan '36 p 4 Backgrounds of the Mountain People, The Paul E. Doran XI:4 .Tan '36 p f Baird, William Jesse Evaluating the Product of a College XI:I Apr '3 j p 1 Benton, Joy Kime The Flower Women (Poem) XI:1 Apr '3S p 7 Blue Spring Larger Parish Paul E. Doran XI:1 Apr '3S p 14 BOOK REVIEWS A Stone Came Rolling; Fielding Brake reviewed by Keith HolÃ‚Â lingsworih XI:4 Jan '36 p 27 Cabins in the Laurel; Muriel Earley Sheppard reviewed by MarÃ‚Âgret Trotter XI:2 Jut '3 S p 29 Radio and the Farmer; Edmund tic S. Brunner reviewed by Orrin L. Keener XI:4 ,Jan '36 p 27 Schoolhouse in the Foothills; Ella Endow and Alvin F. HarÃ‚Âlow reviewed by Mary P. Dupuy XI:3 Oct '3 S p 27 Short Stories and Legends of the Mountains; Sadie S. Patton reveiwed by May B. Smith XI:3 Oct '3S p 27 Social Work Year Book, 1935 reviewed by Margret Trotter XI:2 Jul '3 S p 30 Swing Your Mountain Gal; Rebecca Cushman reviewed by MarÃ‚Âgret Trotter XI:2 Jul '3S p 30 Butler, Marguerite Come to the Folk Fr.cfiral! XI:4 Jan '36 p 12 Camp for Christian Education, A Albert C. Wildman XI:3 Oct '3S p 24 Cole, William E. The Rural Church anti Social Life Xl:1 Apr '35 p 10 Come to the Folk Festival! Marguerite Butler XI:4 Jan '36 p 12 Consumers' Cooperative Movement: Its Meaning arid Methods, The J. P. Warbassc XI:2 Jul '3 S p 24 Cook, Francis I'. Lansing Larger Parish XI:1 Apr '3S p 18 Croaked Paths and Straight Men Samuel and Nola Vander Meer XI: 1 Apr '3S p S Curriculum Enrichment acrd Redirection of Rural Serondar1, Schools in the Mountain Area Frank W. Cyr XI:2 Jul '3 S p 3 Cyr, Frank W. Curriculum Enrichment and Redirection of Rural Secondary Schools ire the Mountain Area XI:2 Jul '35 p 8 D Dana, Malcolm The Larger Parish XI:2 Jul '3S p 17 Doran, Paul E. The Backgrounds of the Mountain People XI:4 Jan '36 p S Dulcimer (Poem) James Still XI:3 Oct '35 p 10 ECONOMIC PROBLEMS Is There a Mountain Problem? Frank L. McVey XI:2 Jul '3 S p I Land-Use in Eastern Kentucky Bruce Poundstone XI:3 Oct '35 p 11 Mountain Problems for Mountain Men John O. Gross XI:4 Jan '36 p 16 The Consumers' Cooperative Morcrnrnt: Its Meaning and Methods J. P. Warbasse XI:2 Jul '3 S p 24 The Mountaineer ire Industry Clarence E. Pickett XI:4 Jan '36 p 1 EDUCATION Curriculum Enrichment and Redirection of Rural Secondary Schools in the Mountain Area Frank W. Cyr XI:2 Jul '3 S p 8 Eralnatirrg the Product of a College William Jesse Baird XI:1 Apr '3 f p 1 Ecalnating the Product of a College William Jesse Baird XI:1 Apr '35 p I Five Years of a Child Health Fund XI:4 Jan '36 p 23 Flower Women, The (Poem) Joy Kimc Benton XI:1 Apr '3S p 7 Folger, D. F. The History acrd Ainrs of Cumberland Homesteads XI:2 Jul '35 p S Frame, Nat T. Kerrtnrky Mountain Boys in the CCC XI:3 Oct '3S p 20 Fuller, Ethel Romig Origins of Beauty (Poem) XI:1 Apr '3S p 8 G Get Up and Bar the Door (Play) John C. Campbell Folk School Students XI:3 Oct '3 S p 4 Gross, John O. Mountain Problems for Mountain Men XI:4 Jan '36 p 16 H History and Airrrs of Cumberland Homesteads, The D. F. Folger XI:2 Jul '3 S p S Hummel, B. L. New Opportunities far Mountain Communities XI:2 Jul '3 S p 21 Is There a Mountain Problem? Frank L. McVey XI:2 Jut '3S p 1 john C. Campbell Folk School Students Get Up and Bar the Door (Play) XI:3 Oct '3S p 4 Kentucky Mountain Boys in the CCC Nat T. Frame XI:3 Oct '3S p 20 Kentucky Rural Church Council, The W. D. Nicholls XI:4 Jan '36 p 20 Land-Use in Eastern Kentucky Bruce Poundstone XI:3 Oct '35 p 11 Lansing Larger Parish Francis P. Cook XI:1 Apr '35 p 18 LARGER PARISH Blue Spring Larger Parish Paul E. Doran XI:1 Apr '3 S p 14 Lansing Larger Parish Francis P. Cook XI:1 Apr '3S p 18 Pleasant Hill Comnttarit_y Church Edwin E. White XI: '3S p 16 The Larger Parish Malcolm Dana XI:2 Jul '35 p 17 Larger Parish, The Malcolm Dana XI:2 Jul '3 S p 17 t Apr Page 32 MOUNTAIN LLFE AND WORK January, 1936 M n\IcVcyÃ¢â‚¬Â¢, Frank L. Is There a hfoÃ‚Â»Ã‚Â«taiu Problem? X1:2 Jul '35 p t Morning Walk (Poem) Margret Trotter X1:4 Jan '36 p 19Ã‚Â Mountain Cntrrlrt, A Florence Reeves XI:3 Oct '35 p 16 Mountaineer iÃ‚Â» Industry, The Clarence 1:. Pickett XI:4 Jan '3G p 1 hlorrÃ‚Â«tÃ‚Â«in Prohlrms for Mountain Mrrr John O. Gross XT:4 Jan '36 p 16 N N"Ã‚Â«' O/tporlÃ‚Â«Ã‚Â«ilirc for Mountain Coln mÃ‚Â«Ã‚Â»itirs B. L. Hummel Xl:? ,Jul '35 p 21 Nicholls, \a'. D. Thr Kouturlzl Rural Church Council X1:4 Jan '36 P 20 Origins of BrcrÃ‚Â«t) (Poem) Ethel Romig Fuller XI:1 Apr '35 p R Orrrr-omin,q Our Mental Dr(rrrssion Warren H. Wilson X1:1 Apr '3 S p 2 1 Oyler, Merton Thr RrrrrÃ‚Â«tioÃ‚Â» Confrrrnrr Ã‚Â«t OÃ‚Â«irlmÃ‚Â«Ã‚Â»rf XI:4 ,Jan '36 p 22 Pickett, Clarence E. Thr htnÃ‚Â«Ã‚Â«trrirrrrr in InrlÃ‚Â«str~ X1:4 Jan '3G p 1 Pleasant Hill Contnrnrtit7 Chrtrrh Edwin IÃ¢â‚¬Â¢.. White XI:1 Apr '3S p 16 POEMS Death nÃ‚Â« the MoÃ‚Â«Ã‚Â»tÃ‚Â«in James Still XI:4 ,lan '36 p I S DÃ‚Â«lr inter James Still XI:3 Oct '3 S p 10 Morning Walk Margret Trotter XI:4 Jan '36 p 19 Origins of Beauty Ethel Romig Fuller XI:1 Apr '35 p 8 Shield of Hills James Still XI:4 Jan '36 p 15 The Flower Women Joy rime Benton XI:I Apr '3 s p 7 1'oundsa;nc, Bruce Land-Use ire Eastern Krrttur-k7' XT:3 Oct '35 n 11 R RLCREATIO\ Come to the Folk FrstieÃ‚Â«I! Marguerite Butler XI:4 Jan '36 p 12 The Rrrrrntiorr CoÃ‚Â»fcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rrnrr Ã‚Â«t Quicksand Merton Oyler Xl:Ã¢â‚¬Â¢S .Inn '36 p 22 Reeves, Florence A Mountain CourÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rlrt X1:3 Oct '35 p 16 REHABILITATION New O(tportÃ‚Â«nitirs for MountÃ‚Â«iÃ‚Â» CoÃ‚Â»rÃ‚Â»rÃ‚Â«nities B. L. Hummel XI:2 Jul '3 S p 21 The History Ã‚Â«Ã‚Â»d Aims of Cumberland Homesteads 1). F. Folger XI: 2 Jul '35 p 5 The Resettlement AdÃ‚Â»tiÃ‚Â»istrÃ‚Â«tioÃ‚Â« and Its Relation to the A(r/,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã‚Â«Ã‚Â InchiÃ‚Â«Ã‚Â» Mountains R. G. Tugwell XI:3 Oct '35 p I Rr.crttlrmrrrf ArlmiÃ‚Â»istrÃ‚Â«tioÃ‚Â» Ã‚Â«Ã‚Â»d Its Relation to the A(rpÃ‚Â«IÃ‚Â«r hiÃ‚Â«Ã‚Â« Mountains, The R. G. Tugwcll XI:3 Oct '3 S p I Rood, Elmn The Srhool Health Program XI:I Apr '35 p 24 Rural Church and Sorirrl Lift,, The William E. Cole XI:I Apr 'i5 p to School Health Program, The Elma Rood X1:1 Apr '35 p 24 Still, .lames DÃ‚Â»IriÃ‚Â»rrr (Poem) XI:3 Oct '35 p IO Tun PorÃ‚Â»ts (Death oÃ‚Â» the MnÃ‚Â«Ã‚Â«tniÃ‚Â», Shield of Hills) XI:4 Jan '3G p 15 Suggested RrÃ‚Â«dine List. A XT:2 Jul '35 p 23 T Thought,, of cr Kentucky MiÃ‚Â»rr Mack Adams XT:4 Jan '3G p 4 Trotter, Margret Morning Walk (Poem) XI:4 Jan '36 p 19 Tugwell, R. G. The Resettlement Administration and Its Relation to the Appalachian AlotrnlÃ‚Â«ins XI:3 Oct '35 p 1 Tun Poems (Death on the MountÃ‚Â«iÃ‚Â», Shield of Hills) James Still XT:4 Jan '36 p IS Vander Meet, Samuel and Nola Crooked Paths nod Straight Men XI: 1 Apr '3 S p 5 Warbassc, /. P. Thr Consumers' Coo/rrrÃ‚Â«ticr DlorrnrrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rtt: Its MeanÃ‚Âing and Methods X1:2 Jul '35 p 24 White, Edwin E. Pleasant Hill Community Chrrrrh XI:I Apr '35 p 16 Wildman, Albert C. A Camp for ChristiaÃ‚Â« Education XI:3 Oct '3 S p 24 Wilson, Warren H. OtÃ‚Â°rÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rroÃ‚Â»tiÃ‚Â»L Oar Mental Dr(rrrssioÃ‚Â» XI:1 Apr '35 p 21 CI nRt:NCL Pic Krrr, Executive Secretary of the American Friends Service Committee, has had a hand in rehabilitation pioneering, both with the work of the Friends in the Appalachian coal fields, and as an assist:tat to the Resettlement AdÃ‚Âministration. MACK ADAMS is an unemployed coal miner. PAUL, E. DORAN of Sparta, Tennessee, writes proudly of the background of the mountain man, because he is one himself. MnRGuexrra Bu rt.eR of the John C. Campbell Folk School has been much interested in recreation work. JnNrLS S'rn,r. writes poetry at Hindman, Kentucky. JOHN O. GROSS is President of Union College, Barbourville, Kentucky. He has established an Institute of Public Affairs at Bnrbourville, at which each year leaders of Eastern Kentucky thought gather to discuss and face together their problems. W. D. NICHOLLS is on the faculty of the College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky. He has done much to establish The Kentucky Rural Church Council. MERTON OYLER 1S Assistant In Rural Life Studies, Col- lege of Agriculture, University of Kentucky.